Science.gov

Sample records for complex gel beads

  1. Gel bead composition for metal adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.D.; Woodward, C.A.; Byers, C.H.

    1990-12-18

    This patent describes a gel bead consisting essentially of a sufficient amount of water and propylene glycol alginate to allow for bead formation and a sufficient amount of bone gelatin to allow for metal absorption and chemically crosslinked in an alkaline medium to form a stable structure. A gel bead contained therein a biological absorbent capable of removing metals from solution.

  2. Gel bead composition for metal adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Charles D.; Woodward, Charlene A.; Byers, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    The invention is a gel bead comprising propylene glycol alginate and bone gelatin and is capable of removing metals such as Sr and Cs from solution without adding other adsorbents. The invention could have application to the nuclear industry's waste removal activities.

  3. Gel bead composition for metal adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Woodward, Charlene A.; Byers, Charles H.

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a gel bead comprising propylene glycol alginate and bone gelatin and is capable of removing metals such as Sr and Cs from solution without adding other adsorbents. The invention could have application to the nuclear industry's waste removal activities.

  4. Laser-induced liquid bead ion desorption-MS of protein complexes from blue-native gels, a sensitive top-down proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Sokolova, Lucie; Wittig, Ilka; Barth, Hans-Dieter; Schägger, Hermann; Brutschy, Bernhard; Brandt, Ulrich

    2010-04-01

    We have developed an experimental approach that combines two powerful methods for proteomic analysis of large membrane protein complexes: blue native electrophoresis (BNE or BN-PAGE) and laser-induced liquid bead ion desorption (LILBID) MS. Protein complexes were separated by BNE and eluted from the gel. The masses of the constituents of the multiprotein complexes were obtained by LILBID MS, a detergent-tolerant method that is especially suitable for the characterisation of membrane proteins. High sensitivity and small sample volumes required for LILBID MS resulted in low demands on sample quantity. Eluate from a single band allowed assessing the mass of an entire multiprotein complex and its subunits. The method was validated with mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone reductase from Yarrowia lipolytica. For this complex of 947 kDa, typically 30 microg or 32 pmol were sufficient to obtain spectra from which the subunit composition could be analysed. The resolution of this electrophoretic small-scale approach to the purification of native complexes was improved markedly by further separation on a second dimension of BNE. Starting from a subcellular fraction obtained by differential centrifugation, this allowed the purification and analysis of the constituents of a large multiprotein complex in a single LILBID spectrum.

  5. Apparatus for the production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Scott, T.C.; Davison, B.H.

    1998-03-19

    An apparatus is described for the large-scale and continuous production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst. The apparatus is a columnar system based on the chemical cross-linking of hydrocolloidal gels that contain and immobilize a biocatalyst, the biocatalyst being a microorganism or an enzyme. Hydrocolloidal gels, such as alginate, carrageenan, and a mixture of bone gelatin and modified alginate, provide immobilization matrices that can be used to entrap and retain the biocatalyst while allowing effective contact with substrates and release of products. Such immobilized biocatalysts are generally formulated into small spheres or beads that have high concentrations of the biocatalyst within the gel matrix. The columnar system includes a gel dispersion nozzle submerged in a heated non-interacting liquid, typically an organic liquid, that is immiscible with water to allow efficient formation of spherical gel droplets, the non-interacting liquid having a specific gravity that is less than water so that the gel droplets will fall through the liquid by the force of gravity. The heated non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with a chilled upflowing non-interacting liquid that will provide sufficient residence time for the gel droplets as they fall through the liquid so that they will be cooled below the gelling temperature and form solid spheres. The upflowing non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with an upflowing temperature-controlled aqueous solution containing the necessary chemicals for cross-linking or fixing of the gel beads to add the necessary stability. The flow rates of the two liquid streams can be varied to control the proper residence time in each liquid section to accommodate the production of gel beads of differing settling velocities. A valve is provided for continuous removal of the stabilized gel beads from the bottom of the column. 1 fig.

  6. Apparatus for the production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Scott, Timothy C.; Davison, Brian H.

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus for the large-scale and continuous production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst. The apparatus is a columnar system based on the chemical cross-linking of hydrocolloidal gels that contain and immobilize a biocatalyst, the biocatalyst being a microorganism or an enzyme. Hydrocolloidal gels, such as alginate, carrageenan, and a mixture of bone gelatin and modified alginate, provide immobilization matrices that can be used to entrap and retain the biocatalyst while allowing effective contact with substrates and release of products. Such immobilized biocatalysts are generally formulated into small spheres or beads that have high concentrations of the biocatalyst within the gel matrix. The columnar system includes a gel dispersion nozzle submerged in a heated non-interacting liquid, typically an organic liquid, that is immiscible with water to allow efficient formation of spherical gel droplets, the non-interacting liquid having a specific gravity that is less than water so that the gel droplets will fall through the liquid by the force of gravity. The heated non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with a chilled upflowing non-interacting liquid that will provide sufficient residence time for the gel droplets as they fall through the liquid so that they will be cooled below the gelling temperature and form solid spheres. The upflowing non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with an upflowing temperature-controlled aqueous solution containing the necessary chemicals for cross-linking or fixing of the gel beads to add the necessary stability. The flow rates of the two liquid streams can be varied to control the proper residence time in each liquid section to accommodate the production of gel beads of differing settling velocities. A valve is provided for continuous removal of the stabilized gel beads from the bottom of the column.

  7. Plasticity of an Amorphous Assembly of Elastic Gel Beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosshans, D.; Knaebel, A.; Lequeux, F.

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the rheological properties of an assembly of swollen gel beads in a lack of solvent. The system is an amorphous assembly of packed soft spheres in a given volume. We have studied the plastic behavior of the system, and interpreted it in terms of bead rearrangements within the assembly. Nous avons étudié les propriétés rhéologiques d'un assemblage de billes de gel gonflées en défaut de solvant. Le système est donc une assemblée amorphe de sphères molles écrasées à volume total constant. Nous avons étudié divers aspects du comportement plastique et nous l'avons interprété en termes de réorganisations de billes dans l'assemblage.

  8. Structurally stable gel bead containing entrapped enzyme and method for manufacture thereof

    DOEpatents

    Woodward, J.

    1998-12-08

    This research provides a structurally stable gel bead containing an entrapped enzyme and a method for its manufacture. The enzyme is covalently cross-linked to gelatin in the presence of glutaraldehyde prior to the formation of the gel bead, to prevent leakage of the enzyme. Propylene glycol alginate is then added to the mixture. Once the gel beads are formed, they are then soaked in glutaraldehyde, which imparts structural stability to the gel beads. This method can be used with many types of enzymes, such as proteases, carbohydrases, proteases, ligases, isomerases, oxidoreductases, and specialty enzymes. These and other enzymes can be immobilized in the gel beads and utilized in a number of enzymatic processes. Exogenously added ions are not required to maintain the structural stability of these gel beads. 7 figs.

  9. Structurally stable gel bead containing entrapped enzyme and method for manufacture thereof

    DOEpatents

    Woodward, Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    A structurally stable gel bead containing an entrapped enzyme and a method for its manufacture. The enzyme is covalently cross-linked to gelatin in the presence of glutaraldehyde prior to the formation of the gel bead, to prevent leakage of the enzyme. Propylene glycol alginate is then added to the mixture. Once the gel beads are formed, they are then soaked in glutaraldehyde, which imparts structural stability to the gel beads. This method can be used with many types of enzymes, such as proteases, carbohydrases, proteases, ligases, isomerases, oxidoreductases, and specialty enzymes. These and other enzymes can be immobilized in the gel beads and utilized in a number of enzymatic processes. Exogenously added ions are not required to maintain the structural stability of these gel beads.

  10. Protection of bifidobacteria encapsulated in polysaccharide-protein gel beads against gastric juice and bile.

    PubMed

    Guérin, Daniel; Vuillemard, Jean-Christophe; Subirade, Muriel

    2003-11-01

    Bifidobacterium cells were encapsulated in a mixed gel composed of alginate, pectin, and whey proteins. Two kinds of capsules were obtained: gel beads without membranes and gel beads with two membranes formed by the transacylation reaction. In vitro studies were carried out to determine the effects of simulated gastric pH and bile salts on the survival of free and encapsulated Bifidobacterium bifidum. The protective effects of gel beads without membranes and gel beads coated with two membranes formed by the transacylation reaction were evaluated. After 1 h in an acidic solution (pH 2.5), the free-cell counts decreased by 4.75 log units, compared with a <1-log decrease for entrapped cells. The free cells did not survive after 2 h of incubation at pH 2.5, while immobilized-cell counts decreased by about 2 log units. After incubation (1 or 3 h) in 2 and 4% bile salt solutions, the bifidobacterium mortality level for membrane-free gel beads (4 to 7 log units) was higher than that for free cells (2 to 3 log units). However, counts of bifidobacteria immobilized in membrane-coated gel beads decreased by <2 log units. Cell encapsulation in membrane-coated protein-polysaccharide gel beads could be used to increase the survival of healthy probiotic bacteria during their transit through the gastrointestinal tract.

  11. Calibration beads containing luminescent lanthanide ion complexes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reliability of lanthanide luminescence measurements, by both flow cytometry and digital microscopy, will be enhanced by the availability of narrow-band emitting lanthanide calibration beads. These beads can also be used to characterize spectrographic instruments, including mi...

  12. Wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads of calcium pectinate for intragastric floating drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Asavapichayont, Panida; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Luangtana-Anan, Manee; Limmatvapirat, Sontaya; Piriyaprasarth, Suchada

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare wax-incorporated pectin-based emulsion gel beads using a modified emulsion-gelation method. The waxes in pectin-olive oil mixtures containing a model drug, metronidazole, were hot-melted, homogenized and then extruded into calcium chloride solution. The beads formed were separated, washed with distilled water and dried for 12 h. The influence of various types and amounts of wax on floating and drug release behavior of emulsion gel beads of calcium pectinate was investigated. The drug-loaded gel beads were found to float on simulated gastric fluid if the sufficient amount of oil was used. Incorporation of wax into the emulsion gel beads affected the drug release. Water-soluble wax (i.e. polyethylene glycol) increased the drug release while other water-insoluble waxes (i.e. glyceryl monostearate, stearyl alcohol, carnauba wax, spermaceti wax and white wax) significantly retarded the drug release. Different waxes had a slight effect on the drug release. However, the increased amount of incorporated wax in the formulations significantly sustained the drug release while the beads remained floating. The results suggest that wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads could be used as a carrier for intragastric floating drug delivery.

  13. Characteristics and antioxidant activity of catechin-loaded calcium pectinate gel beads prepared by internal gelation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Soo; Kim, Eek-Joo; Chung, Donghwa; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2009-11-01

    Catechin-loaded calcium pectinate gel beads prepared by internal gelation were characterized for their catechin entrapment efficiency and release behavior. The entrapment efficiency was higher when the beads were prepared with a lower catechin-to-pectin ratio, shorter gelling time, higher pectin concentration, and lower acetic acid concentration. The entrapment efficiency was much higher under all tested conditions, when the beads were prepared by internal gelation instead of external gelation. The catechin release was slower for the beads prepared with lower catechin-to-pectin ratio, longer gelling time, and higher concentrations of pectin and acetic acid in both simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. Antioxidant power of catechin was effectively maintained in alkaline simulated intestinal fluid when catechin was entrapped within the beads, compared to cases where it was not entrapped, indicating that the beads can protect catechin molecules from the alkaline environment and release them in a sustained fashion.

  14. Apparatus and method for the production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Scott, Timothy C.; Davison, Brian H.

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method for the large-scale and continuous production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst. The apparatus is a columnar system based on the chemical cross-linking of hydrocolloidal gels that contain and immobilize a biocatalyst, the biocatalyst being a microorganism or an enzyme. Hydrocolloidal gels, such as alginate, carrageenan, and a mixture of bone gelatin and modified alginate, provide immobilization matrices that can be used to entrap and retain the biocatalyst while allowing effective contact with substrates and release of products. Such immobilized biocatalysts are generally formulated into small spheres or beads that have high concentrations of the biocatalyst within the gel matrix. The columnar system includes a gel dispersion nozzle submerged in a heated non-interacting liquid, typically an organic liquid, that is immiscible with water to allow efficient formation of spherical gel droplets, the non-interacting liquid having a specific gravity that is less than water so that the gel droplets will fall through the liquid by the force of gravity. The heated non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with a chilled upflowing non-interacting liquid that will provide sufficient residence time for the gel droplets as they fall through the liquid so that they will be cooled below the gelling temperature and form solid spheres. The upflowing non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with an upflowing temperature-controlled aqueous solution containing the necessary chemicals for cross-linking or fixing of the gel beads to add the necessary stability. The flow rates of the two liquid streams can be varied to control the proper residence time in each liquid section to accommodate the production of gel beads of differing settling velocities. A valve is provided for continuous removal of the stabilized gel beads from the bottom of the column.

  15. Apparatus and method for the production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Scott, T.C.; Davison, B.H.

    1998-01-27

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for the large-scale and continuous production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst. The apparatus is a columnar system based on the chemical cross-linking of hydrocolloidal gels that contain and immobilize a biocatalyst, the biocatalyst being a microorganism or an enzyme. Hydrocolloidal gels, such as alginate, carrageenan, and a mixture of bone gelatin and modified alginate, provide immobilization matrices that can be used to entrap and retain the biocatalyst while allowing effective contact with substrates and release of products. Such immobilized biocatalysts are generally formulated into small spheres or beads that have high concentrations of the biocatalyst within the gel matrix. The columnar system includes a gel dispersion nozzle submerged in a heated non-interacting liquid, typically an organic liquid, that is immiscible with water to allow efficient formation of spherical gel droplets, the non-interacting liquid having a specific gravity that is less than water so that the gel droplets will fall through the liquid by the force of gravity. The heated non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with a chilled upflowing non-interacting liquid that will provide sufficient residence time for the gel droplets as they fall through the liquid so that they will be cooled below the gelling temperature and form solid spheres. The upflowing non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with an upflowing temperature-controlled aqueous solution containing the necessary chemicals for cross-linking or fixing of the gel beads to add the necessary stability. The flow rates of the two liquid streams can be varied to control the proper residence time in each liquid section to accommodate the production of gel beads of differing settling velocities. A valve is provided for continuous removal of the stabilized gel beads from the bottom of the column. 1 fig.

  16. Application of cinder gel-beads/reeds combination strategy for bioremediation of pyrene- and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene-contaminated estuarine wetlands.

    PubMed

    Tian, Weijun; Liu, Qing; Huang, Ruying; Jin, Xin; Qiao, Kaili

    2016-06-01

    Pseudomonas putida PYR1 and Acinetobacter baumannii INP1 isolated from Liaohe estuarine wetlands were entrapped in cinder beads to make cinder gel-beads. They were combined with reeds for bioremediation of pyrene- and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene-contaminated estuarine wetlands. The results showed that the removal percentages of pyrene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (69.2 and 89.8 % respectively) in 40 days using cinder gel-beads/reeds were obviously higher than those using cinder gel-beads(52.6 and 70.0 %) and reeds (33.5 and 78.6 %) alone, about four times those of the control (13.8 and 31.1 %). The removal efficiency of pyrene was in the order cinder gel-beads/reeds > cinder gel-beads > reeds > control, which was different from cinder gel-beads/reeds > reeds > cinder gel-beads > control of indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene. This result indicated that the functional mechanism to remove indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene with six benzene rings was different from that of pyrene. The synergistic effect of reeds and cinder gel-beads for indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene removal was weaker than that of pyrene. But the absorption and transformation of reeds with high efficiency were beneficial to indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene removal from wetlands. Additionally, microbial analysis with high-throughput sequencing presented that Gammaproteobacteria were dominant PAH-degrading groups in bioremediation with immobilized bacteria. This strategy can serve as a model system for the removal of more complex or structurally related organic compounds from contaminated sites.

  17. Gel-Bead Delivery of Eimeria oocysts protects chickens against coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Mark C; Parker, Carolyn; Klopp, Spangler; O'Brien, Celia; Miska, Katarzyna; Fetterer, Raymond

    2012-06-01

    Vaccines composed of either virulent or attenuated Eimeria spp. oocysts have been developed as an alternative to medication of feed with ionophore drugs or synthetic chemicals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of gel-beads containing a mixture of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella oocysts as a vaccine against coccidiosis. Newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) were either sprayed with an aqueous suspension of Eimeria oocysts or were allowed to ingest feed containing Eimeria oocysts-incorporated gel-beads. Control day-old chicks were given an equivalent number of Eimeria oocysts (10(4) total) by oral gavage. After 3 days, chicks were randomly assigned to individual cages, and feces were collected between days 5 and 8 postinfection. All samples were processed for total Eimeria oocysts. At 4 wk of age, all chickens and a control nonimmunized group received a high-dose E acervulina, E maxima, and E. tenella challenge infection. Oocyst excretion by chicks fed gel-beads or inoculated by oral gavage was 10- to 100-fold greater than that of chicks spray-vaccinated with the Eimeria oocysts mixture (log 6.3-6.6 vs. log 4.8). Subsequent protection against challenge as measured by weight gain and feed conversion efficiency was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in gel-bead and oral gavage groups compared with spray-vaccinated or nonimmunized groups. Also, gel-bead and oral gavage groups showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in weight gain and feed conversion efficiency compared with nonchallenged controls. These findings indicate that incorporation of Eimeria spp. oocysts in gel-beads may represent an effective way to deliver live oocyst vaccines to day-old chicks for preventing subsequent outbreaks of coccidiosis in the field.

  18. Enrichment of cancer stem cell-like cells by culture in alginate gel beads.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-xi; Liu, Chang; Liu, Yang; Yang, Li; Li, Nan; Guo, Xin; Sun, Guang-wei; Ma, Xiao-jun

    2014-05-10

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are most likely the reason of cancer reoccurrence and metastasis. For further elucidation of the mechanism underlying the characteristics of CSCs, it is necessary to develop efficient culture systems to culture and expand CSCs. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) culture system based on alginate gel (ALG) beads was reported to enrich CSCs. Two cell lines derived from different histologic origins were encapsulated in ALG beads respectively and the expansion of CSCs was investigated. Compared with two-dimensional (2D) culture, the proportion of cells with CSC-like phenotypes was significantly increased in ALG beads. Expression levels of CSC-related genes were greater in ALG beads than in 2D culture. The increase of CSC proportion after being cultured within ALG beads was further confirmed by enhanced tumorigenicity in vivo. Moreover, increased metastasis ability and higher anti-cancer drug resistance were also observed in 3D-cultured cells. Furthermore, we found that it was hypoxia, through the upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) that occurred in ALG beads to induce the increasing of CSC proportion. Therefore, ALG bead was an efficient culture system for CSC enrichment, which might provide a useful platform for CSC research and promote the development of new anti-cancer therapies targeting CSCs.

  19. Facile Fabrication of Polymerizable Ionic Liquid Based-Gel Beads via Thiol-ene Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Taghavikish, Mona; Subianto, Surya; Dutta, Naba Kumar; Choudhury, Namita Roy

    2015-08-12

    Multipurpose gel beads prepared from natural or synthetic polymers have received significant attention in various applications such as drug delivery, coatings, and electrolytes because of their versatility and unique performance as micro- and nanocontainers.1 However, comparatively little work has been done on poly(ionic liquid)-based materials despite their unique ionic characteristics. Thus, in this contribution we report the facile preparation of polymerizable ionic liquid-based gel beads using thiol-ene click chemistry. This novel system incorporates pentaerythritol tetra (3-mercaptopropionate) (PETKMP) and 1,4-di(vinylimidazolium) butane bisbromide in a thiol-ene-based photopolymerization to fabricate the gel beads. Their chemical structure, thermal and mechanical properties have been investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The gel beads possess low Tg and their ionic functionalities attribute self-healing properties and their ability to uptake small molecules or organic compounds offers their potential use as pH sensing material and macrocontainers.

  20. Gel-Bead Delivery of Eimeria Oocysts Protects Chickens Against Coccidiosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccines composed of either virulent or attenuated Eimeria spp. oocysts have been developed as an alternative to medication of feed with ionophore drugs or synthetic chemicals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of gel beads containing a mixture of E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. te...

  1. Increased efficacy of Eimeria oocysts delivery by gel beads or spray vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of avian coccidiosis is increasingly being achieved by the administration of low doses of Eimeria oocysts to newly hatched chicks. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of gel-beads containing a mixture of E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella oocysts as a vaccine to protect ...

  2. Experimental study of porous media flow using hydro-gel beads and LED based PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harshani, H. M. D.; Galindo-Torres, S. A.; Scheuermann, A.; Muhlhaus, H. B.

    2017-01-01

    A novel experimental approach for measuring porous flow characteristics using spherical hydro-gel beads and particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique is presented. A transparent porous medium consisting of hydro-gel beads that are made of a super-absorbent polymer, allows using water as the fluid phase while simultaneously having the same refractive index. As a result, a more adaptable and cost effective refractive index matched (RIM) medium is created. The transparent nature of the porous medium allows optical systems to visualize the flow field by using poly-amide seeding particles (PSP). Low risk light emitting diode (LED) based light was used to illuminate the plane in order to track the seeding particles’ path for the characterization of the flow inside the porous medium. The system was calibrated using a manually measured flow by a flow meter. Velocity profiles were obtained and analysed qualitatively and quantitatively in order to characterise the flow. Results show that this adaptable, low risk experimental set-up can be used for flow measurements in porous medium under low Reynolds numbers. The limitations of using hydro-gel beads are also discussed.

  3. Characterization of structure, physico-chemical properties and diffusion behavior of Ca-Alginate gel beads prepared by different gelation methods.

    PubMed

    Puguan, John Marc C; Yu, Xiaohong; Kim, Hern

    2014-10-15

    Ca-Alginate beads were prepared with either external or internal calcium sources by dripping technique. It was found that beads synthesized with internal calcium source had a looser structure and bigger pore size than those produced with external calcium source. Consequently, a faster diffusion rate of Vitamin B12 (VB12) within the beads with an internal calcium source was observed. Furthermore, the concentration of calcium ion, ionic strength and pH of the external gel beads formation solution were investigated. Results showed that (a) the concentration of the calcium ion was found to be the determining factor in the gel formation phenomenon; (b) the weight and volume losses are in effect due to water removal; (c) NaCl acts as a competitor with calcium and a screen in the electrostatic repulsion; and (d) the pH controls the gel formation process by regulating the dissociation of alginate and the complexation of the calcium cations. These results are keys to understanding the behavior and performance of beads in their utilization medium.

  4. Alginate gel-coated oil-entrapped alginate-tamarind gum-magnesium stearate buoyant beads of risperidone.

    PubMed

    Bera, Hriday; Boddupalli, Shashank; Nandikonda, Sridhar; Kumar, Sanoj; Nayak, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A novel alginate gel-coated oil-entrapped calcium-alginate-tamarind gum (TG)-magnesium stearate (MS) composite floating beads was developed for intragastric risperidone delivery with a view to improving its oral bioavailability. The TG-blended alginate core beads containing olive oil and MS as low-density materials were accomplished by ionotropic gelation technique. Effects of polymer-blend ratio (sodium alginate:TG) and crosslinker (CaCl2) concentration on drug entrapment efficiency (DEE, %) and cumulative drug release after 8 h (Q8h, %) were studied to optimize the core beads by a 3(2) factorial design. The optimized beads (F-O) exhibited DEE of 75.19±0.75% and Q8h of 78.04±0.38% with minimum errors in prediction. The alginate gel-coated optimized beads displayed superior buoyancy and sustained drug release property. The drug release profiles of the drug-loaded uncoated and coated beads were best fitted in Higuchi kinetic model with Fickian and anomalous diffusion driven mechanisms, respectively. The optimized beads yielded a notable sustained drug release profile as compared to marketed immediate release preparation. The uncoated and coated Ca-alginate-TG-MS beads were also characterized by SEM, FTIR and P-XRD analyses. Thus, the newly developed alginate-gel coated oil-entrapped alginate-TG-MS composite beads are suitable for intragastric delivery of risperidone over a prolonged period of time.

  5. Encapsulated human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by alginate gel beads as an in vitro metastasis model

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xiao-xi; Liu, Chang; Liu, Yang; Li, Nan; Guo, Xin; Wang, Shu-jun; Sun, Guang-wei; Wang, Wei; Ma, Xiao-jun

    2013-08-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and often forms metastases, which are the most important prognostic factors. For further elucidation of the mechanism underlying the progression and metastasis of HCC, a culture system mimicking the in vivo tumor microenvironment is needed. In this study, we investigated the metastatic ability of HCC cells cultured within alginate gel (ALG) beads. In the culture system, HCC cells formed spheroids by proliferation and maintained in nuclear abnormalities. The gene and protein expression of metastasis-related molecules was increased in ALG beads, compared with the traditional adhesion culture. Furthermore, several gene expression levels in ALG bead culture system were even closer to liver cancer tissues. More importantly, in vitro invasion assay showed that the invasion cells derived from ALG beads was 7.8-fold higher than adhesion cells. Our results indicated that the in vitro three-dimensional (3D) model based on ALG beads increased metastatic ability compared with adhesion culture, even partly mimicked the in vivo tumor tissues. Moreover, due to the controllable preparation conditions, steady characteristics and production at large-scale, the 3D ALG bead model would become an important tool used in the high-throughput screening of anti-metastasis drugs and the metastatic mechanism research. -- Highlights: •We established a 3D metastasis model mimicking the metastatic ability in vivo. •The invasion ability of cells derived from our model was increased significantly. •The model is easy to reproduce, convenient to handle, and amenable for large-scale.

  6. Immobilization of urease from pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) in polyacrylamide gels and calcium alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Das, N; Kayastha, A M; Malhotra, O P

    1998-02-01

    Urease from pigeonpea was entrapped in polyacrylamide gel with 50% immobilization at 10% total monomer (containing 5% cross-linker) with high mechanical stability of the gel. Approximately 0.61 mg of protein could be loaded per 5 ml of gel. The immobilized enzyme had a t1/2 of approx. 200 days when stored in 0.1 M Tris/acetate buffer, pH 6.5, at 4 degrees C. The gel strips were used 4-5 times for urea assay over a period of 6 h with less than 2% loss of activity. Approximately 50% immobilization of urease in calcium alginate was observed at 3% alginate with 0.12 mg protein/ml alginate. The resultant enzyme beads showed a t1/2 of approx. 75 days when stored in 0.1 M Tris/acetate buffer, pH 6.5, at 4 degrees C. The beads were used 4-5 times for urea assay over a period of 6 h with about 40% loss of activity. In both cases, the enzyme activity was directly proportional to the amount of immobilized enzyme. There was practically no leaching of the entrapped enzyme over a period of 48 h from either of the polymers. Both the immobilized enzyme preparations were used to analyse the blood urea of some clinical samples from the University hospital. The results obtained compared favourably with those obtained by the usual method employed in the clinical pathology laboratory.

  7. Determination of diffusion coefficients and diffusion characteristics for chlorferon and diethylthiophosphate in Ca-alginate gel beads.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jiyeon; Engler, Cady R; Lee, Seung Jae

    2008-07-01

    Diffusion characteristics of chlorferon and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) in Ca-alginate gel beads were studied to assist in designing and operating bioreactor systems. Diffusion coefficients for chlorferon and DETP in Ca-alginate gel beads determined at conditions suitable for biodegradation studies were 2.70 x 10(-11) m(2)/s and 4.28 x 10(-11) m(2)/s, respectively. Diffusivities of chlorferon and DETP were influenced by several factors, including viscosity of the bulk solution, agitation speed, and the concentrations of diffusing substrate and immobilized cells. Diffusion coefficients increased with increasing agitation speed, probably due to poor mixing at low speed and some attrition of beads at high speeds. Diffusion coefficients also increased with decreasing substrate concentration. Increased cell concentration in the gel beads caused lower diffusivity. Theoretical models to predict diffusivities as a function of cell weight fraction overestimated the effective diffusivities for both chlorferon and DETP, but linear relations between effective diffusivity and cell weight fraction were derived from experimental data. Calcium-alginate gel beads with radii of 1.65-1.70 mm used in this study were not subject to diffusional limitations: external mass transfer resistances were negligible based on Biot number calculations and effectiveness factors indicated that internal mass transfer resistance was negligible. Therefore, the degradation rates of chlorferon and DETP inside Ca-alginate gel beads were reaction-limited.

  8. The development, physicochemical characterisation and in vitro drug release studies of pectinate gel beads containing Thai mango seed kernel extract.

    PubMed

    Nithitanakool, Saruth; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Bourgeois, Sandrine; Fessi, Hatem; Bavovada, Rapepol

    2013-06-03

    Pectinate gel beads containing Thai mango seed kernel extract (MSKE, cultivar 'Fahlun') were developed and characterised for the purpose of colon-targeted delivery. The MSKE-loaded pectinate beads were prepared using ionotropic gelation with varying pectin-to-MSKE ratios, MSKE concentrations, and concentrations of two cross-linkers (calcium chloride and zinc acetate). The formulated beads were spherical in shape and ranged in size between 1.13 mm and 1.88 mm. Zinc-pectinate (ZPG) beads containing high amounts of MSKE showed complete entrapment efficiency (EE) of MSKE (100%), while calcium-pectinate (CPG) beads demonstrated 70% EE. The in vitro release tests indicated that MSKE-loaded CPG beads were unstable in both simulated gastric medium (SGM) and simulated intestinal medium (SIM), while MSKE-loaded ZPG beads were stable in SIM but unable to prevent the release of MSKE in SGM. The protection of ZPG beads with gastro-resistant capsules (Eudragit® L 100-55) resulted in stability in both SGM and SIM; they disintegrated immediately in simulated colonic medium containing pectinolytic enzymes. MSKE-loaded ZPG beads were stable at 4, 25 and 45 °C during the study period of four months. The present study revealed that ZPG beads in enteric-coated capsules might be a promising carrier for delivering MSKE to the colon.

  9. Boron removal from aqueous solutions using alginate gel beads in fixed-bed systems

    PubMed Central

    Demey-Cedeño, Hary; Ruiz, Montserrat; Barron-Zambrano, Jesús Alberto; Sastre, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background A column sorption study was carried out using calcium alginate gel beads as adsorbent for the removal of boron from aqueous solutions. The breakthrough curve was obtained as a function of pH, initial concentration of boron, feed flow rate, adsorbent mass and column diameter. The breakthrough capacity values and adsorption percentage of calcium alginate gel for boron were calculated. Column data obtained at different conditions were described using the Adams–Bohart model and bed-depth service time (BDST), derived from the Adams–Bohart equation to predict breakthrough curves and to determine the characteristic column parameters required for process design. Results The maximum adsorption percentage of boron on calcium alginate gel beads using an initial concentration of boron of 50 mg L−1 at pH 11 and room temperature (20±1°C) was calculated to be 55.14%. Conclusion The results indicated that calcium alginate can be used in a continuous packed-bed column for boron adsorption. The optimal conditions for boron adsorption were obtained at high pH, higher initial boron concentration, increased column depth and lower flow velocity. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25821332

  10. Processing of CuAlMn Shape Memory Foams with Open Spherical Pores by Silica-Gel Beads Infiltration Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua; Yuan, Bin; Gao, Yan

    2016-10-01

    A molten metal infiltration process with amorphous SiO2 (silica-gel) beads as space holders was used to prepare Cu-based shape memory foams in this article. We found that the silica-gel beads with micropores inside expanded when being heated to elevated temperatures and that proper control of the expansion of silica-gel beads helped form necks between the beads with different bonding extent, which had been taken advantage of to have a good control of the foam morphology and porosity, by carefully designing suitable procedures and choosing proper parameters for the process. In addition, we studied in detail the effect of heating temperature, silica-gel bead density, and infiltration pressure of the present process on the morphology and porosity of CuAlMn shape memory foams. By coordinating these three key parameters, CuAlMn shape memory foams with open spherical pores and adjustable porosity from 66 to 85 pct were reliably produced.

  11. Control of metal toxicity, effluent COD and regeneration of gel beads by immobilized sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Min, Xiaobo; Chai, Liyuan; Zhang, Chuanfu; Takasaki, Yasushi; Okura, Takahiko

    2008-07-01

    Over the last few decades, the use of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the treatment of heavy-metal containing wastewaters including acid mine drainage has become a topic of scientific and commercial interest. However, technical difficulties such as the sensitivity of SRB to toxic metals and high effluent COD limit the widespread use of SRB in high heavy-metal containing wastewater. The aim of this study was to clarify the reasons why the immobilized SRB sludge with inner cohesive carbon source (ISIS) process can endure high metal toxicity and decrease effluent COD. The ISIS process can physically set apart SRB and free the system of external influences such as the surrounding toxic metallic ions, as well as form inner carbon sources to avoid high effluent COD. Metal toxicity and bead durability are the two major factors which influence the regeneration and reuse of gel beads. Reuse of suspended SRB sludge and beads crosslinked with boric acid were unsuccessful due to metal toxicity and agglomeration of beads, respectively. However, beads crosslinked with ammonium sulfate prevented agglomeration of beads allowing successful bead regeneration and reuse. The result of four cyclic trials showed that over 99% of zinc was removed in each trial using these beads.

  12. Evolution of enzyme catalysts caged in biomimetic gel-shell beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischlechner, Martin; Schaerli, Yolanda; Mohamed, Mark F.; Patil, Santosh; Abell, Chris; Hollfelder, Florian

    2014-09-01

    Natural evolution relies on the improvement of biological entities by rounds of diversification and selection. In the laboratory, directed evolution has emerged as a powerful tool for the development of new and improved biomolecules, but it is limited by the enormous workload and cost of screening sufficiently large combinatorial libraries. Here we describe the production of gel-shell beads (GSBs) with the help of a microfluidic device. These hydrogel beads are surrounded with a polyelectrolyte shell that encloses an enzyme, its encoding DNA and the fluorescent reaction product. Active clones in these man-made compartments can be identified readily by fluorescence-activated sorting at rates >107 GSBs per hour. We use this system to perform the directed evolution of a phosphotriesterase (a bioremediation catalyst) caged in GSBs and isolate a 20-fold faster mutant in less than one hour. We thus establish a practically undemanding method for ultrahigh-throughput screening that results in functional hybrid composites endowed with evolvable protein components.

  13. On-bead expression of recombinant proteins in an agarose gel matrix coated on a glass slide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Ka-Young; Byun, Ju-Young; Kim, Byung-Gee; Kim, Dong-Myung

    2012-05-07

    A system for expression and in situ display of recombinant proteins on a microbead surface is described. Biotinylated PCR products were immobilized on microbead surfaces, which were then embedded in a gel matrix and supplied with translation machinery and substrates. Upon the incubation of the gel matrix, target proteins encoded on the bead-immobilized DNA were expressed and captured on the same bead, thus allowing bead-mediated linkage of DNA and encoded proteins. The new method combines the simplicity and convenience of solid-phase separation of genetic information with the benefits of cell-free protein synthesis, such as instant translation of genetic information, unrestricted substrate accessibility and flexible assay configuration design.

  14. Biodegradation of crystal violet using Burkholderia vietnamiensis C09V immobilized on PVA-sodium alginate-kaolin gel beads.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ying; Lin, HongYan; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2012-09-01

    The strain, Burkholderia vietnamiensis C09V was immobilized on PVA-alginate-kaolin gel beads as a biomaterial to improve the degradation of crystal violet from aqueous solution. The results show that 98.6% (30 mg L(-1)) crystal violet was removed from aqueous solution using immobilized cells on PVA-alginate-kaolin gel beads, while 94.0% crystal violet was removed by free cells after degradation at the pH 5 and 30°C for 30 h. Kinetics studies show that the pseudo-second-order kinetics well described the adsorption of crystal violet on the PVA-alginate-kaolin beads. Biodegradation of crystal violet on immobilized cells was fitted well by first-order reaction kinetics, indicating that CV was adsorbed onto kaolin and followed their degradation by immobilized cells onto the the PVA-alginate-kaolin beads. Characterization with SEM shows that cells attached well to the surface of PVA-alginate-kaolin beads, leading to improved crystal violet transfer from aqueous solution to immobilized cells. In addition, UV-vis show that the absorption peak at 588 nm was reduced by the degraded N-bond linkages, as well as the formation of degrading products were observed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). These results suggest that crystal violet was biodegraded to N,N-dimethylaminophenol and Michler's Ketone prior to these intermediates being further degraded.

  15. Beading instability in soft cylindrical gels with capillary energy: Weakly non-linear analysis and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taffetani, M.; Ciarletta, P.

    2015-08-01

    Soft cylindrical gels can develop a long-wavelength peristaltic pattern driven by a competition between surface tension and bulk elastic energy. In contrast to the Rayleigh-Plateau instability for viscous fluids, the macroscopic shape in soft solids evolves toward a stable beading, which strongly differs from the buckling arising in compressed elastic cylinders. This work proposes a novel theoretical and numerical approach for studying the onset and the non-linear development of the elasto-capillary beading in soft cylinders, made of neo-Hookean hyperelastic material with capillary energy at the free surface, subjected to axial stretch. Both a theoretical study, deriving the linear and the weakly non-linear stability analyses for the problem, and numerical simulations, investigating the fully non-linear evolution of the beaded morphology, are performed. The theoretical results prove that an axial elongation can not only favour the onset of beading, but also determine the nature of the elastic bifurcation. The fully non-linear phase diagrams of the beading are also derived from finite element numerical simulations, showing two peculiar morphological transitions when varying either the axial stretch or the material properties of the gel. Since the bifurcation is found to be subcritical for very slender cylinders, an imperfection sensitivity analysis is finally performed. In this case, it is shown that a surface sinusoidal imperfection can resonate with the corresponding marginally stable solution, thus selecting the emerging beading wavelength. In conclusion, the results of this study provide novel guidelines for controlling the beaded morphology in different experimental conditions, with important applications in micro-fabrication techniques, such as electrospun fibres.

  16. Xanthan-alginate composite gel beads: molecular interaction and in vitro characterization.

    PubMed

    Pongjanyakul, Thaned; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2007-02-22

    Xanthan gum (XG), a trisaccharide branched polymer, was applied to reinforce calcium alginate beads in this study. Composite beads consisting of XG and sodium alginate (SA) were prepared using ionotropic gelation method. Diclofenac calcium-alginate (DCA) beads incorporated with different amounts of XG were produced as well. Molecular interaction between SA and XG in the composite beads and the XG-DCA beads was investigated using FTIR spectroscopy. Physical properties of the XG-DCA beads such as entrapment efficiency of diclofenac sodium (DS), thermal property, water uptake, swelling and DS release in various media were examined. XG could form intermolecular hydrogen bonding with SA in the composite beads with or without DS. Differential scanning calorimetric study indicated that XG did not affect thermal property of the DCA beads. The DS entrapment efficiency of the DCA beads increased with increasing amount of XG added. The XG-DCA beads showed higher water uptake and swelling in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer and distilled water than the DCA beads. A longer lag time and a higher DS release rate of the XG-DCA beads in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer were found. In contrast, the 0.3%XG-DCA beads could retard the drug release in distilled water because interaction between XG and SA gave higher tortuosity of the bead matrix. However, higher content of XG in the DCA beads increased the release rate of DS. This can be attributed to erosion of small aggregates of XG on the surface of the DCA beads. This finding suggested that XG could modulate physicochemical properties and drug release of the DCA beads, which based on the existence of molecular interaction between XG and SA.

  17. Protecting chickens against coccidiosis in floor pens by administering Eimeria oocysts using gel beads or spray vaccination.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Mark C; Parker, Carolyn; O'Brien, Celia; Persyn, Joseph; Barlow, Darren; Miska, Katarzyna; Fetterer, Raymond

    2013-09-01

    Control of avian coccidiosis is increasingly being achieved by the administration of low doses of Eimeria oocysts to newly hatched chicks. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of gel beads containing a mixture of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella oocysts as a vaccine to protect broilers raised in contact with litter. Newly hatched chicks were either sprayed with an aqueous suspension of Eimeria oocysts or were allowed to ingest feed containing Eimeria oocysts-incorporated gel beads. Control, 1-day-old chicks were given an equivalent number of Eimeria oocysts (10(3) total) by oral gavage or received no vaccine (nonimmunized controls). All chicks were raised in floor-pen cages in direct contact with litter. At 4 wk of age, all chickens and a control nonimmunized group received a high-dose E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella challenge infection. Chickens immunized with Eimeria oocysts in gel beads or by spray vaccination displayed significantly (P < 0.05) greater weight gain (WG) compared to nonimmunized controls. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) also showed a significant (P < 0.05) improvement in both groups relative to nonimmunized controls. Moreover, WG and FCR in both groups was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from chickens immunized by oral gavage or from nonimmunized, noninfected controls. Oocyst excretion after Eimeria challenge by all immunized groups was about 10-fold less than in nonimmunized controls. These findings indicate that immunization efficacy of gel beads and spray vaccination is improved by raising immunized chicks in contact with litter.

  18. Fast and mild strategy, using superhydrophobic surfaces, to produce collagen/platelet lysate gel beads for skin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lima, Ana Catarina; Mano, João F; Concheiro, Angel; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2015-02-01

    Platelet lysate (PL) was encapsulated in collagen (Coll) millimetric gel beads, on biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces, under mild conditions, with the aim of obtaining easy-to-handle formulations able to provide sustained release of multiple growth factors for skin ulcers treatment. The gel particles were prepared with various concentrations of PL incorporating or not stem cells, and tested as freshly prepared or after being freeze-dried or cryopreserved. Coll + PL particles were evaluated regarding degradation in collagenase-rich environment (simulating the aggressive environment of the chronic ulcers), sustained release of total protein, PDGF-BB and VEGF, cell proliferation (using particles as the only source of growth factors), scratch wound recovery and angiogenic capability. Compared to Coll solely particles, incorporation of PL notably enhanced cell proliferation (inside and outside gels) and favored scratch wound recovery and angiogenesis. Moreover, cell-laden gel particles containing PL notably improved cell proliferation and even migration of cells from one particle towards a neighbor one, which led to cell-cell contacts and the spontaneous formation of tissue layers in which the spherical gels were interconnected by the stem cells.

  19. Efficient Pb(II) removal using sodium alginate-carboxymethyl cellulose gel beads: Preparation, characterization, and adsorption mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ren, Huixue; Gao, Zhimin; Wu, Daoji; Jiang, Jiahui; Sun, Youmin; Luo, Congwei

    2016-02-10

    Alginate-carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) gel beads were prepared in this study using sodium alginate (SA) and sodium CMC through blending and cross-linking. The specific surface area and aperture of the prepared SA-CMC gel beads were tested. The SA-CMC structure was characterized and analyzed via infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Static adsorption experiment demonstrated that Pb(II) adsorption of SA-CMC exceeded 99% under the optimized conditions. In addition, experiments conducted under the same experimental conditions showed that the lead ion removal efficiency of SA-CMC was significantly higher than that of conventional adsorbents. The Pb(II) adsorption process of SA-CMC followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and the dynamic adsorption model could be described through a pseudo-second-order rate equation. Pb(II) removal mechanisms of SA-CMC, including physical, chemical, and electrostatic adsorptions, were discussed based on microstructure analysis and adsorption kinetics. Chemical adsorption was the main adsorption method among these mechanisms.

  20. Effects of root exudates on gel-beads/reeds combination remediation of high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Tian, Weijun; Zhao, Jing; Zhou, Yuhang; Qiao, Kaili; Jin, Xin; Liu, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Changes in root exudates, including low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), amino acids and sugars, in rhizosphere soils during the gel-beads/reeds combination remediation for high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) and the degree of the effects on HMW-PAH biodegradation were evaluated in this study. The results showed that the gel-beads/reeds combination remediation notably increased the removal rates of pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (65.0-68.9%, 60.0-68.5% and 85.2-85.9%, respectively). During the removal of HMW-PAHs, the LMWOAs, particularly maleic acid, enhanced the biodegradation of HMW-PAHs. Arginine and trehalose monitored in reed root exudates promoted the growth of plants and microorganisms and then improved the removal of HMW-PAHs, especially pyrene. However, the contribution of reed root exudates on degradation of 5- and 6-ring PAHs was minor. These results indicated that the utilization of root exudates was certainly not the only important trait for the removal of HMW-PAHs.

  1. Development of hydrogel TentaGel shell-core beads for ultrahigh throughput solution-phase screening of encoded OBOC combinatorial small molecule libraries.

    PubMed

    Baek, Hyoung Gee; Liu, Ruiwu; Lam, Kit S

    2009-01-01

    The one-bead one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial library method enables the rapid generation and screening of millions of discrete chemical compounds on beads. Most of the OBOC screening methods require the library compounds to remain tethered to the bead during screening process. Methods have also been developed to release library compounds from immobilized beads for in situ solution phase or "lawn" assays. However, this latter approach, while extremely powerful, is severely limited by the lack of suitable solid supports for such assays. Here, we report on the development of a novel hydrogel TentaGel shell-core (HTSC) bead in which hydrogel is grafted onto the polystyrene-based TentaGel (TG) bead as an outer shell (5-80 mum thick) via free radical surface-initiated polymerization. This novel shell-core bilayer resin enables the preparation of encoded OBOC combinatorial small molecule libraries, such that the library compounds reside on the highly hydrophilic outer layer and the coding tags reside in the polystyrene-based TG core. Using fluorescein as a model small molecule compound, we have demonstrated that fluorescein molecules that have been linked covalently to the hydrogel shell via a disulfide bond could readily diffuse out of the hydrogel layer into the bead surrounding after reduction with dithiothreitol. In contrast, under identical condition, the released fluorescein molecules remained bound to unmodified TG bead. We have prepared an encoded OBOC small molecule library on the novel shell-core beads and demonstrated that the beads can be readily decoded.

  2. Modeling the evolution of complex conductivity during calcite precipitation on glass beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Philippe; Li, Shuai; Jougnot, Damien; Revil, André; Wu, Yuxin

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARYWhen pH and alkalinity increase, calcite frequently precipitates and hence modifies the petrophysical properties of porous media. The <span class="hlt">complex</span> conductivity method can be used to directly monitor calcite precipitation in porous media because it is sensitive to the evolution of the mineralogy, pore structure and its connectivity. We have developed a mechanistic grain polarization model considering the electrochemical polarization of the Stern and diffuse layer surrounding calcite particles. Our <span class="hlt">complex</span> conductivity model depends on the surface charge density of the Stern layer and on the electrical potential at the onset of the diffuse layer, which are computed using a basic Stern model of the calcite/water interface. The <span class="hlt">complex</span> conductivity measurements of Wu et al. (2010) on a column packed with glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> where calcite precipitation occurs are reproduced by our surface <span class="hlt">complexation</span> and <span class="hlt">complex</span> conductivity models. The evolution of the size and shape of calcite particles during the calcite precipitation experiment is estimated by our <span class="hlt">complex</span> conductivity model. At the early stage of the calcite precipitation experiment, modeled particles sizes increase and calcite particles flatten with time because calcite crystals nucleate at the surface of glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> and grow into larger calcite grains around glass <span class="hlt">beads</span>. At the later stage of the calcite precipitation experiment, modeled sizes and cementation exponents of calcite particles decrease with time because large calcite grains aggregate over multiple glass <span class="hlt">beads</span>, a percolation threshold is achieved, and small and discrete calcite crystals polarize.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28206933','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28206933"><span>Use of Antibiotic-Impregnated Absorbable <span class="hlt">Beads</span> and Tissue Coverage of <span class="hlt">Complex</span> Wounds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>White, Terris L; Culliford, Alfred T; Zomaya, Martin; Freed, Gary; Demas, Christopher P</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The treatment of <span class="hlt">complex</span> wounds is commonplace for plastic surgeons. Standard management is debridement of infected and devitalized tissue and systemic antibiotic therapy. In cases where vital structures are exposed within the wound, coverage is obtained with the use of vascularized tissue using both muscle and fasciocutaneous flaps. The use of nondissolving polymethylmethacrylate and absorbable antibiotic-impregnated <span class="hlt">beads</span> has been shown to deliver high concentrations of antibiotics with low systemic levels of the same antibiotic. We present a multicenter retrospective review of all cases that used absorbable antibiotic-impregnated <span class="hlt">beads</span> for <span class="hlt">complex</span> wound management from 2003 to 2013. A total of 104 cases were investigated, flap coverage was used in 97 cases (93.3%). Overall, 15 patients (14.4%) required reoperation with the highest groups involving orthopedic wounds and sternal wounds. The advantages of using absorbable antibiotic-impregnated <span class="hlt">beads</span> in <span class="hlt">complex</span> infected wounds have been demonstrated with minimal disadvantages. The utilization of these <span class="hlt">beads</span> is expanding to a variety of <span class="hlt">complex</span> infectious wounds requiring high concentrations of local antibiotics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7764887','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7764887"><span>11 alpha-Hydroxylation of progesterone in biphasic media using alginate-entrapped Aspergillus ochraceus <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> coated with polyurea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Houng, J Y; Chiang, W P; Chen, K C; Tiu, C</p> <p>1994-06-01</p> <p>A novel cell-immobilization technique was developed in this study for increasing substrate partition to the <span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix by coating a polyurea thin layer on the surface of Ca-alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The proposed method was simple and could be performed under mild conditions. The bioconversion of progesterone to 11 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone with these polyurea-coating alginate-entrapped Aspergillus ochraceus cells was investigated using different organic solvents in biphasic media. The reaction medium of ethyl acetate could markedly enhance the bioconversion rate with the existence of a hydrophobic layer, most likely resulting from the increasing partition of substrate to <span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix. Bioconversion with higher substrate concentration was possible using an ethyl acetate-water medium. The conversion rate increased almost linearly with increasing substrate concentration from 10 to 80 g l-1. The rate with 80 g l-1 progesterone increased up to six times greater than the rate with the immobilized cells without coating, and also exhibited a much higher rate than that reported in the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26500177','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26500177"><span>Effect of CaCO₃/HCl pretreatment on the surface modification of chitin <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> via graft copolymerization of 2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate and 4-vinylpyridine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yalinca, Zulal; Mohammed, Dana Ali Kader; Hadi, Jihad M; Yilmaz, Elvan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Although chitin, poly(N-acetylglucosamine), possesses considerable potential as a biomaterial, it has not been as thoroughly studied as its derivative chitosan. In this study, the potential of chitin <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> has been evaluated for surface modification via vinyl polymer grafting. Grafting behavior of two well-established vinyl monomers, namely 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) were investigated using cerium (IV) ammonium nitrate as the redox initiator with the aim of obtaining chemically functionalized more hydrophilic chitin surfaces. The intractable nature of chitin, which is one of its primary drawbacks as a grafting substrate was overcome by applying a CaCO3 treatment during <span class="hlt">bead</span> preparation. The maximum grafting percentage of poly(HEMA) onto chitin <span class="hlt">bead</span> without CaCO3 treatment was found to be 65%, while the value for CaCO3 treated chitin <span class="hlt">beads</span> was 515%. The maximum grafting yield of poly(4-VP) on to CaCO3 treated chitin powder was 380% at optimum conditions. The grafting system was extensively characterized before and after grafting by FT-IR, SEM, C-13 NMR and XRD analyses. Significant improvement on the swelling capacities of chitin based <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> in aqueous acidic, basic and neutral media was obtained. An account of the pros and cons of the system has been presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20748685','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20748685"><span>Sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> entrapped cobalt <span class="hlt">complex</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lima, Omar J. de; Papacidero, Andrea T.; Rocha, Lucas A.; Sacco, Herica C.; Nassar, Eduardo J.; Ciuffi, Katia J.; Bueno, Luciano A.; Messaddeq, Younes; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L</p> <p>2003-03-15</p> <p>This work describes optimized conditions for preparation of a cobalt <span class="hlt">complex</span> entrapped in alumina amorphous materials in the form of powder. The hybrid materials, CoNHG, were obtained by a nonhydrolytic sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> route through condensation of aluminum chloride with diisopropylether in the presence of cobalt chloride. The materials were calcined at various temperatures. The presence of cobalt entrapped in the alumina matrix is confirmed by ultraviolet visible spectroscopy. The materials have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analyses (DTA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The prepared alumina matrix materials are amorphous, even after heat treatment up to 750 deg. C. The XRD, TGA/DTA and TEM data support the increase of sample crystallization with increasing temperature. The specific surface area, pore size and pore diameter changed as a function of the heat treatment temperature employed. Different heat treatment temperatures result in materials with different compositions and structures, and influence their catalytic activity. The entrapped cobalt materials calcined at 750 deg. C efficiently catalyzed the epoxidation of (Z)-cyclooctene using iodozylbenzene as the oxygen donor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1369257','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1369257"><span>Immobilization of enzymes to porous-<span class="hlt">bead</span> polymers and silica <span class="hlt">gels</span> activated by graft polymerization of 2,3-epoxypropyl methacrylate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wójcik, A; Lobarzewski, J; Błaszczyńska, T</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Three types of organic polymers and <span class="hlt">bead</span>-shape silica <span class="hlt">gels</span> were activated by graft polymerization of 2,3-epoxypropyl methacrylate; in some cases, epoxide groups on the support surface were modified to NH2 groups. Eight active matrices so obtained were assessed as supports for immobilized enzymes using peroxidase, glucoamylase and urease. The immobilization yield of protein and specific activities of enzymes were better with supports containing NH2 groups than with those containing epoxide spacer arms. Maximum enzyme immobilization and storage stabilities were obtained with silica-<span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> activated by graft polymerization of 2,3-epoxypropyl methacrylate. With all eight matrices tested, the immobilized enzymes showed good stability with not less than 82% of the original activity persisting after 28 days. The developed matrices have potential for use in process-scale biotechnological operations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3118733','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3118733"><span>A high-throughput immobilized <span class="hlt">bead</span> screen for stable proteins and multi-protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lockard, Meghan A.; Listwan, Pawel; Pedelacq, Jean-Denis; Cabantous, Stéphanie; Nguyen, Hau B.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Waldo, Geoffrey S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We describe an in vitro colony screen to identify Escherichia coli expressing soluble proteins and stable, assembled multiprotein <span class="hlt">complexes</span>. Proteins with an N-terminal 6His tag and C-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP) S11 tag are fluorescently labeled in cells by complementation with a coexpressed GFP 1–10 fragment. After partial colony lysis, the fluorescent soluble proteins or <span class="hlt">complexes</span> diffuse through a supporting filtration membrane and are captured on Talon® resin metal affinity <span class="hlt">beads</span> immobilized in agarose. Images of the fluorescent colonies convey total expression and the level of fluorescence bound to the <span class="hlt">beads</span> indicates how much protein is soluble. Both pieces of information can be used together when selecting clones. After the assay, colonies can be picked and propagated, eliminating the need to make replica plates. We used the method to screen a DNA fragment library of the human protein p85 and preferentially obtained clones expressing the full-length ‘breakpoint cluster region-homology' and NSH2 domains. The assay also distinguished clones expressing stable multi-protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> from those that are unstable due to missing subunits. Clones expressing stable, intact heterotrimeric E.coli YheNML <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were readily identified in libraries dominated by <span class="hlt">complexes</span> of YheML missing the N subunit. PMID:21642284</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21642284','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21642284"><span>A high-throughput immobilized <span class="hlt">bead</span> screen for stable proteins and multi-protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lockard, Meghan A; Listwan, Pawel; Pedelacq, Jean-Denis; Cabantous, Stéphanie; Nguyen, Hau B; Terwilliger, Thomas C; Waldo, Geoffrey S</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>We describe an in vitro colony screen to identify Escherichia coli expressing soluble proteins and stable, assembled multiprotein <span class="hlt">complexes</span>. Proteins with an N-terminal 6His tag and C-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP) S11 tag are fluorescently labeled in cells by complementation with a coexpressed GFP 1-10 fragment. After partial colony lysis, the fluorescent soluble proteins or <span class="hlt">complexes</span> diffuse through a supporting filtration membrane and are captured on Talon(®) resin metal affinity <span class="hlt">beads</span> immobilized in agarose. Images of the fluorescent colonies convey total expression and the level of fluorescence bound to the <span class="hlt">beads</span> indicates how much protein is soluble. Both pieces of information can be used together when selecting clones. After the assay, colonies can be picked and propagated, eliminating the need to make replica plates. We used the method to screen a DNA fragment library of the human protein p85 and preferentially obtained clones expressing the full-length 'breakpoint cluster region-homology' and NSH2 domains. The assay also distinguished clones expressing stable multi-protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> from those that are unstable due to missing subunits. Clones expressing stable, intact heterotrimeric E.coli YheNML <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were readily identified in libraries dominated by <span class="hlt">complexes</span> of YheML missing the N subunit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25188303','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25188303"><span>Insights on novel particulate self-assembled drug delivery <span class="hlt">beads</span> based on partial inclusion <span class="hlt">complexes</span> between triglycerides and cyclodextrins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aburahma, Mona Hassan</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Most of the newly designed drug molecules are lipophilic in nature and often encounter erratic absorption and low bioavailability after oral administration. Finding ways to enhance the absorption and bioavailability of these lipophilic drugs is one of the major challenges that face pharmaceutical industry nowadays. In view of that, the purpose of this review is to shed some light on a novel particulate self-assembling system named "<span class="hlt">beads</span>" than can act as a safe carrier for delivering lipophilic drugs. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> are prepared simply by mixing oils with cyclodextrin (CD) aqueous solution in mild conditions. A unique interaction between oil components and CD molecules occurs to form in situ surface-active <span class="hlt">complexes</span> which are prerequisites for <span class="hlt">beads</span> formation. This review mainly focuses on the fundamentals of <span class="hlt">beads</span> preparation through reviewing present, yet scarce, literature. The key methods used for <span class="hlt">beads</span> characterization are discussed in details. Also, the potential mechanisms by which <span class="hlt">beads</span> increase the bioavailability of lipophilic drugs are illustrated. Finally, the related research areas that needs to be addressed in future for optimizing this promising delivery system are briefly outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7763595','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7763595"><span>Large-scale production of kappa-carrageenan droplets for <span class="hlt">gel-bead</span> production: theoretical and practical limitations of size and production rate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hunik, J H; Tramper, J</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Immobilization of biocatalysts in kappa-carrageenan <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> is a widely used technique nowadays. Several methods are used to produce the <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The <span class="hlt">gel-bead</span> production rate is usually sufficient to make the relatively small quantities needed for bench-scale experiments. The droplet diameter can, within limits, be adjusted to the desired size, but it is difficult to predict because of the non-Newtonian fluid behavior of the kappa-carrageenan solution. Here we present the further scale-up of the extrusion technique with the theory to predict the droplet diameters for non-Newtonian fluids. The emphasis is on the droplet formation, which is the rate-limiting step in this extrusion technique. Uniform droplets were formed by breaking up a capillary jet with a sinusoidal signal of a vibration exciter. At the maximum production rate of 27.6 dm3/h, uniform droplets with a diameter of (2.1 +/- 0.12) x 10(-3) m were obtained. This maximum flow rate was limited by the power transfer of the vibration exciter to the liquid flow. It was possible to get a good prediction of the droplet diameter by estimating the local viscosity from shear-rate calculations and an experimental relation between the shear rate and viscosity. In this way the theory of Newtonian fluids could be used for the non-Newtonian kappa-carrageenan solution. The calculated optimal break-up frequencies and droplet sizes were in good agreement with those found in the experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25980915','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25980915"><span>Rapid and successful start-up of anammox process by immobilizing the minimal quantity of biomass in PVA-SA <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ali, Muhammad; Oshiki, Mamoru; Rathnayake, Lashitha; Ishii, Satoshi; Satoh, Hisashi; Okabe, Satoshi</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Rapid start-up of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process in up-flow column reactors was successfully achieved by immobilizing minimal quantity of biomass in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-sodium alginate (SA) <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The changes in the reactor performance (i.e., nitrogen removal rate; NRR) were monitored with time. The results demonstrate that the reactor containing the immobilized biomass concentration of 0.33 g-VSS L(-1) achieved NRR of 10.8 kg-N m(-3) d(-1) after 35-day operation, whereas the reactor containing the granular biomass of 2.5 g-VSS L(-1) could achieve only NRR of 3.5 kg-N m(-3) d(-1). This indicates that the <span class="hlt">gel</span> immobilization method requires much lower seeding biomass for start-up of anammox reactor. To explain the better performance of the immobilized biomass, the biological and physicochemical properties of the immobilized biomass were characterized and compared with the naturally aggregated granular biomass. Effective diffusion coefficient (De) in the immobilized biomass was directly determined by microelectrodes and found to be three times higher than one in the granular biomass. High anammox activity (i.e., NH4(+) and NO2(-) consumption rates) was evenly detected throughout the <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> by microelectrodes due to faster and deeper substrate transport. In contrast, anammox activity was localized in the outer layers of the granular biomass, indicating that the inner biomass could not contribute to the nitrogen removal. This difference was in good agreement with the spatial distribution of microbes analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Based on these results, PVA-SA <span class="hlt">gel</span> immobilization is an efficient strategy to initiate anammox reactors with minimal quantity of anammox biomass.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27386305','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27386305"><span>Treatment of high-strength ethylene glycol waste water in an expanded granular sludge blanket reactor: use of PVA-<span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> as a biocarrier.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jin, Yue; Wang, Dunqiu; Zhang, Wenjie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Industrial-scale use of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-<span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> as biocarriers is still not being implemented due to the lack of understanding regarding the optimal operational parameters. In this study, the parameters for organic loading rate (OLR), alkalinity, recycle rate, and addition of trace elements were investigated in an expanded granular sludge blanket reactor (EGSB) treating high-strength ethylene glycol wastewater (EG) with PVA-<span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> as biocarrier. Stable chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of 95 % or greater were achieved, and continuous treatment was demonstrated with appropriate parameters being an OLR of 15 kg COD/m(3)/day, NaHCO3 added at 400 mg/L, a recycle rate of 15 L/h, and no addition of trace elements addition. A biogas production yield rate of 0.24 m(3)/kg COD was achieved in this study. A large number of long rod-shaped bacteria (Methanosaeta), were found with low acetate concentration in the EGSB reactor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12959592','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12959592"><span>Incorporation of alkaline phosphatase into layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte films on the surface of affi-<span class="hlt">gel</span> heparin <span class="hlt">beads</span>: physicochemical characterization and evaluation of the enzyme stability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Derbal, Lylia; Lesot, Hervé; Voegel, Jean Claude; Ball, Vincent</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The preparation of functionalized <span class="hlt">beads</span> in the micrometer size range that can be used to probe the action of immobilized biomolecules on cell cultures during controlled periods of time is of fundamental importance in cell biology. However, the preparation and characterization of such particles is tedious because of their fast sedimentation. It is hence difficult to prepare such <span class="hlt">beads</span> in a reproducible manner. This highlights the need to prepare an important batch of functionnalized particles and to store them under conditions where the loss of biological activity is minimized. The aim of this paper was to immobilize alkaline phosphatase (AP) as a model enzyme on the surface of Affi-<span class="hlt">gel</span> heparin <span class="hlt">beads</span> functionnalized by means of a layer-by-layer (LBL) film made of poly-l-glutamic (PGA) acid and poly-l-lysine (PLL). The enzyme has been adsorbed either on the top of the LBL film or embedded under five polyelectrolyte layers. When embedded, the enzyme was not released in buffer and retained more than 30% of its initial activity after 3 months of storage at 4 degrees C. However, when the enzyme was adsorbed on top of the LBL film, about 80% of the adsorbed enzyme was released in the buffer after a few days of storage. Longer storage did not lead to any further desorption and the remaining enzyme displayed the same evolution of its activity with time as the embedded enzyme. The time evolution of the enzyme activity on the <span class="hlt">beads</span> is compared with that in solution alone and in the presence of PGA and PLL separately.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatCo...814131S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatCo...814131S"><span><span class="hlt">Gel</span> phase formation in dilute triblock copolyelectrolyte <span class="hlt">complexes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Srivastava, Samanvaya; Andreev, Marat; Levi, Adam E.; Goldfeld, David J.; Mao, Jun; Heller, William T.; Prabhu, Vivek M.; de Pablo, Juan J.; Tirrell, Matthew V.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Assembly of oppositely charged triblock copolyelectrolytes into phase-separated <span class="hlt">gels</span> at low polymer concentrations (<1% by mass) has been observed in scattering experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. Here we show that in contrast to uncharged, amphiphilic block copolymers that form discrete micelles at low concentrations and enter a phase of strongly interacting micelles in a gradual manner with increasing concentration, the formation of a dilute phase of individual micelles is prevented in polyelectrolyte <span class="hlt">complexation</span>-driven assembly of triblock copolyelectrolytes. <span class="hlt">Gel</span> phases form and phase separate almost instantaneously on solvation of the copolymers. Furthermore, molecular models of self-assembly demonstrate the presence of oligo-chain aggregates in early stages of copolyelectrolyte assembly, at experimentally unobservable polymer concentrations. Our discoveries contribute to the fundamental understanding of the structure and pathways of <span class="hlt">complexation</span>-driven assemblies, and raise intriguing prospects for <span class="hlt">gel</span> formation at extraordinarily low concentrations, with applications in tissue engineering, agriculture, water purification and theranostics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5331217','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5331217"><span><span class="hlt">Gel</span> phase formation in dilute triblock copolyelectrolyte <span class="hlt">complexes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Srivastava, Samanvaya; Andreev, Marat; Levi, Adam E.; Goldfeld, David J.; Mao, Jun; Heller, William T.; Prabhu, Vivek M.; de Pablo, Juan J.; Tirrell, Matthew V.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Assembly of oppositely charged triblock copolyelectrolytes into phase-separated <span class="hlt">gels</span> at low polymer concentrations (<1% by mass) has been observed in scattering experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. Here we show that in contrast to uncharged, amphiphilic block copolymers that form discrete micelles at low concentrations and enter a phase of strongly interacting micelles in a gradual manner with increasing concentration, the formation of a dilute phase of individual micelles is prevented in polyelectrolyte <span class="hlt">complexation</span>-driven assembly of triblock copolyelectrolytes. <span class="hlt">Gel</span> phases form and phase separate almost instantaneously on solvation of the copolymers. Furthermore, molecular models of self-assembly demonstrate the presence of oligo-chain aggregates in early stages of copolyelectrolyte assembly, at experimentally unobservable polymer concentrations. Our discoveries contribute to the fundamental understanding of the structure and pathways of <span class="hlt">complexation</span>-driven assemblies, and raise intriguing prospects for <span class="hlt">gel</span> formation at extraordinarily low concentrations, with applications in tissue engineering, agriculture, water purification and theranostics. PMID:28230046</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18593356','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18593356"><span>In vitro evaluation of a fibrin <span class="hlt">gel</span> antibiotic delivery system containing mesenchymal stem cells and vancomycin alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> for treating bone infections and facilitating bone formation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hou, Tianyong; Xu, Jianzhong; Li, Qiang; Feng, Jianghua; Zen, Ling</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>Bone infection and defects are two major problems that occur in the course of treating posttraumatic open bone fractures and osteomyelitis for which local antibiotic delivery is efficacious. Further, hemostasis is an essential treatment after removal of infected bones. Herein we report a new antibiotics delivery system made of vancomycin alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> embedded in a fibrin <span class="hlt">gel</span> (Vanco-AB-FG) to treat bone infections, with the addition of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) seeded in the fibrin <span class="hlt">gel</span> to promote bone formation. The proliferation of BMMSCs was measured under different conditions of three-dimensional (3D) <span class="hlt">gel</span> or monolayer, with or without Vanco-AB; cells were labeled by enhanced green fluorescence protein, and their morphology and distribution were observed. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, real-time RT-PCR, and von Kossa staining were used for determining the osteogenic differentiation of BMMSCs. The concentrations of vancomycin resulting from the antibiotic delivery were determined; the antibiotic activity was evaluated by an assay with standard Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) as a biological target. The results showed that for Vanco-AB-FG, vancomycin concentrations remained above the breakpoint sensitivity for 22 days. The 3D culture within the <span class="hlt">gel</span> and the addition of Vanco-AB affected the cell behavior. The morphology of BMMSCs within the 3D <span class="hlt">gel</span> was different from that in monolayer. The proliferation of the cells within the 3D <span class="hlt">gel</span> was lower than that in monolayer in early stage, but in later stage the number of BMMSCs in Vanco-AB-FG was similar to that in monolayer. The ALP activity was higher in the 3D <span class="hlt">gel</span>, and the addition of Vanco-AB slightly increased ALP activity. The osteogenic gene expression levels of ALP, osteopontin, and alpha1 chain of collagen I were higher in the 3D <span class="hlt">gel</span> than those in monolayer, and additional Vanco-AB could also increase their expression. The von Kossa staining showed that the deposition of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3671202','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3671202"><span>3D <span class="hlt">Gel</span> Map of Arabidopsis <span class="hlt">Complex</span> I</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Peters, Katrin; Belt, Katharina; Braun, Hans-Peter</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Complex</span> I has a unique structure in plants and includes extra subunits. Here, we present a novel study to define its protein constituents. Mitochondria were isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures, leaves, and roots. Subunits of <span class="hlt">complex</span> I were resolved by 3D blue-native (BN)/SDS/SDS-PAGE and identified by mass spectrometry. Overall, 55 distinct proteins were found, seven of which occur in pairs of isoforms. We present evidence that Arabidopsis <span class="hlt">complex</span> I consists of 49 distinct types of subunits, 40 of which represent homologs of bovine <span class="hlt">complex</span> I. The nine other subunits represent special proteins absent in the animal linage of eukaryotes, most prominently a group of subunits related to bacterial gamma-type carbonic anhydrases. A <span class="hlt">Gel</span>Map http://www.gelmap.de/arabidopsis-3d-<span class="hlt">complex</span>-i/ is presented for promoting future <span class="hlt">complex</span> I research in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:23761796</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1345009-gel-phase-formation-dilute-triblock-copolyelectrolyte-complexes','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1345009-gel-phase-formation-dilute-triblock-copolyelectrolyte-complexes"><span><span class="hlt">Gel</span> phase formation in dilute triblock copolyelectrolyte <span class="hlt">complexes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Srivastava, Samanvaya; Andreev, Marat; Levi, Adam E.; ...</p> <p>2017-02-23</p> <p>Assembly of oppositely charged triblock copolyelectrolytes into phase-separated <span class="hlt">gels</span> at low polymer concentrations (<1% by mass) has been observed in scattering experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. Here we show that in contrast to uncharged, amphiphilic block copolymers that form discrete micelles at low concentrations and enter a phase of strongly interacting micelles in a gradual manner with increasing concentration, the formation of a dilute phase of individual micelles is prevented in polyelectrolyte <span class="hlt">complexation</span>-driven assembly of triblock copolyelectrolytes. <span class="hlt">Gel</span> phases form and phase separate almost instantaneously on solvation of the copolymers. Furthermore, molecular models of self-assembly demonstrate the presence of oligo-chainmore » aggregates in early stages of copolyelectrolyte assembly, at experimentally unobservable polymer concentrations. Finally, our discoveries contribute to the fundamental understanding of the structure and pathways of <span class="hlt">complexation</span>-driven assemblies, and raise intriguing prospects for <span class="hlt">gel</span> formation at extraordinarily low concentrations, with applications in tissue engineering, agriculture, water purification and theranostics.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7858P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7858P"><span>The Glass <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Game: experimental sintering of rhyolitic ash reveals <span class="hlt">complex</span> behaviour of irregular multiphase particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pope, Robyn; Tuffen, Hugh; Owen, Jacqueline; James, Mike; Wadsworth, Fabian</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Sintering of magmatic particles profoundly influences the permeability, strength and compaction of fragmented magma in conduits and pyroclastic deposits. It involves initial rounding and agglutination of particles, with formation of inter-particle necks, followed by progressive viscous collapse of pores. The sintering behaviour of ash particles within tuffisite veins, which may mediate shallow outgassing in silicic eruptions, is of particular interest. Experimental studies on homogeneous synthetic glasses[1] have shown sintering rates to be time, temperature and grainsize-dependent, reflecting the influence of melt viscosity and pore-melt interfacial tension. A key objective is to reconstruct the temperature-time path of naturally sintered samples, so here we investigate the sintering of natural, angular ash fragments, to explore whether similar simple relationships emerge for more <span class="hlt">complex</span> particle morphologies and internal textures. A glass-rich ballistic rhyolite bomb from the Cordón Caulle 2011-2012 eruption was ground and sieved to create various grainsizes of angular ash particles. The bomb contains 70 wt.% SiO2, 0.25 wt.% H2O, and ~30 vol.% crystal phases, as phenocrysts and microlites of plagioclase and pyroxenes. Particles were spread thinly over a sapphire surface in an N2-purged heated stage, and heated to 900, 1000 and 1100 °C, corresponding to melt viscosities of 105.4-107.7 Pa.s. Images were collected every 10-600 s during isothermal sintering over tens of minutes to hours. Quantitative image analysis using ImageJ allowed quantification of evolving particle size and shape (diameter and roundness) and inter-particle neck width. The rate of particle rounding was expected to be highest for smallest particles, and to decrease through time, but unlike synthetic glass <span class="hlt">bead</span> experiments, no simple trends emerged. When the temporal evolution of particle roundness was tracked, some particles showed an unexpected, systematic increase in rounding rate with time</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26744941','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26744941"><span>A pilot-scale study on PVA <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> based integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) plant for municipal wastewater treatment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kumar Singh, Nitin; Singh, Jasdeep; Bhatia, Aakansha; Kazmi, A A</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In the present study, a pilot-scale reactor incorporating polyvinyl alcohol <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> as biomass carrier and operating in biological activated sludge mode (a combination of moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and activated sludge) was investigated for the treatment of actual municipal wastewater. The results, during a monitoring period of 4 months, showed effective removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and NH3-N at optimum conditions with 91%, ∼92% and ∼90% removal efficiencies, respectively. Sludge volume index (SVI) values of activated sludge varied in the range of 25-72 mL/g, indicating appreciable settling characteristics. Furthermore, soluble COD and BOD in the effluent of the pilot plant were reduced to levels well below discharge limits of the Punjab Pollution Control Board, India. A culture dependent method was used to enrich and isolate abundant heterotrophic bacteria in activated sludge. In addition to this, 16S rRNA genes analysis was performed to identify diverse dominant bacterial species in suspended and attached biomass. Results revealed that Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp. and Nitrosomonas communis played a significant role in biomass carrier, while Acinetobactor sp. were dominant in activated sludge of the pilot plant. Identification of ciliated protozoa populations rendered six species of ciliates in the plant, among which Vorticella was the most dominant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA614379','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA614379"><span>Local Antibiotic Delivery by a Bioabsorbable <span class="hlt">Gel</span> Is Superior to PMMA <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Depot in Reducing Infection in an Open Fracture Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>be achieved in the wound while avoiding the side effects and cost of systemic administration. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> molded from polymethylmethacrylate cement are... polymethylmethacrylate antibiotic <span class="hlt">beads</span> is less effective because this method has to rely on diffusion of the antibiotic from the high concentration close...antibiotics in clinical use is polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) blended with antibiotics and molded into <span class="hlt">beads</span>.6–8 There are, however, disadvantages</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=297905','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=297905"><span>Starch aerogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> obtained from inclusion <span class="hlt">complexes</span> prepared from high amylose starch and sodium palmitate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Starch aerogels are a class of low density highly porous renewable materials currently prepared from retrograded starch <span class="hlt">gels</span> and are of interest for their good surface area, porosity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Recently, we have reported on starches containing amylose-fatty acid salt h...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10451102','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10451102"><span>Transient association of the DNA-ligand <span class="hlt">complex</span> during <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Protozanova, E; Macgregor, R B</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>DNA frayed wires are extremely stable multistranded <span class="hlt">complexes</span> arising from the association of oligonucleotides with long terminal runs of consecutive guanines. Frayed wires originating from d(A15G15) have multiple binding sites for short complementary oligonucleotides such as dT10. We examine unusual band patterns obtained when <span class="hlt">complexes</span> formed between dT10 and DNA frayed wires are resolved on nondenaturing polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gels</span>. Since the lifetime of the dT10-frayed wire <span class="hlt">complexes</span> is shorter than the time of the <span class="hlt">gel</span> run, the interaction between the components during the <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis affects their band patterns. We have conducted chasing experiments to show that (i) the binding of dT10 to the frayed wires can occur during <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis, and (ii) dissociation of the <span class="hlt">complexes</span> occurs during the <span class="hlt">gel</span> run. Rapid repetitive dissociation-reassociation of the <span class="hlt">complexes</span> leads to a constant partitioning of dT10 between their binding sites within frayed wires. Consequently, <span class="hlt">complexes</span> composed of frayed wires and various numbers of bound ligands appear on the <span class="hlt">gel</span> as a single well-defined band. The mobilities of these bands decrease continuously with the concentration of the ligand reaching saturation when all the binding sites are occupied. This characteristic pattern is observed only for relatively unstable interactions. Longer ligands, i.e., oligonucleotides with higher affinity towards the binding sites, cease to exhibit the dynamic character of interaction during <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis. These ligands form long-lived <span class="hlt">complexes</span> with the frayed wires that appear on the <span class="hlt">gel</span> as faint smeared bands reflecting the presence of multiple stable <span class="hlt">complexes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3853756','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3853756"><span>Cavamax W7 composite psoralen ethosomal <span class="hlt">gel</span> versus cavamax W7 psoralen solid <span class="hlt">complex</span> <span class="hlt">gel</span> for topical delivery: A comparative evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kumari, Smriti; Pathak, Kamla</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Aim: The present research work was aimed to formulate and characterize psoralen-encapsulated cavamax W7 composite ethosomal <span class="hlt">gel</span> and compare its in vitro and ex vivo behavior against psoralen-cavamax W7-<span class="hlt">complex</span> reference <span class="hlt">gel</span>. Materials and Methods: A total of nine formulations of composite ethosomes were prepared by injection method using 32 factorial design and entrapment efficiency was designated as dependent variable. Concomitantly, psoralen was <span class="hlt">complexed</span> with cavamax W7 (1:1 molar ratio) by kneading method and formation of <span class="hlt">complex</span> was confirmed by Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results: F9 with vesicle size of 183 ± 2.8 nm, and highest % entrapment efficiency of 98.12 ± 1.15 was selected as optimized formulation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed uniform and spherical shaped vesicles. The optimized formulation F9 was formulated as carbapol <span class="hlt">gel</span> and compared against ethosomal <span class="hlt">gel</span>, psoralen <span class="hlt">gel</span>, and psoralen cavamax W7 <span class="hlt">complex</span> <span class="hlt">gel</span>. The <span class="hlt">gels</span> were evaluated for permeation characteristics and the rank order was composite ethosomal <span class="hlt">gel</span> > ethosomal <span class="hlt">gel</span> > psoralen-cavamax W7 <span class="hlt">complex</span> <span class="hlt">gel</span> > psoralen <span class="hlt">gel</span>. The ethosomal <span class="hlt">gel</span> (G5) with highest in vitro permeation of 82.48 ± 2.23% was subjected to in vivo Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) studies using rhodamine B as tracer. The penetration of rhodamine B was uniform, deeper, and two times faster into epidermis than control <span class="hlt">gel</span>. Conclusion: Conclusively, cavamax W7 composite ethosomes present themselves as efficient carrier for superior topical delivery of psoralen and have potential for clinical applications in minimizing side effects associated with photosensitivity of psoralen. PMID:24350036</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21727569','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21727569"><span>Fractionation of SWNT/nucleic acid <span class="hlt">complexes</span> by agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vetcher, Alexandre A; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Vetcher, Ivan A; Abramov, Semen M; Kozlov, Mikhail; Baughman, Ray H; Levene, Stephen D</p> <p>2006-08-28</p> <p>We show that aqueous dispersions of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), prepared with the aid of nucleic acids (NAs) such as RNA or DNA, can be separated into fractions using agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis. In a DC electric field, SWNT/NA <span class="hlt">complexes</span> migrate in the <span class="hlt">gel</span> in the direction of positive potential to form well-defined bands. Raman spectroscopy as a function of band position shows that nanotubes having different spectroscopic properties possess different electrophoretic mobilities. The migration patterns for SWNT/RNA and SWNT/DNA <span class="hlt">complexes</span> differ. Parallel elution of the SWNT/NA <span class="hlt">complexes</span> from the <span class="hlt">gel</span> during electrophoresis and subsequent characterization by AFM reveals differences in nanotube diameter, length and curvature. The results suggest that fractionation of nanotubes can be achieved by this procedure. We discuss factors affecting the mobility of the nanotube <span class="hlt">complexes</span> and propose analytical applications of this technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3914368','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3914368"><span>Seeds used for Bodhi <span class="hlt">beads</span> in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Bodhi <span class="hlt">beads</span> are a Buddhist prayer item made from seeds. Bodhi <span class="hlt">beads</span> have a large and emerging market in China, and demand for the <span class="hlt">beads</span> has particularly increased in Buddhism regions, especially Tibet. Many people have started to focus on and collect Bodhi <span class="hlt">beads</span> and to develop a Bodhi <span class="hlt">bead</span> culture. But no research has examined the source plants of Bodhi <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Therefore, ethnobotanical surveys were conducted in six provinces of China to investigate and document Bodhi <span class="hlt">bead</span> plants. Reasons for the development of Bodhi <span class="hlt">bead</span> culture were also discussed. Methods Six provinces of China were selected for market surveys. Information was collected using semi-structured interviews, key informant interviews, and participatory observation with traders, tourists, and local residents. Barkhor Street in Lhasa was focused on during market surveys because it is one of the most popular streets in China. Results Forty-seven species (including 2 varieties) in 19 families and 39 genera represented 52 types of Bodhi <span class="hlt">beads</span> that were collected. The most popular Bodhi <span class="hlt">bead</span> plants have a long history and religious significance. Most Bodhi <span class="hlt">bead</span> plants can be used as medicine or food, and their seeds or fruits are the main elements in these uses. ‘Bodhi seeds’ have been historically used in other countries for making ornaments, especially seeds of the legume family. Many factors helped form Bodhi <span class="hlt">bead</span> culture in China, but its foundation was in Indian Buddhist culture. Conclusions As one of the earliest adornment materials, seeds played an important role for human production and life. <span class="hlt">Complex</span> sources of Bodhi <span class="hlt">beads</span> have different cultural and historical significance. People bought and collected Bodhi <span class="hlt">beads</span> to reflect their love and admiration for the plants. Thus, the documentation of Bodhi <span class="hlt">bead</span> plants can serve as a basis for future investigation of Bodhi <span class="hlt">bead</span> culture and modern Buddhist culture. PMID:24479788</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23010125','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23010125"><span>Non-cytotoxic antibacterial silver-coumarin <span class="hlt">complex</span> doped sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> coatings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jaiswal, Swarna; Bhattacharya, Kunal; Sullivan, Maeve; Walsh, Maureen; Creaven, Bernadette S; Laffir, Fathima; Duffy, Brendan; McHale, Patrick</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Microbial colonisation on clinical and industrial surfaces is currently of global concern and silane based sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> coatings are being proposed as potential solutions. Sol-<span class="hlt">gels</span> are chemically inert, stable and homogeneous and can be designed to act as a reservoir for releasing antimicrobial agents over extended time periods. In the present study, silver nitrate (AgN) and a series of silver coumarin <span class="hlt">complexes</span> based on coumarin-3-carboxylatosilver (AgC) and it is 6, 7 and 8 hydroxylated analogues (Ag6, Ag7, Ag8) were incorporated into sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> coatings. The comparative antibacterial activity of the coatings was determined against meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multidrug resistance Enterobacter cloacae WT6. The percentage growth inhibitions were found in the range of 9.2 (±2.7)-66.0 (±1.2)% at low silver loadings of 0.3% (w/w) with E. cloacae being the more susceptible. Results showed that among the Ag coumarin <span class="hlt">complexes</span>, the Ag8 doped coating had the highest antibiofilm property. XPS confirmed the presence of silver in the nanoparticulate state (Ag(0)) at the coating surface where it remained after 4 days of exposure to bacterial culture. Comparative cytotoxicity studies revealed that the Ag-<span class="hlt">complex</span> coatings were less toxic than the AgN coating. Thus, it can be concluded that a sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix with Ag-coumarin <span class="hlt">complexes</span> may provide non-toxic surfaces with antibacterial properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADP013616','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADP013616"><span>Nitric Oxide Sensors Obtained Through the Entrapment of Iron <span class="hlt">Complexes</span> in Sol-<span class="hlt">Gel</span> Matrix</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-04-05</p> <p>iron <span class="hlt">complexes</span> in sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix Juliana C. Biazzotto, Jodo F. Borin, Roberto Mendonga Faria’ and Carlos F.O Graeff Departamento de Fisica e...Matemdtica-FFCLRP-USP, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirdo Preto, Brazil 1-Instituto de Fisica de S~o Carlos-USP, C.P. 369, 13560-970 Sdo Carlos, Brazil</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22583846','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22583846"><span>Huperzine A-phospholipid <span class="hlt">complex</span>-loaded biodegradable thermosensitive polymer <span class="hlt">gel</span> for controlled drug release.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cai, Xiaoqing; Luan, Yuxia; Jiang, Yue; Song, Aixin; Shao, Wei; Li, Zhonghao; Zhao, Zhongxi</p> <p>2012-08-20</p> <p>The huperzine A-phospholipid <span class="hlt">complex</span> loaded biodegradable thermosensitive PLGA-PEG-PLGA polymer <span class="hlt">gel</span> was studied as injectable implant system for controlled release of huperzine-A (HA). First, HA molecules were successfully incorporated into the soybean phosphatidylcholine (SP) molecules to form the huperzine-A-soybean phosphatidylcholine <span class="hlt">complexes</span> (HA-SPC), which was proved by FT-IR, DSC, XRD, solubility study, TEM, etc. The results indicated that hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interaction between HA and SP molecules play an important role in the formation of HA-SPC. Secondly, the HA-SPC was loaded into biodegradable PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermosensitive <span class="hlt">gel</span> as injectable implant material to control the release of HA. The in vitro and in vivo drug release behaviors of the prepared products were studied. The in vitro release studies demonstrated that the HA-SPC-loaded <span class="hlt">gel</span> significantly reduced the initial burst of drug release and extended the release period to about 2 weeks. The in vivo pharmacokinetics study of HA-SPC-loaded <span class="hlt">gel</span> in rabbits showed that plasma concentration of HA (2.54-0.15ng/mL) was detected for nearly 2 weeks from delivery systems upon single subcutaneous injection. What's more, the in vitro release pattern correlated well with the in vivo pharmacokinetics profile. The present study indicates that HA-SPC loaded PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermal <span class="hlt">gel</span> may be an attractive candidate vehicle for controlled HA release.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1624...37F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1624...37F"><span>Sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> silica films embedding NIR- emitting Yb-quinolinolate <span class="hlt">complexes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Figus, Cristiana; Quochi, Francesco; Artizzu, Flavia; Piana, Giacomo; Saba, Michele; Mercuri, Maria Laura; Serpe, Angela; Deplano, Paola; Mura, Andrea; Bongiovanni, Giovanni</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> silica thin films embedding an ytterbium quinolinolato <span class="hlt">complex</span> (YbClQ4) have been obtained using different alkoxides. Homogeneous, crack- and defect-free thin films of optical quality have been successfully deposited on glass substrate by dip-coating. The silica thin films have been characterized by time-resolved photoluminescence. The luminescence properties of the YbClQ4 are preserved in silica films prepared through an optimized sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> approach. The excited state lifetime of the lanthanide is comparable to those observed in bulk and longer than the corresponding ones in solution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22308120','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22308120"><span>Sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> silica films embedding NIR- emitting Yb-quinolinolate <span class="hlt">complexes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Figus, Cristiana Quochi, Francesco Piana, Giacomo; Saba, Michele; Mura, Andrea; Bongiovanni, Giovanni; Artizzu, Flavia; Mercuri, Maria Laura; Serpe, Angela; Deplano, Paola</p> <p>2014-10-21</p> <p>Sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> silica thin films embedding an ytterbium quinolinolato <span class="hlt">complex</span> (YbClQ{sub 4}) have been obtained using different alkoxides. Homogeneous, crack- and defect-free thin films of optical quality have been successfully deposited on glass substrate by dip-coating. The silica thin films have been characterized by time-resolved photoluminescence. The luminescence properties of the YbClQ{sub 4} are preserved in silica films prepared through an optimized sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> approach. The excited state lifetime of the lanthanide is comparable to those observed in bulk and longer than the corresponding ones in solution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22305851','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22305851"><span>A charge transfer <span class="hlt">complex</span> nematic liquid crystalline <span class="hlt">gel</span> with high electrical conductivity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bhargavi, R.; Nair, Geetha G. E-mail: skpras@gmail.com; Krishna Prasad, S. E-mail: skpras@gmail.com; Majumdar, R.; Bag, Braja G.</p> <p>2014-10-21</p> <p>We describe the rheological, dielectric and elastic properties of a nematic liquid crystal <span class="hlt">gel</span> created using an anthrylidene derivative of arjunolic acid, a chiral triterpenoid, obtained from the extracts of the wood of Terminalia arjuna. In this novel <span class="hlt">gel</span>, having the electron-donor and acceptor components as minority constituents, the gelation and strengthening of charge-transfer <span class="hlt">complex</span> (CTC) formation are seen to be occurring concomitantly. In addition to being mechanically strong with a large storage modulus, the <span class="hlt">gel</span> with the maximized CTC exhibits Frank bend elastic constant values that approach nanonewton levels. The highlight of the study is the observation of 4–5 orders of magnitude increase in electrical conductivity for this <span class="hlt">gel</span>, a value that is higher than even in the CT <span class="hlt">complexes</span> of 2-d ordered columnar structures. A further important advantage of the present system over the columnar <span class="hlt">complex</span> is that the high conductivity is seen for ac probing also, and owing to the nematic nature can be switched between its anisotropic limits. Some of these features are ascribed to a specific molecular packing architecture, which reduces the trapping of the charge carriers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvE..91c2413T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvE..91c2413T"><span>Elastocapillarity can control the formation and the morphology of <span class="hlt">beads</span>-on-string structures in solid fibers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taffetani, M.; Ciarletta, P.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Beads</span>-on-string patterns have been experimentally observed in solid cylinders for a wide range of material properties and structural lengths, from millimetric soft <span class="hlt">gels</span> to nanometric hard fibers. In this work, we combine theoretical analysis and numerical tools to investigate the formation and nonlinear dynamics of such <span class="hlt">beaded</span> structures. We show that this morphological transition is driven by elastocapillarity, i.e., a <span class="hlt">complex</span> interplay between the effects of surface tension and bulk elasticity. Unlike buckling or wrinkling, the presence of an axial elongation is found here to favor the onset of fiber <span class="hlt">beading</span>, in agreement with existing experimental results on electrospun fibers, hydrogels, and nerves. Our results also prove that the applied stretch can be used in fabrication techniques to control the morphology of the emerging <span class="hlt">beads</span>-on-string patterns. Such quantitative predictions open the way for several applications, from tissue engineering to the design of stretchable electronics and the microfabrication of functionalized surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25981870','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25981870"><span>Confined Flocculation of Ionic Pollutants by Poly(L-dopa)-Based Polyelectrolyte <span class="hlt">Complexes</span> in Hydrogel <span class="hlt">Beads</span> for Three-Dimensional, Quantitative, Efficient Water Decontamination.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yu, Li; Liu, Xiaokong; Yuan, Weichang; Brown, Lauren Joan; Wang, Dayang</p> <p>2015-06-16</p> <p>The development of simple and recyclable adsorbents with high adsorption capacity is a technical imperative for water treatment. In this work, we have successfully developed new adsorbents for the removal of ionic pollutants from water via encapsulation of polyelectrolyte <span class="hlt">complexes</span> (PECs) made from positively charged poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and negatively charged poly(l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) (PDopa), obtained via the self-polymerization of l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-Dopa). Given the outstanding mass transport through the hydrogel host matrixes, the PDopa-PAH PEC guests loaded inside can effectively and efficiently remove various ionic pollutants, including heavy metal ions and ionic organic dyes, from water. The adsorption efficiency of the PDopa-PAH PECs can be quantitatively correlated to and tailored by the PDopa-to-PAH molar ratio. Because PDopa embodies one catechol group, one carboxyl group, and one amino group in each repeating unit, the resulting PDopa-PAH PECs exhibit the largest capacity of adsorption of heavy metal ions compared to available adsorbents. Because both PDopa and PAH are pH-sensitive, the PDopa-PAH PEC-loaded agarose hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> can be easily and completely recovered after the adsorption of ionic pollutants by adjusting the pH of the surrounding media. The present strategy is similar to the conventional process of using PECs to flocculate ionic pollutants from water, while in our system flocculation is confined to the agarose hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span>, thus allowing easy separation of the resulting adsorbents from water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23892122','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23892122"><span>Synthesis and luminescence properties of encapsulated sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> glass samarium <span class="hlt">complexes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zaitoun, M A; Momani, K; Jaradat, Q; Qurashi, I M</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Luminescence efficiency of lanthanide <span class="hlt">complexes</span> generally largely depend on the choice of the organic ligand and the host matrix in which these <span class="hlt">complexes</span> are doped. Two Sm(III) <span class="hlt">complexes</span>, namely: Sm(III) dithicarbamate - Sm(L1)3B [L1=(R)2NCS2B, R=C2H5 and B=1,10-phenanthroline] and Sm(III) <span class="hlt">complex</span> with the polytonic ligand L2=N', N'(2)-bis[(1E)-1-(2-pyridyl)ethylidene]ethanedihydrazide {Sm2-L2-(CH3COO)2; L2=C16H16N6O2} are synthesized, these <span class="hlt">complexes</span> are then trapped in sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> glass. Room temperature luminescence of Sm(L1)3B and {Sm2-L2-(CH3COO)2} <span class="hlt">complexes</span> encapsulated in sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> glass are studied using a spectrofluorometer. Up on excitation by a UV light, ligand L1B absorbs this light and transfers it into the Sm(III) ions and emission bands were observed in the visible region and were attributed to f-f transitions of Sm(III). The observed emission indicated an efficient L1B ligand as a sensitizer, while ligand L2 shows no ability to work as a sensitizer. The branching ratio I4G5/2→6H9/2/I4G5/2→6H7/2) of electric dipole transition to magnetic dipole transition was used as an effective spectroscopic probe to predict symmetry of the site in which Sm(III) is located. The encapsulation of the Samaium <span class="hlt">complexes</span> was performed for three reasons: (i) before rare earth (RE)-doped sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> glasses can be used in applications such as laser materials, several fluorescence quenching mechanisms must be overcome, we show in this work that lanthanide fluorescence is greatly enhanced by chelation and selecting a suitable host matrix (sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span>) to accommodate the lanthanide <span class="hlt">complex</span>, (ii) to improve the stability of the phosphor with efficient and high color-purity characteristics under ultraviolet excitation and (iii) this work provides a framework for preparing transparent composite glasses that are robust hosts to study the fundamental interactions between nano-materials and light.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AcSpA.115..810Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AcSpA.115..810Z"><span>Synthesis and luminescence properties of encapsulated sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> glass samarium <span class="hlt">complexes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zaitoun, M. A.; Momani, K.; Jaradat, Q.; Qurashi, I. M.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Luminescence efficiency of lanthanide <span class="hlt">complexes</span> generally largely depend on the choice of the organic ligand and the host matrix in which these <span class="hlt">complexes</span> are doped. Two Sm(III) <span class="hlt">complexes</span>, namely: Sm(III) dithicarbamate - Sm(L1)3B [L1 = (R)2NCS2B, R = C2H5 and B = 1,10-phenanthroline] and Sm(III) <span class="hlt">complex</span> with the polytonic ligand L2 = N‧, N‧2-bis[(1E)-1-(2-pyridyl)ethylidene]ethanedihydrazide {Sm2-L2-(CH3COO)2; L2 = C16H16N6O2} are synthesized, these <span class="hlt">complexes</span> are then trapped in sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> glass. Room temperature luminescence of Sm(L1)3B and {Sm2-L2-(CH3COO)2} <span class="hlt">complexes</span> encapsulated in sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> glass are studied using a spectrofluorometer. Up on excitation by a UV light, ligand L1B absorbs this light and transfers it into the Sm(III) ions and emission bands were observed in the visible region and were attributed to f-f transitions of Sm(III). The observed emission indicated an efficient L1B ligand as a sensitizer, while ligand L2 shows no ability to work as a sensitizer. The branching ratio I4G5/2→6H9/2/I4G5/2→6H7/2) of electric dipole transition to magnetic dipole transition was used as an effective spectroscopic probe to predict symmetry of the site in which Sm(III) is located. The encapsulation of the Samaium <span class="hlt">complexes</span> was performed for three reasons: (i) before rare earth (RE)-doped sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> glasses can be used in applications such as laser materials, several fluorescence quenching mechanisms must be overcome, we show in this work that lanthanide fluorescence is greatly enhanced by chelation and selecting a suitable host matrix (sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span>) to accommodate the lanthanide <span class="hlt">complex</span>, (ii) to improve the stability of the phosphor with efficient and high color-purity characteristics under ultraviolet excitation and (iii) this work provides a framework for preparing transparent composite glasses that are robust hosts to study the fundamental interactions between nano-materials and light.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17715959','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17715959"><span>Effect of salt and surfactant concentration on the structure of polyacrylate <span class="hlt">gel</span>/surfactant <span class="hlt">complexes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nilsson, Peter; Unga, Johan; Hansson, Per</p> <p>2007-09-20</p> <p>Small-angle X-ray scattering was used to elucidate the structure of crosslinked polyacrylate <span class="hlt">gel</span>/dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide <span class="hlt">complexes</span> equilibrated in solutions of varying concentrations of surfactant and sodium bromide (NaBr). Samples were swollen with no ordering (micelle free), or they were collapsed with either several distinct peaks (cubic Pm3n) or one broad correlation peak (disordered micellar). The main factor determining the structure of the collapsed <span class="hlt">complexes</span> was found to be the NaBr concentration, with the cubic structure existing up to approximately 150 mM NaBr and above which only the disordered micellar structure was found. Increasing the salt concentration decreases the polyion mediated attractive forces holding the micelles together causing swelling of the <span class="hlt">gel</span>. At sufficiently high salt concentration the micelle-micelle distance in the <span class="hlt">gel</span> becomes too large for the cubic structure to be retained, and it melts into a disordered micellar structure. As most samples were above the critical micelle concentration, the bulk of the surfactant was in the form of micelles in the solution and the surfactant concentration thereby had only a minor influence on the structure. However, in the region around 150 mM NaBr, increasing the surfactant concentration, at constant NaBr concentration, was found to change the structure from disordered micellar to ordered cubic and back to disordered again.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25648334','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25648334"><span>Application of multiplexed cysteine-labeled <span class="hlt">complex</span> protein sample for 2D electrophoretic <span class="hlt">gel</span> alignment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haimi, Perttu; Sikorskaite-Gudziuniene, Sidona; Baniulis, Danas</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The analysis of cellular subproteomes by 2DE is hampered by the difficulty of aligning <span class="hlt">gel</span> images from samples that have very different protein composition. Here, we present a sensitive and cost-effective fluorescent labeling method for analyzing protein samples that is not dependent on their composition. The alignment is guided by inclusion of a <span class="hlt">complex</span> mixture of proteins that is co-run with the sample. Maleimide-conjugated fluorescent dyes Dy-560 and Dy-635 are used to label the cysteine residues of the sample of interest and the alignment standard, respectively. The two differently labeled mixtures are then combined and separated on a 2D <span class="hlt">gel</span> and, after selective fluorescence detection, an unsupervised image registration process is used to align the protein patters. In a pilot study, this protocol significantly improved the accuracy of alignment of nuclear proteins with total cellular proteins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26322722','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26322722"><span>Polyclonal outbreak of bacteremia caused by Burkholderia cepacia <span class="hlt">complex</span> and the presumptive role of ultrasound <span class="hlt">gel</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nannini, Esteban C; Ponessa, Adriana; Muratori, Rosa; Marchiaro, Patricia; Ballerini, Viviana; Flynn, Luis; Limansky, Adriana S</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A nosocomial polyclonal outbreak associated to bacteremia caused by different Burkholderia cepacia <span class="hlt">complex</span> (BCC) species and clones is reported. Molecular characterization identified Burkholderia stabilis, Burkholderia contaminans, and Burkholderia ambifaria among BCC isolates obtained from patients in neonatal and adult intensive care units. BCC was also isolated from an intrinsically contaminated ultrasound <span class="hlt">gel</span>, which constituted the presumptive BCC source. Prior BCC outbreak related to contaminated ultrasound <span class="hlt">gels</span> have been described in the setting of transrectal prostate biopsy. Outbreak caused strains and/or clones of BCC have been reported, probably because BCC are commonly found in the natural environment; most BCC species are biofilm producers, and different species may contaminate an environmental source. The finding of multiple species or clones during the analysis of nosocomial BCC cases might not be enough to reject an outbreak from a common source.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7859704','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7859704"><span>Pulsed field electrophoresis for the separation of protein-sodium dodecyl sulfate-<span class="hlt">complexes</span> in polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Houri, A; Starita-Geribaldi, M</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis of proteins was studied using a pulsed-current mode. A new "local field" distribution was used to correct the <span class="hlt">gel</span> patterns and optimize migration. A corrective field was applied at fixed 2 s intervals to a constant field, inducing a <span class="hlt">complex</span> relaxation mechanism. Calculated variations in the local field directions decreased the electric strain on the <span class="hlt">gel</span> during the run, with resultant optimum <span class="hlt">gel</span> structure. The relaxation mechanism was found to enhance the absolute mobility of proteins with shorter running times compared to constant field <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis (CFGE) and other pulsed field techniques. The enhancement of molecular mobility was explored by transverse pore gradient <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis. Ferguson curves which exhibited a convex shape in CFGE were linearized by the new pulsed-field method named pulsed oscillatory high-performance electrophoresis (POPE).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24691723','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24691723"><span>Development of non-denaturing off-<span class="hlt">gel</span> isoelectric focusing for the separation of uranium-protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> in fish.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bucher, Guillaume; Frelon, Sandrine; Simon, Olivier; Lobinski, Ryszard; Mounicou, Sandra</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>An off-<span class="hlt">gel</span> non-denaturing isoelectric focusing (IEF) method was developed to separate uranium-biomolecule <span class="hlt">complexes</span> from biological samples as a first step in a multidimensional metalloproteomic approach. Analysis of a synthetic uranium-bovine serum albumin <span class="hlt">complex</span> demonstrated the focusing ability of the liquid-phase IEF method and the preservation of most of the uranium-protein interactions. The developed method was applied to gill cytosol prepared from zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to depleted uranium. The results were compared in terms of resolution, recovery, and protein identities with those obtained by in-<span class="hlt">gel</span> IEF using an immobilized pH gradient <span class="hlt">gel</span> strip.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21418111','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21418111"><span>A high-definition native polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis system for the analysis of membrane <span class="hlt">complexes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ladig, Roman; Sommer, Maik S; Hahn, Alexander; Leisegang, Matthias S; Papasotiriou, Dimitrios G; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Elkehal, Rajae; Karas, Michael; Zickermann, Volker; Gutensohn, Michael; Brandt, Ulrich; Klösgen, Ralf Bernd; Schleiff, Enrico</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>Native polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis (PAGE) is an important technique for the analysis of membrane protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span>. A major breakthrough was the development of blue native (BN-) and high resolution clear native (hrCN-) PAGE techniques. Although these techniques are very powerful, they could not be applied to all systems with the same resolution. We have developed an alternative protocol for the analysis of membrane protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> of plant chloroplasts and cyanobacteria, which we termed histidine- and deoxycholate-based native (HDN-) PAGE. We compared the capacity of HDN-, BN- and hrCN-PAGE to resolve the well-studied respiratory chain <span class="hlt">complexes</span> in mitochondria of bovine heart muscle and Yarrowia lipolytica, as well as thylakoid localized <span class="hlt">complexes</span> of Medicago sativa, Pisum sativum and Anabaena sp. PCC7120. Moreover, we determined the assembly/composition of the Anabaena sp. PCC7120 thylakoids and envelope membranes by HDN-PAGE. The analysis of isolated chloroplast envelope <span class="hlt">complexes</span> by HDN-PAGE permitted us to resolve <span class="hlt">complexes</span> such as the translocon of the outer envelope migrating at approximately 700 kDa or of the inner envelope of about 230 and 400 kDa with high resolution. By immunodecoration and mass spectrometry of these <span class="hlt">complexes</span> we present new insights into the assembly/composition of these translocation machineries. The HDN-PAGE technique thus provides an important tool for future analyses of membrane <span class="hlt">complexes</span> such as protein translocons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820033947&hterms=gel+electrophoresis&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dgel%2Belectrophoresis','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820033947&hterms=gel+electrophoresis&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dgel%2Belectrophoresis"><span>Microdisc <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate of organic material from rat otoconial <span class="hlt">complexes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ross, M. D.; Pote, K. G.; Rarey, K. E.; Verma, L. M.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The gravity receptors of all vertebrates utilize a 'test mass' consisting of a <span class="hlt">complex</span> arrangement of mineral and organic substance that lies over the sensory receptor areas. In most vertebrates, the mineral is a polymorph of calcium carbonate in the form of minute, single crystals called otoconia. An investigation is conducted to determine the number of proteins in otoconial <span class="hlt">complexes</span> and their molecular weights. The investigation makes use of a microdisk <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis method reported by Gainer (1971). The most important finding of the reported research is that analysis of the proteins of the organic material of the otoconial <span class="hlt">complexes</span> is possible when sensitive microanalytical methods are employed. Further modification of the basic technique employed and the inclusion of other sensitive staining methods should mean that, in the future, protein separation by molecular weight will be possible in sample pools containing only two otoconial masses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26226053','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26226053"><span>Pickering Emulsion <span class="hlt">Gels</span> Prepared by Hydrogen-Bonded Zein/Tannic Acid <span class="hlt">Complex</span> Colloidal Particles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zou, Yuan; Guo, Jian; Yin, Shou-Wei; Wang, Jin-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Quan</p> <p>2015-08-26</p> <p>Food-grade colloidal particles and <span class="hlt">complexes</span>, which are formed via modulation of the noncovalent interactions between macromolecules and natural small molecules, can be developed as novel functional ingredients in a safe and sustainable way. For this study was prepared a novel zein/tannic acid (TA) <span class="hlt">complex</span> colloidal particle (ZTP) based on the hydrogen-bonding interaction between zein and TA in aqueous ethanol solution by using a simple antisolvent approach. Pickering emulsion <span class="hlt">gels</span> with high oil volume fraction (φ(oil) > 50%) were successfully fabricated via one-step homogenization. Circular dichroism (CD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements, which were used to characterize the structure of zein/TA <span class="hlt">complexes</span> in ethanol solution, clearly showed that TA binding generated a conformational change of zein without altering their supramolecular structure at pH 5.0 and intermediate TA concentrations. Consequently, the resultant ZTP had tuned near neutral wettability (θ(ow) ∼ 86°) and enhanced interfacial reactivity, but without significantly decreased surface charge. These allowed the ZTP to stabilize the oil droplets and further triggered cross-linking to form a continuous network among and around the oil droplets and protein particles, leading to the formation of stable Pickering emulsion <span class="hlt">gels</span>. Layer-by-layer (LbL) interfacial architecture on the oil-water surface of the droplets was observed, which implied a possibility to fabricate hierarchical interface microstructure via modulation of the noncovalent interaction between hydrophobic protein and natural polyphenol.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7143855','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7143855"><span>Megabase-scale mapping of the HLA gene <span class="hlt">complex</span> by pulsed field <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lawrance, S.K.; Smith, C.L.; Srivastava, R.; Cantor, C.R.; Weissman, S.M.</p> <p>1987-03-13</p> <p>In the study of the genetic structure of mammalian chromosomes, there exists a resolution gap between molecular cloning experiments and meiotic linkage analyses. This gap has discouraged attempts to construct full-scale genetic maps of mammalian chromosomes. The organization of the human major histocompatibility <span class="hlt">complex</span> was examined within this range by pulsed field <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis. The data obtained indicate that the <span class="hlt">complex</span> spans over 3000 kilobases and enable the construction of a megabase-scale molecular map. These results indicate that the techniques employed in DNA extraction, enzymatic digestion, electrophoresis, and hybridization are suitable for the efficient analysis of megabase regions of mammalian chromosomes and effectively bridge the resolution gap between molecular cloning and classical genetics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15152333','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15152333"><span>Fast automatic registration of images using the phase of a <span class="hlt">complex</span> wavelet transform: application to proteome <span class="hlt">gels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Woodward, Andrew M; Rowland, Jem J; Kell, Douglas B</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p>Image registration describes the process of manipulating a distorted version of an image such that its pixels overlay the equivalent pixels in a clean, master or reference image. The need for it has assumed particular prominence in the analysis of images of electrophoretic <span class="hlt">gels</span> used in the analysis of protein expression levels in living cells, but also has fundamental applications in most other areas of image analysis. Much of the positional information of a data feature is carried in the phase of a <span class="hlt">complex</span> transform, so a <span class="hlt">complex</span> transform allows explicit specification of the phase, and hence of the position of features in the image. Registration of a test <span class="hlt">gel</span> to a reference <span class="hlt">gel</span> is achieved by using a multiresolution movement map derived from the phase of a <span class="hlt">complex</span> wavelet transform (the Q-shift wavelet transform) to dictate the warping directly via movement of the nodes of a Delaunay-triangulated mesh of points. This warping map is then applied to the original untransformed image such that the absolute magnitude of the spots remains unchanged. The technique is general to any type of image. Results are presented for a simple computer simulated <span class="hlt">gel</span>, a simple real <span class="hlt">gel</span> registration between similar "clean" <span class="hlt">gels</span> with local warping vectors distributed about one main direction, a hard problem between a reference <span class="hlt">gel</span> and a "dirty" test <span class="hlt">gel</span> with multi-directional warping vectors and many artifacts, and some typical <span class="hlt">gels</span> of present interest in post-genomic biology. The method compares favourably with others, since it is computationally rapid, effective and entirely automatic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1664d0002N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1664d0002N"><span>Expanded polylactide <span class="hlt">bead</span> foaming - A new technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nofar, M.; Ameli, A.; Park, C. B.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bead</span> foaming technology with double crystal melting peak structure has been recognized as a promising method to produce low-density foams with <span class="hlt">complex</span> geometries. During the molding stage of the <span class="hlt">bead</span> foams, the double peak structure generates a strong <span class="hlt">bead-to-bead</span> sintering and maintains the overall foam structure. During recent years, polylactide (PLA) <span class="hlt">bead</span> foaming has been of the great interest of researchers due to its origin from renewable resources and biodegradability. However, due to the PLA's low melt strength and slow crystallization kinetics, the attempts have been limited to the manufacturing methods used for expanded polystyrene. In this study, for the first time, we developed microcellular PLA <span class="hlt">bead</span> foams with double crystal melting peak structure. Microcellular PLA <span class="hlt">bead</span> foams were produced with expansion ratios and average cell sizes ranging from 3 to 30-times and 350 nm to 15 µm, respectively. The generated high melting temperature crystals during the saturation significantly affected the expansion ratio and cell density of the PLA <span class="hlt">bead</span> foams by enhancing the PLA's poor melt strength and promoting heterogeneous cell nucleation around the crystals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JNuM..473..249B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JNuM..473..249B"><span>The <span class="hlt">Complex</span> Sol-<span class="hlt">Gel</span> Process for producing small ThO2 microspheres</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brykala, Marcin; Rogowski, Marcin</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Thorium based fuels offer several benefits compared to uranium based fuels thus they might be an attractive alternative to conventional fuel types. This study is devoted to the synthesis and the characterization of small thorium dioxide microspheres (Ø <50 μm). Their application involves using powder-free process, called the <span class="hlt">Complex</span> Sol-<span class="hlt">Gel</span> Process. The source sols used for the processes were prepared by the method where in the starting ascorbic acid solution the solid thorium nitrate was dissolved and partially neutralized by aqueous ammonia under pH control. The microspheres of thorium-ascorbate <span class="hlt">gel</span> were obtained using the ICHTJ Process (INCT in English). Studies allowed to determine an optimal heat treatment with calcination temperature of 700 °C and temperature rate not higher than 2 °C/min which enabled us to obtain a crack-free surface of microspheres. The main parameters which have a strong influence on the synthesis method and features of the spherical particles of thorium dioxide are described in this article.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25164151','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25164151"><span><span class="hlt">Gel</span>-derived cation-π stacking films of carbon nanotube-graphene <span class="hlt">complexes</span> as oxygen cathodes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Tao; Matsuda, Hirofumi; Zhou, Haoshen</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>A key challenge in processing carbon nanotubes and their composites for large-scale applications is aggregation. Cation-π stacking interactions have been discovered to disperse heavily entangled single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) bundles in ionic liquids (ILs). In this work, we found that a dispersible, silky single-layer graphene (SLG) can be readily gathered together to form a crosslinked <span class="hlt">gel</span> after entrapping sufficient IL molecular via the likely noncovalent interaction. By incorporating the dispersed SWNTs into the gathered SLG <span class="hlt">gel</span> synchronously, we prepared solid, finely crosslinked SWNTs-SLG films, assisted by an avenue of 2-step extraction to remove the IL completely. The <span class="hlt">gel</span>-derived SWNTs-SLG <span class="hlt">complex</span> film was applied as a support material of oxygen cathodes for Li-O2 batteries. It exhibited a remarkable improved cycleability in comparison to made of SWNTs and SLG alone due to the finely crosslinked feature. Decorated SWNTs and SLG can also form <span class="hlt">gel</span>-derived <span class="hlt">complexes</span> via the same process to construct support-catalyst <span class="hlt">complexes</span>. A SWNTs-SLG film loaded with Ru nanoparticles exhibited not only catalytic effects, but also the ability to suppress the side reactions, and hence stabilized the whole Li-O2 battery. Our research introduces a <span class="hlt">gel</span>-derived, high-dispersed processing of carbon nanotube-graphene <span class="hlt">complexes</span> and demonstrates their favorable applications on Li-O2 batteries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003CPL...367...39B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003CPL...367...39B"><span>Charge-transfer <span class="hlt">complexes</span> of Cu(II)/HD analogue in sol <span class="hlt">gel</span> sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brinkley, J. F.; Kirkey, M. L.; Marques, A. D. S.; Lin, C. T.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>An optically transparent xerogel encapsulating Cu(II) acetate is fabricated to detect mustard gas (HD) analogues via a charge-transfer mechanism. A fast response (color change from sky blue to canary yellow) is observed for the chlorinated sulfide, and is accompanied by an absorption band at 370-420 nm. MO calculations revealed that the chlorinated HD analogue displays a charge-transfer transition extended from sulfur to chlorine atom. A 1:1 <span class="hlt">complex</span> of Cu(II)/HD analogue is preferred. For a colorimetric sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> detector prepared at pH 3, the detection limit of HD analogue is calibrated at 0.03 μl per 1.5 ml sensor volume.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MApFl...1a7001H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MApFl...1a7001H"><span>A two-channel detection method for autofluorescence correction and efficient on-<span class="hlt">bead</span> screening of one-<span class="hlt">bead</span> one-compound combinatorial libraries using the COPAS fluorescence activated <span class="hlt">bead</span> sorting system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hintersteiner, Martin; Auer, Manfred</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>One-<span class="hlt">bead</span> one-compound combinatorial library <span class="hlt">beads</span> exhibit varying levels of autofluorescence after solid phase combinatorial synthesis. Very often this causes significant problems for automated on-<span class="hlt">bead</span> screening using Tenta<span class="hlt">Gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> and fluorescently labeled target proteins. Herein, we present a method to overcome this limitation when fluorescence activated <span class="hlt">bead</span> sorting is used as the screening method. We have equipped the COPAS <span class="hlt">bead</span> sorting instrument with a high-speed profiling unit and developed a spectral autofluorescence correction method. The correction method is based on a simple algebraic operation using the fluorescence data from two detection channels and is applied on-the-fly in order to reliably identify hit <span class="hlt">beads</span> by COPAS <span class="hlt">bead</span> sorting. Our method provides a practical tool for the fast and efficient isolation of hit <span class="hlt">beads</span> from one-<span class="hlt">bead</span> one-compound library screens using either fluorescently labeled target proteins or biotinylated target proteins. This method makes hit <span class="hlt">bead</span> identification easier and more reliable. It reduces false positives and eliminates the need for time-consuming pre-sorting of library <span class="hlt">beads</span> in order to remove autofluorescent <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/874932','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/874932"><span>Method for preparing spherical ferrite <span class="hlt">beads</span> and use thereof</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lauf, Robert J.; Anderson, Kimberly K.; Montgomery, Frederick C.; Collins, Jack L.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The invention allows the fabrication of small, dense, highly polished spherical <span class="hlt">beads</span> of hexagonal ferrites with selected compositions for use in nonreciprocal microwave and mm-wave devices as well as in microwave absorbent or reflective coatings, composites, and the like. A porous, generally spherical <span class="hlt">bead</span> of hydrous iron oxide is made by a sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> process to form a substantially rigid <span class="hlt">bead</span> having a generally fine crystallite size and correspondingly finely distributed internal porosity. The resulting <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">bead</span> is washed and hydrothermally reacted with a soluble alkaline earth salt (typically Ba or Sr) under conditions of elevated temperature and pressure to convert the <span class="hlt">bead</span> into a mixed hydrous iron-alkaline earth oxide while retaining the generally spherical shape. This mixed oxide <span class="hlt">bead</span> is then washed, dried, and calcined to produce the desired (BaFe.sub.12 O.sub.19 or SrFe.sub.12 O.sub.19) crystal structure. The calcined <span class="hlt">bead</span> is then sintered to form a dense <span class="hlt">bead</span> of the BaFe.sub.12 O.sub.19 and SrFe.sub.12 O.sub.19 phase suitable for polishing and incorporation into various microwave devices and components.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OptMa..42..411K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OptMa..42..411K"><span>EVA thin film with thermo- and moisture-stable luminescent copolymer <span class="hlt">beads</span> composed of Eu(III) <span class="hlt">complexes</span> for improvement of energy conversion efficiency on silicon solar cell</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kataoka, Hisataka; Omagari, Shun; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Yasuchika</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Luminescent <span class="hlt">beads</span> composed of Eu(hfa)3(TPPO)2 (hfa: hexafluoroacetylacetonate, TPPO: triphenylphosphine oxide) in PMMA copolymer (polymethylmethacrylate- styrene and polymethylmethacrylate-trifluoromethylmethacrylate copolymers), PMMA-St-Eu and PMMA-TF-Eu have been reported for improvement of energy conversion efficiency on silicon solar cell. The PMMA-St-Eu and PMMA-TF-Eu <span class="hlt">beads</span> are prepared using radical initiator AIBN (2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile) without BPO (Benzoyl peroxide) which promotes decomposition of Eu(hfa)3(TPPO)2. The emission properties of EVA (ethylene vinyl acetate) film with PMMA-St-Eu or PMMA-TF-Eu <span class="hlt">beads</span> are characterized by the emission spectra and lifetimes. Thermo- and moisture-stabilities of the EVA films are performed under high temperature and high moisture condition (85°C85%RH). Increase percentage the solar cell short circuit current efficiency in the solar cell modulation using with EVA film containing PMMA-St-Eu <span class="hlt">beads</span> with size in 70 μm was estimated to 1.2%. Thermo- and moisture-stable PMMA-St-Eu and PMMA-TF-Eu <span class="hlt">beads</span> for solar sealing film are demonstrated for the first time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2784131','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2784131"><span>Single <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based electrochemical biosensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Changchun; Schrlau, Michael G.; Bau, Haim H.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A simple, robust, single <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based electrochemical biosensor was fabricated and characterized. The sensor’s working electrode consists of an electrochemically-etched platinum wire, with a nominal diameter of 25 μm, hermetically heat-fusion sealed in a pulled glass capillary (micropipette). The sealing process does not require any epoxy or glue. A commercially available, densely functionalized agarose <span class="hlt">bead</span> was mounted on the tip of the etched platinum wire. The use of a pre-functionalized <span class="hlt">bead</span> eliminates the tedious and complicated surface functionalization process that is often the bottleneck in the development of electrochemical biosensors. We report on the use of a biotin agarose <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based, micropipette, electrochemical (Bio-BMP) biosensor to monitor H2O2 concentration and the use of a streptavidin <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based, micropipette, electrochemical (SA-BMP) biosensor to detect DNA amplicons. The Bio-BMP biosensor’s response increased linearly as the H2O2 concentration increased in the range from 1×10−6 to 1.2×10−4 M with a detection limit of 5×10−7 M. The SA-BMP was able to detect the amplicons of 1 pg DNA template of B. Cereus bacteria, thus providing better detection sensitivity than conventional <span class="hlt">gel</span>-based electropherograms. PMID:19767195</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27246375','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27246375"><span>Effect of cooling-heating rate on sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> transformation of fish gelatin-gum arabic <span class="hlt">complex</span> coacervate phase.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anvari, Mohammad; Chung, Donghwa</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to characterize influence of different cooling and heating rates on gelation of fish gelatin (FG)-gum arabic (GA) <span class="hlt">complex</span> coacervate phase using rheological measurements. For the coacervate phase prepared at 10°C, the gelling temperature, melting temperature, <span class="hlt">gel</span> strength, and stress relaxation decreased with increasing cooling or heating rate, however, no gelation was observed at the highest cooling rate of 0.05°C/min. Similar trends were obtained for the coacervates phase prepared at 30°C, but the gelation did not occur at a cooling rate of 0.033 or 0.05°C/min. The results indicated that rheological properties of FG-GA coacervate <span class="hlt">gels</span> were highly dependent to the cooling process, where more thermos-stable and stronger <span class="hlt">gels</span> formed at slower cooling. This was probably because of higher degree of molecular rearrangements, more hydrogen bindings, and formation of greater junction zones into the <span class="hlt">gel</span> network at slower cooling rates. However, all of the FG-GA coacervate <span class="hlt">gels</span> obtained at different cooling rates were classified as a weak physical <span class="hlt">gel</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080012236','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080012236"><span>Crosslinked, porous, polyacrylate <span class="hlt">beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Uniformly-shaped, porous, round <span class="hlt">beads</span> are prepared by the co-polymerization of an acrylic monomer and a cross-linking agent in the presence of 0.05 to 5% by weight of an aqueous soluble polymer such as polyethylene oxide. Cross-linking proceeds at high temperature above about 50.degree. C or at a lower temperature with irradiation. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> of even shape and even size distribution of less than 2 micron diameter are formed. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> will find use as adsorbents in chromatography and as markers for studies of cell surface receptors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080006880','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080006880"><span>Small, porous polyacrylate <span class="hlt">beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping Siao (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Uniformly-shaped, porous, round <span class="hlt">beads</span> are prepared by the co-polymerization of an acrylic monomer and a cross-linking agent in the presence of 0.05 to 5% by weight of an aqueous soluble polymer such as polyethylene oxide. Cross-linking proceeds at high temperature above about 50.degree.C or at a lower temperature with irradiation. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> of even shape and even size distribution of less than 2 micron diameter are formed. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> will find use as adsorbents in chromatography and as markers for studies of cell surface receptors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080006886','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080006886"><span>Crosslinked, porous, polyacrylate <span class="hlt">beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping Siao (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Uniformly-shaped, porous, round <span class="hlt">beads</span> are prepared by the co-polymerization of an acrylic monomer and a cross-linking agent in the presence of 0.05 to 5% by weight of an aqueous soluble polymer such as polyethylene oxide. Cross-linking proceeds at high temperature above about 50.degree.C or at a lower temperature with irradiation. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> of even shape and even size distribution of less than 2 micron diameter are formed. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> will find use as adsorbents in chromatography and as markers for studies of cell surface receptors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23358934','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23358934"><span>Thermally triggered mucoadhesive in situ <span class="hlt">gel</span> of loratadine: β-cyclodextrin <span class="hlt">complex</span> for nasal delivery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Singh, Reena M P; Kumar, Anil; Pathak, Kamla</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The aim of the present study was to increase the solubility of an anti-allergic drug loratadine by making its inclusion <span class="hlt">complex</span> with β-cyclodextrin and to develop it's thermally triggered mucoadhesive in situ nasal <span class="hlt">gel</span> so as to overcome first-pass effect and consequently enhance its bioavailability. A total of eight formulations were prepared by cold method and optimized by 2(3) full factorial design. Independent variables (concentration of poloxamer 407, concentration of carbopol 934 P, and pure drug or its inclusion <span class="hlt">complex</span>) were optimized in order to achieve desired gelling temperature with sufficient mucoadhesive strength and maximum permeation across experimental nasal membrane. The design was validated by extra design checkpoint formulation (F9) and Pareto charts were used to help eliminate terms that did not have a statistically significant effect. The response surface plots and possible interactions between independent variables were analyzed using Design Expert Software 8.0.2 (Stat Ease, Inc., USA). Faster drug permeation with zero-order kinetics and target flux was achieved with formulation containing drug: β-cyclodextrin <span class="hlt">complex</span> rather than those made with free drug. The optimized formulation (F8) with a gelling temperature of 28.6±0.47°C and highest mucoadhesive strength of 7,676.0±0.97 dyn/cm2 displayed 97.74±0.87% cumulative drug permeation at 6 h. It was stable for over 3 months and histological examination revealed no remarkable damage to the nasal tissue.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6965795','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6965795"><span>Isolation and characterization of the pigment-protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides by lithium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Broglie, R M; Hunter, C N; Delepelaire, P; Niederman, R A; Chua, N H; Clayton, R K</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>When purified photosynthetic membranes from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides were treated with lithium dodecyl sulfate and subjected to polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis at 4 degrees C, up to 11 pigment-protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were resolved. Absorption spectra revealed that the smallest <span class="hlt">complex</span> contained reaction center pigments and the others contained the antenna components B850 and B875 in various proportions. Of these antenna <span class="hlt">complexes</span>, the largest was almost entirely B850 and the smallest contained only B875. After solubilization at 100 degrees C and electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gradient <span class="hlt">gels</span>, the B850 <span class="hlt">complex</span> gave rise to two polypeptide components migrating with apparent Mr of 10,000 and 8000, whereas with the B875 <span class="hlt">complex</span>, two components were observed with apparent Mr of 12,000 and 8000. The reaction center <span class="hlt">complex</span> gave rise to only the 24 and 21 kilodalton polypeptide subunits. Fluorescence emission spectra showed maxima at 872 and 902 nm for B850 and B875, respectively. Analyses of bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids indicated that, in the B875 <span class="hlt">complex</span>, two molecules of each of these pigments are associated with the two polypeptides. The associations of B850 and B875 in large and small <span class="hlt">complexes</span> obtained by lithium dodecyl sulfate treatment are consistent with models of their organization within the membrane.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25159881','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25159881"><span>Preparation and cytotoxicity of N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan/alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> containing gold nanoparticles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martins, Alessandro F; Facchi, Suelen P; Monteiro, Johny P; Nocchi, Samara R; Silva, Cleiser T P; Nakamura, Celso V; Girotto, Emerson M; Rubira, Adley F; Muniz, Edvani C</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Polyelectrolyte <span class="hlt">complex</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> based on N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) and sodium alginate (ALG) were obtained. This biomaterial was characterised by FTIR, TGA/DTG, DSC and SEM analysis. The good properties of polyelectrolyte <span class="hlt">complex</span> hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> were associated, for the first time, with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Through a straightforward methodology, AuNPs were encapsulated into the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The in vitro cytotoxicity assays on the Caco-2 colon cancer cells and healthy VERO cells showed that the <span class="hlt">beads</span> presented good biocompatibility on both cell lines, whereas the <span class="hlt">beads</span> loaded with gold nanoparticles (<span class="hlt">beads</span>/AuNPs) was slightly cytotoxic on the Caco-2 and VERO cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28067019','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28067019"><span>A 19th Century "Ideal" Oil Paint Medium: A <span class="hlt">Complex</span> Hybrid Organic-Inorganic <span class="hlt">Gel</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Viguerie, Laurence; Jaber, Maguy; Pasco, Hélène; Lalevée, Jacques; Morlet-Savary, Fabrice; Ducouret, Guylaine; Rigaud, Baptiste; Pouget, Thierry; Sanchez, Clément; Walter, Philippe</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>British 19th century painters such as J. M. W. Turner, commonly modified the properties of their paint by using <span class="hlt">gels</span> called "gumtions". These <span class="hlt">gels</span> allowed them to easily tune the paint handling and drying properties. The fascinating properties of these "gumtions" were obtained by adding lead acetate to a ternary system based on mastic resin, linseed oil and turpentine. Herein, we report and investigate in depth the rheological properties of these <span class="hlt">gels</span> as well as their structure at a molecular and supra-molecular scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27187718','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27187718"><span>Development of transferosomal <span class="hlt">gel</span> for trans-dermal delivery of insulin using iodine <span class="hlt">complex</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marwah, Harneet; Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit K</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The main object of this current research was to examine transferosomes as a transdermal delivery system for insulin, to overwhelm the difficulties related with its subcutaneous delivery. Transferosomal <span class="hlt">gel</span> formulations were prepared by rotary evaporation sonication technique. The result revealed that insulin was successfully entrapped (78%) in optimized formulations (2.5 I.U. of the drug and 25% of sodium cholate) with cumulative percent drug release (83.11 ± 3.782). The glucose lowering study revealed that the transferosomal <span class="hlt">gel</span> with chemical penetration enhancer showed better glucose lowering effect as compared to the control <span class="hlt">gel</span>. Consequently, this study authenticated that the transferosomal <span class="hlt">gel</span> can be used as a possible substitute to the conventional formulations of insulin with progressive permeation characteristics for transdermal application.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=54001','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=54001"><span>A stable double-stranded DNA-ethidium homodimer <span class="hlt">complex</span>: application to picogram fluorescence detection of DNA in agarose <span class="hlt">gels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Glazer, A N; Peck, K; Mathies, R A</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">complex</span> between double-stranded DNA and ethidium homodimer (5,5'-diazadecamethylene)bis(3,8-diamino-6-phenylphenanthridini um) cation, formed at a ratio of 1 homodimer per 4 or 5 base pairs, is stable in agarose <span class="hlt">gels</span> under the usual conditions for electrophoresis. This unusual stability allows formation of the <span class="hlt">complex</span> before electrophoresis and then separation and detection in the absence of background stain. Competition experiments between the preformed DNA-ethidium homodimer <span class="hlt">complex</span> and a 50-fold molar excess of unlabeled DNA show that approximately one-third of the dye is retained within the original <span class="hlt">complex</span> independent of the duration of the competition. However, dye-extraction experiments show that these are not covalent <span class="hlt">complexes</span>. After electrophoretic separation, detection of bands containing 25 pg of DNA was readily achieved in 1-mm thick agarose <span class="hlt">gels</span> with laser excitation at 488 nm and a scanning confocal fluorescence imaging system. The band intensity was linear with the amount of DNA applied from 0.2 to 1.0 ng per lane and with the number of kilobase pairs (kbp) per band within a lane. Analysis of an aliquot of a polymerase-chain-reaction mixture permitted ready detection of 80 pg of a 1.6-kbp amplified fragment. The use of the ethidium homodimer <span class="hlt">complex</span> together with laser excitation for DNA detection on <span class="hlt">gels</span> is at least two orders of magnitude more sensitive than conventional fluorescence-based procedures. The homodimer-DNA <span class="hlt">complex</span> exemplifies a class of fluorescent probes where the intercalation of dye chromophores in DNA forms a stable, highly fluorescent ensemble. Images PMID:2339125</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5324040','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5324040"><span>A stable double-stranded DNA-ethidium homodimer <span class="hlt">complex</span>: Application to picogram fluorescence detection of DNA in agarose <span class="hlt">gels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Glazer, A.N.; Mathies, R.A. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA ); Peck, K. )</p> <p>1990-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">complex</span> between double-stranded DNA and ethidium homodimer (5,5{prime}-diazadecamethylene)bis(3,8-diamino-6-phenylphenanthridinium) cation, formed at a ratio of 1 homodimer per 4 or 5 base pairs, is stable in agarose <span class="hlt">gels</span> under the usual conditions for electrophoresis. This unusual stability allows formation of the <span class="hlt">complex</span> before electrophoresis and then separation and detection in the absence of background stain. Competition experiments between the performed DNA-ethidium homodimer <span class="hlt">complex</span> and a 50-fold molar excess of unlabeled DNA show that approximately one-third of the dye is retained within the original <span class="hlt">complex</span> independent of the duration of the competition. However, dye-extraction experiments show that these are not covalent <span class="hlt">complexes</span>. After electrophoretic separation, detection of bands containing 25 pg of DNA was readily achieved in 1-mm thick agarose <span class="hlt">gels</span> with laser excitation at 488 nm and a scanning confocal fluorescence imaging system. The band intensity was linear with the amount of DNA applied from 0.2 to 1.0 ng per lane and with the number of kilobase pairs (kbp) per band within a lane. Analysis of an aliquot of a polymerase-chain-reaction mixture permitted ready detection of 80 pg of a 1.6-kbp amplified fragment. The use of the ethidium homodimer <span class="hlt">complex</span> together with laser excitation for DNA detection on <span class="hlt">gels</span> is at least two orders of magnitude more sensitive than conventional fluorescence-based procedures. The homodimer-DNA <span class="hlt">complex</span> exemplifies a class of fluorescent probes where the intercalation of dye chromophores in DNA forms a stable, highly fluorescent ensemble.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20978654','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20978654"><span><span class="hlt">Bead</span> magnetorelaxometry with an on-chip magnetoresistive sensor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Donolato, Marco; Strømme, Maria; Strömberg, Mattias; Svedlindh, Peter; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt</p> <p>2011-01-21</p> <p>Magnetorelaxometry measurements on suspensions of magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> are demonstrated using a planar Hall effect sensor chip embedded in a microfluidic system. The alternating magnetic field used for magnetizing the <span class="hlt">beads</span> is provided by the sensor bias current and the <span class="hlt">complex</span> magnetic susceptibility spectra are recorded as the 2nd harmonic of the sensor response. The <span class="hlt">complex</span> magnetic susceptibility signal appears when a magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> suspension is injected, it scales with the <span class="hlt">bead</span> concentration, and it follows the Cole-Cole expression for Brownian relaxation. The <span class="hlt">complex</span> magnetic susceptibility signal resembles that from conventional magnetorelaxometry done on the same samples apart from an offset in Brownian relaxation frequency. The time dependence of the signal can be rationalized as originating from sedimented <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22935695','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22935695"><span>Does crystal or <span class="hlt">gel</span> matter to stereochemistry of a reaction? Silver <span class="hlt">complexation</span>-promoted solid-state [2+2] reaction of an unsymmetrical olefin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Samai, Suman; Ghosh, Prabir; Biradha, Kumar</p> <p>2013-05-14</p> <p>Head-to-tail and head-to-head [2+2] photodimerization of an unsymmetrical olefin containing benzimidazole and pyridyl groups was achieved by irradiating Ag(I) <span class="hlt">complexed</span> olefin in crystalline state and <span class="hlt">gel</span> state, respectively, in stereoselective manner. The [2+2] reaction indicates that the molecular arrangement in a <span class="hlt">gel</span> is different from that of a xerogel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Coil&pg=5&id=EJ673818','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Coil&pg=5&id=EJ673818"><span><span class="hlt">Bead</span>-Dazzled Baskets.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>St. Clair, Sharon</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Presents an art lesson used when teaching about North American Indians to fourth- and fifth-grade students. Explains that the students learn how to make baskets using a coil-wrap technique with colored yarns and <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Provides a step-by-step explanation of how to create the baskets. (CMK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900000248&hterms=hand+circumference&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dhand%2Bcircumference','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900000248&hterms=hand+circumference&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dhand%2Bcircumference"><span>Weld-<span class="hlt">Bead</span> Shaver</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Guirguis, Kamal; Price, Daniel S.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Hand-held power tool shaves excess metal from inside circumference of welded duct. Removes excess metal deposited by penetration of tungsten/inert-gas weld or by spatter from electron-beam weld. Produces smooth transition across joint. Easier to use and not prone to overshaving. Also cuts faster, removing 35 in. (89 cm) of weld <span class="hlt">bead</span> per hour.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21132520','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21132520"><span>Preparation and <span class="hlt">complex</span> characterization of silica holmium sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> monoliths.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cacaina, D; Areva, S; Laaksonen, H; Simon, S; Ylänen, H</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Amorphous, sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> derived SiO(2) are known to biocompatible and bioresorbable materials. Biodegradable and inert materials containing radioactive isotopes have potential application as delivery vehicles of the beta radiation to the cancer tumors inside the body. Incorporation of holmium in the sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> derived SiO(2) could lead to the formation of a biodegradable material which could be used as carrier biomaterial for the radiation of radioactive holmium to the various cancer sites. The homogeneity of the prepared sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> silica holmium monoliths was investigated by Back Scattered Electron Imaging of Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis, X-ray Induced Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. The biodegradation of the monoliths was investigated in Simulated Body Fluid and TRIS (Trizma pre-set Crystals) solution. The results show that by suitable tailoring of the sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> processing parameters holmium can be homogeneously incorporated in the silica matrix with a controlled biodegradation rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10653768','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10653768"><span>Survival of Bifidobacterium longum immobilized in calcium alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> in simulated gastric juices and bile salt solution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, K Y; Heo, T R</p> <p>2000-02-01</p> <p>Bifidobacterium longum KCTC 3128 and HLC 3742 were independently immobilized (entrapped) in calcium alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> containing 2, 3, and 4% sodium alginate. When the bifidobacteria entrapped in calcium alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> were exposed to simulated gastric juices and a bile salt solution, the death rate of the cells in the <span class="hlt">beads</span> decreased proportionally with an increase in both the alginate <span class="hlt">gel</span> concentration and <span class="hlt">bead</span> size. The initial cell numbers in the <span class="hlt">beads</span> affected the numbers of survivors after exposure to these solutions; however, the death rates of the viable cells were not affected. Accordingly, a mathematical model was formulated which expressed the influences of several parameters (<span class="hlt">gel</span> concentration, <span class="hlt">bead</span> size, and initial cell numbers) on the survival of entrapped bifidobacteria after sequential exposure to simulated gastric juices followed by a bile salt solution. The model proposed in this paper may be useful for estimating the survival of bifidobacteria in <span class="hlt">beads</span> and establishing optimal entrapment conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5217392','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5217392"><span><span class="hlt">Bead</span> Based Proteome Enrichment Enhances Features of the Protein Elution Plate (PEP) for Functional Proteomic Profiling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Xing; Davies, Michael; Roy, Swapan; Kuruc, Matthew</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A novel functional proteomics technology called PEP(Protein Elution Plate) was developed to separate <span class="hlt">complex</span> proteomes from natural sources and analyze protein functions systematically. The technology takes advantage of the powerful resolution of two-dimensional <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis (2-D <span class="hlt">Gels</span>). The modification of electrophoretic conditions in combination with a high-resolution protein elution plate supports the recovery of functionally active proteins. As 2DE(2-Dimensional Electrophoresis) resolution can be limited by protein load, we investigated the use of <span class="hlt">bead</span> based enrichment technologies, called AlbuVoid™ and KinaSorb™ to determine their effect on the proteomic features which can be generated from the PEP platform. Using a variety of substrates and enzyme activity assays, we report on the benefits of combining <span class="hlt">bead</span> based enrichment to improve the signal report and the features generated for Hexokinase, Protein Kinase, Protease, and Alkaline Phosphatase activities. As a result, the PEP technology allows systematic analysis of large enzyme families and can build a comprehensive picture of protein function from a <span class="hlt">complex</span> proteome, providing biological insights that could otherwise not be observed if only protein abundances were analyzed. PMID:28248280</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150003249','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150003249"><span>Coated Aerogel <span class="hlt">Beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel <span class="hlt">beads</span>, among other materials. A coated aerogel <span class="hlt">bead</span> and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27058913','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27058913"><span>Preparation of metal-resistant immobilized sulfate reducing bacteria <span class="hlt">beads</span> for acid mine drainage treatment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia; Han, Xuemei</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Novel immobilized sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) <span class="hlt">beads</span> were prepared for the treatment of synthetic acid mine drainage (AMD) containing high concentrations of Fe, Cu, Cd and Zn using up-flow anaerobic packed-bed bioreactor. The tolerance of immobilized SRB <span class="hlt">beads</span> to heavy metals was significantly enhanced compared with that of suspended SRB. High removal efficiencies of sulfate (61-88%) and heavy metals (>99.9%) as well as slightly alkaline effluent pH (7.3-7.8) were achieved when the bioreactor was fed with acidic influent (pH 2.7) containing high concentrations of multiple metals (Fe 469 mg/L, Cu 88 mg/L, Cd 92 mg/L and Zn 128 mg/L), which showed that the bioreactor filled with immobilized SRB <span class="hlt">beads</span> had tolerance to AMD containing high concentrations of heavy metals. Partially decomposed maize straw was a carbon source and stabilizing agent in the initial phase of bioreactor operation but later had to be supplemented by a soluble carbon source such as sodium lactate. The microbial community in the bioreactor was characterized by denaturing gradient <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of partial 16S rDNA genes. Synergistic interaction between SRB (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans) and co-existing fermentative bacteria could be the key factor for the utilization of <span class="hlt">complex</span> organic substrate (maize straw) as carbon and nutrients source for sulfate reduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23592440','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23592440"><span>Evaluation of three-dimensional <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis to improve quantitative profiling of <span class="hlt">complex</span> proteomes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Colignon, Bertrand; Raes, Martine; Dieu, Marc; Delaive, Edouard; Mauro, Sergio</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Two-dimensional remains one of the main experimental approaches in proteome analysis. However, comigration of protein leads to several limitations: lack of accuracy in protein identification, impaired comparative quantification, and PTM detection. We have optimized a third additional step of in-<span class="hlt">gel</span> separation to alleviate comigration associated drawbacks. Spot resolution is strikingly improved following this simple and rapid method and the positive impact on protein and peptide identification from MS/MS data, on the analysis of relative changes in protein abundance, and on the detection of PTM is described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19901555','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19901555"><span>Artificial induction of autophagy around polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span> in nonphagocytic cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kobayashi, Shouhei; Kojidani, Tomoko; Osakada, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Yoshimori, Tamotsu; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Haraguchi, Tokuko</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Autophagy is an intracellular event that acts as an innate cellular defense mechanism to kill invading bacteria such as group A Streptococcus in nonphagocytic epithelial-like cells. The cellular events underlying autophagosome formation upon bacterial invasion remain unclear due to the biochemical <span class="hlt">complexity</span> associated with uncharacterized bacterial components, and the difficulty of predicting the location as well as the timing of where/when autophagosome formation will take place. To overcome these problems, we monitored autophagosome formation in living nonphagocytic cells by inducing autophagy around artificial micrometer-sized <span class="hlt">beads</span> instead of bacteria. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> conjugated with bio-reactive molecules provide a powerful tool for examining biochemical properties in vitro. However, this technique has not been applied to living cells, except for phagocytes, because the <span class="hlt">beads</span> cannot be easily incorporated into nonphagocytic cells. Here we report that micrometer-sized polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span> coated with transfection reagents containing cationic lipids can be incorporated into nonphagocytic cells, and that autophagy can be efficiently induced around the <span class="hlt">beads</span> in these cells. Monitoring the process of autophagosome formation for pH-sensitive fluorescent dye (pHrodo)-conjugated <span class="hlt">beads</span> by fluorescence live cell imaging combined with correlative light and electron microscopy, we found that autophagosomes are formed around the <span class="hlt">beads</span> after partial breakdown of the endosomal membrane. In addition, the <span class="hlt">beads</span> were subsequently transferred to lysosomes within a couple of hours. Our findings demonstrate the cellular responses that lead to autophagy in response to pathogen invasion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15778044','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15778044"><span>Molecular interaction in alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> reinforced with sodium starch glycolate or magnesium aluminum silicate, and their physical characteristics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit; Pongjanyakul, Thaned; Priprem, Aroonsri</p> <p>2005-04-11</p> <p>Diclofenac calcium-alginate (DCA) <span class="hlt">beads</span> were reinforced with different amounts of sodium starch glycolate (SSG) or magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS) and were prepared using ionotropic gelation method. <span class="hlt">Complex</span> formation of sodium alginate (SA) and SSG or MAS in calcium-alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> was revealed using FTIR spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetric study indicated that diclofenac sodium (DS) in amorphous form was dispersed in the matrix of DCA <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The thermal behavior of SSG-DCA and MAS-DCA <span class="hlt">beads</span> was similar to the control <span class="hlt">bead</span>. Both additives can improve the entrapment efficiency of DCA <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The swelling and water uptake of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> depended on the properties of incorporated additives. The SSG-DCA <span class="hlt">beads</span> showed a higher water uptake and swelling than MAS-DCA <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Moreover, the swelling of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> showed a good correlation with the square root of time. The release kinetic of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer was swelling controlled mechanism, while that in distilled water followed Higuchi's model. The slower release rate and the longer lag time in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer was obtained from the SSG-DCA and MAS-DCA <span class="hlt">beads</span> because of <span class="hlt">complex</span> formation between SA and SSG or MAS. However, SSG in the <span class="hlt">beads</span> could increase the release of DS from the <span class="hlt">beads</span> in distilled water because it acted as a channeling agent. In contrast, MAS retarded the release of DS from the <span class="hlt">beads</span> in distilled water due to the stronger matrix formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2574764','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2574764"><span>Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Defined Protein <span class="hlt">Beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lund, Amanda W.; Bush, Jeff A.; Plopper, George E.; Stegemann, Jan P.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>There is a need to develop improved methods for directing and maintaining the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) for regenerative medicine. Here, we present a method for embedding cells in defined protein microenvironments for the directed osteogenic differentiation of hMSC. Composite matrices of collagen I and agarose were produced by emulsification and simultaneous polymerization in the presence of hMSC to produce 30–150 μm diameter hydrogel “<span class="hlt">beads</span>.” The proliferation, morphology, osteogenic gene expression, and calcium deposition of hMSC in <span class="hlt">bead</span> environments were compared to other two- and three-dimensional culture environments over 14–21 days in culture. Cells embedded within 40% collagen <span class="hlt">beads</span> exhibited equivalent proliferation rates to those in <span class="hlt">gel</span> disks, but showed upregulation of bone sialoprotein and increased calcium deposition over 2D controls. Osteocalcin gene expression was not changed in 3D <span class="hlt">beads</span> and disks, while collagen type I gene expression was downregulated relative to cells in 2D culture. The hydrogel <span class="hlt">bead</span> format allows controlled cell differentiation and is a cell delivery vehicle that may also enhance vascular invasion and host incorporation. Our results indicate that the application of such <span class="hlt">beads</span> can be used to promote the osteogenic phenotype in hMSC, which is an important step toward using them in bone repair applications. PMID:18431753</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=147708','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=147708"><span>Topological <span class="hlt">complexity</span> of different populations of pBR322 as visualized by two-dimensional agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Martín-Parras, L; Lucas, I; Martínez-Robles, M L; Hernández, P; Krimer, D B; Hyrien, O; Schvartzman, J B</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Neutral/neutral two-dimensional (2D) agarose gelelectrophoresis was used to investigate populations of the different topological conformations that pBR322 can adopt in vivo in bacterial cells as well as in Xenopus egg extracts. To help in interpretation and identification of all the different signals, undigested as well as DNA samples pretreated with DNase I, topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II were analyzed. The second dimension of the 2D <span class="hlt">gel</span> system was run with or without ethidium bromide to account for any possible changes in the migration behavior of DNA molecules caused by intercalation of this planar agent. Finally, DNA samples were isolated from a recA-strain of Escherichia coli , as well as after direct labeling of the replication intermediates in extracts of Xenopus laevis eggs. Altogether, the results obtained demonstrated that 2D <span class="hlt">gels</span> can be readily used to identify most of the <span class="hlt">complex</span> topological populations that circular molecules can adopt in vivo in both bacteria and eukaryotic cells. PMID:9649629</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24532133','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24532133"><span>Characterization and release studies of liposomal <span class="hlt">gels</span> containing glutathione/cyclodextrins <span class="hlt">complexes</span> potentially useful for cutaneous administration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cutrignelli, Annalisa; Lopedota, Angela; Denora, Nunzio; Laquintana, Valentino; Tongiani, Serena; Franco, Massimo</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The aim of this work is to develop and characterize a formulation intended for the cutaneous administration of glutathione (γ-glutamylcysteinylglycine, GSH), potentially useful for cellular defense against UV-induced damage. For this purpose, liposomes containing GSH or GSH/cyclodextrins(CDs) inclusion <span class="hlt">complexes</span> as well as liposomes dispersed within a hydrophilic <span class="hlt">gel</span>, were evaluated. These formulations were designed in order to obtain a system combining the advantages of liposomes as vehicles for topical drug delivery with those of CDs as penetration enhancers. The studied CDs were the natural (β-CD) and chemically modified (i.e., HP-β-CD and CH3 -β-CD) cyclodextrins. The prepared liposomes showed homogeneous size distribution, mean diameter in the range 622-1435 nm, small positive charge (+3.1 to +6.6 mV), and encapsulation efficiency of the peptide in the range 13.6%-23.7%. Release studies showed that the presence of the oligosaccharide may influence to some extent the amount of drug released, whereas stability studies clearly point out that the incorporation in a hydrophilic <span class="hlt">gel</span> of 2-hydroxyethylcellulose insures a stable formulation maintaining unchanged the characteristics of liposomal vesicles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27611472','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27611472"><span>Magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span>-liposome hybrids enable sensitive and portable detection of DNA methyltransferase activity using personal glucose meter.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Youna; Xue, Qingwang; Liu, Jifeng; Wang, Huaisheng</p> <p>2017-01-15</p> <p>DNA methyltransferase (MTase) plays a critical role in maintaining genome methylation patterns, which has a close relationship to cancer and bacterial diseases. This encouraged the need to develop highly sensitive, simple, and robust assays for DNA MTase detection and inhibitor screening. Herein, a simple, sensitive, and specific DNA MTase activity assay was developed based on magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>-liposome hybrids combined with personal glucose meter (PGM) for quantitative detection of DNA MTase and inhibitor screening. First, a magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>-liposome hybrid probe is designed by the hybridization of p1DNA-functionalized magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> with p2DNA-functionalized glucoamylase-encapsulated liposome (<span class="hlt">GEL</span>). It integrates target recognition, magnetic separation and signal amplification within one multifunctional design. Then, in the presence of Dam MTase, the hybrids probe was methylated, and cleaved by methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease Dpn I, making liposome separated from magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> by magnetic separation. Finally, the separated liposome was decomposed, liberating the encapsulated glucoamylase to catalyze the hydrolysis of the signal substrate amylose with multiple turnovers, producing a large amount of glucose for quantitative readout by the PGM. In the proposed assay, the magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>-liposome hybrids offered excellent sensitivity due to primary amplification via releasing numerous glucoamylase from a liposome followed by a secondary enzymatic amplification. The use of portable quantitative device PGM bypasses the requirement of complicated instruments and sophisticated operations, making the method simple and feasible for on-site detection. Moreover, the proposed assay was successfully applied in <span class="hlt">complex</span> biological matrix and screen suitable inhibitor drugs for DAM for disease(s) treatment. The results reveal that the approach provides a simple, sensitive, and robust platform for DNA MTases detection and screening potential drugs in medical research and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5071761','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5071761"><span>Aggregation of soy protein-isoflavone <span class="hlt">complexes</span> and <span class="hlt">gel</span> formation induced by glucono-δ-lactone in soymilk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hsia, Sheng-Yang; Hsiao, Yu-Hsuan; Li, Wen-Tai; Hsieh, Jung-Feng</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated the glucono-δ-lactone (GDL)-induced aggregation of isoflavones and soy proteins in soymilk. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that isoflavones mixed with β-conglycinin (7S) and glycinin (11S) proteins formed 7S-isoflavone and 11S-isoflavone <span class="hlt">complexes</span> in soymilk supernatant fraction (SSF). Most of the soy protein-isoflavone <span class="hlt">complexes</span> then precipitated into the soymilk pellet fraction (SPF) following the addition of 4 mM GDL, whereupon the pH value of the soymilk dropped from 6.6 to 5.9. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and HPLC analysis suggest that the addition of 4 mM GDL induced the aggregation of most 7S (α’, α and β subunits), 11S acidic and 11S basic proteins as well as isoflavones, including most aglycones, including daidzein, glycitein, genistein and a portion of glucosides, including daidzin, glycitin, genistin, malonyldaidzin and malonylgenistin. These results provide an important reference pertaining to the effects of GDL on the aggregation of soy protein-isoflavone <span class="hlt">complexes</span> and could benefit future research regarding the production of tofu from soymilk. PMID:27760990</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...635718H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...635718H"><span>Aggregation of soy protein-isoflavone <span class="hlt">complexes</span> and <span class="hlt">gel</span> formation induced by glucono-δ-lactone in soymilk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hsia, Sheng-Yang; Hsiao, Yu-Hsuan; Li, Wen-Tai; Hsieh, Jung-Feng</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>This study investigated the glucono-δ-lactone (GDL)-induced aggregation of isoflavones and soy proteins in soymilk. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that isoflavones mixed with β-conglycinin (7S) and glycinin (11S) proteins formed 7S-isoflavone and 11S-isoflavone <span class="hlt">complexes</span> in soymilk supernatant fraction (SSF). Most of the soy protein-isoflavone <span class="hlt">complexes</span> then precipitated into the soymilk pellet fraction (SPF) following the addition of 4 mM GDL, whereupon the pH value of the soymilk dropped from 6.6 to 5.9. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and HPLC analysis suggest that the addition of 4 mM GDL induced the aggregation of most 7S (α’, α and β subunits), 11S acidic and 11S basic proteins as well as isoflavones, including most aglycones, including daidzein, glycitein, genistein and a portion of glucosides, including daidzin, glycitin, genistin, malonyldaidzin and malonylgenistin. These results provide an important reference pertaining to the effects of GDL on the aggregation of soy protein-isoflavone <span class="hlt">complexes</span> and could benefit future research regarding the production of tofu from soymilk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3148842','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3148842"><span>Preparation and evaluation of lidocaine hydrochloride in cyclodextrin inclusion <span class="hlt">complexes</span> for development of stable <span class="hlt">gel</span> in association with chlorhexidine gluconate for urogenital use</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Soares da Silva, Luiz Francisco Jones; do Carmo, Flavia Almada; de Almeida Borges, Vinicius Raphael; Monteiro, Lidiane Mota; Rodrigues, Carlos Rangel; Cabral, Lúcio Mendes; de Sousa, Valeria Pereira</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Inclusions of lidocaine hydrochloride in cyclodextrins were prepared to obtain stable <span class="hlt">complexes</span> compatible for association with chlorhexidine in a new <span class="hlt">gel</span> formulation for use in urogenital applications. Two cyclodextrins, β-cyclodextrin and methyl-β-cyclodextrin, were used for encapsulating lidocaine hydrochloride through solubilization and kneading techniques. The lidocaine–cyclodextrin <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were characterized by ultraviolet spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that the techniques generated good yields of inclusion products that maintained the functional properties of lidocaine. In addition, the inclusion products obtained improved the compatibility of lidocaine hydrochloride with chlorhexidine in solution and a <span class="hlt">gel</span> formulation. The <span class="hlt">gel</span> formulation displayed desirable rheological and physicochemical properties. The results presented here are the first description of the inclusion of lidocaine with cyclodextrins, which improves compatibility with chlorhexidine in formulations for simultaneous delivery. PMID:21822378</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27451610','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27451610"><span>Optical Degradation of Colloidal Eu-<span class="hlt">Complex</span> Embedded in Silica Glass Film Using Reprecipitation and Sol-<span class="hlt">Gel</span> Methods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fukuda, Takeshi; Kurabayashi, Tomokazu; Yamaki, Tatsuki</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>A reprecipitation method has been investigated for fabricating colloidal nanoparticles using Eu-<span class="hlt">complex</span>. Herein, we investigated optical degradation characteristics of (1,10-phenanthroline)tris [4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(2-thienyl)-1,3-butanedionato]europium(III) colloidal nanoparticles, which were embedded into a silica glass film fabricated by a conventional sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> process. At first, we tried several types of good solvents for the reprecipitation method, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is found to be a suitable solvent for realizing the small diameter and the high long-term stability against the ultraviolet irradiation even though the boing point of DMSO is higher than that of water used as a poor solvent. By optimizing the good solvent and the concentration of Eu-<span class="hlt">complex</span>, the relative photoluminescence intensity of 0.96 was achieved even though the ultraviolet light was continuously irradiated for 90 min. In addition, the average diameter of 106 nm was achieved when DMSO was used as a good solvent, resulting in the high transmittance at a visible wavelength region. Therefore, we can achieve the transparent emissive thin film with a center wavelength of 612 nm, and the optical degradation was drastically reduced by forming nanoparticles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26626225','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26626225"><span>Extended release of vitamins from magnetite loaded polyanionic polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sonmez, Maria; Verisan, Cristina; Voicu, Georgeta; Ficai, Denisa; Ficai, Anton; Oprea, Alexandra Elena; Vlad, Mihaela; Andronescu, Ecaterina</p> <p>2016-08-30</p> <p>Here we explore a novel approach of increasing the release duration of folic and ascorbic acid from magnetite entrapped into calcium-alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Synthesis and characterization of magnetite-vitamins <span class="hlt">complexes</span> are reported. The magnetite-vitamins <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, SEM, BET and DTA-TG. Also calcium-alginate magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> were prepared by dripping a mixture of sodium alginate with magnetite-vitamins <span class="hlt">complexes</span> into calcium chloride solution. Extended release profile of the two experimental models was evaluated and quantified by UV-vis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15638475','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15638475"><span>ROMPgel <span class="hlt">beads</span> in IRORI format: acylations revisited.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roberts, Richard S</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Functionalized "designer" polymers derived from ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMPgels) are attractive for their high loading, high purity, and ease of synthesis. Their physical state may vary from liquid to <span class="hlt">gel</span> to granular solid, making a general method of handling these polymers difficult. By incorporating a suitable norbornene-substituted linker on standard Wang <span class="hlt">beads</span>, ROMPgels can be easily grafted onto the resin, adding the convenience of a <span class="hlt">bead</span> format while still maintaining the high loading and excellent site accessibility. This advantage is demonstrated by the use of an N-hydroxysuccinimide ROMPgel (3.3 mmol g(-1), a 3-fold increase from the parent linker resin) in IRORI Kan format. Conditions for the acylation of these IRORI-formatted ROMPgels are reported, along with the scope and limitations of the choice of acylating reagents. Yields are greatly improved by the use of perfluorinated solvents as a nonparticipating cosolvent in the acylation process. A simple titration method for the quantification of the acylated ROMPgels is also reported. Spent Kans are regenerated after each use without apparent loss of activity or purity after several cycles. Due to the high loading and reduced swelling of the ROMPgel resin, up to 0.39 mmol acyl group has successfully been recovered from a single IRORI miniKan, demonstrating the high capacity of the resin and applicability to both lead discovery and optimization programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5036152','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5036152"><span>A <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based western for high-throughput cellular signal transduction analyses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Treindl, Fridolin; Ruprecht, Benjamin; Beiter, Yvonne; Schultz, Silke; Döttinger, Anette; Staebler, Annette; Joos, Thomas O.; Kling, Simon; Poetz, Oliver; Fehm, Tanja; Neubauer, Hans; Kuster, Bernhard; Templin, Markus F.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Dissecting cellular signalling requires the analysis of large number of proteins. The DigiWest approach we describe here transfers the western blot to a <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based microarray platform. By combining <span class="hlt">gel</span>-based protein separation with immobilization on microspheres, hundreds of replicas of the initial blot are created, thus enabling the comprehensive analysis of limited material, such as cells collected by laser capture microdissection, and extending traditional western blotting to reach proteomic scales. The combination of molecular weight resolution, sensitivity and signal linearity on an automated platform enables the rapid quantification of hundreds of specific proteins and protein modifications in <span class="hlt">complex</span> samples. This high-throughput western blot approach allowed us to identify and characterize alterations in cellular signal transduction that occur during the development of resistance to the kinase inhibitor Lapatinib, revealing major changes in the activation state of Ephrin-mediated signalling and a central role for p53-controlled processes. PMID:27659302</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2483296','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2483296"><span>A new staining and evaluating procedure for protein <span class="hlt">gel</span> electropherograms based on the pyrogallol red-molybdate <span class="hlt">complex</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Csiba, A; Szécsényi-Nagy, L</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A new method is reported for staining and evaluating <span class="hlt">gel</span> electropherograms of proteins. With pyrogallol red-molybdate reagent the <span class="hlt">gel</span>-embedded proteins are transformed into a derivative of blue colour. After destaining, the blue-coloured proteins are well visible against a colourless background and can be quantified by densitometry with high reliability. The quantity of the coloured protein is directly proportional to the height of peaks in the densitogram. Colour intensity is concentration dependent. The measurement range of serum albumin was 1 to 50 micrograms/tube and 10 to 100 micrograms/slab in polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gel</span> disc electrophoresis and agar <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18642065','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18642065"><span>Immobilization and characterization of 2,3-diaminonaphthalene/cyclodextrin <span class="hlt">complexes</span> in a sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix: a new fluorimetric sensor for nitrite.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martínez-Tomé, M J; Esquembre, R; Mallavia, R; Mateo, C R</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The aromatic diamino compound 2,3-diaminonaphthalene (DAN) has been extensively used to detect and quantify nitrite ions in biological and environmental samples. We have immobilized the DAN reagent in a porous silicate glass matrix, via previous incorporation of the dye in HP-beta-CD. Changes in fluorescence intensity were used to characterize the inclusion <span class="hlt">complexes</span> and determine the association constant and stoichiometry of the process. Fluorescence spectrum of these <span class="hlt">complexes</span> was also used to monitor their immobilization within the sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix. Reactivity of the immobilized <span class="hlt">complexes</span> was evaluated with increasing concentrations of nitrite up to 10 microM (with a detection limit around 20 nM). Results show that sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> immobilization does not modify the reactivity of the dye against nitrite and serves to prepare a highly sensitive ready to use fluorescence-based sensor for the specific measurement of nitrite at submicromolar concentrations with no further sample pretreatment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22221711','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22221711"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agents on the electrochemical performance of LiFePO4/C prepared by sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Rong; Kang, Erwei; Jiang, Bailing; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon</p> <p>2012-01-05</p> <p>LiFePO4/C is synthesized via sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> method using Fe3+ as iron sources and different <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agents, followed by sintering at high temperature for crystallization. The amount of carbon in these composites is less than 6.8 wt.%, and the X-ray diffraction experiment confirms that all samples are pure single phase indexed with the orthorhombic Pnma space group. The particle size of the LiFePO4/C synthesized by acetic acid as a <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agent is very fine with a size of 200 nm. The electrochemical performance of this material, including reversible capacity, cycle number, and charge-discharge characteristics, is better than those of LiFePO4/C synthesized by other <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agents. The cell of this sample can deliver a discharge capacity of 161.1 mAh g-1 at the first cycle. After 30 cycles, the capacity decreases to 157.5 mAh g-1, and the capacity fading rate is 2.2%. The mechanism is studied to explain the effect of a <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agent on the synthesis of LiFePO4/C by sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> method. The results show that the <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agent with a low stability constant may be proper for the synthetic process of LiFePO4/C via sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JAP...105e4701K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JAP...105e4701K"><span>Three-dimensional pattern formation of magnetically labeled microgel <span class="hlt">beads</span> for biological tissue engineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kawamoto, H.; Inoue, H.; Nakamura, M.</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>We commenced basic research on the three-dimensional (3D) pattern formation of microgel <span class="hlt">beads</span> for applications in biological tissue engineering. In this new technique, microgel <span class="hlt">beads</span> are premagnetized by doping them with magnetic nanoparticles. Living cells will be included in the <span class="hlt">beads</span> for actual use. If a nonuniform magnetic field is applied to a solution containing these magnetized <span class="hlt">beads</span>, the <span class="hlt">beads</span> will align, contact, and form a 3D structure. The structure is controlled by the seed pattern of the magnetic particles plugged in a substrate and the profile of the magnetic field distribution. We constructed tubes, which imitate blood vessels, for demonstration using <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> whose diameters are of the order of several tens of micrometers. The diameter of the demonstrated tube was less than 0.5 mm and its length was 6.6 mm, although living cells were not included in the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Numerical calculations by using the discrete element method were conducted to confirm the formation of the tube and to predict the effect of centrifugal force, which will be applied to fill cells in the space between magnetically patterned <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Although this unique technology is in the nascent stage, this 3D pattern formation technique by the control of the magnetic field has potential to be one of the effective engineering technologies for manufacturing 3D patterned biological tissues in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJMPB..2940033Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJMPB..2940033Y"><span>Modeling of weld <span class="hlt">bead</span> geometry for rapid manufacturing by robotic GMAW</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Tao; Xiong, Jun; Chen, Hui; Chen, Yong</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Weld-based rapid prototyping (RP) has shown great promises for fabricating 3D <span class="hlt">complex</span> parts. During the layered deposition of forming metallic parts with robotic gas metal arc welding, the geometry of a single weld <span class="hlt">bead</span> has an important influence on surface finish quality, layer thickness and dimensional accuracy of the deposited layer. In order to obtain accurate, predictable and controllable <span class="hlt">bead</span> geometry, it is essential to understand the relationships between the process variables with the <span class="hlt">bead</span> geometry (<span class="hlt">bead</span> width, <span class="hlt">bead</span> height and ratio of <span class="hlt">bead</span> width to <span class="hlt">bead</span> height). This paper highlights an experimental study carried out to develop mathematical models to predict deposited <span class="hlt">bead</span> geometry through the quadratic general rotary unitized design. The adequacy and significance of the models were verified via the analysis of variance. Complicated cause-effect relationships between the process parameters and the <span class="hlt">bead</span> geometry were revealed. Results show that the developed models can be applied to predict the desired <span class="hlt">bead</span> geometry with great accuracy in layered deposition with accordance to the slicing process of RP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26383830','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26383830"><span>Nondenaturing polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis to study the dissociation of the p53·MDM2/X <span class="hlt">complex</span> by potentially anticancer compounds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sgammato, Roberta; Desiderio, Doriana; Lamberti, Anna; Raimo, Gennaro; Novellino, Ettore; Carotenuto, Alfonso; Masullo, Mariorosario</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>A new analytical method to study the dissociation of the <span class="hlt">complexes</span> between the oncosuppressor p53 and its negative modulators murine double-minute protein 2 (MDM2) or MDMX, is proposed. This technique is reliable to determine the dissociative power exerted by small molecules on the <span class="hlt">complex</span> taking advantage of the appearance of migrating MDM2 or MDMX in a native polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gel</span>, when inhibitors are added to the <span class="hlt">complex</span> mixture. Therefore, we propose this new approach to easily screen library of compounds, with potential pharmacological anticancer activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23167848','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23167848"><span>Thermal stability, <span class="hlt">complexing</span> behavior, and ionic transport of polymeric <span class="hlt">gel</span> membranes based on polymer PVdF-HFP and ionic liquid, [BMIM][BF4].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shalu; Chaurasia, S K; Singh, R K; Chandra, S</p> <p>2013-01-24</p> <p>PVdF-HFP + IL(1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate; [BMIM][BF(4)]) polymeric <span class="hlt">gel</span> membranes containing different amounts of ionic liquid have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and <span class="hlt">complex</span> impedance spectroscopic techniques. Incorporation of IL in PVdF-HFP polymer changes different physicochemical properties such as melting temperature (T(m)), thermal stability, structural morphology, amorphicity, and ionic transport. It is shown by FTIR, TGA (also first derivative of TGA, "DTGA") that IL partly <span class="hlt">complexes</span> with the polymer PVdF-HFP and partly remains dispersed in the matrix. The ionic conductivity of polymeric <span class="hlt">gel</span> membranes has been found to increase with increasing concentration of IL and attains a maximum value of 1.6 × 10(-2) S·cm(-1) for polymer <span class="hlt">gel</span> membrane containing 90 wt % IL at room temperature. Interestingly, the values of conductivity of membranes with 80 and 90 wt % of IL were higher than that of pure IL (100 wt %). The polymer chain breathing model has been suggested to explain it. The variation of ionic conductivity with temperature of these <span class="hlt">gel</span> polymeric membranes follows Arrhenius type thermally activated behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/946259','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/946259"><span>Magnetic <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Based Immunoassay for Autonomous Detection of Toxins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kwon, Y; Hara, C A; Knize, M G; Hwang, M H; Venkatesteswaran, K S; Wheeler, E K; Bell, P M; Renzi, R F; Fruetel, J A; Bailey, C G</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>As a step towards toward the development of a rapid, reliable analyzer for bioagents in the environment, we are developing an automated system for the simultaneous detection of a group of select agents and toxins. To detect toxins, we modified and automated an antibody-based approach previously developed for manual medical diagnostics that uses fluorescent eTag{trademark} reporter molecules and is suitable for highly multiplexed assays. Detection is based on two antibodies binding simultaneously to a single antigen, one of which is labeled with biotin while the other is conjugated to a fluorescent eTag{trademark} through a cleavable linkage. Aqueous samples are incubated with the mixture of antibodies along with streptavidin-coated magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> coupled to a photo-activatable porphyrin <span class="hlt">complex</span>. In the presence of antigen, a molecular <span class="hlt">complex</span> is formed where the cleavable linkage is held in proximity to the photoactivable group. Upon excitation at 680 nm, free radicals are generated, which diffuse and cleave the linkage, releasing the eTags{trademark}. Released eTags{trademark} are analyzed using capillary <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Limits of detection for ovalbumin and botulinum toxoid individually were 4 ng/mL (or 80 pg) and 16 ng/mL (or 320 pg), respectively, using the manual assay. In addition, we demonstrated the use of pairs of antibodies from different sources in a single assay to decrease the rate of false positives. Automation of the assay was demonstrated on a flow-through format with higher LODs of 125 ng/mL (or 2.5 ng) each of a mixture of ovalbumin and botulinum toxoid. This versatile assay can be easily modified with the appropriate antibodies to detect a wide range of toxins and other proteins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18847280','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18847280"><span>Magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> based immunoassay for autonomous detection of toxins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kwon, Youngeun; Hara, Christine A; Knize, Mark G; Hwang, Mona H; Venkateswaran, Kodumudi S; Wheeler, Elizabeth K; Bell, Perry M; Renzi, Ronald F; Fruetel, Julie A; Bailey, Christopher G</p> <p>2008-11-15</p> <p>We are developing an automated system for the simultaneous, rapid detection of a group of select agents and toxins in the environment. To detect toxins, we modified and automated an antibody-based approach previously developed for manual medical diagnostics that uses fluorescent eTag reporter molecules and is suitable for highly multiplexed assays. Detection is based on two antibodies binding simultaneously to a single antigen, one of which is labeled with biotin while the other is conjugated to a fluorescent eTag through a cleavable linkage. Aqueous samples are incubated with the mixture of antibodies along with streptavidin-coated magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> and a photoactive porphyrin <span class="hlt">complex</span>. In the presence of antigen, a molecular <span class="hlt">complex</span> is formed where the cleavable linkage is held in proximity to the photoactive group. Upon excitation at 680 nm, free radicals are generated, which diffuse and cleave the linkage, releasing the eTags. Released eTags are analyzed using capillary <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Limits of detection for ovalbumin and botulinum toxoid individually were 4 (or 80 pg) and 16 ng/mL (or 320 pg), respectively, using the manual assay. In addition, we demonstrated the use of pairs of antibodies from different sources in a single assay to decrease the rate of false positives. Automation of the assay was demonstrated in a flow-through format with higher LODs of 32 ng/mL (or 640 ng) each of a mixture of ovalbumin and botulinum toxoid. This versatile assay can be easily modified with the appropriate antibodies to detect a wide range of toxins and other proteins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12625737','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12625737"><span>Preparation of comb-type N-isopropylacrylamide hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> and their application for size-selective separation media.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Annaka, Masahiko; Matsuura, Toyoaki; Kasai, Masaki; Nakahira, Takayuki; Hara, Yoshiaki; Okano, Teruo</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>A series of the comb-type poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (NIPAM) <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> were prepared by inverse suspension polymerization techniques. The comb-type NIPAM <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> exhibited large volume change at 30 degrees C, and their deswelling rate, defined as the time required for half-shrinking, was 10 times faster than that of the normal-type NIPAM <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> were utilized to concentrate dilute aqueous solutions of albumin, gamma-globulin, and vitamin B(12). The separation efficiencies of albumin and gamma -globulin with the comb-type NIPAM <span class="hlt">gel</span> were 80% and 85%, respectively. Whereas those with normal-type NIPAM <span class="hlt">gel</span> were 55% and 60%, respectively. The incorporation of grafted chains into <span class="hlt">gel</span> makes the effective mesh size smaller. Therefore it induces the additional obstruction effects between the solutes and network and excludes the high molecular weight solutes. After they have extracted water, their rapid deswelling property makes the <span class="hlt">gel</span> regenerate effectively by warming to release the absorbed water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23218280','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23218280"><span>Controlled antiseptic release by alginate polymer films and <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liakos, Ioannis; Rizzello, Loris; Bayer, Ilker S; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Cingolani, Roberto; Athanassiou, Athanassia</p> <p>2013-01-30</p> <p>Biodegradable polymeric materials based on blending aqueous dispersions of natural polymer sodium alginate (NaAlg) and povidone iodine (PVPI) <span class="hlt">complex</span>, which allow controlled antiseptic release, are presented. The developed materials are either free standing NaAlg films or Ca(2+)-cross-linked alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>, which properly combined with PVPI demonstrate antibacterial and antifungal activity, suitable for therapeutic applications, such as wound dressing. Glycerol was used as the plasticizing agent. Film morphology was studied by optical and atomic force microscopy. It was found that PVPI <span class="hlt">complex</span> forms well dispersed circular micro-domains within the NaAlg matrix. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> were fabricated by drop-wise immersion of NaAlg/PVPI/glycerol solutions into aqueous calcium chloride solutions to form calcium alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> encapsulating PVPI solution (CaAlg/PVPI). Controlled release of PVPI was possible when the composite films and <span class="hlt">beads</span> were brought into direct contact with water or with moist media. Bactericidal and fungicidal properties of the materials were tested against Escherichia coli bacteria and Candida albicans fungi. The results indicated very efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity within 48 h. Controlled release of PVPI into open wounds is highly desired in clinical applications to avoid toxic doses of iodine absorption by the wound. A wide variety of applications are envisioned such as external and internal wound dressings with controlled antiseptic release, hygienic and protective packaging films for medical devices, and polymer <span class="hlt">beads</span> as water disinfectants.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740021821','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740021821"><span>Glass-<span class="hlt">bead</span> peen plating</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Graves, J. R.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Peen plating of aluminum, copper, and nickel powders was investigated. Only aluminum was plated successfully within the range of peen plating conditions studied. Optimum plating conditions for aluminum were found to be: (1) <span class="hlt">bead</span>/powder mixture containing 25 to 35% powder by weight, (2) peening intensity of 0.007A as measured by Almen strip, and (3) glass impact <span class="hlt">bead</span> diameter of at least 297 microns (0.0117 inches) for depositing-100 mesh aluminum powder. No extensive cleaning or substrate preparation is required beyond removing loose dirt or heavy oil.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=consciousness+AND+theory&pg=6&id=EJ924489','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=consciousness+AND+theory&pg=6&id=EJ924489"><span>Conscientisation in Castalia: A Freirean Reading of Hermann Hesse's "The Glass <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Game"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Roberts, Peter</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This paper considers Hermann Hesse's novel, "The Glass <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Game," in the light of Paulo Freire's educational philosophy. "The Glass <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Game" is set in Castalia, a "pedagogical province" of the 23rd century. It is argued that the central character in the book, Joseph Knecht, undergoes a <span class="hlt">complex</span> process of conscientisation. Knecht develops an…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..MARU35011J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..MARU35011J"><span>Symmetry breaking in actin <span class="hlt">gels</span> - Implications for cellular motility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>John, Karin; Peyla, Philippe; Misbah, Chaouqi</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>The physical origin of cell motility is not fully understood. Recently minimal model systems have shown, that polymerizing actin itself can produce a motile force, without the help of motor proteins. Pathogens like Shigella or Listeria use actin to propel themselves forward in their host cell. The same process can be mimicked with polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span> covered with the activating protein ActA, which reside in a solution containing actin monomers. ActA induces the growth of an actin <span class="hlt">gel</span> at the <span class="hlt">bead</span> surface. Initially the <span class="hlt">gel</span> grows symmetrically around the <span class="hlt">bead</span> until a critical size is reached. Subsequently one observes a symmetry breaking and the <span class="hlt">gel</span> starts to grow asymmetrically around the <span class="hlt">bead</span> developing a tail of actin at one side. This symmetry breaking is accompanied by a directed movement of the <span class="hlt">bead</span>, with the actin tail trailing behind the <span class="hlt">bead</span>. Force generation relies on the combination of two properties: growth and elasticity of the actin <span class="hlt">gel</span>. We study this phenomenon theoretically within the framework of a linear elasticity theory and linear flux-force relationships for the evolution of an elastic <span class="hlt">gel</span> around a hard sphere. Conditions for a parity symmetry breaking are identified analytically and illustrated numerically with the help of a phasefield model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19871947','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19871947"><span>BANANA <span class="hlt">GEL</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McGuire, G; Falk, K G</p> <p>1922-03-20</p> <p>The conditions for the formation of <span class="hlt">gels</span> from banana extracts were studied. <span class="hlt">Gels</span> were obtained with extracts more alkaline than pH 7.0 with very small quantities of calcium, strontium, and barium salts, the <span class="hlt">gel</span> formation with these salts decreasing in the indicated order. In solutions more acid than pH 6.0, no <span class="hlt">gels</span> were obtained with these salts. Magnesium, lithium, and sodium salts did not cause <span class="hlt">gel</span> formation either in acid or alkaline solutions. Pancreatine gave a <span class="hlt">gel</span> on incubation with banana extract at pH 5.0. The <span class="hlt">gel</span>-forming property of banana extracts was destroyed on boiling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25933528','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25933528"><span>Preparation of fucoidan-shelled and genipin-crosslinked chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> for antibacterial application.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yu, Shu-Huei; Wu, Shao-Jung; Wu, Jui-Yu; Wen, De-Yu; Mi, Fwu-Long</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>In this study, a fucoidan-shelled chitosan <span class="hlt">bead</span> was developed with the purpose of oral delivery of berberine to inhibit the growth of bacteria. The cross-linking level and swelling property of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> were affected by the pH value and the composition of the genipin/fucoidan combined gelling agent. The drug release of the berberine-loaded <span class="hlt">beads</span> was faster in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) than those in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.4). Furthermore, a nanoparticles/<span class="hlt">beads</span> <span class="hlt">complex</span> system was developed by incorporation of berberine-loaded chitosan/fucoidan nanoparticles in the fucoidan-shelled chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The nanoparticles/<span class="hlt">beads</span> <span class="hlt">complex</span> served as a drug carrier to delay the berberine release in simulated gastric fluid, with an estimated lag time of 2 h. Our results showed that the berberine-loaded <span class="hlt">beads</span> and nanoparticles/<span class="hlt">beads</span> <span class="hlt">complex</span> could effectively inhibit the growth inhibition of common clinical pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and have the advantage of continually releasing berberine to inhibit the growth of the bacteria over 24 h.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23659866','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23659866"><span>An innovative bioremediation strategy using a bacterial consortium entrapped in chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Angelim, Alysson Lira; Costa, Samantha Pinheiro; Farias, Bárbara Cibelle Soares; Aquino, Lyanderson Freitas; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel</p> <p>2013-09-30</p> <p>This aim of this work was to develop a bioremediation strategy for oil-contaminated mangrove sediments using chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> containing an immobilised hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial consortium. The consortium composed of 17 isolates was obtained from an enrichment culture. The isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing, which revealed 12 different genera. Thirteen isolates showed resistance to chitosan and were thus able to be trapped in chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> for microcosm evaluation. The data revealed that entrapped consortium grew in the microcosms until day 15, which is when the <span class="hlt">beads</span> disintegrated and released their biomass into the sediments. Bacterial bioaugmentation within the sediments was confirmed by cell counts; additionally, the dynamics of the bacterial populations were analysed through denaturing gradient <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis. The chitosan showed a prebiotic effect on the autochthonous bacterial communities. Therefore, chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> containing selected immobilised bacteria attain two bioremediation purposes, bioaugmentation and biostimulation, and thus represent an emergent approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJT....33..627I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJT....33..627I"><span>Thermophysical and Magnetic Properties of Carbon <span class="hlt">Beads</span> Containing Cobalt Nanocrystallites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Izydorzak, M.; Skumiel, A.; Leonowicz, M.; Kaczmarek-Klinowska, M.; Pomogailo, A. D.; Dzhardimalieva, G. I.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Magnetic Co-<span class="hlt">beads</span> were fabricated in the course of a three-step procedure comprising preparation of a metal-acrylamide <span class="hlt">complex</span>, followed by frontal polymerization and finally pyrolysis of the polymer. The composites obtained were composed of cobalt nanocrystallites stabilized in a carbon matrix built of disordered graphite. The crystallite size, material morphology, fraction of the magnetic component, and thus the magnetic properties can be tailored by a proper choice of the processing variables. The samples were subjected to an alternating magnetic field of different strengths ( H = 0 to 5 kA · m-1) at a frequency of f = 500 kHz. From the calorimetric measurements, we concluded that the relaxation processes dominate in the heat generation mechanism for the <span class="hlt">beads</span> pyrolyzed at 773 K. For the <span class="hlt">beads</span> pyrolyzed at 1073 K, significant values of magnetic properties, such as the coercive force and remanence give substantial contribution to the energy losses for hysteresis. The specific absorption coefficient ( SAR) related to the cobalt mass unit for the 1073 K pyrolyzed <span class="hlt">beads</span> {({SAR} = 1340 W \\cdot g^{-1 }_cobalt)} is in very good conformity with the results obtained by other authors. The effective density power loss, caused by eddy currents, can be neglected for heating processes applied in magnetic hyperthermia. The Co-<span class="hlt">beads</span> can potentially be applied for hyperthermia treatment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19111313','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19111313"><span>Surface-modified polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span> as photografting imprinted polymer matrix for chromatographic separation of proteins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qin, Lei; He, Xi-Wen; Zhang, Wei; Li, Wen-You; Zhang, Yu-Kui</p> <p>2009-01-30</p> <p>A new and facile fabricating method for lysozyme molecularly imprinted polymer <span class="hlt">beads</span> (lysozyme-MIP <span class="hlt">beads</span>) in aqueous media was presented. Mesoporous chloromethylated polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span> (MCP <span class="hlt">beads</span>) containing dithiocarbamate iniferter (initiator transfer agent terminator) were used as supports for the grafting of lysozyme imprinted copolymers with acrylamide and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide through surface initiated living-radical polymerization (SIP). After the polymerization, a layer of lysozyme-MIP was formed on the MCP <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The SIP allowed an efficient control of the grafting process and suppressed solution propagation. Therefore, the obtained lysozyme-MIP <span class="hlt">beads</span> had a large quantity of well-distributed pores on the surface without any visible <span class="hlt">gel</span> formation in solution and were more advantageous comparing with traditional MIPs which were prepared by traditionally initiated radical polymerization. The obtained composites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, nitrogen sorption analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Chromatographic behaviors of the column packed with lysozyme-MIP <span class="hlt">beads</span> exhibited ability in separating lysozyme from competitive protein (bovine hemoglobin, bovine serum albumin, ovalbumin or cytochrome c) in aqueous mobile phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=enzymes&id=EJ920086','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=enzymes&id=EJ920086"><span>Biocatalysis with Sol-<span class="hlt">Gel</span> Encapsulated Acid Phosphatase</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kulkarni, Suhasini; Tran, Vu; Ho, Maggie K.-M.; Phan, Chieu; Chin, Elizabeth; Wemmer, Zeke; Sommerhalter, Monika</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This experiment was performed in an upper-level undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course. Students learned how to immobilize an enzyme in a sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix and how to perform and evaluate enzyme-activity measurements. The enzyme acid phosphatase (APase) from wheat germ was encapsulated in sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> that were prepared from the precursor…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA174202','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA174202"><span>Thermal Profile of Metallic <span class="hlt">Beads</span> in a <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Sterilizer,</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1986-08-01</p> <p>another commonly used chairside sterilization method, principally for endodontic instruments. The <span class="hlt">bead</span> sterilizer consists of a heated chamber containing...sterilization of endodontic instruments. However, several investigators have shown sterilization times ranging from 3 seconds to 14 minutes, are...et.al. The effect of autoclave sterilization on endodontic files. Oral Surg 55(2): 204-207, 1983. 3. Parkes, R. B. and Kolstad, R. A. Effects of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12909732','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12909732"><span>Calcium alginate <span class="hlt">gel</span> as encapsulation matrix for coimmobilized enzyme systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Blandino, A; Macías, M; Cantero, D</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>Encapsulation within calcium alginate <span class="hlt">gel</span> capsules was used to produce a coimmobilized enzyme system. Glucose oxidase (GOD) and catalase (CAT) were chosen as model enzymes. The same values of Vmax and Km app for the GOD encapsulated system and for the GOD-CAT coencapsulated system were calculated. When <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> and capsules were compared, the same catalyst deactivation sequence for the two enzymes was observed. However, when capsules were employed as immobilization support, GOD efficiencies were higher than for the <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span>. These results were explained in terms of the structure of the capsules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26540139','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26540139"><span>Supramolecular Construction of Multifluorescent <span class="hlt">Gels</span>: Interfacial Assembly of Discrete Fluorescent <span class="hlt">Gels</span> through Multiple Hydrogen Bonding.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ji, Xiaofan; Shi, Bingbing; Wang, Hu; Xia, Danyu; Jie, Kecheng; Wu, Zi Liang; Huang, Feihe</p> <p>2015-12-22</p> <p>Multifluorescent supramolecular <span class="hlt">gels</span> with <span class="hlt">complex</span> structures are constructed from discrete fluorescent <span class="hlt">gels</span>, which serve as the building blocks, through hydrogen bonding interactions at interfaces. The multifluorescent <span class="hlt">gel</span> can realize rapid healing within only ≈100 s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4481928','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4481928"><span>Highly Sensitive Bacteria Quantification Using Immunomagnetic Separation and Electrochemical Detection of Guanine-Labeled Secondary <span class="hlt">Beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jayamohan, Harikrishnan; Gale, Bruce K.; Minson, Bj; Lambert, Christopher J.; Gordon, Neil; Sant, Himanshu J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we report the ultra-sensitive indirect electrochemical detection of E. coli O157:H7 using antibody functionalized primary (magnetic) <span class="hlt">beads</span> for capture and polyguanine (polyG) oligonucleotide functionalized secondary (polystyrene) <span class="hlt">beads</span> as an electrochemical tag. Vacuum filtration in combination with E. coli O157:H7 specific antibody modified magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> were used for extraction of E. coli O157:H7 from 100 mL samples. The magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> conjugated E. coli O157:H7 cells were then attached to polyG functionalized secondary <span class="hlt">beads</span> to form a sandwich <span class="hlt">complex</span> (magnetic <span class="hlt">bead/E</span>. coli/ secondary <span class="hlt">bead</span>). While the use of magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> for immuno-based capture is well characterized, the use of oligonucleotide functionalized secondary <span class="hlt">beads</span> helps combine amplification and potential multiplexing into the system. The antibody functionalized secondary <span class="hlt">beads</span> can be easily modified with a different antibody to detect other pathogens from the same sample and enable potential multiplexing. The polyGs on the secondary <span class="hlt">beads</span> enable signal amplification up to 108 guanine tags per secondary <span class="hlt">bead</span> (7.5 × 106 biotin-FITC per secondary <span class="hlt">bead</span>, 20 guanines per oligonucleotide) bound to the target (E. coli). A single-stranded DNA probe functionalized reduced graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode was used to bind the polyGs on the secondary <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Fluorescent imaging was performed to confirm the hybridization of the <span class="hlt">complex</span> to the electrode surface. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to quantify the amount of polyG involved in the hybridization event with tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) ( Ru(bpy)32+) as the mediator. The amount of polyG signal can be correlated to the amount of E. coli O157:H7 in the sample. The method was able to detect concentrations of E. coli O157:H7 down to 3 CFU/100 mL, which is 67 times lower than the most sensitive technique reported in literature. The signal to noise ratio for this work was 3. We also demonstrate the use of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27612709','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27612709"><span>A novel <span class="hlt">gel</span> based on an ionic <span class="hlt">complex</span> from a dendronized polymer and ciprofloxacin: Evaluation of its use for controlled topical drug release.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>García, Mónica C; Cuggino, Julio C; Rosset, Clarisa I; Páez, Paulina L; Strumia, Miriam C; Manzo, Ruben H; Alovero, Fabiana L; Alvarez Igarzabal, Cecilia I; Jimenez-Kairuz, Alvaro F</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The development and characterization of a novel, <span class="hlt">gel</span>-type material based on a dendronized polymer (DP) loaded with ciprofloxacin (CIP), and the evaluation of its possible use for controlled drug release, are presented in this work. DP showed biocompatible and non-toxic behaviors in cultured cells, both of which are considered optimal properties for the design of a final material for biomedical applications. These results were encouraging for the use of the polymer loaded with CIP (as a drug model), under <span class="hlt">gel</span> form, in the development of a new controlled-release system to be evaluated for topical administration. First, DP-CIP ionic <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were obtained by an acid-base reaction using the high density of carboxylic acid groups of the DP and the amine groups of the CIP. The <span class="hlt">complexes</span> obtained in the solid state were broadly characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, XRP diffraction, DSC-TG analysis and optical microscopy techniques. <span class="hlt">Gels</span> based on the DP-CIP <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were easily prepared and presented excellent mechanical behaviors. In addition, optimal properties for application on mucosal membranes and skin were achieved due to their high biocompatibility and acute skin non-irritation. Slow and sustained release of CIP toward simulated physiological fluids was observed in the assays (in vitro), attributed to ion exchange phenomenon and to the drug reservoir effect. An in vitro bacterial growth inhibition assay showed significant CIP activity, corresponding to 38 and 58% of that exhibited by a CIP hydrochloride solution at similar CIP concentrations, against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. However, CIP delivery was appropriate, both in terms of magnitude and velocity to allow for a bactericidal effect. In conclusion, the final product showed promising behavior, which could be exploited for the treatment of topical and mucosal opportunistic infections in human or veterinary applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26828685','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26828685"><span>Development of a long-acting, protein-loaded, redox-active, injectable <span class="hlt">gel</span> formed by a polyion <span class="hlt">complex</span> for local protein therapeutics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ishii, Shiro; Kaneko, Junya; Nagasaki, Yukio</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Although cancer immunotherapies are attracting much attention, it is difficult to develop bioactive proteins owing to the severe systemic toxicity. To overcome the issue, we designed new local protein delivery system by using a protein-loaded, redox-active, injectable <span class="hlt">gel</span> (RIG), which is formed by a polyion <span class="hlt">complex</span> (PIC) comprising three components, viz., cationic polyamine-poly(ethylene glycol)-polyamine triblock copolymer possessing ROS-scavenging moieties as side chains; anionic poly(acrylic acid); and a protein. The mixture formed the protein-loaded PIC flower micelles at room temperature, which immediately converted to a <span class="hlt">gel</span> with high mechanical strength upon exposure to physiological conditions. Because the protein electrostatically interacts with the PIC <span class="hlt">gel</span> network, RIG provided a sustained release of the protein without a significant initial burst, regardless of the types of proteins in vitro, and much longer retention of the protein at the local injection site in mice than that of the naked protein. Subcutaneous injections of IL-12@RIG in the vicinity of tumor tissue showed remarkable tumor growth inhibition in tumor-bearing mice, compared to that observed with injection of IL-12 alone, suppressing adverse events caused by IL-12-induced ROS. Our results indicate that RIG has potential as a platform technology for an injectable sustained-release carrier for proteins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23007128','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23007128"><span>Silica sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> glasses incorporating dual-luminescent Yb quinolinolato <span class="hlt">complex</span>: processing, emission and photosensitising properties of the 'antenna' ligand.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Artizzu, Flavia; Quochi, Francesco; Saba, Michele; Loche, Danilo; Mercuri, Maria Laura; Serpe, Angela; Mura, Andrea; Bongiovanni, Giovanni; Deplano, Paola</p> <p>2012-11-14</p> <p>The [Yb(5,7ClQ)(2)(H5,7ClQ)(2)Cl] (1) <span class="hlt">complex</span>, that exhibits dual-luminescence in the visible (ligand-centered) and in the NIR (Yb-centered), has been incorporated into a silica sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> glass obtaining 1-doped glassy material which is optically transparent and homogeneous and with good mechanical properties. The doped sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> glass can be considered a "solid state solution" and photophysical studies demonstrate that the emissive properties of the dopant <span class="hlt">complex</span> are preserved in the silica matrix. Observed NIR decay times fall in the μs range and are likely limited by "second-sphere" matrix interactions. The ligand-to-metal energy transfer mechanism occurs on ultrafast timescale and involves ligand triplet states. The sensitization efficiency of the antenna quinolinolato ligand toward Yb(3+) is estimated to be as high as ~80%. The Yb natural radiative lifetime observed for 1 in MeCN-EtOH solution (τ(rad) = 438 μs) is the shortest reported so far for ytterbium <span class="hlt">complexes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1300761','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1300761"><span>Growing an actin <span class="hlt">gel</span> on spherical surfaces.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Noireaux, V; Golsteyn, R M; Friederich, E; Prost, J; Antony, C; Louvard, D; Sykes, C</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Inspired by the motility of the bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, we have experimentally studied the growth of an actin <span class="hlt">gel</span> around spherical <span class="hlt">beads</span> grafted with ActA, a protein known to be the promoter of bacteria movement. On ActA-grafted <span class="hlt">beads</span> F-actin is formed in a spherical manner, whereas on the bacteria a "comet-like" tail of F-actin is produced. We show experimentally that the stationary thickness of the <span class="hlt">gel</span> depends on the radius of the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Moreover, the actin <span class="hlt">gel</span> is not formed if the ActA surface density is too low. To interpret our results, we propose a theoretical model to explain how the mechanical stress (due to spherical geometry) limits the growth of the actin <span class="hlt">gel</span>. Our model also takes into account treadmilling of actin. We deduce from our work that the force exerted by the actin <span class="hlt">gel</span> on the bacteria is of the order of 10 pN. Finally, we estimate from our theoretical model possible conditions for developing actin comet tails. PMID:10692348</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8943000','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8943000"><span>Melanotropic peptide-conjugated <span class="hlt">beads</span> for microscopic visualization and characterization of melanoma melanotropin receptors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sharma, S D; Jiang, J; Hadley, M E; Bentley, D L; Hruby, V J</p> <p>1996-11-26</p> <p>We developed two solid-phase reagent systems for microscopic visualization and characterization of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) receptors of melanoma cells. Multiple copies of [Nle-4,D-Phe-7]-alpha-MSH, a potent analog of alpha-MSH, were conjugated to microspheres (latex <span class="hlt">beads</span>) or macrospheres (polyamide <span class="hlt">beads</span>) through a thioether or disulfide bond. Binding between the <span class="hlt">beads</span> and mouse and human melanoma cells was examined by scanning electron microscopy and by light microscopy. Each mouse and human melanoma cell (of all cell lines) evinced binding to the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Binding of the melanotropin conjugates was not restricted to any one phase of the cell cycle. Specificity of binding was demonstrated by several studies. Negative controls included cell types of nonmelanocyte origin (e.g., mammary cancer cells) and <span class="hlt">beads</span> that lacked the melanotropic ligand or had other attached ligands. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> with a disulfide-linked melanotropin analog served as a direct control. Treatment of these <span class="hlt">beads</span> with DTT during or before incubation of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> with melanoma cells (resulting in release of the MSH analog from the <span class="hlt">beads</span>) eliminated binding of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> to melanoma cells. Binding interactions between melanoma cells and melanotropin-bound <span class="hlt">beads</span> also could be abolished by prior incubation with unconjugated MSH analog. During these experiments, certain membrane receptor-hormone associated phenomena, such as capping (aggregation) of the receptor-ligand <span class="hlt">complex</span>, also were observed. These results provide visual evidence that MSH receptors are a property common to melanoma cells. Normal human epidermal melanocytes and keratinocytes were also shown to express melanotropin receptors by the same criteria established for melanoma cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=19401','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=19401"><span>Melanotropic peptide-conjugated <span class="hlt">beads</span> for microscopic visualization and characterization of melanoma melanotropin receptors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sharma, Shubh D.; Jiang, Jinwen; Hadley, Mac E.; Bentley, David L.; Hruby, Victor J.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>We developed two solid-phase reagent systems for microscopic visualization and characterization of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) receptors of melanoma cells. Multiple copies of [Nle-4,d-Phe-7]-α-MSH, a potent analog of α-MSH, were conjugated to microspheres (latex <span class="hlt">beads</span>) or macrospheres (polyamide <span class="hlt">beads</span>) through a thioether or disulfide bond. Binding between the <span class="hlt">beads</span> and mouse and human melanoma cells was examined by scanning electron microscopy and by light microscopy. Each mouse and human melanoma cell (of all cell lines) evinced binding to the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Binding of the melanotropin conjugates was not restricted to any one phase of the cell cycle. Specificity of binding was demonstrated by several studies. Negative controls included cell types of nonmelanocyte origin (e.g., mammary cancer cells) and <span class="hlt">beads</span> that lacked the melanotropic ligand or had other attached ligands. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> with a disulfide-linked melanotropin analog served as a direct control. Treatment of these <span class="hlt">beads</span> with DTT during or before incubation of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> with melanoma cells (resulting in release of the MSH analog from the <span class="hlt">beads</span>) eliminated binding of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> to melanoma cells. Binding interactions between melanoma cells and melanotropin-bound <span class="hlt">beads</span> also could be abolished by prior incubation with unconjugated MSH analog. During these experiments, certain membrane receptor-hormone associated phenomena, such as capping (aggregation) of the receptor-ligand <span class="hlt">complex</span>, also were observed. These results provide visual evidence that MSH receptors are a property common to melanoma cells. Normal human epidermal melanocytes and keratinocytes were also shown to express melanotropin receptors by the same criteria established for melanoma cells. PMID:8943000</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16592604','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16592604"><span>Lithium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis of thylakoid membranes at 4 degrees C: Characterizations of two additional chlorophyll a-protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Delepelaire, P; Chua, N H</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Lithium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii thylakoid membranes at room temperature gave two chlorophyll-protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span>, CP I and CP II, as had been reported previously. However, when the electrophoresis was performed at 4 degrees C, there was an increase in the amount of chlorophyll associated with CP I and CP II, and in addition, three other chlorophyll-protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> appeared. Two of these <span class="hlt">complexes</span>, designated CP III and CP IV, were characterized and found to be similar in their compositions. Each <span class="hlt">complex</span> contains four to five molecules of chlorophyll a, one molecule of beta-carotene, and one polypeptide chain. The apoprotein of CP III is polypeptide 5 (M(r) 50,000) and that of CP IV is polypeptide 6 (M(r) 47,000); the two polypeptides are structurally unrelated. Chlorophyll-protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> similar to C. reinhardtii CP III and CP IV were also detected in higher plants (e.g., Pisum sativum). The apoproteins of the higher plant <span class="hlt">complexes</span> are immunochemically related to those of the C. reinhardtii <span class="hlt">complexes</span>, as shown by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. Absorption spectra of CP III and CP IV at -196 degrees C revealed a component at 682 nm. This observation, together with the previous results on photosystem II mutants [Chua, N.-H. & Bennoun, P. (1975) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72, 2175-2179], provides indirect evidence that CP III and CP IV may be involved in the primary photochemistry of photosystem II.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvE..84b1907L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvE..84b1907L"><span>Effectiveness of <span class="hlt">beads</span> for tracking small-scale molecular motor dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lade, Steven J.; Craig, Erin M.; Linke, Heiner</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>Investigations into molecular motor dynamics are increasingly focused on small-scale features of the motor’s motion. We define performance measures of a common type of single-molecule motility assay, the <span class="hlt">bead</span> assay, for its ability to detect such features. Using numerical models, we explore the dependence of assay performance on a number of experimentally controllable parameters, including <span class="hlt">bead</span> size, optical force, and the method of attaching the <span class="hlt">bead</span> to the motor. We find that the best parameter choice depends on the objective of the experiments, and give a guide to parameter selection. Comparison of the models against experimental data from a recent <span class="hlt">bead</span> assay of myosin V exemplifies how our methods can also be used to extract additional information from <span class="hlt">bead</span> assays, particularly that related to small-scale features. By analyzing the experimental data we find evidence for previously undetected multiple waiting states of the <span class="hlt">bead</span>-motor <span class="hlt">complex</span>. Furthermore, from numerical simulations we find that equilibrium <span class="hlt">bead</span> dynamics display features previously attributed to aborted motor steps, and that <span class="hlt">bead</span> dynamics alone can produce multiple subphases during a step.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22837988','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22837988"><span>The elution of colistimethate sodium from polymethylmethacrylate and calcium phosphate cement <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Waterman, Paige; Barber, Melissa; Weintrob, Amy C; VanBrakle, Regina; Howard, Robin; Kozar, Michael P; Andersen, Romney; Wortmann, Glenn</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Gram-negative bacilli resistance to all antibiotics, except for colistimethate sodium (CMS), is an emerging healthcare concern. Incorporating CMS into orthopedic cement to treat bone and soft-tissue infections due to these bacteria is attractive, but the data regarding the elution of CMS from cement are conflicting. The in vitro analysis of the elution of CMS from polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and calcium phosphate (CP) cement <span class="hlt">beads</span> is reported. PMMA and CP <span class="hlt">beads</span> containing CMS were incubated in phosphate-buffered saline and the eluate sampled at sequential time points. The inhibition of the growth of a strain of Acinetobacter baumannii <span class="hlt">complex</span> by the eluate was measured by disk diffusion and microbroth dilution assays, and the presence of CMS in the eluate was measured by mass spectroscopy. Bacterial growth was inhibited by the eluate from both PMMA and CP <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Mass spectroscopy demonstrated greater elution of CMS from CP <span class="hlt">beads</span> than PMMA <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The dose of CMS in PMMA <span class="hlt">beads</span> was limited by failure of <span class="hlt">bead</span> integrity. CMS elutes from both CP and PMMA <span class="hlt">beads</span> in amounts sufficient to inhibit bacterial growth in vitro. The clinical implications of these findings require further study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16817166','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16817166"><span>Detection and analysis of protein-protein interactions in organellar and prokaryotic proteomes by native <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis: (Membrane) protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> and supercomplexes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krause, Frank</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>It is an essential and challenging task to unravel protein-protein interactions in their actual in vivo context. Native <span class="hlt">gel</span> systems provide a separation platform allowing the analysis of protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> on a rather proteome-wide scale in a single experiment. This review focus on blue-native (BN)-PAGE as the most versatile and successful <span class="hlt">gel</span>-based approach to separate soluble and membrane protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> of intricate protein mixtures derived from all biological sources. BN-PAGE is a charge-shift method with a running pH of 7.5 relying on the gentle binding of anionic CBB dye to all membrane and many soluble protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span>, leading to separation of protein species essentially according to their size and superior resolution than other fractionation techniques can offer. The closely related colorless-native (CN)-PAGE, whose applicability is restricted to protein species with intrinsic negative net charge, proved to provide an especially mild separation capable of preserving weak protein-protein interactions better than BN-PAGE. The essential conditions determining the success of detecting protein-protein interactions are the sample preparations, e.g. the efficiency/mildness of the detergent solubilization of membrane protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span>. A broad overview about the achievements of BN- and CN-PAGE studies to elucidate protein-protein interactions in organelles and prokaryotes is presented, e.g. the mitochondrial protein import machinery and oxidative phosphorylation supercomplexes. In many cases, solubilization with digitonin was demonstrated to facilitate an efficient and particularly gentle extraction of membrane protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> prone to dissociation by treatment with other detergents. In general, analyses of protein interactomes should be carried out by both BN- and CN-PAGE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MMTB...45.2000O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MMTB...45.2000O"><span>Processing and Characterization of MMC <span class="hlt">Beads</span> Based on Zirconia and TRIP Steel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oppelt, Marie; Wenzel, Claudia; Aneziris, Christos G.; Berek, Harry</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A novel process for metal-matrix composite fabrication with the special focus on single <span class="hlt">beads</span> and sintered <span class="hlt">bead</span> structures is explored. The used <span class="hlt">gel</span>-casting process by sodium alginate gelation is introduced, and various analyses with significant results are presented. The suspensions contained 16-7-3 steel and zirconia particles as well as sodium alginate and were subsequently added dropwise into water which contained solidifying agent for forming rubbery, substantially round <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Sintered <span class="hlt">beads</span> with adequate strength (~400 MPa) and perfect surface, homogeneous microstructure, and high energy absorption capability have been produced by this casting process. At lower strains (up to 15 pct), all zirconia reinforced steel <span class="hlt">beads</span> obtain higher specific energy absorption (SEA) in comparison to pure steel <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Especially the composition of 90 vol pct TRIP steel and 10 vol pct zirconia shows a significant improved energy absorption capability with 27.7 MJ/m3 at a strain of 15 pct. Pure steel only exhibits a SEA of 13.1 MJ/m3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26592698','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26592698"><span>Tapioca starch blended alginate mucoadhesive-floating <span class="hlt">beads</span> for intragastric delivery of Metoprolol Tartrate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Biswas, Nikhil; Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The objective of the study was to develop tapioca starch blended alginate mucoadhesive-floating <span class="hlt">beads</span> for the intragastric delivery of Metoprolol Tartrate (MT). The <span class="hlt">beads</span> were prepared by ionotropic gelation method using calcium chloride as crosslinker and gas forming calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as floating inducer. The alginate <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> having 51-58% entrapped MT showed 90% release within 45 min in gastric medium (pH 1.2). Tapioca starch blending markedly improved the entrapment efficiency (88%) and sustained the release for 3-4 h. A 12% w/w HPMC coating on these <span class="hlt">beads</span> extended the release upto 9-11 h. In vitro wash off and buoyancy test in gastric media revealed that the <span class="hlt">beads</span> containing CaCO3 has gastric residence of more than 12 h. In vitro optimized multi-unit formulation consisting of immediate and sustained release mucoadhesive-floating <span class="hlt">beads</span> (40:60) showed good initial release of 42% MT within 1h followed by a sustained release of over 90% for 11 h. Pharmacokinetic study performed in rabbit model showed that the relative oral bioavailability of MT after administration of oral solution, sustain release and optimized formulation was 51%, 67% and 87%, respectively. Optimized formulation showed a higher percent inhibition of isoprenaline induced heart rate in rabbits for almost 12 h.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080012235','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080012235"><span>Ionene modified small polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rembaum, Alan (Inventor)</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Linear ionene polyquaternary cationic polymeric segments are bonded by means of the Menshutkin reaction (quaternization) to biocompatible, extremely small, porous particles containing halide or tertiary amine sites which are centers for attachment of the segments. The modified <span class="hlt">beads</span> in the form of emulsions or suspensions offer a large, positively-charged surface area capable of irreversibly binding polyanions such as heparin, DNA, RNA or bile acids to remove them from solution or of reversibly binding monoanions such as penicillin, pesticides, sex attractants and the like for slow release from the suspension.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27988004','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27988004"><span>Pectin-silica <span class="hlt">gels</span> as matrices for controlled drug release in gastrointestinal tract.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vityazev, Fedor V; Fedyuneva, Maiia I; Golovchenko, Victoria V; Patova, Olga A; Ipatova, Elena U; Durnev, Eugene A; Martinson, Ekaterina A; Litvinets, Sergey G</p> <p>2017-02-10</p> <p>The synthesis of pectin-silica <span class="hlt">gels</span> for controlled drug release in gastrointestinal tract (GIT) using low methoxyl (LM) and high methoxy (HM) pectins and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as precursor is described. The FTIR spectra of the pectin-silica <span class="hlt">gels</span> show intense absorption bands at 1246cm(-1) and 802cm(-1) corresponding to the vibrations COSi bonds, which absent in the FTIR spectra of the native pectins that indicate the formation covalent bond between silica and pectin macromolecules in the pectin-silica <span class="hlt">gels</span>. Pectin-TEOS, pectin-Ca-TEOS and pectin-TEOS-Ca <span class="hlt">beads</span> with mesalazine are synthesized by different combinations of sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> method using TEOS and ionotropic gelation method using calcium chloride. The best resistant of pectin-TEOS and pectin-Ca-TEOS <span class="hlt">beads</span> during incubation in simulated gastric fluid for 2h and subsequently in simulated intestinal fluids for 18h is indicated. Pectin-TEOS <span class="hlt">beads</span> are characterized by higher encapsulation efficiency (to 28%) than pectin-Ca-TEOS <span class="hlt">beads</span> (to 16%). The drug release of pectin-silica <span class="hlt">beads</span> in simulated GIT occurs gradually up to 80% and is directly dependent on the hardness of the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The surface morphology of <span class="hlt">beads</span> is shown. The use of pectin-silica <span class="hlt">beads</span> is promising with regard to the development of controlled release of drug formulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27451205','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27451205"><span>Fabrication and characterization of Pickering emulsions and oil <span class="hlt">gels</span> stabilized by highly charged zein/chitosan <span class="hlt">complex</span> particles (ZCCPs).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Li-Juan; Yin, Shou-Wei; Wu, Lei-Yan; Qi, Jun-Ru; Guo, Jian; Yang, Xiao-Quan</p> <p>2016-12-15</p> <p>Herein, we reported a facile method to fabricate ultra-stable, surfactant- and antimicrobial-free Pickering emulsions by designing and modulating emulsions' interfaces via zein/chitosan colloid particles (ZCCPs). Highly charged ZCCPs with neutral wettability were produced by a facile anti-solvent procedure. The ZCCPs were shown to be effective Pickering emulsifiers because the emulsions formed were highly resistant to coalescence over a 9-month storage period. The ZCCPs were adsorbed irreversibly at the interface during emulsification, forming a hybrid network framework in which zein particles were embedded within the chitosan network, yielding ultra-stable food-grade zein/chitosan colloid particles stabilized Pickering emulsions (ZCCPEs). Moreover, stable surfactant-free oil <span class="hlt">gels</span> were obtained by a one-step freeze-drying process of the precursor ZCCPEs. This distinctive interfacial architecture accounted for the favourable physical performance, and potentially oxidative and microbial stability of the emulsions and/or oil <span class="hlt">gels</span>. This work opens up a promising route via a food-grade Pickering emulsion-template approach to transform liquid oil into solid-like fats with zero trans-fat formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Binomial+AND+Distribution&pg=3&id=EJ288759','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Binomial+AND+Distribution&pg=3&id=EJ288759"><span><span class="hlt">BEADS</span>: A Realistic Approach to Elementary Statistics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gamble, Andy</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Having students gather their own statistics is promoted. The <span class="hlt">BEADS</span> program provides an alternative; it simulated sampling from a binomial distribution. Illustrations from the program are included. (MNS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6561637','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6561637"><span>Properties of cellulase immobilized on agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span> with spacer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chim-anage, P.; Kashiwagi, Y.; Magae, Y.; Ohta, T.; Sasaki, T.</p> <p>1986-12-01</p> <p>Cellulase produced by fungus Trichoderma viride was immobilized on agarose <span class="hlt">beads</span> (Sepharose 4B) activated by cyanogen bromide and also on activated agarose <span class="hlt">beads</span> that contained spacer arm (activated Ch-Sepharose 4B and Affi-<span class="hlt">Gel</span> 15). The CMCase activity retained by immobilized cellulase on activated Sepharose containing the spacer tended to be higher than that immobilized without spacer, although the extent of protein immobilization was lower. Also, the higher substrate specificity for cellulase immobilized on <span class="hlt">beads</span> with spacer was obtained for cellobiose, acid-swollen cellulose, or cellulose powder. The hydrolysis product from their substrates was mainly glucose. 10 references.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27124678','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27124678"><span>Design of a Microfluidic Chip for Magnetic-Activated Sorting of One-<span class="hlt">Bead</span>-One-Compound Libraries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cho, Choi-Fong; Lee, Kyungheon; Speranza, Maria-Carmela; Bononi, Fernanda C; Viapiano, Mariano S; Luyt, Leonard G; Weissleder, Ralph; Chiocca, E Antonio; Lee, Hakho; Lawler, Sean E</p> <p>2016-06-13</p> <p>Molecular targeting using ligands specific to disease markers has shown great promise for early detection and directed therapy. <span class="hlt">Bead</span>-based combinatorial libraries have served as powerful tools for the discovery of novel targeting agents. Screening platforms employing magnetic capture have been used to achieve rapid and efficient identification of high-affinity ligands from one-<span class="hlt">bead</span>-one-compound (OBOC) libraries. Traditional manual methodologies to isolate magnetized "hit" <span class="hlt">beads</span> are tedious and lack accuracy, and existing instruments to expedite <span class="hlt">bead</span> sorting tend to be costly and <span class="hlt">complex</span>. Here, we describe the design and construction of a simple and inexpensive microfluidic magnetic sorting device using standard photolithography and soft lithography approaches to facilitate high-throughput isolation of magnetized positive hit <span class="hlt">beads</span> from combinatorial libraries. We have demonstrated that the device is able to sort magnetized <span class="hlt">beads</span> with superior accuracy compared to conventional manual sorting approaches. This chip offers a very convenient yet inexpensive alternative for screening OBOC libraries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T53C1606F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T53C1606F"><span>Possible silica <span class="hlt">gel</span> in the Olive Fault, Naukluft Nappe <span class="hlt">Complex</span>, Namibia: A geologic record of dynamic weakening in faults during continental orogenesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Faber, C.; Rowe, C. D.; Miller, J. A.; Backeberg, N.; Sylvester, F.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The apparently low frictional strength of faults during earthquake slip is not sufficiently well explained. Dynamic weakening has been observed in recent laboratory experiments at seismic slip rates, even if materials are strong at slow slip rates. Di Toro et al. (2004) performed experiments on crystalline rocks at slip rates of 1m/s and observed frictional strength drops to near zero. Examination of the slip surface revealed an amorophous silica had formed during fast slip and interpreted this as a solidified silica <span class="hlt">gel</span>. If similar silica <span class="hlt">gel</span> forms during earthquakes, and solidifies to amorphous silica, it would be expected to slowly crystallize over time. Ujiie et al (2007) reported a microcrystalline silica fault vein from the Shimanto <span class="hlt">Complex</span> (Japan) which contains colloidal microspheres of silica, consistent with its origin as a silica <span class="hlt">gel</span>. This vein may have been created during seismic slip, although other explanations are possible. No other natural examples of this potentially important coseismic weakening mechanism have been reported. To investigate whether silica <span class="hlt">gel</span> actually forms during seismic slip, it will be necessary to discover and fully characterize additional natural examples. The Naukluft Nappe <span class="hlt">Complex</span> in central Namibia is a foreland thrust stack at the distal southern margin of the Pan-African Damara Orogen (active at ~ 550Ma). A fault vein of microcrystalline silica has been found in an intra-nappe thrust fault . The vein occurs as a mostly continuous, planar, 0.1-1.0cm-thick fault vein within dolomite breccias of the Olive Fault. There are no other veins of silica associated with the fault. The hanging wall and footwall are dolomite and calcareous shales, respectively. The layer is petrographically similar to the microcrystalline silica described by Ujiie et al. (2007). The silica layer is purple-blue to white in color cathodoluminescence, in contrast to the bright turquoise typical of quartz. Although X-ray diffraction spectra show only</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=256495','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=256495"><span>Biocompatibility of Pectin-Protein <span class="hlt">Gels</span> and Microencapsulates: In Vivo Study on Rats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Pectin-protein <span class="hlt">complex</span> hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> were tested in vivo on rats. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> were pre-loaded with a model drug, piroxicam (PX), in ethanol at different loading rates. The rats were starved 8 hr prior to experiment. The rats were then fed with the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Blood samples were taken in 2, 4, 6, 12, and 2...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23237831','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23237831"><span>A method to resolve the composition of heterogeneous affinity-purified protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> assembled around a common protein by chemical cross-linking, <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rudashevskaya, Elena L; Sacco, Roberto; Kratochwill, Klaus; Huber, Marie L; Gstaiger, Matthias; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Bennett, Keiryn L</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> form, dissociate and re-form in order to perform specific cellular functions. In this two-pronged protocol, noncovalent protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> are initially isolated by affinity purification for subsequent identification of the components by liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-MS) on a hybrid LTQ Orbitrap Velos. In the second prong of the approach, the affinity-purification strategy includes a chemical cross-linking step to 'freeze' a series of concurrently formed, heterogeneous protein subcomplex species that are visualized by <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis. This branch of the methodology amalgamates standard and well-practiced laboratory methods to reveal compositional changes that occur in protein <span class="hlt">complex</span> architecture. By using mouse N-terminally tagged streptavidin-binding peptide-hemagglutinin-TANK-binding kinase 1 (SH-TBK1), we chemically cross-linked the affinity-purified <span class="hlt">complex</span> of SH-TBK1 with the homobifunctional lysine-specific reagent bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS(3)), and we separated the resultant protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> by denaturation and by silver-stained one- and two-dimensional SDS-PAGE. We observed a range of cross-linked TBK1 <span class="hlt">complexes</span> of variable pI and M(r) and confirmed them by immunoblotting. LC-MS analysis of in situ-digested cross-linked proteins shows differences in the composition of the TBK1 subcomplexes. The protocol is inherently simple and can be readily extended to the investigation of a range of protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span>. From cell lysis to data generation by LC-MS, the protocol takes approximately 2.5 to 5.5 d to perform.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780000518&hterms=gas+chromatography&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dgas%2Bchromatography','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780000518&hterms=gas+chromatography&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dgas%2Bchromatography"><span>Porous <span class="hlt">bead</span> packings for gas chromatography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pollock, G. E.; Woeller, F. H.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Porous polyaromatic packing <span class="hlt">beads</span> have low polarity, high efficiency, short retention time, and may be synthesized in size range of 50 to 150 micrometers (100 to 270 mesh). Mechanically strong <span class="hlt">beads</span> may be produced using various materials depending on elements and compounds to be identified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24354669','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24354669"><span>Oil-cyclodextrin based <span class="hlt">beads</span> for oral delivery of poorly-soluble drugs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hamoudi, M C; Bochot, A</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The main interest of cyclodextrins results from their ability to form inclusion <span class="hlt">complexes</span> with hydrophobic molecules. This property is employed in pharmaceutical industry to facilitate the formulation of poorly-soluble and/or fragile drugs. Cyclodextrins are also used to form or stabilise dispersed systems. An original multiparticulate system named "<span class="hlt">beads</span>" is obtained thanks to the interactions occurring between the molecules of α cyclodextrin and the triglycerides of vegetable oils. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> are prepared by a simple process involving the external shaking of a mixture of an aqueous solution of α cyclodextrin with soybean oil. This is done without any organic solvent or surface-active agent. Once freezedried, <span class="hlt">beads</span> have a diameter of 1.6 mm and a high lipid content. They consist in a partially crystalline matrix of cyclodextrin surrounding microdomains of oil. The coating of <span class="hlt">beads</span> with a layer of α cyclodextrin improves their resistance in gastro- intestinal fluids and prolongs the release of drugs. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> can also be manufactured from mineral oils with α cyclodextrin and from silicone oils with γ cyclodextrin. Poorly-soluble drugs which do not form inclusion <span class="hlt">complexes</span> with α cyclodextrin are encapsulated in <span class="hlt">beads</span> with high efficiency and drug loading. In rats, the oral bioavailability of isotretinoin is twofold enhanced with uncoated <span class="hlt">beads</span> as compared to the lipid content of a soft capsule. The relative oral bioavailability of indomethacin is improved with both coated and uncoated <span class="hlt">beads</span> versus a commercial hard capsule. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> demonstrate an important potential for the encapsulation of poorly-soluble and/or fragile compounds and their delivery by oral route.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25615602','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25615602"><span>Effect of natural and semisynthetic pseudoguianolides on the stability of NF-κB:DNA <span class="hlt">complex</span> studied by agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Villagomez, Rodrigo; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni; Sterner, Olov; Almanza, Giovanna; Linares-Pastén, Javier A</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is a promising target for drug discovery. NF-κB is a heterodimeric <span class="hlt">complex</span> of RelA and p50 subunits that interact with the DNA, regulating the expression of several genes; its dysregulation can trigger diverse diseases including inflammation, immunodeficiency, and cancer. There is some experimental evidence, based on whole cells studies, that natural sesquiterpene lactones (Sls) can inhibit the interaction of NF-κB with DNA, by alkylating the RelA subunit via a Michael addition. In the present work, 28 natural and semisynthetic pseudoguianolides were screened as potential inhibitors of NF-κB in a biochemical assay that was designed using pure NF-κB heterodimer, pseudoguianolides and a ~1000 bp palindromic DNA fragment harboring two NF-κB recognition sequences. By comparing the relative amount of free DNA fragment to the NF-κB - DNA <span class="hlt">complex</span>, in a routine agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis, the destabilizing effect of a compound on the <span class="hlt">complex</span> is estimated. The results of the assay and the following structure-activity relationship study, allowed the identification of several relevant structural features in the pseudoguaianolide skeleton, which are necessary to enhance the dissociating capacity of NF-κB-DNA <span class="hlt">complex</span>. The most active compounds are substituted at C-3 (α-carbonyl), in addition to having the α-methylene-γ-lactone moiety which is essential for the alkylation of RelA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AIPC..975.1654L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AIPC..975.1654L"><span>Ultrasonic Characterization of Glass <span class="hlt">Beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lassila, I.; Siiriä, S.; Gates, F. K.; Hæggström, E.</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>We report on the progress in developing a method for an in-line granule size measurement using ultrasonic through transmission method. The knowledge of granule size is important in the production of pharmaceutical dosage forms where the current optical and rheological methods have limitations such as fouling of the optical windows. The phase velocity of a wave propagated through interstitial air between glass balls of 1, 2 and 10 mm in diameter was 254±5 m/s, 261±3 m/s and 320±9 m/s, respectively. The power spectral density of the received signals showed that high frequencies were attenuated more in case of smaller <span class="hlt">beads</span> due to increased scattering.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090010270','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090010270"><span>Fused <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Analysis of Diogenite Meteorites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mittlefehldt, D.W.; Beck, B.W.; McSween, H.Y.; Lee, C.T. A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Bulk rock chemistry is an essential dataset in meteoritics and planetary science [1]. A common method used to obtain the bulk chemistry of meteorites is ICP-MS. While the accuracy, precision and low detection limits of this process are advantageous [2], the sample size used for analysis (approx.70 mg) can be a problem in a field where small and finite samples are the norm. Fused <span class="hlt">bead</span> analysis is another bulk rock analytical technique that has been used in meteoritics [3]. This technique involves forming a glass <span class="hlt">bead</span> from 10 mg of sample and measuring its chemistry using a defocused beam on a microprobe. Though the ICP-MS has lower detection limits than the microprobe, the fused <span class="hlt">bead</span> method destroys a much smaller sample of the meteorite. Fused <span class="hlt">bead</span> analysis was initially designed for samples with near-eutectic compositions and low viscosities. Melts generated of this type homogenize at relatively low temperatures and produce primary melts near the sample s bulk composition [3]. The application of fused <span class="hlt">bead</span> analysis to samples with noneutectic melt compositions has not been validated. The purpose of this study is to test if fused <span class="hlt">bead</span> analysis can accurately determine the bulk rock chemistry of non-eutectic melt composition meteorites. To determine this, we conduct two examinations of the fused <span class="hlt">bead</span>. First, we compare ICP-MS and fused <span class="hlt">bead</span> results of the same samples using statistical analysis. Secondly, we inspect the <span class="hlt">beads</span> for the presence of crystals and chemical heterogeneity. The presence of either of these would indicate incomplete melting and quenching of the <span class="hlt">bead</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/63214','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/63214"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">complexing</span> ligands on the adsorption of Cu(II) onto the silica <span class="hlt">gel</span> surface. 1: Adsorption of ligands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Park, Y.J.; Jung, K.H.; Park, K.K.; Park, K.K.</p> <p>1995-04-01</p> <p>The adsorption of several ligands on silica <span class="hlt">gel</span> was investigated in aqueous solutions. The ligands used were 2,2{prime},6{prime},2{double_prime}-terpyridine, pyridine, 3,4-lutidine, 2-aminomethyl pyridine, 2-pyridine methanol, picolinic acid, salicylic acid, and 5-sulfosalicylic acid. The adsorption behaviors of these ligands were interpreted by means of three adsorption modes: ion exchange, hydrogen bonding, and hydrophobic interaction. For 2,2{prime},6{prime},2{double_prime}-terpyridine, pyridine, and 3,4-lutidine, the adsorption maxima appeared near their respective pK{sub a} values and were found to be due mainly to ion exchange, whereas the adsorption of these ligands at low pH was strongly attributed to hydrophobic interaction. The adsorption of 2-aminomethyl pyridine increased with increasing pH over the entire pH range investigated and was due mainly to ion exchange. Picolinic acid was adsorbed mainly by hydrogen bonding either via pyridine N atoms at low pH or via carboxylic O atoms at high pH. 2-Pyridine methanol was adsorbed by hydrophobic interaction at low pH and by hydrogen bonding at high pH. The adsorptions of salicylic and 5-sulfosalicylic acid were very small over the entire pH ranges investigated. For the adsorption mechanism, the Stern model was used to fit adsorption data.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3688448','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3688448"><span>Interactions by 2D <span class="hlt">Gel</span> Electrophoresis Overlap (iGEO): a novel high fidelity approach to identify constituents of protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Here we describe a novel approach used to identify the constituents of protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> with high fidelity, using the integrin-associated scaffolding protein PINCH as a test case. PINCH is comprised of five LIM domains, zinc-finger protein interaction modules. In Drosophila melanogaster, PINCH has two known high-affinity binding partners—Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) that binds to LIM1 and Ras Suppressor 1 (RSU1) that binds to LIM5—but has been postulated to bind additional proteins as well. Results To purify PINCH <span class="hlt">complexes</span>, in parallel we fused different affinity tags (Protein A and Flag) to different locations within the PINCH sequence (N- and C-terminus). We expressed these tagged versions of PINCH both in cell culture (overexpressed in Drosophila S2 cell culture in the presence of endogenous PINCH) and in vivo (at native levels in Drosophila lacking endogenous PINCH). After affinity purification, we analyzed PINCH <span class="hlt">complexes</span> by a novel 2D-<span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis analysis, iGEO (interactions by 2D <span class="hlt">Gel</span> Electrophoresis Overlap), with mass spectrometric identification of individual spots of interest. iGEO allowed the identification of protein partners that associate with PINCH under two independent purification strategies, providing confidence in the significance of the interaction. Proteins identified by iGEO were validated against a highly inclusive list of candidate PINCH interacting proteins identified in previous analyses by MuDPIT mass spectrometry. Conclusions The iGEO strategy confirmed a core <span class="hlt">complex</span> comprised of PINCH, RSU1, ILK, and ILK binding partner Parvin. Our iGEO method also identified five novel protein partners that specifically interacted with PINCH in Drosophila S2 cell culture. Because of the improved reproducibility of 2D-GE methodology and the increasing affordability of the required labeling reagents, iGEO is a method that is accessible to most moderately well-equipped biological laboratories. The biochemical co</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4003522','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4003522"><span>Growth mechanisms of MgO nanocrystals via a sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> synthesis using different <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In the preparation of nanostructured materials, it is important to optimize synthesis parameters in order to obtain the desired material. This work investigates the role of <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agents, oxalic acid and tartaric acid, in the production of MgO nanocrystals. Results from simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis (STA) show that the two different synthesis routes yield precursors with different thermal profiles. It is found that the thermal profiles of the precursors can reveal the effects of crystal growth during thermal annealing. X-ray diffraction confirms that the final products are pure, single phase and of cubic shape. It is also found that <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agents can affect the rate of crystal growth. The structures of the oxalic acid and tartaric acid as well as the <span class="hlt">complexation</span> sites play very important roles in the formation of the nanocrystals. The <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agents influence the rate of growth which affects the final crystallite size of the materials. Surprisingly, it is also found that oxalic acid and tartaric acid act as surfactants inhibiting crystal growth even at a high temperature of 950°C and a long annealing time of 36 h. The crystallite formation routes are proposed to be via linear and branched polymer networks due to the different structures of the <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agents. PMID:24650322</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/624329','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/624329"><span>Metal-anion sorption by chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span>: Equilibrium and kinetic studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Guibal, E.; Milot, C.; Tobin, J.M.</p> <p>1998-04-01</p> <p>Chitosan is a well-known biopolymer, whose high nitrogen content confers remarkable ability for the sorption of metal ions from dilute effluents. However, its sorption performance in both equilibrium and kinetic terms is controlled by diffusion processes. <span class="hlt">Gel</span> <span class="hlt">bead</span> formation allows an expansion of the polymer network, which improves access to the internal sorption sites and enhances diffusion mechanisms. Molybdate and vanadate recovery using glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> reaches uptake capacities as high as 7--8 mmol/g, depending on the pH. The optimum pH (3--3.5) corresponded to the predominance range of hydrolyzed polynuclear metal forms and optimum electrostatic attraction. While for <span class="hlt">beads</span>, particle size does not influence equilibrium, for flakes, increasing sorbent radius significantly decreases uptake capacities to 1.5 mmol/g. Sorption kinetics are mainly controlled by intraparticle diffusion for <span class="hlt">beads</span>, while for flakes the controlling mechanisms are both external and intraparticle diffusion. The <span class="hlt">gel</span> conditioning increases the intraparticle diffusivity by 3 orders of magnitude: intraparticle diffusivities range between 10{sup {minus}13} and 10{sup {minus}10} m{sup 2}/min, depending on the sorbent size and the conditioning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23956148','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23956148"><span>High pH reversed-phase chromatography as a superior fractionation scheme compared to off-<span class="hlt">gel</span> isoelectric focusing for <span class="hlt">complex</span> proteome analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stein, Derek R; Hu, Xiaojie; McCorrister, Stuart J; Westmacott, Garrett R; Plummer, Francis A; Ball, Terry B; Carpenter, Michael S</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>MS/MS is the technology of choice for analyzing <span class="hlt">complex</span> protein mixtures. However, due to the intrinsic <span class="hlt">complexity</span> and dynamic range present in higher eukaryotic proteomes, prefractionation is an important step to maximize the number of proteins identified. Off-<span class="hlt">gel</span> IEF (OG-IEF) and high pH RP (Hp-RP) column chromatography have both been successfully utilized as a first-dimension peptide separation technique in shotgun proteomic experiments. Here, a direct comparison of the two methodologies was performed on ex vivo peripheral blood mononuclear cell lysate. In 12-fraction replicate analysis, Hp-RP resulted in more peptides and proteins identified than OG-IEF fractionation. Distributions of peptide pIs and hydropathy did not reveal any appreciable bias in either technique. Resolution, defined here as the ability to limit a specific peptide to one particular fraction, was significantly better for Hp-RP. This leads to a more uniform distribution of total and unique peptides for Hp-RP across all fractions collected. These results suggest that fractionation by Hp-RP over OG-IEF is the better choice for typical <span class="hlt">complex</span> proteome analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5345812','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5345812"><span><span class="hlt">Bead</span> mediated separation of microparticles in droplets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sung, Ki-Joo; Lin, Xiaoxia Nina; Burns, Mark A.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Exchange of components such as particles and cells in droplets is important and highly desired in droplet microfluidic assays, and many current technologies use electrical or magnetic fields to accomplish this process. <span class="hlt">Bead</span>-based microfluidic techniques offer an alternative approach that uses the bead’s solid surface to immobilize targets like particles or biological material. In this paper, we demonstrate a <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based technique for exchanging droplet content by separating fluorescent microparticles in a microfluidic device. The device uses posts to filter surface-functionalized <span class="hlt">beads</span> from a droplet and re-capture the filtered <span class="hlt">beads</span> in a new droplet. With post spacing of 7 μm, <span class="hlt">beads</span> above 10 μm had 100% capture efficiency. We demonstrate the efficacy of this system using targeted particles that bind onto the functionalized <span class="hlt">beads</span> and are, therefore, transferred from one solution to another in the device. Binding capacity tests performed in the bulk phase showed an average binding capacity of 5 particles to each <span class="hlt">bead</span>. The microfluidic device successfully separated the targeted particles from the non-targeted particles with up to 98% purity and 100% yield. PMID:28282412</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/966742','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/966742"><span>Controlled microfluidic production of alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> for in situ encapsulation of microbes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kalyanaraman, Meenaa; Retterer, Scott T; McKnight, Timothy E; Ericson, Milton Nance; Allman, Steve L; Elkins, James G; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Keller, Martin; Doktycz, Mitchel John</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The development and refinement of a microfluidic-based alginate <span class="hlt">bead</span> generator system for bacterial encapsulation is presented. The resulting microgels have application for the encapsulation of single cells, and can allow for small scale, clonal expansion of thousands of isolated cells in parallel. PDMS based microfluidic chips were fabricated using conventional lithography techniques to produce both externally gelled and directly gelled alginate microspheres using a controlled, water-in-oil emulsion system. The production of directly gelled <span class="hlt">beads</span>, formed by the in-chip mixing of aqueous alginate and calcium chloride solutions dispersed within an organic carrier flowstream is qualitatively compared to a system, which produces <span class="hlt">beads</span> and relies on diffusion of a crosslinking agent from the carrier fluid to cause gelation (external gelation). While the direct gelation scheme allows the use of biocompatible oils as the organic carrier, it also has a detrimental effect on device stability often resulting in clogging and <span class="hlt">gel</span>-streaming at the microfluidic interface of these solutions. A design for the continuous production of directly gelled <span class="hlt">beads</span> was evaluated in terms of the threshold flow conditions and reagent concentrations that did not result in clogging or streaming. Monodisperse alginate microgels of 30 mum diameter were produced at frequencies of over 500 <span class="hlt">beads</span> per second. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> could be completely dispersed into aqueous media using an off-chip washing protocol to remove the organic phase. The microgels effectively encapsulated individual or small numbers of GFP-expressing Escherichia. coli, which could be subsequently clonally expanded. The described microfluidic platform is a robust front-end sample preparation technology that shows strong potential for use in drug delivery systems, biosensors, and other cell-based microcompartmentalization applications. The co-culturing of microbial colonies in a large population of alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> will allow for functional</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25086393','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25086393"><span>Adsorption of a cationic surfactant by a magsorbent based on magnetic alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Obeid, Layaly; El Kolli, Nadia; Dali, Noëlle; Talbot, Delphine; Abramson, Sébastien; Welschbillig, Mathias; Cabuil, Valérie; Bée, Agnès</p> <p>2014-10-15</p> <p>Adsorption of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a cationic surfactant, by magnetic alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> (MagAlgbeads) was investigated. The magnetic adsorbent (called magsorbent) was prepared by encapsulation of magnetic functionalized nanoparticles in an alginate <span class="hlt">gel</span>. The influence on CPC adsorption of several parameters such as contact time, pH and initial surfactant concentration was studied. The equilibrium isotherm shows that adsorption occurs through both electrostatic interactions with charge neutralization of the carboxylate groups of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> and hydrophobic interactions inducing the formation of surfactant aggregates in the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The dosage of calcium ions released in the solution turns out to be a useful tool for understanding the adsorption mechanisms. Adsorption is accompanied by a shrinking of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> that corresponds to a 45% reduction of the volume. Adsorption kinetic experiments show that equilibrium time is strongly dependent on the surfactant concentration, which monitors the nature of the interactions. On the other hand, since the pH affects the ionization state of adsorption sites, adsorption depends on the pH solution, maximum adsorption being obtained in a large pH range (3.2-12) in agreement with the pKa value of alginate (pKa=3.4-4.2). Finally, due to the formation of micelle-like surfactants aggregates in the magnetic alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>, they could be used as a new efficient magsorbent for hydrophobic pollutants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1653b0036E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1653b0036E"><span>Formulation of nano-zinc oxide into biocomposite <span class="hlt">beads</span> for dye decolorization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Elkady, M. F.; Hassan, H. Shokry; El-Shazly, A. H.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Zinc oxide nano-powder was prepared using sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> technique to be encapsulated onto polymeric blend composed from alginate and polyvinyl alcohol to fabricate novel bio-composite <span class="hlt">beads</span> of nano-zinc oxide. The XRD patterns of both zinc oxide nano-powder and its polymeric hybrid were crystalline in their nature. The FTIR analysis of the fabricated ZnO polymeric hybrid confirms the binding between zinc oxide and the polymeric matrix. The BET analysis demonstrated that the calculated specific surface area of the formulated ZnO <span class="hlt">beads</span> that equal to 22.8 m2/g is comparatively less than that of the free ZnO nano-powdered that equivalent to 64.9 m2/g. The thermal stability of ZnO nano-powdered dramatically decreased with its immobilization into the polymeric alginate and PVA matrix. The formulated <span class="hlt">beads</span> had very strong mechanical strength and they are difficult to be broken up to 1500rpm. Moreover, this hybrid <span class="hlt">beads</span> are chemically stable at the acidic media. The formulated ZnO hybrid <span class="hlt">beads</span> verified to be good adsorbent material for C.I basic blue 41 (CB41).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24945580','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24945580"><span>Magnetic Pycnoporus sanguineus-loaded alginate composite <span class="hlt">beads</span> for removing dye from aqueous solutions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Chih-Hui; Shih, Ming-Cheng; Chiu, Han-Chen; Huang, Keng-Shiang</p> <p>2014-06-18</p> <p>Dye pollution in wastewater is a severe environmental problem because treating water containing dyes using conventional physical, chemical, and biological treatments is difficult. A conventional process is used to adsorb dyes and filter wastewater. Magnetic filtration is an emerging technology. In this study, magnetic Pycnoporus sanguineus-loaded alginate composite <span class="hlt">beads</span> were employed to remove a dye solution. A white rot fungus, P. sanguineus, immobilized in alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> were used as a biosorbent to remove the dye solution. An alginate polymer could protect P. sanguineus in acidic environments. Superparamagnetic nanomaterials, iron oxide nanoparticles, were combined with alginate <span class="hlt">gels</span> to form magnetic alginate composites. The magnetic guidability of alginate composites and biocompatibility of iron oxide nanoparticles facilitated the magnetic filtration and separation processes. The fungus cells were immobilized in loaded alginate composites to study the influence of the initial dye concentration and pH on the biosorption capacity. The composite <span class="hlt">beads</span> could be removed easily post-adsorption by using a magnetic filtration process. When the amount of composite <span class="hlt">beads</span> was varied, the results of kinetic studies of malachite green adsorption by immobilized cells of P. sanguineus fitted well with the pseudo-second-order model. The results indicated that the magnetic composite <span class="hlt">beads</span> effectively adsorbed the dye solution from wastewater and were environmentally friendly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10940862','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10940862"><span>Characterization of an encapsulation device for the production of monodisperse alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> for cell immobilization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Serp, D; Cantana, E; Heinzen, C; Von Stockar, U; Marison, I W</p> <p>2000-10-05</p> <p>An encapsulation device, designed on the basis of the laminar jet break-up technique, is characterized for cell immobilization with different types of alginate. The principle of operation of the completely sterilizable encapsulator, together with techniques for the continuous production of <span class="hlt">beads</span> from 250 microm to 1 mm in diameter, with a size distribution below 5%, at a flow rate of 1-15 mL/min, is described. A modification of the device, to incorporate an electrostatic potential between the alginate droplets and an internal electrode, results in enhanced monodispersity with no adverse effects on cell viability. The maximum cell loading capacity of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> strongly depends on the nozzle diameter as well as the cells used. For the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma, it is possible to generate 700 microm alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> with an initial cell concentration of 1 x 10(8) cells/mL of alginate whereas only 1 x 10(6) cells/ml could be entrapped within 400 microm <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> have been characterized with respect to mechanical resistance and size distribution immediately after production and as a function of storage conditions. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> remain stable in the presence of acetic acid, hydrochloric acid, water, basic water, and sodium ions. The latter stability applies when the ratio of sodium: calcium ions is less than 1/5. <span class="hlt">Complexing</span> agents such as sodium citrate result in the rapid solubilization of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> due to calcium removal. The presence of cells does not affect the mechanical resistance of the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Finally, the mechanical resistance of alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> can be doubled by treatment with 5-10 kDa chitosan, resulting in reduced leaching of cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11936253','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11936253"><span>Magnetite-alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> for purification of some starch degrading enzymes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Teotia, Sunita; Gupta, M N</p> <p>2002-03-01</p> <p>Starch degrading enzymes, viz., beta-amylase, glucoamylase, and pullulanase, were purified using magnetite-alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>. In each case, the enzyme activity was eluted by using 1.0 M maltose. beta-Amylase (sweet potato), glucoamylase (Aspergillus niger), and pullulanase (Bacillus acidopullulyticus) from their crude preparations were purified 37-, 31-, and 49-fold with 86, 87, and 95% activity recovery, respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis analysis showed single band in each case.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JMMM..293..135M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JMMM..293..135M"><span>Ultra-fast synthesis of magnetic and luminescent silica <span class="hlt">beads</span> for versatile bioanalytical applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Müller-Schulte, Detlef; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Borm, Paul</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>A method for the synthesis of both spherically shaped micro/nano silica particles and silica hybrid particles using a novel inverse sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> suspension technique was developed. The technique enables the synthesis of <span class="hlt">beads</span> within seconds and provides a simple basis for quantum dot and biosubstances encapsulation. The carriers can be used as DNA adsorbents, individually addressable optical codes for bioassays and biomolecule library screening as well as photonic crystals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1390624','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1390624"><span>A small (58-nm) attached sphere perturbs the sieving of 40-80-kilobase DNA in 0.2-2.5% agarose <span class="hlt">gels</span>: analysis of bacteriophage T7 capsid-DNA <span class="hlt">complexes</span> by use of pulsed field electrophoresis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Serwer, P; Hayes, S J; Moreno, E T; Park, C Y</p> <p>1992-09-15</p> <p>Although the icosahedral bacteriophage T7 capsid has a diameter (58 nm) that is 234-fold smaller than the length of the linear, double-stranded T7 DNA, binding of a T7 capsid to T7 DNA is found here to have dramatic effects on the migration of the DNA during both pulsed field agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis (PFGE; the field inversion mode is used) and constant field agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis (CFGE). For these studies, capsid-DNA <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were obtained by expelling DNA from mature bacteriophage T7; this procedure yields DNA with capsids bound at a variable position on the DNA. When subjected to CFGE at 2-6 V/cm in 0.20-2.5% agarose <span class="hlt">gels</span>, capsid-DNA <span class="hlt">complexes</span> arrest at the electrophoretic origin. Progressively lowering the electrical potential gradient to 0.5 V/cm results in migration; most <span class="hlt">complexes</span> form a single band. The elevated electrical potential gradient (3 V/cm) induced arrest of capsid-DNA <span class="hlt">complexes</span> is reversed when PFGE is used instead of CFGE. For some conditions of PFGE, the mobility of capsid-DNA <span class="hlt">complexes</span> is a function of the position of the capsid on the DNA. During either CFGE (0.5 V/cm) or PFGE, capsid-DNA <span class="hlt">complexes</span> increasingly separate from capsid-free DNA as the percentage of agarose increases. During these studies, capsid-DNA <span class="hlt">complexes</span> are identified by electron microscopy of enzymatically-digested pieces of agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span>; this is apparently the first successful electron microscopy of DNA from an agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span>.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4299378','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4299378"><span>Ultrasensitive proteome analysis using paramagnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hughes, Christopher S; Foehr, Sophia; Garfield, David A; Furlong, Eileen E; Steinmetz, Lars M; Krijgsveld, Jeroen</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In order to obtain a systems-level understanding of a <span class="hlt">complex</span> biological system, detailed proteome information is essential. Despite great progress in proteomics technologies, thorough interrogation of the proteome from quantity-limited biological samples is hampered by inefficiencies during processing. To address these challenges, here we introduce a novel protocol using paramagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>, termed Single-Pot Solid-Phase-enhanced Sample Preparation (SP3). SP3 provides a rapid and unbiased means of proteomic sample preparation in a single tube that facilitates ultrasensitive analysis by outperforming existing protocols in terms of efficiency, scalability, speed, throughput, and flexibility. To illustrate these benefits, characterization of 1,000 HeLa cells and single Drosophila embryos is used to establish that SP3 provides an enhanced platform for profiling proteomes derived from sub-microgram amounts of material. These data present a first view of developmental stage-specific proteome dynamics in Drosophila at a single-embryo resolution, permitting characterization of inter-individual expression variation. Together, the findings of this work position SP3 as a superior protocol that facilitates exciting new directions in multiple areas of proteomics ranging from developmental biology to clinical applications. PMID:25358341</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=String+AND+theory&pg=5&id=EJ567976','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=String+AND+theory&pg=5&id=EJ567976"><span><span class="hlt">Beads</span> + String = Atoms You Can See.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hermann, Christine K. F.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Presents hands-on activities that give students a head start in learning the vocabulary and basic theory involved in understanding atomic structure. Uses <span class="hlt">beads</span> to represent protons, neutrons, and electrons and string to represent orbitals. (DDR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25864009','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25864009"><span>Fibrous polymer grafted magnetic chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> with strong poly(cation-exchange) groups for single step purification of lysozyme.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bayramoglu, Gulay; Tekinay, Turgay; Ozalp, V Cengiz; Arica, M Yakup</p> <p>2015-05-15</p> <p>Lysozyme is an important polypetide used in medical and food applications. We report a novel magnetic strong cation exchange <span class="hlt">beads</span> for efficient purification of lysozyme from chicken egg white. Magnetic chitosan (MCHT) <span class="hlt">beads</span> were synthesized via phase inversion method, and then grafted with poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (p(GMA)) via the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). Epoxy groups of the grafted polymer, were modified into strong cation-exchange groups (i.e., sulfonate groups) in the presence of sodium sulfite. The MCTH and MCTH-g-p(GMA)-SO3H <span class="hlt">beads</span> were characterized by ATR-FTIR, SEM, and VSM. The sulphonate groups content of the modified MCTH-g-p(GMA)-4 <span class="hlt">beads</span> was found to be 0.53mmolg(-1) of <span class="hlt">beads</span> by the potentiometric titration method. The MCTH-g-p(GMA)-SO3H <span class="hlt">beads</span> were first used as an ion-exchange support for adsorption of lysozyme from aqueous solution. The influence of different experimental parameters such as pH, contact time, and temperature on the adsorption process was evaluated. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 208.7mgg(-1) <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Adsorption of lysozyme on the MCTH-g-p(GMA)-SO3H <span class="hlt">beads</span> fitted to Langmuir isotherm model and followed the pseudo second-order kinetic. More than 93% of the adsorbed lysozyme was desorbed using Na2CO3 solution (pH 11.0). The purity of the lysozyme was checked by HPLC and SDS <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis. In addition, the MCTH-g-p(GMA)-SO3H <span class="hlt">beads</span> prepared in this work showed promising potential for separation of various anionic molecules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17655349','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17655349"><span>Deswelling kinetics of polyacrylate <span class="hlt">gels</span> in solutions of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nilsson, Peter; Hansson, Per</p> <p>2007-08-23</p> <p>The deswelling kinetics of single sodium polyacrylate <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> (radius 40-160 microm) in aqueous solutions of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide under conditions of forced convection are investigated using micromanipulator assisted light microscopy. The purpose of the study is to further evaluate a previously published model (J. Phys. Chem. B 2003, 107, 9203) using a higher homolog surfactant. For <span class="hlt">gels</span> with expected fast deswelling (small <span class="hlt">gel</span> size/low surfactant concentration) and/or in low electrolyte concentration, the model is found to correctly predict the deswelling characteristics of the <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span>. However, for some <span class="hlt">gels</span> with expected slow deswelling, especially in high electrolyte concentration (10 mM NaBr), the model widely underestimates the required deswelling time. The reason for this is argued to be the longer time frame and high bromide concentration allowing the formation of a denser, more ordered structure in the surface phase, which resists the deformation and reorganization of material necessary for deswelling. Unexpectedly long lag times before the start of deswelling are also found for <span class="hlt">gels</span> in low surfactant concentration, indicating that a relatively high surfactant concentration in the <span class="hlt">gel</span>, greatly exceeding the critical aggregation concentration, is needed to start formation of a collapsed surface phase. This critical surfactant concentration is found to be dependent on initial <span class="hlt">gel</span> radius, as small <span class="hlt">gels</span> require a relatively higher concentration to initiate collapse.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26276456','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26276456"><span>Acupressure <span class="hlt">Bead</span> in the Eustachian Tube.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Igarashi, Kazunori; Matsumoto, Yu; Kakigi, Akinobu</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>In this article, we aim to enlighten practitioners and patients involved with acupressure <span class="hlt">beads</span> and to contribute to their safer use by reporting a unique case of insidious intrusion of an acupressure <span class="hlt">bead</span> into the eustachian tube. A metallic object was found in the eustachian tube of a patient while conducting a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. The object was later confirmed to be an auricular acupressure <span class="hlt">bead</span>, and was successfully removed by performing a tympanoplasty and a canal wall down mastoidectomy. The <span class="hlt">bead</span> was assumed to have passed through an existing perforation of the tympanic membrane. According to previously published literature, tympanic membrane perforations exist in ∼1% of the population. Therefore, middle-ear foreign bodies are relatively common occurrences for otolaryngologists. However, metallic objects such as acupressure <span class="hlt">beads</span> are especially important in the sense that they can cause severe burns during MRI. To avoid potential complications, acupressure-<span class="hlt">bead</span> practitioners should be aware of the possibility that intrusions through the tympanic membrane could go unnoticed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AIPC.1027.1093H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AIPC.1027.1093H"><span>Modeling Aspects of Two-<span class="hlt">Bead</span> Microrheology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hohenegger, Christel; Forest, M. Gregory</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>We revisit the Mason and Weitz (Phys. Rev. Lett., 74, 1995) and Levine and Lubensky (Phys. Rev. Lett., 85, 2000) analysis for one- and two-<span class="hlt">bead</span> microrheology. Our first motivation is the possibility of drawing inferences from experimental data about local diffusive properties of individual <span class="hlt">beads</span> and nonlocal dynamic moduli of the medium separating the two <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Our second motivation is the ability to perform direct numerical simulations of hydrodynamically coupled Brownian <span class="hlt">beads</span> in soft matter. For both goals, we first must have a model for the coupling between these two transport properties. We reformulate the coupled generalized Langevin equations (GLE) following the scalar GLE analysis of Fricks et al. (J. Appl. Math., 2008), assuming an exponential series parametrization of both local and nonlocal memory kernels. We then show the two-<span class="hlt">bead</span> GLE model can be represented as a vector Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, which allows for a fast and statistically accurate numerical simulation of coupled <span class="hlt">bead</span> paths (time series) and of ensemble-averaged statistics of the process. In this proceedings, we announce the framework to accomplish these two goals of inversion and direct simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22915363','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22915363"><span>NIST/ISAC standardization study: variability in assignment of intensity values to fluorescence standard <span class="hlt">beads</span> and in cross calibration of standard <span class="hlt">beads</span> to hard dyed <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hoffman, Robert A; Wang, Lili; Bigos, Martin; Nolan, John P</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Results from a standardization study cosponsored by the International Society for Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC) and the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are reported. The study evaluated the variability of assigning intensity values to fluorophore standard <span class="hlt">beads</span> by <span class="hlt">bead</span> manufacturers and the variability of cross calibrating the standard <span class="hlt">beads</span> to stained polymer <span class="hlt">beads</span> (hard-dyed <span class="hlt">beads</span>) using different flow cytometers. Hard dyed <span class="hlt">beads</span> are generally not spectrally matched to the fluorophores used to stain cells, and spectral response varies among flow cytometers. Thus if hard dyed <span class="hlt">beads</span> are used as fluorescence calibrators, one expects calibration for specific fluorophores (e.g., FITC or PE) to vary among different instruments. Using standard <span class="hlt">beads</span> surface-stained with specific fluorophores (FITC, PE, APC, and Pacific Blue™), the study compared the measured intensity of fluorophore standard <span class="hlt">beads</span> to that of hard dyed <span class="hlt">beads</span> through cross calibration on 133 different flow cytometers. Using robust CV as a measure of variability, the variation of cross calibrated values was typically 20% or more for a particular hard dyed <span class="hlt">bead</span> in a specific detection channel. The variation across different instrument models was often greater than the variation within a particular instrument model. As a separate part of the study, NIST and four <span class="hlt">bead</span> manufacturers used a NIST supplied protocol and calibrated fluorophore solution standards to assign intensity values to the fluorophore <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Values assigned to the reference <span class="hlt">beads</span> by different groups varied by orders of magnitude in most cases, reflecting differences in instrumentation used to perform the calibration. The study concluded that the use of any spectrally unmatched hard dyed <span class="hlt">bead</span> as a general fluorescence calibrator must be verified and characterized for every particular instrument model. Close interaction between <span class="hlt">bead</span> manufacturers and NIST is recommended to have reliable and uniformly assigned</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5118707','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5118707"><span>Artificial Intelligence vs. Statistical Modeling and Optimization of Continuous <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Milling Process for Bacterial Cell Lysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Haque, Shafiul; Khan, Saif; Wahid, Mohd; Dar, Sajad A.; Soni, Nipunjot; Mandal, Raju K.; Singh, Vineeta; Tiwari, Dileep; Lohani, Mohtashim; Areeshi, Mohammed Y.; Govender, Thavendran; Kruger, Hendrik G.; Jawed, Arshad</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>For a commercially viable recombinant intracellular protein production process, efficient cell lysis and protein release is a major bottleneck. The recovery of recombinant protein, cholesterol oxidase (COD) was studied in a continuous <span class="hlt">bead</span> milling process. A full factorial response surface methodology (RSM) design was employed and compared to artificial neural networks coupled with genetic algorithm (ANN-GA). Significant process variables, cell slurry feed rate (A), <span class="hlt">bead</span> load (B), cell load (C), and run time (D), were investigated and optimized for maximizing COD recovery. RSM predicted an optimum of feed rate of 310.73 mL/h, <span class="hlt">bead</span> loading of 79.9% (v/v), cell loading OD600 nm of 74, and run time of 29.9 min with a recovery of ~3.2 g/L. ANN-GA predicted a maximum COD recovery of ~3.5 g/L at an optimum feed rate (mL/h): 258.08, <span class="hlt">bead</span> loading (%, v/v): 80%, cell loading (OD600 nm): 73.99, and run time of 32 min. An overall 3.7-fold increase in productivity is obtained when compared to a batch process. Optimization and comparison of statistical vs. artificial intelligence techniques in continuous <span class="hlt">bead</span> milling process has been attempted for the very first time in our study. We were able to successfully represent the <span class="hlt">complex</span> non-linear multivariable dependence of enzyme recovery on <span class="hlt">bead</span> milling parameters. The quadratic second order response functions are not flexible enough to represent such <span class="hlt">complex</span> non-linear dependence. ANN being a summation function of multiple layers are capable to represent <span class="hlt">complex</span> non-linear dependence of variables in this case; enzyme recovery as a function of <span class="hlt">bead</span> milling parameters. Since GA can even optimize discontinuous functions present study cites a perfect example of using machine learning (ANN) in combination with evolutionary optimization (GA) for representing undefined biological functions which is the case for common industrial processes involving biological moieties. PMID:27920762</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27920762','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27920762"><span>Artificial Intelligence vs. Statistical Modeling and Optimization of Continuous <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Milling Process for Bacterial Cell Lysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haque, Shafiul; Khan, Saif; Wahid, Mohd; Dar, Sajad A; Soni, Nipunjot; Mandal, Raju K; Singh, Vineeta; Tiwari, Dileep; Lohani, Mohtashim; Areeshi, Mohammed Y; Govender, Thavendran; Kruger, Hendrik G; Jawed, Arshad</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>For a commercially viable recombinant intracellular protein production process, efficient cell lysis and protein release is a major bottleneck. The recovery of recombinant protein, cholesterol oxidase (COD) was studied in a continuous <span class="hlt">bead</span> milling process. A full factorial response surface methodology (RSM) design was employed and compared to artificial neural networks coupled with genetic algorithm (ANN-GA). Significant process variables, cell slurry feed rate (A), <span class="hlt">bead</span> load (B), cell load (C), and run time (D), were investigated and optimized for maximizing COD recovery. RSM predicted an optimum of feed rate of 310.73 mL/h, <span class="hlt">bead</span> loading of 79.9% (v/v), cell loading OD600nm of 74, and run time of 29.9 min with a recovery of ~3.2 g/L. ANN-GA predicted a maximum COD recovery of ~3.5 g/L at an optimum feed rate (mL/h): 258.08, <span class="hlt">bead</span> loading (%, v/v): 80%, cell loading (OD600nm): 73.99, and run time of 32 min. An overall 3.7-fold increase in productivity is obtained when compared to a batch process. Optimization and comparison of statistical vs. artificial intelligence techniques in continuous <span class="hlt">bead</span> milling process has been attempted for the very first time in our study. We were able to successfully represent the <span class="hlt">complex</span> non-linear multivariable dependence of enzyme recovery on <span class="hlt">bead</span> milling parameters. The quadratic second order response functions are not flexible enough to represent such <span class="hlt">complex</span> non-linear dependence. ANN being a summation function of multiple layers are capable to represent <span class="hlt">complex</span> non-linear dependence of variables in this case; enzyme recovery as a function of <span class="hlt">bead</span> milling parameters. Since GA can even optimize discontinuous functions present study cites a perfect example of using machine learning (ANN) in combination with evolutionary optimization (GA) for representing undefined biological functions which is the case for common industrial processes involving biological moieties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4753426','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4753426"><span>“Nanofiltration” Enabled by Super-Absorbent Polymer <span class="hlt">Beads</span> for Concentrating Microorganisms in Water Samples</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xie, Xing; Bahnemann, Janina; Wang, Siwen; Yang, Yang; Hoffmann, Michael R.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Detection and quantification of pathogens in water is critical for the protection of human health and for drinking water safety and security. When the pathogen concentrations are low, large sample volumes (several liters) are needed to achieve reliable quantitative results. However, most microbial identification methods utilize relatively small sample volumes. As a consequence, a concentration step is often required to detect pathogens in natural waters. Herein, we introduce a novel water sample concentration method based on superabsorbent polymer (SAP) <span class="hlt">beads</span>. When SAP <span class="hlt">beads</span> swell with water, small molecules can be sorbed within the <span class="hlt">beads</span>, but larger particles are excluded and, thus, concentrated in the residual non-sorbed water. To illustrate this approach, millimeter-sized poly(acrylamide-co-itaconic acid) (P(AM-co-IA)) <span class="hlt">beads</span> are synthesized and successfully applied to concentrate water samples containing two model microorganisms: Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Experimental results indicate that the size of the water channel within water swollen P(AM-co-IA) hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> is on the order of several nanometers. The millimeter size coupled with a negative surface charge of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> are shown to be critical in order to achieve high levels of concentration. This new concentration procedure is very fast, effective, scalable, and low-cost with no need for <span class="hlt">complex</span> instrumentation. PMID:26876979</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26876979','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26876979"><span>"Nanofiltration" Enabled by Super-Absorbent Polymer <span class="hlt">Beads</span> for Concentrating Microorganisms in Water Samples.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xie, Xing; Bahnemann, Janina; Wang, Siwen; Yang, Yang; Hoffmann, Michael R</p> <p>2016-02-15</p> <p>Detection and quantification of pathogens in water is critical for the protection of human health and for drinking water safety and security. When the pathogen concentrations are low, large sample volumes (several liters) are needed to achieve reliable quantitative results. However, most microbial identification methods utilize relatively small sample volumes. As a consequence, a concentration step is often required to detect pathogens in natural waters. Herein, we introduce a novel water sample concentration method based on superabsorbent polymer (SAP) <span class="hlt">beads</span>. When SAP <span class="hlt">beads</span> swell with water, small molecules can be sorbed within the <span class="hlt">beads</span>, but larger particles are excluded and, thus, concentrated in the residual non-sorbed water. To illustrate this approach, millimeter-sized poly(acrylamide-co-itaconic acid) (P(AM-co-IA)) <span class="hlt">beads</span> are synthesized and successfully applied to concentrate water samples containing two model microorganisms: Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Experimental results indicate that the size of the water channel within water swollen P(AM-co-IA) hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> is on the order of several nanometers. The millimeter size coupled with a negative surface charge of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> are shown to be critical in order to achieve high levels of concentration. This new concentration procedure is very fast, effective, scalable, and low-cost with no need for <span class="hlt">complex</span> instrumentation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...620516X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...620516X"><span>“Nanofiltration” Enabled by Super-Absorbent Polymer <span class="hlt">Beads</span> for Concentrating Microorganisms in Water Samples</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xie, Xing; Bahnemann, Janina; Wang, Siwen; Yang, Yang; Hoffmann, Michael R.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Detection and quantification of pathogens in water is critical for the protection of human health and for drinking water safety and security. When the pathogen concentrations are low, large sample volumes (several liters) are needed to achieve reliable quantitative results. However, most microbial identification methods utilize relatively small sample volumes. As a consequence, a concentration step is often required to detect pathogens in natural waters. Herein, we introduce a novel water sample concentration method based on superabsorbent polymer (SAP) <span class="hlt">beads</span>. When SAP <span class="hlt">beads</span> swell with water, small molecules can be sorbed within the <span class="hlt">beads</span>, but larger particles are excluded and, thus, concentrated in the residual non-sorbed water. To illustrate this approach, millimeter-sized poly(acrylamide-co-itaconic acid) (P(AM-co-IA)) <span class="hlt">beads</span> are synthesized and successfully applied to concentrate water samples containing two model microorganisms: Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Experimental results indicate that the size of the water channel within water swollen P(AM-co-IA) hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> is on the order of several nanometers. The millimeter size coupled with a negative surface charge of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> are shown to be critical in order to achieve high levels of concentration. This new concentration procedure is very fast, effective, scalable, and low-cost with no need for <span class="hlt">complex</span> instrumentation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JAP...107e4702F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JAP...107e4702F"><span>On-chip magnetic separation of superparamagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> for integrated molecular analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Florescu, Octavian; Wang, Kevan; Au, Patrick; Tang, Jimmy; Harris, Eva; Beatty, P. Robert; Boser, Bernhard E.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>We have demonstrated a postprocessed complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit (IC) capable of on-chip magnetic separation, i.e., removing via magnetic forces the nonspecifically bound magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> from the detection area on the surface of the chip. Initially, 4.5 μm wide superparamagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> sedimenting out of solution due to gravity were attracted to the detection area by a magnetic concentration force generated by flowing current through a conductor embedded in the IC. After sedimentation, the magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> that did not bind strongly to the functionalized surface of the IC through a specific biochemical <span class="hlt">complex</span> were removed by a magnetic separation force generated by flowing current through another conductor placed laterally to the detection area. As the spherical <span class="hlt">bead</span> pivoted on the surface of the chip, the lateral magnetic force was further amplified by mechanical leveraging, and 50 mA of current flowing through the separation conductor placed 18 μm away from the <span class="hlt">bead</span> resulted in 7.5 pN of tensile force on the biomolecular tether immobilizing the <span class="hlt">bead</span>. This force proved high enough to break nonspecific interactions while leaving specific antibody-antigen bonds intact. A sandwich capture immunoassay on purified human immunoglobulin G showed strong correlation with a control enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and a detection limit of 10 ng/ml or 70 pM. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> bound to the detection area after on-chip magnetic separation were detected optically. To implement a fully integrated molecular diagnostics platform, the on-chip magnetic separation functionality presented in this work can be readily combine with state-of-the art CMOS-based magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> detection technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Acids&pg=6&id=EJ997045','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Acids&pg=6&id=EJ997045"><span>The <span class="hlt">Beads</span> of Translation: Using <span class="hlt">Beads</span> to Translate mRNA into a Polypeptide Bracelet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dunlap, Dacey; Patrick, Patricia</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>During this activity, by making <span class="hlt">beaded</span> bracelets that represent the steps of translation, students simulate the creation of an amino acid chain. They are given an mRNA sequence that they translate into a corresponding polypeptide chain (<span class="hlt">beads</span>). This activity focuses on the events and sites of translation. The activity provides students with a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20691973','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20691973"><span>Fabrication of superporous agarose <span class="hlt">beads</span> for protein adsorption: effect of CaCO3 granules content.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Du, Kai-Feng; Bai, Shu; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Yan</p> <p>2010-09-10</p> <p>Agarose <span class="hlt">gels</span> were fabricated by water-in-oil emulsification with the addition of CaCO(3) granules at 8-16 wt%. Thus agarose <span class="hlt">beads</span> of different superporosities were produced after dissolving the solid porogen. The superporous agarose (SA) and homogeneous agarose <span class="hlt">gels</span> were double cross-linked and modified with diethylaminoethyl chloride to produce anion exchangers. We have proposed to use a superporous replica (porous titania microspheres) to examine the superporous structure and pore size distribution of the soft <span class="hlt">gel</span>. The replica was prepared with the agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span> entrapping CaCO(3) granules by a sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span>-templating method. It was found that the superpores created by CaCO(3) granules were uniformly distributed and ranged from 0.95 microm to 1.33 microm. The physical properties of the <span class="hlt">gels</span> were significantly affected by the porogen content. Importantly, by increasing the solid porogen to 12 wt%, the bed permeability and effective porosity increased about 48% and 33%, respectively. Further increase in the porogen to 16 wt% led to a decrease of the mechanical strength. With increasing superpores in the <span class="hlt">beads</span>, the dynamic adsorption capacity of the packed columns increased obviously at 305-916 cm/h. Besides, the column efficiency changed less with increasing flow velocity up to 1200 cm/h. It was concluded that the use of 12 wt% CaCO(3) granules in agarose solution was beneficial for the fabrication of the SA <span class="hlt">gel</span> with good mechanical stability and promising performance for protein chromatography.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24461838','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24461838"><span>Synthesis of phenolic precursor-based porous carbon <span class="hlt">beads</span> in situ dispersed with copper-silver bimetal nanoparticles for antibacterial applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Khare, Prateek; Sharma, Ashutosh; Verma, Nishith</p> <p>2014-03-15</p> <p>Copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) bimetal-dispersed polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span> (~0.7 mm) were synthesized by suspension polymerization using phenol and formaldehyde monomers. The Cu:Ag bimetal nanoparticles (Nps) were incorporated into the polymeric matrix at the incipience of <span class="hlt">gel</span> formation during polymerization using an anionic surfactant. The prepared bimetal-doped polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span> were carbonized, activated using steam, and reduced in a hydrogen atmosphere to produce metal Nps-doped porous carbon <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The prepared bimetal (Cu and Ag) Nps-doped <span class="hlt">beads</span> exhibited significantly larger anti-bacterial activities than single-(Cu or Ag) metal-doped <span class="hlt">beads</span> for both gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria. The prepared materials contained the total optimized amounts of Cu and Ag. These amounts were smaller (approximately half) than the amount of single metal (Cu or Ag) required for preparing single-metal-doped <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Although Cu Nps exhibit lesser antibacterial activity than Ag Nps, it enhanced the porosity of the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The prepared bimetal <span class="hlt">beads</span> remained effective for 120 h, completely inhibiting the bacterial growth, and therefore, they are potential antibacterial agents for water purification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMMM..398..109H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMMM..398..109H"><span>Influence of carboxylic acid type on microstructure and magnetic properties of polymeric <span class="hlt">complex</span> sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> driven NiFe2O4</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hessien, M. M.; Mostafa, Nasser Y.; Abd-Elkader, Omar H.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Citric, oxalic and tartaric acids were used for synthesis of NiFe2O4 using polymeric <span class="hlt">complex</span> precursor route. The dry precursor <span class="hlt">gels</span> were calcined at various temperatures (400-1100 °C) for 2 h. All carboxylic acids produce iron-deficient NiFe2O4 with considerable amount of α-Fe2O3 at 400 °C. Increase in the annealing temperature caused reaction of α-Fe2O3 with iron-deficient ferrite phase. The amount of initially formed α-Fe2O3 is directly correlated with stability constant and inversely correlated with the decomposition temperature of Fe(III) carboxylate precursors. In case of tartaric acid precursor, single phase of the ferrite was obtained at 450 °C. However, in case of oxalic acid and citric acid precursors, single phase ferrite was obtained at 550 °C and 700 °C, respectively. The lattice parameters were increased with increasing annealing temperature and with decreasing the amount of α-Fe2O3. Maximum saturation magnetization (55 emu/g) was achieved using tartaric acid precursor annealed at 1100 °C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....1111391A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....1111391A"><span><span class="hlt">Beaded</span> streams of Arctic permafrost landscapes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arp, C. D.; Whitman, M. S.; Jones, B. M.; Grosse, G.; Gaglioti, B. V.; Heim, K. C.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Beaded</span> streams are widespread in permafrost regions and are considered a common thermokarst landform. However, little is known about their distribution, how and under what conditions they form, and how their intriguing morphology translates to ecosystem functions and habitat. Here we report on a Circum-Arctic inventory of <span class="hlt">beaded</span> streams and a watershed-scale analysis in northern Alaska using remote sensing and field studies. We mapped over 400 channel networks with <span class="hlt">beaded</span> morphology throughout the continuous permafrost zone of northern Alaska, Canada, and Russia and found the highest abundance associated with medium- to high-ice content permafrost in moderately sloping terrain. In the Fish Creek watershed, <span class="hlt">beaded</span> streams accounted for half of the drainage density, occurring primarily as low-order channels initiating from lakes and drained lake basins. <span class="hlt">Beaded</span> streams predictably transition to alluvial channels with increasing drainage area and decreasing channel slope, although this transition is modified by local controls on water and sediment delivery. Comparison of one <span class="hlt">beaded</span> channel using repeat photography between 1948 and 2013 indicate relatively stable form and 14C dating of basal sediments suggest channel formation may be as early as the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Contemporary processes, such as deep snow accumulation in stream gulches effectively insulates river ice and allows for perennial liquid water below most <span class="hlt">beaded</span> stream pools. Because of this, mean annual temperatures in pool beds are greater than 2 °C, leading to the development of perennial thaw bulbs or taliks underlying these thermokarst features. In the summer, some pools stratify thermally, which reduces permafrost thaw and maintains coldwater habitats. Snowmelt generated peak-flows decrease rapidly by two or more orders of magnitude to summer low flows with slow reach-scale velocity distributions ranging from 0.1 to 0.01 m s-1, yet channel runs still move water rapidly between pools</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020000780','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020000780"><span>Aerogel <span class="hlt">Beads</span> as Cryogenic Thermal Insulation System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Rouanet, S.; Thompson, Karen (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>An investigation of the use of aerogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> as thermal insulation for cryogenic applications was conducted at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. Steady-state liquid nitrogen boiloff methods were used to characterize the thermal performance of aerogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> in comparison with conventional insulation products such as perlite powder and multilayer insulation (MLI). Aerogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> produced by Cabot Corporation have a bulk density below 100 kilograms per cubic meter (kg/cubic m) and a mean particle diameter of 1 millimeter (mm). The apparent thermal conductivity values of the bulk material have been determined under steady-state conditions at boundary temperatures of approximately 293 and 77 kelvin (K) and at various cold vacuum pressures (CVP). Vacuum levels ranged from 10(exp -5) torr to 760 torr. All test articles were made in a cylindrical configuration with a typical insulation thickness of 25 mm. Temperature profiles through the thickness of the test specimens were also measured. The results showed the performance of the aerogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> was significantly better than the conventional materials in both soft-vacuum (1 to 10 torr) and no-vacuum (760 torr) ranges. Opacified aerogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> performed better than perlite powder under high-vacuum conditions. Further studies for material optimization and system application are in progress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhRvE..67f6710I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhRvE..67f6710I"><span><span class="hlt">Bead</span>-Fourier path integral molecular dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ivanov, Sergei D.; Lyubartsev, Alexander P.; Laaksonen, Aatto</p> <p>2003-06-01</p> <p>Molecular dynamics formulation of <span class="hlt">Bead</span>-Fourier path integral method for simulation of quantum systems at finite temperatures is presented. Within this scheme, both the <span class="hlt">bead</span> coordinates and Fourier coefficients, defining the path representing the quantum particle, are treated as generalized coordinates with corresponding generalized momenta and masses. Introduction of the Fourier harmonics together with the center-of-mass thermostating scheme is shown to remove the ergodicity problem, known to pose serious difficulties in standard path integral molecular dynamics simulations. The method is tested for quantum harmonic oscillator and hydrogen atom (Coulombic potential). The simulation results are compared with the exact analytical solutions available for both these systems. Convergence of the results with respect to the number of <span class="hlt">beads</span> and Fourier harmonics is analyzed. It was shown that addition of a few Fourier harmonics already improves the simulation results substantially, even for a relatively small number of <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The proposed <span class="hlt">Bead</span>-Fourier path integral molecular dynamics is a reliable and efficient alternative to simulations of quantum systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18379932','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18379932"><span>Alternate polyelectrolyte coating of chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> for extending drug release.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Srinatha, A; Pandit, Jayanta K</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In the present study, we addressed the factors modifying ciprofloxacin release from multiple coated <span class="hlt">beads</span>. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> were prepared by simple ionic cross-linking with sodium tripolyphoshate and coated with alginate and/or chitosan to prepare single, double, or multilayered <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The water uptake capacity depended on the nature of <span class="hlt">beads</span> (coated or uncoated) and pH of test medium. The number of coatings given to the <span class="hlt">beads</span> influenced ciprofloxacin release rate. The coating significantly decreased the drug release from the <span class="hlt">beads</span> in comparison to uncoated <span class="hlt">beads</span> (p < 0.001). When the <span class="hlt">beads</span> were given three coatings, viz., alginate, chitosan, and again alginate, the drug release appeared to follow the pattern exhibited by colon-targeted drug delivery systems with time dependent release behavior. The increase in coating formed a barrier for easy ingress of dissolution medium into the <span class="hlt">bead</span> matrix, reducing the diffusion of drug.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19023486','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19023486"><span>Heterogeneous immunoassays using magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> on a digital microfluidic platform.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sista, Ramakrishna S; Eckhardt, Allen E; Srinivasan, Vijay; Pollack, Michael G; Palanki, Srinivas; Pamula, Vamsee K</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>A digital microfluidic platform for performing heterogeneous sandwich immunoassays based on efficient handling of magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> is presented in this paper. This approach is based on manipulation of discrete droplets of samples and reagents using electrowetting without the need for channels where the droplets are free to move laterally. Droplet-based manipulation of magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> therefore does not suffer from clogging of channels. Immunoassays on a digital microfluidic platform require the following basic operations: <span class="hlt">bead</span> attraction, <span class="hlt">bead</span> washing, <span class="hlt">bead</span> retention, and <span class="hlt">bead</span> resuspension. Several parameters such as magnetic field strength, pull force, position, and buffer composition were studied for effective <span class="hlt">bead</span> operations. Dilution-based washing of magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> was demonstrated by immobilizing the magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> using a permanent magnet and splitting the excess supernatant using electrowetting. Almost 100% <span class="hlt">bead</span> retention was achieved after 7776-fold dilution-based washing of the supernatant. Efficient resuspension of magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> was achieved by transporting a droplet with magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> across five electrodes on the platform and exploiting the flow patterns within the droplet to resuspend the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. All the magnetic-<span class="hlt">bead</span> droplet operations were integrated together to generate standard curves for sandwich heterogeneous immunoassays on human insulin and interleukin-6 (IL-6) with a total time to result of 7 min for each assay.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApSS..257.6963Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApSS..257.6963Q"><span>Preparation of silver nanoparticle containing silica micro <span class="hlt">beads</span> and investigation of their antibacterial activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Quang, Dang Viet; Sarawade, Pradip B.; Hilonga, Askwar; Kim, Jong-Kil; Chai, Young Gyu; Kim, Sang Hoon; Ryu, Jae-Yong; Kim, Hee Taik</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>Silver nanoparticle containing silica micro <span class="hlt">beads</span> (Ag-NPBs) were successfully prepared by using sodium silicate, a cheap precursor, involving chemical reductive method. First, silica <span class="hlt">gel</span> was synthesized and crushed into micro <span class="hlt">beads</span> which have sizes ranging from 0.5 to 1 mm. Silica micro <span class="hlt">beads</span> were then modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane to graft amino functional groups onto their surface. Silver ions were loaded onto the surface of the modified silica and reduced to silver crystal by adding NaBH 4. The presence of silver nanoparticles as well as structure of materials was characterized with FT-IR, XRD, BET, FE-SEM, TEM, UV-vis spectrophotometer, and optical microscope. Silver nanoparticles with an average size about 5 nm were found in the pore and on the surface of amino functionalized silica <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Ag-NPBs samples were tested for their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ( E. coli). The antibacterial activity was examined by both zone inhibition and test tube test method. Biological results indicated that the synthesized materials have an excellent antibacterial performance against E. coli which was completely inhibited after 5 min contact with Ag-NPBs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100027520','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100027520"><span>Aerosol <span class="hlt">gels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sorensen, Christopher M. (Inventor); Chakrabarti, Amitabha (Inventor); Dhaubhadel, Rajan (Inventor); Gerving, Corey (Inventor)</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>An improved process for the production of ultralow density, high specific surface area <span class="hlt">gel</span> products is provided which comprises providing, in an enclosed chamber, a mixture made up of small particles of material suspended in gas; the particles are then caused to aggregate in the chamber to form ramified fractal aggregate <span class="hlt">gels</span>. The particles should have a radius (a) of up to about 50 nm and the aerosol should have a volume fraction (f.sub.v) of at least 10.sup.-4. In preferred practice, the mixture is created by a spark-induced explosion of a precursor material (e.g., a hydrocarbon) and oxygen within the chamber. New compositions of matter are disclosed having densities below 3.0 mg/cc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160014038','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160014038"><span>Cooling Rates of Lunar Volcanic Glass <span class="hlt">Beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hui, Hejiu; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Zhang, Youxue; Peslier, Anne; Lange, Rebecca; Dingwell, Donald; Neal, Clive</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>It is widely accepted that the Apollo 15 green and Apollo 17 orange glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> are of volcanic origin. The diffusion profiles of volatiles in these glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> are believed to be due to degassing during eruption (Saal et al., 2008). The degree of degassing depends on the initial temperature and cooling rate. Therefore, the estimations of volatiles in parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits depend on melt cooling rates. Furthermore, lunar glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> may have cooled in volcanic environments on the moon. Therefore, the cooling rates may be used to assess the atmospheric condition in an early moon, when volcanic activities were common. The cooling rates of glasses can be inferred from direct heat capacity measurements on the glasses themselves (Wilding et al., 1995, 1996a,b). This method does not require knowledge of glass cooling environments and has been applied to calculate the cooling rates of natural silicate glasses formed in different terrestrial environments. We have carried out heat capacity measurements on hand-picked lunar glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> using a Netzsch DSC 404C Pegasus differential scanning calorimeter at University of Munich. Our preliminary results suggest that the cooling rate of Apollo 17 orange glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> may be 12 K/min, based on the correlation between temperature of the heat capacity curve peak in the glass transition range and glass cooling rate. The results imply that the parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits may have contained more water initially than the early estimations (Saal et al., 2008), which used higher cooling rates, 60-180 K/min in the modeling. Furthermore, lunar volcanic glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> could have been cooled in a hot gaseous medium released from volcanic eruptions, not during free flight. Therefore, our results may shed light on atmospheric condition in an early moon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/836212','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/836212"><span><span class="hlt">Bead</span> and Process for Removing Dissolved Metal Contaminants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Summers, Bobby L., Jr.; Bennett, Karen L.; Foster, Scott A.</p> <p>2005-01-18</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">bead</span> is provided which comprises or consists essentially of activated carbon immobilized by crosslinked poly (carboxylic acid) binder, sodium silicate binder, or polyamine binder. The <span class="hlt">bead</span> is effective to remove metal and other ionic contaminants from dilute aqueous solutions. A method of making metal-ion sorbing <span class="hlt">beads</span> is provided, comprising combining activated carbon, and binder solution (preferably in a pin mixer where it is whipped), forming wet <span class="hlt">beads</span>, and heating and drying the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The binder solution is preferably poly(acrylic acid) and glycerol dissolved in water and the wet <span class="hlt">beads</span> formed from such binder solution are preferably heated and crosslinked in a convection oven.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26241717','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26241717"><span>Two Year Old With Water <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Ingestion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jackson, Jami; Randell, Kimberly A; Knapp, Jane F</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Foreign body ingestion is a common pediatric complaint. Two case reports describe intestinal obstruction in children from an ingestion of a single superabsorbent water ball, requiring surgical removal. We describe nonsurgical management of an asymptomatic child who ingested approximately 100 superabsorbent water <span class="hlt">beads</span>.Because of the risk for subsequent intestinal obstruction, the patient was admitted for whole bowel irrigation. This case report is the first describing use of whole bowel irrigation in the management of an asymptomatic patient with multiple water <span class="hlt">beads</span> ingestion.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2113074','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2113074"><span>Latex <span class="hlt">beads</span> as probes of a neural crest pathway: effects of laminin, collagen, and surface charge on <span class="hlt">bead</span> translocation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>In the trunk region of avian embryos, neural crest cells migrate along two pathways: dorsally just under the ectoderm, and ventrally between the neural tube and the somites. Previous work from this laboratory has shown that uncoated latex <span class="hlt">beads</span> are able to translocate along the ventral neural crest pathway after injection into young embryos; however, <span class="hlt">beads</span> coated with fibronectin are restricted from the ventral route ( Bronner -Fraser, M.E., 1982, Dev. Biol., 91: 50-63). Here, we extend these observations to determine the effects of other macromolecules on <span class="hlt">bead</span> distribution. The data show that laminin-coated <span class="hlt">beads</span>, like fibronectin-coated <span class="hlt">beads</span>, are restricted from the ventral pathway. In contrast, <span class="hlt">beads</span> coated with type I collagen translocate ventrally after injection. Because macromolecules have characteristic charge properties, changes in surface charge caused by coating the <span class="hlt">beads</span> may confound interpretation of the results. Electrostatic effects on <span class="hlt">bead</span> movement were examined by coating the latex <span class="hlt">beads</span> with polyamino acids in order to predictably alter the initial surface charge. The surface charge before injection was measured for <span class="hlt">beads</span> coated with amino acid polymers or with various biologically important macromolecules; the subsequent translocation ability of these <span class="hlt">beads</span> was then monitored in the embryo. Polylysine-coated <span class="hlt">beads</span> (positively charged) were restricted from the ventral pathway as were fibronectin and laminin-coated <span class="hlt">beads</span>, even though fibronectin and laminin <span class="hlt">beads</span> were both negatively charged. In contrast, polytyrosine -coated <span class="hlt">beads</span> ( neutrally charged) translocated ventrally as did negatively charged collagen-coated or uncoated <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The results demonstrate that no correlation exists between the charge properties on the latex <span class="hlt">bead</span> surface and their subsequent ability to translocate along the ventral pathway. Therefore, an adhesion mechanism independent of surface charge effects must explain the restriction or translocation of latex <span class="hlt">beads</span> on a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25627868','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25627868"><span>Encapsulation of rat bone marrow stromal cells using a poly-ion <span class="hlt">complex</span> <span class="hlt">gel</span> of chitosan and succinylated poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kusumastuti, Yuni; Shibasaki, Yoshiaki; Hirohara, Shiho; Kobayashi, Mime; Terada, Kayo; Ando, Tsuyoshi; Tanihara, Masao</p> <p>2015-01-28</p> <p>Encapsulation of stem cells into a three-dimensional (3D) scaffold is necessary to achieve tissue regeneration. Prefabricated 3D scaffolds, such as fibres or porous sponges, have limitations regarding homogeneous cell distribution. Hydrogels that can encapsulate cells such as animal-derived collagen <span class="hlt">gels</span> need adjustment of the pH and/or temperature upon cell mixing. In this report, we fabricated a poly-ion <span class="hlt">complex</span> (PIC) hydrogel of chitosan and succinylated poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly) and assessed its effect on cell viability after encapsulation of rat bone marrow stromal cells. PIC hydrogels were obtained successfully with a concentration of each precursor as low as 3.0-3.8 mg/ml. The maximum gelation and swelling ratios were achieved with an equal molar ratio (1:1) of anionic and cationic groups. Using chitosan acetate as a cationic precursor produced a PIC hydrogel with both a significantly greater gelation ratio and a better swelling ratio than chitosan chloride. Ammonium succinylated poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly) as an anionic precursor gave similar gelation and swelling ratios to those of sodium succinylated poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly). Cell encapsulation was also achieved successfully by mixing rat bone marrow stromal cells with the PIC hydrogel simultaneously during its formation. The PIC hydrogel was maintained in the culture medium for 7 days at 37°C and the encapsulated cells survived and proliferated in it. Although it is necessary to improve its functionality, this PIC hydrogel has the potential to act as a 3D scaffold for cell encapsulation and tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25820739','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25820739"><span>A <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based multiplex sandwich immunoassay to assess the abundance and posttranslational modification state of β-catenin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Groll, Nicola; Sommersdorf, Cornelia; Joos, Thomas O; Poetz, Oliver</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A system-wide analysis of cell signaling involves detecting and quantifying a range of proteins and their posttranslational modification states in the same cellular sample. We propose a protocol for a miniaturized, <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based array and describe its efficiency in characterizing the different forms and functions of β-catenin. The protocol provides detailed instructions for cell culture and <span class="hlt">bead</span> array assays that enable insights into <span class="hlt">complex</span> networks at the systems level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......327H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......327H"><span>Development of Expanded Thermoplastic Polyurethane <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Foams and Their Sintering Mechanism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hossieny, Nemat</p> <p></p> <p>Polymer <span class="hlt">bead</span> foaming technology represents a breakthrough in the production of low density plastic foamed components that have a <span class="hlt">complex</span> geometrical structure and has helped to expand the market for plastic foams by broadening their applications. In this research, the unique microstructure of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) consisting of phase-separated hard segment (HS) domains dispersed in the soft segment (SS) matrix has been utilized to develop expanded TPU (E-TPU) <span class="hlt">bead</span> foam with microcellular morphologies and also to create inter-<span class="hlt">bead</span> sintering into three dimensional products using steam-chest molding machine. The phase-separation and crystallization behavior of the HS chains in the TPU microstructure was systematically studied in the presence of dissolved gases and also by changing the microstructure of TPU by melt-processing and addition of nano-/micro-sized additives. It was observed that the presence of gas improved the phase separation (i.e. crystallization) of HSs and increased the overall crystallinity of the TPU. It was also shown that by utilizing the HS crystalline domains, the overall foaming behavior of TPU (i.e. cell nucleation and expansion ratio) can be significantly improved. Moreover, the HS crystalline domains can be effective for both sintering of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> as well strengthening the individual <span class="hlt">beads</span> to improve the property of the moulded part. It was also observed that unlike other polymer <span class="hlt">bead</span> foaming technologies, the E-TPU <span class="hlt">bead</span> foaming sintering does not require formation of double melting-peak. The original broad melting peak existing in the TPU microstructure due to the wide size distribution of HS crystallites can be effectively utilized for the purpose of sintering as well as maintenance of the overall dimensional stability of the moulded part.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950065554&hterms=Cutting+tools&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DCutting%2Btools','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950065554&hterms=Cutting+tools&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DCutting%2Btools"><span>Cutting Tool For Shaving Weld <span class="hlt">Beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hoffman, David S.; Mcferrin, David C.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.; Coby, John B., Jr.; Dawson, Sidney G.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Cutting tool proposed for use in shaving weld <span class="hlt">beads</span> flush with adjacent surfaces of weldments. Modified version of commercial pneumatically driven rotary cutting tool, cutting wheel of which turns at speeds sufficient for machining nickel alloys, titanium, and stainless steels. Equipped with forward-mounted handle and rear-mounted skid plate to maximize control and reduce dependence on skill of technician.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25439889','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25439889"><span>Wood mimetic hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> for enzyme immobilization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Park, Saerom; Kim, Sung Hee; Won, Keehoon; Choi, Joon Weon; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Hyung Joo; Yang, Yung-Hun; Lee, Sang Hyun</p> <p>2015-01-22</p> <p>Wood component-based composite hydrogels have potential applications in biomedical fields owing to their low cost, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. The controllable properties of wood mimetic composites containing three major wood components are useful for enzyme immobilization. Here, lipase from Candida rugosa was entrapped in wood mimetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> containing cellulose, xylan, and lignin by dissolving wood components with lipase in [Emim][Ac], followed by reconstitution. Lipase entrapped in cellulose/xylan/lignin <span class="hlt">beads</span> in a 5:3:2 ratio showed the highest activity; this ratio is very similar to that in natural wood. The lipase entrapped in various wood mimetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> showed increased thermal and pH stability. The half-life times of lipase entrapped in cellulose/alkali lignin hydrogel were 31- and 82-times higher than those of free lipase during incubation under denaturing conditions of high temperature and low pH, respectively. Owing to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and controllable properties, wood mimetic hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> can be used to immobilize various enzymes for applications in the biomedical, bioelectronic, and biocatalytic fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27523075','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27523075"><span>Effect of Cellulose Acetate <span class="hlt">Beads</span> on Interleukin-23 Release.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nishise, Shoichi; Abe, Yasuhiko; Nomura, Eiki; Sato, Takeshi; Sasaki, Yu; Iwano, Daisuke; Yoshizawa, Kazuya; Yagi, Makoto; Sakuta, Kazuhiro; Ueno, Yoshiyuki</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Interleukin (IL)-23, which is released by activated monocytes and neutrophils, promotes production of high levels of IL-17 by T-helper 17 cells. Cellulose acetate (CA) <span class="hlt">beads</span> are used as carriers for granulocyte and monocyte (GM) adsorptive apheresis using Adacolumn. Contact between blood and CA <span class="hlt">beads</span> induces cytokine release; however, their inflammatory effects on IL-23 release are unclear. We aimed to clarify the effect of CA <span class="hlt">beads</span> on IL-23 release in vitro. We incubated peripheral blood with and without CA <span class="hlt">beads</span> and measured IL-23. Compared to blood samples incubated without CA <span class="hlt">beads</span>, blood samples incubated with CA <span class="hlt">beads</span> had significantly decreased amounts of IL-23. In conclusion, CA <span class="hlt">beads</span> inhibited IL-23 release from adsorbed GMs. The biological effects of this decrease in IL-23 release during GM adsorption to CA <span class="hlt">beads</span> need further clarification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27264502','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27264502"><span>Effect of methacrylic acid <span class="hlt">beads</span> on the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway and macrophage polarization in a subcutaneous injection mouse model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lisovsky, Alexandra; Zhang, David K Y; Sefton, Michael V</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) (MAA) <span class="hlt">beads</span> promote a vascular regenerative response when used in diabetic wound healing. Previous studies reported that MAA <span class="hlt">beads</span> modulated the expression of sonic hedgehog (Shh) and inflammation related genes in diabetic wounds. The aim of this work was to follow up on these observations in a subcutaneous injection model to study the host response in the absence of the confounding factors of diabetic wound healing. In this model, MAA <span class="hlt">beads</span> improved vascularization in healthy mice of both sexes compared to control poly(methyl methacrylate) (MM) <span class="hlt">beads</span>, with a stronger effect seen in males than females. MAA-induced vessels were perfusable, as evidenced from the CLARITY-processed images. In Shh-Cre-eGFP/Ptch1-LacZ non-diabetic transgenic mice, the increased vessel formation was accompanied by a higher density of cells expressing GFP (Shh) and β-Gal (patched 1, Ptch1) suggesting MAA enhanced the activation of the Shh pathway. Ptch1 is the Shh receptor and a target of the pathway. MAA <span class="hlt">beads</span> also modulated the inflammatory cell infiltrate in CD1 mice: more neutrophils and more macrophages were noted with MAA relative to MM <span class="hlt">beads</span> at days 1 and 7, respectively. In addition, MAA <span class="hlt">beads</span> biased macrophages towards a MHCII-CD206+ ("M2") polarization state. This study suggests that the Shh pathway and an altered inflammatory response are two elements of the <span class="hlt">complex</span> mechanism whereby MAA-based biomaterials effect vascular regeneration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19596091','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19596091"><span>In situ generation of sodium alginate/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite <span class="hlt">beads</span> as drug-controlled release matrices.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, J; Wang, Q; Wang, A</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>In order to find a new way to slow down the release of drugs and to solve the burst release problem of drugs from traditionally used hydrogel matrices, a series of novel pH-sensitive sodium alginate/hydroxyapatite (SA/HA) nanocomposite <span class="hlt">beads</span> was prepared by the in situ generation of HA micro-particles in the <span class="hlt">beads</span> during the sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> transition process of SA. The SA/HA nanocomposites were characterized by Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and field emission SEM in order to reveal their composition and surface morphology as well as the role that the in situ generated HA micro-particles play. The factors influencing the swelling behavior, drug loading and controlled release behavior of the SA/HA nanocomposite <span class="hlt">beads</span> were also investigated using diclofenac sodium (DS) as the model drug. The HA micro-particles act as inorganic crosslinkers in the nanocomposites, which could contract and restrict the movability of the SA polymer chains, and then change the surface morphology and decrease the swell ratio. Meanwhile, the entrapment efficiency of DS was improved, and the burst release of DS was overcome. The factors (including concentration of Ca(2+), reaction time and temperature) affecting the growth of HA micro-particles have a clear influence on the entrapment efficiency and release rate of DS. In this work, the nanocomposite <span class="hlt">beads</span> prepared under optimum condition could prolong the release of DS for 8h more compared with the pristine SA hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24737618','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24737618"><span>Simple enrichment of thiol-containing biomolecules by using zinc(II)-cyclen-functionalized magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fujioka, Haruto; Tsunehiro, Masaya; Kawaguchi, Maho; Kuramoto, Yasuhiro; Kurosaki, Hiromasa; Hieda, Yuhzo; Kinoshita-Kikuta, Emiko; Kinoshita, Eiji; Koike, Tohru</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>A simple and efficient method based on magnetic-<span class="hlt">bead</span> technology has been developed for the enrichment of thiol-containing biomolecules, such as l-glutathione and cysteine-containing peptides. The thiol-binding site on the <span class="hlt">bead</span> is a mononuclear <span class="hlt">complex</span> of zinc(II) with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (cyclen); this is linked to a hydrophilic cross-linked agarose coating on a particle that has a magnetic core. All steps for the thiol-affinity separation are conducted in aqueous buffers with 0.10 mL of the magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> in a 1.5 mL microtube. The entire separation protocol for thiol-containing compounds, from addition to elution, requires less than one hour per sample, provided the buffers and the zinc(II)-cyclen-functionalized magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> have been prepared in advance. The thiol-affinity magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> are reusable at least 15 times without a decrease in their thiol-binding ability, and they are stable for six months at room temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3397282','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3397282"><span>Location of Biomarkers and Reagents within Agarose <span class="hlt">Beads</span> of a Programmable Bio-nano-chip</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jokerst, Jesse V.; Chou, Jie; Camp, James P.; Wong, Jorge; Lennart, Alexis; Pollard, Amanda A.; Floriano, Pierre N.; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Simmons, Glennon W.; Zhou, Yanjie; Ali, Mehnaaz F.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The slow development of cost-effective medical microdevices with strong analytical performance characteristics is due to a lack of selective and efficient analyte capture and signaling. The recently developed programmable bio-nano-chip (PBNC) is a flexible detection device with analytical behavior rivaling established macroscopic methods. The PBNC system employs ≈300 μm-diameter <span class="hlt">bead</span> sensors composed of agarose “nanonets” that populate a microelectromechanical support structure with integrated microfluidic elements. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> are an efficient and selective protein-capture medium suitable for the analysis of <span class="hlt">complex</span> fluid samples. Microscopy and computational studies probe the 3D interior of the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The relative contributions that the capture and detection of moieties, analyte size, and <span class="hlt">bead</span> porosity make to signal distribution and intensity are reported. Agarose pore sizes ranging from 45 to 620 nm are examined and those near 140 nm provide optimal transport characteristics for rapid (<15 min) tests. The system exhibits efficient (99.5%) detection of <span class="hlt">bead</span>-bound analyte along with low (≈2%) nonspecific immobilization of the detection probe for carcinoembryonic antigen assay. Furthermore, the role analyte dimensions play in signal distribution is explored, and enhanced methods for assay building that consider the unique features of biomarker size are offered. PMID:21290601</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=drugs&pg=4&id=EJ972159','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=drugs&pg=4&id=EJ972159"><span>A Controlled Drug-Delivery Experiment Using Alginate <span class="hlt">Beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Farrell, Stephanie; Vernengo, Jennifer</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes a simple, cost-effective experiment which introduces students to drug delivery and modeling using alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Students produce calcium alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> loaded with drug and measure the rate of release from the <span class="hlt">beads</span> for systems having different stir rates, geometries, extents of cross-linking, and drug molecular weight.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20390041','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20390041"><span>Metal-Containing Polystyrene <span class="hlt">Beads</span> as Standards for Mass Cytometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abdelrahman, Ahmed I; Ornatsky, Olga; Bandura, Dmitry; Baranov, Vladimir; Kinach, Robert; Dai, Sheng; Thickett, Stuart C; Tanner, Scott; Winnik, Mitchell A</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>We examine the suitability of metal-containing polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span> for the calibration of a mass cytometer instrument, a single particle analyser based on an inductively coupled plasma ion source and a time of flight mass spectrometer. These metal-containing <span class="hlt">beads</span> are also verified for their use as internal standards for this instrument. These <span class="hlt">beads</span> were synthesized by multiple-stage dispersion polymerization with acrylic acid as a comonomer. Acrylic acid acts as a ligand to anchor the metal ions within the interior of the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Mass cytometry enabled the <span class="hlt">bead-by-bead</span> measurement of the metal-content and determination of the metal-content distribution. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> synthesized by dispersion polymerization that involved three stages were shown to have narrower <span class="hlt">bead-to-bead</span> variation in their lanthanide content than <span class="hlt">beads</span> synthesized by 2-stage dispersion polymerization. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> exhibited insignificant release of their lanthanide content to aqueous solutions of different pHs over a period of six months. When mixed with KG1a or U937 cell lines, metal-containing polymer <span class="hlt">beads</span> were shown not to affect the mass cytometry response to the metal content of element-tagged antibodies specifically attached to these cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4263578','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4263578"><span>Lab-on-a-Chip Magneto-Immunoassays: How to Ensure Contact between Superparamagnetic <span class="hlt">Beads</span> and the Sensor Surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Eickenberg, Bernhard; Meyer, Judith; Helmich, Lars; Kappe, Daniel; Auge, Alexander; Weddemann, Alexander; Wittbracht, Frank; Hütten, Andreas</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Lab-on-a-chip immuno assays utilizing superparamagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> as labels suffer from the fact that the majority of <span class="hlt">beads</span> pass the sensing area without contacting the sensor surface. Different solutions, employing magnetic forces, ultrasonic standing waves, or hydrodynamic effects have been found over the past decades. The first category uses magnetic forces, created by on-chip conducting lines to attract <span class="hlt">beads</span> towards the sensor surface. Modifications of the magnetic landscape allow for additional transport and separation of different <span class="hlt">bead</span> species. The hydrodynamic approach uses changes in the channel geometry to enhance the capture volume. In acoustofluidics, ultrasonic standing waves force µm-sized particles onto a surface through radiation forces. As these approaches have their disadvantages, a new sensor concept that circumvents these problems is suggested. This concept is based on the granular giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect that can be found in <span class="hlt">gels</span> containing magnetic nanoparticles. The proposed design could be realized in the shape of paper-based test strips printed with <span class="hlt">gel</span>-based GMR sensors. PMID:25586262</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25586262','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25586262"><span>Lab-on-a-Chip Magneto-Immunoassays: How to Ensure Contact between Superparamagnetic <span class="hlt">Beads</span> and the Sensor Surface.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eickenberg, Bernhard; Meyer, Judith; Helmich, Lars; Kappe, Daniel; Auge, Alexander; Weddemann, Alexander; Wittbracht, Frank; Hütten, Andreas</p> <p>2013-09-17</p> <p>Lab-on-a-chip immuno assays utilizing superparamagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> as labels suffer from the fact that the majority of <span class="hlt">beads</span> pass the sensing area without contacting the sensor surface. Different solutions, employing magnetic forces, ultrasonic standing waves, or hydrodynamic effects have been found over the past decades. The first category uses magnetic forces, created by on-chip conducting lines to attract <span class="hlt">beads</span> towards the sensor surface. Modifications of the magnetic landscape allow for additional transport and separation of different <span class="hlt">bead</span> species. The hydrodynamic approach uses changes in the channel geometry to enhance the capture volume. In acoustofluidics, ultrasonic standing waves force µm-sized particles onto a surface through radiation forces. As these approaches have their disadvantages, a new sensor concept that circumvents these problems is suggested. This concept is based on the granular giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect that can be found in <span class="hlt">gels</span> containing magnetic nanoparticles. The proposed design could be realized in the shape of paper-based test strips printed with <span class="hlt">gel</span>-based GMR sensors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19945281','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19945281"><span>New approach for petroleum hydrocarbon degradation using bacterial spores entrapped in chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barreto, R V G; Hissa, D C; Paes, F A; Grangeiro, T B; Nascimento, R F; Rebelo, L M; Craveiro, A A; Melo, V M M</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Spores of Bacillus subtilis LAMI008 were entrapped in 3-mm chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> and cross-linked with 0.3% glutaraldehyde for n-hexadecane biodegradation and biosurfactant recovery. When exposed to nutrients, the spores generated vegetative cells without morphological alterations as revealed by atomic force microscopy. The entrapped cells degraded almost 100% of 1% of n-hexadecane in medium supplemented with 1% glucose and produce biosurfactant within 48 h, as well as free cells. The number of viable cells inside the <span class="hlt">beads</span> was maintained throughout the n-hexadecane degradation process and the released biosurfactant was not used as a carbon source. Entrapment of bacterial spores in chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> overcomes problems with stability, storage, and long term cell viability encountered with vegetative cells. This approach can potentially be utilized for biodegradation of <span class="hlt">complex</span> compounds by entrapping spores of different species of bacteria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28087408','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28087408"><span>Effects of loading concentration, blood and synovial fluid on antibiotic release and anti-biofilm activity of bone cement <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dusane, Devendra H; Diamond, Scott M; Knecht, Cory S; Farrar, Nicholas R; Peters, Casey W; Howlin, Robert P; Swearingen, Matthew C; Calhoun, Jason H; Plaut, Roger D; Nocera, Tanya M; Granger, Jeffrey F; Stoodley, Paul</p> <p>2017-02-28</p> <p>Antibiotic loaded cement <span class="hlt">beads</span> are commonly used for the treatment of biofilm related orthopaedic periprosthetic infections; however the effects of antibiotic loading and exposure of <span class="hlt">beads</span> to body fluids on release kinetics are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of (i) antibiotic loading density (ii) loading amount (iii) material type and (iv) exposure to body fluids (blood or synovial fluid) on release kinetics and efficacy of antibiotics against planktonic and lawn biofilm bacteria. Short-term release into an agar <span class="hlt">gel</span> was evaluated using a fluorescent tracer (fluorescein) incorporated in the carrier materials calcium sulfate (CaSO4) and poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA). Different fluorescein concentrations in CaSO4 <span class="hlt">beads</span> were evaluated. Mechanical properties of fluorescein-incorporated <span class="hlt">beads</span> were analyzed. Efficacy of the antibiotics vancomycin (VAN) or tobramycin (TOB) alone and in combination was evaluated against lawn biofilms of bioluminescent strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Zones of inhibition of cultures (ZOI) were measured visually and using an in-vivo imaging system (IVIS). The influence of body fluids on release was assessed using CaSO4 <span class="hlt">beads</span> that contained fluorescein or antibiotics and were pre-coated with human blood or synovial fluid. The spread from the <span class="hlt">beads</span> followed a square root of time relationship in all cases. The loading concentration had no influence on short-term fluorescein release and pre-coating of <span class="hlt">beads</span> with body fluids did not affect short-term release or antibacterial activity. Compared to PMMA, CaSO4 had a more rapid short term rate of elution and activity against planktonic and lawn biofilms. This study highlights the importance of considering antibiotic loading and packing density when investigating the clinical application of bone cements for infection management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27829609','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27829609"><span>Pharmacokinetic Studies of <span class="hlt">Gel</span> System Containing Ibuprofen Solid Nanoparticles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nagai, Noriaki; Tanino, Tadatoshi; Ito, Yoshimasa</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>In the therapy of rheumatoid arthritis, ibuprofen (IBU) is widely used; however, it has been limited the clinical use by its systemic side effect, such as gastrointestinal lesions. Therefore, we prepared topical <span class="hlt">gel</span> ointment used IBU solid nanoparticles (IBUnano-<span class="hlt">gel</span> formulation). In addition, we demonstrated their anti-inflammatory effect by using arthritis model rat (adjuvant-induced arthritis rat, AA rat). The <span class="hlt">gel</span> formulations were prepared using additives (Carbopol 934, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and methylcellulose) and <span class="hlt">bead</span> mill-method. The IBU particle size in the IBUnano-<span class="hlt">gel</span> formulation was 208 nm. The increase in inflammation of the hind feet of AA rats was attenuated by the treatment with the IBUnano-<span class="hlt">gel</span> formulation, and preventive effect was higher than that of a <span class="hlt">gel</span> formulation containing IBUmicroparticles (IBUmicro-<span class="hlt">gel</span> formulation, mean particle size 85.4 μm); the accumulation and permeability through the skin of IBU from the IBUnano-<span class="hlt">gel</span> formulation were significantly larger in comparison with the IBUmicro-<span class="hlt">gel</span> formulation. Further, no gastrointestinal lesions were observed in AA rats following the repetitive administration of the 5% IBUnano-<span class="hlt">gel</span> formulation (0.30 g) for 42 days (once a day). These results suggest that the dermal application of IBU-nanoparticles provide effective and efficient therapy that spares patients from unwanted side effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3354777','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3354777"><span>Robust Optimization of Alginate-Carbopol 940 <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Formulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>López-Cacho, J. M.; González-R, Pedro L.; Talero, B.; Rabasco, A. M.; González-Rodríguez, M. L.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Formulation process is a very <span class="hlt">complex</span> activity which sometimes implicates taking decisions about parameters or variables to obtain the best results in a high variability or uncertainty context. Therefore, robust optimization tools can be very useful for obtaining high quality formulations. This paper proposes the optimization of different responses through the robust Taguchi method. Each response was evaluated like a noise variable, allowing the application of Taguchi techniques to obtain a response under the point of view of the signal to noise ratio. A L18 Taguchi orthogonal array design was employed to investigate the effect of eight independent variables involved in the formulation of alginate-Carbopol <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Responses evaluated were related to drug release profile from <span class="hlt">beads</span> (t50% and AUC), swelling performance, encapsulation efficiency, shape and size parameters. Confirmation tests to verify the prediction model were carried out and the obtained results were very similar to those predicted in every profile. Results reveal that the robust optimization is a very useful approach that allows greater precision and accuracy to the desired value. PMID:22645438</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17433454','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17433454"><span>Optimization of the virus concentration method using polyethyleneimine-conjugated magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> and its application to the detection of human hepatitis A, B and C viruses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Uchida, Eriko; Kogi, Mieko; Oshizawa, Tadashi; Furuta, Birei; Satoh, Koei; Iwata, Akiko; Murata, Mitsuhiro; Hikata, Mikio; Yamaguchi, Teruhide</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>To enhance the sensitivity of virus detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), a novel virus concentration method using polyethyleneimine (PEI)-conjugated magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> was developed in our previous study. However, several viruses could not be concentrated by this method. In this paper, the conditions of virus concentration were optimized to concentrate a wide range of viruses more efficiently. The PEI <span class="hlt">beads</span> adsorbed viruses more efficiently than other cationic polymers, and the optimum virus concentration was obtained under weak acidic conditions. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that several serum proteins, such as complement type 3, complement type 4 and immunoglobulin M (IgM), were co-adsorbed by the PEI <span class="hlt">beads</span>, suggesting that the <span class="hlt">beads</span> may adsorb viruses not only by direct adsorption, but also via immune <span class="hlt">complex</span> formation. This hypothesis was confirmed by the result that poliovirus, which PEI <span class="hlt">beads</span> could not adsorb directly, could be concentrated by the <span class="hlt">beads</span> via immune <span class="hlt">complex</span> formation. On the other hand, hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viruses were adsorbed directly by PEI <span class="hlt">beads</span> almost completely. Like poliovirus, hepatitis B virus (HBV) was concentrated efficiently by the addition of anti-HBV IgM. In conclusion, virus concentration using PEI <span class="hlt">beads</span> is a useful method to concentrate a wide range of viruses and can be used to enhance the sensitivity of detection of HAV, HBV and HCV.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18559861','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18559861"><span>Green stone <span class="hlt">beads</span> at the dawn of agriculture.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bar-Yosef Mayer, Daniella E; Porat, Naomi</p> <p>2008-06-24</p> <p>The use of <span class="hlt">beads</span> and other personal ornaments is a trait of modern human behavior. During the Middle and Upper Paleolithic periods, <span class="hlt">beads</span> were made out of shell, bone, ivory, egg shell, and occasionally of minerals. During the transition to agriculture in the Near East, stone, in particular green stone, was used for the first time to make <span class="hlt">beads</span> and pendants. We observed that a large variety of minerals of green colors were sought, including apatite, several copper-bearing minerals, amazonite and serpentinite. There seems to be an increase with time of distance from which the green minerals were sought. Because <span class="hlt">beads</span> in white, red, yellow, brown, and black colors had been used previously, we suggest that the occurrence of green <span class="hlt">beads</span> is directly related to the onset of agriculture. Green <span class="hlt">beads</span> and <span class="hlt">bead</span> blanks were used as amulets to ward off the evil eye and as fertility charms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JQSRT.179..105A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JQSRT.179..105A"><span>Discrete dipole approximation simulation of <span class="hlt">bead</span> enhanced diffraction grating biosensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arif, Khalid Mahmood</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We present the discrete dipole approximation simulation of light scattering from <span class="hlt">bead</span> enhanced diffraction biosensor and report the effect of <span class="hlt">bead</span> material, number of <span class="hlt">beads</span> forming the grating and spatial randomness on the diffraction intensities of 1st and 0th orders. The dipole models of gratings are formed by volume slicing and image processing while the spatial locations of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> on the substrate surface are randomly computed using discrete probability distribution. The effect of <span class="hlt">beads</span> reduction on far-field scattering of 632.8 nm incident field, from fully occupied gratings to very coarse gratings, is studied for various <span class="hlt">bead</span> materials. Our findings give insight into many difficult or experimentally impossible aspects of this genre of biosensors and establish that <span class="hlt">bead</span> enhanced grating may be used for rapid and precise detection of small amounts of biomolecules. The results of simulations also show excellent qualitative similarities with experimental observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARX34013A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARX34013A"><span>Dynamics of a DNA <span class="hlt">Gel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Adhikari, Ramesh; Bhattacharya, Aniket; Dogariu, Aristide</p> <p></p> <p>We study in silico the properties of a <span class="hlt">gel</span> consisting of DNA strands (modeled as semi-flexible chains) and linkers of varying flexibility, length, and topology. These linkers are envisioned and modeled as active components with additional attributes so as to mimic properties of a synthetic DNA <span class="hlt">gel</span> containing motor proteins. We use Brownian dynamics to directly obtain frequency dependent <span class="hlt">complex</span> shear moduli of the <span class="hlt">gel</span>. We further carry out force spectroscopy on these computer generated <span class="hlt">gels</span> and study the relaxation properties as a function of the important parameters of the model, e.g., densities and relative ratios of the DNAs and the linkers, the average life time of a link, etc. Our studies are relevant for designing synthetic bio-materials for both materials and medical applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1084230','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1084230"><span>Formulation and method for preparing <span class="hlt">gels</span> comprising hydrous cerium oxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Collins, Jack L; Chi, Anthony</p> <p>2013-05-07</p> <p>Formulations useful for preparing hydrous cerium oxide <span class="hlt">gels</span> contain a metal salt including cerium, an organic base, and a <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agent. Methods for preparing <span class="hlt">gels</span> containing hydrous cerium oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce <span class="hlt">gel</span> formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including cerium, an organic base, and a <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1089400','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1089400"><span>Formulation and method for preparing <span class="hlt">gels</span> comprising hydrous hafnium oxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Collins, Jack L; Hunt, Rodney D; Montgomery, Frederick C</p> <p>2013-08-06</p> <p>Formulations useful for preparing hydrous hafnium oxide <span class="hlt">gels</span> contain a metal salt including hafnium, an acid, an organic base, and a <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agent. Methods for preparing <span class="hlt">gels</span> containing hydrous hafnium oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce <span class="hlt">gel</span> formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including hafnium, an acid, an organic base, and a <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1134306','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1134306"><span>Formulation and method for preparing <span class="hlt">gels</span> comprising hydrous aluminum oxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Collins, Jack L.</p> <p>2014-06-17</p> <p>Formulations useful for preparing hydrous aluminum oxide <span class="hlt">gels</span> contain a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agent. Methods for preparing <span class="hlt">gels</span> containing hydrous aluminum oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce <span class="hlt">gel</span> formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6574445','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6574445"><span>A newly developed chromium(III) <span class="hlt">gel</span> technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sydansk, R.D. . Research Div.)</p> <p>1990-08-01</p> <p>Laboratory testing of a recently developed chromium(III) (Cr(III)) <span class="hlt">gel</span> technology is reported. The <span class="hlt">gels</span> can be used in conjunction with a number of oilfield treatments. The single-fluid acrylamide-polymer/Cr(III)-carboxylate aqueous <span class="hlt">gels</span> are formed by crosslinking acrylamide polymer with a Cr(III)-carboxylate-<span class="hlt">complex</span> crosslinking agent. Representative <span class="hlt">gel</span> compositions and associated <span class="hlt">gel</span> properties are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030107526','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030107526"><span>Ceramic Spheres From Cation Exchange <span class="hlt">Beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dynys, F. W.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Porous ZrO2 and hollow TiO2 spheres were synthesized from a strong acid cation exchange resin. Spherical cation exchange <span class="hlt">beads</span>, polystyrene based polymer, were used as a morphological-directing template. Aqueous ion exchange reaction was used to chemically bind (ZrO)(2+) ions to the polystyrene structure. The pyrolysis of the polystyrene at 600 C produces porous ZrO2 spheres with a surface area of 24 sq m/g with a mean sphere size of 42 microns. Hollow TiO2 spheres were synthesized by using the <span class="hlt">beads</span> as a micro-reactor. A direct surface reaction - between titanium isopropoxide and the resin <span class="hlt">beads</span> forms a hydrous TiO2 shell around the polystyrene core. The pyrolysis of the polystyrene core at 600 C produces hollow anatase spheres with a surface area of 42 sq m/g with a mean sphere size of 38 microns. The formation of ceramic spheres was studied by XRD, SEM and B.E.T. nitrogen adsorption measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/323716','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/323716"><span>Molybdate sorption by cross-linked chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span>: Dynamic studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Guibal, E.; Milot, C.; Roussy, J.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Recent trends in environmental monitoring have induced increasing development of new wastewater treatment techniques. Membrane processes, electrochemical techniques, or ion-exchange systems are widely used, but biosorption has been recognized in the last 30 years as a promising way to reduce the contamination of surface water issued from industrial effluent. Chitosan, a biopolymer extracted from crustacean shells, exhibits high sorption capacities for metal ion recovery. Sorption efficiency and removal rates are controlled by several diffusion mechanisms. Chitosan <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> have been prepared and have shown enhanced sorption performance in batch systems. This study shows that, in continuous systems, sorption capacities can reach 700 mg/g, a level close to that obtained in batch studies. The effects of metal concentration, flow velocity, and column size are investigated and demonstrate that, because of diffusion mechanisms, the optimum concentration range is approximately 50 to 100 mg/L. In column systems, the Biot number, though greater than 1, is lower than the Biot number obtained in batch systems, indicating that external mass transfer influences mass transfer at the low superficial velocity investigated in this work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5385560','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5385560"><span>Deterministic <span class="hlt">bead</span>-in-droplet ejection utilizing an integrated plug-in <span class="hlt">bead</span> dispenser for single bead–based applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, Hojin; Choi, In Ho; Lee, Sanghyun; Won, Dong-Joon; Oh, Yong Suk; Kwon, Donghoon; Sung, Hyung Jin; Jeon, Sangmin; Kim, Joonwon</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents a deterministic <span class="hlt">bead</span>-in-droplet ejection (BIDE) technique that regulates the precise distribution of microbeads in an ejected droplet. The deterministic BIDE was realized through the effective integration of a microfluidic single-particle handling technique with a liquid dispensing system. The integrated <span class="hlt">bead</span> dispenser facilitates the transfer of the desired number of <span class="hlt">beads</span> into a dispensing volume and the on-demand ejection of <span class="hlt">bead</span>-encapsulated droplets. Single bead–encapsulated droplets were ejected every 3 s without any failure. Multiple-<span class="hlt">bead</span> dispensing with deterministic control of the number of <span class="hlt">beads</span> was demonstrated to emphasize the originality and quality of the proposed dispensing technique. The dispenser was mounted using a plug-socket type connection, and the dispensing process was completely automated using a programmed sequence without any microscopic observation. To demonstrate a potential application of the technique, <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based streptavidin–biotin binding assay in an evaporating droplet was conducted using ultralow numbers of <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The results evidenced the number of <span class="hlt">beads</span> in the droplet crucially influences the reliability of the assay. Therefore, the proposed deterministic <span class="hlt">bead</span>-in-droplet technology can be utilized to deliver desired <span class="hlt">beads</span> onto a reaction site, particularly to reliably and efficiently enrich and detect target biomolecules. PMID:28393911</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4381389','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4381389"><span>Development of floating chitosan-xanthan <span class="hlt">beads</span> for oral controlled release of glipizide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kulkarni, Nilesh; Wakte, Pravin; Naik, Jitendra</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Introduction: The aim of the present work was to develop controlled release, floating and mucoadhesive <span class="hlt">beads</span> of glipizide by using the polyionic <span class="hlt">complexation</span> technique. Plasma half-life of glipizide being 2–4 h was selected for development of controlled release dosage form. Methods: Formulation batches were designed by employing chitosan as cationic and xanthan gum as anionic polymers. In vitro drug release was evaluated for the period of 24 h in phosphate buffer pH 7.4. Results: Sustained release of drug was observed in all formulation batches with % drug release ranging from 87.50% to 100.67%, no significant effect on the drug release was observed after varying chitosan to xanthan gum ratio. Encapsulation efficiency was found to be in the range of 79.48 ± 1.10–94.48 ± 1.52. In vitro bioadhesion studies showed that <span class="hlt">beads</span> had satisfactory bioadhesive strength ranging from 67.11% ± 1.73% to 93.12% ± 1.56%. Buoyancy studies revealed that <span class="hlt">beads</span> possess comparable floating capacity in the gastric fluids. Swelling kinetics was carried in pH 1.2 and 7.4 buffers. Significant difference (P < 0.05) in swelling kinetics was observed. Drug to polymer interaction was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry studies. Scanning electron microscopy studies revealed that formed <span class="hlt">beads</span> were discrete with rough and wrinkled surfaces. Conclusions: In conclusion, <span class="hlt">beads</span> were successfully formed by employing chitosan and xanthan gum and showed to possess sustained release effect. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> also showed pH dependent swelling kinetics, this property can also be applied for the drugs which are susceptible to the acidic environment in the stomach, and comparable bioadhesive and floating properties were also observed. PMID:25838991</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=516445','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=516445"><span>Performance of dye-affinity <span class="hlt">beads</span> for aluminium removal in magnetically stabilized fluidized bed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yavuz, Handan; Say, Ridvan; Andaç, Müge; Bayraktar, Necmi; Denizli, Adil</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Background Aluminum has recently been recognized as a causative agent in dialysis encephalopathy, osteodystrophy, and microcytic anemia occurring in patients with chronic renal failure who undergo long-term hemodialysis. Only a small amount of Al(III) in dialysis solutions may give rise to these disorders. Methods Magnetic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (mPHEMA) <span class="hlt">beads</span> in the size range of 80–120 μm were produced by free radical co-polymerization of HEMA and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) in the presence of magnetite particles (Fe3O4). Then, metal <span class="hlt">complexing</span> ligand alizarin yellow was covalently attached onto mPHEMA <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Alizarin yellow loading was 208 μmol/g. These <span class="hlt">beads</span> were used for the removal of Al(III) ions from tap and dialysis water in a magnetically stabilized fluidized bed. Results Al(III) adsorption capacity of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> decreased with an increase in the flow-rate. The maximum Al(III) adsorption was observed at pH 5.0. Comparison of batch and magnetically stabilized fluidized bed (MSFB) maximum capacities determined using Langmuir isotherms showed that dynamic capacity (17.5 mg/g) was somewhat higher than the batch capacity (11.8 mg/g). The dissociation constants for Al(III) were determined using the Langmuir isotherm equation to be 27.3 mM (MSFB) and 6.7 mM (batch system), indicating medium affinity, which was typical for pseudospecific affinity ligands. Al(III) ions could be repeatedly adsorbed and desorbed with these <span class="hlt">beads</span> without noticeable loss in their Al(III) adsorption capacity. Conclusions Adsorption of Al(III) demonstrate the affinity of magnetic dye-affinity <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The MSFB experiments allowed us to conclude that this inexpensive sorbent system may be an important alternative to the existing adsorbents in the removal of aluminium. PMID:15329149</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23581779','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23581779"><span>Fabrication and characterization of macroporous epichlorohydrin cross-linked alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> as protein adsorbent.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Weican; Ji, Xiaofei; Sun, Caiyun; Lu, Xuemei</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Porous epichlorohydrin cross-linked alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> (ECAB) were prepared by the following method. Na-alginate solution containing Na2SO4 was introduced dropwise into CaCl2 solution to simultaneously form CaSO4 precipitate and Ca-alginate <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The resultant <span class="hlt">beads</span> were cross-linked with epichlorohydrin and then thoroughly washed with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution to remove CaSO4. The structural features of porous ECAB were assessed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and experiments on water content and adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The results showed that macroporous ECAB can be obtained when the mass ratio of sodium sulfate to sodium alginate is 4:1. The adsorption behavior of the macroporous ECAB was well described by the Langmuir isotherm with maximum adsorption capacity equal to 740 mg BSA/g dry weight in 50 mM Na2HPO4-citric acid buffer (pH 4.0). BSA was more effectively adsorbed by macroporous ECAB at around pH 3 and the mechanism of the adsorption of BSA to the ECAB was ion exchange. Finally, experiments of a concentration of 1 mg/mL BSA using macroporous ECAB were performed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18656989','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18656989"><span>Synthesis, screening, and sequencing of cysteine-rich one-<span class="hlt">bead</span> one-compound peptide libraries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Juskowiak, Gary L; McGee, Christopher J; Greaves, John; Van Vranken, David L</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Cysteine-rich peptides are valued as tags for biarsenical fluorophores and as environmentally important reagents for binding toxic heavy metals. Due to the inherent difficulties created by cysteine, the power of one-<span class="hlt">bead</span> one-compound (OBOC) libraries has never been applied to the discovery of short cysteine-rich peptides. We have developed the first method for the synthesis, screening, and sequencing of cysteine-rich OBOC peptide libraries. First, we synthesized a heavily biased cysteine-rich OBOC library, incorporating 50% cysteine at each position (Ac-X8-KM-Tenta<span class="hlt">Gel</span>). Then, we developed conditions for cysteine alkylation, cyanogen bromide cleavage, and direct MS/MS sequencing of that library at the single <span class="hlt">bead</span> level. The sequencing efficiency of this library was comparable to a traditional cysteine-free library. To validate screening of cysteine-rich OBOC libraries, we reacted a library with the biarsenical FlAsH and identified <span class="hlt">beads</span> bearing the known biarsenical-binding motif (CCXXCC). These results enable OBOC libraries to be used in high-throughput discovery of cysteine-rich peptides for protein tagging, environmental remediation of metal contaminants, or cysteine-rich pharmaceuticals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23392210','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23392210"><span>Attomolar protein detection using a magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> surface coverage assay.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tekin, H Cumhur; Cornaglia, Matteo; Gijs, Martin A M</p> <p>2013-03-21</p> <p>We demonstrate a microfluidic method for ultra-sensitive protein detection in serum. First, 'large' (2.8 μm) antibody-functionalized magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> specifically capture antigen from a serum matrix under active microfluidic mixing. Subsequently, the large <span class="hlt">beads</span> loaded with the antigens are gently exposed to a surface pattern of fixed 'small' (1.0 μm) antibody-coated magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>. During the exposure, attractive magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> dipole-dipole interactions improve the contact between the two <span class="hlt">bead</span> types and help the antigen-antibody immunocomplex formation, while non-specific large <span class="hlt">bead</span> adsorption is limited by exploiting viscous drag forces in the microfluidic channel on the small-<span class="hlt">bead</span> pattern. This efficient antigen-antibody recognition and binding mechanism mimics a biological process of selective recognition of tissue molecules, like is the case when leukocytes roll and slow down on blood vessel walls by selectin-mediated adhesion. After exposure of the large <span class="hlt">beads</span> to the pattern of small <span class="hlt">beads</span>, the antigen concentration is detected by simply counting the number of surface pattern-bound large magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The new technique allows detection of proteins down to the sub-zeptomole range. In particular, we demonstrate detection of only 200 molecules of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) in a serum sample volume of 5 μL, corresponding to a concentration of 60 attomolar or 1 fg mL(-1).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23094984','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23094984"><span>Discovery of novel integrin ligands from combinatorial libraries using a multiplex "<span class="hlt">beads</span> on a <span class="hlt">bead</span>" approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cho, Choi-Fong; Amadei, Giulio A; Breadner, Daniel; Luyt, Leonard G; Lewis, John D</p> <p>2012-11-14</p> <p>The development of screening approaches to identify novel affinity ligands has paved the way for a new generation of molecular targeted nanomedicines. Conventional methods typically bias the display of the target protein to ligands during the screening process. We have developed an unbiased multiplex "<span class="hlt">beads</span> on a <span class="hlt">bead</span>" strategy to isolate, characterize, and validate high affinity ligands from OBOC libraries. Novel non-RGD peptides that target α(v)β(3) integrin were discovered that do not affect cancer or endothelial cell biology. The peptides identified here represent novel integrin-targeted agents that can be used to develop targeted nanomedicines without the risk of increased tumor invasion and metastasis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20560531','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20560531"><span>Novel spectrofluorimetric method for measuring the activity of the enzyme alpha-L-fucosidase using the nano composite optical sensor samarium(III)-doxycycline <span class="hlt">complex</span> doped in sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Attia, M S; Othman, A M; Aboaly, M M; Abdel-Mottaleb, M S A</p> <p>2010-07-15</p> <p>A novel, simple, sensitive, and precise spectrofluorimetric method was developed for measuring the activity of the enzyme alpha-L-fucosidase (AFU). The method was based upon measuring the quenching of the luminescence intensity of the produced yellow colored <span class="hlt">complex</span> ion associate of 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol [2-CNP] and a nano composite optical sensor samarium(III)-doxycycline [Sm(3+)-DC](+) <span class="hlt">complex</span> in a sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix at 645 nm. The remarkable quenching of the luminescence intensity of the [Sm(3+)-DC](+) <span class="hlt">complex</span> doped in a sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix by various concentrations of the reagent [2-CNP] was successfully used as an optical sensor for the assessment of AFU activity. The calibration plot was achieved over the concentration range 3.4 x 10(-9)-1.0 x 10(-6) mol L(-1) [2-CNP] with a correlation coefficient of 0.99 and a detection limit of 6.0 x 10(-10) mol L(-1). The method was used satisfactorily for the assessment of the AFU activity in a number of serum samples collected from various patients. A significant correlation between the luminescence activity of the enzyme AFU measured by the proposed procedure and the standard method was applied to patients and controls. The method proceeds without practical artifacts compared to the standard method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22485921','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22485921"><span>SDS-Polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">Gel</span> Electrophoresis of Proteins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sambrook, Joseph; Russell, David W</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>INTRODUCTIONThis protocol describes the separation of proteins by SDS-polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis. SDS is used with a reducing agent and heat to dissociate the proteins. SDS-polypeptide <span class="hlt">complexes</span> form and migrate through the <span class="hlt">gels</span> according to the size of the polypeptide. By using markers of known molecular weight, the molecular weight of the polypeptide chain(s) can be estimated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1712e0019J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1712e0019J"><span>Dispersion of fine phosphor particles by newly developed <span class="hlt">beads</span> mill</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Joni, I. Made; Panatarani, C.; Maulana, Dwindra W.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+ particles has advanced properties compare to conventional particles applied for compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) as three band phosphor. However, suspension of fine particles easily agglomerated during preparation of spray coating of the CFL tube. Therefore, it is introduced newly developed <span class="hlt">beads</span> mill system to disperse fine phosphor. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> mill consist of glass <span class="hlt">beads</span>, dispersing chamber (impellers), separator chamber, slurry pump and motors. The first important performance of <span class="hlt">beads</span> mill is the performance of the designed on separating the <span class="hlt">beads</span> with the suspended fine particles. We report the development of <span class="hlt">beads</span> mill and its separation performance vary in flow rate and separator rotation speeds. The 27 kg of glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> with 30 µm in size was poured into dispersing chamber and then water was pumped continuously through the slurry pump. The samples for the separation test was obtained every 1 hours vary in rotation speed and slurry flow rate. The results shows that the separation performance was 99.99 % obtained for the rotation speed of >1000 rpm and flow rate of 8 L/minute. The performances of the system was verified by dispersing fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+ particles with concentration 1 wt.%. From the observed size distribution of particles after <span class="hlt">beads</span> mill, it is concluded that the current design of <span class="hlt">bead</span> mill effectively dispersed fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1823b0118S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1823b0118S"><span>Adsorption of CO2 by alginate immobilized zeolite <span class="hlt">beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Suratman, A.; Kunarti, E. S.; Aprilita, N. H.; Pamurtya, I. C.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Immobilized zeolit in alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> for adsorption of CO2 was developed. Alginate immobilized zeolit <span class="hlt">beads</span> was generated by dropping the mixture of Na-alginate and zeolite solution into Ca2+ solution. The adsorption efficacy such as the influence of contact time, mass of zeolite, flowrate of CO2, and mass of adsorbent was evaluated. The adsorption of CO2 onto alginate immobilized zeolit <span class="hlt">beads</span> was investigated by performing both equilibrium and kinetic batch test. <span class="hlt">Bead</span> was characterized by FTIR and SEM. Alginate immobilized zeolit <span class="hlt">beads</span> demonstrated significantly higher sorption efficacy compared to plain alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> and zeolite with 0.25 mmol CO2 adsorbed /g adsorbent. Optimum condition was achieved with mass composition of alginate:zeolite (3:1), flowrate 50 mL/min for 20 minutes. The alginate immobilized zeolit <span class="hlt">beads</span> showed that adsorption of CO2 followed Freundlich isotherm and pseudo second order kinetic model. Adsorption of CO2 onto alginate immobilized zeolite <span class="hlt">beads</span> is a physisorption with adsorption energy of 6.37 kJ/mol. This results indicates that the alginate immobilized zeolit <span class="hlt">beads</span> can be used as promising adsorbents for CO2.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5996....1T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5996....1T"><span>Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 using immuno <span class="hlt">beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tu, Shu-I.; Gehring, Andrew</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>A new fluorescent sandwich method for the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was developed. Strepavidin coated magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> and fluorescence <span class="hlt">beads</span> reacted with biotinylated anti E. coli O157 antibodies to form the immuno magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> (IMB) and immuno fluorescence <span class="hlt">beads</span> (IFB), respectively. The E. coli bacteria captured by IMB were further labeled with IFB to form IMBM-(E. coliO157:H7)N-IFBO sandwich <span class="hlt">complexes</span> where the subscripts M, N and O were integral numbers. Using broth cultured E. coli O157:H7, the sandwich method was able to detect the bacteria at the level of ~ 103to 104 CFU/mL. Known quantity of freshly cultured E. coli O157:H7 cells were added to ground beef obtained from local markets. The bacteria in inoculated beef patties were enriched in EC broth containing novobiocin. After enriched for 4 h at 40 °C, the developed IMB-IFB method was applied to detect the presence of E. coli O157:H7. The results demonstrated that the developed method could detect the presence of 1 CFU of E. coli O157:H7 per gram of ground beef.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NJPh...15b5022C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NJPh...15b5022C"><span>Active <span class="hlt">gel</span> model of amoeboid cell motility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Callan-Jones, A. C.; Voituriez, R.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>We develop a model of amoeboid cell motility based on active <span class="hlt">gel</span> theory. Modeling the motile apparatus of a eukaryotic cell as a confined layer of finite length of poroelastic active <span class="hlt">gel</span> permeated by a solvent, we first show that, due to active stress and <span class="hlt">gel</span> turnover, an initially static and homogeneous layer can undergo a contractile-type instability to a polarized moving state in which the rear is enriched in <span class="hlt">gel</span> polymer. This agrees qualitatively with motile cells containing an actomyosin-rich uropod at their rear. We find that the <span class="hlt">gel</span> layer settles into a steadily moving, inhomogeneous state at long times, sustained by a balance between contractility and filament turnover. In addition, our model predicts an optimal value of the <span class="hlt">gel</span>-substrate adhesion leading to maximum layer speed, in agreement with cell motility assays. The model may be relevant to motility of cells translocating in <span class="hlt">complex</span>, confining environments that can be mimicked experimentally by cell migration through microchannels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23795723','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23795723"><span>Comparison of some biochemical properties of artichoke polyphenol oxidase entrapped in alginate-carrageenan and alginate <span class="hlt">gels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yagar, Hulya; Kocaturk, Selin</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC.1.14.18.1) isolated from artichoke (Cynara scolymus) was entrapped within alginate and alginate+ carrageenan <span class="hlt">beads</span>, and the catecholase and cresolase activities of both entrapped enzymes were determined. Some properties of these immobilized enzymes such as optimum pH and temperature, kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax), thermal, and storage stability were determined and compared to each other. The highest catecholase activity was observed in alginate <span class="hlt">gel</span> (370 U/g <span class="hlt">bead</span>) while the highest cresolase activity was in alginate+ carrageenan <span class="hlt">gel</span> (90 U/g <span class="hlt">bead</span>). For catecholase and cresolase activities, optimum pHs of alginate and alginate+ carrageenan <span class="hlt">beads</span> were determined to be 7.0 and 4.0, respectively. Optimum temperatures for catecholase activity were determined to be 40°C for both entrapped enzymes. These values for cresolase activity were 30°C and 20°C, respectively. Immobilized artichoke PPOs greatly preserved their thermal stability which exists anyway. The catalytic efficiency value (Vmax/Km) of the alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> is approximately high as two-and-a-half folds of that of alginate+κ-carrageenan <span class="hlt">beads</span> for cresolase activity. These values were very close for catecholase activity. Immobilized <span class="hlt">beads</span> saved their both activities after 30 days of storage at 4°C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JChPh.117.6873A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JChPh.117.6873A"><span>Brownian dynamics studies on DNA <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis. II. ``Defect'' dynamics in the elongation-contraction motion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Azuma, Ryuzo</p> <p>2002-10-01</p> <p>By means of the Brownian dynamics (BD) method of simulations we have developed, we study the dynamics of individual DNA molecules which are undergoing constant field <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis (CFGE), focusing on the relevance of the "defect" concept due to de Gennes in CFGE. The corresponding objects, which we call slack <span class="hlt">beads</span> (s-<span class="hlt">beads</span>), are explicitly introduced in our BD model. In equilibrium under a vanishing field, the distance between s-<span class="hlt">beads</span> and their hopping range is found to be randomly distributed following a Poisson distribution. In strong fields, where a chain undergoes elongation-contraction motion, s-<span class="hlt">beads</span> are observed to be alternately annihilated in elongation and created in the contraction of the chain. On the other hand, the distribution of hopping ranges of s-<span class="hlt">beads</span> does not differ much from that in equilibrium. The results indicate that in the elongation-contraction motion of the chain, a large number of random movements of s-<span class="hlt">beads</span> are involved. We have also confirmed that these features of s-<span class="hlt">beads</span> agree qualitatively with those of s-monomers in the extended bond fluctuation model (EBFM) which we recently proposed. This agreement strongly supports the stochastic semilocal movement of s-monomers which we a priori introduced into the EBFM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10099597','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10099597"><span>Hyaluronate-alginate <span class="hlt">gel</span> as a novel biomaterial: mechanical properties and formation mechanism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oerther, S; Le Gall, H; Payan, E; Lapicque, F; Presle, N; Hubert, P; Dexheimer, J; Netter, P</p> <p>1999-04-20</p> <p>With the aim of producing a biomaterial for surgical applications, the alginate-hyaluronate association has been investigated to combine the <span class="hlt">gel</span>-forming properties of alginate with the healing properties of hyaluronate. <span class="hlt">Gels</span> were prepared by diffusion of calcium into alginate-hyaluronate mixtures, with an alginate content of 20 mg/mL. The hyaluronate source was shown to have significant effect on the aspect and the properties of the <span class="hlt">gels</span>. The <span class="hlt">gels</span> have viscoelastic behaviour and the transient measurements carried out in creep mode could be interpreted through a Kelvin-Voigt generalised model: experimental data led to the steady state hardness and a characteristic viscosity of the <span class="hlt">gel</span>. <span class="hlt">Gels</span> prepared from Na rooster comb hyaluronate with weight ratio up to 0.50 have satisfactory mechanical properties, and fully stable <span class="hlt">gels</span> are obtained after a few days; on the contrary, use of lower molecular weight hyaluronate led to loose <span class="hlt">gels</span> for hyaluronate contents over 0.25. <span class="hlt">Gel</span> formation was investigated by measurements of the exchange fluxes between the calcium chloride solution and the forming <span class="hlt">gel</span>, which allowed thorough investigations of the occuring diffusion phenomena of water, calcium ion and hyaluronate. Strong interactions of water with hyaluronate reduce significantly the rate of weight loss from the <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> and allows higher water content in steady-state <span class="hlt">gels</span>. Calcium content in the <span class="hlt">gel</span> samples could be correlated to the actual alginate concentration, whatever the nature and the weight ratio of hyaluronate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JCrGr.415...25S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JCrGr.415...25S"><span>Study on third order nonlinear optical properties of a metal organic <span class="hlt">complex</span>-Monothiourea-cadmium Sulphate Dihydrate single crystals grown in silica <span class="hlt">gel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sivanandan, T.; Kalainathan, S.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The third order nonlinear optical properties of Monothiourea-cadmium Sulphate Dihydrate crystal were measured using a He-Ne laser (λ=632.8 nm) by a Z-scan technique. The magnitude of nonlinear refractive index (n2) and nonlinear absorption coefficient was found to be 4.4769×10-11 m2/W and 1.233×10-2 m/W respectively. The third order non-linear optical susceptibility χ(3) was found to be in the order of 3.6533×10-2 esu. The negative sign of non-linear refractive index shows the self-defocusing nature of the <span class="hlt">gel</span> grown crystal. The second-order molecular hyperpolarizability γ of the grown crystal is 1.2822×10-33 esu. Laser damage threshold was measured by using an Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm). Photoconductivity studies of the <span class="hlt">gel</span> grown crystal revealed that the crystal possesses positive photoconducting nature. The results obtained from Z-scan, laser damage threshold and photoconducting studies reveal that the crystal can be a possible candidate material for photonics device, optical switches, and optical power limiting application.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28188808','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28188808"><span>Characterization of a novel intrinsically radiopaque Drug-eluting <span class="hlt">Bead</span> for image-guided therapy: DC <span class="hlt">Bead</span> LUMI™.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ashrafi, Koorosh; Tang, Yiqing; Britton, Hugh; Domenge, Orianne; Blino, Delphine; Bushby, Andrew J; Shuturminska, Kseniya; den Hartog, Mark; Radaelli, Alessandro; Negussie, Ayele H; Mikhail, Andrew S; Woods, David L; Krishnasamy, Venkatesh; Levy, Elliot B; Wood, Bradford J; Willis, Sean L; Dreher, Matthew R; Lewis, Andrew L</p> <p>2017-03-28</p> <p>We have developed a straightforward and efficient method of introducing radiopacity into Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS) hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> (DC Bead™) that are currently used in the clinic to treat liver malignancies. Coupling of 2,3,5-triiodobenzaldehyde to the PVA backbone of pre-formed <span class="hlt">beads</span> yields a uniformly distributed level of iodine attached throughout the <span class="hlt">bead</span> structure (~150mg/mL) which is sufficient to be imaged under standard fluoroscopy and computed tomography (CT) imaging modalities used in treatment procedures (DC <span class="hlt">Bead</span> LUMI™). Despite the chemical modification increasing the density of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> to ~1.3g/cm(3) and the compressive modulus by two orders of magnitude, they remain easily suspended, handled and administered through standard microcatheters. As the core chemistry of DC <span class="hlt">Bead</span> LUMI™ is the same as DC Bead™, it interacts with drugs using ion-exchange between sulfonic acid groups on the polymer and the positively charged amine groups of the drugs. Both doxorubicin (Dox) and irinotecan (Iri) elution kinetics for all <span class="hlt">bead</span> sizes evaluated were within the parameters already investigated within the clinic for DC Bead™. Drug loading did not affect the radiopacity and there was a direct relationship between <span class="hlt">bead</span> attenuation and Dox concentration. The ability (Dox)-loaded DC <span class="hlt">Bead</span> LUMI™ to be visualized in vivo was demonstrated by the administration of into hepatic arteries of a VX2 tumor-bearing rabbit under fluoroscopy, followed by subsequent CT imaging.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26735030','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26735030"><span>Pooling of Immunomagnetic Separation <span class="hlt">Beads</span> Does Not Affect Detection Sensitivity of Six Major Serogroups of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Cattle Feces.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Noll, Lance W; Baumgartner, William C; Shridhar, Pragathi B; Cull, Charley A; Dewsbury, Diana M; Shi, Xiaorong; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Renter, David G; Nagaraja, T G</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) of the serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, often called non-O157 STEC, are foodborne pathogens. Cattle are asymptomatic reservoirs for STEC; the organisms reside in the hindgut and are shed in the feces, which serve as the source of food product contaminations. Culture-based detection of non-O157 STEC involves an immunomagnetic separation (IMS) step to capture the specific serogroups in <span class="hlt">complex</span> matrices, such as feces. The IMS procedure is time consuming and labor intensive because of the need to subject each fecal sample to six individual <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate whether pooling of IMS <span class="hlt">beads</span> affects sensitivity of non-O157 STEC detection compared with using individual IMS <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The evaluation was done by comparing detection of serogroups in feces spiked with pure cultures (experiments 1 and 2) and from feces (n = 384) of naturally shedding cattle (experiment 3). In spiked fecal samples, detection with pools of three, four, six, or seven <span class="hlt">beads</span> was similar to, or at times higher than, detection with individual IMS <span class="hlt">beads</span>. In experiment 3, the proportions of fecal samples that tested positive for the six serogroups as detected by individual or pooled <span class="hlt">beads</span> were similar. Based on noninferiority tests, detection with pooled <span class="hlt">beads</span> was not substantially inferior to detection with individual <span class="hlt">beads</span> (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the pooling of IMS <span class="hlt">beads</span> is a better option for detection of STEC serogroups in fecal samples compared with individual <span class="hlt">beads</span> because the procedure saves time and labor and has the prospect of a higher throughput.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24149846','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24149846"><span>Synthesis, structural, photophysical and electrochemical studies of various d-metal <span class="hlt">complexes</span> of btp [2,6-bis(1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine] ligands that give rise to the formation of metallo-supramolecular <span class="hlt">gels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Byrne, Joseph P; Kitchen, Jonathan A; Kotova, Oxana; Leigh, Vivienne; Bell, Alan P; Boland, John J; Albrecht, Martin; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur</p> <p>2014-01-07</p> <p>2,6-Bis(1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine (btp) is a terdentate binding motif that is synthesised modularly via the CuAAC reaction. Herein, we present the synthesis of ligands 1 and 2 and the investigation of the coordination chemistry, photophysical behaviour and electrochemistry of <span class="hlt">complexes</span> of these with a number of d-metal ions (e.g. Ru(II), Ir(III), Ni(II) and Pt(II)). The X-ray crystal structures of ligand 1 and the <span class="hlt">complexes</span> [Ru·2(2)](PF6)Cl, [Ni·1(2)](PF6)Cl and [Ir·1Cl3] are also presented. All of the <span class="hlt">complexes</span> displayed non-classical triazolyl C-H···Cl(-) hydrogen bonding. All but one <span class="hlt">complex</span> showed no metal-based luminescence at room temperature, while all of the Pt(ii) <span class="hlt">complexes</span> displayed luminescence at 77 K. The electrochemistry of the Ru(II) <span class="hlt">complexes</span> was also studied and these <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were found to have higher oxidation potentials than analogous compounds. The redox behaviour of [RuL2](2+) <span class="hlt">complexes</span> with both 1 and 2 was nearly identical, while [Ru·1Cl2(DMSO)] was oxidised at significantly lower potential. We also show that the Ru(II) <span class="hlt">complex</span> of 2, [Ru·2(2)](PF6)Cl, gave rise to the formation of a metallo-supramolecular <span class="hlt">gel</span>, the morphology of which was studied using scanning electron and helium ion microscopy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...516254K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...516254K"><span>Manual control of catalytic reactions: Reactions by an apoenzyme <span class="hlt">gel</span> and a cofactor <span class="hlt">gel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kobayashi, Yuichiro; Takashima, Yoshinori; Hashidzume, Akihito; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Harada, Akira</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Enzymes play a vital role in catalysing almost all chemical reactions that occur in biological systems. Some enzymes must form <span class="hlt">complexes</span> with non-protein molecules called cofactors to express catalytic activities. Although the control of catalytic reactions via apoenzyme-cofactor <span class="hlt">complexes</span> has attracted significant attention, the reports have been limited to the microscale. Here, we report a system to express catalytic activity by adhesion of an apoenzyme <span class="hlt">gel</span> and a cofactor <span class="hlt">gel</span>. The apoenzyme and cofactor <span class="hlt">gels</span> act as catalysts when they form a <span class="hlt">gel</span> assembly, but they lose catalytic ability upon manual dissociation. We successfully construct a system with switchable catalytic activity via adhesion and separation of the apoenzyme <span class="hlt">gel</span> with the cofactor <span class="hlt">gel</span>. We expect that this methodology can be applied to regulate the functional activities of enzymes that bear cofactors in their active sites, such as the oxygen transport of haemoglobin or myoglobin and the electron transport of cytochromes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.444a2001M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.444a2001M"><span>Fundamentals of <span class="hlt">gel</span> dosimeters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McAuley, K. B.; Nasr, A. T.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Fundamental chemical and physical phenomena that occur in Fricke <span class="hlt">gel</span> dosimeters, polymer <span class="hlt">gel</span> dosimeters, micelle <span class="hlt">gel</span> dosimeters and genipin <span class="hlt">gel</span> dosimeters are discussed. Fricke <span class="hlt">gel</span> dosimeters are effective even though their radiation sensitivity depends on oxygen concentration. Oxygen contamination can cause severe problems in polymer <span class="hlt">gel</span> dosimeters, even when THPC is used. Oxygen leakage must be prevented between manufacturing and irradiation of polymer <span class="hlt">gels</span>, and internal calibration methods should be used so that contamination problems can be detected. Micelle <span class="hlt">gel</span> dosimeters are promising due to their favourable diffusion properties. The introduction of micelles to <span class="hlt">gel</span> dosimetry may open up new areas of dosimetry research wherein a range of water-insoluble radiochromic materials can be explored as reporter molecules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1176313','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1176313"><span>Nanocrystal/sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> nanocomposites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Klimov, Victor L.; Petruska, Melissa A.</p> <p>2010-05-25</p> <p>The present invention is directed to a process for preparing a solid composite having colloidal nanocrystals dispersed within a sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix, the process including admixing colloidal nanocrystals with an amphiphilic polymer including hydrophilic groups selected from the group consisting of --COOH, --OH, --SO.sub.3H, --NH.sub.2, and --PO.sub.3H.sub.2 within a solvent to form an alcohol-soluble colloidal nanocrystal-polymer <span class="hlt">complex</span>, admixing the alcohol-soluble colloidal nanocrystal-polymer <span class="hlt">complex</span> and a sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> precursor material, and, forming the solid composite from the admixture. The present invention is also directed to the resultant solid composites and to the alcohol-soluble colloidal nanocrystal-polymer <span class="hlt">complexes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1011358.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1011358.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Bead</span> Collage: An Arts-Based Research Method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kay, Lisa</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, "<span class="hlt">bead</span> collage," an arts-based research method that invites participants to reflect, communicate and construct their experience through the manipulation of <span class="hlt">beads</span> and found objects is explained. Emphasizing the significance of one's personal biography and experiences as a researcher, I discuss how my background as an…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19670000023','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19670000023"><span>Tests show that aluminum welds are improved by <span class="hlt">bead</span> removal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hood, D. W.</p> <p>1967-01-01</p> <p>Tests with 2218-T87 aluminum alloy plate indicate improvements in strength, ductility, fatigue properties, and burst pressure result when one or both of the top and bottom weld <span class="hlt">beads</span> are removed. There is, however, a drop in yield strength. The consistency of test data is considerably improved by weld <span class="hlt">bead</span> removal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Scavengers&pg=6&id=EJ445266','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Scavengers&pg=6&id=EJ445266"><span>Activities to Grow On: Buttons, <span class="hlt">Beads</span>, and Beans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gonzolis, Amy; And Others</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Presents new ideas for using buttons, beans, and <span class="hlt">beads</span> as teaching manipulatives for elementary school children. The ideas include a button scavenger hunt, a button count, a cup puppet bean game, a numbers guessing game with beans in jars, and a <span class="hlt">bead</span> stringing activity. (SM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27481656','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27481656"><span>Nanofibrous polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span> from aramid fibers for efficient bilirubin removal.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peng, Zihang; Yang, Ye; Luo, Jiyue; Nie, Chuanxiong; Ma, Lang; Cheng, Chong; Zhao, Changsheng</p> <p>2016-08-16</p> <p>Polymer based hemoperfusion has been developed as an effective therapy to remove the extra bilirubin from patients. However, the currently applied materials suffer from either low removal efficiency or poor blood compatibility. In this study, we report the development of a new class of nanofibrous absorbent that exhibited high bilirubin removal efficiency and good blood compatibility. The Kevlar nanofiber was prepared by dissolving micron-sized Kevlar fiber in proper solvent, and the <span class="hlt">beads</span> were prepared by dropping Kevlar nanofiber solutions into ethanol. Owing to the nanofiborous structure of the Kevlar nanofiber, the <span class="hlt">beads</span> displayed porous structures and large specific areas, which would facilitate the adsorption of toxins. In the adsorption test, it was noticed that the <span class="hlt">beads</span> possessed an adsorption capacity higher than 40 mg g(-1) towards bilirubin. In plasma mimetic solutions, the <span class="hlt">beads</span> still showed high bilirubin removal efficiency. Furthermore, after incorporating with carbon nanotubes, the <span class="hlt">beads</span> were found to have increased adsorption capacity for human degradation waste. Moreover, the <span class="hlt">beads</span> showed excellent blood compatibility in terms of a low hemolysis ratio, prolonged clotting times, suppressed coagulant activation, limited platelet activation, and inhibited blood related inflammatory activation. Additionally, the <span class="hlt">beads</span> showed good compatibility with endothelial cells. In general, the Kevlar nanofiber <span class="hlt">beads</span>, which integrated with high adsorption capacity, good blood compatibility and low cytotoxicity, may have great potential for hemoperfusion and some other applications in biomedical fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003SPIE.4966..146L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003SPIE.4966..146L"><span>Self-encoding resin <span class="hlt">beads</span> of combinatorial library screening</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lei, Du; Zhao, Yuandi; Cheng, Tongsheng; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>The latest self-encoding resin <span class="hlt">bead</span> is a novel technology for solid phase synthesis combinatorial library screening. A new encode-positional deconvolution strategy which was based on that technology been illustrated compared with positional scanning and iterative strategies. The self-encoding resin <span class="hlt">beads</span> technology provides an efficient method for improving the high-throughput screening of combinatorial library.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1049822','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1049822"><span><span class="hlt">Bead</span>-based microfluidic immunoassay for diagnosis of Johne's disease</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wadhwa, Ashutosh; Foote, Robert; Shaw, Robert W; Eda, Shigetoshi</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Microfluidics technology offers a platform for development of point-of-care diagnostic devices for various infectious diseases. In this study, we examined whether serodiagnosis of Johne s disease (JD) can be conducted in a <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based microfluidic assay system. Magnetic micro-<span class="hlt">beads</span> were coated with antigens of the causative agent of JD, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The antigen-coated <span class="hlt">beads</span> were incubated with serum samples of JD-positive or negative serum samples and then with a fluorescently-labeled secondary antibody (SAB). To confirm binding of serum antibodies to the antigen, the <span class="hlt">beads</span> were subjected to flow cytometric analysis. Different conditions (dilutions of serum and SAB, types of SAB, and types of magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>) were optimized for a great degree of differentiation between the JD-negative and JD-positive samples. Using the optimized conditions, we tested a well-classified set of 155 serum samples from JD negative and JD-positive cattle by using the <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based flow cytometric assay. Of 105 JD-positive samples, 63 samples (60%) showed higher antibody binding levels than a cut-off value determined by using antibody binding levels of JD-negative samples. In contrast, only 43-49 JD-positive samples showed higher antibody binding levels than the cut-off value when the samples were tested by commercially-available immunoassays. Microfluidic assays were performed by magnetically immobilizing a number of <span class="hlt">beads</span> within a microchannel of a glass microchip and detecting antibody on the collected <span class="hlt">beads</span> by laser-induced fluorescence. Antigen-coated magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> treated with bovine serum sample and fluorescently-labeled SAB were loaded into a microchannel to measure the fluorescence (reflecting level of antibody binding) on the <span class="hlt">beads</span> in the microfluidic system. When the results of five bovine serum samples obtained with the system were compared to those obtained with the flow cytometer, a high level of correlation (linear regression, r2 = 0.994) was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9802E..0IA','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9802E..0IA"><span>Internal structure analysis of particle-double network <span class="hlt">gels</span> used in a <span class="hlt">gel</span> organ replica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abe, Mei; Arai, Masanori; Saito, Azusa; Sakai, Kazuyuki; Kawakami, Masaru; Furukawa, Hidemitsu</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In recent years, the fabrication of patient organ replicas using 3D printers has been attracting a great deal of attention in medical fields. However, the cost of these organ replicas is very high as it is necessary to employ very expensive 3D printers and printing materials. Here we present a new <span class="hlt">gel</span> organ replica, of human kidney, fabricated with a conventional molding technique, using a particle-double network hydrogel (P-DN <span class="hlt">gel</span>). The replica is transparent and has the feel of a real kidney. It is expected that <span class="hlt">gel</span> organ replicas produced this way will be a useful tool for the education of trainee surgeons and clinical ultrasonography technologists. In addition to developing a <span class="hlt">gel</span> organ replica, the internal structure of the P-DN <span class="hlt">gel</span> used is also discussed. Because the P-DN <span class="hlt">gel</span> has a <span class="hlt">complex</span> structure comprised of two different types of network, it has not been possible to investigate them internally in detail. <span class="hlt">Gels</span> have an inhomogeneous network structure. If it is able to get a more uniform structure, it is considered that this would lead to higher strength in the <span class="hlt">gel</span>. In the present study we investigate the structure of P-DN <span class="hlt">gel</span>, using the <span class="hlt">gel</span> organ replica. We investigated the internal structure of P-DN <span class="hlt">gel</span> using Scanning Microscopic Light Scattering (SMILS), a non-contacting and non-destructive.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24854245','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24854245"><span>Incorporation of pyrene in polypyrrole/polystyrene magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Głowala, Paulina; Budniak, Adam; Krug, Pamela; Wysocka, Barbara; Berbeć, Sylwia; Dec, Robert; Dołęga, Izabela; Kacprzak, Kamil; Wojciechowski, Jarosław; Kawałko, Jakub; Kępka, Paweł; Kępińska, Daria; Kijewska, Krystyna; Mazur, Maciej</p> <p>2014-10-15</p> <p>Pyrene, a fluorescent dye, was incorporated into polystyrene particles coated with polypyrrole. The incorporation was achieved by treating the polypyrrole/polystyrene (PPy/PS) <span class="hlt">beads</span> in a tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution of the pyrene fluorophore followed by rinsing with methanol. The polystyrene cores of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> swell in THF, allowing penetration of pyrene molecules into the polystyrene structure. The addition of methanol causes contraction of the swollen polystyrene, which encapsulates the dye molecules inside the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. It is shown that the polypyrrole coating is permeable with respect to both the dye and the solvent, allowing the transport of molecules between the polystyrene cores and the contacting solution. The polypyrrole adlayer can be used as a matrix for the incorporation of magnetic nanoparticles. Embedded particles provide magnetic functionality to the PPy/PS <span class="hlt">beads</span>. It is demonstrated that the pyrene-loaded <span class="hlt">beads</span> can be manipulated with an external magnetic field.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24123479','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24123479"><span>Hollow polydimethylsiloxane <span class="hlt">beads</span> with a porous structure for cell encapsulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oh, Myeong-Jin; Ryu, Tae-Kyoung; Choi, S-W</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Based on a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion system, porous and hollow polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) <span class="hlt">beads</span> containing cells using a simple fluidic device with three flow channels are fabricated. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in the PDMS oil phase is served as a porogen for pore development. The feasibility of the porous PDMS <span class="hlt">beads</span> prepared with different PEG concentrations (10, 20, and 30 wt%) for cell encapsulation in terms of pore size, protein diffusion, and cell proliferation inside the PDMS <span class="hlt">beads</span> is evaluated. The PDMS <span class="hlt">beads</span> prepared with PEG 30 wt% are exhibited a highly porous structure and facilitated fast diffusion of protein from the core domain to the outer phase, eventually leading to enhanced cell proliferation. The results clearly indicate that hollow PDMS <span class="hlt">beads</span> with a porous structure could provide a favorable microenvironment for cell survival due to the large porous structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/983043','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/983043"><span>Switchable cell trapping using superparamagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bryan, M. T.; Smith, K. H.; Real, M. E.; Bashir, M. A.; Fry, P. W.; Fischer, P.; Im, M.-Y.; Schrefl, T.; Allwood, D. A.; Haycock, J. W.</p> <p>2010-04-30</p> <p>Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} microwires are investigated as the basis of a switchable template for positioning magnetically-labeled neural Schwann cells. Magnetic transmission X-ray microscopy and micromagnetic modeling show that magnetic domain walls can be created or removed in zigzagged structures by an applied magnetic field. Schwann cells containing superparamagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> are trapped by the field emanating from the domain walls. The design allows Schwann cells to be organized on a surface to form a connected network and then released from the surface if required. As aligned Schwann cells can guide nerve regeneration, this technique is of value for developing glial-neuronal co-culture models in the future treatment of peripheral nerve injuries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23488896','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23488896"><span>Immobilized OBOC combinatorial <span class="hlt">bead</span> array to facilitate multiplicative screening.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xiao, Wenwu; Bononi, Fernanda C; Townsend, Jared; Li, Yuanpei; Liu, Ruiwu; Lam, Kit S</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>One-<span class="hlt">bead</span>-one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial library screening has been broadly utilized for the last two decades to identify small molecules, peptides or peptidomimetics targeting variable screening probes such as cell surface receptors, bacteria, protein kinases, phosphatases, proteases etc. In previous screening methods, library <span class="hlt">beads</span> were suspended in solution and screened against one single probe. Only the positive <span class="hlt">beads</span> were tracked and isolated for additional screens and finally selected for chemical decoding. During this process, the remaining negative <span class="hlt">beads</span> were not tracked and discarded. Here we report a novel <span class="hlt">bead</span> immobilization method such that a <span class="hlt">bead</span> library array can be conveniently prepared and screened in its entirety, sequentially many times with a series of distinct probes. This method not only allows us to increase the screening efficiency but also permits us to determine the binding profile of each and every library <span class="hlt">bead</span> against a large number of target receptors. As proof of concept, we serially screened a random OBOC disulfide containing cyclic heptapeptide library with three water soluble dyes as model probes: malachite green, bromocresol purple and indigo carmine. This multiplicative screening approach resulted in a rapid determination of the binding profile of each and every <span class="hlt">bead</span> respective to each of the three dyes. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> that interacted with malachite green only, bromocresol purple only, or both indigo carmine and bromocresol purple were isolated, and their peptide sequences were determined with microsequencer. Ultimately, the novel OBOC multiplicative screening approach could play a key role in the enhancement of existing on-<span class="hlt">bead</span> assays such as whole cell binding, bacteria binding, protein binding, posttranslational modifications etc. with increased efficiency, capacity, and specificity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25063138','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25063138"><span>TiO₂ <span class="hlt">beads</span> and TiO₂-chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> for urease immobilization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ispirli Doğaç, Yasemin; Deveci, Ilyas; Teke, Mustafa; Mercimek, Bedrettin</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The aim of the present study is to synthesize TiO2 <span class="hlt">beads</span> for urease immobilization. Two different strategies were used to immobilize the urease on TiO2 <span class="hlt">beads</span>. In the first method (A), urease enzyme was immobilized onto TiO2 <span class="hlt">beads</span> by adsorption and then crosslinking. In the second method (B), TiO2 <span class="hlt">beads</span> were coated with chitosan-urease mixture. To determine optimum conditions of immobilization, different parameters were investigated. The parameters of optimization were initial enzyme concentration (0.5; 1; 1.5; 2mg/ml), alginate concentration (1; 2; 3%), glutaraldehyde concentration (1; 2; 3% v/v) and chitosan concentration (2; 3; 4 mg/ml). The optimum enzyme concentrations were determined as 1.5mg/ml for A and 1.0mg/ml for B. The other optimum conditions were found 2.0% (w/v) for alginate concentration (both A and B); 3.0mg/ml for chitosan concentration (B) and 2.0% (v/v) for glutaraldehyde concentration (A). The optimum temperature (20-60°C), optimum pH (3.0-10.0), kinetic parameters, thermal stability (4-70°C), pH stability (4.0-9.0), operational stability (0-230 min) and reusability (20 times) were investigated for characterization. The optimum temperatures were 30°C (A), 40°C (B) and 35°C (soluble). The temperature profiles of the immobilized ureases were spread over a large area. The optimum pH values for the soluble urease and immobilized urease prepared by using methods (A) and (B) were found to be 7.5, 7.0, 7.0, respectively. The thermal stabilities of immobilized enzyme sets were studied and they maintained 50% activity at 65°C. However, at this temperature free urease protected only 15% activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15556354','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15556354"><span>A direct comparison of the performance of ground, <span class="hlt">beaded</span> and silica-grafted MIPs in HPLC and turbulent flow chromatography applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fairhurst, Robert E; Chassaing, Christophe; Venn, Richard F; Mayes, Andrew G</p> <p>2004-12-15</p> <p>Spherical molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) specific to the beta-blocker propranolol have been synthesised using two different approaches and compared to traditional ground monolithic MIPs in HPLC and TFC applications. TFC is a LC technique used for rapid extraction of compounds directly from <span class="hlt">complex</span> matrices. It can be easily coupled to HPLC and MS for automation of an extraction/analysis procedure. Spherical MIP <span class="hlt">beads</span> were produced using a suspension polymerisation technique and silica/MIP composite <span class="hlt">beads</span> by grafting MIP to spherical silica particles using a surface-bound initiator species. Synthesis of both <span class="hlt">beaded</span> and silica-grafted MIPs was more practical than using the traditional grinding method and yields of spherical particles of the required size between 80 and 100% were routinely achieved. Under HPLC conditions, <span class="hlt">beaded</span> and ground MIP materials showed a degree of chiral separation for all of the nine beta-blockers tested. The <span class="hlt">beaded</span> MIP, however, showed much better flow properties and peak shape than the ground material. Silica-grafted MIP showed some separation in five of the drugs and a large improvement in peak shape and analysis times compared with both ground and <span class="hlt">beaded</span> MIPs. The materials prepared were also used in extraction columns for Turbulent Flow Chromatography (TFC). Although no imprinting effect was observed under typical TFC conditions, <span class="hlt">beaded</span> polymer materials showed promise for use as TFC extraction columns due to the good flow properties and clean extracts obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17087748','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17087748"><span><span class="hlt">Complexity</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gómez-Hernández, J Jaime</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>It is difficult to define <span class="hlt">complexity</span> in modeling. <span class="hlt">Complexity</span> is often associated with uncertainty since modeling uncertainty is an intrinsically difficult task. However, modeling uncertainty does not require, necessarily, <span class="hlt">complex</span> models, in the sense of a model requiring an unmanageable number of degrees of freedom to characterize the aquifer. The relationship between <span class="hlt">complexity</span>, uncertainty, heterogeneity, and stochastic modeling is not simple. Aquifer models should be able to quantify the uncertainty of their predictions, which can be done using stochastic models that produce heterogeneous realizations of aquifer parameters. This is the type of <span class="hlt">complexity</span> addressed in this article.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/950033','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/950033"><span>DWPF GLASS <span class="hlt">BEADS</span> AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Adamson, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B</p> <p>2008-11-24</p> <p>DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> and glass frit to determine how well the glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass <span class="hlt">bead</span> slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass <span class="hlt">beads</span>, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17990899','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17990899"><span>Preparation of calcium alginate microgel <span class="hlt">beads</span> in an electrodispersion reactor using an internal source of calcium carbonate nanoparticles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhao, Yinyan; Carvajal, M Teresa; Won, You-Yeon; Harris, Michael T</p> <p>2007-12-04</p> <p>An electrodispersion reactor has been used to prepare calcium alginate (Ca-alginate) microgel <span class="hlt">beads</span> in this study. In the electrodispersion reactor, pulsed electric fields are utilized to atomize aqueous mixtures of sodium alginate and CaCO3 nanoparticles (dispersed phase) from a nozzle into an immiscible, insulating second liquid (continuous phase) containing a soluble organic acid. This technique combines the features of the electrohydrodynamic force driven emulsion processes and externally triggered gelations in microreactors (the droplets) ultimately to yield soft <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The average particle size of the Ca-alginate <span class="hlt">gels</span> generated by this method changed from 412 +/- 90 to 10 +/- 3 microm as the applied peak voltage was increased. A diagram depicting structural information for the Ca-alginate was constructed as a function of the concentrations of sodium alginate and CaCO3 nanoparticles. From this diagram, a critical concentration of sodium alginate required for sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> transformation was observed. The characteristic highly porous structure of Ca-alginate particles made by this technique appears suitable for microencapsulation applications. Finally, time scale analysis was performed for the electrodispersion processes that include reactions in the microreactor droplets to provide guidelines for the future employment of this technique. This electrodispersion reactor can be used potentially in the formation of many reaction-based microencapsulation systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPCS..102...74G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPCS..102...74G"><span>Production of Eu-doped BaAl2O4 at low temperature via an alternative sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> method using PVA as <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agent</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gomes, Manassés A.; Andrade, Adriano B.; Rezende, Marcos V. dos S.; Valerio, Mário E. G.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Europium-doped barium aluminate (BaAl2O4:Eu) was successfully produced using an alternative PVA (Polyvinyl Alcohol) assisted sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> route at low temperature. To find the best conditions of calcination, DTA/TG (Differential Thermal Analysis/ Thermogravimetric Analysis) techniques were used. X-ray powder diffraction and Rietveld refinement were used to identify the crystalline phases, as well as to confirm the BaAl2O4 phase formation at 600 °C, a much lower temperature than previously reported in the literature. The crystallite size was estimated using the Scherrer's formalism showing that the prepared samples are in the nanometric scale. XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) measurements showed that only Eu3+ species are present in the matrix after calcinations. Optical characterization was performed by photoluminescence (PL) and radioluminescence (RL) spectra. PL studies showed exciton emissions and the characteristic Eu3+ spectrum. Samples irradiated by X-ray showed emissions associated to the exciton and Eu3+ and Eu2+ transitions. This study showed that calcination temperature greatly influenced the luminescent properties. The reproducibility of the samples was successfully tested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910019059','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910019059"><span>Test of superplastically formed corrugated aluminum compression specimens with <span class="hlt">beaded</span> webs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Davis, Randall C.; Royster, Dick M.; Bales, Thomas T.; James, William F.; Shinn, Joseph M., Jr.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Corrugated wall sections provide a highly efficient structure for carrying compressive loads in aircraft and spacecraft fuselages. The superplastic forming (SPF) process offers a means to produce <span class="hlt">complex</span> shells and panels with corrugated wall shapes. A study was made to investigate the feasibility of superplastically forming 7475-T6 aluminum sheet into a corrugated wall configuration and to demonstrate the structural integrity of the construction by testing. The corrugated configuration selected has <span class="hlt">beaded</span> web segments separating curved-cap segments. Eight test specimens were fabricated. Two specimens were simply a single sheet of aluminum superplastically formed to a <span class="hlt">beaded</span>-web, curved-cap corrugation configuration. Six specimens were single-sheet corrugations modified by adhesive bonding additional sheet material to selectively reinforce the curved-cap portion of the corrugation. The specimens were tested to failure by crippling in end compression at room temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRA..121.2431L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRA..121.2431L"><span>Sprite <span class="hlt">beads</span> and glows arising from the attachment instability in streamer channels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luque, A.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; McHarg, M. G.; Haaland, R. K.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">complex</span> dynamics of a sprite discharge are not limited to the propagation of streamers. After the passage of a streamer head, the ionized channel established in its wake develops intricate luminous patterns that evolve on timescales from 1 up to 100 ms. To investigate these patterns, conventionally called <span class="hlt">beads</span> and glows, we present high-speed recordings of their onset and decay; our main observation here is that in many cases distant points within a channel decay at the same rate despite considerable differences in the underlying air density. We then show that the properties of <span class="hlt">beads</span> and glows, including this synchronized decay, are explained by the tendency of electric current within a streamer channel to converge to an uniform value and by an attachment instability of electric discharges in air. However, we also discuss the uncertainty about the chemical reactions that affect the electron density during the sprite decay.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3943434','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3943434"><span>The Flö<span class="hlt">gel</span>-three-component reaction with dicarboxylic acids – an approach to bis(β-alkoxy-β-ketoenamides) for the synthesis of <span class="hlt">complex</span> pyridine and pyrimidine derivatives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bera, Mrinal K; Domínguez, Moisés; Hommes, Paul</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Summary An extension of the substrate scope of the Flö<span class="hlt">gel</span>-three-component reaction of lithiated alkoxyallenes, nitriles and carboxylic acids is presented. The use of dicarboxylic acids allowed the preparation of symmetrical bis(β-ketoenamides) from simple starting materials in moderate yields. Cyclocondensations of these enamides to 4-hydroxypyridine derivatives or to functionalized pyrimidines efficiently provided symmetrically and unsymmetrically substituted fairly <span class="hlt">complex</span> (hetero)aromatic compounds containing up to six conjugated aryl and hetaryl groups. In addition, subsequent functionalizations of the obtained heterocycles by palladium-catalyzed couplings or by oxidations are reported. We also describe the simple synthesis of a structurally interesting macrocyclic bispyrimidine derivative incorporating a 17-membered ring, whose configuration was elucidated by DFT calculations and by subsequent reactions. PMID:24605160</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19863487','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19863487"><span>Formulation of controlled release gellan gum macro <span class="hlt">beads</span> of amoxicillin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Babu, R Jayachandra; Sathigari, Sateesh; Kumar, M Thilek; Pandit, J K</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Gellan gum has been reported to have wide pharmaceutical applications such as tablet binder, disintegrant, gelling agent and as a controlled release polymer. Multiparticulate delivery systems spread out more uniformly in the gastrointestinal tract and reduce the local irritation. The purpose of this study is to explore possible applicability of gellan macro <span class="hlt">beads</span> as an oral controlled release system of a sparingly soluble drug, amoxicillin. Gellan gum <span class="hlt">beads</span> were prepared by ionotropic gelation with calcium ions. The effect of drug loading, stirring time, polymer concentration, electrolyte (CaCl2) concentration, curing time etc. influencing the preparation of the gellan gum macro <span class="hlt">beads</span> and the drug release from gellan gum <span class="hlt">beads</span> were investigated in this study. Optimal preparation conditions allowed very high incorporation efficiency for amoxicillin (91%) The release kinetics of amoxicillin from gellan <span class="hlt">beads</span> followed the diffusion model for an inert porous matrix in the order: 0.1 N HCl > phosphate buffer > distilled water. Change in curing time did not significantly affect the release rate constant, but drug concentration, polymer concentration and electrolyte concentration significantly affect the release rate of amoxicillin from the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The gellan macro <span class="hlt">beads</span> may be suitable for gastro retentive controlled delivery of amoxicillin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApPhL.100o3702W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApPhL.100o3702W"><span>Optical trapping force reduction and manipulation of nanoporous <span class="hlt">beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Tao; Jiang, Fan; Oehrlein, Stefan; Zeng, Erliang; Kershner, Ryan; Cerrina, Franco</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>We studied the interaction of infrared optical traps with controlled-pore glass (CPG) <span class="hlt">beads</span> in aqueous medium. The lateral optical trapping force and stiffness were experimentally found considerably smaller than those of their solid counterparts. The simulation using an average refractive index revealed significant losses of effective trapping efficiency, which quantitatively agreed well with experimentally fitted curves. This effect was ascribed to the reduced relative refractive index of medium-filled CPG <span class="hlt">beads</span> with respect to the medium. Combining optical trapping with mechanical confinements, we demonstrated a microfluidic platform allowing for the synthesis of multiple DNA oligonucleotide sequences on individual <span class="hlt">beads</span> of interest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28261954','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28261954"><span>Screening inhibitors of xanthine oxidase from natural products using enzyme immobilized magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Ting; Li, Dapeng; Yu, Boyang; Qi, Jin</p> <p>2017-03-06</p> <p>In this study, high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used to assess the results of bioactive compound screening from natural products using immobilized enzyme magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>. We compared three commercial magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> with modified amino, carboxy and N-hydroxysuccinimide groups, respectively. Amino magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> performed best for immobilization and were selected for further experiments. Xanthine oxidase was immobilized on amino magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> and applied to screen potential inhibitors in fresh Zingiber officinale Roscoe, extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and Pueraria lobata Ohwi. In total, 12 potential xanthine oxidase ligands were identified from fresh Zingiber root and Scutellaria root extracts, of which eight were characterized and the concentration required for 50% inhibition was determined. Preliminary structure-function relationships were discussed based on these results. A convenient and effective method was therefore developed for the identification of active compounds from <span class="hlt">complex</span> natural product mixtures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10148510','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10148510"><span>K Basin sludge/resin <span class="hlt">bead</span> separation test report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Squier, D.M.</p> <p>1998-08-25</p> <p>The K Basin sludge is an accumulation of fuel element corrosion products, organic and inorganic ion exchange materials, canister gasket materials, iron and aluminum corrosion products, sand, dirt and minor amounts of other organic material. The sludge will be collected and treated for storage and eventual disposal. This process will remove the large solid materials by a 1/4 inch screen. The screened material will be subjected to nitric acid in a chemical treatment process. The organic ion exchange resin <span class="hlt">beads</span> produce undesirable chemical reactions with the nitric acid. The resin <span class="hlt">beads</span> must be removed from the bulk material and treated by another process. An effective <span class="hlt">bead</span> separation method must extract 95% of the resin <span class="hlt">bead</span> mass without entraining more than 5% of the other sludge component mass. The test plan I-INF-2729, ``Organic Ion Exchange Resin Separation Methods Evaluation,`` proposed the evaluation of air lift, hydro cyclone, agitated slurry and elutriation resin <span class="hlt">bead</span> separation methods. This follows the testing strategy outlined in section 4.1 of BNF-2574, ``Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process``. Engineering study BNF-3128, ``Separation of Organic Ion Exchange Resins from Sludge,`` Rev. 0, focused the evaluation tests on a method that removed the fine sludge particles by a sieve and then extracted the <span class="hlt">beads</span> by means of a elutriation column. Ninety-nine percent of the resin <span class="hlt">beads</span> are larger than 125 microns and 98.5 percent are 300 microns and larger. Particles smaller than 125 microns make up the largest portion of sludge in the K Basins. Eliminating a large part of the sludge`s non-<span class="hlt">bead</span> component will reduce the quantity that is lifted with the resin <span class="hlt">beads</span> in the elutriation column. Resin <span class="hlt">bead</span> particle size distribution measurements are given in Appendix A The Engineering Testing Laboratory conducted measurements of a elutriation column`s ability to extract resin <span class="hlt">beads</span> from a sieved, non-radioactive sludge</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27155234','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27155234"><span>N-doped mesoporous carbons supported palladium catalysts prepared from chitosan/silica/palladium <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zeng, Minfeng; Wang, Yudong; Liu, Qi; Yuan, Xia; Feng, Ruokun; Yang, Zhen; Qi, Chenze</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>In this study, a heterogeneous catalyst including palladium nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon (Pd@N-C) is synthesized from palladium salts as palladium precursor, colloidal silica as template, and chitosan as carbon source. N2 sorption isotherm results show that the prepared Pd@N-C had a high BET surface area (640m(2)g(-1)) with large porosity. The prepared Pd@N-C is high nitrogen-rich as characterized with element analysis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and Raman spectroscopy characterization of the catalyst shows that the palladium species with different chemical states are well dispersed on the nitrogen-containing mesoporous carbon. The Pd@N-C is high active and shows excellent stability as applied in Heck coupling reactions. This work supplies a successful method to prepare Pd heterogeneous catalysts with high performance from bulk biopolymer/Pd to high porous nitrogen-doped carbon supported palladium catalytic materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=291502','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=291502"><span>Application of <span class="hlt">gel-bead</span> technology for delivering Eimeria oocysts to day-old broilers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Current methods of preventing outbreaks of avian coccidiosis involve medication of feed with ionophore drugs or synthetic chemicals or by vaccination of chicks with low doses of Eimeria oocysts in ovo or by spray vaccination just after hatch. Our data indicates that the uniformity and efficiency of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18515228','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18515228"><span>Formulation and evaluation of oil entrapped gastroretentive floating <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> of loratadine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mishra, Shashi Kiran; Pathak, Kamla</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>A gastro retentive controlled release system of loratadine was formulated to increase the residence time in stomach and to modulate the release behaviour of the drug. Oil entrapped floating microbeads prepared by the emulsion gelation method were optimized by 23 factorial design and a polymer ratio of 2.5:1.5 (pectin/sodium alginate) by mass, 15% (m/V) of oil (mineral oil or castor oil) and 0.45 mol L(-1) calcium chloride solution as the optimized processing conditions for the desired buoyancy and physical stability. In vitro drug release in the fed state conditions demonstrated sustained release of loratadine for 8 h, which best fitted the Peppas model with n<0.45. The ethyl cellulose coating on microbeads optimized by 22 factorial design resulted in a controlled release formulation of loratadine that provided zero-order release for 8 h.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26632183','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26632183"><span>Pharmacokinetics and Antiinflammatory Effect of a Novel <span class="hlt">Gel</span> System Containing Ketoprofen Solid Nanoparticles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nagai, Noriaki; Iwamae, Aya; Tanimoto, Shion; Yoshioka, Chiaki; Ito, Yoshimasa</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We previously reported that dermal application using nanoparticles improves skin penetration. In this study, we prepared novel topical formulations containing ketoprofen (KET) solid nanoparticles (KETnano <span class="hlt">gel</span> ointment) and investigated the antiinflammatory effect of the KET nanoparticle formulations on rheumatoid arthritis using adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) rats. The KETnano <span class="hlt">gel</span> ointment was prepared using a <span class="hlt">bead</span> mill method and additives including methylcellulose and Carbopol 934; the mean particle size of the KET nanoparticles was 83 nm. In the in vitro skin penetration experiment, the penetration rate (Jc) and penetration coefficient through the skin (Kp) values of the KETnano <span class="hlt">gel</span> ointment were significantly higher than those of <span class="hlt">gel</span> ointment containing KET microparticles (KETmicro <span class="hlt">gel</span> ointment; mean particle size 7.7 µm). On the other hand, in the in vivo percutaneous absorption experiment, the apparent absorption rate constant (ka) and the areas under the KET concentration-time curve values in the skin of rats receiving the KETnano <span class="hlt">gel</span> ointment were significantly higher than those of rats receiving the KETmicro <span class="hlt">gel</span> ointment, and the amounts of KET in the skin tissues of rats receiving the KETnano <span class="hlt">gel</span> ointment were also significantly higher than those of rats receiving the KETmicro <span class="hlt">gel</span> ointment. In addition, the application of the KETnano <span class="hlt">gel</span> ointment attenuated the enhancement of paw edema of the hind feet of AA rats more than the application of the KETmicro <span class="hlt">gel</span> ointment. Our findings suggest that a topical drug delivery system using nanoparticles could lead to expansion in the therapeutic use of KET.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24063905','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24063905"><span>Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of uranium biosorption by calcium alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bai, Jing; Fan, Fangli; Wu, Xiaolei; Tian, Wei; Zhao, Liang; Yin, Xiaojie; Fan, Fuyou; Li, Zhan; Tian, Longlong; Wang, Yang; Qin, Zhi; Guo, Junsheng</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Calcium alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> are potential biosorbent for radionuclides removal as they contain carboxyl groups. However, until now limited information is available concerning the uptake behavior of uranium by this polymer <span class="hlt">gel</span>, especially when sorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics are concerned. In present work, batch experiments were carried out to study the equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of uranium sorption by calcium alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The effects of initial solution pH, sorbent amount, initial uranium concentration and temperature on uranium sorption were also investigated. The determined optimal conditions were: initial solution pH of 3.0, added sorbent amount of 40 mg, and uranium sorption capacity increased with increasing initial uranium concentration and temperature. Equilibrium data obtained under different temperatures were fitted better with Langmuir model than Freundlich model, uranium sorption was dominated by a monolayer way. The kinetic data can be well depicted by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The activation energy derived from Arrhenius equation was 30.0 kJ/mol and the sorption process had a chemical nature. Thermodynamic constants such as ΔH(0), ΔS(0) and ΔG(0) were also evaluated, results of thermodynamic study showed that the sorption process was endothermic and spontaneous.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27845224','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27845224"><span>Immobilization of yeast inulinase on chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> for the hydrolysis of inulin in a batch system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Singh, R S; Singh, R P; Kennedy, J F</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>An extracellular inulinase was partially purified by ethanol precipitation and <span class="hlt">gel</span> exclusion chromatography from a cell free extract of Kluyveromyces marxianus. Partially purified inulinase exhibited 420 IU/mg specific activity and it was immobilized on chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Activity yield of immobilized inulinase was optimized with glutaraldehyde concentration (1-5%), glutaraldehyde treatment time (30-240min), enzyme coupling-time (2-16h) and enzyme loading (5-30 IU) as functions. Under the optimized conditions maximum yield 65.5% of immobilized inulinase was obtained. Maximum hydrolysis of inulin 84.5% and 78.2% was observed at 125rpm after 4h by immobilized and free enzyme, respectively. A retention-time of 4h and 5h was found optimal for the hydrolysis of inulin under agitation (125rpm) by free and immobilized enzyme, respectively. The recycling of the developed immobilized biocatalyst was carried out after 5h of inulin hydrolysis in a batch system. The developed immobilized biocatalyst was successfully used for the hydrolysis of inulin for 14 batches. This is the first report on the immobilization of yeast inulinase on chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> for the hydrolysis of inulin in a batch system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JChPh.139p5104K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JChPh.139p5104K"><span>Exploring chemical reaction mechanisms through harmonic Fourier <span class="hlt">beads</span> path optimization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khavrutskii, Ilja V.; Smith, Jason B.; Wallqvist, Anders</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Here, we apply the harmonic Fourier <span class="hlt">beads</span> (HFB) path optimization method to study chemical reactions involving covalent bond breaking and forming on quantum mechanical (QM) and hybrid QM/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) potential energy surfaces. To improve efficiency of the path optimization on such computationally demanding potentials, we combined HFB with conjugate gradient (CG) optimization. The combined CG-HFB method was used to study two biologically relevant reactions, namely, L- to D-alanine amino acid inversion and alcohol acylation by amides. The optimized paths revealed several unexpected reaction steps in the gas phase. For example, on the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) potential, we found that alanine inversion proceeded via previously unknown intermediates, 2-iminopropane-1,1-diol and 3-amino-3-methyloxiran-2-ol. The CG-HFB method accurately located transition states, aiding in the interpretation of <span class="hlt">complex</span> reaction mechanisms. Thus, on the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) potential, the gas phase activation barriers for the inversion and acylation reactions were 50.5 and 39.9 kcal/mol, respectively. These barriers determine the spontaneous loss of amino acid chirality and cleavage of peptide bonds in proteins. We conclude that the combined CG-HFB method further advances QM and QM/MM studies of reaction mechanisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24182085','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24182085"><span>Exploring chemical reaction mechanisms through harmonic Fourier <span class="hlt">beads</span> path optimization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Khavrutskii, Ilja V; Smith, Jason B; Wallqvist, Anders</p> <p>2013-10-28</p> <p>Here, we apply the harmonic Fourier <span class="hlt">beads</span> (HFB) path optimization method to study chemical reactions involving covalent bond breaking and forming on quantum mechanical (QM) and hybrid QM∕molecular mechanical (QM∕MM) potential energy surfaces. To improve efficiency of the path optimization on such computationally demanding potentials, we combined HFB with conjugate gradient (CG) optimization. The combined CG-HFB method was used to study two biologically relevant reactions, namely, L- to D-alanine amino acid inversion and alcohol acylation by amides. The optimized paths revealed several unexpected reaction steps in the gas phase. For example, on the B3LYP∕6-31G(d,p) potential, we found that alanine inversion proceeded via previously unknown intermediates, 2-iminopropane-1,1-diol and 3-amino-3-methyloxiran-2-ol. The CG-HFB method accurately located transition states, aiding in the interpretation of <span class="hlt">complex</span> reaction mechanisms. Thus, on the B3LYP∕6-31G(d,p) potential, the gas phase activation barriers for the inversion and acylation reactions were 50.5 and 39.9 kcal∕mol, respectively. These barriers determine the spontaneous loss of amino acid chirality and cleavage of peptide bonds in proteins. We conclude that the combined CG-HFB method further advances QM and QM∕MM studies of reaction mechanisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011IJT....32.1973S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011IJT....32.1973S"><span>Thermophysical and Magnetic Properties of Carbon <span class="hlt">Beads</span> Containing Nickel Nanocrystallites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Skumiel, A.; Izydorzak, M.; Leonowicz, M.; Pomogailo, A. D.; Dzhardimalieva, G. I.</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Ferromagnetic and superparamagnetic nickel nanocrystallites, stabilized in a carbon matrix, were prepared by a three-step procedure including formation of a Ni acrylamide <span class="hlt">complex</span>, followed by frontal polymerization and pyrolysis of the polymer at various temperatures. It was found that the procedure applied enables fabrication of magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> containing metallic nanocrystallites embedded in a carbon matrix. The size of the crystallites, their morphology, volume fraction, and magnetic properties can be tailored by the pyrolysis temperature. The size of the crystallites affects their behavior in an external magnetic field, i.e., a heating process is the most effective for a sample pyrolyzed at 873 K. The revealed H n-type dependence of the temperature increase rate, (d T/d t) t=0, on the amplitude of the magnetic field indicates the presence of both superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic particles in all the samples studied since n > 2. For the superparamagnetic particles, the heating mechanism is associated with Néel relaxation. For the lower values of the magnetic field amplitude, H < H 0, the relaxation losses dominate whereas for the opposite case, H > H 0, the magnetic hysteresis is the main source of thermal energy losses. The composites containing magnetic Ni nanocrystallites entrapped in a carbon matrix can be potentially applied for hyperthermia treatment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860000686&hterms=sol+gel&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dsol%2Bgel','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860000686&hterms=sol+gel&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dsol%2Bgel"><span>Sol-<span class="hlt">Gel</span> Glasses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mukherjee, S. P.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Multicomponent homogeneous, ultrapure noncrystalline <span class="hlt">gels/gel</span> derived glasses are promising batch materials for the containerless glass melting experiments in microgravity. Hence, ultrapure, homogeneous <span class="hlt">gel</span> precursors could be used to: (1) investigate the effect of the container induced nucleation on the glass forming ability of marginally glass forming compositions; and (2) investigate the influence of gravity on the phase separation and coarsening behavior of <span class="hlt">gel</span> derived glasses in the liquid-liquid immiscibility zone of the nonsilicate systems having a high density phase. The structure and crystallization behavior of <span class="hlt">gels</span> in the SiO2-GeO2 as a function of <span class="hlt">gel</span> chemistry and thermal treatment were investigated. As are the chemical principles involved in the distribution of a second network former in silica <span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix being investigated. The procedures for synthesizing noncrystalline <span class="hlt">gels/gel</span>-monoliths in the SiO2-GeO2, GeO2-PbO systems were developed. Preliminary investigations on the levitation and thermal treatment of germania silicate <span class="hlt">gel</span>-monoliths in the Pressure Facility Acoustic Levitator were done.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960021852&hterms=Cutting+tools&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DCutting%2Btools','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960021852&hterms=Cutting+tools&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DCutting%2Btools"><span>More About Cutting Tool For Shaving Weld <span class="hlt">Beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Oelgoetz, Peter A.; Davis, William M.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Report describes modification and testing of proposed tool discussed in "Cutting Tool For Shaving Weld <span class="hlt">Beads</span>" (MFS-30056). Modified version of commercial pneumatically driven rotary cutting tool removes such hard metals as nickel alloys, titanium, and stainless steels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ct0090.photos.025004p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ct0090.photos.025004p/"><span>8. INTERIOR <span class="hlt">BEADED</span> WALL BOARDING SHOWING TRIAL MARKS FROM DIES ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>8. INTERIOR <span class="hlt">BEADED</span> WALL BOARDING SHOWING TRIAL MARKS FROM DIES MADE IN CARPENTER'S SHOP Ph: Jack E, Boucher - March 1961 - Joseph Carpenter Silversmith Shop, 71 East Town Street, Norwichtown, New London County, CT</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhyB..435...21G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhyB..435...21G"><span>Guided self-assembly of magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> for biomedical applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gusenbauer, Markus; Nguyen, Ha; Reichel, Franz; Exl, Lukas; Bance, Simon; Fischbacher, Johann; Özelt, Harald; Kovacs, Alexander; Brandl, Martin; Schrefl, Thomas</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Micromagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> are widely used in biomedical applications for cell separation, drug delivery, and hyperthermia cancer treatment. Here we propose to use self-organized magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> structures which accumulate on fixed magnetic seeding points to isolate circulating tumor cells. The analysis of circulating tumor cells is an emerging tool for cancer biology research and clinical cancer management including the detection, diagnosis and monitoring of cancer. Microfluidic chips for isolating circulating tumor cells use either affinity, size or density capturing methods. We combine multiphysics simulation techniques to understand the microscopic behavior of magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> interacting with soft magnetic accumulation points used in lab-on-chip technologies. Our proposed chip technology offers the possibility to combine affinity and size capturing with special antibody-coated <span class="hlt">bead</span> arrangements using a magnetic gradient field created by Neodymium Iron Boron permanent magnets. The multiscale simulation environment combines magnetic field computation, fluid dynamics and discrete particle dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca2462.photos.316009p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca2462.photos.316009p/"><span>7. Detail, <span class="hlt">beaded</span> mortar joint, stepped wingwall coping at the ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>7. Detail, <span class="hlt">beaded</span> mortar joint, stepped wingwall coping at the east portal of Tunnel 18, 135mm lens with electronic flash fill. - Southern Pacific Railroad Natron Cutoff, Tunnel No. 18, Milepost 410, Dorris, Siskiyou County, CA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5102181','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5102181"><span>Couple <span class="hlt">Beads</span>: An integrated method of natural family planning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mulcaire-Jones, George; Fehring, Richard J.; Bradshaw, Megan; Brower, Karen; Lubega, Gonzaga; Lubega, Paskazia</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Various fertility indicators are used by natural family planning methods to identify the fertile and infertile phases of a woman's menstrual cycle: mucus observations, cycle-day probabilities, basal body temperature readings, and hormonal measures of LH and estrogen. Simplified NFP methods generally make use of a single fertility indicator such as cycle-day probabilities (Standard Days Method) or mucus observations (Billings Ovulation Method). The Couple <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Method integrates the two simplest fertility indicators, cycle-day probabilities and mucus observations, expanding its applicability to all women, regardless of cycle regularity and length. In determining cycle-day probabilities, the Couple <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Method relies on a new data set from ultrasound-derived determinants of gestational age that more directly define the day of conception and the fertile window. By using a visual-based system of inexpensive colored <span class="hlt">beads</span>, the Couple <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Method can be used by couples of all educational and income levels. Lay Summary: Natural family planning methods provide education in regard to the signs of a woman's body which indicate if she is possibly fertile or not. Two important signs are the day of her menstrual cycle and her observations of bleeding and cervical mucus or dryness. The Couple <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Method teaches a couple how to observe these signs and chart them with a system of colored <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The Couple <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Method can be used by women with regular or irregular cycles. The <span class="hlt">bead</span> sets are inexpensive and consist of a length of plastic cord, colored “pony beads” and safety pins. PMID:27833183</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17010044','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17010044"><span>Application of paramagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> for purifying Bacillus anthracis protective antigen.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zarzecka, A; Bartoszcze, M</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>Paramagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> coated with Protein G and Tosylactivated-280 dynabeads have been used to purify Bacillus anthracis protective antigen from a liquid culture. The obtained protein was used in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test to detect B. anthracis protective antigen antibodies in human sera collected from immunized individuals. The purification method using paramagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> is very effective. It is fast, easy and may be carried out practically in any laboratory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvE..94b0501P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvE..94b0501P"><span><span class="hlt">Bead</span>-rod-spring models in random flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Plan, Emmanuel Lance Christopher Medillo, VI; Ali, Aamir; Vincenzi, Dario</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bead</span>-rod-spring models are the foundation of the kinetic theory of polymer solutions. We derive the diffusion equation for the probability density function of the configuration of a general <span class="hlt">bead</span>-rod-spring model in short-correlated Gaussian random flows. Under isotropic conditions, we solve this equation analytically for the elastic rhombus model introduced by Curtiss, Bird, and Hassager [Adv. Chem. Phys. 35, 31 (1976)].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5026306','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5026306"><span>Prion protein-coated magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>: Synthesis, characterization and development of a new ligands screening method☆</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>de Moraes, Marcela Cristina; Santos, Juliana Bosco; dos Anjos, Daniel Meira; Rangel, Luciana Pereira; Vieira, Tuane Cristine Ramos Gonçalves; Moaddel, Ruin; da Silva, Jerson Lima</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Prion diseases are characterized by protein aggregation and neurodegeneration. Conversion of the native prion protein (PrPC) into the abnormal scrapie PrP isoform (PrPSc), which undergoes aggregation and can eventually form amyloid fibrils, is a critical step leading to the characteristic path morphological hallmark of these diseases. However, the mechanism of conversion remains unclear. It is known that ligands can act as cofactors or inhibitors in the conversion mechanism of PrPC into PrPSc. Within this context, herein, we describe the immobilization of PrPC onto the surface of magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> and the morphological characterization of PrPC-coated <span class="hlt">beads</span> by fluorescence confocal microscopy. PrPC-coated magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> were used to identify ligands from a mixture of compounds, which were monitored by UHPLC–ESI-MS/MS. This affinity-based method allowed the isolation of the anti-prion compound quinacrine, an inhibitor of PrP aggregation. The results indicate that this approach can be applied to not only “fish” for anti-prion compounds from <span class="hlt">complex</span> matrixes, but also to screening for and identify possible cellular cofactors involved in the deflagration of prion diseases. PMID:25576041</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5191033','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5191033"><span>Potentiometric Aptasensing of Vibrio alginolyticus Based on DNA Nanostructure-Modified Magnetic <span class="hlt">Beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhao, Guangtao; Ding, Jiawang; Yu, Han; Yin, Tanji; Qin, Wei</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A potentiometric aptasensing assay that couples the DNA nanostructure-modified magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> with a solid-contact polycation-sensitive membrane electrode for the detection of Vibrio alginolyticus is herein described. The DNA nanostructure-modified magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> are used for amplification of the potential response and elimination of the interfering effect from a <span class="hlt">complex</span> sample matrix. The solid-contact polycation-sensitive membrane electrode using protamine as an indicator is employed to chronopotentiometrically detect the change in the charge or DNA concentration on the magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>, which is induced by the interaction between Vibrio alginolyticus and the aptamer on the DNA nanostructures. The present potentiometric aptasensing method shows a linear range of 10–100 CFU mL−1 with a detection limit of 10 CFU mL−1, and a good specificity for the detection of Vibrio alginolyticus. This proposed strategy can be used for the detection of other microorganisms by changing the aptamers in the DNA nanostructures. PMID:27918423</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26797250','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26797250"><span>Specific capture of the hydrolysate on magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> for sensitive detecting plant vacuolar processing enzyme activity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Jun; Cheng, Meng; Zeng, Lizhang; Liu, Weipeng; Zhang, Tao; Xing, Da</p> <p>2016-05-15</p> <p>Conventional plant protease detection always suffers from high background interference caused by the <span class="hlt">complex</span> coloring metabolites in plant cells. In this study, a bio-modified magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>-based strategy was developed for sensitive and quantitative detection of plant vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) activity. Cleavage of the peptide substrate (ESENCRK-FITC) after asparagine residue by VPE resulted in the 2-cyano-6-amino-benzothiazole (CABT)-functionalized magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> capture of the severed substrate CRK-FITC via a condensation reaction between CABT and cysteine (Cys). The catalytic activity was subsequently obtained by the confocal microscopy imaging and flow cytometry quantitative analysis. The sensor system integrated advantages of (i) the high efficient enrichment and separation capabilities of magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> and (ii) the catalyst-free properties of the CABT-Cys condensation reaction. It exhibited a linear relationship between the fluorescence signal and the concentration of severed substrate in the range of 10-600 pM. The practical results showed that, compared with normal growth conditions, VPE activity was increased by 2.7-fold (307.2 ± 25.3 μM min(-1)g(-1)) upon cadmium toxicity stress. This platform effectively overcame the coloring metabolites-caused background interference, showing fine applicability for the detection of VPE activity in real samples. The strategy offers great sensitivity and may be further extended to other protease activity detection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4619777','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4619777"><span>Configurational Statistics of Magnetic <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Detection with Magnetoresistive Sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Henriksen, Anders Dahl; Ley, Mikkel Wennemoes Hvitfeld; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Magnetic biosensors detect magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> that, mediated by a target, have bound to a functionalized area. This area is often larger than the area of the sensor. Both the sign and magnitude of the average magnetic field experienced by the sensor from a magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> depends on the location of the <span class="hlt">bead</span> relative to the sensor. Consequently, the signal from multiple <span class="hlt">beads</span> also depends on their locations. Thus, a given coverage of the functionalized area with magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> does not result in a given detector response, except on the average, over many realizations of the same coverage. We present a systematic theoretical analysis of how this location-dependence affects the sensor response. The analysis is done for <span class="hlt">beads</span> magnetized by a homogeneous in-plane magnetic field. We determine the expected value and standard deviation of the sensor response for a given coverage, as well as the accuracy and precision with which the coverage can be determined from a single sensor measurement. We show that statistical fluctuations between samples may reduce the sensitivity and dynamic range of a sensor significantly when the functionalized area is larger than the sensor area. Hence, the statistics of sampling is essential to sensor design. For illustration, we analyze three important published cases for which statistical fluctuations are dominant, significant, and insignificant, respectively. PMID:26496495</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26496495','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26496495"><span>Configurational Statistics of Magnetic <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Detection with Magnetoresistive Sensors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Henriksen, Anders Dahl; Ley, Mikkel Wennemoes Hvitfeld; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Magnetic biosensors detect magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> that, mediated by a target, have bound to a functionalized area. This area is often larger than the area of the sensor. Both the sign and magnitude of the average magnetic field experienced by the sensor from a magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> depends on the location of the <span class="hlt">bead</span> relative to the sensor. Consequently, the signal from multiple <span class="hlt">beads</span> also depends on their locations. Thus, a given coverage of the functionalized area with magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> does not result in a given detector response, except on the average, over many realizations of the same coverage. We present a systematic theoretical analysis of how this location-dependence affects the sensor response. The analysis is done for <span class="hlt">beads</span> magnetized by a homogeneous in-plane magnetic field. We determine the expected value and standard deviation of the sensor response for a given coverage, as well as the accuracy and precision with which the coverage can be determined from a single sensor measurement. We show that statistical fluctuations between samples may reduce the sensitivity and dynamic range of a sensor significantly when the functionalized area is larger than the sensor area. Hence, the statistics of sampling is essential to sensor design. For illustration, we analyze three important published cases for which statistical fluctuations are dominant, significant, and insignificant, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20429683','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20429683"><span>Optimization of polyphenol oxidase immobilization in copper alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kocaturk, Selin; Yagar, Hulya</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 1.14.18.1) was isolated from artichoke head (Cynara scolymus L.) by using 0.1 M Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.0), concentrated by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, and immobilized in copper-alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Immobilization yield was determined to be 70%. The cresolase and catecholase activities of enzyme immobilized at optimum immobilization conditions were found to be 13.3 and 670 U g <span class="hlt">beads</span> min(-1), respectively. Effects of immobilization conditions such as alginate concentration, CaCl2 concentration, amount of loading enzyme, <span class="hlt">bead</span> size, and amount of <span class="hlt">beads</span> on enzymatic activity were investigated. Optimum alginate and CuCl2 concentration were found to be 2 % and 3 % (w/v), respectively. Using <span class="hlt">bead</span> (diameter 3 mm) amount of 0.25 g maximum enzyme activities were observed for both polyphenol activities. The initial concentrations of loading free enzyme were 6.5 U mL(-1) and 5815 U mL(-1) for cresolase activity and catecholase activities, respectively. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> prepared at optimum immobilization conditions were suitable for up to 8 repeated uses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23728198','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23728198"><span>Development of a novel <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based 96-well filtration plate competitive immunoassay for the detection of Gentamycin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ho, Tien Yu Jessica; Chan, Chia-Chung; Chan, KinGho; Wang, Yu Chieh; Lin, Jing-Tang; Chang, Cheng-Ming; Chen, Chien-Sheng</p> <p>2013-11-15</p> <p>We developed a sensitive, simple, inexpensive and rapid <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based immunoassay platform, composed of liposomal nanovesicle amplification system, Gentamycin sulfate <span class="hlt">beads</span> and 96-well filtration plates. In the beginning of the assay, Gentamycin sulfate <span class="hlt">beads</span>, Gentamycin sulfate and Gentamycin specific antibody were incubated in a bottom-sealed 96-well filtration plate. After incubation, washing was done by running washing buffer through the unsealed filtration plate with only gravity and the antibody-Gentamycin <span class="hlt">bead</span> <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were retained in the plate. Fluorescent dye-loaded protein G-liposomal nanovesicles were then added to specifically bind to antibodies on the retained <span class="hlt">beads</span>. After washing unbound nanovesicles, millions of fluorescent dye molecules were released by adding a detergent solution to lyse liposomal nanovesicles. The limit of detection (LOD) of this novel detection platform in TBS and in skim milk were 52.65 ng/mL and 14.16 ng/mL, which are both sufficient for detecting the 200 ng/mL Codex maximum residual level (MRL). The dynamic ranges were both from each of their LODs to 100 μg/mL. The 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) in TBS and skim milk were 199.66 ng/mL and 360.81 ng/mL, respectively. We also demonstrated the good specificity of this platform by comparing detection results between pure Gentamycin solution and a mixture solution of 6 different antibiotics including Gentamycin in skim milk. The entire assay with 60 samples was conducted within 2h. In sum, this novel biosensing platform not only fulfilled most benefits of magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based assays, but also was inexpensive and convenient by replacing the magnetic separation with filtration plate separation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20019163','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20019163"><span>Synthesis and preliminary electrochemical characterization of LiNi{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} powders obtained by the <span class="hlt">complex</span> sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> process (CSGP)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Deptula, A.; Lada, W.; Olczak, T.; Croce, F.; Ronci, F.; Ciancia, A.; Giorgi, L.; Brignocchi, A.; Di Bartolomeo, A.</p> <p>1998-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Complex</span> Sol-<span class="hlt">Gel</span> Process (CSGP) was applied to the preparation of LiNi{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}O{sub 2}. Starting sol-solutions were prepared in two different ways: I, in which aqueous ammonia was added to a starting solution of Li{sup +}-Ni{sup 2+}-Co{sup 2+} acetate-ascorbate, and II in which LiOH was added to a solution of Ni{sup 2+} - Co{sup 2+} and NH{sub 4{sup +}} acetate-ascorbate. It was found that in the absence of ascorbic acid, or at its lower content ({le}0.2 M on 1M {Sigma} Li{sup +} - Ni{sup 2+} - Co{sup 2+}) precipitation of Ni hydroxides occurred. Regular sols were concentrated {approximately}3 times, gelled and dried at 140 C. Intensive foaming was observed for samples during further heating. Consequently for scaling up to 200g in a run a preliminary long drying procedure followed by self-ignition step ({approximately}400 C) was introduced. Thermal transformation of the <span class="hlt">gel</span> to solid was studied by TG, DTA, XRD and IR. The main feature of this step is carbonate formation. The final structure LiNi{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} is observed after heating for 1h at 800 C. For larger scale production the extension of firing time was necessary. Electrochemical properties of the LiNi{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} compound, prepared by the CSGP were evaluated and considered satisfactory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2651012','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2651012"><span>Ice crystal patterns in artificial <span class="hlt">gels</span> of extracellular matrix macromolecules after quick-freezing and freeze-substitution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Allenspach, A L; Kraemer, T G</p> <p>1989-04-01</p> <p>Artificial <span class="hlt">gels</span>, composed of collagen with or without hyaluronate (HA), a glycosaminoglycan (GAG), and chondroitin sulfate (CS), were prepared and quick-frozen for the purpose of studying the influence of composition and concentration on ice patterns. Dilute <span class="hlt">gels</span> were spread on coverslips, plunged into a slush of 30% isopentane/70% propane (-185 degrees C), freeze-substituted, and examined by phase-contrast microscopy. Ice patterns were revealed as "ice cavities" in the <span class="hlt">gel</span> after freeze-substitution. Ice morphology in the <span class="hlt">gels</span> was <span class="hlt">gel</span>-type-specific, suggesting that composition in dilute <span class="hlt">gels</span> can influence ice pattern formation. Crystallization patterns reflecting high, intermediate, and low rates of freezing were observed in all <span class="hlt">gel</span> types. Intermediate freezing in differentiating <span class="hlt">gel</span>-type-specific ice patterns. <span class="hlt">Gels</span> which included hyaluronate (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) altered the ice crystal pattern commonly observed in collagen <span class="hlt">gels</span>. Ice structure in collagen <span class="hlt">gels</span> consisted predominantly of long, parallel crystals in the herringbone pattern. Ice crystals separated <span class="hlt">gel</span> into thin, unbranched fibers with a primary spacing of approximately 2 microns. Ice morphology in HA <span class="hlt">gels</span> formed a mosaic consisting of packets of ice crystals. Contiguous packets were often oriented at right angles to each other. Periodic crossbridges interconnect primary <span class="hlt">gel</span> fibers of HA <span class="hlt">gels</span> and interrupt the lengthwise growth of ice crystals. Smooth <span class="hlt">beads</span> were visible on primary strands in HA <span class="hlt">gels</span> frozen at intermediate velocities. The addition of CS to collagen <span class="hlt">gels</span> resulted in formation of randomly oriented ice crystals in <span class="hlt">gels</span> frozen at intermediate rates. CS has little influence on ice morphology at low freezing velocities. Primary strands in CS <span class="hlt">gels</span> were decorated with rough-surfaced, osmiophilic aggregates.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27714372','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27714372"><span>Electrokinetics of nanoparticle <span class="hlt">gel</span>-electrophoresis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hill, Reghan J</p> <p>2016-09-28</p> <p><span class="hlt">Gel</span>-electrophoresis has been demonstrated in recent decades to successfully sort a great variety of nanoparticles according to their size, charge, surface chemistry, and corona architecture. However, quantitative theoretical interpetations have been limited by the number and <span class="hlt">complexity</span> of factors that influence particle migration. Theoretical models have been fragmented and incomplete with respect to their counterparts for free-solution electrophoresis. This paper unifies electrokinetic models that address <span class="hlt">complex</span> nanoparticle corona architectures, corona and <span class="hlt">gel</span> charge regulation (e.g., by the local pH), multi-component electrolytes, and non-linear electrostatics and relaxation effects. By comprehensively addressing the electrokinetic aspects of the more general <span class="hlt">gel</span>-electrophoresis problem, in which short-ranged steric interactions are significant, a stage is set to better focus on the physicochemical and steric factors. In this manner, it is envisioned that noparticle <span class="hlt">gel</span>-electrophoresis may eventually be advanced from a nanoparticle-characterization tool to one that explicitly probes the short-ranged interactions of nanoparticles with soft networks, such as synthetic <span class="hlt">gels</span> and biological tissues. In this paper, calculations are undertaken that identify a generalized Hückel limit for nanoparticles in low-conductivity <span class="hlt">gels</span>, and a new Smoluchowski limit for polyelectrolyte-coated particles in high-conductivity <span class="hlt">gels</span> that is independent of the <span class="hlt">gel</span> permeability. Also of fundamental interest is a finite, albeit small, electrophoretic mobility for uncharged particles in charged <span class="hlt">gels</span>. Electrophoretic mobilities and drag coefficients (with electroviscous effects) for nanoparticles bearing non-uniform coronas show that relaxation effects are typically weak for the small nanoparticles (radius ≈3-10 nm) to which <span class="hlt">gel</span>-electrophoresis has customarily been applied, but are profound for the larger nanoparticles (radius ≳ 40 nm in low conductivity <span class="hlt">gels</span>) to which passivated <span class="hlt">gel</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/927271','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/927271"><span>Vane Rheology of Cohesionless Glass <span class="hlt">Beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Daniel, Richard C.; Poloski, Adam P.; Saez, Avelino E.</p> <p>2008-02-12</p> <p>The rheology of a single coarse granular powder has been studied with shear vane rotational viscometry. The torque required to maintain constant rotation of a vane tool in a confined bed of glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> (with a mean particle size of 203 micrometers) is measured as a function of vane immersion depth and rotational speed. The resulting torque profiles exhibit both Coulombic behavior at low rotational rates and fluid-like behavior at high rotational rates. Analyzing vane shaft and end effects allows the flow dynamics at the cylindrical and top and bottom disk surfaces of vane rotation to be determined. Disk surfaces show a uniform torque profile consistent with Coulombic friction over most of the rotational rates studied. In contrast, cylindrical surfaces show both frictional and collisional torque contributions, with significant dynamic torque increases at deep immersion depths and fast vane rotation. A recently proposed constitutive equation is used to model the flow behavior. Semi-quantitative prediction is achieved at rotational rates both below 0.5 rad/s and above 10 rad/s. At slow vane speeds, the bed appears to be governed by a Janssen type normal stress distribution such that pressure saturates at deep immersions. This occurs because internal stresses are transmitted to the vane and container walls. For fast vane rotation, the particles in the vicinity of the vane behave as if they were fully fluidized, and the normal stress distributions influencing granular rheology are primarily lithostatic. Prediction at rotational rates from 0.5 rad/s to 10 rad/s is complicated by changes in the granular microstructure and stress fields resulting from partial fluidization of the bed. Overall, it is possible to characterize the quasi-static and partially fluidized flow regimes with a vane rheometer. Knowledge of how the granular normal stress profile changes as the granular material is fluidized could enable prediction in the intermediate flow regime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4582012','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4582012"><span>Pulse Field <span class="hlt">Gel</span> Electrophoresis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sharma-Kuinkel, Batu K.; Rude, Thomas H.; Fowler, Vance G.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Pulse Field <span class="hlt">Gel</span> Electrophoresis (PFGE) is a powerful genotyping technique used for the separation of large DNA molecules (entire genomic DNA) after digesting it with unique restriction enzymes and applying to a <span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix under the electric field that periodically changes direction. PFGE is a variation of agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis that permits analysis of bacterial DNA fragments over an order of magnitude larger than that with conventional restriction enzyme analysis. It provides a good representation of the entire bacterial chromosome in a single <span class="hlt">gel</span> with a highly reproducible restriction profile, providing clearly distinct and well-resolved DNA fragments. PMID:25682374</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25682374','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25682374"><span>Pulse Field <span class="hlt">Gel</span> Electrophoresis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sharma-Kuinkel, Batu K; Rude, Thomas H; Fowler, Vance G</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Pulse Field <span class="hlt">Gel</span> Electrophoresis (PFGE) is a powerful genotyping technique used for the separation of large DNA molecules (entire genomic DNA) after digesting it with unique restriction enzymes and applying to a <span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix under the electric field that periodically changes direction. PFGE is a variation of agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis that permits analysis of bacterial DNA fragments over an order of magnitude larger than that with conventional restriction enzyme analysis. It provides a good representation of the entire bacterial chromosome in a single <span class="hlt">gel</span> with a highly reproducible restriction profile, providing clearly distinct and well-resolved DNA fragments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/824385','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/824385"><span>CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING <span class="hlt">GELS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Randall S. Seright</p> <p>2003-09-01</p> <p>This report describes work performed during the second year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using <span class="hlt">Gels</span>.'' The project has two objectives. The first objective is to identify <span class="hlt">gel</span> compositions and conditions that substantially reduce flow through fractures that allow direct channeling between wells, while leaving secondary fractures open so that high fluid injection and production rates can be maintained. The second objective is to optimize treatments in fractured production wells, where the <span class="hlt">gel</span> must reduce permeability to water much more than that to oil. Pore-level images from X-ray computed microtomography were re-examined for Berea sandstone and porous polyethylene. This analysis suggests that oil penetration through <span class="hlt">gel</span>-filled pores occurs by a <span class="hlt">gel</span>-dehydration mechanism, rather than a <span class="hlt">gel</span>-ripping mechanism. This finding helps to explain why aqueous <span class="hlt">gels</span> can reduce permeability to water more than to oil. We analyzed a Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM <span class="hlt">gel</span> treatment in a production well in the Arbuckle formation. The availability of accurate pressure data before, during, and after the treatment was critical for the analysis. After the <span class="hlt">gel</span> treatment, water productivity was fairly constant at about 20% of the pre-treatment value. However, oil productivity was stimulated by a factor of 18 immediately after the treatment. During the six months after the treatment, oil productivity gradually decreased to approach the pre-treatment value. To explain this behavior, we proposed that the fracture area open to oil flow was increased substantially by the <span class="hlt">gel</span> treatment, followed by a gradual closing of the fractures during subsequent production. For a conventional Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM <span class="hlt">gel</span>, the delay between gelant preparation and injection into a fracture impacts the placement, leakoff, and permeability reduction behavior. Formulations placed as partially formed <span class="hlt">gels</span> showed relatively low pressure gradients during placement, and yet substantially reduced the flow capacity of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/835644','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/835644"><span>CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING <span class="hlt">GELS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Randall S. Seright</p> <p>2004-09-30</p> <p>This report describes work performed during the third and final year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using <span class="hlt">Gels</span>.'' Corefloods revealed throughput dependencies of permeability reduction by polymers and <span class="hlt">gels</span> that were much more prolonged during oil flow than water flow. This behavior was explained using simple mobility ratio arguments. A model was developed that quantitatively fits the results and predicts ''clean up'' times for oil productivity when production wells are returned to service after application of a polymer or <span class="hlt">gel</span> treatment. X-ray computed microtomography studies of <span class="hlt">gels</span> in strongly water-wet Berea sandstone and strongly oil-wet porous polyethylene suggested that oil penetration through <span class="hlt">gel</span>-filled pores occurs by a <span class="hlt">gel</span>-dehydration mechanism, rather than <span class="hlt">gel</span>-ripping or <span class="hlt">gel</span>-displacement mechanisms. In contrast, analysis of data from the University of Kansas suggests that the <span class="hlt">gel</span>-ripping or displacement mechanisms are more important in more permeable, strongly water-wet sandpacks. These findings help to explain why aqueous <span class="hlt">gels</span> can reduce permeability to water more than to oil under different conditions. Since cement is the most commonly used material for water shutoff, we considered when <span class="hlt">gels</span> are preferred over cements. Our analysis and experimental results indicated that cement cannot be expected to completely fill (top to bottom) a vertical fracture of any width, except near the wellbore. For vertical fractures with apertures less than 4 mm, the cement slurry will simply not penetrate very far into the fracture. For vertical fractures with apertures greater than 4 mm, the slurry may penetrate a substantial distance into the bottom part of the fracture. However, except near the wellbore, the upper part of the fracture will remain open due to gravity segregation. We compared various approaches to plugging fractures using <span class="hlt">gels</span>, including (1) varying polymer content, (2) varying placement (extrusion) rate, (3) using partially formed <span class="hlt">gels</span>, (4</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3993991','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3993991"><span>Modeling Analyte Transport and Capture in Porous <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chou, Jie; Lennart, Alexis; Wong, Jorge; Ali, Mehnaaz F.; Floriano, Pierre N.; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Camp, James; McDevitt, John T.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Porous agarose microbeads, with high surface to volume ratios and high binding densities, are attracting attention as highly sensitive, affordable sensor elements for a variety of high performance bioassays. While such polymer microspheres have been extensively studied and reported on previously and are now moving into real-world clinical practice, very little work has been completed to date to model the convection, diffusion, and binding kinetics of soluble reagents captured within such fibrous networks. Here, we report the development of a three-dimensional computational model and provide the initial evidence for its agreement with experimental outcomes derived from the capture and detection of representative protein and genetic biomolecules in 290μm porous <span class="hlt">beads</span>. We compare this model to antibody-mediated capture of C-reactive protein and bovine serum albumin, along with hybridization of oligonucleotide sequences to DNA probes. These results suggest that due to the porous interior of the agarose <span class="hlt">bead</span>, internal analyte transport is both diffusion- and convection-based, and regardless of the nature of analyte, the <span class="hlt">bead</span> interiors reveal an interesting trickle of convection-driven internal flow. Based on this model, the internal to external flow rate ratio is found to be in the range of 1:3100 to 1:170 for <span class="hlt">beads</span> with agarose concentration ranging from 0.5% to 8% for the sensor ensembles here studied. Further, both model and experimental evidence suggest that binding kinetics strongly affect analyte distribution of captured reagents within the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. These findings reveal that high association constants create a steep moving boundary in which unbound analytes are held back at the periphery of the <span class="hlt">bead</span> sensor. Low association constants create a more shallow moving boundary in which unbound analytes diffuse further into the <span class="hlt">bead</span> before binding. These models agree with experimental evidence and thus serve as a new tool set for the study of bio-agent transport processes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5836..607H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5836..607H"><span>A superparamagnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> driven fluidic device (Invited Paper)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Husband, Benjamin; Melvin, Tracy; Evans, Alan G. R.</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>Injection strategies have been employed in the field of fluidic MEMS using piezo electric or thermal actuators. A very popular application for such technology is inkjet printing. Largely this technology is used to produce droplets of fluid in air; the aim of this investigation is to produce an injection device for the precise dispensing of nanolitre volumes of fluid. A novel technique for dispensing fluid using superparamagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> has been investigated. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> used (Dynal Biotech) contain a homogeneous dispersion of Fe2O3, allowing for easy control with a magnet. This magnetic property is exploited, by a plug of approximately 60 000 <span class="hlt">beads</span> within a micro channel. This is accomplished by applying a non-uniform magnetic field from a bullet magnet within close proximity of the <span class="hlt">bead</span> plug. Once the plug is formed it can be moved along the micro channel by moving the magnet and thus, provide a plunger-like action. Previous work has demonstrated a <span class="hlt">bead</span> plug device is able to dispense fluid from a micro channel at rates up to 7.2μlmin-1. This is an investigation using silicon and Pyrex fabricated micro channels with smaller dimensions, such that the dimensions will be similar to those which will be used to produce a pipette device. Here results are presented using these fabricated micro channels, where the effects of using differently sized <span class="hlt">bead</span> plugs and varying velocities are examined. The results follow our proposed theory; further analysis is required to determine the operation of a <span class="hlt">bead</span> plug during all states of movement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..MARD10005C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..MARD10005C"><span>Developing a Procedure for the Characterization of Mechanical Properties of Collagen <span class="hlt">Gels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chambers, Christopher; Lovelady, Heather; Matthews, Garrett</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>The characterization of bulk mechanical properties of type I collagen <span class="hlt">gels</span> is critical to understanding the role of collagen in the extracellular matrix (ECM), and developing biocompatible devices for use in the human body. Understanding the mechanical properties of the <span class="hlt">gel</span> state of collagen can lead to the ability to adjust these properties for multiple uses. Here, we examined the Young's modulus of the synthesized <span class="hlt">gels</span>. This project used a microrheological approach to discover these properties. <span class="hlt">Gels</span> were first formed using a known process and magnetic microspheres were embedded in the <span class="hlt">gel</span> prior to formation. An optical microscope was fitted with a magnetic chamber used to drive the embedded <span class="hlt">beads</span> in two modes, an oscillatory motion and a pulse motion. Tracking software was modified and used to analyze the motion of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> recorded with a CCD camera on the microscope. These techniques should be sufficient to obtain a reliable value for the Young's modulus of collagen <span class="hlt">gels</span>, as well as other similar materials. This work was supported by NSF REU program (award No DMR-1004873).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1300351','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1300351"><span>Diffusion of macromolecules in agarose <span class="hlt">gels</span>: comparison of linear and globular configurations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pluen, A; Netti, P A; Jain, R K; Berk, D A</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The diffusion coefficients (D) of different types of macromolecules (proteins, dextrans, polymer <span class="hlt">beads</span>, and DNA) were measured by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) both in solution and in 2% agarose <span class="hlt">gels</span> to compare transport properties of these macromolecules. Diffusion measurements were conducted with concentrations low enough to avoid macromolecular interactions. For <span class="hlt">gel</span> measurements, diffusion data were fitted according to different theories: polymer chains and spherical macromolecules were analyzed separately. As chain length increases, diffusion coefficients of DNA show a clear shift from a Rouse-like behavior (DG congruent with N0-0.5) to a reptational behavior (DG congruent with N0-2.0). The pore size, a, of a 2% agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span> cast in a 0.1 M PBS solution was estimated. Diffusion coefficients of the proteins and the polymer <span class="hlt">beads</span> were analyzed with the Ogston model and the effective medium model permitting the estimation of an agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span> fiber radius and hydraulic permeability of the <span class="hlt">gels</span>. Not only did flexible macromolecules exhibit greater mobility in the <span class="hlt">gel</span> than did comparable-size rigid spherical particles, they also proved to be a more useful probe of available space between fibers. PMID:10388779</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16663581','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16663581"><span>Chlorophyll-Protein <span class="hlt">Complexes</span> of a Photosystem II Mutant of Maize : Evidence that Chlorophyll-Protein a-2 and a Chlorophyll-Protein <span class="hlt">Complex</span> Derived from a Photosystem I Antennae System Comigrate on Polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">Gels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Metz, J G; Krueger, R W; Miles, D</p> <p>1984-05-01</p> <p>Use of the octyl beta-d-glucopyranoside solubilization procedure of Camm and Green (1980 Plant Physiol 66: 428-432) reveals that thylakoid membranes of a photosystem (PS) II-deficient maize (Zea mays L.) mutant lack two chlorophyll protein (CP) <span class="hlt">complexes</span> associated with PSII, i.e. CPa-1 and CPa-2. In contrast, when lithium dodecyl sulfate is used to solubilize the membranes of the mutant prior to electrophoretic separation, a CP <span class="hlt">complex</span> is observed which has a mobility similar to that of CPa-2. Comparison of spectral characteristics and polypeptide composition of the green bands in this region taken from samples of the mutant, normal sibling control plants and from PSII preparations indicate that the CP <span class="hlt">complex</span> observed in the mutant represents a portion of a light-harvesting <span class="hlt">complex</span> of PSI (Mullet et al. 1980 Plant Physiol 65: 814-822). The green band observed in normal maize samples can contain both the CPa-2 <span class="hlt">complex</span> as well as the CP <span class="hlt">complex</span> derived from the PSI antennae system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/823024','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/823024"><span>CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING <span class="hlt">GELS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Randall S. Seright</p> <p>2004-03-01</p> <p>This technical progress report describes work performed from September 1, 2003, through February 29, 2004, for the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using <span class="hlt">Gels</span>.'' We examined the properties of several ''partially formed'' <span class="hlt">gels</span> that were formulated with a combination of high and low molecular weight HPAM polymers. After placement in 4-mm-wide fractures, these <span class="hlt">gels</span> required about 25 psi/ft for brine to breach the <span class="hlt">gel</span> (the best performance to date in fractures this wide). After this breach, stabilized residual resistance factors decreased significantly with increased flow rate. Also, residual resistance factors were up to 9 times greater for water than for oil. Nevertheless, permeability reduction factors were substantial for both water and oil flow. <span class="hlt">Gel</span> with 2.5% chopped fiberglass effectively plugged 4-mm-wide fractures if a 0.5-mm-wide constriction was present. The ability to screen-out at a constriction appears crucial for particulate incorporation to be useful in plugging fractures. In addition to fiberglass, we examined incorporation of polypropylene fibers into <span class="hlt">gels</span>. Once dispersed in brine or gelant, the polypropylene fibers exhibited the least gravity segregation of any particulate that we have tested to date. In fractures with widths of at least 2 mm, 24-hr-old <span class="hlt">gels</span> (0.5% high molecular weight HPAM) with 0.5% fiber did not exhibit progressive plugging during placement and showed extrusion pressure gradients similar to those of <span class="hlt">gels</span> without the fiber. The presence of the fiber roughly doubled the <span class="hlt">gel</span>'s resistance to first breach by brine flow. The breaching pressure gradients were not as large as for <span class="hlt">gels</span> made with high and low molecular weight polymers (mentioned above). However, their material requirements and costs (i.e., polymer and/or particulate concentrations) were substantially lower than for those <span class="hlt">gels</span>. A partially formed <span class="hlt">gel</span> made with 0.5% HPAM did not enter a 0.052-mm-wide fracture when applying a pressure gradient of 65 psi/ft. This result</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9715E..05J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9715E..05J"><span>Fluorescent detection of C-reactive protein using polyamide <span class="hlt">beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jagadeesh, Shreesha; Chen, Lu; Aitchison, Stewart</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Bacterial infection causes Sepsis which is one of the leading cause of mortality in hospitals. This infection can be quantified from blood plasma using C - reactive protein (CRP). A quick diagnosis at the patient's location through Point-of- Care (POC) testing could give doctors the confidence to prescribe antibiotics. In this paper, the development and testing of a <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based procedure for CRP quantification is described. The size of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> enable them to be trapped in wells without the need for magnetic methods of immobilization. Large (1.5 mm diameter) Polyamide nylon <span class="hlt">beads</span> were used as the substrate for capturing CRP from pure analyte samples. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> captured CRP either directly through adsorption or indirectly by having specific capture antibodies on their surface. Both methods used fluorescent imaging techniques to quantify the protein. The amount of CRP needed to give a sufficient fluorescent signal through direct capture method was found suitable for identifying bacterial causes of infection. Similarly, viral infections could be quantified by the more sensitive indirect capture method. This <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based assay can be potentially integrated as a disposable cartridge in a POC device due to its passive nature and the small quantities needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26381055','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26381055"><span>Phase Diagram Characterization Using Magnetic <span class="hlt">Beads</span> as Liquid Carriers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Blumenschein, Nicholas; Han, Daewoo; Steckl, Andrew J</p> <p>2015-09-04</p> <p>Magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> with ~1.9 µm average diameter were used to transport microliter volumes of liquids between contiguous liquid segments with a tube for the purpose of investigating phase change of those liquid segments. The magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> were externally controlled using a magnet, allowing for the <span class="hlt">beads</span> to bridge the air valve between the adjacent liquid segments. A hydrophobic coating was applied to the inner surface of the tube to enhance the separation between two liquid segments. The applied magnetic field formed an aggregate cluster of magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>, capturing a certain liquid amount within the cluster that is referred to as carry-over volume. A fluorescent dye was added to one liquid segment, followed by a series of liquid transfers, which then changed the fluorescence intensity in the neighboring liquid segment. Based on the numerical analysis of the measured fluorescence intensity change, the carry-over volume per mass of magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> has been found to be ~2 to 3 µl/mg. This small amount of liquid allowed for the use of comparatively small liquid segments of a couple hundred microliters, enhancing the feasibility of the device for a lab-in-tube approach. This technique of applying small compositional variation in a liquid volume was applied to analyzing the binary phase diagram between water and the surfactant C12E5 (pentaethylene glycol monododecyl ether), leading to quicker analysis with smaller sample volumes than conventional methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/131641','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/131641"><span><span class="hlt">Bead</span> temperature effects on FCAW heat-affected zone hardness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kiefer, J.H.</p> <p>1995-11-01</p> <p>Hardness limits for welding procedure qualification are often imposed to lessen the chances of delayed hydrogen cracking during production fabrication. Temper <span class="hlt">bead</span> techniques have been used by fabricators during these qualifications to improve their chances of success. This practice involves using the heat of additional weld <span class="hlt">beads</span> to soften the heat-affected zone (HAZ) hardness in the base metal next to the weld where the hardness is the greatest. The technique works under controlled conditions, but the consistency for field use was questionable. This report describes an investigate of the effect of welding parameters, base metal chemical composition, and weld <span class="hlt">bead</span> placement on HAZ softening. An empirical formula developed from base plate chemical composition, weld cooling time, and temper <span class="hlt">bead</span> placement can be used to estimate the amount of HAZ tempering. Combined with an appropriate hardness prediction formula, it can help find the welding procedure needed to achieve a desired maximum HAZ hardness, or predict the HAZ hardness of existing welds. Based on the results of the study, <span class="hlt">bead</span> temperature is not recommended for HAZ hardness control on large scale fabrications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18377029','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18377029"><span>Metal <span class="hlt">bead</span> crystals for easy heating by direct current.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Voigtländer, Bert; Cherepanov, Vasily; Elsaesser, Christa; Linke, Udo</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>The preparation of metal <span class="hlt">bead</span> crystals with two wires attached to the crystal is described. These crystals allow for a very easy and efficient method to heat metal single crystals by direct current heating through the connecting wires of the <span class="hlt">bead</span> crystal. This heating of the <span class="hlt">bead</span> crystal is sufficient to clean metal surfaces such as the surfaces of Pt and Au as confirmed by Auger spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). There is no need for any ion sputtering which is conventionally used to clean metal single crystal surfaces. The <span class="hlt">bead</span> crystals with two leads fabricated from a wide range metals and metal alloys such as Cu, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Ta, W, Re, Ir, Pt, Au, PtPd, PtRh, AuAg, and PtIr can be used as general purpose metal substrates for surface science studies and other applications. Additionally, these <span class="hlt">bead</span> crystals can be used to reshape STM tips by indentation of the tip into the soft metal in order to recover atomic resolution imaging on hard substrates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19685235','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19685235"><span>Magnetic track array for efficient <span class="hlt">bead</span> capture in microchannels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abonnenc, Mélanie; Gassner, Anne-Laure; Morandini, Jacques; Josserand, Jacques; Girault, Hubert H</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>Magnetism-based microsystems, as those dedicated to immunoaffinity separations or (bio)chemical reactions, take benefit of the large surface area-to-volume ratio provided by the immobilized magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>, thus increasing the sensitivity of the analysis. As the sensitivity is directly linked to the efficiency of the magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> capture, this paper presents a simple method to enhance the capture in a microchannel. Considering a microchannel surrounded by two rectangular permanent magnets of different length (L (m) = 2, 5, 10 mm) placed in attraction, it is shown that the amount of trapped <span class="hlt">beads</span> is limited by the magnetic forces mainly located at the magnet edges. To overcome this limitation, a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) microchip with an integrated magnetic track array has been prototyped by laser photo-ablation. The magnetic force is therefore distributed all along the magnet length. It results in a multi-plug <span class="hlt">bead</span> capture, observed by microscope imaging, with a magnetic force value locally enhanced. The relative amount of <span class="hlt">beads</span>, and so the specific binding surface for further immunoassays, presents a significant increase of 300% for the largest magnets. The influence of the track geometry and relative permeability on the magnetic force was studied by numerical simulations, for the microchip operating with 2-mm-long magnets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4898724','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4898724"><span>Rapid Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus Pathogens from Infected Clinical Samples Using Magnetic <span class="hlt">Beads</span> Coated with Fc-Mannose Binding Lectin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Seiler, B.; Gamini, N.; Rodas, M.; Penary, M.; Giordano, G.; Oswald, E.; Super, M.; Ingber, D. E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Here we describe how Staphylococcus aureus bacteria can be rapidly isolated from clinical samples of articular fluid and synovial tissue using magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> coated with the engineered chimeric human opsonin protein, Fc-mannose-binding lectin (FcMBL). The FcMBL-<span class="hlt">beads</span> were used to capture and magnetically remove bacteria from purified cultures of 12 S. aureus strains, and from 8 articular fluid samples and 4 synovial tissue samples collected from patients with osteoarthritis or periprosthetic infections previously documented by positive S. aureus cultures. While the capture efficiency was high (85%) with purified S. aureus strains grown in vitro, direct FcMBL-<span class="hlt">bead</span> capture from the clinical samples was initially disappointing (< 5% efficiency). Further analysis revealed that inhibition of FcMBL binding was due to coating of the bacteria by immunoglobulins and immune cells that masked FcMBL binding sites, and to the high viscosity of these <span class="hlt">complex</span> biological samples. Importantly, capture of pathogens using the FcMBL-<span class="hlt">beads</span> was increased to 76% efficiency by pretreating clinical specimens with hypotonic washes, hyaluronidase and a protease cocktail. Using this approach, S. aureus bacteria could be isolated from infected osteoarthritic tissues within 2 hours after sample collection. This FcMBL-enabled magnetic method for rapid capture and concentration of pathogens from clinical samples could be integrated upstream of current processes used in clinical microbiology laboratories to identify pathogens and perform antibiotic sensitivity testing when bacterial culture is not possible or before colonies can be detected. PMID:27275840</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/920448','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/920448"><span>Magnetophoretic <span class="hlt">bead</span> trapping in a high-flowrate biological detection system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Galambos, Paul C.; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Rahimian, Kamayar; Martin, James Ellis; Anderson, G. Ronald; Clem, Paul Gilbert; Rohwer, Lauren Elizabeth Shea; Lemp, Thomas; Derzon, Mark Steven; James, Conrad D.</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>This report contains the summary of the 'Magnetophoretic <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Trapping in a High-Flowrate Biological Detection System' LDRD project 74795. The objective of this project is to develop a novel biodetection system for high-throughput sample analysis. The chief application of this system is in detection of very low concentrations of target molecules from a <span class="hlt">complex</span> liquid solution containing many different constituents--some of which may interfere with identification of the target molecule. The system is also designed to handle air sampling by using an aerosol system (for instance a WESP - Wet Electro-Static Precipitator, or an impact spray system) to get air sample constituents into the liquid volume. The system described herein automatically takes the raw liquid sample, whether air converted or initially liquid matrix, and mixes in magnetic detector <span class="hlt">beads</span> that capture the targets of interest and then performs the sample cleanup function, allowing increased sensitivity and eliminating most false positives and false negatives at a downstream detector. The surfaces of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> can be functionalized in a variety of ways in order to maximize the number of targets to be captured and concentrated. Bacteria and viruses are captured using antibodies to surface proteins on bacterial cell walls or viral particle coats. In combination with a cell lysis or PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction), the <span class="hlt">beads</span> can be used as a DNA or RNA probe to capture nucleic acid patterns of interest. The sample cleanup capability of this system would allow different raw biological samples, such as blood or saliva to be analyzed for the presence of different infectious agents (e.g. smallpox or SARS). For future studies, we envision functionalizing <span class="hlt">bead</span> surfaces to bind to chemical weapons agents, radio-isotopes, and explosives. The two main objectives of this project were to explore methods for enhancing the mixing of the capture microspheres in the sample, and to develop a novel high-throughput magnetic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22485923','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22485923"><span>Drying SDS-Polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">Gels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sambrook, Joseph; Russell, David W</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>INTRODUCTIONThis protocol describes a method for drying SDS-polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gels</span>. <span class="hlt">Gels</span> containing proteins radiolabeled with (35)S-labeled amino acids must be dried before autoradiographic images can be obtained. Nonradioactive <span class="hlt">gels</span> can also be preserved by drying.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21390691','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21390691"><span>Agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smith, D R</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>After digestion of DNA with a restriction enzyme (Chapter 50), it is usually necessary, for both preparative and analytical purposes, to separate and visualize the products. In most cases, where the products are between 200 and 20,000 bp long, this is achieved by agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis. Agarose is a linear polymer that is extracted from seaweed and sold as a white powder. The powder is melted in buffer and allowed to cool, whereby the agarose forms a <span class="hlt">gel</span> by hydrogen bonding. The hardened matrix contains pores, the size of which depends on the concentration of agarose. The concentration of agarose is referred to as a percentage of agarose to volume of buffer (w/v), and agarose <span class="hlt">gels</span> are normally in the range of 0.3 to 3%. Many different apparatus arrangements have been devised to run agarose <span class="hlt">gels</span>; for example, they can be run horizontally or vertically, and the current can be conducted by wicks or the buffer solution. However, today, the "submarine" <span class="hlt">gel</span> system is almost universally used. In this method, the agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span> is formed on a supporting plate, and then the plate is submerged into a tank containing a suitable electrophoresis buffer. Wells are preformed in the agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span> with the aid of a "comb" that is inserted into the cooling agarose before the agarose has gelled. Into these wells are loaded the sample to be analyzed, which has been mixed with a dense solution (a loading buffer) to ensure that the sample sinks into the wells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5017799','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5017799"><span>Isolation of Inositol Hexaphosphate (IHP)-Degrading Bacteria from Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Hyphal Compartments Using a Modified Baiting Method Involving Alginate <span class="hlt">Beads</span> Containing IHP</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hara, Shintaro; Saito, Masanori</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Phytate (inositol hexaphosphate; IHP)-degrading microbes have been suggested to contribute to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)-mediated P transfer from IHP to plants; however, no IHP degrader involved in AMF-mediated P transfer has been isolated to date. We herein report the isolation of IHP-degrading bacteria using a modified baiting method. We applied alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> as carriers of IHP powder, and used them as recoverable IHP in the AM fungal compartment of plant cultivation experiments. P transfer from IHP in alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> via AMF was confirmed, and extracted DNA from alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> was analyzed by denaturing gradient <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis targeting the 16S rRNA gene and a clone library method for the beta-propeller phytase (BPP) gene. The diversities of the 16S rRNA and BPP genes of microbes growing on IHP <span class="hlt">beads</span> were simple and those of Sphingomonas spp. and Caulobacter spp. dominated. A total of 187 IHP-utilizing bacteria were isolated and identified, and they were consistent with the results of DNA analysis. Furthermore, some isolated Sphingomonas spp. and Caulobacter sp. showed IHP-degrading activity. Therefore, we successfully isolated dominant IHP-degrading bacteria from IHP in an AMF hyphal compartment. These strains may contribute to P transfer from IHP via AMF. PMID:27383681</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1023735','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1023735"><span>A Pneumatic Actuated Microfluidic <span class="hlt">Beads</span>-Trapping Device</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shao, Guocheng; Cai, Ziliang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Wanjun; Lin, Yuehe</p> <p>2011-08-20</p> <p>The development of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic microbeads trapping device is reported in this paper. Besides fluid channels, the proposed device includes a pneumatic control chamber and a <span class="hlt">beads</span>-trapping chamber with a filter array structure. The pneumatic flow control chamber and the <span class="hlt">beads</span>-trapping chamber are vertically stacked and separated by a thin membrane. By adjusting the pressure in the pneumatic control chamber, the membrane can either be pushed against the filter array to set the device in trapping mode or be released to set the device in releasing mode. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics simulation was conducted to optimize the geometry design of the filter array structure; the device fabrication was also carried out. The prototype device was tested and the preliminary experimental results showed that it can be used as a <span class="hlt">beads</span>-trapping unit for various biochemistry and analytical chemistry applications, especially for flow injection analysis systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20687745','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20687745"><span>Magnet polepiece design for uniform magnetic force on superparamagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fallesen, Todd; Hill, David B; Steen, Matthew; Macosko, Jed C; Bonin, Keith; Holzwarth, George</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>Here we report construction of a simple electromagnet with novel polepieces which apply a spatially uniform force to superparamagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> in an optical microscope. The wedge-shaped gap was designed to keep partial differential B(x)/ partial differential y constant and B large enough to saturate the <span class="hlt">bead</span>. We achieved fields of 300-600 mT and constant gradients of 67 T/m over a sample space of 0.5x4 mm(2) in the focal plane of the microscope and 0.05 mm along the microscope optic axis. Within this space the maximum force on a 2.8 microm diameter Dynabead was 12 pN with a spatial variation of approximately 10%. Use of the magnet in a biophysical experiment is illustrated by showing that gliding microtubules propelled by the molecular motor kinesin can be stopped by the force of an attached magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17659852','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17659852"><span>Ex vivo mucoadhesion of different zinc-pectinate hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hagesaether, Ellen; Bye, Ragnar; Sande, S Arne</p> <p>2008-01-22</p> <p>The objective of this study was to investigate the mucoadhesive properties of pre-swelled hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> made of six types of pectin from three manufacturers. The types of pectin differed mainly in the degree of methoxylation and degree of amidation. Zinc ions were used as cross-linking agent. The mucoadhesive properties were tested on an inverted fresh porcine small intestine attached to a rotating cylinder. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> made of pectin with a high degree of methoxylation (70%) showed superior mucoadhesive results compared to the other formulations, which could be correlated to the lower amount of zinc in this formulation, subsequently leading to a lower amount of cross-linking and higher mobility of the polymer chains of these <span class="hlt">beads</span>. This study therefore also indicated the importance of doing mucoadhesive measurements on relevant formulations, and not basing the understanding solely on investigating polymer solutions. Samples from different manufacturers produced the same results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2752363','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2752363"><span>Ion Exchange Resin <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Decoupled High-Pressure Electroosmotic Pump</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yang, Bingcheng; Zhang, Feifang; Liang, Xinmiao; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Liu, Shaorong</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>We describe an electroosmotic pump (EOP) that utilizes a cation exchange resin <span class="hlt">bead</span> as the electric field decoupler. The resin <span class="hlt">bead</span> serves as a electrical grounding joint without fluid leakage, thus eliminating electrolytic gas interference from the flow channels. The arrangement is easy to practice from readily available components, displays a very low electrical resistance, and is capable of bearing high backpressure (at least 3200 psi). We use a silica xerogel column as the EOP element to pump water and demonstrate a complete capillary ion chromatograph (CIC), which uses a similar <span class="hlt">bead</span> based microelectrodialytic generator (μ-EDG) to generate a KOH eluent from the pumped water. We observed good operational stability of the complete arrangement over long periods. PMID:19449862</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22364170','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22364170"><span>Measuring binding of protein to <span class="hlt">gel</span>-bound ligands using magnetic levitation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shapiro, Nathan D; Mirica, Katherine A; Soh, Siowling; Phillips, Scott T; Taran, Olga; Mace, Charles R; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S; Whitesides, George M</p> <p>2012-03-28</p> <p>This paper describes the use of magnetic levitation (MagLev) to measure the association of proteins and ligands. The method starts with diamagnetic <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> that are functionalized covalently with small molecules (putative ligands). Binding of protein to the ligands within the <span class="hlt">bead</span> causes a change in the density of the <span class="hlt">bead</span>. When these <span class="hlt">beads</span> are suspended in a paramagnetic aqueous buffer and placed between the poles of two NbFeB magnets with like poles facing, the changes in the density of the <span class="hlt">bead</span> on binding of protein result in changes in the levitation height of the <span class="hlt">bead</span> that can be used to quantify the amount of protein bound. This paper uses a reaction-diffusion model to examine the physical principles that determine the values of rate and equilibrium constants measured by this system, using the well-defined model system of carbonic anhydrase and aryl sulfonamides. By tuning the experimental protocol, the method is capable of quantifying either the concentration of protein in a solution, or the binding affinities of a protein to several resin-bound small molecules simultaneously. Since this method requires no electricity and only a single piece of inexpensive equipment, it may find use in situations where portability and low cost are important, such as in bioanalysis in resource-limited settings, point-of-care diagnosis, veterinary medicine, and plant pathology. It still has several practical disadvantages. Most notably, the method requires relatively long assay times and cannot be applied to large proteins (>70 kDa), including antibodies. The design and synthesis of <span class="hlt">beads</span> with improved characteristics (e.g., larger pore size) has the potential to resolve these problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT........57B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT........57B"><span>Pattern formation in actin <span class="hlt">gels</span>: A study in the mechanics of <span class="hlt">gels</span> formed by the important cytoskeletal protein actin, especially as applied to cellular motility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Balter, Ariel</p> <p></p> <p>We have studied pattern formation in actin <span class="hlt">gels</span> to better understand how they function in biological systems, especially in the motility mechanism used by some pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria. By coating themselves with certain enzymes, these bacteria appropriate actin (a protein) from the surrounding host cell's cytoplasm and cause a network or "<span class="hlt">gel</span>" of actin filaments to grow on their outer surface. As the resulting "comet tail" shaped protrusion grows, it pushes the bacterium away. In experiments, polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span> coated with the same enzymes will also generate comet tails and swim in a very similar manner. However, these <span class="hlt">bead</span> experiments have also generated anomalous results such as the formation of many comet tails. In some experiments, when two comet tails formed they systematically grew into regular, oppositely handed helices. The formation of any comet tails on a <span class="hlt">bead</span> poses a physical conundrum. The bacterial enzyme coating is asymmetrical so the comet tail forms in a particular place. But the <span class="hlt">beads</span> are symmetrical, so comet tails formation constitutes symmetry breaking and spontaneous pattern formation. We have modeled this process as a competition between elastic energy (which favors many tails) and chemical energy (which favors few tails). Our analytical model explains the factors that experimentally determine the number of tails, and numerical simulations confirm these predictions. To understand the helical tails, we did extensive data analysis involving image processing, statistical analysis and mathematical modeling of images of the helical tails. We identified some important features of how the twin tails form. For instance, the tail growth rate is independent of drag force, and <span class="hlt">bead</span> rotation must accompany helical tail formation. We also created a physical model for helical growth. Numerical simulations of our model show that at very low Reynolds number, a cylindrical object growing under the conditions of an actin comet tail can spontaneously</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15626580','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15626580"><span>Preparation of chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> by simultaneous cross-linking/insolubilisation in basic pH. Rheological optimisation and drug loading/release behaviour.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barreiro-Iglesias, R; Coronilla, R; Concheiro, A; Alvarez-Lorenzo, C</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A one-step procedure to prepare chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> by simultaneous cross-linking with glutaraldehyde and insolubilisation in 1.5 M NaOH solution has been developed. The optimisation of the procedure was carried out by monitoring the evolution of the loss and storage moduli of chitosan solutions (1.5% (w/v), in acetic acid 0.2 M) in the presence of different proportions of glutaraldehyde. Increasing the chitosan molecular weight, glutaraldehyde concentration and/or process temperature from 20 to 37 degrees C, a reduction of time to reach the <span class="hlt">gel</span> point was observed. The diameter of freshly prepared swollen <span class="hlt">beads</span> was 3.2+/-0.4 mm and, after drying 0.48+/-0.18 mm. Swollen or previously dried <span class="hlt">beads</span> were loaded with metronidazole by immersion in 0.1% (w/v), drug solution in a phosphate buffer pH 7.5, purified water, 0.2 M acetic acid or 0.1 M HCl. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> synthesised at 37 degrees C experimented faster swelling than the ones prepared at 20 degrees C and even disintegrated in acetic acid. The amounts of metronidazole loaded (ranging from 1 to 286 mg/g dried <span class="hlt">beads</span>) increased with swelling capacity of <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The release studies carried out in 0.1 M HCl indicated that, regardless of the medium used to load the <span class="hlt">beads</span>, all of them released the dose in less than 30 min. In summary, applying this one-step procedure and choosing the adequate glutaraldehyde proportion, it is possible to obtain particles of chitosan cross-linked with itself, which exhibit pH-sensitive swelling and which are able to release all the drug quickly into an acidic environment such as the stomach. The results obtained also highlight the importance of the pH of the medium for modulating the amount of drug loaded (it is remarkably greater at lower pHs) and the influence of temperature at which the <span class="hlt">beads</span> are prepared on their tendency to disintegrate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARA37005G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARA37005G"><span>Hierarchical assembly of protein nanocrystals into macroscopic <span class="hlt">gels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Greene, Daniel; Sandler, Stanley; Wagner, Norman; Lenhoff, Abraham</p> <p></p> <p>From crystallization screens to downstream processing, protein <span class="hlt">gel</span> phases are common during protein solution processing. While the structure of crystalline protein is well known, very little is known about the structure of these <span class="hlt">gel</span> phases. We recently measured the microstructure of a salted-out ovalbumin dense phase and found that nanocrystalline protein clusters, which are only a few unit cells in size, percolate 5 micron <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span>. It is unclear if the behavior seen for ovalbumin is representative of a more general phenomenon. Here we present microstructural measurements on a salted-out monoclonal antibody (mAb) and salted-out ribonuclease-a that support this possibility. Using small-angle x-ray and neutron scattering (SAS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we find both salted-out mAb and ribonuclease-a <span class="hlt">gels</span> exhibit nanocrystalline regions. Within the mAb <span class="hlt">gel</span>, the mAb aggregates into hollow tubular structures that are hundreds of nanometers long, have an inner diameter of approximately 15-20 nm and an outer diameter of approximately 20-30 nm. The SAS intensity from these structures contains a peak at high-q that is commensurate with scattering from idealized mAb nanocrystals that are 1-2 unit cells wide. Ribonuclease-a does not appear to from tubular structures, but the SAS intensity contains peaks at high-q that are consistent with the scattering from a nanocrystal 2-3 unit cells wide. Power-law scattering at low-q indicates the nanocrystals aggregate into a <span class="hlt">gel</span> with fractal dimension 2.5. This research provides insight into the nanostructure and formation of protein <span class="hlt">gel</span> phases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740022878','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740022878"><span><span class="hlt">Beading</span> and spiking phenomena in the M551 metals melting experiment. [Skylab program to analyze <span class="hlt">beading</span> phenomenon under weightless conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fan, C.; Brashears, M. R.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>A study was made regarding the <span class="hlt">beading</span> and spiking phenomena observed in the M551 metals melting experiment conducted during the Skylab I mission in June 1973. An analysis was made of the <span class="hlt">beading</span> phenomenon based on the Karman vortex shedding theory. The results tend to support the hypothesis that <span class="hlt">beading</span> which occurred in the stainless and tantalum samples was a Karman vortex street formation. A dynamic model of cavity oscillation is discussed to explain the spiking phenomenon which was observed in the stainless steel and tantalum samples. Calculations of spiking frequency indicate that the intensity of spiking depends primarily on the vapor pressure and surface tension properties of the material, and is only slightly affected by the level of gravitation acceleration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/801460','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/801460"><span>Conformance Improvement Using <span class="hlt">Gels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Seright, Randall S.; Schrader, Richard; II Hagstrom, John; Wang, Ying; Al-Dahfeeri, Abdullah; Gary, Raven; Marin; Amaury; Lindquist, Brent</p> <p>2002-09-26</p> <p>This research project had two objectives. The first objective was to identify <span class="hlt">gel</span> compositions and conditions that substantially reduce flow through fractures that allow direct channeling between wells, while leaving secondary fractures open so that high fluid injection and production rates can be maintained. The second objective was to optimize treatments in fractured production wells, where the <span class="hlt">gel</span> must reduce permeability to water much more than that to oil.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010shcg.book.1607N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010shcg.book.1607N"><span>Crystallization from <span class="hlt">Gels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Narayana Kalkura, S.; Natarajan, Subramanian</p> <p></p> <p>Among the various crystallization techniques, crystallization in <span class="hlt">gels</span> has found wide applications in the fields of biomineralization and macromolecular crystallization in addition to crystallizing materials having nonlinear optical, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, and other properties. Furthermore, by using this method it is possible to grow single crystals with very high perfection that are difficult to grow by other techniques. The <span class="hlt">gel</span> method of crystallization provides an ideal technique to study crystal deposition diseases, which could lead to better understanding of their etiology. This chapter focuses on crystallization in <span class="hlt">gels</span> of compounds that are responsible for crystal deposition diseases. The introduction is followed by a description of the various <span class="hlt">gels</span> used, the mechanism of gelling, and the fascinating phenomenon of Liesegang ring formation, along with various <span class="hlt">gel</span> growth techniques. The importance and scope of study on crystal deposition diseases and the need for crystal growth experiments using <span class="hlt">gel</span> media are stressed. The various crystal deposition diseases, viz. (1) urolithiasis, (2) gout or arthritis, (3) cholelithiasis and atherosclerosis, and (4) pancreatitis and details regarding the constituents of the crystal deposits responsible for the pathological mineralization are discussed. Brief accounts of the theories of the formation of urinary stones and gallstones and the role of trace elements in urinary stone formation are also given. The crystallization in <span class="hlt">gels</span> of (1) the urinary stone constituents, viz. calcium oxalate, calcium phosphates, uric acid, cystine, etc., (2) the constituents of the gallstones, viz. cholesterol, calcium carbonate, etc., (3) the major constituent of the pancreatic calculi, viz., calcium carbonate, and (4) cholic acid, a steroidal hormone are presented. The effect of various organic and inorganic ions, trace elements, and extracts from cereals, herbs, and fruits on the crystallization of major urinary stone and gallstone</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080004190','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080004190"><span>Impregnated metal-polymeric functional <span class="hlt">beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Volksen, Willi (Inventor)</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Amine containing polymeric microspheres such as polyvinyl pyridine are <span class="hlt">complexed</span> with metal salts or acids containing metals such as gold, platinum or iron. After reduction with sodium borohydride, the salt is reduced to finely divided free metal or metal oxides, useful as catalysts. Microspheres containing covalent bonding sites can be used for labeling or separating proteins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080012246','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080012246"><span>Impregnated metal-polymeric functional <span class="hlt">beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Volksen, Willi (Inventor)</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Amine containing polymeric microspheres such as polyvinyl pyridine are <span class="hlt">complexed</span> with metal salts or acids containing metals such as gold, platinum or iron. After reduction with sodium borohydride, the salt is reduced to finely divided free metal or metal oxides, useful as catalysts. Microspheres containing covalent bonding sites can be used for labeling or separating proteins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27004369','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27004369"><span>A new device for efficient preparation of standard antibiotic <span class="hlt">bead</span> chains and customized antibiotic delivery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qi, Baochang; Ju, Weina; Yu, Tiecheng; Wang, Tiejun; Zhao, Yi; Sun, Dahui</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Antibiotic-loaded polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) <span class="hlt">beads</span> are widely used in orthopedic practice for the prevention of infections after open fractures and in the management of osteomyelitis. The use of commercial <span class="hlt">beads</span> is limited by insufficient flexibility, lack of provision for selection of specific antibiotic, and short drug-release time. Further, the manual procedure for the preparation of PMMA <span class="hlt">beads</span> is slow, and the products are not uniform in size. Uniformity of the <span class="hlt">bead</span> size is crucial because the placement of oversized <span class="hlt">beads</span> place at sites with limited space (e.g., narrow medullary canal) is difficult, and their retrieval from such sites is painful to the patient. To overcome the limitations of commercial <span class="hlt">beads</span> and manually prepared <span class="hlt">beads</span>, we developed a simple device for the efficient preparation of antibiotic-loaded PMMA <span class="hlt">beads</span> of uniform sizes. We describe the device, <span class="hlt">bead</span> preparation, and the characteristics of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> prepared using our device, and the preliminary clinical results. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> obtained using this device were relatively small, had excellent flexibility, and were suitable for implantation in small spaces. The device permits the selection of the antibiotic to be loaded on to the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The results of preliminary studies of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> prepared using our device have been positive, highlighting the need for more large-scale and longitudinal investigations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17483729','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17483729"><span>Does antibiotic elution from PMMA <span class="hlt">beads</span> deteriorate after 1-year shelf storage?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Balsamo, Luke H; Whiddon, David R; Simpson, R Bruce</p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>Antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate <span class="hlt">beads</span> are widely used as an adjunct in the treatment of orthopaedic infections. Because there is no commercially available <span class="hlt">bead</span> in the United States, surgeons must manufacture <span class="hlt">bead</span> sets at the time of implantation. This can be time consuming and wasteful. We hypothesized antibiotic-impregnated <span class="hlt">beads</span> would maintain consistent elution for up to 1 year after manufacturing and storage. Tobramycin-impregnated antibiotic <span class="hlt">beads</span> were manufactured using a <span class="hlt">bead</span> mold. The antibiotic was either hand-mixed into the polymethylmethacrylate powder (1.2 g/40 g) or came premixed from the factory (1 g/40 g). Packages of <span class="hlt">beads</span> were gas-sterilized and stored at room temperature. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> were tested at 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months. Antibiotic levels in the eluent from each day of the month were measured. We were unable to detect any difference in the amount of antibiotic elution between <span class="hlt">beads</span> tested immediately after manufacture and <span class="hlt">beads</span> manufactured and stored for 6 or 12 months. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> with hand-mixed antibiotics eluted higher levels of antibiotics than the <span class="hlt">beads</span> prepared with factory-mixed antibiotics. We conclude antibiotic <span class="hlt">beads</span> can be made, sterilized, and used after 1 year of storage with no deleterious effect on antibiotic elution characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5033137','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5033137"><span>Model and computer simulations of the motion of DNA molecules during pulse field <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Smith, S.B.; Bustamante, C. ); Heller, C. )</p> <p>1991-05-28</p> <p>A model is presented for the motion of individual molecules of DNA undergoing pulse field <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis (PFGE). The molecule is represented by a chain of charged <span class="hlt">beads</span> connected by entropic springs, and the <span class="hlt">gel</span> is represented by a segmented tube surrounding the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. This model differs from earlier reptation/tube models in that the tube is allowed to leak in certain places and the chain can double over and flow out of the side of the tube in kinks. It is found that these kinks often lead to the formation of U shapes, which are a major source of retardation in PFGE. The results of computer simulations using this model are compared with real DNA experimental results for the following cases: steady field motion as seen in fluorescence microscopy, mobility in steady fields, mobility in transverse field alternation <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis (TFAGE), mobility in field inversion <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis (FIGE), and linear dichroism (LD) of DNA in agarose <span class="hlt">gels</span> during PFGE. Good agreement between the simulations and the experimental results is obtained.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20012814','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20012814"><span>Antibody purification: ammonium sulfate fractionation or <span class="hlt">gel</span> filtration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grodzki, Ana Cristina; Berenstein, Elsa</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Antibodies can be purified by a variety of methods based on their unique physical and chemical properties such as size, solubility, charge, hydrophobicity and binding affinity. This chapter focuses on ammonium sulfate precipitation as a convenient first step in antibody purification in that, it allows the concentration of the starting material and the precipitation of the desired protein. The principle of ammonium sulfate precipitation lies in "salting out" proteins from the solution. The proteins are prevented to form hydrogen bonds with water and the salt facilitates their interaction with each other forming aggregates that afterward precipitate out of solution. <span class="hlt">Gel</span> filtration or size- exclusion chromatography is also discussed in this chapter. <span class="hlt">Gel</span> filtration is based on the relative size of protein molecules and it is of great value to separate IgMs, exchange buffers and/or desalt solutions. The columns designed to separate the proteins are composed of porous <span class="hlt">beads</span> and the proteins will flow through the packed column inside and around the <span class="hlt">beads</span>, depending on its size.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4970730','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4970730"><span>The Application of Magnetic <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Selection to Investigate Interactions between the Oral Microbiota and Salivary Immunoglobulins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Madhwani, Tejal</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The effect of humoral immunity on the composition of the oral microbiota is less intensively investigated than hygiene and diet, in part due to a lack of simple and robust systems for investigating interactions between salivary immunoglobulins and oral bacteria. Here we report the application of an ex situ method to investigate the specificity of salivary immunoglobulins for salivary bacteria. Saliva collected from six volunteers was separated into immunoglobulin and microbial fractions, and the microbial fractions were then directly exposed to salivary immunoglobulins of “self” and “non-self” origin. Antibody-selected bacteria were separated from their congeners using a magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> system, selective for IgA or IgG isotypes. The positively selected fractions were then characterized using <span class="hlt">gel</span>-based eubacterial-specific DNA profiling. The eubacterial profiles of positively selected fractions diverged significantly from profiles of whole salivary consortia based on volunteer (P≤ 0.001%) and immunoglobulin origin (P≤ 0.001%), but not immunoglobulin isotype (P = 0.2). DNA profiles of separated microbial fractions were significantly (p≤ 0.05) less diverse than whole salivary consortia and included oral and environmental bacteria. Consortia selected using self immunoglobulins were generally less diverse than those selected with immunoglobulins of non-self origin. Magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> separation facilitated the testing of interactions between salivary antibodies and oral bacteria, showing that these interactions are specific and may reflect differences in recognition by self and non-self immunoglobulins. Further development of this system could improve understanding of the relationship between the oral microbiota and the host immune system and of mechanisms underlying the compositional stability of the oral microbiota. PMID:27483159</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4966952','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4966952"><span>Prednisolone Delivery Platforms: Capsules and <span class="hlt">Beads</span> Combination for a Right Timing Therapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cerciello, Andrea; Auriemma, Giulia; Morello, Silvana; Aquino, Rita P.; Del Gaudio, Pasquale</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this work, a platform of alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> loaded with Prednisolone in hypromellose/gellan gum capsules (F6/Cps) able to delay steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (SAID) release as needed for chronotherapy of rheumatoid arthritis is proposed. Rheumatoid arthritis, showing a worsening in symptoms in the morning upon waking, is a pathology that can benefit from chronotherapy. With the aim to maximize prednisolone therapeutic action allowing the right timing of glucocorticoid therapy, different engineered microparticles (<span class="hlt">gel-beads</span>) were manufactured using prilling (laminar jet break-up) as micro-encapsulation technique and Zn-alginate as gastroresistant carrier. Starting from various feed solutions and process parameters, the effect of the variables on particles size, morphology, solid state properties and drug release was studied. The optimization of operative and prilling/ionotropic gelation variables led to microspheres with almost spherical shape and a narrow dimensional range. The feed solution with the highest alginate (2.5% w/v) amount and drug/polymer ratio (1:5 w/w) gave rise to the highest encapsulation efficiency (78.5%) as in F6 formulation. As to drug release, F6 exhibited an interesting dissolution profile, releasing about 24% of the drug in simulated gastric fluid followed by a more sustained profile in simulated intestinal fluid. #F6, acting as a gastro-resistant and delayed release formulation, was selected for in vivo studies on male Wistar rats by means of a carrageenan-induced oedema model. Finally, this efficacious formulation was used as core material for the development of a final dosage form: F6/Cps allowed to significantly reduce prednisolone release in simulated gastric fluid (12.6%) and delayed drug release up to about 390 minutes. PMID:27472446</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19650000031','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19650000031"><span>Spring loaded <span class="hlt">beaded</span> cable makes efficient wire puller</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1965-01-01</p> <p>An efficient wire puller consists of a steel probe with a hole in one end fastened to a steel cable which is strung with metal <span class="hlt">beads</span> compressed by spring loaded ferrules. This device allows cables to be pulled or forced around bends and elbows in pipes or tubes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bang&pg=4&id=EJ930817','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bang&pg=4&id=EJ930817"><span>Collection Development: From <span class="hlt">Beads</span> to Bangles (Jewelry Making)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hanrahan, Katie</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Jewelry making began exploding as a hobby about ten years ago, largely because the flush economy gave individuals more leisure time and disposable income. Jewelry classes, <span class="hlt">bead</span> stores, and special events have multiplied like craft shows at Christmas time. While the recent economic downturn has slowed the growth of the hobby, it is still as popular…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4627713','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4627713"><span>Magnetically-actuated, <span class="hlt">bead</span>-enhanced silicon photonic immunosensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Valera, Enrique; McClellan, Melinda S.; Bailey, Ryan C.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Magnetic actuation has been introduced to an optical immunosensor technology resulting in improvements in both rapidity and limit of detection for an assay quantitating low concentrations of a representative protein biomarker. For purposes of demonstration, an assay was designed for monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), a small cytokine which regulates migration and infiltration of monocytes and macrophages, and is an emerging biomarker for several diseases. The immunosensor is based on arrays of highly multiplexed silicon photonic microring resonators. A one-step sandwich immunoassay was performed and the signal was further enhanced through a tertiary recognition event between biotinylated tracer antibodies and streptavidin-coated magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>. By integrating a magnet under the sensor chip, magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> were rapidly directed towards the sensor surface resulting in improved assay performance metrics. Notably, the time required in the <span class="hlt">bead</span> binding step was reduced by a factor of 11 (4 vs 45 min), leading to an overall decrease in assay time from 73 min to 32 min. The magnetically-actuated assay also lowered the limit of detection (LOD) for MCP-1 from 124 pg mL−1 down to 57 pg mL−1. In sum, the addition of magnetic actuation into <span class="hlt">bead</span>-enhanced sandwich assays on a silicon photonic biosensor platform might facilitate improved detection of biomarkers in point-of-care diagnostics settings. PMID:26528374</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1045474','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1045474"><span>"Micro-robots" pick up a glass <span class="hlt">bead</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>"Micro-robots", which are really collections of particles animated by magnetic fields, pick up a glass <span class="hlt">bead</span> and move it around the screen. Each movement is precisely controlled. The "asters" were designed by Alexey Snezkho and Igor Aronson at Argonne National Laboratory. Video courtesy Nature Materials. Read the full story at http://go.usa.gov/KAT</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1542..581G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1542..581G"><span>Hydraulic and acoustic investigation of sintered glass <span class="hlt">beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gueven, Ibrahim; Luding, Stefan; Steeb, Holger</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>In the present contribution, we are focussing on the hydraulical and acoustical charcterization of sintered glass <span class="hlt">beads</span>. For the experiments sintered mono-and weakly polydisperse glass <span class="hlt">bead</span> samples were applied. Depending on the particle size, degree of particle dispersion and sample treatment during the sintering process, the produced cylindircal samples exhibit different hydraulic and acoustic properties. The more general focus of our research lies on the physical behaviour of oil-water emulsions in porous media by means of combined electromagnetic and acoustic wave propagation. For this purpose, a hydraulic multi-task measuring cell was developed. This cell allows carrying out simple hydraulic permeability and challenging ultrasound experiments in porous materials saturated with Pickering emulsions. In the first phase of our experiments, hydraulical and acoustical measurements of cylindrical sintered glass <span class="hlt">bead</span> samples were performed in order to determine their intrinsic permeabilities and effective ultrasound velocities. The intrinsic permeability ks, a coupling parameter between the solid matrix and the pore fluid, has a huge influence on wave propagation in fluid-saturated porous media. For the assessment of permeabilities, particle size distributions and porosities of the investigated glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> were determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26220618','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26220618"><span>Antimicrobial N-brominated hydantoin and uracil grafted polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Farah, Shady; Aviv, Oren; Laout, Natalia; Ratner, Stanislav; Domb, Abraham J</p> <p>2015-10-28</p> <p>Hydantoin-N-halamine derivatives conjugated on polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span> are promising disinfectants with broad antimicrobial activity affected by the gradual release of oxidizing halogen in water. The objective of this work was to identify and test of hydantoin-like molecules possessing urea moiety, which may provide N-haloamines releasing oxidizing halogens when exposed to water at different rates and release profiles for tailored antimicrobial agents. In this work, several hydantoin (five member ring) and for the first time reported, uracil (six member ring) derivatives have been conjugated to polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span> and tested for their lasting antimicrobial activity. Four molecules of each series were conjugated onto polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span> from the reaction of the N-potassium hydantoin or uracil derivatives onto chloromethylated polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span>. A distinct difference in bromine loading capacity and release profiles was found for the different conjugated derivatives. All tested materials exhibit strong antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and bacteriophages MS2 of 7 and ~4 log reduction, respectively. These results highlight the antimicrobial potential of halogenated cyclic molecules containing urea groups as water disinfection agents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MAR.M1235V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MAR.M1235V"><span>Improving detection of avalanches on a conical <span class="hlt">bead</span> pile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vajpeyi, Avi; Lehman, Susan; Dahmen, Karin; Leblanc, Michael; Uhl, Jonathan</p> <p></p> <p>A conical <span class="hlt">bead</span> pile subject to slow driving and an external magnetic field is used as a simple system to investigate the variations in the avalanche size probability distribution function. Steel <span class="hlt">beads</span> are dropped onto the pile from different heights and at different strengths of applied magnetic field. Avalanches are recorded by the change in mass as <span class="hlt">beads</span> fall off the pile. Experimentally we observe an increasing deviation from power law behavior as the field and thus cohesion between the <span class="hlt">beads</span> increases. We compare our experimental results for the probability distribution function to the results of an analytic theory from a mean-field model of slip avalanches [Dahmen, Nat Phys 7, 554 (2011)]. The model also makes predictions for avalanche duration, which is not measurable with the existing system. To more fully characterize the avalanching behavior of the pile over time, a high-speed camera has been added to the system to record the largest avalanches and allow more detailed analysis. The conical pile geometry presents a challenge for observation and particle tracking over the full pile. Our implementation scheme and preliminary results from the video analysis are presented. Research supported by NSF CBET 1336116 and 1336634.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3629372','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3629372"><span>Preparation of alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> containing a prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yang, Yu-Tsai; Di Pasqua, Anthony J.; He, Weiling; Tsai, Tsuimin; Sueda, Katsuhiko; Zhang, Yong; Jay, Michael</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A penta-ethyl ester prodrug of the radionuclide decorporation agent diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), which exists as an oily liquid, was encapsulated in alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> by the ionotropic gelation method. An optimal formulation was found by varying initial concentrations of DTPA pentaethyl ester, alginate polymer, Tween 80 surfactant and calcium chloride. All prepared alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> were ~1.6 mm in diameter, and the optimal formulation had loading and encapsulation efficiencies of 91.0 ± 1.1 and 72.6 ± 2.2%, respectively, and only 3.2 ± 0.8% water absorption after storage at room temperature in ~80% relative humidity. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that DTPA penta-ethyl ester did not react with excipients during formation of the DTPA penta-ethyl ester-containing alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Release of prodrug from alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> was via anomalous transport, and its stability enhanced by encapsulation. Collectively, these data suggest that this solid dosage form may be suitable for oral administration after radionuclide contamination. PMID:23399237</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MPLB...2741028L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MPLB...2741028L"><span>Purification of Lysozyme by Intrinsically Shielded Hydrogel <span class="hlt">Beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Cong; Zhang, R.; Wang, L.; Bowyer, A.; Eisenthal, R.; Shen, Yehua; Hubble, J.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Macro-sized intrinsically shielded hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> have been prepared from BSA and CM-dextran grafted with CB using a technique based on freeze-thawing gelation method. The size of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> lies in around 500 μm. Isothemal titration calorimetry (ITC) showed that the relative binding affinities of the lysozyme for CB, compared with BSA, at pH 3.0 was stronger than that at pH 7.4. They were employed for the affinity separation of lysozyme using chromatography column. Their adsorption capacity for lysozyme at pH 3.0 is higher than that at pH 9. In a binary mixture of lysozyme and ovalbumin, the <span class="hlt">beads</span> showed very high selectivity toward lysozyme. Lysozyme of very high purity (> 93%) was obtained from a mixture of lysozyme and ovalbumin, and 85% from egg white solution. The results indicate that the macro-sized <span class="hlt">bead</span> can be used for the separation, purification, and recovery of lysozyme in a chromatograph column.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/az0575.photos.217920p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/az0575.photos.217920p/"><span><span class="hlt">Bead</span> Roller, at right, used for preparing flume sheeting (still ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Bead</span> Roller, at right, used for preparing flume sheeting (still in use, 2004); on left is a pipe cutter. Facing southeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.573a2035U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.573a2035U"><span>Inclusion type radiochromic <span class="hlt">gel</span> dosimeter for threedimensional dose verification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Usui, Shuji; Yoshioka, Munenori; Hayashi, Shin-ichiro; Tominaga, Takahiro</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>For the verification of 3D dose distributions in modern radiation therapy, a new inclusion type radiochromic <span class="hlt">gel</span> detector has been developed. In this <span class="hlt">gel</span>, a hydrophobic leuco dye (leucomalachite green: LMG) was dissolved in water as an inclusion <span class="hlt">complex</span> with highly branched cyclic dextrin. The radiation induced radical oxidation property of the LMG <span class="hlt">gel</span> with various sensitizers was investigated. As a result, the optical dose responses were enhanced by the addition of bromoacetic acid and manganese (II) chloride. Unfavorable auto-oxidation of the <span class="hlt">gel</span> was reduced when it was stored at 4°C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25308755','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25308755"><span>Quantum-dot-tagged photonic crystal <span class="hlt">beads</span> for multiplex detection of tumor markers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Juan; Wang, Huan; Dong, Shujun; Zhu, Peizhi; Diao, Guowang; Yang, Zhanjun</p> <p>2014-12-04</p> <p>Novel quantum-dot-tagged photonic crystal <span class="hlt">beads</span> were fabricated for multiplex detection of tumor markers via self-assembly of quantum dot-embedded polystyrene nanospheres into photonic crystal <span class="hlt">beads</span> through a microfluidic device.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA626824','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA626824"><span>The Role of Molecular Motors in the Mechanics of Active <span class="hlt">Gels</span> and the Effects of Inertia, Hydrodynamic Interaction and Compressibility in Passive Microrheology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>to characterize are active <span class="hlt">gels</span>. They are formed by semiflexible polymer filaments driven by motor proteins that convert chemical energy from the...a single-chain mean-field model to describe the mechanical properties of active <span class="hlt">gels</span>. We model the semiflexible filaments as <span class="hlt">bead</span>-spring chains and...attachment state of the filaments , and the motor-generated forces, as stochastic state variables which evolve according to a proposed differential</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/894090','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/894090"><span>CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING <span class="hlt">GELS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Randall S. Seright</p> <p>2002-02-28</p> <p>This technical progress report describes work performed from June 20 through December 19, 2001, for the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using <span class="hlt">Gels</span>''. Interest has increased in some new polymeric products that purport to substantially reduce permeability to water while causing minimum permeability reduction to oil. In view of this interest, we are currently studying BJ's Aqua Con. Results from six corefloods revealed that the Aqua Con gelant consistently reduced permeability to water more than that to oil. However, the magnitude of the disproportionate permeability reduction varied significantly for the various experiments. Thus, as with most materials tested to date, the issue of reproducibility and control of the disproportionate permeability remains to be resolved. Concern exists about the ability of <span class="hlt">gels</span> to resist washout after placement in fractures. We examined whether a width constriction in the middle of a fracture would cause different <span class="hlt">gel</span> washout behavior upstream versus downstream of the constriction. Tests were performed using a formed Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM <span class="hlt">gel</span> in a 48-in.-long fracture with three sections of equal length, but with widths of 0.08-, 0.02-, and 0.08-in., respectively. The pressure gradients during <span class="hlt">gel</span> extrusion (i.e., placement) were similar in the two 0.08-in.-wide fracture sections, even though they were separated by a 0.02-in.-wide fracture section. The constriction associated with the middle fracture section may have inhibited <span class="hlt">gel</span> washout during the first pulse of brine injection after <span class="hlt">gel</span> placement. However, during subsequent phases of brine injection, the constriction did not inhibit washout in the upstream fracture section any more than in the downstream section.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1895088','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1895088"><span>Potential use of scrap expanded polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span> for the control of Aedes triseriatus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Beehler, J W; DeFoliart, G R</p> <p>1991-06-01</p> <p>The potential use of expanded polystyrene (EPS) <span class="hlt">beads</span> for control of Aedes triseriatus was tested in the laboratory and the field. Laboratory studies showed that <span class="hlt">beads</span> present in amounts which persisted throughout a season significantly reduced the emergence of Ae. triseriatus adults by preventing normal eclosion from the pupae. In the field, tree holes containing EPS <span class="hlt">beads</span> had significantly fewer larvae present than untreated controls. These field data suggest that EPS <span class="hlt">beads</span> may mechanically prevent oviposition by mosquitoes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol2-sec173-221.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol2-sec173-221.pdf"><span>49 CFR 173.221 - Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span>, expandable and Plastic molding compound.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span>, expandable and Plastic molding... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.221 Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span>, expandable and Plastic molding compound. (a) Non-bulk shipments of Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span> (or granules), expandable, evolving flammable vapor and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title49-vol2-sec173-221.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title49-vol2-sec173-221.pdf"><span>49 CFR 173.221 - Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span>, expandable and Plastic molding compound.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span>, expandable and Plastic molding... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.221 Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span>, expandable and Plastic molding compound. (a) Non-bulk shipments of Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span> (or granules), expandable evolving flammable vapor and...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol2-sec173-221.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol2-sec173-221.pdf"><span>49 CFR 173.221 - Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span>, expandable and Plastic molding compound.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span>, expandable and Plastic molding... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.221 Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span>, expandable and Plastic molding compound. (a) Non-bulk shipments of Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span> (or granules), expandable, evolving flammable vapor and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title49-vol2-sec173-221.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title49-vol2-sec173-221.pdf"><span>49 CFR 173.221 - Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span>, expandable and Plastic molding compound.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span>, expandable and Plastic molding... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.221 Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span>, expandable and Plastic molding compound. (a) Non-bulk shipments of Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span> (or granules), expandable evolving flammable vapor and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title49-vol2-sec173-221.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title49-vol2-sec173-221.pdf"><span>49 CFR 173.221 - Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span>, expandable and Plastic molding compound.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span>, expandable and Plastic molding... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.221 Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span>, expandable and Plastic molding compound. (a) Non-bulk shipments of Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span> (or granules), expandable, evolving flammable vapor and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27987845','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27987845"><span>Alginate/bacterial cellulose nanocomposite <span class="hlt">beads</span> prepared using Gluconacetobacter xylinus and their application in lipase immobilization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Saerom; Kim, Hyungsup; Kim, Hyung Joo; Yang, Yung-Hun; Kim, Yong Hwan; Jung, Sang-Kyu; Kan, Eunsung; Lee, Sang Hyun</p> <p>2017-02-10</p> <p>Alginate/bacterial cellulose nanocomposite <span class="hlt">beads</span>, with well-controlled size and regular spherical shapes, were prepared in a simple manner by entrapping Gluconacetobacter xylinus in barium alginate hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span>, followed by cultivation of the entrapped cells in culture media with a low sodium ion concentration. The entire surface of the alginate hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> containing the cells was covered with cellulose fibers (∼30nm) after 36h of cultivation. The cellulose crystallinity index of the alginate/bacterial cellulose <span class="hlt">beads</span> was 0.7, which was slightly lower than that of bacterial cellulose prepared by cultivating dispersed cells. The water vapor sorption capacity of the alginate/bacterial cellulose <span class="hlt">beads</span> increased significantly from 0.07 to 38.00 (g/g dry <span class="hlt">bead</span>) as cultivation time increased. These results clearly indicate that alginate/bacterial cellulose <span class="hlt">beads</span> have a much higher surface area, crystallinity, and water-holding capacity than alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The immobilization of lipase on the surface of the nanocomposite <span class="hlt">beads</span> was also investigated as a potential application of this system. The activity and specific activity of lipase immobilized on alginate/bacterial cellulose <span class="hlt">beads</span> were 2.6- and 3.8-fold higher, respectively, than that of lipase immobilized on cellulose <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The alginate/bacterial cellulose nanocomposite <span class="hlt">beads</span> prepared in this study have several potential applications in the biocatalytic, biomedical, and pharmaceutical fields because of their biocompatibility, biodegradability, high crystallinity, and large surface area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=191205&keyword=LAMP&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77890128&CFTOKEN=15572156','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=191205&keyword=LAMP&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77890128&CFTOKEN=15572156"><span>COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF R3f GARNET <span class="hlt">BEAD</span> FILTRATION AND MULTIMEDIA FILTRATION SYSTEMS; FINAL REPORT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This report summarizes the results of tests conducted to date at the EPA T&E Facility on the R3f filtration system utilizing fine <span class="hlt">beads</span> (such as garnet <span class="hlt">beads</span> or glass <span class="hlt">beads</span>) and a conventional multimedia filtration system. Both systems have been designed and built by Enprotec, a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17272104','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17272104"><span>Speed improvement of a pathogenic micro-organism population detection with LAPS system by a magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> separation and a pH detection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moon, H S; Ryu, S; Yum, D; Kim, H</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, a magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> based immobilization method and pH detection method is applied to the LAPS (light addressable potentiometric sensor) system to detect a pathogenic micro-organism population. Magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> are very small, superparamagnetic particles (0.8 approximately 5.0 microm in diameter) that are able to sustain a magnetic domain under excitation and do not exhibit residual magnetization when the external field is removed. By using magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> as an immobilization method, other bulky and <span class="hlt">complex</span> method can be alternated. To verify the method, an urease labeled anti-salmonella typhimurium antibody is used to detect a pathogenic micro-organism( S. typhimurium ) population by a bias voltage maximum slope detection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1176080','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1176080"><span>Foam and <span class="hlt">gel</span> methods for the decontamination of metallic surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Nunez, Luis; Kaminski, Michael Donald</p> <p>2007-01-23</p> <p>Decontamination of nuclear facilities is necessary to reduce the radiation field during normal operations and decommissioning of <span class="hlt">complex</span> equipment. In this invention, we discuss <span class="hlt">gel</span> and foam based diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) chemical solutions that are unique in that these solutions can be applied at room temperature; provide protection to the base metal for continued applications of the equipment; and reduce the final waste form production to one step. The HEDPA <span class="hlt">gels</span> and foams are formulated with benign chemicals, including various solvents, such as ionic liquids and reducing and <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agents such as hydroxamic acids, and formaldehyde sulfoxylate. <span class="hlt">Gel</span> and foam based HEDPA processes allow for decontamination of difficult to reach surfaces that are unmanageable with traditional aqueous process methods. Also, the <span class="hlt">gel</span> and foam components are optimized to maximize the dissolution rate and assist in the chemical transformation of the <span class="hlt">gel</span> and foam to a stable waste form.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCh...7..848D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCh...7..848D"><span>Spatially resolved multicomponent <span class="hlt">gels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Draper, Emily R.; Eden, Edward G. B.; McDonald, Tom O.; Adams, Dave J.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Multicomponent supramolecular systems could be used to prepare exciting new functional materials, but it is often challenging to control the assembly across multiple length scales. Here we report a simple approach to forming patterned, spatially resolved multicomponent supramolecular hydrogels. A multicomponent <span class="hlt">gel</span> is first formed from two low-molecular-weight gelators and consists of two types of fibre, each formed by only one gelator. One type of fibre in this ‘self-sorted network’ is then removed selectively by a light-triggered <span class="hlt">gel</span>-to-sol transition. We show that the remaining network has the same mechanical properties as it would have done if it initially formed alone. The selective irradiation of sections of the <span class="hlt">gel</span> through a mask leads to the formation of patterned multicomponent networks, in which either one or two networks can be present at a particular position with a high degree of spatial control.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992Natur.358..482M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992Natur.358..482M"><span>Patterns in shrinking <span class="hlt">gels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matsuo, Eriko Sato; Tanaka, Toyoichi</p> <p>1992-08-01</p> <p>POLYMER <span class="hlt">gels</span> can undergo a volume phase transition (either continuous or discontinuous) when an external condition, such as temperature or solvent composition, is altered1-3. During this transition, the volume may change by a factor of several thousand, and various patterns develop in the <span class="hlt">gel</span>. The patterns arising from swelling and shrinking differ in both their appearance and their physical mechanisms. The mechanism for the formation and evolution of patterns on swelling <span class="hlt">gels</span> has been established as being due to a single kind of mechanical instability4-7 in contrast, the shrinking patterns seem to be sensitive to both the initial and final states of the transition. Here we classify the various shrinking patterns in the form of a phase diagram, and explain the poly-morphism in terms of macroscopic phase separation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26521711','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26521711"><span>Electroblotting from Polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">Gels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goldman, Aaron; Ursitti, Jeanine A; Mozdzanowski, Jacek; Speicher, David W</p> <p>2015-11-02</p> <p>Transferring proteins from polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gels</span> onto retentive membranes is now primarily used for immunoblotting. A second application that was quite common up to about a decade ago was electroblotting of proteins for N-terminal and internal sequencing using Edman chemistry. This unit contains procedures for electroblotting proteins from polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gels</span> onto a variety of membranes, including polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) and nitrocellulose. In addition to the commonly used tank or wet transfer system, protocols are provided for electroblotting using semidry and dry systems. This unit also describes procedures for eluting proteins from membranes using detergents or acidic extraction with organic solvents for specialized applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26758556','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26758556"><span>In vivo and in vitro taste masking of ofloxacin and sustained release by forming interpenetrating polymer network <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rajesh, A Michael; Popat, Kiritkumar Mangaldas</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Drug-resin <span class="hlt">complexes</span> (DRCs) of ofloxacin and ion-exchange resins (IERs) were prepared in different ratios of drug/IERs, that is, 1:1, 1:2 and 1:4 (w/w) and investigated for taste masking by in vivo and in vitro release studies. Human volunteers graded AD1:4 (DRC) as tasteless with an average value of 0.3 ± 0.03 and in vitro study showed that AD 1:4 released only 1.70 ± 0.86% of drug at salivary pH within 30s. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder X-ray diffraction (P-XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies of AD 1:4 showed the change in the morphology of the drug, that is, from crystalline phase to amorphous phase during <span class="hlt">complex</span> formation. The release of drug from AD 1:4 was completed within 30 min at gastric pH 1.2 and to extend the release time of drug at gastric pH, it was entrapped with different biopolymers, such as sodium alginate (SA) and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC), in the presence of ferric chloride and glutaraldehyde (GA) to form interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) <span class="hlt">beads</span>. FTIR studies revealed that IPN <span class="hlt">beads</span> were crosslinked with Fe(3+ )and GA. The release of drug at gastric and intestinal pH was 14.53 ± 1.52% and 65.86 ± 1.29%, respectively, for a contact time of 10 h. The kinetics release study shows fickian diffusion for ionically crosslinked <span class="hlt">beads</span> and zero-order release for GA crosslinking <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4643780','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4643780"><span>Writing in the granular <span class="hlt">gel</span> medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bhattacharjee, Tapomoy; Zehnder, Steven M.; Rowe, Kyle G.; Jain, Suhani; Nixon, Ryan M.; Sawyer, W. Gregory; Angelini, Thomas E.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Gels</span> made from soft microscale particles smoothly transition between the fluid and solid states, making them an ideal medium in which to create macroscopic structures with microscopic precision. While tracing out spatial paths with an injection tip, the granular <span class="hlt">gel</span> fluidizes at the point of injection and then rapidly solidifies, trapping injected material in place. This physical approach to creating three-dimensional (3D) structures negates the effects of surface tension, gravity, and particle diffusion, allowing a limitless breadth of materials to be written. With this method, we used silicones, hydrogels, colloids, and living cells to create <span class="hlt">complex</span> large aspect ratio 3D objects, thin closed shells, and hierarchically branched tubular networks. We crosslinked polymeric materials and removed them from the granular <span class="hlt">gel</span>, whereas uncrosslinked particulate systems were left supported within the medium for long times. This approach can be immediately used in diverse areas, contributing to tissue engineering, flexible electronics, particle engineering, smart materials, and encapsulation technologies. PMID:26601274</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26601274','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26601274"><span>Writing in the granular <span class="hlt">gel</span> medium.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bhattacharjee, Tapomoy; Zehnder, Steven M; Rowe, Kyle G; Jain, Suhani; Nixon, Ryan M; Sawyer, W Gregory; Angelini, Thomas E</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Gels</span> made from soft microscale particles smoothly transition between the fluid and solid states, making them an ideal medium in which to create macroscopic structures with microscopic precision. While tracing out spatial paths with an injection tip, the granular <span class="hlt">gel</span> fluidizes at the point of injection and then rapidly solidifies, trapping injected material in place. This physical approach to creating three-dimensional (3D) structures negates the effects of surface tension, gravity, and particle diffusion, allowing a limitless breadth of materials to be written. With this method, we used silicones, hydrogels, colloids, and living cells to create <span class="hlt">complex</span> large aspect ratio 3D objects, thin closed shells, and hierarchically branched tubular networks. We crosslinked polymeric materials and removed them from the granular <span class="hlt">gel</span>, whereas uncrosslinked particulate systems were left supported within the medium for long times. This approach can be immediately used in diverse areas, contributing to tissue engineering, flexible electronics, particle engineering, smart materials, and encapsulation technologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/973735','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/973735"><span><span class="hlt">Bead</span>-Based Assays for Biodetection: From Flow-Cytometry to Microfluidics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ozanich, Richard M.; Antolick, Kathryn C.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Bunch, Kyle J.; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Grate, Jay W.; Nash, Michael A.; Tyler, Abby J.</p> <p>2009-05-04</p> <p>ABSTRACT The potential for the use of biological agents by terrorists is a real threat. Two approaches for detection of biological species will be described: 1) The use of microbead arrays for multiplexed flow cytometry detection of cytokines and botulinum neurotoxin simulant, and 2) a microfluidic platform for capture and separation of different size superparamagnetic nanoparticles followed by on-chip fluorescence detection of the sandwich <span class="hlt">complex</span>. The methods and automated fluidic systems used for trapping functionalized microbeads will be described. This approach allows sample, assay reagents, and wash solutions to be perfused over a micro-column of <span class="hlt">beads</span>, resulting in faster and more sensitive assays. The automated fluidic approach resulted in up to five-fold improvements in assay sensitivity/speed as compared to identical assays performed in a typical manual batch mode. A second approach for implementing multiplexed <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based assays without using flow cytometry detection is currently under development. The goal of the microfluidic-based approach is to achieve rapid (<20 minutes), multiplexed (> 3 bioagents) detection using a simple and low-cost, integrated microfluidic/optical detection platform. Using fiber-optic guided laser-induced fluorescence, assay detection limits were shown to be in the 100’s of picomolar range (10’s of micrograms per liter) for botulinum neurotoxin simulant without any optimization of the microfluidic device or optical detection approach. Video taping magnetic nanoparticle capture and release was used to improve understanding of the process and revealed interesting behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/896333','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/896333"><span>Specific detection of DNA using quantum dots and magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> for large volume samples</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kim, Yeon S.; Kim, Byoung CHAN; Lee, Jin Hyung; Kim, Jungbae; Gu, Man Bock</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>Here we present a sensitive DNA detection protocol using quantum dots (QDs) and magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> (MBs) for large volume samples. In this study, QDs, conjugated with streptavidin, were used to produce fluorescent signals while magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> (MBs) were used to isolate and concentrate the signals. The presence of target DNAs lead to the sandwich hybridization between the functionalized QDs, the target DNAs and the MBs. In fact, the QDs-MBs <span class="hlt">complex</span>, which is bound using the target DNA, can be isolated and then concentrated. The binding of the QDs to the surface of the MBs was confirmed by confocal microscopy and Cd elemental analysis. It was found that the fluorescent intensity was proportional to concentration of the target DNA, while the presence of noncomplementary DNA produced no significant fluorescent signal. In addition, the presence of low copies of target DNAs such as 0.5 pM in large volume samples up to 40 ml were successfully detected by using a magnet-assisted concentration protocol which consequently results in the enhancement of the sensitivity more than 100-fold.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11288892','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11288892"><span>Micromachined filter-chamber array with passive valves for biochemical assays on <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Andersson, H; van der Wijngaart, W; Stemme, G</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The filter-chamber array presented here enables a real-time parallel analysis of three different samples on <span class="hlt">beads</span> in a volume of 3 nL, on a 1 cm2 chip. The filter-chamber array is a system containing three filter-chambers, three passive valves at the inlet channels and a common outlet. The design enables parallel sample handling and time-controlled analysis. The device is microfabricated in silicon and sealed with a Pyrex lid to enable real-time analysis. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis by using pyrosequencing has successfully been performed in single filter-chamber devices. The passive valves consist of plasma-deposited octafluorocyclobutane and show a much higher resistance towards water and surface-active solutions than previous hydrophobic patches. The device is not sensitive to gas bubbles, clogging is rare and reversible, and the filter-chamber array is reusable. More <span class="hlt">complex</span> (bio)chemical reactions on <span class="hlt">beads</span> can be performed in the devices with passive valves than in the devices without valves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25190010','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25190010"><span>Magnetic actuator for the control and mixing of magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based reactions on-chip.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Berenguel-Alonso, Miguel; Granados, Xavier; Faraudo, Jordi; Alonso-Chamarro, Julián; Puyol, Mar</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>While magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> (MB)-based bioassays have been implemented in integrated devices, their handling on-chip is normally either not optimal--i.e. only trapping is achieved, with aggregation of the <span class="hlt">beads</span>--or requires <span class="hlt">complex</span> actuator systems. Herein, we describe a simple and low-cost magnetic actuator to trap and move MBs within a microfluidic chamber in order to enhance the mixing of a MB-based reaction. The magnetic actuator consists of a CD-shaped plastic unit with an arrangement of embedded magnets which, when rotating, generate the mixing. The magnetic actuator has been used to enhance the amplification reaction of an enzyme-linked fluorescence immunoassay to detect Escherichia coli O157:H7 whole cells, an enterohemorrhagic strain, which have caused several outbreaks in food and water samples. A 2.7-fold sensitivity enhancement was attained with a detection limit of 603 colony-forming units (CFU) /mL, when employing the magnetic actuator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7306E..0IO','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7306E..0IO"><span><span class="hlt">Bead</span>-based assays for biodetection: from flow-cytometry to microfluidics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ozanich, Richard M., Jr.; Antolick, Kathryn; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.; Bunch, Kyle J.; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Grate, Jay W.; Nash, Michael A.; Tyler, Abby; Warner, Cynthia L.; Warner, Marvin G.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>The potential for the use of biological agents by terrorists is a real threat. Two approaches for antibody-based detection of biological species are described in this paper: 1) The use of microbead arrays for multiplexed flow cytometry detection of cytokines and botulinum neurotoxin simulant, and 2) a microfluidic platform for capture and separation of different size superparamagnetic nanoparticles followed by on-chip fluorescence detection of the sandwich <span class="hlt">complex</span>. These approaches both involve the use of automated fluidic systems for trapping antibody-functionalized microbeads, which allows sample, assay reagents, and wash solutions to be perfused over a micro-column of <span class="hlt">beads</span>, resulting in faster and more sensitive immunoassays. The automated fluidic approach resulted in up to five-fold improvements in immunoassay sensitivity/speed as compared to identical immunoassays performed in a typical manual batch mode. A second approach for implementing multiplexed <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based immunoassays without using flow cytometry detection is currently under development. The goal of the microfluidic-based approach is to achieve rapid (<20 minutes), multiplexed (>= 3 bioagents) detection using a simple and low-cost, integrated microfluidic/optical detection platform. Using fiber-optic guided laser-induced fluorescence, assay detection limits were shown to be in the 100's of picomolar range (10's of micrograms per liter) for botulinum neurotoxin simulant without any optimization of the microfluidic device or optical detection approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21506932','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21506932"><span>Structure and Properties of Magnetic (Co, Fe, Fe{sub 3}C and Ni) Carbon <span class="hlt">Beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Leonowicz, Marcin; Izydorzak, Marta; Pomogailo, Anatolii D.; Dzhardimalieva, Gulzhian I.</p> <p>2010-12-02</p> <p>Nanoparticles exhibit unique physical properties due to the surface or quantum-size effects. Particular attention has been focused on magnetic nanoparticles and substantial progress has been done in this field. In this work magnetic composites, consisting of elementary metals or carbides nanocrystallites, stabilized in carbon matrix, were prepared by the procedure comprising formation of appropriate metal acrylamide <span class="hlt">complexes</span>, followed by frontal polymerization and pyrolysis of the polymer at various temperatures. Application of frontal polymerization and further pyrolysis enables formation of composite <span class="hlt">beads</span> consisting of Co, Fe, Fe{sub 3}C or Ni nanocrystallites stabilized in carbon matrix. It was found that the lowest pyrolysis temperature, which enables the production of metallic nanocrystallites, was 673 K for Co and Ni, and 773 K for Fe. The magnetic properties of the <span class="hlt">beads</span>, percentage of the metallic component, their composition and shape depended on the pyrolysis temperature. Extracts on the basis of composites containing Fe{sub 3}C showed no cytotoxicity, whereas those containing Co and Ni exhibited negligible cytotoxicity up to concentrations of 6.25 mg/ml.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EPJE...28..159L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EPJE...28..159L"><span>Gravitational compression of colloidal <span class="hlt">gels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liétor-Santos, J. J.; Kim, C.; Lu, P. J.; Fernández-Nieves, A.; Weitz, D. A.</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>We study the compression of depletion <span class="hlt">gels</span> under the influence of a gravitational stress by monitoring the time evolution of the <span class="hlt">gel</span> interface and the local volume fraction, φ , inside the <span class="hlt">gel</span>. We find φ is not constant throughout the <span class="hlt">gel</span>. Instead, there is a volume fraction gradient that develops and grows along the <span class="hlt">gel</span> height as the compression process proceeds. Our results are correctly described by a non-linear poroelastic model that explicitly incorporates the φ -dependence of the gravitational, elastic and viscous stresses acting on the <span class="hlt">gel</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6224929','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6224929"><span>Effects of degree of hydrolysis and shear on gelation reaction kinetics and <span class="hlt">gel</span> strength. [Polyacrylamides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gao, Hong W.</p> <p>1991-02-01</p> <p>Gelation tests were conducted to investigate the effect of the degree of hydrolysis on gelation reaction kinetics and <span class="hlt">gel</span> strength using four low-molecular-weight polyacrylamides (MW = 400,000 daltons), which were 10% (HPAM1-10), 20% (HPAM1-20), 30% (HAPM1-30), and 40% (HPAM-40) hydrolyzed, and Cr-3 (pH = 4.8) and Al-3 (pH = 7.0) crosslinkers. Results showed that for polymer/Cr-3 <span class="hlt">gel</span> systems, samples prepared with a low-molecular-weight polyacrylamide polymer, which was 20% hydrolyzed, gelled at a faster rate and retained higher <span class="hlt">gel</span> strength than those prepared with a low-molecular-weight polyacrylamide polymer, which was 10% hydrolyzed. Under the screening condition, no viscosity enhancement was observed in samples prepared with polymers having a degree of hydrolysis equal to or greater than 30%. For polymer/Al-3 <span class="hlt">gel</span> systems, samples prepared with a low-molecular-weight polyacrylamide polymer, which was 20% hydrolyzed, gelled at the fastest rate and retained the strongest <span class="hlt">gel</span> strength among the polymer/Al-3 <span class="hlt">gel</span> systems prepared with four low-molecular-weight polyacrylamide polymers, which were 10, 20, 30, and 40% hydrolyzed, respectively. Gelation tests of <span class="hlt">gel</span> systems in glass <span class="hlt">bead</span> packs showed that high shear favored the gelation of a <span class="hlt">gel</span> system that had a fast rate of gelation, but had an adverse effect on the gelation of three <span class="hlt">gel</span> systems that had a slow rate of gelation. Weak <span class="hlt">gels</span> were found to be injectable through porous media. Weak <span class="hlt">gels</span> were degradable under high shear condition and regained viscosity under low shear conditions. 17 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARD49001C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARD49001C"><span>Rheology of Active <span class="hlt">Gels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Daniel</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Active networks drive a diverse range of critical processes ranging from motility to division in living cells, yet a full picture of their rheological capabilities in non-cellular contexts is still emerging, e.g., How does the rheological response of a network capable of remodeling under internally-generated stresses differ from that of a passive biopolymer network? In order to address this and other basic questions, we have engineered an active <span class="hlt">gel</span> composed of microtubules, bidirectional kinesin motors, and molecular depletant that self-organizes into a highly dynamic network of active bundles. The network continually remodels itself under ATP-tunable cycles of extension, buckling, fracturing, and self-healing. Using confocal rheometry we have simultaneously characterized the network's linear and non-linear rheological responses to shear deformation along with its dynamic morphology. We find several surprising and unique material properties for these active <span class="hlt">gels</span>; most notably, rheological cloaking, the ability of the active <span class="hlt">gel</span> to drive large-scale fluid mixing over several orders of flow magnitude while maintaining an invariant, solid-like rheological profile and spontaneous flow under confinement, the ability to exert micro-Newton forces to drive persistent directed motion of the rheometer tool. Taken together, these results and others to be discussed highlight the rich stress-structure-dynamics relationships in this class of biologically-derived active <span class="hlt">gels</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1052521','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1052521"><span>Platelet retention by albuminated glass and polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Coleman, D L; Atwood, A I; Andrade, J D</p> <p>1976-11-01</p> <p>Ex vivo platelet retention by albuminated glass and polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span> has been evaluated as a function of flow rate, <span class="hlt">bead</span> surface area, blood exposure time and albumin treatment. The stability of the albumin coatings as well as scanning electron microscopy of the various surfaces before and after blood exposure has also been included. Results indicate that platelet retention is sensitive to changes in the above parameters and that albumin pretreatment of different substrates can decrease platelet retention. This decrease is substrate dependent in that platelet retention is different for the albuminated glass and polystyrene substrates. Chemical analysis of the substrate materials by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well as bulk chemical analysis is also reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20653409','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20653409"><span>Bile salt-reinforced alginate-chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Takka, Sevgi; Cali, Aybige Gürel</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A polymeric delayed release protein delivery system was investigated with albumin as the model drug. The polysaccharide chitosan was reacted with sodium alginate in the presence of calcium chloride to form <span class="hlt">beads</span> with a polyelectrolyte. In this study, attempts were made to extend albumin release in the phosphate buffer at pH 6.8 from the alginate-chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> by reinforcing the matrix with bile salts. Sodium taurocholate was able to prevent albumin release at pH 1.2, protecting the protein from the acidic environment and extending the total albumin release at pH 6.8. This effect was explained by an interaction between the permanent negatively charged sulfonic acid of sodium taurocholate with the amino groups of chitosan. Mild formulation conditions, high bovine serum albumin (BSA) entrapment efficiency, and resistance to gastrointestinal release seem to be synergic and promising factors toward the development of an oral protein delivery form.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...514348G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...514348G"><span>An Abiotic Glass-<span class="hlt">Bead</span> Collector Exhibiting Active Transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goto, Youhei; Kanda, Masato; Yamamoto, Daigo; Shioi, Akihisa</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Animals relocate objects as needed by active motion. Active transport is ubiquitous in living organisms but has been difficult to realize in abiotic systems. Here we show that a self-propelled droplet can gather scattered <span class="hlt">beads</span> toward one place on a floor and sweep it clean. This is a biomimetic active transport with loadings and unloadings, because the transport was performed by a carrier and the motion of the carrier was maintained by the energy of the chemical reaction. The oil droplet produced fluctuation of the local number density of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> on the floor, followed by its autocatalytic growth. This mechanism may inspire the technologies based on active transport wherein chemical and physical substances migrate as in living organisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21413496','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21413496"><span>Frictionless Demonstration Using Fine Plastic <span class="hlt">Beads</span> For Teaching Mechanics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ishii, K.; Kagawa, K.; Khumaeni, A.; Kurniawan, K. H.</p> <p>2010-07-28</p> <p>New equipment for demonstrating laws of mechanics have successfully been constructed utilizing fine sphere plastic <span class="hlt">beads</span> (0.3 mm in diameter). Fine plastic <span class="hlt">beads</span> function as ball bearings to reduce the friction between the object and the plate surface. By this method, a quantitative measurement of energy conservation law has successfully been carried out with a small error of less 3%. The strong advantage of this frictionless method is that we can always use the same objects like Petri dishes for demonstrating many kinds of mechanics laws, such as the first, second, and the third laws of motion, momentum conservation law, and energy conservation law. This demonstration method surely has a beneficial effect for students, who can then understand mechanics laws systematically with a unified concept and no confusion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18246487','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18246487"><span>Shape optimization and characterization of polysaccharide <span class="hlt">beads</span> prepared by ionotropic gelation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smrdel, Polona; Bogataj, Marija; Zega, Anamarija; Planinsek, Odon; Mrhar, Ales</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>The shape of drug loaded polysaccharide <span class="hlt">beads</span> produced by ionotropic gelation has been optimized, with the aim of producing spherical <span class="hlt">beads</span> suitable for further technological operations, such as coating. The optimization was performed on a model system sodium alginate/theophylline by inclusion of various fillers. Incorporation of excipients markedly influenced the morphological characteristics of the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The undesired irregular shape of <span class="hlt">beads</span> caused by incorporation of the drug could only be improved by incorporating a combination of polycarbophil (PK) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The spherical shape of these <span class="hlt">beads</span> was stabilized mechanically by numerous air bubbles trapped inside the <span class="hlt">beads</span>, which prevented the collapse of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> during drying. The optimized method was shown to be applicable to a target system of pectin and an anti-inflammatory drug, LK-423.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19962883','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19962883"><span>Adsorption of congo red by chitosan hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> impregnated with carbon nanotubes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chatterjee, Sudipta; Lee, Min W; Woo, Seung H</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>The adsorption performance of chitosan (CS) hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> was investigated after multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) impregnation for the removal of congo red (CR) as an anionic dye. The study of the adsorption capacity of CS/CNT <span class="hlt">beads</span> as a function of the CNT concentration indicated that 0.01% CNT impregnation was the most useful for enhancing the adsorption capacity. The sulfur (%) in the CS/CNT <span class="hlt">beads</span> measured by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) was 2.5 times higher than that of normal CS <span class="hlt">beads</span> after CR adsorption. Equilibrium adsorption isotherm data of the CS/CNT <span class="hlt">beads</span> exhibited better fit to the Langmuir isotherm model than to the Freundlich isotherm model, and the heterogeneity factor (n) value of the CS/CNT <span class="hlt">beads</span> calculated from the Sips isotherm model was close to unity (0.98). The maximum adsorption capacity of CS/CNT <span class="hlt">beads</span> obtained from the Langmuir model was 450.4 mg g(-1).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12593965','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12593965"><span>Residual gentamicin-release from antibiotic-loaded polymethylmethacrylate <span class="hlt">beads</span> after 5 years of implantation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Neut, Daniëlle; van de Belt, Hilbrand; van Horn, Jim R; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J</p> <p>2003-05-01</p> <p>In infected joint arthroplasty, high local levels of antibiotics are achieved through temporary implantation of non-biodegradable gentamicin-loaded polymethylmethacrylate <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Despite their antibiotic release, these <span class="hlt">beads</span> act as a biomaterial surface to which bacteria preferentially adhere, grow and potentially develop antibiotic resistance. In routine clinical practice, these <span class="hlt">beads</span> are removed after 14 days, but for a variety of reasons, we were confronted with a patient in which these <span class="hlt">beads</span> were left in situ for 5 years. Retrieval of gentamicin-loaded <span class="hlt">beads</span> from this patient constituted an exceptional case to study the effects of long-term implantation on potentially colonizing microflora and gentamicin release. Gentamicin-release test revealed residual antibiotic release after being 5 years in situ and extensive microbiological sampling resulted in recovery of a gentamicin-resistant staphylococcal strain from the <span class="hlt">bead</span> surface. This case emphasizes the importance of developing biodegradable antibiotic-loaded <span class="hlt">beads</span> as an antibiotic delivery system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26386220','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26386220"><span>Effect of Cellulose Acetate <span class="hlt">Beads</span> on the Release of Transforming Growth Factor-β.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nishise, Shoichi; Abe, Yasuhiko; Nomura, Eiki; Sato, Takeshi; Sasaki, Yu; Iwano, Daisuke; Yagi, Makoto; Sakuta, Kazuhiro; Shibuya, Rika; Mizumoto, Naoko; Kanno, Nana; Ueno, Yoshiyuki</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is released by activated platelets and induces the differentiation of T-helper 17 from naïve T cells. Contact between blood and cellulose acetate (CA) <span class="hlt">beads</span> induces cytokine release, although their inflammatory effects on TGF-β release are unclear. We aimed to clarify the effect of CA <span class="hlt">beads</span> on the release of TGF-β in vitro. We incubated peripheral blood with and without CA <span class="hlt">beads</span> and measured platelets and TGF-β. Compared with blood samples incubated without <span class="hlt">beads</span>, the platelet count and amount of TGF-β significantly decreased in blood samples incubated with CA <span class="hlt">beads</span>. In conclusion, CA <span class="hlt">beads</span> inhibited the release of TGF-β from adsorbed platelets. The biological effects of this reduction of TGF-β release during platelet adsorption to CA <span class="hlt">beads</span> need further clarification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930021684','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930021684"><span>Structural response of <span class="hlt">bead</span>-stiffened thermoplastic shear webs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rouse, Marshall</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The results of an experimental and analytical study of the structural response and failure characteristics of selected <span class="hlt">bead</span>-stiffened thermoplastic shear-webs are presented. Results are given for specimens with one stiffeneer, with two stiffeners, and different stiffener geometries. Selected analytical results that were obtained with the Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM) Testbed computer code are presented. Analytical results that describe normal and transverse shear stress are also presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cancergenome.nih.gov/abouttcga/aboutdata/platformdesign/illuminamethylation450','NCI'); return false;" href="https://cancergenome.nih.gov/abouttcga/aboutdata/platformdesign/illuminamethylation450"><span>Infinium HumanMethylation450 <span class="hlt">Bead</span>Chip</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.cancer.gov">Cancer.gov</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The HumanMethylation450 <span class="hlt">Bead</span>Chip offers a unique combination of comprehensive, expert-selected coverage and high throughput at a low price, making it ideal for screening large sample populations such as those used in genome-wide association study cohorts. By providing quantitative methylation measurement at the single-CpG–site level for normal and FFPE samples, this assay offers powerful resolution for understanding epigenetic changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20656897','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20656897"><span>Antibiotic-loaded cement <span class="hlt">beads</span> for Charcot ankle osteomyelitis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ramanujam, Crystal L; Zgonis, Thomas</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>The concomitant presence of osteomyelitis and diabetic Charcot neuroarthropathy of the foot and ankle places those patients affected at increased risk for limb loss. Antibiotic-loaded cement has been reported to be useful in the treatment of deep soft tissue and joint infections. The authors present an overview of this adjunctive treatment modality and present a case report using antibiotic-loaded cement <span class="hlt">beads</span> in staged reconstruction for Charcot ankle osteomyelitis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvE..94a2907S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvE..94a2907S"><span>Liquid morphologies and capillary forces between three spherical <span class="hlt">beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Semprebon, Ciro; Scheel, Mario; Herminghaus, Stephan; Seemann, Ralf; Brinkmann, Martin</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Equilibrium shapes of coalesced pendular bridges in a static assembly of spherical <span class="hlt">beads</span> are computed by numerical minimization of the interfacial energy. Our present study focuses on generic <span class="hlt">bead</span> configurations involving three <span class="hlt">beads</span>, one of which is in contact to the two others while there is a gap of variable size between the latter. In agreement with previous experimental studies, we find interfacial "trimer" morphologies consisting of three coalesced pendular bridges, and "dimers" of two coalesced bridges. In a certain range of the gap opening we observe a bistability between the dimer and trimer morphology during changes of the liquid volume. The magnitude of the corresponding capillary forces in presence of a trimer or dimer depends, besides the gap opening, only on the volume or Laplace pressure of the liquid. For a given Laplace pressure, and for the same gap opening, the capillary forces induced by a trimer are only slightly larger than the corresponding forces in the presence of three pendular bridges. This observation is consistent with a plateau of capillary cohesion in terms of the saturation of a wetting liquid in the funicular regime, as reported in the experimental work [Scheel et al., Nat. Mater. 7, 189 (2008), 10.1038/nmat2117].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20886906','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20886906"><span>Random glycopeptide <span class="hlt">bead</span> libraries for seromic biomarker discovery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kracun, Stjepan K; Cló, Emiliano; Clausen, Henrik; Levery, Steven B; Jensen, Knud J; Blixt, Ola</p> <p>2010-12-03</p> <p>Identification of disease-specific biomarkers is important to address early diagnosis and management of disease. Aberrant post-translational modifications (PTM) of proteins such as O-glycosylations (O-PTMs) are emerging as triggers of autoantibodies that can serve as sensitive biomarkers. Here we have developed a random glycopeptide <span class="hlt">bead</span> library screening platform for detection of autoantibodies and other binding proteins. Libraries were build on biocompatible PEGA <span class="hlt">beads</span> including a safety-catch C-terminal amide linker (SCAL) that allowed mild cleavage conditions (I(2)/NaBH(4) and TFA) for release of glycopeptides and sequence determination by ESI-Orbitrap-MS(n). As proof-of-principle, tumor -specific glycopeptide reporter epitopes were built-in into the libraries and were detected by tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies and autoantibodies from cancer patients. Sequenced and identified glycopeptides were resynthesized at the preparative scale by automated parallel peptide synthesis and printed on microarrays for validation and broader analysis with larger sets of sera. We further showed that chemical synthesis of the monosaccharide O-glycopeptide library (Tn-glycoform) could be diversified to other tumor glycoforms by on-<span class="hlt">bead</span> enzymatic glycosylation reactions with recombinant glycosyltransferases. Hence, we have developed a high-throughput flexible platform for rapid discovery of O-glycopeptide biomarkers and the method has applicability in other types of assays such as lectin/antibody/enzyme specificity studies as well as investigation of other PTMs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26709997','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26709997"><span>Microbubble Fabrication of Concave-porosity PDMS <span class="hlt">Beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bertram, John R; Nee, Matthew J</p> <p>2015-12-15</p> <p>Microbubble fabrication (by use of a fine emulsion) provides a means of increasing the surface-area-to-volume (SAV) ratio of polymer materials, which is particularly useful for separations applications. Porous polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) <span class="hlt">beads</span> can be produced by heat-curing such an emulsion, allowing the interface between the aqueous and aliphatic phases to mold the morphology of the polymer. In the procedures described here, both polymer and crosslinker (triethoxysilane) are sonicated together in a cold-bath sonicator. Following a period of cross-linking, emulsions are added dropwise to a hot surfactant solution, allowing the aqueous phase of the emulsion to separate, and forming porous polymer <span class="hlt">beads</span>. We demonstrate that this method can be tuned, and the SAV ratio optimized, by adjusting the electrolyte content of the aqueous phase in the emulsion. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> produced in this way are imaged with scanning electron microscopy, and representative SAV ratios are determined using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. Considerable variability with the electrolyte identity is observed, but the general trend is consistent: there is a maximum in SAV obtained at a specific concentration, after which porosity decreases markedly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993CmpSt..25..469L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993CmpSt..25..469L"><span>Buckling of open-section <span class="hlt">bead</span>-stiffened composite panels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Laananen, D. H.; Renze, S. P.</p> <p></p> <p>Stiffened panels are structures that can be designed to efficiently support inplane compression, bending, and shear loads. Although the stiffeners are usually discrete elements which are fastened or bonded to a flat or continuously curved plate, manufacturing methods such as thermoforming allow integral formation of the stiffeners in a panel. Such a configuration offers potential advantages in terms of a reduced number of parts and manufacturing operations. For thermoplastic composite panels stiffened by integrally formed open-section <span class="hlt">beads</span>, the effects of <span class="hlt">bead</span> spacing and bend cross-section geometry on the initiation of buckling under uniaxial compression and uniform shear loading were investigated. Finite elements results for a range of stiffened panel sizes and <span class="hlt">bead</span> geometries are presented and compared with approximate closed-form solutions based on an effective flat plate size. Experimental verification of analytical predictions for one of the shear panels and one of the compression panels is described. Compensation of the forming tool to reduce the degree of initial curvature of the panels was found to be necessary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25746267','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25746267"><span>Characterization of supramolecular <span class="hlt">gels</span> based on β-cyclodextrin and polyethyleneglycol and their potential use for topical drug delivery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Klaewklod, Amornrat; Tantishaiyakul, Vimon; Hirun, Namon; Sangfai, Tanatchaporn; Li, Lin</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Novel <span class="hlt">gels</span> were prepared by blending β-cyclodextrin and polyethyleneglycol (PEG) in the presence of K2CO3. The objective of this study was thus to characterize the <span class="hlt">gels</span> using rheology, modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MTDSC), turbidity measurements, and hot stage microscopy, and then investigate the potential use of the <span class="hlt">gel</span> for topical drug delivery. Two types of supramolecular <span class="hlt">gels</span>, <span class="hlt">Gel</span>L and <span class="hlt">Gel</span>H were prepared at a low temperature (below 50 °C) and at a high temperature (above 70 °C), respectively. Both <span class="hlt">gels</span> were thermo-reversible. Upon heating, <span class="hlt">Gel</span>L could turn to <span class="hlt">Gel</span>H. Nevertheless, upon cooling, <span class="hlt">Gel</span>H that was more stable than <span class="hlt">Gel</span>L precipitated and <span class="hlt">Gel</span>L could not be reformed. <span class="hlt">Gel</span>L may form through simple <span class="hlt">complexation</span> of polyethyleneglycol (PEG) with β-cyclodextrin in the presence of K2CO3. However, <span class="hlt">Gel</span>H may form a specific <span class="hlt">complex</span> or a pseudopolyrotaxane <span class="hlt">gel</span>. For pharmaceutical application, <span class="hlt">Gel</span>L was investigated instead of <span class="hlt">Gel</span>H because the forming temperature of this <span class="hlt">gel</span> was close to the human body temperature. The interactions among diclofenac sodium (DS), a model drug, and the components of the <span class="hlt">gel</span> were examined using FTIR. These interactions may include ionic attraction and hydrogen bonds between the carboxylate groups of DS and the hydroxyl groups of PEG or β-cyclodextrin and probably also the inclusion of the aromatic ring of DS into the cavity of β-cyclodextrin. Furthermore, the release and permeation of diclofenac from <span class="hlt">Gel</span>L were significantly greater than those from a commercial <span class="hlt">gel</span>. Therefore, <span class="hlt">Gel</span>L may be useful for the topical delivery of drugs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27782390','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27782390"><span>TMFF-A Two-<span class="hlt">Bead</span> Multipole Force Field for Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Protein.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Min; Liu, Fengjiao; Zhang, John Z H</p> <p>2016-12-13</p> <p>Coarse-grained (CG) models are desirable for studying large and <span class="hlt">complex</span> biological systems. In this paper, we propose a new two-<span class="hlt">bead</span> multipole force field (TMFF) in which electric multipoles up to the quadrupole are included in the CG force field. The inclusion of electric multipoles in the proposed CG force field enables a more realistic description of the anisotropic electrostatic interactions in the protein system and, thus, provides an improvement over the standard isotropic two-<span class="hlt">bead</span> CG models. In order to test the accuracy of the new CG force field model, extensive molecular dynamics simulations were carried out for a series of benchmark protein systems. These simulation studies showed that the TMFF model can realistically reproduce the structural and dynamical properties of proteins, as demonstrated by the close agreement of the CG results with those from the corresponding all-atom simulations in terms of root-mean-square deviations (RMSDs) and root-mean-square fluctuations (RMSFs) of the protein backbones. The current two-<span class="hlt">bead</span> model is highly coarse-grained and is 50-fold more efficient than all-atom method in MD simulation of proteins in explicit water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22712261','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22712261"><span>[Will the new molecular karyotyping BACs-on-<span class="hlt">Beads</span> technique replace the traditional cytogenetic prenatal diagnostics? Preliminary reports].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Piotrowski, Krzysztof; Henkelman, Małgorzata; Zajaczek, Stanisław</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Recently several attempts have been made to introduce molecular karyotyping techniques into prenatal diagnosis. These methods can be used not only for the diagnosis of classical aneuploidies, but first of all they should be employed in the diagnostics of microaberrations, which are not revealed by low resolution methods of classical cytogenetics. The new method BACs-on-<span class="hlt">Beads</span> is designed for quick detection of broad panel of aneuploidies and microdeletions, by the specified detection of deletions and duplications in the examined fetal DNA acquired from amniocytes. Prenatal diagnostics was performed with the use of BACs-on-<span class="hlt">Beads</span> and classical amniocyte karyotyping simultaneously in a group of 54 pregnancies. This new method proved to be fully compatible with typical karyotyping in cultures of amniocytes in 98.2%. It was confirmed that the main advantage of this method is the possibility of quick diagnosis, within 48 hours, with much wider spectrum of detected anomalies when compared to classical methods. Contrary to other molecular karyotyping methods, the BACs-on-<span class="hlt">Beads</span> technique is more economical, less time consuming and less <span class="hlt">complex</span> equipment is needed than in case of other methods. We suppose that this technique can replace classical karyotyping methods in the near future.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H43F1585L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H43F1585L"><span>Preparation and Characterization of the Activated Carbon-Nylon <span class="hlt">Beads</span>: Novel Material for In Situ Microbe Sampler and Microcosm Experiment in Groundwater Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, J.; Liu, H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The organic pollution of groundwater is a widespread problem in the word. It is significant to study the microbial community especially related to organic contaminant biodegradation and their variation with groundwater environment parameters, so as to evaluate the biodegradability of the organic contaminants and then make a right decision for bioremediation. One of good ways for this study is to build a microcosm in groundwater containing target contaminant, where microbes especially relating to biodegradation will grow in the microcosm and be collected for analysis. This research aims to prepare a novel material for in situ microbe sampler and microcosm experiment in groundwater environment. The novel material, namely, the activated carbon-nylon (AC-N) <span class="hlt">beads</span>, was prepared using activated carbon and nylon as main raw materials. The material consists of 3-4mm diameter spherical <span class="hlt">beads</span> (Fig.1A and Fig.2 A) which have an internal surface area greater than 500 m2 g-1. FT-IR spectra (Fig.3) indicated the composition of activated carbon and nylon due to the variation of the peaks at the near 1627 cm-1and 1558 -1538 cm-1 before and after <span class="hlt">complex</span> reaction. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of benzene on the <span class="hlt">beads</span> was 16.76 mg/g at the initial concentration of 100 mg/L. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (Fig.4). The mechanism of the adsorption process was determined from the intraparticle diffusion model. Camera and SEM images (Fig.1 B and Fig.2 A and B) showed that the <span class="hlt">beads</span> had an open and channel pore structures, the microbes might enter into and grow up in the <span class="hlt">beads</span> (Fig.1 C and Fig.2 C). All these results showed that the AC-N <span class="hlt">beads</span> could form the in situ microcosm of organic pollutants and microbes, which provided a promising prospect for assessing the biodegradability of the organic pollutants by intrinsic microbes in the groundwater.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20122797','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20122797"><span>Studies on sorption, desorption, regeneration and reuse of sugar-beet pectin <span class="hlt">gels</span> for heavy metal removal.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mata, Y N; Blázquez, M L; Ballester, A; González, F; Muñoz, J A</p> <p>2010-06-15</p> <p>This work reports the effectiveness of sugar-beet pectin xerogels for the removal of heavy metals (cadmium, lead and copper) after multiple batch sorption-desorption cycles, with and without a <span class="hlt">gels</span> regeneration step. Metals were recovered from xerogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> without destroying their sorption capability and the <span class="hlt">beads</span> were successfully reused (nine cycles) without significant loss in both biosorption capacity and biosorbent mass. Metals uptake levelled off or increased after using a 1M CaCl(2) regeneration step after each desorption. Calcium, as a regenerating agent, increased the stability and reusability of the <span class="hlt">gels</span> repairing the damage caused by the acid and removing the excess protons after each elution providing new binding sites. Because of their excellent reusability, pectin xerogels are suitable for metal remediation technologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJN....1360014Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJN....1360014Z"><span>MicroRNA Sensor Based on Magnetic <span class="hlt">Beads</span> and Enzymatic Probes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yue; Zhou, Dejian; He, Junhui</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>MicroRNAs are associated with multiple cellular processes and diseases. Here, we designed a highly sensitive, magnetically retrievable biosensor using magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> (MBs) as a model RNA sensor. The assay utilized two biotinylated probes, which were hybridized to the complementary target miRNA in a sandwich assay format. One of the biotinylated ends of the hybridization <span class="hlt">complex</span> was immobilized onto the surface of a NeutrAvidin (NAV) coated MB and the other biotinylated end was conjugated to HRP via NAV-biotin interaction. The results were presented by colorimetric absorbance of the resorufin product from amplex red oxidation. We show that by combining the use of MBs as well as bio-specific immobilization, the sensitivity of miRNA detection is down to 100 pM. This model HRP-MBs system can be used for simple, rapid colorimetric quantification of low level DNA/RNA or other small molecules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19408940','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19408940"><span>Magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> processor for rapid evaluation and optimization of parameters for phosphopeptide enrichment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ficarro, Scott B; Adelmant, Guillaume; Tomar, Maria N; Zhang, Yi; Cheng, Vincent J; Marto, Jarrod A</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>Qualitative and quantitative analysis of phosphorylation continues to be both an important and a challenging experimental paradigm in proteomics-based research. Unfortunately researchers face difficulties inherent to the optimization of <span class="hlt">complex</span>, multivariable methods and their application to the analysis of rare and often experimentally intractable phosphorylated peptides. Here we describe a platform based on manipulation of magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> in a 96-well format that facilitates rapid evaluation of experimental parameters required for enrichment of phosphopeptides. Optimized methods provided for automated enrichment and subsequent LC-MS/MS detection of over 1000 unique phosphopeptides (approximately 1% FDR) from 50 microg of cell lysates. In addition we demonstrate use of this platform for identification of phosphopeptides derived from proteins separated by SDS-PAGE and visualized near the detection limit of silver staining.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7905E..0NK','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7905E..0NK"><span>A reliable and sensitive <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based fluorescence assay for identification of nucleic acid sequences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klamp, Tobias; Yahiatène, Idir; Lampe, André; Schüttpelz, Mark; Sauer, Markus</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>The sensitive and rapid detection of pathogenic DNA is of tremendous importance in the field of diagnostics. We demonstrate the ability of detecting and quantifying single- and double-stranded pathogenic DNA with picomolar sensitivity in a <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based fluorescence assay. Selecting appropriate capturing and detection sequences enables rapid (2 h) and reliable DNA quantification. We show that synthetic sequences of S. pneumoniae and M. luteus can be quantified in very small sample volumes (20 μL) across a linear detection range over four orders of magnitude from 1 nM to 1 pM, using a miniaturized wide-field fluorescence microscope without amplification steps. The method offers single molecule detection sensitivity without using <span class="hlt">complex</span> setups and thus volunteers as simple, robust, and reliable method for the sensitive detection of DNA and RNA sequences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17284012','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17284012"><span>Acceleration of microwave-assisted enzymatic digestion reactions by magnetite <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Wei-Yu; Chen, Yu-Chie</p> <p>2007-03-15</p> <p>In this study, we demonstrated that microwave-assisted enzymatic digestion could be greatly accelerated by multifunctional magnetite <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The acceleration of microwave-assisted enzymatic digestion by the presence of the magnetite <span class="hlt">beads</span> was attributable to several features of the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Their capacity to absorb microwave radiation leads to rapid heating of the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Furthermore, their negatively charged functionalities cause adsorption of proteins with opposite charges onto their surfaces by electrostatic interactions, leading to a concentration on the surfaces of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> of proteins present in trace amounts in the solution. The adsorbed proteins are denatured and hence rendered vulnerable to enzymatic digestion and are digested on the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. For microwave heating, 30 s was sufficient for carrying out the tryptic digestion of cytochrome c, in the presence of magnetite <span class="hlt">beads</span>, while 1 min was adequate for tryptic digestion of myoglobin. The digestion products were characterized by MALDI-MS. This rapid enzymatic digestion allowed the entire time for identification of proteins to be greatly reduced. Furthermore, specific proteins present in trace quantities were enriched from the sample on the magnetite <span class="hlt">beads</span> and could be rapidly isolated from the sample by employing an external magnetic field. These multiple roles of magnetite <span class="hlt">beads</span>, as the absorber for microwave irradiation, the concentrating probe, and the agent for unfolding proteins, contributed to their capability of accelerating microwave-assisted enzymatic digestion. We also demonstrated that trypsin immobilized magnetite <span class="hlt">beads</span> were suitable for use in microwave-assisted enzymatic digestion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1300639','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1300639"><span>Theoretical formalism for kinesin motility I. <span class="hlt">Bead</span> movement powered by single one-headed kinesins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Y d</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The directional movement on a microtubule of a plastic <span class="hlt">bead</span> connected elastically to a single one-headed kinesin motor is studied theoretically. The kinesin motor can bind and unbind to periodic binding sites on the microtubule and undergo conformational changes while catalyzing the hydrolysis of ATP. An analytic formalism relating the dynamics of the <span class="hlt">bead</span> and the ATP hydrolysis cycle of the motor is derived so that the calculation of the average velocity of the <span class="hlt">bead</span> can be easily carried out. The formalism was applied to a simple three-state biochemical model to investigate how the velocity of the <span class="hlt">bead</span> movement is affected by the external load, the diffusion coefficient of the <span class="hlt">bead</span>, and the stiffness of the elastic element connecting the <span class="hlt">bead</span> and the motor. The <span class="hlt">bead</span> velocity was found to be critically dependent on the diffusion coefficient of the <span class="hlt">bead</span> and the stiffness of the elastic element. A linear force-velocity relation was found for the model no matter whether the <span class="hlt">bead</span> velocity was modulated by the diffusion coefficient of the <span class="hlt">bead</span> or by the externally applied load. The formalism should be useful in modeling the mechanisms of chemimechanical coupling in kinesin motors based on in vitro motility data. PMID:10620295</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24705415','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24705415"><span>Echicetin coated polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span>: a novel tool to investigate GPIb-specific platelet activation and aggregation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Navdaev, Alexey; Subramanian, Hariharan; Petunin, Alexey; Clemetson, Kenneth J; Gambaryan, Stepan; Walter, Ulrich</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>von Willebrand factor/ristocetin (vWF/R) induces GPIb-dependent platelet agglutination and activation of αIIbβ3 integrin, which also binds vWF. These conditions make it difficult to investigate GPIb-specific signaling pathways in washed platelets. Here, we investigated the specific mechanisms of GPIb signaling using echicetin-coated polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span>, which specifically activate GPIb. We compared platelet activation induced by echicetin <span class="hlt">beads</span> to vWF/R. Human platelets were stimulated with polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span> coated with increasing amounts of echicetin and platelet activation by echicetin <span class="hlt">beads</span> was then investigated to reveal GPIb specific signaling. Echicetin <span class="hlt">beads</span> induced αIIbβ3-dependent aggregation of washed platelets, while under the same conditions vWF/R treatment led only to αIIbβ3-independent platelet agglutination. The average distance between the echicetin molecules on the polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span> must be less than 7 nm for full platelet activation, while the total amount of echicetin used for activation is not critical. Echicetin <span class="hlt">beads</span> induced strong phosphorylation of several proteins including p38, ERK and PKB. Synergistic signaling via P2Y12 and thromboxane receptor through secreted ADP and TxA2, respectively, were important for echicetin <span class="hlt">bead</span> triggered platelet activation. Activation of PKG by the NO/sGC/cGMP pathway inhibited echicetin <span class="hlt">bead</span>-induced platelet aggregation. Echicetin-coated <span class="hlt">beads</span> are powerful and reliable tools to study signaling in human platelets activated solely via GPIb and GPIb-triggered pathways.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27318817','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27318817"><span>Entrapment of cross-linked cellulase colloids in alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> for hydrolysis of cellulose.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nguyen, Le Truc; Lau, Yun Song; Yang, Kun-Lin</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Entrapment of enzymes in calcium alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> is a popular enzyme immobilization method. However, leaching of immobilized enzymes from the alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> is a common problem because enzyme molecules are much smaller than the pore size of alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> (∼200nm). To address this issue, we employ a millifluidic reactor to prepare cross-linked cellulase aggregate (XCA) colloids with a uniform size (∼300nm). Subsequently, these colloids are immobilized in calcium alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> as biocatalysts to hydrolyze cellulose substrates. By using fluorescent microscopy, we conclude that the immobilized XCA colloids distribute uniformly inside the <span class="hlt">beads</span> and do not leach out from the <span class="hlt">beads</span> after long-term incubation. Meanwhile, the pore size of the alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> is big enough for the cellulose substrates and fibers to diffuse into the <span class="hlt">beads</span> for hydrolysis. For example, palm oil fiber and microcrystalline cellulose can be hydrolyzed within 48h and release reducing sugar concentrations up to 2.48±0.08g/l and 4.99±0.09g/l, respectively. Moreover, after 10 cycles of hydrolysis, 96.4% of the XCA colloids remain inside the alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> and retain 67% of the original activity. In contrast, free cellulase immobilized in the alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> loses its activity completely after 10 cycles. The strategy can also be used to prepare other types of cross-linked enzyme aggregates with high uniformity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25817550','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25817550"><span>Dose-response curve of a microfluidic magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based surface coverage sandwich assay.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cornaglia, Matteo; Trouillon, Raphaël; Tekin, H Cumhur; Lehnert, Thomas; Gijs, Martin A M</p> <p>2015-09-25</p> <p>Magnetic micro- and nanoparticles ('magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>') have been used to advantage in many microfluidic devices for sensitive antigen (Ag) detection. Today, assays that use as read-out of the signal the number count of immobilized <span class="hlt">beads</span> on a surface for quantification of a sample's analyte concentration have been among the most sensitive and have allowed protein detection lower than the fgmL(-1) concentration range. Recently, we have proposed in this category a magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> surface coverage assay (Tekin et al., 2013 [1]), in which 'large' (2.8μm) antibody (Ab)-functionalized magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> captured their Ag from a serum and these Ag-carrying <span class="hlt">beads</span> were subsequently exposed to a surface pattern of fixed 'small' (1.0μm) Ab-coated magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>. When the system was exposed to a magnetic induction field, the magnet dipole attractive interactions between the two <span class="hlt">bead</span> types were used as a handle to approach both <span class="hlt">bead</span> surfaces and assist with Ag-Ab immunocomplex formation, while unspecific binding (in absence of an Ag) of a large <span class="hlt">bead</span> was reduced by exploiting viscous drag flow. The dose-response curve of this type of assay had two remarkable features: (i) its ability to detect an output signal (i.e. <span class="hlt">bead</span> number count) for very low Ag concentrations, and (ii) an output signal of the assay that was non-linear with respect to Ag concentration. We explain here the observed dose-response curves and show that the type of interactions and the concept of our assay are in favour of detecting the lowest analyte concentrations (where typically either zero or one Ag is carried per large <span class="hlt">bead</span>), while higher concentrations are less efficiently detected. We propose a random walk process for the Ag-carrying <span class="hlt">bead</span> over the magnetic landscape of small <span class="hlt">beads</span> and this model description explains the enhanced overall capture probability of this assay and its particular non-linear dose response curves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21505056','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21505056"><span>Preparation and photocatalytic activity of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} doped TiO{sub 2} from <span class="hlt">complex</span> precursor via <span class="hlt">gel</span>-hydrothermal treatment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Huang, Yan; Xie, Gang; Chen, Sanping; Gao, Shengli</p> <p>2011-03-15</p> <p>Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} doped TiO{sub 2} were prepared with the coordination compounds [M(S{sub 2}CNEt){sub 3}] (M=Sb, Bi; S{sub 2}CNEt=pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate) as precursors via <span class="hlt">gel</span>-hydrothermal techniques. The doped TiO{sub 2} were characterized by XRD, SEM, XPS and UV-vis diffuse reflectance means. The photocatalyst based on doped TiO{sub 2} for photodecolorization of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) was examined. The optimal Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} content, pH and different doped techniques have been investigated. Photocatalytic tests reveal that M{sub 2}S{sub 3} doped TiO{sub 2} via the <span class="hlt">gel</span>-hydrothermal route performs better photocatalytic activity for photodegradation reaction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). -- Graphical abstract: Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} doped TiO{sub 2} were prepared using [M(S{sub 2}COEt){sub 3}] (M=Sb, Bi; S{sub 2}COEt=pyrrdidine-1-dithiocarbamaate) as precursors via <span class="hlt">gel</span>-hydrothermal techniques. M{sub 2}S{sub 3} doped TiO{sub 2} performs better photocatalytic activity for photodegradation reaction of 4-nitrophenol. Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} The coordination compounds [M(S{sub 2}CNEt){sub 3}] (M=Sb, Bi; S{sub 2}CNEt=pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate) as precursors to prepare Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} doped TiO{sub 2}. {yields} The sol-hydrothermal, sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> and <span class="hlt">gel</span>-hydrothermal processes for photocatalysis fabrication were employed and compared. {yields} Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} doped TiO{sub 2} obtained via the <span class="hlt">gel</span>-hydrothermal process showed better performance for photodecolorization test of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23036278','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23036278"><span>Silver nanoparticle-alginate composite <span class="hlt">beads</span> for point-of-use drinking water disinfection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Shihong; Huang, Rixiang; Cheng, Yingwen; Liu, Jie; Lau, Boris L T; Wiesner, Mark R</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)-alginate composite <span class="hlt">beads</span> were synthesized using three different approaches as filler materials of packed columns for simultaneous filtration-disinfection as an alternative portable water treatment process. The prepared composite <span class="hlt">beads</span> were packed into a column through which Escherichia coli containing water was filtered to evaluate the disinfection efficacy. Excellent disinfection performance (no detectable viable colony) was achieved with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) as short as 1 min (the shortest tested) with the SGR (Simultaneous-Gelation-Reduction) and AR (Adsorption-Reduction) <span class="hlt">beads</span> that were prepared using in situ reduction of Ag(+). Comparatively, the SGR <span class="hlt">beads</span> released significantly less Ag(+)/AgNPs than the AR <span class="hlt">beads</span> did within the same HRT. From the results of this study it was identified that SGR may be the best choice among all three different synthesis approaches in that the SGR <span class="hlt">beads</span> can achieve satisfactory bactericidal performance with a relatively low material consumption rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27455729','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27455729"><span>A Microfluidic Microbeads Fluorescence Assay with Quantum Dots-<span class="hlt">Bead</span>-DNA Probe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ankireddy, S R; Kim, Jongsung</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>A microfluidic <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based nucleic acid sensor for the detection of tumor causing N-Ras genes using quantum dots has been developed. Presently, quantum dots-<span class="hlt">bead</span>-DNA probe based hybridization detection methods are often called as '<span class="hlt">bead</span> based assays' and their success is substantially influenced by the dispensing and manipulation capability of the microfluidic technology. This study reports the detection of N-Ras cancer gene by fluorescence quenching of quantum dots immobilized on the surface of polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span>. A microfluidic chip was constructed in which the quantum dots-<span class="hlt">bead</span>-DNA probes were packed in the channel. The target DNA flowed across the <span class="hlt">beads</span> and hybridized with immobilized probe sequences. The target DNA can be detected by the fluorescence quenching of the quantum dots due to their transfer of emission energy to intercalation dye after DNA hybridization. The mutated gene also induces fluorescence quenching but with less degree than the perfectly complementary target DNA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1013411','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1013411"><span>Polymerase chain reaction system using magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> for analyzing a sample that includes nucleic acid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Nasarabadi, Shanavaz [Livermore, CA</p> <p>2011-01-11</p> <p>A polymerase chain reaction system for analyzing a sample containing nucleic acid includes providing magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>; providing a flow channel having a polymerase chain reaction chamber, a pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber, and a post pre polymerase magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber. The nucleic acid is bound to the magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> with the nucleic acid flow to the pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position in the flow channel. The magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> and the nucleic acid are washed with ethanol. The nucleic acid in the polymerase chain reaction chamber is amplified. The magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> and the nucleic acid are separated into a waste stream containing the magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> and a post polymerase chain reaction mix containing the nucleic acid. The reaction mix containing the nucleic acid flows to an analysis unit in the channel for analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=146065','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=146065"><span>Regioselective immobilization of short oligonucleotides to acrylic copolymer <span class="hlt">gels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Timofeev, E; Kochetkova, S V; Mirzabekov, A D; Florentiev, V L</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Four types of polyacrylamide or polydimethyl-acrylamide <span class="hlt">gels</span> for regioselective (by immobilization at the 3' end) of short oligonucleotides have been designed for use in manufacturing oligonucleotide microchips. Two of these supports contain amino or aldehyde groups in the <span class="hlt">gel</span>, allowing coupling with oligonucleotides bearing aldehyde or amino groups, respectively, in the presence of a reducing agent. The aldehyde <span class="hlt">gel</span> support showed a higher immobilization efficiency relative to the amino <span class="hlt">gel</span>. Of all reducing agents tested, the best results were obtained with a pyridine-borane <span class="hlt">complex</span>. The other supports are based on an acrylamide <span class="hlt">gel</span> activated with glutaraldehyde or a hydroxyalkyl-functionalized <span class="hlt">gel</span> treated with mesyl chloride. The use of dimethylacrylamide instead of acrylamide allows subsequent <span class="hlt">gel</span> modifications in organic solvents. All the immobilization methods are easy and simple to perform, give high and reproducible yields, allow long durations of storage of the activated support, and provide high stability of attachment and low non-specific binding. Although these <span class="hlt">gel</span> supports have been developed for preparing oligonucleotide microchips, they may be used for other purposes as well. PMID:8774893</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21608624','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21608624"><span>Spontaneous Liver Rupture After Treatment With Drug-Eluting <span class="hlt">Beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ritter, C. O.; Wartenberg, M.; Mottok, A.; Steger, U.; Goltz, J. P.; Hahn, D.; Kickuth, R.</p> <p>2012-02-15</p> <p>Spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a rare and life-threatening complication. Pathophysiologic mechanisms are not yet fully known; it is suggested that rupture is preceded by reactive tissue edema and intratumerous bleeding, leading to a rapid expansion of tumour mass with risk of extrahepatic bleeding in the case of subcapsular localisation. This case report discusses a sudden, unexpected lethal complication in a 74 year-old male patient treated with TACE using DC <span class="hlt">Bead</span> loaded with doxorubicin (DEBDOX) in a progressive multifocal HCC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16018254','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16018254"><span>[Enrichment of giant panda microsatellite markers using dynal magnet <span class="hlt">beads</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shen, Fu-Jun; Watts, Phill; Zhang, Zhi-He; Zhang, An-Ju; Sanderson, Stephanie; Kemp, Steve J; Yue, Bi-Song</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>The 400 -600 bp DNA fractions of giant panda containing STR sequences were captured by hybridization with the oligonucleotide probes attached to streptavadin coated magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> (Dynal). The enriched DNA were ligated into pGEM-T and then transformed into E. coil JM109 competent cells. In total 260 positive clones were identified from 2 880 transformants in the libraries which were screened by gamma-32 P radiolabelled probes. Finally, we got 54 sequences and successfully designed 37 pairs of STR primers for giant panda. The results showed that this method is very efficient to isolate microsatellite markers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25722158','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25722158"><span>The effect of curdlan on the rheological properties of restructured ribbonfish (Trichiurus spp.) meat <span class="hlt">gel</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Chunhua; Yuan, Chunhong; Chen, Shiguo; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian; Hu, Yaqin</p> <p>2015-07-15</p> <p>The influence of curdlan at different levels, as well as the method of addition, on the viscoelastic characteristics of ribbonfish meat <span class="hlt">gel</span> was investigated. From a small amplitude oscillatory shear analysis (SAOA), a variety of viscoelastic parameters were established and identified to measure the intensity of the interactions between curdlan and protein in the fish meat <span class="hlt">gel</span> network structure. The results of water holding capacity, texture, sensory property and microstructure analyses were strongly in agreement with the rheology data, suggesting that SAOA might be an appropriate method for the industrial assessment of the quality of fish meat <span class="hlt">gel</span>. Additionally, the recombination mechanism of the <span class="hlt">complex</span> system formed by the fish protein and curdlan was also clarified. Compared with the irreversible curdlan <span class="hlt">gel</span> samples, the addition of reversible curdlan <span class="hlt">gel</span> to the fish meat <span class="hlt">gel</span> formed a much denser cross-linked interpenetrating structure, which led to a more stable and ordered three-dimensional <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">complex</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880007792','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880007792"><span>Nutrient requirements and other factors involved in the culture of human kidney cells on microcarrier <span class="hlt">beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lewis, Marian L.; Morrison, Dennis R.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The culture of human kidney cells on microcarrier <span class="hlt">beads</span> in the Bioprocessing Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center is described. These were the first series of studies performed before and during 1983 to determine optimum conditions, including medium type, <span class="hlt">bead</span> type and density. The composition of several medium types and the molecular weights of some common culture medium supplements and cellular proteins are included. The microgravity cell-to-<span class="hlt">bead</span> attachment experiment performed on Space Transportation System Flight 8 is described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27805450','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27805450"><span>Elution of platinum from carboplatin-impregnated calcium sulfate hemihydrate <span class="hlt">beads</span> in vitro.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tulipan, Rachel J; Phillips, Heidi; Garrett, Laura D; Dirikolu, Levent; Mitchell, Mark A</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVE To characterize the elution of platinum from carboplatin-impregnated calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) <span class="hlt">beads</span> in vitro. SAMPLE 60 carboplatin-impregnated CSH <span class="hlt">beads</span> and 9 CSH <span class="hlt">beads</span> without added carboplatin (controls). PROCEDURES Carboplatin-impregnated CSH <span class="hlt">beads</span> (each containing 4.6 mg of carboplatin [2.4 mg of platinum]) were placed into separate 10-mL plastic tubes containing 5 mL of PBSS in groups of 1, 3, 6, or 10; 3 control <span class="hlt">beads</span> were placed into a single tube of PBSS at the same volume. Experiments were conducted in triplicate at 37°C and a pH of 7.4 with constant agitation. Eluent samples were collected at 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 72 hours. Samples were analyzed for platinum content by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. RESULTS The mean concentration of platinum released per carboplatin-impregnated <span class="hlt">bead</span> over 72 hours was 445.3 mg/L. Cumulative concentrations of platinum eluted increased as the number of <span class="hlt">beads</span> per tube increased. There was a significant difference in platinum concentrations over time, with values increasing over the first 12 hours and then declining for all tubes. There was also a significant difference in percentage of total incorporated platinum released into tubes with different numbers of <span class="hlt">beads</span>: the percentage of eluted platinum was higher in tubes containing 1 or 3 <span class="hlt">beads</span> than in those containing 6 or 10 <span class="hlt">beads</span>. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Carboplatin-impregnated CSH <span class="hlt">beads</span> eluted platinum over 72 hours. Further studies are needed to determine whether implantation of carboplatin-impregnated CSH <span class="hlt">beads</span> results in detectable levels of platinum systemically and whether the platinum concentrations eluted locally are toxic to tumor cells.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21655331','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21655331"><span>Dynamic micro-Hall detection of superparamagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> in a microfluidic channel.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aledealat, K; Mihajlović, G; Chen, K; Field, M; Sullivan, G J; Xiong, P; Chase, P B; von Molnár, S</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>We report integration of an InAs quantum well micro-Hall magnetic sensor with microfluidics and real-time detection of moving superparamagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> moving within and around the Hall cross area result in positive and negative Hall voltage signals respectively. Relative magnitudes and polarities of the signals measured for a random distribution of immobilized <span class="hlt">beads</span> over the sensor are in good agreement with calculated values and explain consistently the shape of the dynamic signal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19309014','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19309014"><span>Centrifugal methods and devices for rapid in-<span class="hlt">gel</span> digestion of proteins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lazarev, Alexander V; Rejtar, Tomas; Dai, Shujia; Karger, Barry L</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>Modern proteomic research frequently relies upon separation of proteins in a polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix followed by in-<span class="hlt">gel</span> enzymatic digestion and extraction of peptides for subsequent analysis by MS. In this work, we propose a novel semi-automated method of mechanical processing of <span class="hlt">gel</span> bands by passing these bands through a specially designed centrifugal device termed a <span class="hlt">Gel</span> Shredder prior to digestion and extraction of peptides. Such a device allows integrated washing, destaining and shredding of <span class="hlt">gel</span> bands into uniform blocks of controlled size, approximately 150-300 microm, prior to the enzymatic digestion and extraction of peptides. Shredding into uniform blocks increases the surface area of the <span class="hlt">gel</span> pieces and promotes improved <span class="hlt">gel</span> rehydration, allowing improved diffusion of the proteolytic enzymes and solvent into the <span class="hlt">gel</span> lattice. We demonstrate that the new method substantially reduces the time spent on tedious manual handling of <span class="hlt">gel</span> bands, while minimizing the risk of sample contamination. The performance of the <span class="hlt">Gel</span> Shredder has been compared with a conventional in-<span class="hlt">gel</span> digestion protocol using several standard proteins and a <span class="hlt">complex</span> proteomic sample in terms of relative quantitation by either MALDI-TOF/TOF or nanoLC-ESI IT-Fourier transformation ion cyclotron resonance MS. It is shown that significant time savings and improved peptide recovery can be obtained for many proteins using the <span class="hlt">Gel</span> Shredder compared with the traditional in-<span class="hlt">gel</span> digestion protocol.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25312603','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25312603"><span>Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum-alginate blend mucoadhesive <span class="hlt">beads</span> for controlled glibenclamide release.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sinha, Priyanka; Ubaidulla, U; Nayak, Amit Kumar</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The utility of isolated okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum (OG) was evaluated as a potential sustained drug release polymer-blends with sodium alginate in the development of controlled glibenclamide release ionically-gelled <span class="hlt">beads</span> for oral use. OG was isolated from okra fruits and its solubility, pH, viscosity and moisture content were studied. Glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend <span class="hlt">beads</span> were prepared using CaCl2 as cross-linking agent through ionic-gelation technique. These ionically gelled <span class="hlt">beads</span> showed drug entrapment efficiency of 64.19 ± 2.02 to 91.86 ± 3.24%. The <span class="hlt">bead</span> sizes were within 1.12 ± 0.11 to 1.28 ± 0.15 mm. These glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend <span class="hlt">beads</span> exhibited sustained in vitro drug release over a prolonged period of 8 h. The in vitro drug release from these OG-alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> were followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling and degradation of these <span class="hlt">beads</span> was influenced by the pH of the test medium. These <span class="hlt">beads</span> also exhibited good mucoadhesivity with goat intestinal mucosa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11077403','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11077403"><span>Preparation and characterization of chitin <span class="hlt">beads</span> as a wound dressing precursor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yusof, N L; Lim, L Y; Khor, E</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Chitin was dissolved in N, N-dimethylacetamide/5% lithium chloride (DMAc/5%LiCl) to form a 0.5% chitin solution. Chitin <span class="hlt">beads</span> were formed by dropping the 0.5% chitin solution into a nonsolvent coagulant, ethanol. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> were left in ethanol for 24 h to permit hardening, consolidation, and removal of residual DMAc/5%LiCl solvent in order to give spherical chitin <span class="hlt">beads</span> uniform size distribution. The ethanol-gelled chitin <span class="hlt">beads</span> had an average diameter of 535 microm. The chitin <span class="hlt">beads</span> were subsequently activated in 50% (w/v) NaOH solution and reacted with 1.9 M monochloroacetic acid/2-propanol solution to introduce a carboxymethylated surface layer to the chitin <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The bilayer character of the surface-carboxymethylated chitin (SCM-chitin) <span class="hlt">beads</span> was verified by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and confocal microscopy. The bilayered SCM-chitin <span class="hlt">beads</span> were found to absorb up to 95 times their dry weight of water. These SCM-chitin <span class="hlt">beads</span> have potential as a component of wound dressings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21216192','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21216192"><span>Comparison of alginate and pectin based <span class="hlt">beads</span> for production of poultry probiotic cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Voo, Wan-Ping; Ravindra, Pogaku; Tey, Beng-Ti; Chan, Eng-Seng</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>A comparative study on the stability and potential of alginate and pectin based <span class="hlt">beads</span> for production of poultry probiotic cells using MRS medium in repeated batch fermentation was conducted. The <span class="hlt">bead</span> cores, made of three types of materials, i.e., ca-alginate, ca-pectinate and ca-alginate/pectinate, were compared. The effect of single and double layer coatings using chitosan and core material, respectively, on the <span class="hlt">bead</span> stability and cell production were also studied. The pectin based <span class="hlt">beads</span> were found to be more stable than that of the alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> and their stability was further improved by coating with chitosan. The cell concentration in pectin based <span class="hlt">beads</span> was comparable to that in the alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>. On the other hand, pectin based <span class="hlt">beads</span> gave significantly lower cell concentration in the growth medium for the initial fermentation cycles when compared to the alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>. In conclusion, pectin was found to be potential encapsulation material for probiotic cell production owing to its stability and favourable microenvironment for cell growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20152396','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20152396"><span>A new and facile method for measurement of apparent density of monodisperse polymer <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Qi; Srinivasan, Balasubramanian; Li, Yuanpeng; Jing, Ying; Xing, Chengguo; Chang, Jin; Wang, Jian-Ping</p> <p>2010-03-15</p> <p>The apparent density, an intrinsic physical property of polymer <span class="hlt">beads</span>, plays an important role in the application of <span class="hlt">beads</span> in micro-total analysis systems and separation. Here we have developed a new, facile and milligram-scale method to describe the motion of <span class="hlt">beads</span> in aqueous solution and further detect the apparent density of <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The motion of <span class="hlt">beads</span> in solutions is determined by the viscosity of solutions and the density difference between <span class="hlt">beads</span> and solutions. In this study, using various glycerol aqueous solutions with certain viscosities and densities, the motion time (i.e. floating or sedimentation time) of hybrid polymer <span class="hlt">beads</span> was experimentally measured and theoretically deduced, and consequently, the apparent density of monodisperse <span class="hlt">beads</span> can be quickly and easily calculated. The results indicated that the present method provided a more precise way to predict the movement of hybrid <span class="hlt">beads</span> in aqueous solution compared with the approach for commercial use. This new method can be potentially employed in flow cytometry, suspension stability, and particle analysis systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1040092','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1040092"><span>Magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> counter using a micro-Hall sensor for biological applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, W.; Kim, K.; Joo, S.; Kim, S.U.; Rhie, K.; Hong, J.; Shin, K-H.; and Kim, K.H.</p> <p>2009-04-13</p> <p>Micro-Hall sensors have been fabricated, and various numbers of micron-size magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> have been placed within the sensor area. The Hall resistances measured at room temperature are found to be proportional to the number of the <span class="hlt">beads</span>, and are in good agreement with the numerically simulated results presented in this study. Our sensors are designed to measure the number of <span class="hlt">beads</span> between zero and full-scale signals for a given number range of interest. The effects of miniaturizing the <span class="hlt">beads</span> and sensors to nanoscale are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EPSC....8...40K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EPSC....8...40K"><span>Regular structures of the lunar Orientale Basin: ring spacing and <span class="hlt">beads</span>-like collars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kochemasov, G. G.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>The NASA's GRAIL mission produced unprecedented detailed gravity maps of the lunar subsurface as its measurements (from very low orbits - 55 -23 kilometers) included some depths of the satellite (down to the core?). However, one might say that these maps have repeated in some aspects the principal gravity pattern acquired earlier by Clementine [1] and Kaguya missions (Fig. 3), which shows the surface densely "peppered" by evensized "craters" about 100 km in diameter. The wave planetology admits that many of them are of an impact origin but a bulk is due to an intersection of standing waves produced by the two elliptical orbit of the body (Fig. 2). The lunar community should realize that one of bases of the Moon's geology - crater size -frequency curve is of a <span class="hlt">complex</span> nature. Impacts surely contribute to this curve but a significant part of it is due to ring structures of non-impact origin. Ring structures can be produced by an interference of standing inertiagravity waves of four directions (ortho- and diagonal) warping any rotating celestial body moving in an elliptical orbit (Fig. 2) [2]. Many ring structures observed on solid and gaseous planetary spheres are of such profound nature. They form regular grids of shoulder-to-shoulder even ring structures (Fig. 1-3). Their sizes depend on orbiting frequencies: the higher frequency- the smaller "rings", and vice versa. Satellites having two orbiting frequencies in the Solar system are particularly "peppered" with rings as a low frequency modulates a high one producing along with the main ring populations the side populations [3]. Recent MOONKAM lunar images (GRAIL mission) at the first time show so clearly intersecting planetary scale lineations (imprint of standing waves) producing chains and grids of ring features (Fig. 5-6; a theoretical model-Fig. 2). This wave woven pattern with spacing and <span class="hlt">beads</span> has to be compared with a real gravity pattern of Fig. 1. Multi-ring spacing with the factor of √ 2 and collars</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24238738','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24238738"><span>Adsorption of selenite and selenate by nanocrystalline aluminum oxide, neat and impregnated in chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yamani, Jamila S; Lounsbury, Amanda W; Zimmerman, Julie B</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Nanocrystalline metal oxide impregnated chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> (MICB) were successfully developed with nanocrystalline aluminum oxide (n-Al2O3) to form n-Al2O3 impregnated chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> (AICB). AICB were able to simultaneously adsorb inorganic aqueous selenite and selenate more effectively than n-Al2O3 or chitosan alone. For completeness, adsorption performance was also compared to n-TiO2, a widely studied adsorbent for selenium, and n-TiO2 impregnated chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> (TICB). For the selenite system, n-Al2O3 was the primary active adsorbent responsible for removal as chitosan has a low affinity for selenite. For selenate, however, chitosan was the primary active adsorbent. The association constants for the adsorbent/adsorbate <span class="hlt">complexes</span> and the relative amounts in which they are present supported this hypothesis. The association constants for selenate binding on n-Al2O3 and chitosan were 1.215 × 10(-2) and 3.048 × 10(-3), respectively, and the association constants for selenite binding on n-Al2O3 and chitosan were 1.349 × 10(-2) and 1.990 × 10(-4), respectively. For systems with coexisting selenite and selenate, AICB is potentially the most robust option as it maintained the most consistent performance regardless of fractionation of the selenium species. Kinetic studies and equilibrium isotherms were completed and effectively modeled using pseudo-second order kinetics and Langmuir adsorption theory, making it the first comprehensive systematic study of neat n-Al2O3 and AICB for selenium adsorption. pH significantly impacted adsorption due to changes in the adsorbent surface charge; increasing pH corresponded with decreasing adsorbent performance, beginning at approximately pH 6.5-7 for AICB. The trend in performance due to the effect of pH indicated that selenate binds to the amine group in chitosan, as suggested by other studies. In addition, increasing background sulfate concentration was found to negatively impact adsorption efficacy for both selenite, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4990244','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4990244"><span>An Enduring Shell Artefact Tradition from Timor-Leste: Oliva <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Production from the Pleistocene to Late Holocene at Jerimalai, Lene Hara, and Matja Kuru 1 and 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>O‘Connor, Sue</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we describe 485 Oliva spp. shell <span class="hlt">beads</span> recovered from four archaeological cave sites Jerimalai, Lene Hara, Matja Kuru 1, and Matja Kuru 2, located in Timor-Leste, Island Southeast Asia. While Pleistocene-aged examples of modified marine shells used for personal ornamentation are common in African and Eurasian assemblages, they are exceedingly rare in Southeast Asia, leading some researchers to suggest that these Modern Human societies were less <span class="hlt">complex</span> than those found further west. In Timor-Leste, the lowest Oliva <span class="hlt">bead</span> to be recovered was directly dated to ca. 37,000 cal. BP, making it the oldest piece of personal ornamentation in Southeast Asia. Morphometric, taphonomic, use wear, and residue analyses of these <span class="hlt">beads</span> alongside modern reference specimens, and experimentally made examples indicate that the Oliva shells were modified to be strung consecutively (as in a necklace), and while their mode of production changed remarkably little over the thousands of years they were utilised, an increase in their deposition around 6,000 cal. BP suggests that there was a change in their use coinciding with sea-level stabilisation. These tiny <span class="hlt">beads</span> demonstrate that early Island Southeast Asian societies produced the same kinds of symbolic material culture we have come to expect from the more intensively studied African/Eurasian region, and that limited sampling and poor recovery methods have biased our perspectives of this region. PMID:27537696</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26930538','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26930538"><span>Introduction of double amidoxime group by double post surface modification on poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) <span class="hlt">beads</span> for higher amounts of organic dyes, As (V) and Cr (VI) removal.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ajmal, Muhammad; Demirci, Sahin; Uzun, Yusuf; Siddiq, Mohammad; Aktas, Nahit; Sahiner, Nurettin</p> <p>2016-05-15</p> <p>In this study, the synthesis of micron-sized poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) (p(VBC)) <span class="hlt">beads</span> and subsequent conversion of the reactive chloromethyl groups to double amidoxime group containing moieties by post modification is reported. The prepared <span class="hlt">beads</span> were characterized by SEM and FT-IR spectroscopy. The amidoximated p(VBC) <span class="hlt">beads</span> were used as adsorbent for the removal of organic dyes, such as eosin y (EY) and methyl orange (MO), and heavy metals containing <span class="hlt">complex</span> ions such as dichromate (Cr2O7(2-)) and arsenate (HAsO4(2)(-)) from aqueous media. The effect of the adsorbent dose on the percent removal, the effect of initial concentration of adsorbates on the adsorption rate and their amounts were also investigated. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption isotherms were applied to the adsorption processes. The results indicated that the adsorption of both dichromate and arsenate ions obeyed the Langmuir adsorption model. Interestingly, it was found that the prepared <span class="hlt">beads</span> were capable of removing significant amounts of arsenate and dichromate ions from tap and river (Sarıcay, Canakkale-Turkey) water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21565564','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21565564"><span>Online magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> based dynamic protein affinity selection coupled to LC-MS for the screening of acetylcholine binding protein ligands.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pochet, Lionel; Heus, Ferry; Jonker, Niels; Lingeman, Henk; Smit, August B; Niessen, Wilfried M A; Kool, Jeroen</p> <p>2011-06-15</p> <p>A magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> based affinity-selection methodology towards the screening of acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) binders in mixtures and pure compound libraries was developed. The methodology works as follows: after in solution incubation of His-tagged AChBP with potential ligands, and subsequent addition of cobalt (II)-coated paramagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>, the formed <span class="hlt">bead</span>-AChBP-ligand <span class="hlt">complexes</span> are fetched out of solution by injection and trapping in LC tubing with an external adjustable magnet. Non binders are then washed to the waste followed by elution of ligands to a SPE cartridge by flushing with denaturing solution. Finally, SPE-LC-MS analysis is performed to identify the ligands. The advantage of the current methodology is the in solution incubation followed by immobilized AChBP ligand trapping and the capability of using the magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> system as mobile/online transportable affinity SPE material. The system was optimized and then successfully demonstrated for the identification of AChBP ligands injected as pure compounds and for the fishing of ligands in mixtures. The results obtained with AChBP as target protein demonstrated reliable discrimination between binders with pK(i) values ranging from at least 6.26 to 8.46 and non-binders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27537696','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27537696"><span>An Enduring Shell Artefact Tradition from Timor-Leste: Oliva <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Production from the Pleistocene to Late Holocene at Jerimalai, Lene Hara, and Matja Kuru 1 and 2.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Langley, Michelle C; O'Connor, Sue</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we describe 485 Oliva spp. shell <span class="hlt">beads</span> recovered from four archaeological cave sites Jerimalai, Lene Hara, Matja Kuru 1, and Matja Kuru 2, located in Timor-Leste, Island Southeast Asia. While Pleistocene-aged examples of modified marine shells used for personal ornamentation are common in African and Eurasian assemblages, they are exceedingly rare in Southeast Asia, leading some researchers to suggest that these Modern Human societies were less <span class="hlt">complex</span> than those found further west. In Timor-Leste, the lowest Oliva <span class="hlt">bead</span> to be recovered was directly dated to ca. 37,000 cal. BP, making it the oldest piece of personal ornamentation in Southeast Asia. Morphometric, taphonomic, use wear, and residue analyses of these <span class="hlt">beads</span> alongside modern reference specimens, and experimentally made examples indicate that the Oliva shells were modified to be strung consecutively (as in a necklace), and while their mode of production changed remarkably little over the thousands of years they were utilised, an increase in their deposition around 6,000 cal. BP suggests that there was a change in their use coinciding with sea-level stabilisation. These tiny <span class="hlt">beads</span> demonstrate that early Island Southeast Asian societies produced the same kinds of symbolic material culture we have come to expect from the more intensively studied African/Eurasian region, and that limited sampling and poor recovery methods have biased our perspectives of this region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25149001','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25149001"><span>Improving the controlled delivery formulations of caffeine in alginate hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> combined with pectin, carrageenan, chitosan and psyllium.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Komes, Draženka; Karlović, Sven; Djaković, Senka; Spoljarić, Igor; Mršić, Gordan; Ježek, Damir</p> <p>2015-01-15</p> <p>Alginate-based blends consisting of carrageenan, pectin, chitosan or psyllium husk powder were prepared for assessment of the best formulation aimed at encapsulation of caffeine. Alginate-pectin blend exhibited the lowest viscosity and provided the smallest <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Alginate-psyllium husk blend was characterised with higher viscosity, yielding the largest <span class="hlt">bead</span> size and the highest caffeine encapsulation efficiency (83.6%). The release kinetics of caffeine indicated that the porosity of alginate hydrogel was not reduced sufficiently to retard the diffusion of caffeine from the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Chitosan coated alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> provided the most retarded release of caffeine in water. Morphological characteristics of <span class="hlt">beads</span> encapsulating caffeine were adversely affected by freeze drying. Bitterness intensity of caffeine-containing <span class="hlt">beads</span> in water was the lowest for alginate-psyllium <span class="hlt">beads</span> and chitosan coated alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Higher sodium alginate concentration (3%) for production of hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> in combination with psyllium or chitosan coating would present the most favourable carrier systems for immobilization of caffeine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26033737','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26033737"><span>Label-free <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based metallothionein electrochemical immunosensor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nejdl, Lukas; Nguyen, Hoai Viet; Richtera, Lukas; Krizkova, Sona; Guran, Roman; Masarik, Michal; Hynek, David; Heger, Zbynek; Lundberg, Karin; Erikson, Kristofer; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>A novel microfluidic label-free <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based metallothionein immunosensors was designed. To the surface of superparamagnetic agarose <span class="hlt">beads</span> coated with protein A, polyclonal chicken IgY specifically recognizing metallothionein (MT) were immobilized via rabbit IgG. The Brdicka reaction was used for metallothionein detection in a microfluidic printed 3D chip. The assembled chip consisted of a single copper wire coated with a thin layer of amalgam as working electrode. Optimization of MT detection using designed microfluidic chip was performed in stationary system as well as in the flow arrangement at various flow rates (0-1800 μL/min). In stationary arrangement it is possible to detect MT concentrations up to 30 ng/mL level, flow arrangement allows reliable detection of even lower concentration (12.5 ng/mL). The assembled miniature flow chip was subsequently tested for the detection of MT elevated levels (at approx. level 100 μg/mL) in samples of patients with cancer. The stability of constructed device for metallothionein detection in flow arrangement was found to be several days without any maintenance needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EJPh...38a5005R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EJPh...38a5005R"><span>The <span class="hlt">bead</span> on a rotating hoop revisited: an unexpected resonance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Raviola, Lisandro A.; Véliz, Maximiliano E.; Salomone, Horacio D.; Olivieri, Néstor A.; Rodríguez, Eduardo E.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">bead</span> on a rotating hoop is a typical problem in mechanics, frequently posed to junior science and engineering students in basic physics courses. Although this system has a rich dynamics, it is usually not analysed beyond the point particle approximation in undergraduate textbooks, nor empirically investigated. Advanced textbooks show the existence of bifurcations owing to the system's nonlinear nature, and some papers demonstrate, from a theoretical standpoint, its points of contact with phase transition phenomena. However, scarce experimental research has been conducted to better understand its behaviour. We show in this paper that a minor modification to the problem leads to appealing consequences that can be studied both theoretically and empirically with the basic conceptual tools and experimental skills available to junior students. In particular, we go beyond the point particle approximation by treating the <span class="hlt">bead</span> as a rigid spherical body, and explore the effect of a slightly non-vertical hoop's rotation axis that gives rise to a resonant behaviour not considered in previous works. This study can be accomplished by means of digital video and open source software. The experience can motivate an engaging laboratory project by integrating standard curriculum topics, data analysis and experimental exploration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhD...49ULT02K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhD...49ULT02K"><span>Triboelectric generator based on a moving charged <span class="hlt">bead</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Jihoon; Chae, Soo Sang; Han, Sun Woong; Lee, Keun Ho; Ki, Tae Hoon; Oh, Jin Young; Lee, Ji Hoon; Kim, Won Shik; Jang, Woo Soon; Baik, Hong Koo</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>An energy harvesting system using a triboelectric generator (TEG), which converts a small amount of mechanical energy to available electrical energy, has recently been developed by combining a simple one-directional mechanical force (contact and separation or sliding back and forth) with a 2D device materials. However, with regard to using the TEG in real world applications, there is no TEG design suitable for utilizing a variety of mechanical forces and for generating triboelectric charge in various environmental conditions, especially under high relative humidity. In this work, we introduce a design for a humidity-independent triboelectric generator (HITEG) that can generate triboelectric charges with a granular system by simple rotating or shaking under high relative humidity conditions. The HITEG can generate an open-circuit voltage of 81.63 V and a short-circuit current of 213.9 nA using 80 polytetrafluoroethylene <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: More detailed information for analytic calculation via COMSOL about available charge distance between the PTFE <span class="hlt">bead</span> and Cu electrode, illustration of the speed-dependence contact area, and time dependent long-term stability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23198137','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23198137"><span>Simulation of enzyme catalysis in calcium alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Al-Mayah, Ameel M R</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A general mathematical model for a fixed bed immobilized enzyme reactor was developed to simulate the process of diffusion and reaction inside the biocatalyst particle. The modeling and simulation of starch hydrolysis using immobilized α-amylase were used as a model for this study. Corn starch hydrolysis was carried out at a constant pH of 5.5 and temperature of 50°C. The substrate flow rate was ranging from 0.2 to 5.0 mL/min, substrate initial concentrations 1 to 100 g/L. α-amylase was immobilized on to calcium alginate hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> of 2 mm average diameter. In this work Michaelis-Menten kinetics have been considered. The effect of substrate flow rate (i.e., residence time) and initial concentration on intraparticle diffusion have been taken into consideration. The performance of the system is found to be affected by the substrate flow rate and initial concentrations. The reaction is controlled by the reaction rate. The model equation was a nonlinear second order differential equation simulated based on the experimental data for steady state condition. The simulation was achieved numerically using FINITE ELEMENTS in MATLAB software package. The simulated results give satisfactory results for substrate and product concentration profiles within the biocatalyst <span class="hlt">bead</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ApPhA..83..547V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ApPhA..83..547V"><span>Copper blue in an ancient glass <span class="hlt">bead</span>: a XANES study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Veiga, J. P.; Figueiredo, M. O.</p> <p>2006-06-01</p> <p>The blue colour in ancient soda-lime glasses has been attributed to the presence of copper and/or cobalt but the origin of different shades is not yet fully interpreted. As a contribution to this question, a non-destructive X-ray absorption study at [ Cu]K-edge was undertaken on the blue (turquoise) layer from a “Nueva Cadiz” type tubular glass <span class="hlt">bead</span> dated pre-XVII century where copper is the unique colouring agent. Minerals configuring two distinct blue tonalities due to Cu (2+) in similar square coordination were selected as basic model compounds: azurite, which is a classical navy-blue pigment used in ancient wall paintings over plaster, and chalcanthite, displaying exactly the same turquoise-blue tonality of tubular glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> manufactured since the Egyptian Antiquity. Theoretical modelling of the XAFS spectra was undertaken using the FEFF code. The IFEFFIT software package was used for fitting the calculated spectra to experimental data. EXAFS results are discussed in view of the crystal structures of copper minerals chosen to model the speciation state and structural situation of that element prevailing in the turquoise-blue archaeological glass. Special attention is focused on the difficulties in theoretical modelling [ Cu]K-XANES spectra of ancient glasses with different colourings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26852198','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26852198"><span><span class="hlt">Bead</span>-based microarray immunoassay for lung cancer biomarkers using quantum dots as labels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Lifen; Wu, Simin; Jing, Fengxiang; Zhou, Hongbo; Jia, Chunping; Li, Gang; Cong, Hui; Jin, Qinghui; Zhao, Jianlong</p> <p>2016-06-15</p> <p>In this study, we developed a multiplex immunoassay system that combines the suspension and planar microarray formats within a single layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using soft lithography technology. The suspension format was based on the target proteins forming a sandwich structure between the magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> and the quantum dot (QD) probes through specific antibody-antigen interactions. The planar microarray format was produced by fabricating an array of micro-wells in PDMS. Each micro-well was designed to trap a single microbead and eventually generated a microbead array within the PDMS chamber. The resultant <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based on-chip assay could be used for simultaneously detecting three lung cancer biomarkers-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), fragments of cytokeratin 19 (CYFRA21-1) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE)-in 10 μl of human serum, with a wide linear dynamic range (1.03-111 ng/mL for CEA and CYFRA21-1; 9.26-1000 ng/ml for NSE) and a low detection limit (CEA: 0.19 ng/ml; CYFRA21-1: 0.97 ng/ml; NSE: 0.37 ng/ml; S/N=3). Our micro-well chip does not require <span class="hlt">complex</span> e-beam lithography or the reactive ion etching process as with existing micro-well systems, which rely on expensive focused ion beam (FIB) milling or optical fiber bundles. Furthermore, the current approach is easy to operate without extra driving equipment such as pumps, and can make parallel detection for multiplexing with rapid binding kinetics, small reagent consumption and low cost. This work has demonstrated the importance of the successful application of on-chip multiplexing sandwich assays for the detection of biomarker proteins.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatSR...3E1833H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatSR...3E1833H"><span>Polyoxometalate-based Supramolecular <span class="hlt">Gel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>He, Peilei; Xu, Biao; Liu, Huiling; He, Su; Saleem, Faisal; Wang, Xun</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Self-assemblyings of surfactant-encapsulated Wells-Dawson polyoxometalates (SEPs) nanobuilding blocks in butanone and esters yielded supramolecular <span class="hlt">gels</span> showing thermo and photo responsive properties. The <span class="hlt">gels</span> can be further polymerized if unsaturated esters were used and subsequently electrospinned into nanowires and non-woven mats. The as-prepared non-woven mats have a Young's modulus as high as 542.55 MPa. It is believed that this supramolecular <span class="hlt">gel</span> is a good platform for polyoxometalates processing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/868946','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/868946"><span>Electrically controlled polymeric <span class="hlt">gel</span> actuators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Adolf, Douglas B.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Segalman, Daniel J.; Witkowski, Walter R.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Electrically controlled polymeric <span class="hlt">gel</span> actuators or synthetic muscles capable of undergoing substantial expansion and contraction when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. The actuators employ compliant containers for the <span class="hlt">gels</span> and their solvents. The <span class="hlt">gels</span> employed may be cylindrical electromechanical <span class="hlt">gel</span> fibers such as polyacrylamide fibers or a mixture of poly vinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid arranged in a parallel aggregate and contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as salt water. The invention includes smart, electrically activated devices exploiting this phenomenon. These devices are capable of being manipulated via active computer control as large displacement actuators for use in adaptive structure such as robots.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5436390','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5436390"><span>Electrically controlled polymeric <span class="hlt">gel</span> actuators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Adolf, D.B.; Shahinpoor, M.; Segalman, D.J.; Witkowski, W.R.</p> <p>1993-10-05</p> <p>Electrically controlled polymeric <span class="hlt">gel</span> actuators or synthetic muscles are described capable of undergoing substantial expansion and contraction when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. The actuators employ compliant containers for the <span class="hlt">gels</span> and their solvents. The <span class="hlt">gels</span> employed may be cylindrical electromechanical <span class="hlt">gel</span> fibers such as polyacrylamide fibers or a mixture of poly vinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid arranged in a parallel aggregate and contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as salt water. The invention includes smart, electrically activated devices exploiting this phenomenon. These devices are capable of being manipulated via active computer control as large displacement actuators for use in adaptive structure such as robots. 11 figures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1164002','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1164002"><span><span class="hlt">Gel</span> polymer electrolytes for batteries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William</p> <p>2014-11-18</p> <p>Nanostructured <span class="hlt">gel</span> polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive <span class="hlt">gel</span> polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a <span class="hlt">gel</span>. An exemplary nanostructured <span class="hlt">gel</span> polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9884E..2PI','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9884E..2PI"><span>Autocorrelation and relaxation time measurements on metal oxide core: dielectric shell <span class="hlt">beads</span> in an optical trap</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iyengar, Shruthi S.; Parthasarathi, Praveen; Selvan, Rekha; Bhattacharya, Sarbari; Ananthamurthy, Sharath</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Optical Tweezers are capable of trapping individual particles of sizes that range from micrometers to sub micrometers. One can compute the trap strength experienced by a particle by analyzing the fluctuations in the position of the trapped particle with time. It is reported that the trap strength of a dielectric <span class="hlt">bead</span> increases linearly with increase in the power of the trapping laser. The situation with metallic particles, however, is strongly dependent on the particle size. Available literature shows that metallic Rayleigh particles experience enhanced trap strengths when compared to dielectric particles of similar sizes due to a larger polarizability. On the contrary, micrometer sized metallic particles are poor candidates for trapping due to high reflectivity. We report here that commercially available micrometer sized metal oxide core - dielectric shell (core - shell) <span class="hlt">beads</span> are trapped in a single beam optical tweezer in a manner similar to dielectric <span class="hlt">beads</span>. However as the laser power is increased these core - shell <span class="hlt">beads</span> are trapped with a reduced corner frequency, which represents a lowered trap strength, in contrast to the situation with ordinary dielectric <span class="hlt">beads</span>. We attribute this anomaly to an increase in the temperature of the medium in the vicinity of the core - shell <span class="hlt">bead</span> due to an enhanced dissipation of the laser power as heat. We have computed autocorrelation functions for both types of <span class="hlt">beads</span> at various trapping laser powers and observe that the variation in the relaxation times with laser power for core - shell <span class="hlt">beads</span> is opposite in trend to that of ordinary dielectric <span class="hlt">beads</span>. This supports our claim of an enhanced medium temperature about the trapped core - shell <span class="hlt">bead</span>. Since an increase in temperature should lead to a change in the local viscosity of the medium, we have estimated the ratio of viscosity to temperature for core - shell and dielectric <span class="hlt">beads</span> of the same size. We observe that while for ordinary dielectric <span class="hlt">beads</span> this ratio remains a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4679352','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4679352"><span>A Novel Inherently Radiopaque <span class="hlt">Bead</span> for Transarterial Embolization to Treat Liver Cancer - A Pre-clinical Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Duran, Rafael; Sharma, Karun; Dreher, Matthew R.; Ashrafi, Koorosh; Mirpour, Sahar; Lin, MingDe; Schernthaner, Ruediger E.; Schlachter, Todd R.; Tacher, Vania; Lewis, Andrew L.; Willis, Sean; den Hartog, Mark; Radaelli, Alessandro; Negussie, Ayele H.; Wood, Bradford J.; Geschwind, Jean-François H.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: Embolotherapy using microshperes is currently performed with soluble contrast to aid in visualization. However, administered payload visibility dimishes soon after delivery due to soluble contrast washout, leaving the radiolucent <span class="hlt">bead</span>'s location unknown. The objective of our study was to characterize inherently radiopaque <span class="hlt">beads</span> (RO <span class="hlt">Beads</span>) in terms of physicomechanical properties, deliverability and imaging visibility in a rabbit VX2 liver tumor model. Materials and Methods: RO <span class="hlt">Beads</span>, which are based on LC <span class="hlt">Bead</span>® platform, were compared to LC <span class="hlt">Bead</span>. <span class="hlt">Bead</span> size (light microscopy), equilibrium water content (EWC), density, X-ray attenuation and iodine distribution (micro-CT), suspension (settling times), deliverability and in vitro penetration were investigated. Fifteen rabbits were embolized with either LC <span class="hlt">Bead</span> or RO <span class="hlt">Beads</span> + soluble contrast (iodixanol-320), or RO <span class="hlt">Beads</span>+dextrose. Appearance was evaluated with fluoroscopy, X-ray single shot, cone-beam CT (CBCT). Results: Both <span class="hlt">bead</span> types had a similar size distribution. RO <span class="hlt">Beads</span> had lower EWC (60-72%) and higher density (1.21-1.36 g/cc) with a homogeneous iodine distribution within the <span class="hlt">bead</span>'s interior. RO <span class="hlt">Beads</span> suspension time was shorter than LC <span class="hlt">Bead</span>, with durable suspension (>5 min) in 100% iodixanol. RO <span class="hlt">Beads</span> ≤300 µm were deliverable through a 2.3-Fr microcatheter. Both <span class="hlt">bead</span> types showed similar penetration. Soluble contrast could identify target and non-target embolization on fluoroscopy during administration. However, the imaging appearance vanished quickly for LC <span class="hlt">Bead</span> as contrast washed-out. RO <span class="hlt">Beads</span>+contrast significantly increased visibility on X-ray single shot compared to LC <span class="hlt">Bead</span>+contrast in target and non-target arteries (P=0.0043). Similarly, RO <span class="hlt">beads</span> demonstrated better visibility on CBCT in target arteries (P=0.0238) with a trend in non-target arteries (P=0.0519). RO <span class="hlt">Beads</span>+dextrose were not sufficiently visible to monitor embolization using fluoroscopy. Conclusion: RO <span class="hlt">Beads</span> provide better</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23334057','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23334057"><span>Development of electrospun <span class="hlt">beaded</span> fibers from Thai silk fibroin and gelatin for controlled release application.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Somvipart, Siraporn; Kanokpanont, Sorada; Rangkupan, Rattapol; Ratanavaraporn, Juthamas; Damrongsakkul, Siriporn</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Thai silk fibroin and gelatin are attractive biomaterials for tissue engineering and controlled release applications due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and bioactive properties. The development of electrospun fiber mats from silk fibroin and gelatin were reported previously. However, burst drug release from such fiber mats remained the problem. In this study, the formation of <span class="hlt">beads</span> on the fibers aiming to be used for the sustained release of drug was of our interest. The <span class="hlt">beaded</span> fiber mats were fabricated using electrospinning technique by controlling the solution concentration, weight blending ratio of Thai silk fibroin/gelatin blend, and applied voltage. It was found that the optimal conditions including the solution concentration and the weight blending ratio of Thai silk fibroin/gelatin at 8-10% (w/v) and 70/30, respectively, with the applied voltage at 18 kV provided the fibers with homogeneous formation of <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Then, the <span class="hlt">beaded</span> fiber mats obtained were crosslinked by the reaction of carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). Methylene blue as a model active compound was loaded on the fiber mats. The release test of methylene blue from the <span class="hlt">beaded</span> fiber mats was carried out in comparison to that of the smooth fiber mats without <span class="hlt">beads</span>. It was found that the <span class="hlt">beaded</span> fiber mats could prolong the release of methylene blue, comparing to the smooth fiber mats without <span class="hlt">beads</span>. This was possibly due to the <span class="hlt">beaded</span> fiber mats that would absorb and retain higher amount of methylene blue than the fiber mats without <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Thai silk fibroin/gelatin <span class="hlt">beaded</span> fiber mats were established as an effective carrier for the controlled release applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JChPh.117.6863A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JChPh.117.6863A"><span>Brownian dynamics studies on DNA <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis. I. Numerical method and ``periodic'' behavior of elongation-contraction motions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Azuma, Ryuzo; Takayama, Hajime</p> <p>2002-10-01</p> <p>The dynamics of a DNA molecule which is undergoing constant field <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis (CFGE) is studied by a Brownian dynamics simulation method we have developed. In the method a DNA molecule is modeled as a chain of spherical electrolyte <span class="hlt">beads</span> and the <span class="hlt">gel</span> as a three-dimensional array of immobile <span class="hlt">beads</span>. With the constraint for the separation of each pair of bonded <span class="hlt">beads</span> to be less than a certain fixed value, as well as with the excluded volume effect, the simultaneous Langevin equations of motion for the <span class="hlt">beads</span> are solved by means of the Lagrangian multiplier method. The resultant mobilities μ as a function of electric field coincide satisfactorily with the corresponding experimental results, once the time, the length, and the field of the simulation are properly scaled. In relatively strong fields "periodic" behavior is found in the chain dynamics and is examined through the time evolution of the radius of the longer principal axis, Rl(t). It is found that the mean width of a peak in Rl(t), or a period of one elongation-contraction process of the chain, is proportional to the number of <span class="hlt">beads</span> in the chain, M, while the mean period between two such adjacent peaks is independent of M for large M. These results, combined with the observation that the chain moves to the field direction by the distance proportional to M in each elongation-contraction motion, yield the saturation of mobility for large M. This explains the reason that CFGE cannot separate DNA according to their size L(∝M) for large L.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18251249','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18251249"><span>Comparative proteomics and difference <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Minden, Jonathan</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The goal of comparative proteomics is to analyze proteome changes in response to development, disease, or environment. This is a two-step process in which proteins within cellular extracts are first fractionated to reduce sample <span class="hlt">complexity</span>, and then the proteins are identified by mass spectrometry. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) is the long-time standard for protein separation, but it has suffered from poor reproducibility and limited sensitivity. Difference <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis (DIGE), in which two protein samples are separately labeled with different fluorescent dyes and then co-electrophoresed on the same 2DE <span class="hlt">gel</span>, was developed to overcome the reproducibility and sensitivity limitations. In this essay, I discuss the principles of comparative proteomics and the development of DIGE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006OptMa..28...64R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006OptMa..28...64R"><span>Innovative materials based on sol <span class="hlt">gel</span> technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reisfeld, Renata; Saraidarov, Tsiala</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>We review the sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> based new materials which were prepared in our laboratory including: tunable lasers, active waveguides, luminescent solar concentrators, electrochromic, photochromic and gasochromic plates for smart windows, chemical and biological sensors, semiconductor quantum dots and <span class="hlt">complexes</span> of rare earth ions. In this paper we present the firstly obtained results of the Eu sulfide nanocrystalline (NCs) powder material and doped in the sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> based zirconia films. The powder and films were studied by high resolution transmittance electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDS) and luminescence spectroscopy. Eu sulfide nanocrystals (NCs) ranging between 8 and 10 nm were obtained as powder and 3-4 nm incorporated in zirconia film.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840058313&hterms=alcohol+gel&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dalcohol%2Bgel','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840058313&hterms=alcohol+gel&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dalcohol%2Bgel"><span>Homogeneity of <span class="hlt">gels</span> and <span class="hlt">gel</span>-derived glasses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mukherjee, S. P.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The significance and implications of <span class="hlt">gel</span> preparation procedures in controlling the homogeneity of multicomponent oxide <span class="hlt">gels</span> are discussed. The role of physicochemical factors such as the structure and chemical reactivities of alkoxides, the formation of double-metal alkoxides, and the nature of solvent(s) are critically analyzed in the context of homogeneity of <span class="hlt">gels</span> during gelation. Three procedures for preparing <span class="hlt">gels</span> in the SiO2-B2O3-Na2O system are examined in the context of cation distribution. Light scattering results for glasses in the SiO2-B2O3-Na2O system prepared by both the <span class="hlt">gel</span> technique and the conventional technique are examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23453460','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23453460"><span>Rapid freezing cryo-polymerization and microchannel liquid-flow focusing for cryogel <span class="hlt">beads</span>: adsorbent preparation and characterization of supermacroporous <span class="hlt">bead</span>-packed bed.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yun, Junxian; Dafoe, Julian T; Peterson, Eric; Xu, Linhong; Yao, Shan-Jing; Daugulis, Andrew J</p> <p>2013-04-05</p> <p>Cryogel <span class="hlt">beads</span>, fabricated by the microchannel liquid-flow focusing and cryo-polymerization method, have micron-scale supermacropores allowing the passage of crude feedstocks, and could be of interest as chromatographic adsorbents in bioseparation applications. In this work, we provide a rapid freezing and continuous formation method for cryogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> by cryo-polymerization using dry ice particles as the freezing source and microchannel liquid-flow focusing using peristaltic pumps for the fluid supply. Polyacrylamide (pAAm)-based supermacroporous cryogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> were prepared and grafted with N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), which provided the anion-exchange cryogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> with tertiary amine functional groups suitable for binding proteins. Properties of the supermacroporous cryogel-<span class="hlt">bead</span> packed bed, i.e., permeability, bed voidage, protein breakthrough as well as protein adsorption performance by using bovine γ-globulin as model protein, were experimentally investigated. A capillary-based model was employed to characterize the supermacroporous bed performance, and gave a reasonable description of the microstructure and thus an insight into the flow, dispersion and mass transfer behaviors within the cryogel <span class="hlt">bead</span>-packed bed. The results also showed that by using dry ice as the freezing source, it is easy to reduce the temperature below -55 to -61°C in the bulk solution, causing the rapid formation of ice crystals within the monomer drops, and finally effective cryo-polymerization to form supermacropores within the cryogel <span class="hlt">beads</span>. By using peristaltic pumps, continuous preparation was achieved and the obtained cryogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> had favorable properties similar to those prepared using syringe pumps in the microchannel liquid-flow focusing process. This method is thus expected to be interesting in the liter- or even larger-scale preparation of cryogel adsorbents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017HydJ..tmp...38W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017HydJ..tmp...38W"><span>Magnetic-resonance imaging and simplified Kozeny-Carman-model analysis of glass-<span class="hlt">bead</span> packs as a frame of reference to study permeability of reservoir rocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Dayong; Han, Dongyan; Li, Wenqiang; Zheng, Zhanpeng; Song, Yongchen</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Permeability variation in reservoir rocks results from the combined effects of various factors, and makes porosity-permeability (ϕ-k) relationships more <span class="hlt">complex</span>, or, in some cases, non-existent. In this work, the ϕ-k relationship of macroscopically homogeneous glass-<span class="hlt">bead</span> packs is deduced based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurement and Kozeny-Carman (K-C) model analysis; these are used as a frame of reference to study permeability of reservoir rocks. The results indicate: (1) most of the commonly used simplified K-C models (e.g. the simplified traditional (omitting specific surface area), high-order, threshold, and fractal models) are suitable for estimating permeability of glass-<span class="hlt">bead</span> packs. The simplified traditional model does not present obvious dependence on rock samples. Whether for the glass-<span class="hlt">bead</span> packs or clean natural sandstones, the sample coefficients almost remain invariant. Comparably, the high-order, the fractal, and the threshold models are strongly sample-specific and cannot be extrapolated from the glass-<span class="hlt">bead</span> packs to natural sandstones; (2) the ϕ-k relationships of quartz sands and silty sandstones resemble those of the glass-<span class="hlt">bead</span> packs, but they significantly deviate from the K-C models at low porosities due to small pore entry radius; (3) a small amount of intergranular cements (<10%v) does not affect the general variation trend of permeability with porosity but can potentially increase predictive errors of the K-C models, whereas in the case of more cements, the ϕ-k relationships of sandstones become uncertain and cannot be described by any of these K-C models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980008331','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980008331"><span>Western Blot of Stained Proteins from Dried Polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">Gels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gruber, Claudia; Stan-Lotter, Helga</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Western blotting of proteins is customarily performed following their separation on polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gels</span>, either prior to staining (1) or, as recently reported, following staining (2). We describe here Western blotting with stained <span class="hlt">gels</span>, which had been dried and some of which had been stored for years. This procedure permits immunological analysis of proteins, to which antisera may have become available only later, or where the application of newly developed sensitive detection methods is desired. Once rehydration of the <span class="hlt">gels</span> is achieved, proteins can be-transferred to blotting membranes by any appropriate protocol. Proteins stained with Coomassie Blue have to be detected with a non-chromogenic method, such as the film-based enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL)2) procedure (3). Silver stained proteins, which transfer in the colorless form, may be visualized by any detection method, although, because of the usually very low amounts of proteins, detection by ECL is preferable. Blotting of stained proteins from rehydrated <span class="hlt">gels</span> is as rapid and as quantitative as from freshly prepared <span class="hlt">gels</span>, in contrast to blotting from wet stained <span class="hlt">gels</span>, which requires extensive washing and results in low transfer efficiency (2). Together with a photographic record of the <span class="hlt">gel</span> pattern, unambiguous identification of immunoreactive proteins from <span class="hlt">complex</span> mixtures is possible. Some further applications of this work are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25189146','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25189146"><span>Probe diffusion in phase-separated bicontinuous biopolymer <span class="hlt">gels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wassén, Sophia; Bordes, Romain; Gebäck, Tobias; Bernin, Diana; Schuster, Erich; Lorén, Niklas; Hermansson, Anne-Marie</p> <p>2014-11-07</p> <p>Probe diffusion was determined in phase separated bicontinuous <span class="hlt">gels</span> prepared by acid-induced gelation of the whey protein isolate-gellan gum system. The topological characterization of the phase-separated <span class="hlt">gel</span> systems is achieved by confocal microscopy and the diffusion measurements are performed using pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR and fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching (FRAP). These two techniques gave complementary information about the mass transport at different time- and length scales, PFG NMR provided global diffusion rates in the <span class="hlt">gel</span> systems, while FRAP enabled the measurements of diffusion in different phases of the phase-separated <span class="hlt">gels</span>. The results revealed that the phase-separated <span class="hlt">gel</span> with the largest characteristic wavelength had the fastest diffusion coefficient, while the <span class="hlt">gel</span> with smaller microstructures had a slower probe diffusion rate. By using the diffusion data obtained by FRAP and the structural data from confocal microscopy, modelling through the lattice-Boltzmann framework was carried out to simulate the global diffusion and verify the validity of the experimental measurements. With this approach it was found that discrepancies between the two experimental techniques can be rationalized in terms of probe distribution between the different phases of the system. The combination of different techniques allowed the determination of diffusion in a phase-separated biopolymer <span class="hlt">gel</span> and gave a clearer picture of this <span class="hlt">complex</span> system. We also illustrate the difficulties that can arise if precautions are not taken to understand the system-probe interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18261846','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18261846"><span>Covalent attachment of actin filaments to Tween 80 coated polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span> for cargo transportation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kaur, Harsimran; Das, Tapan; Kumar, Rajesh; Ajore, Ram; Bharadwaj, Lalit M</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>In this manuscript, a new strategy has been reported for circumscribed covalent attachment of barbed and pointed ends of actin filaments to polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span>. A comparative study of attachment of actin filaments to polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span> was performed by blocking functionally active sites on polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span> with nonionic detergents such as Tween 20, Tween 80 and polyethylene glycol (PEG). Effective blocking of active sites was obtained with Tween 80 at 0.1% concentration. Attachment of single bundle of actin filament to <span class="hlt">bead</span> was assessed by rotational motion of <span class="hlt">bead</span> tailed actin in front and lateral view. Velocity of actin filaments attached to different size of <span class="hlt">beads</span> in in-vitro motility assay was calculated to ascertain their attachments. Velocity of actin attached to 1.0 and 3.0 microm polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span> was reduced to 3.0-4.0 and 0.0-1.0 microm/s, respectively as compared to free actin velocity of 4.0-6.0 microm/s. Single point attachment of actin filaments to different size of <span class="hlt">beads</span> was assessed by decrease in sliding velocity. Present study provides insight into the actin-myosin based molecular motor systems for drug delivery and biosensors applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23983180','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23983180"><span>Development of bioactive porous α-TCP/HAp <span class="hlt">beads</span> for bone tissue engineering.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Asaoka, Teruo; Ohtake, Shoji; Furukawa, Katsuko S; Tamura, Akito; Ushida, Takashi</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Porous <span class="hlt">beads</span> of bioactive ceramics such as hydroxyapatite (HAp) and tribasic calcium phosphate (TCP) are considered a promising scaffold for cultivating bone cells. To realize this, α-TCP/HAp functionally graded porous <span class="hlt">beads</span> are fabricated with two main purposes: to maintain the function of the scaffold with sufficient strength up to the growth of new bone, and is absorbed completely after the growth. HAp is a bioactive material that has both high strength and strong tissue-adhesive properties, but is not readily absorbed by the human body. On the contrary, α-TCP is highly bioabsorbable, resulting in a scaffold that is absorbed before it is completely replaced by bone. In this study, we produced porous, <span class="hlt">bead</span>-shaped carriers as scaffolds for osteoblast culture. To control the solubility in vivo, the fabricated <span class="hlt">beads</span> contained α-TCP at the center and HAp at the surface. Cell adaptability of these <span class="hlt">beads</span> for bone tissue engineering was confirmed in vitro. It was found that α-TCP/HAp <span class="hlt">bead</span> carriers exhibit low toxicity in the initial stages of cell seeding and cell adhesion. The presence of HAp in the composite <span class="hlt">bead</span> form effectively increased ALP activity. In conclusion, it is suggested that these newly developed α-TCP/HAp <span class="hlt">beads</span> are a promising tool for bone tissue engineering.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19235554','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19235554"><span>Adipic acid dihydrazide treated partially oxidized alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> for sustained oral delivery of flurbiprofen.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maiti, Sabyasachi; Singha, Kamalika; Ray, Somasree; Dey, Paramita; Sa, Biswanath</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In this study, periodate oxidation of sodium alginate was controlled such that the oxidized alginate could form isolatable <span class="hlt">beads</span> with Ca(+2) ions. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> of oxidized alginate having a degree of oxidation 1 mol%, entrapped 89% flurbiprofen and released almost all of its content within 1.5 h in pH 7.2 phosphate buffer solution. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> were covalently crosslinked with adipic dihydrazide (ADH) in addition to ionic crosslinks and were characterized. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the <span class="hlt">beads</span> were spherical having smooth surfaces. The drug entrapment efficiency decreased (90-86%) with increasing concentration of ADH (2-6% w/v) in the gelation medium. However, the <span class="hlt">beads</span> prolonged the drug release in alkaline dissolution medium up to 8 h depending upon the concentration of ADH. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> prepared with 2% ADH swelled more rapidly and led to faster drug release in either pH 1.2 HCl solution or pH 7.2 phosphate buffer solution. The swelling tendencies were reduced and the drug release became slower with higher concentrations in either fluid. The drug diffusion from the <span class="hlt">beads</span> followed super case II transport mechanism. FTIR spectroscopy indicated stable nature of flurbiprofen in the <span class="hlt">beads</span> and therefore had potential as sustained oral delivery system for the drug.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11714527','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11714527"><span>Use of magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> for Gram staining of bacteria in aqueous suspension.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yazdankhah, S P; Sørum, H; Larsen, H J; Gogstad, G</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>A Gram staining technique was developed using monodisperse magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> in concentrating bacteria in suspension for downstream application. The technique does not require heat fixation of organisms, electrical power, or a microscope. Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria were identified macroscopically based on the colour of the suspension. The bacteria concentrated on magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> may also be identified microscopically.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title49-vol2-sec176-907.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title49-vol2-sec176-907.pdf"><span>49 CFR 176.907 - Polymeric <span class="hlt">Beads</span> and Plastic Molding Compounds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Polymeric <span class="hlt">Beads</span> and Plastic Molding Compounds. 176.907 Section 176.907 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS..., and Plastic Molding Compounds § 176.907 Polymeric <span class="hlt">Beads</span> and Plastic Molding Compounds. (a)...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title49-vol2-sec176-907.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title49-vol2-sec176-907.pdf"><span>49 CFR 176.907 - Polymeric <span class="hlt">Beads</span> and Plastic Molding Compounds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Polymeric <span class="hlt">Beads</span> and Plastic Molding Compounds. 176.907 Section 176.907 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS..., and Plastic Molding Compounds § 176.907 Polymeric <span class="hlt">Beads</span> and Plastic Molding Compounds. (a)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=245053&keyword=Seismic+AND+waves&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90628929&CFTOKEN=26072037','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=245053&keyword=Seismic+AND+waves&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90628929&CFTOKEN=26072037"><span>Evaluation of the Seismic Characterision of Select Engineered Nanoparticles in Saturated Glass <span class="hlt">Beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A laboratory testing apparatus was developed for the study of seismic body wave propagation through nanoparticles dispersed in pore fluid that is essentially saturating glass <span class="hlt">beads</span>. First, the responses of water-saturated glass <span class="hlt">bead</span> specimens were studied to establish baseline si...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPhD...45N5301B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPhD...45N5301B"><span>Tunable <span class="hlt">bead</span>-on-string microstructures fabricated by mechano-electrospinning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bu, Ningbin; Huang, YongAn; Deng, Huixu; Yin, Zhouping</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>In this paper, <span class="hlt">bead</span>-on-string microstructures are fabricated by the mechano-electrospinning (MES) process in a continuously tunable manner. The thin jet is pulled onto the substrate by the stable electric field force and tunable mechanical drawing force, and then the <span class="hlt">bead</span>-on-string structures are generated by means of the force exerted on the jet, which changes from capillary force and resisting viscosity force to friction force at the contact point in the horizontal direction. In a stable <span class="hlt">bead</span>-on-string formation process, one cycle can be divided into three stages from the point of view of the jet behaviour: being anchored, being stretched, and skipping. The <span class="hlt">bead</span> size and the <span class="hlt">bead</span> gap are continuously tunable through the MES process. The fabrication mechanisms of the <span class="hlt">bead</span>-on-string microstructure are uncovered through theoretical analysis and experimental characterization. When a critical velocity is achieved, the jet directly falls on the substrate without accumulation since the mechanical drawing force in the horizontal direction overtakes the capillary force, which leads the <span class="hlt">bead</span>-on-string microstructures to a continuous fibre line. It is a flexible and highly controllable method to fabricate <span class="hlt">bead</span>-on-string microstructures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20522987','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20522987"><span>Floating-mucoadhesive <span class="hlt">beads</span> of clarithromycin for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gattani, Surendra Ganeshlal; Savaliya, Pankaj Jayantilal; Belgamwar, Veena Shailendra</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>An objective of the present study was to develop alginate/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) based floating-mucoadhesive <span class="hlt">beads</span> of clarithromycin to provide prolonged contact time of antibiotic to treat stomach ulcer. Floating-mucoadhesive <span class="hlt">beads</span> were prepared and characterized for in vitro performance followed by investigation of ex vivo study in albino-wistar rats. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> were prepared by ionic gelation technique where calcium chloride used as gelating agent and incorporated liquid paraffin for floating of the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Prepared <span class="hlt">beads</span> were evaluated extensively for particle size, drug entrapment; swelling and surface morphology by using scanning electron microscopy. X-ray radioimaging study in rabbits, in vitro mucoadhesion using rat stomach mucosal membrane and in vitro drug release studies were carried out. Ex vivo performance of alginate-HPMC <span class="hlt">beads</span> were studied using albino rats in comparison to simple alginate-calcium <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Alginate-HPMC <span class="hlt">beads</span> may be suitable floating-muco-adhesive drug delivery system for delivering clarithromycin to treat stomach ulcers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24155136','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24155136"><span>Size and composition of synthetic calcium sulfate <span class="hlt">beads</span> influence dissolution and elution rates in vitro.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roberts, Randy; McConoughey, Stephen J; Calhoun, Jason H</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Treatments of osteomyelitis lag behind bacterial resistance to antibiotics. We tested different-sized calcium sulfate <span class="hlt">beads</span> and their ability to elute multiple antibiotics in vitro as a possible method to improve the therapeutic delivery in patients. Two sizes of calcium sulfate <span class="hlt">beads</span> (4.8 and 3.0 mm diameter) that contained vancomycin, tobramycin, or both were dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline, and the rate of dissolution by weight and antibiotic elution by the disc diffusion assay and high-pressure liquid chromatography were measured. The 4.8 mm <span class="hlt">beads</span> showed significantly higher dissolution rates relative to the 3.0 mm <span class="hlt">beads</span> (2.3 mg/day vs. 1.3 mg/day). While the vancomycin-loaded 4.8 mm <span class="hlt">beads</span> eluted for a longer time relative to the 3.0 mm <span class="hlt">beads</span> (20 days vs. 10 days), the smaller <span class="hlt">beads</span> had threefold higher elution for the first 2 days, before dropping to near zero elution by day 4. The presence of tobramycin extended the elution of the vancomycin to day 40, which closely matches the recommended 6 weeks to treat orthopedic staphylococcus infections. These data suggest that size and content of the <span class="hlt">bead</span> are variables that could affect their clinical success, and both could be exploited to tailor treatments of specific infections and injuries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9724569','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9724569"><span>Preparation and in vitro characterization of gentamycin-impregnated biodegradable <span class="hlt">beads</span> suitable for treatment of osteomyelitis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meyer, J D; Falk, R F; Kelly, R M; Shively, J E; Withrow, S J; Dernell, W S; Kroll, D J; Randolph, T W; Manning, M C</p> <p>1998-09-01</p> <p>A new method for preparing poly(L-lactide) (PLA) biodegradable <span class="hlt">beads</span> impregnated with an ionic aminoglycoside, gentamycin, is described. The process employs hydrophobic ion pairing to solubilize gentamycin in a solvent compatible with PLA, followed by precipitation with a compressed antisolvent (supercritical carbon dioxide). The resulting precipitate is a homogeneous dispersion of the ion-paired drug in PLA microspheres. The microspheres are approximately 1 microm in diameter and can be compressed into <span class="hlt">beads</span> (3-6 mm in diameter) strung on surgical sutures for implantation. The <span class="hlt">bead</span> strings exhibit no significant change in release kinetics upon sterilization with a hydrogen peroxide plasma (Ster-Rad). The kinetics of gentamycin release from the PLA <span class="hlt">beads</span> are consistent with a matrix-controlled diffusion mechanism. While nonbiodegradable poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) <span class="hlt">beads</span> initially release gentamycin in a similar manner, the drug release from PMMA ceases after 8 or 9 weeks, while the PLA <span class="hlt">beads</span> continue to release drug for over 4 months. Moreover, only 10% of the gentamycin is released from the PMMA <span class="hlt">beads</span>, while PLA <span class="hlt">beads</span> release more than 60% of their load, if serum is present in the release medium. The PLA system displays improved release kinetics relative to PMMA, is biodegradable, is unaltered by gas sterilization, can be used for a range of antibiotics, and can be manipulated without disintegration. These are all desirable properties for an implantable drug delivery system for the prevention or treatment of osteomyelitis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/909575','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/909575"><span>Nanocrystal/sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> nanocomposites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Petruska, Melissa A.; Klimov, Victor L.</p> <p>2007-06-05</p> <p>The present invention is directed to solid composites including colloidal nanocrystals within a sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> host or matrix and to processes of forming such solid composites. The present invention is further directed to alcohol soluble colloidal nanocrystals useful in formation of sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> based solid composites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991JCrGr.110..265K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991JCrGr.110..265K"><span>Crystallization of steroids in <span class="hlt">gels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kalkura, S. Narayana; Devanarayanan, S.</p> <p>1991-03-01</p> <p>The crystal growth and characterization of certain steriods, viz., cholesterol, cholesteryl acetate, β-sitosterol, progesterone and testosterone, in a silica <span class="hlt">gel</span> medium is discussed. The present study shows that the single test tube diffusion method can be used to grow crystals of steroids in a silica <span class="hlt">gel</span> medium by the reduction of steroid solubility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1055689','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1055689"><span>Nanocrystal/sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> nanocomposites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Petruska, Melissa A; Klimov, Victor L</p> <p>2012-06-12</p> <p>The present invention is directed to solid composites including colloidal nanocrystals within a sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> host or matrix and to processes of forming such solid composites. The present invention is further directed to alcohol soluble colloidal nanocrystals useful in formation of sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> based solid composites</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/37763','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/37763"><span>A new agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hasenfeld, A.; Pepke, E.; Lim, H.A.; Cantor, C.R.</p> <p>1993-12-31</p> <p>A new agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span> model is introduced, which corresponds to what the authors believe agarose <span class="hlt">gels</span> look like microscopically. While the scientific literature is filled with studies of the microscopic structure of agarose, the fact remains that there is no unambiguous and exact model of its underlying structure. Given this, the authors are left to construct their own model numerically.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26036661','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26036661"><span>Self-Assembly-Driven Electrospinning: The Transition from Fibers to Intact <span class="hlt">Beaded</span> Morphologies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Linge; Topham, Paul D; Mykhaylyk, Oleksandr O; Yu, Hao; Ryan, Anthony J; Fairclough, J Patrick A; Bras, Wim</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Polymer <span class="hlt">beads</span> have attracted considerable interest for use in catalysis, drug delivery, and photonics due to their particular shape and surface morphology. Electrospinning, typically used for producing nanofibers, can also be used to fabricate polymer <span class="hlt">beads</span> if the solution has a sufficiently low concentration. In this work, a novel approach for producing more uniform, intact <span class="hlt">beads</span> is presented by electrospinning self-assembled block copolymer (BCP) solutions. This approach allows a relatively high polymer concentration to be used, yet with a low degree of entanglement between polymer chains due to microphase separation of the BCP in a selective solvent system. Herein, to demonstrate the technology, a well-studied polystyrene-poly(ethylene butylene)-polystyrene triblock copolymer is dissolved in a co-solvent system. The effect of solvent composition on the characteristics of the fibers and <span class="hlt">beads</span> is intensively studied, and the mechanism of this fiber-to-<span class="hlt">bead</span> is found to be dependent on microphase separation of the BCP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18770821','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18770821"><span><span class="hlt">Bead</span>Cons: detection of nucleic acid sequences by flow cytometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Horejsh, Douglas; Martini, Federico; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>Molecular beacons are single-stranded nucleic acid structures with a terminal fluorophore and a distal, terminal quencher. These molecules are typically used in real-time PCR assays, but have also been conjugated with solid matrices. This unit describes protocols related to molecular beacon-conjugated <span class="hlt">beads</span> (<span class="hlt">Bead</span>Cons), whose specific hybridization with complementary target sequences can be resolved by cytometry. Assay sensitivity is achieved through the concentration of fluorescence signal on discrete particles. By using molecular beacons with different fluorophores and microspheres of different sizes, it is possible to construct a fluid array system with each <span class="hlt">bead</span> corresponding to a specific target nucleic acid. Methods are presented for the design, construction, and use of <span class="hlt">Bead</span>Cons for the specific, multiplexed detection of unlabeled nucleic acids in solution. The use of <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based detection methods will likely lead to the design of new multiplex molecular diagnostic tools.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3193323','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3193323"><span>Chemoembolization of Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Drug-Eluting <span class="hlt">Beads</span> Complicated by Interstitial Pneumonitis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Aladdin, Mohammed; Ilyas, Mohammed</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Transarterial chemoembolization has proven benefit in the treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Commonly reported symptoms following chemoembolization with or without drug-eluting <span class="hlt">beads</span> include abdominal pain, nausea, and low-grade fever, which typically limited resolve within a few days. A recent study comparing traditional chemoembolization versus chemoembolization with drug-eluting <span class="hlt">beads</span> demonstrated similar survival between the two techniques, but improved tolerability when the drug-eluting <span class="hlt">beads</span> were used. This case report describes a patient with unresectable HCC undergoing chemoembolization with drug-eluting <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The postprocedure course was complicated by interstitial pneumonitis secondary to shunting of the drug-eluting <span class="hlt">beads</span> containing doxorubicin to both lungs via tumor vasculature. This case highlights the relationship between the number and size of the tumors to be treated, arteriovenous shunting within the liver/tumors, and the size of the embolization particles. PMID:22654266</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2966028','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2966028"><span>Observation and Kinematic Description of Long Actin Tracks Induced by Spherical <span class="hlt">Beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kang, Hyeran; Perlmutter, David S.; Shenoy, Vivek B.; Tang, Jay X.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>We report an in vitro study comparing the growth of long actin tails induced by spherical <span class="hlt">beads</span> coated with the verprolin central acidic domain of the polymerization enzyme N-WASP to that induced by Listeria monocytogenes in similar cellular extracts. The tracks behind the <span class="hlt">beads</span> show characteristic differences in shape and curvature from those left by the bacteria, which have an elongated shape and a similar polymerization-inducing enzyme distributed only on the rear surface of the cell. The experimental tracks are simulated using a generalized kinematic model, which incorporates three modes of <span class="hlt">bead</span> rotation with respect to the tail. The results show that the trajectories of spherical <span class="hlt">beads</span> are mechanically deterministic rather than random, as suggested by stochastic models. Assessment of the <span class="hlt">bead</span> rotation and its mechanistic basis offers insights into the biological function of actin-based motility. PMID:21044576</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12552840','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12552840"><span>[<span class="hlt">Beaded</span> molecule imprinted polymer for stereo isomer separation].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meng, Z; Wang, J; Zhou, L; Wang, Q; Zhu, D</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Beaded</span> molecule imprinted polymer (MIP) was made by suspension polymerization. Particles with the size of 50-70 microns in diameter were collected and evaluated in HPLC mode to separate stereo isomers. Stereo isomers cinchonine and cinchonidine were successfully discriminated with selectivity factor of 2.89 and resolution factor of 0.76. Stereo selectivity of the MIP was found to come from both the interaction between the analyte and carboxyl group on the MIP and the similarity between the stereo structure of imprinted molecule and the MIP. The thermal analysis results showed that the MIP had high thermal stability with initial thermal decomposition temperature of 320 degrees C. The pore volume of the MIP was 0.1849 mL/g, the specific surface area was 126.84 sqm/g and the average pore diameter was 5.8 nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy showed that MIP had perfect spherical morphology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988JChPh..89.6972S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988JChPh..89.6972S"><span>The effects of <span class="hlt">bead</span> inertia on the Rouse model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schieber, J. D.; Öttinger, Hans Christian</p> <p>1988-12-01</p> <p>The Rouse model for dilute polymer solutions undergoing homogeneous flows has been generalized to include the inertia of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> in the equations of motion. To obtain the correct ``diffusion equation'' for the probability density distribution function in phase space, we generalize the diffusion equation derived by Murphy and Aguirre [J. Chem. Phys. 57, 2098 (1972)] from Hamilton's equations of motion for an arbitrary number of interacting Brownian particles at equilibrium. Material functions are found, and the noninertial case is seen to be obtained as the zero mass limit in all steps of the development. In particular, the steady-state shear results are unaffected by the inclusion of inertia. It is also shown how two assumptions, ``equilibration in momentum space,'' and the neglect of acceleration, made independently by Curtiss, Bird, and Hassager in their phase-space kinetic theory, are actually the result of assuming zero mass.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23718690','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23718690"><span>Photonic crystal <span class="hlt">beads</span> from gravity-driven microfluidics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gu, Hongcheng; Rong, Fei; Tang, Baocheng; Zhao, Yuanjin; Fu, Degang; Gu, Zhongze</p> <p>2013-06-25</p> <p>This Letter reports a simple method for the mass production of 3D colloidal photonic crystal <span class="hlt">beads</span> (PCBs) by using a gravity-driven microfluidic device and online droplet drying method. Compared to traditional methods, the droplet templates of the PCBs are generated by using the ultrastable gravity as the driving force for the microfluidics, thus the PCBs are formed with minimal polydispersity. Moreover, drying of the droplet templates is integrated into the production process, and the nanoparticles in the droplets self-assemble online. Overall, this process results in PCBs with good morphology, low polydispersity, brilliant structural colors, and narrow stop bands. PCBs could be bulk generated by this process for many practical applications, such as multiplex-encoded assays and the construction of novel optical materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JMiMi..21e4019S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JMiMi..21e4019S"><span>A dynamic <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based microarray for parallel DNA detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sochol, R. D.; Casavant, B. P.; Dueck, M. E.; Lee, L. P.; Lin, L.</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>A microfluidic system has been designed and constructed by means of micromachining processes to integrate both microfluidic mixing of mobile microbeads and hydrodynamic microbead arraying capabilities on a single chip to simultaneously detect multiple bio-molecules. The prototype system has four parallel reaction chambers, which include microchannels of 18 × 50 µm2 cross-sectional area and a microfluidic mixing section of 22 cm length. Parallel detection of multiple DNA oligonucleotide sequences was achieved via molecular beacon probes immobilized on polystyrene microbeads of 16 µm diameter. Experimental results show quantitative detection of three distinct DNA oligonucleotide sequences from the Hepatitis C viral (HCV) genome with single base-pair mismatch specificity. Our dynamic <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based microarray offers an effective microfluidic platform to increase parallelization of reactions and improve microbead handling for various biological applications, including bio-molecule detection, medical diagnostics and drug screening.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15108034','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15108034"><span>Obtaining transgenic plants using the bio-active <span class="hlt">beads</span> method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Haibo; Kawabe, Akira; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Murakawa, Tomoko; Mizukami, Atsushi; Yanagisawa, Masanobu; Nagamori, Eiji; Harashima, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Akio; Fukui, Kiichi</p> <p>2004-04-01</p> <p>Several methods of transformation are currently available for delivering exogenous DNA into animal and plant cells. In this study, a novel and efficient transformation system for DNA delivery/expression with a capacity to transport DNA of high molecular weight was developed. This system can overcome the shortcomings of traditional transformation methods such as Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, particle bombardment, and the electroporation method. The method developed in this study uses calcium alginate micro <span class="hlt">beads</span> to immobilize DNA molecules in combination with polyethylene glycol treatment. In addition, it is simple and low-cost, and requires limited equipment. Using this method, we have successfully transformed tobacco plants, screening by kanamycin resistance. The transformed genes in the transformants were confirmed by PCR and Southern hybridization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002NatMa...1...42N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002NatMa...1...42N"><span>Living bacteria in silica <span class="hlt">gels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nassif, Nadine; Bouvet, Odile; Noelle Rager, Marie; Roux, Cécile; Coradin, Thibaud; Livage, Jacques</p> <p>2002-09-01</p> <p>The encapsulation of enzymes within silica <span class="hlt">gels</span> has been extensively studied during the past decade for the design of biosensors and bioreactors. Yeast spores and bacteria have also been recently immobilized within silica <span class="hlt">gels</span> where they retain their enzymatic activity, but the problem of the long-term viability of whole cells in an inorganic matrix has never been fully addressed. It is a real challenge for the development of sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> processes. Generic tests have been performed to check the viability of Escherichia coli bacteria in silica <span class="hlt">gels</span>. Surprisingly, more bacteria remain culturable in the <span class="hlt">gel</span> than in an aqueous suspension. The metabolic activity of the bacteria towards glycolysis decreases slowly, but half of the bacteria are still viable after one month. When confined within a mineral environment, bacteria do not form colonies. The exchange of chemical signals between isolated bacteria rather than aggregates can then be studied, a point that could be very important for 'quorum sensing'.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.</small> </div> </center> <div id="footer-wrapper"> <div class="footer-content"> <div id="footerOSTI" class=""> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-push-4 footer-content-center"><small><a href="http://www.science.gov/disclaimer.html">Privacy and Security</a></small> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-pull-4 footer-content-left"> <img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/DOE_SC31.png" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" usemap="#doe" height="31" width="177"><map style="display:none;" name="doe" id="doe"><area shape="rect" coords="1,3,107,30" href="http://www.energy.gov" alt="U.S. Deparment of Energy"><area shape="rect" coords="114,3,165,30" href="http://www.science.energy.gov" alt="Office of Science"></map> <a ref="http://www.osti.gov" style="margin-left: 15px;"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/ostigov53.png" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" height="31" width="53"></a> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center footer-content-right"> <a href="http://www.science.gov"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/scigov77.png" alt="science.gov" height="31" width="98"></a> <a href="http://worldwidescience.org"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/wws82.png" alt="WorldWideScience.org" height="31" width="90"></a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <p><br></p> </div><!-- container --> <script type="text/javascript"><!-- // var lastDiv = ""; function showDiv(divName) { // hide last div if (lastDiv) { document.getElementById(lastDiv).className = "hiddenDiv"; } //if value of the box is not nothing and an object with that name exists, then change the class if (divName && document.getElementById(divName)) { document.getElementById(divName).className = "visibleDiv"; lastDiv = divName; } } //--> </script> <script> /** * Function that tracks a click on an outbound link in Google Analytics. * This function takes a valid URL string as an argument, and uses that URL string * as the event label. */ var trackOutboundLink = function(url,collectionCode) { try { h = window.open(url); setTimeout(function() { ga('send', 'event', 'topic-page-click-through', collectionCode, url); }, 1000); } catch(err){} }; </script> <!-- Google Analytics --> <script> (function(i,s,o,g,r,a,m){i['GoogleAnalyticsObject']=r;i[r]=i[r]||function(){ (i[r].q=i[r].q||[]).push(arguments)},i[r].l=1*new Date();a=s.createElement(o), m=s.getElementsByTagName(o)[0];a.async=1;a.src=g;m.parentNode.insertBefore(a,m) })(window,document,'script','//www.google-analytics.com/analytics.js','ga'); ga('create', 'UA-1122789-34', 'auto'); ga('send', 'pageview'); </script> <!-- End Google Analytics --> <script> showDiv('page_1') </script> </body> </html>