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Sample records for complex gel beads

  1. Gel bead composition for metal adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.D.; Woodward, C.A.; Byers, C.H.

    1990-12-18

    This patent describes a gel bead consisting essentially of a sufficient amount of water and propylene glycol alginate to allow for bead formation and a sufficient amount of bone gelatin to allow for metal absorption and chemically crosslinked in an alkaline medium to form a stable structure. A gel bead contained therein a biological absorbent capable of removing metals from solution.

  2. Liquid crystalline gel beads of curdlan.

    PubMed

    Dobashi, Toshiaki; Yoshihara, Hiromi; Nobe, Masahiro; Koike, Michiru; Yamamoto, Takao; Konno, Akira

    2005-01-04

    Curdlan beads consisting of liquid crystalline gel (LCG) and amorphous gel (AG) in alternating layers in a wide range of diameters were newly prepared by interfacial insolubilization reactions using calcium chloride as the setting reagent. The thickness of the liquid crystalline layer was proportional to the diameter of the gel bead, and the proportional constant agreed with that determined for the cylindrical gel prepared by a dialysis method. The proportional constant initially increased with increasing calcium concentration of the dispersing medium and saturated at a high concentration limit. These results suggest that the mechanisms for forming the alternating LCG/AG structures prepared with different boundary conditions are the same. The LCG/AG structure could be controlled by calcium concentration.

  3. Gel bead composition for metal adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Woodward, Charlene A.; Byers, Charles H.

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a gel bead comprising propylene glycol alginate and bone gelatin and is capable of removing metals such as Sr and Cs from solution without adding other adsorbents. The invention could have application to the nuclear industry's waste removal activities.

  4. Gel bead composition for metal adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Woodward, Charlene A.; Byers, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    The invention is a gel bead comprising propylene glycol alginate and bone gelatin and is capable of removing metals such as Sr and Cs from solution without adding other adsorbents. The invention could have application to the nuclear industry's waste removal activities.

  5. Gel bead composition for metal adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.D.; Woodward, C.A.; Byers, C.H.

    1989-04-04

    The invention is a gel bead comprising propylene glycol alginate and bone gelatin and is capable of removing metals such as Sr and Cs from solution without adding other adsorbents. The invention could have application to the nuclear industry's waste removal activities. 4 tabs.

  6. Gel bead composition for metal adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.D.; Woodward, C.A.; Byers, C.H.

    1991-02-26

    This patent describes a gel bead comprising propylene glycol alginate and bone gelatin and is capable of removing metals such as Sr and Cs from solution without adding other adsorbents. The invention could have application to the nuclear industry's waste removal activities.

  7. Laser-induced liquid bead ion desorption-MS of protein complexes from blue-native gels, a sensitive top-down proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Sokolova, Lucie; Wittig, Ilka; Barth, Hans-Dieter; Schägger, Hermann; Brutschy, Bernhard; Brandt, Ulrich

    2010-04-01

    We have developed an experimental approach that combines two powerful methods for proteomic analysis of large membrane protein complexes: blue native electrophoresis (BNE or BN-PAGE) and laser-induced liquid bead ion desorption (LILBID) MS. Protein complexes were separated by BNE and eluted from the gel. The masses of the constituents of the multiprotein complexes were obtained by LILBID MS, a detergent-tolerant method that is especially suitable for the characterisation of membrane proteins. High sensitivity and small sample volumes required for LILBID MS resulted in low demands on sample quantity. Eluate from a single band allowed assessing the mass of an entire multiprotein complex and its subunits. The method was validated with mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone reductase from Yarrowia lipolytica. For this complex of 947 kDa, typically 30 microg or 32 pmol were sufficient to obtain spectra from which the subunit composition could be analysed. The resolution of this electrophoretic small-scale approach to the purification of native complexes was improved markedly by further separation on a second dimension of BNE. Starting from a subcellular fraction obtained by differential centrifugation, this allowed the purification and analysis of the constituents of a large multiprotein complex in a single LILBID spectrum.

  8. Apparatus for the production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Scott, T.C.; Davison, B.H.

    1998-03-19

    An apparatus is described for the large-scale and continuous production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst. The apparatus is a columnar system based on the chemical cross-linking of hydrocolloidal gels that contain and immobilize a biocatalyst, the biocatalyst being a microorganism or an enzyme. Hydrocolloidal gels, such as alginate, carrageenan, and a mixture of bone gelatin and modified alginate, provide immobilization matrices that can be used to entrap and retain the biocatalyst while allowing effective contact with substrates and release of products. Such immobilized biocatalysts are generally formulated into small spheres or beads that have high concentrations of the biocatalyst within the gel matrix. The columnar system includes a gel dispersion nozzle submerged in a heated non-interacting liquid, typically an organic liquid, that is immiscible with water to allow efficient formation of spherical gel droplets, the non-interacting liquid having a specific gravity that is less than water so that the gel droplets will fall through the liquid by the force of gravity. The heated non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with a chilled upflowing non-interacting liquid that will provide sufficient residence time for the gel droplets as they fall through the liquid so that they will be cooled below the gelling temperature and form solid spheres. The upflowing non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with an upflowing temperature-controlled aqueous solution containing the necessary chemicals for cross-linking or fixing of the gel beads to add the necessary stability. The flow rates of the two liquid streams can be varied to control the proper residence time in each liquid section to accommodate the production of gel beads of differing settling velocities. A valve is provided for continuous removal of the stabilized gel beads from the bottom of the column. 1 fig.

  9. Apparatus for the production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Scott, Timothy C.; Davison, Brian H.

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus for the large-scale and continuous production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst. The apparatus is a columnar system based on the chemical cross-linking of hydrocolloidal gels that contain and immobilize a biocatalyst, the biocatalyst being a microorganism or an enzyme. Hydrocolloidal gels, such as alginate, carrageenan, and a mixture of bone gelatin and modified alginate, provide immobilization matrices that can be used to entrap and retain the biocatalyst while allowing effective contact with substrates and release of products. Such immobilized biocatalysts are generally formulated into small spheres or beads that have high concentrations of the biocatalyst within the gel matrix. The columnar system includes a gel dispersion nozzle submerged in a heated non-interacting liquid, typically an organic liquid, that is immiscible with water to allow efficient formation of spherical gel droplets, the non-interacting liquid having a specific gravity that is less than water so that the gel droplets will fall through the liquid by the force of gravity. The heated non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with a chilled upflowing non-interacting liquid that will provide sufficient residence time for the gel droplets as they fall through the liquid so that they will be cooled below the gelling temperature and form solid spheres. The upflowing non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with an upflowing temperature-controlled aqueous solution containing the necessary chemicals for cross-linking or fixing of the gel beads to add the necessary stability. The flow rates of the two liquid streams can be varied to control the proper residence time in each liquid section to accommodate the production of gel beads of differing settling velocities. A valve is provided for continuous removal of the stabilized gel beads from the bottom of the column.

  10. Plasticity of an Amorphous Assembly of Elastic Gel Beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosshans, D.; Knaebel, A.; Lequeux, F.

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the rheological properties of an assembly of swollen gel beads in a lack of solvent. The system is an amorphous assembly of packed soft spheres in a given volume. We have studied the plastic behavior of the system, and interpreted it in terms of bead rearrangements within the assembly. Nous avons étudié les propriétés rhéologiques d'un assemblage de billes de gel gonflées en défaut de solvant. Le système est donc une assemblée amorphe de sphères molles écrasées à volume total constant. Nous avons étudié divers aspects du comportement plastique et nous l'avons interprété en termes de réorganisations de billes dans l'assemblage.

  11. Structurally stable gel bead containing entrapped enzyme and method for manufacture thereof

    DOEpatents

    Woodward, J.

    1998-12-08

    This research provides a structurally stable gel bead containing an entrapped enzyme and a method for its manufacture. The enzyme is covalently cross-linked to gelatin in the presence of glutaraldehyde prior to the formation of the gel bead, to prevent leakage of the enzyme. Propylene glycol alginate is then added to the mixture. Once the gel beads are formed, they are then soaked in glutaraldehyde, which imparts structural stability to the gel beads. This method can be used with many types of enzymes, such as proteases, carbohydrases, proteases, ligases, isomerases, oxidoreductases, and specialty enzymes. These and other enzymes can be immobilized in the gel beads and utilized in a number of enzymatic processes. Exogenously added ions are not required to maintain the structural stability of these gel beads. 7 figs.

  12. Structurally stable gel bead containing entrapped enzyme and method for manufacture thereof

    DOEpatents

    Woodward, Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    A structurally stable gel bead containing an entrapped enzyme and a method for its manufacture. The enzyme is covalently cross-linked to gelatin in the presence of glutaraldehyde prior to the formation of the gel bead, to prevent leakage of the enzyme. Propylene glycol alginate is then added to the mixture. Once the gel beads are formed, they are then soaked in glutaraldehyde, which imparts structural stability to the gel beads. This method can be used with many types of enzymes, such as proteases, carbohydrases, proteases, ligases, isomerases, oxidoreductases, and specialty enzymes. These and other enzymes can be immobilized in the gel beads and utilized in a number of enzymatic processes. Exogenously added ions are not required to maintain the structural stability of these gel beads.

  13. Adsorption of Cu and Mn on covalently cross-linked alginate gel beads.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Takeshi; Matsushima, Keiei; Kikuchi, Ken-Ichi

    2004-04-01

    The covalently cross-linked alginate gel beads were prepared by the reactions of Ca(2+)-doped alginate gel beads, which were formed by spraying a viscous alginate solution into a calcium chloride solution, with cyanogen bromide and following 1,6-diaminohexane. The cross-linking of alginate matrix decreased the mean bead diameter by about 30% and made the beads durable in some extent under alkaline conditions. The adsorption of metal ions on the covalently cross-linked alginate gel beads was rapid and reached at equilibrium within 30 min at 25 degrees C. Adsorption isotherms of Cu(II), Mn(II), and Ca2+ on the beads possessed a stepwise shape, which was firstly determined by Rorrer et al. [Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 32 (1993) 2170] for cross-linked chitosan gel beads and explained by a pore-blockage mechanism. Higher selectivity was determined against Cu(II) over Mn(II) and Ca2+, especially at a low concentration region. These metal adsorption profiles for the covalently cross-linked alginate gel beads was almost the same as those for the un-cross-linked beads, indicating that the cross-linking reactions were performed without interfering the adsorption characteristics of alginate gel beads.

  14. Protection of bifidobacteria encapsulated in polysaccharide-protein gel beads against gastric juice and bile.

    PubMed

    Guérin, Daniel; Vuillemard, Jean-Christophe; Subirade, Muriel

    2003-11-01

    Bifidobacterium cells were encapsulated in a mixed gel composed of alginate, pectin, and whey proteins. Two kinds of capsules were obtained: gel beads without membranes and gel beads with two membranes formed by the transacylation reaction. In vitro studies were carried out to determine the effects of simulated gastric pH and bile salts on the survival of free and encapsulated Bifidobacterium bifidum. The protective effects of gel beads without membranes and gel beads coated with two membranes formed by the transacylation reaction were evaluated. After 1 h in an acidic solution (pH 2.5), the free-cell counts decreased by 4.75 log units, compared with a <1-log decrease for entrapped cells. The free cells did not survive after 2 h of incubation at pH 2.5, while immobilized-cell counts decreased by about 2 log units. After incubation (1 or 3 h) in 2 and 4% bile salt solutions, the bifidobacterium mortality level for membrane-free gel beads (4 to 7 log units) was higher than that for free cells (2 to 3 log units). However, counts of bifidobacteria immobilized in membrane-coated gel beads decreased by <2 log units. Cell encapsulation in membrane-coated protein-polysaccharide gel beads could be used to increase the survival of healthy probiotic bacteria during their transit through the gastrointestinal tract.

  15. Calibration beads containing luminescent lanthanide ion complexes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reliability of lanthanide luminescence measurements, by both flow cytometry and digital microscopy, will be enhanced by the availability of narrow-band emitting lanthanide calibration beads. These beads can also be used to characterize spectrographic instruments, including mi...

  16. Calibration beads containing luminescent lanthanide ion complexes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reliability of lanthanide luminescence measurements, by both flow cytometry and digital microscopy, will be enhanced by the availability of narrow-band emitting lanthanide calibration beads. These beads can also be used to characterize spectrographic instruments, including mi...

  17. Morphology and buoyancy of oil-entrapped calcium pectinate gel beads.

    PubMed

    Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Thirawong, Nartaya; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2004-10-07

    A new emulsion-gelation method to prepare oil-entrapped calcium pectinate gel (CaPG) beads capable of floating in the gastric condition was designed and tested. The gel beads containing edible oil were prepared by either being gently mixed or homogenized an oil phase and a water phase containing pectin, and then extruded into calcium chloride solution with gentle agitation at room temperature. The gel beads formed were then separated, washed with distilled water, and dried at 37 degrees C for 12 hours. A model of the emulsion-gelation process to illustrate the formation of oil-entrapped CaPG beads was proposed. The effect of selected factors, such as type of oil, percentage of oil, and type of pectin on morphology and floating properties was investigated. The oil-entrapped calcium pectinate gel beads floated if a sufficient amount of oil was used. Scanning electron photomicrographs demonstrated very small pores, ranging between 5 and 40 microm, dispersed all over the beads. The type and percentage of oil play an important role in controlling the floating of oil-entrapped CaPG beads. The results suggested that oil-entrapped CaPG beads were promising as a carrier for intragastric floating drug delivery.

  18. Wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads of calcium pectinate for intragastric floating drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Asavapichayont, Panida; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Luangtana-Anan, Manee; Limmatvapirat, Sontaya; Piriyaprasarth, Suchada

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare wax-incorporated pectin-based emulsion gel beads using a modified emulsion-gelation method. The waxes in pectin-olive oil mixtures containing a model drug, metronidazole, were hot-melted, homogenized and then extruded into calcium chloride solution. The beads formed were separated, washed with distilled water and dried for 12 h. The influence of various types and amounts of wax on floating and drug release behavior of emulsion gel beads of calcium pectinate was investigated. The drug-loaded gel beads were found to float on simulated gastric fluid if the sufficient amount of oil was used. Incorporation of wax into the emulsion gel beads affected the drug release. Water-soluble wax (i.e. polyethylene glycol) increased the drug release while other water-insoluble waxes (i.e. glyceryl monostearate, stearyl alcohol, carnauba wax, spermaceti wax and white wax) significantly retarded the drug release. Different waxes had a slight effect on the drug release. However, the increased amount of incorporated wax in the formulations significantly sustained the drug release while the beads remained floating. The results suggest that wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads could be used as a carrier for intragastric floating drug delivery.

  19. Characteristics and antioxidant activity of catechin-loaded calcium pectinate gel beads prepared by internal gelation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Soo; Kim, Eek-Joo; Chung, Donghwa; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2009-11-01

    Catechin-loaded calcium pectinate gel beads prepared by internal gelation were characterized for their catechin entrapment efficiency and release behavior. The entrapment efficiency was higher when the beads were prepared with a lower catechin-to-pectin ratio, shorter gelling time, higher pectin concentration, and lower acetic acid concentration. The entrapment efficiency was much higher under all tested conditions, when the beads were prepared by internal gelation instead of external gelation. The catechin release was slower for the beads prepared with lower catechin-to-pectin ratio, longer gelling time, and higher concentrations of pectin and acetic acid in both simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. Antioxidant power of catechin was effectively maintained in alkaline simulated intestinal fluid when catechin was entrapped within the beads, compared to cases where it was not entrapped, indicating that the beads can protect catechin molecules from the alkaline environment and release them in a sustained fashion.

  20. Apparatus and method for the production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Scott, T.C.; Davison, B.H.

    1998-01-27

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for the large-scale and continuous production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst. The apparatus is a columnar system based on the chemical cross-linking of hydrocolloidal gels that contain and immobilize a biocatalyst, the biocatalyst being a microorganism or an enzyme. Hydrocolloidal gels, such as alginate, carrageenan, and a mixture of bone gelatin and modified alginate, provide immobilization matrices that can be used to entrap and retain the biocatalyst while allowing effective contact with substrates and release of products. Such immobilized biocatalysts are generally formulated into small spheres or beads that have high concentrations of the biocatalyst within the gel matrix. The columnar system includes a gel dispersion nozzle submerged in a heated non-interacting liquid, typically an organic liquid, that is immiscible with water to allow efficient formation of spherical gel droplets, the non-interacting liquid having a specific gravity that is less than water so that the gel droplets will fall through the liquid by the force of gravity. The heated non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with a chilled upflowing non-interacting liquid that will provide sufficient residence time for the gel droplets as they fall through the liquid so that they will be cooled below the gelling temperature and form solid spheres. The upflowing non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with an upflowing temperature-controlled aqueous solution containing the necessary chemicals for cross-linking or fixing of the gel beads to add the necessary stability. The flow rates of the two liquid streams can be varied to control the proper residence time in each liquid section to accommodate the production of gel beads of differing settling velocities. A valve is provided for continuous removal of the stabilized gel beads from the bottom of the column. 1 fig.

  1. Apparatus and method for the production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Scott, Timothy C.; Davison, Brian H.

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method for the large-scale and continuous production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst. The apparatus is a columnar system based on the chemical cross-linking of hydrocolloidal gels that contain and immobilize a biocatalyst, the biocatalyst being a microorganism or an enzyme. Hydrocolloidal gels, such as alginate, carrageenan, and a mixture of bone gelatin and modified alginate, provide immobilization matrices that can be used to entrap and retain the biocatalyst while allowing effective contact with substrates and release of products. Such immobilized biocatalysts are generally formulated into small spheres or beads that have high concentrations of the biocatalyst within the gel matrix. The columnar system includes a gel dispersion nozzle submerged in a heated non-interacting liquid, typically an organic liquid, that is immiscible with water to allow efficient formation of spherical gel droplets, the non-interacting liquid having a specific gravity that is less than water so that the gel droplets will fall through the liquid by the force of gravity. The heated non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with a chilled upflowing non-interacting liquid that will provide sufficient residence time for the gel droplets as they fall through the liquid so that they will be cooled below the gelling temperature and form solid spheres. The upflowing non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with an upflowing temperature-controlled aqueous solution containing the necessary chemicals for cross-linking or fixing of the gel beads to add the necessary stability. The flow rates of the two liquid streams can be varied to control the proper residence time in each liquid section to accommodate the production of gel beads of differing settling velocities. A valve is provided for continuous removal of the stabilized gel beads from the bottom of the column.

  2. Application of cinder gel-beads/reeds combination strategy for bioremediation of pyrene- and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene-contaminated estuarine wetlands.

    PubMed

    Tian, Weijun; Liu, Qing; Huang, Ruying; Jin, Xin; Qiao, Kaili

    2016-06-01

    Pseudomonas putida PYR1 and Acinetobacter baumannii INP1 isolated from Liaohe estuarine wetlands were entrapped in cinder beads to make cinder gel-beads. They were combined with reeds for bioremediation of pyrene- and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene-contaminated estuarine wetlands. The results showed that the removal percentages of pyrene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (69.2 and 89.8 % respectively) in 40 days using cinder gel-beads/reeds were obviously higher than those using cinder gel-beads(52.6 and 70.0 %) and reeds (33.5 and 78.6 %) alone, about four times those of the control (13.8 and 31.1 %). The removal efficiency of pyrene was in the order cinder gel-beads/reeds > cinder gel-beads > reeds > control, which was different from cinder gel-beads/reeds > reeds > cinder gel-beads > control of indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene. This result indicated that the functional mechanism to remove indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene with six benzene rings was different from that of pyrene. The synergistic effect of reeds and cinder gel-beads for indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene removal was weaker than that of pyrene. But the absorption and transformation of reeds with high efficiency were beneficial to indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene removal from wetlands. Additionally, microbial analysis with high-throughput sequencing presented that Gammaproteobacteria were dominant PAH-degrading groups in bioremediation with immobilized bacteria. This strategy can serve as a model system for the removal of more complex or structurally related organic compounds from contaminated sites.

  3. Gel-Bead Delivery of Eimeria oocysts protects chickens against coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Mark C; Parker, Carolyn; Klopp, Spangler; O'Brien, Celia; Miska, Katarzyna; Fetterer, Raymond

    2012-06-01

    Vaccines composed of either virulent or attenuated Eimeria spp. oocysts have been developed as an alternative to medication of feed with ionophore drugs or synthetic chemicals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of gel-beads containing a mixture of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella oocysts as a vaccine against coccidiosis. Newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) were either sprayed with an aqueous suspension of Eimeria oocysts or were allowed to ingest feed containing Eimeria oocysts-incorporated gel-beads. Control day-old chicks were given an equivalent number of Eimeria oocysts (10(4) total) by oral gavage. After 3 days, chicks were randomly assigned to individual cages, and feces were collected between days 5 and 8 postinfection. All samples were processed for total Eimeria oocysts. At 4 wk of age, all chickens and a control nonimmunized group received a high-dose E acervulina, E maxima, and E. tenella challenge infection. Oocyst excretion by chicks fed gel-beads or inoculated by oral gavage was 10- to 100-fold greater than that of chicks spray-vaccinated with the Eimeria oocysts mixture (log 6.3-6.6 vs. log 4.8). Subsequent protection against challenge as measured by weight gain and feed conversion efficiency was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in gel-bead and oral gavage groups compared with spray-vaccinated or nonimmunized groups. Also, gel-bead and oral gavage groups showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in weight gain and feed conversion efficiency compared with nonchallenged controls. These findings indicate that incorporation of Eimeria spp. oocysts in gel-beads may represent an effective way to deliver live oocyst vaccines to day-old chicks for preventing subsequent outbreaks of coccidiosis in the field.

  4. Tuning structural durability of yeast-encapsulating alginate gel beads with interpenetrating networks for sustained bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Cha, Chaenyung; Kim, Soo Rin; Jin, Yong-Su; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms have become key components in many biotechnological processes to produce various chemicals and biofuels. The encapsulation of microbial cells in calcium cross-linked alginate gel beads has been extensively studied due to several advantages over using free cells. However, industrial use of alginate gel beads has been hampered by the low structural stability of the beads. In this study, we demonstrate that the incorporation of interpenetrating covalent cross-links in an ionically cross-linked alginate gel bead significantly enhances the bead's structural durability. The interpenetrating network (IPN) was prepared by first cross-linking alginate chemically modified with methacrylic groups, termed methacrylic alginate (MA), with calcium ions and subsequently conducting a photo cross-linking reaction. The resulting methacrylic alginate gel beads (IPN-MA) exhibited higher stiffness, ultimate strength and ultimate strain and also remained more stable in media either subjected to high shear or supplemented with chelating agents than calcium cross-linked alginate gel beads. Furthermore, yeast cells encapsulated in IPN-MA gel beads remained more metabolically active in ethanol production than those in calcium cross-linked alginate gel beads. Overall, the results of this study will be highly useful in designing encapsulation devices with improved structural durability for a broad array of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells used in biochemical and industrial processes. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Enrichment of cancer stem cell-like cells by culture in alginate gel beads.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-xi; Liu, Chang; Liu, Yang; Yang, Li; Li, Nan; Guo, Xin; Sun, Guang-wei; Ma, Xiao-jun

    2014-05-10

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are most likely the reason of cancer reoccurrence and metastasis. For further elucidation of the mechanism underlying the characteristics of CSCs, it is necessary to develop efficient culture systems to culture and expand CSCs. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) culture system based on alginate gel (ALG) beads was reported to enrich CSCs. Two cell lines derived from different histologic origins were encapsulated in ALG beads respectively and the expansion of CSCs was investigated. Compared with two-dimensional (2D) culture, the proportion of cells with CSC-like phenotypes was significantly increased in ALG beads. Expression levels of CSC-related genes were greater in ALG beads than in 2D culture. The increase of CSC proportion after being cultured within ALG beads was further confirmed by enhanced tumorigenicity in vivo. Moreover, increased metastasis ability and higher anti-cancer drug resistance were also observed in 3D-cultured cells. Furthermore, we found that it was hypoxia, through the upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) that occurred in ALG beads to induce the increasing of CSC proportion. Therefore, ALG bead was an efficient culture system for CSC enrichment, which might provide a useful platform for CSC research and promote the development of new anti-cancer therapies targeting CSCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Gel-Bead Delivery of Eimeria Oocysts Protects Chickens Against Coccidiosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vaccines composed of either virulent or attenuated Eimeria spp. oocysts have been developed as an alternative to medication of feed with ionophore drugs or synthetic chemicals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of gel beads containing a mixture of E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. te...

  7. Facile Fabrication of Polymerizable Ionic Liquid Based-Gel Beads via Thiol-ene Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Taghavikish, Mona; Subianto, Surya; Dutta, Naba Kumar; Choudhury, Namita Roy

    2015-08-12

    Multipurpose gel beads prepared from natural or synthetic polymers have received significant attention in various applications such as drug delivery, coatings, and electrolytes because of their versatility and unique performance as micro- and nanocontainers.1 However, comparatively little work has been done on poly(ionic liquid)-based materials despite their unique ionic characteristics. Thus, in this contribution we report the facile preparation of polymerizable ionic liquid-based gel beads using thiol-ene click chemistry. This novel system incorporates pentaerythritol tetra (3-mercaptopropionate) (PETKMP) and 1,4-di(vinylimidazolium) butane bisbromide in a thiol-ene-based photopolymerization to fabricate the gel beads. Their chemical structure, thermal and mechanical properties have been investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The gel beads possess low Tg and their ionic functionalities attribute self-healing properties and their ability to uptake small molecules or organic compounds offers their potential use as pH sensing material and macrocontainers.

  8. Increased efficacy of Eimeria oocysts delivery by gel beads or spray vaccination

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Control of avian coccidiosis is increasingly being achieved by the administration of low doses of Eimeria oocysts to newly hatched chicks. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of gel-beads containing a mixture of E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella oocysts as a vaccine to protect ...

  9. PVA-gel beads enhance granule formation in a UASB reactor.

    PubMed

    Wenjie, Zhang; Dunqiu, Wang; Yasunori, Koga; Taichi, Yamamoto; Li, Zhang; Kenji, Furukawa

    2008-11-01

    PVA-gel beads were used as a biocarrier in a lab-scale UASB reactor treating synthetic wastewater composed of corn steep liquor (CSL) with the aim of evaluating its use as a growth nucleus to enhance granule formation. Over 117 days of operation, the organic loading rate was increased to 22.5kgCOD/m3/day with an influent COD of about 10.8g/L at an HRT of 12h with COD removal efficiencies greater than 87%. By the end of the study period, the PVA-gel turned black and granule formation was achieved as compared with the formation of much fewer natural granules without the PVA-gel nucleus. No filamentous bacteria were found on the surface or interior of the PVA-gel beads. The PVA-gel granules had an average settling velocity 200m/h (5cm/s), and a biomass attachment of 0.93g VSS/g PVA-gel. The required time for formation of PVA-gel granules was thus demonstrated to be shorter than that of ordinary sludge granules under the experimental conditions used in this study.

  10. Experimental study of porous media flow using hydro-gel beads and LED based PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harshani, H. M. D.; Galindo-Torres, S. A.; Scheuermann, A.; Muhlhaus, H. B.

    2017-01-01

    A novel experimental approach for measuring porous flow characteristics using spherical hydro-gel beads and particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique is presented. A transparent porous medium consisting of hydro-gel beads that are made of a super-absorbent polymer, allows using water as the fluid phase while simultaneously having the same refractive index. As a result, a more adaptable and cost effective refractive index matched (RIM) medium is created. The transparent nature of the porous medium allows optical systems to visualize the flow field by using poly-amide seeding particles (PSP). Low risk light emitting diode (LED) based light was used to illuminate the plane in order to track the seeding particles’ path for the characterization of the flow inside the porous medium. The system was calibrated using a manually measured flow by a flow meter. Velocity profiles were obtained and analysed qualitatively and quantitatively in order to characterise the flow. Results show that this adaptable, low risk experimental set-up can be used for flow measurements in porous medium under low Reynolds numbers. The limitations of using hydro-gel beads are also discussed.

  11. Characterization of structure, physico-chemical properties and diffusion behavior of Ca-Alginate gel beads prepared by different gelation methods.

    PubMed

    Puguan, John Marc C; Yu, Xiaohong; Kim, Hern

    2014-10-15

    Ca-Alginate beads were prepared with either external or internal calcium sources by dripping technique. It was found that beads synthesized with internal calcium source had a looser structure and bigger pore size than those produced with external calcium source. Consequently, a faster diffusion rate of Vitamin B12 (VB12) within the beads with an internal calcium source was observed. Furthermore, the concentration of calcium ion, ionic strength and pH of the external gel beads formation solution were investigated. Results showed that (a) the concentration of the calcium ion was found to be the determining factor in the gel formation phenomenon; (b) the weight and volume losses are in effect due to water removal; (c) NaCl acts as a competitor with calcium and a screen in the electrostatic repulsion; and (d) the pH controls the gel formation process by regulating the dissociation of alginate and the complexation of the calcium cations. These results are keys to understanding the behavior and performance of beads in their utilization medium.

  12. Alginate gel-coated oil-entrapped alginate-tamarind gum-magnesium stearate buoyant beads of risperidone.

    PubMed

    Bera, Hriday; Boddupalli, Shashank; Nandikonda, Sridhar; Kumar, Sanoj; Nayak, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A novel alginate gel-coated oil-entrapped calcium-alginate-tamarind gum (TG)-magnesium stearate (MS) composite floating beads was developed for intragastric risperidone delivery with a view to improving its oral bioavailability. The TG-blended alginate core beads containing olive oil and MS as low-density materials were accomplished by ionotropic gelation technique. Effects of polymer-blend ratio (sodium alginate:TG) and crosslinker (CaCl2) concentration on drug entrapment efficiency (DEE, %) and cumulative drug release after 8 h (Q8h, %) were studied to optimize the core beads by a 3(2) factorial design. The optimized beads (F-O) exhibited DEE of 75.19±0.75% and Q8h of 78.04±0.38% with minimum errors in prediction. The alginate gel-coated optimized beads displayed superior buoyancy and sustained drug release property. The drug release profiles of the drug-loaded uncoated and coated beads were best fitted in Higuchi kinetic model with Fickian and anomalous diffusion driven mechanisms, respectively. The optimized beads yielded a notable sustained drug release profile as compared to marketed immediate release preparation. The uncoated and coated Ca-alginate-TG-MS beads were also characterized by SEM, FTIR and P-XRD analyses. Thus, the newly developed alginate-gel coated oil-entrapped alginate-TG-MS composite beads are suitable for intragastric delivery of risperidone over a prolonged period of time.

  13. Encapsulated human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by alginate gel beads as an in vitro metastasis model

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xiao-xi; Liu, Chang; Liu, Yang; Li, Nan; Guo, Xin; Wang, Shu-jun; Sun, Guang-wei; Wang, Wei; Ma, Xiao-jun

    2013-08-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and often forms metastases, which are the most important prognostic factors. For further elucidation of the mechanism underlying the progression and metastasis of HCC, a culture system mimicking the in vivo tumor microenvironment is needed. In this study, we investigated the metastatic ability of HCC cells cultured within alginate gel (ALG) beads. In the culture system, HCC cells formed spheroids by proliferation and maintained in nuclear abnormalities. The gene and protein expression of metastasis-related molecules was increased in ALG beads, compared with the traditional adhesion culture. Furthermore, several gene expression levels in ALG bead culture system were even closer to liver cancer tissues. More importantly, in vitro invasion assay showed that the invasion cells derived from ALG beads was 7.8-fold higher than adhesion cells. Our results indicated that the in vitro three-dimensional (3D) model based on ALG beads increased metastatic ability compared with adhesion culture, even partly mimicked the in vivo tumor tissues. Moreover, due to the controllable preparation conditions, steady characteristics and production at large-scale, the 3D ALG bead model would become an important tool used in the high-throughput screening of anti-metastasis drugs and the metastatic mechanism research. -- Highlights: •We established a 3D metastasis model mimicking the metastatic ability in vivo. •The invasion ability of cells derived from our model was increased significantly. •The model is easy to reproduce, convenient to handle, and amenable for large-scale.

  14. Immobilization of urease from pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) in polyacrylamide gels and calcium alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Das, N; Kayastha, A M; Malhotra, O P

    1998-02-01

    Urease from pigeonpea was entrapped in polyacrylamide gel with 50% immobilization at 10% total monomer (containing 5% cross-linker) with high mechanical stability of the gel. Approximately 0.61 mg of protein could be loaded per 5 ml of gel. The immobilized enzyme had a t1/2 of approx. 200 days when stored in 0.1 M Tris/acetate buffer, pH 6.5, at 4 degrees C. The gel strips were used 4-5 times for urea assay over a period of 6 h with less than 2% loss of activity. Approximately 50% immobilization of urease in calcium alginate was observed at 3% alginate with 0.12 mg protein/ml alginate. The resultant enzyme beads showed a t1/2 of approx. 75 days when stored in 0.1 M Tris/acetate buffer, pH 6.5, at 4 degrees C. The beads were used 4-5 times for urea assay over a period of 6 h with about 40% loss of activity. In both cases, the enzyme activity was directly proportional to the amount of immobilized enzyme. There was practically no leaching of the entrapped enzyme over a period of 48 h from either of the polymers. Both the immobilized enzyme preparations were used to analyse the blood urea of some clinical samples from the University hospital. The results obtained compared favourably with those obtained by the usual method employed in the clinical pathology laboratory.

  15. Diffusivity of Cu[sup 2+] in calcium alginate gel beads

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Dong; Lewandowski, Z.; Roe, F.; Surapaneni, P. )

    1993-03-25

    A linear absorption model (LAM) is used to describe the process of metal binding to spherically shaped biopolymer particles. The LAM was solved using a numerical algorithm which calculates diffusivities of metal ions in biopolymer gels. It assumes attainment of rapid metal-biopolymer binding equilibrium accompanied by rate limiting diffusion of the metal ions through the gel. The model was tested using batch experiments in which copper (Cu[sup 2+]) binding with calcium alginate beads was investigated. Biopolymer density in the beads was varied between 2% and 5%. The diffusion coefficient of Cu[sup 2+] calculated from the LAM ranged from 1.19 [times] 10[sup [minus]9] to 1.48 [times] 10[sup [minus]9]m[sup 2]s[sup [minus]1] (average 1.31 [plus minus] 0.21 [times] 10[sup [minus]9]m[sup 2]s[sup [minus]1]), independent of biopolymer density. The LAM has theoretical advantages over the shrinking core model (shell progressive model). The latter calculated an unreasonable exponential increase in the diffusion coefficient as density of alginate polymer in the bead increased.

  16. Determination of diffusion coefficients and diffusion characteristics for chlorferon and diethylthiophosphate in Ca-alginate gel beads.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jiyeon; Engler, Cady R; Lee, Seung Jae

    2008-07-01

    Diffusion characteristics of chlorferon and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) in Ca-alginate gel beads were studied to assist in designing and operating bioreactor systems. Diffusion coefficients for chlorferon and DETP in Ca-alginate gel beads determined at conditions suitable for biodegradation studies were 2.70 x 10(-11) m(2)/s and 4.28 x 10(-11) m(2)/s, respectively. Diffusivities of chlorferon and DETP were influenced by several factors, including viscosity of the bulk solution, agitation speed, and the concentrations of diffusing substrate and immobilized cells. Diffusion coefficients increased with increasing agitation speed, probably due to poor mixing at low speed and some attrition of beads at high speeds. Diffusion coefficients also increased with decreasing substrate concentration. Increased cell concentration in the gel beads caused lower diffusivity. Theoretical models to predict diffusivities as a function of cell weight fraction overestimated the effective diffusivities for both chlorferon and DETP, but linear relations between effective diffusivity and cell weight fraction were derived from experimental data. Calcium-alginate gel beads with radii of 1.65-1.70 mm used in this study were not subject to diffusional limitations: external mass transfer resistances were negligible based on Biot number calculations and effectiveness factors indicated that internal mass transfer resistance was negligible. Therefore, the degradation rates of chlorferon and DETP inside Ca-alginate gel beads were reaction-limited.

  17. Boron removal from aqueous solutions using alginate gel beads in fixed-bed systems

    PubMed Central

    Demey-Cedeño, Hary; Ruiz, Montserrat; Barron-Zambrano, Jesús Alberto; Sastre, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background A column sorption study was carried out using calcium alginate gel beads as adsorbent for the removal of boron from aqueous solutions. The breakthrough curve was obtained as a function of pH, initial concentration of boron, feed flow rate, adsorbent mass and column diameter. The breakthrough capacity values and adsorption percentage of calcium alginate gel for boron were calculated. Column data obtained at different conditions were described using the Adams–Bohart model and bed-depth service time (BDST), derived from the Adams–Bohart equation to predict breakthrough curves and to determine the characteristic column parameters required for process design. Results The maximum adsorption percentage of boron on calcium alginate gel beads using an initial concentration of boron of 50 mg L−1 at pH 11 and room temperature (20±1°C) was calculated to be 55.14%. Conclusion The results indicated that calcium alginate can be used in a continuous packed-bed column for boron adsorption. The optimal conditions for boron adsorption were obtained at high pH, higher initial boron concentration, increased column depth and lower flow velocity. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25821332

  18. The development, physicochemical characterisation and in vitro drug release studies of pectinate gel beads containing Thai mango seed kernel extract.

    PubMed

    Nithitanakool, Saruth; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Bourgeois, Sandrine; Fessi, Hatem; Bavovada, Rapepol

    2013-06-03

    Pectinate gel beads containing Thai mango seed kernel extract (MSKE, cultivar 'Fahlun') were developed and characterised for the purpose of colon-targeted delivery. The MSKE-loaded pectinate beads were prepared using ionotropic gelation with varying pectin-to-MSKE ratios, MSKE concentrations, and concentrations of two cross-linkers (calcium chloride and zinc acetate). The formulated beads were spherical in shape and ranged in size between 1.13 mm and 1.88 mm. Zinc-pectinate (ZPG) beads containing high amounts of MSKE showed complete entrapment efficiency (EE) of MSKE (100%), while calcium-pectinate (CPG) beads demonstrated 70% EE. The in vitro release tests indicated that MSKE-loaded CPG beads were unstable in both simulated gastric medium (SGM) and simulated intestinal medium (SIM), while MSKE-loaded ZPG beads were stable in SIM but unable to prevent the release of MSKE in SGM. The protection of ZPG beads with gastro-resistant capsules (Eudragit® L 100-55) resulted in stability in both SGM and SIM; they disintegrated immediately in simulated colonic medium containing pectinolytic enzymes. MSKE-loaded ZPG beads were stable at 4, 25 and 45 °C during the study period of four months. The present study revealed that ZPG beads in enteric-coated capsules might be a promising carrier for delivering MSKE to the colon.

  19. Processing of CuAlMn Shape Memory Foams with Open Spherical Pores by Silica-Gel Beads Infiltration Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua; Yuan, Bin; Gao, Yan

    2016-10-01

    A molten metal infiltration process with amorphous SiO2 (silica-gel) beads as space holders was used to prepare Cu-based shape memory foams in this article. We found that the silica-gel beads with micropores inside expanded when being heated to elevated temperatures and that proper control of the expansion of silica-gel beads helped form necks between the beads with different bonding extent, which had been taken advantage of to have a good control of the foam morphology and porosity, by carefully designing suitable procedures and choosing proper parameters for the process. In addition, we studied in detail the effect of heating temperature, silica-gel bead density, and infiltration pressure of the present process on the morphology and porosity of CuAlMn shape memory foams. By coordinating these three key parameters, CuAlMn shape memory foams with open spherical pores and adjustable porosity from 66 to 85 pct were reliably produced.

  20. Control of metal toxicity, effluent COD and regeneration of gel beads by immobilized sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Min, Xiaobo; Chai, Liyuan; Zhang, Chuanfu; Takasaki, Yasushi; Okura, Takahiko

    2008-07-01

    Over the last few decades, the use of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the treatment of heavy-metal containing wastewaters including acid mine drainage has become a topic of scientific and commercial interest. However, technical difficulties such as the sensitivity of SRB to toxic metals and high effluent COD limit the widespread use of SRB in high heavy-metal containing wastewater. The aim of this study was to clarify the reasons why the immobilized SRB sludge with inner cohesive carbon source (ISIS) process can endure high metal toxicity and decrease effluent COD. The ISIS process can physically set apart SRB and free the system of external influences such as the surrounding toxic metallic ions, as well as form inner carbon sources to avoid high effluent COD. Metal toxicity and bead durability are the two major factors which influence the regeneration and reuse of gel beads. Reuse of suspended SRB sludge and beads crosslinked with boric acid were unsuccessful due to metal toxicity and agglomeration of beads, respectively. However, beads crosslinked with ammonium sulfate prevented agglomeration of beads allowing successful bead regeneration and reuse. The result of four cyclic trials showed that over 99% of zinc was removed in each trial using these beads.

  1. On-bead expression of recombinant proteins in an agarose gel matrix coated on a glass slide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Ka-Young; Byun, Ju-Young; Kim, Byung-Gee; Kim, Dong-Myung

    2012-05-07

    A system for expression and in situ display of recombinant proteins on a microbead surface is described. Biotinylated PCR products were immobilized on microbead surfaces, which were then embedded in a gel matrix and supplied with translation machinery and substrates. Upon the incubation of the gel matrix, target proteins encoded on the bead-immobilized DNA were expressed and captured on the same bead, thus allowing bead-mediated linkage of DNA and encoded proteins. The new method combines the simplicity and convenience of solid-phase separation of genetic information with the benefits of cell-free protein synthesis, such as instant translation of genetic information, unrestricted substrate accessibility and flexible assay configuration design.

  2. A Technique for High-Throughput Protein Crystallization in Ionically Cross-Linked Polysaccharide Gel Beads for X-Ray Diffraction Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Sugahara, Michihiro

    2014-01-01

    A simple technique for high-throughput protein crystallization in ionically cross-linked polysaccharide gel beads has been developed for contactless handling of crystals in X-ray crystallography. The method is designed to reduce mechanical damage to crystals caused by physical contact between crystal and mount tool and by osmotic shock during various manipulations including cryoprotection, heavy-atom derivatization, ligand soaking, and diffraction experiments. For this study, protein crystallization in alginate and κ-carrageenan gel beads was performed using six test proteins, demonstrating that proteins could be successfully crystallized in gel beads. Two complete diffraction data sets from lysozyme and ID70067 protein crystals in gel beads were collected at 100 K without removing the crystals; the results showed that the crystals had low mosaicities. In addition, crystallization of glucose isomerase was carried out in alginate gel beads in the presence of synthetic zeolite molecular sieves (MS), a hetero-epitaxic nucleant; the results demonstrated that MS can reduce excess nucleation of this protein in beads. To demonstrate heavy-atom derivatization, lysozyme crystals were successfully derivatized with K2PtBr6 within alginate gel beads. These results suggest that gel beads prevent serious damage to protein crystals during such experiments. PMID:24740192

  3. Biodegradation of crystal violet using Burkholderia vietnamiensis C09V immobilized on PVA-sodium alginate-kaolin gel beads.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ying; Lin, HongYan; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2012-09-01

    The strain, Burkholderia vietnamiensis C09V was immobilized on PVA-alginate-kaolin gel beads as a biomaterial to improve the degradation of crystal violet from aqueous solution. The results show that 98.6% (30 mg L(-1)) crystal violet was removed from aqueous solution using immobilized cells on PVA-alginate-kaolin gel beads, while 94.0% crystal violet was removed by free cells after degradation at the pH 5 and 30°C for 30 h. Kinetics studies show that the pseudo-second-order kinetics well described the adsorption of crystal violet on the PVA-alginate-kaolin beads. Biodegradation of crystal violet on immobilized cells was fitted well by first-order reaction kinetics, indicating that CV was adsorbed onto kaolin and followed their degradation by immobilized cells onto the the PVA-alginate-kaolin beads. Characterization with SEM shows that cells attached well to the surface of PVA-alginate-kaolin beads, leading to improved crystal violet transfer from aqueous solution to immobilized cells. In addition, UV-vis show that the absorption peak at 588 nm was reduced by the degraded N-bond linkages, as well as the formation of degrading products were observed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). These results suggest that crystal violet was biodegraded to N,N-dimethylaminophenol and Michler's Ketone prior to these intermediates being further degraded. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Xanthan-alginate composite gel beads: molecular interaction and in vitro characterization.

    PubMed

    Pongjanyakul, Thaned; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2007-02-22

    Xanthan gum (XG), a trisaccharide branched polymer, was applied to reinforce calcium alginate beads in this study. Composite beads consisting of XG and sodium alginate (SA) were prepared using ionotropic gelation method. Diclofenac calcium-alginate (DCA) beads incorporated with different amounts of XG were produced as well. Molecular interaction between SA and XG in the composite beads and the XG-DCA beads was investigated using FTIR spectroscopy. Physical properties of the XG-DCA beads such as entrapment efficiency of diclofenac sodium (DS), thermal property, water uptake, swelling and DS release in various media were examined. XG could form intermolecular hydrogen bonding with SA in the composite beads with or without DS. Differential scanning calorimetric study indicated that XG did not affect thermal property of the DCA beads. The DS entrapment efficiency of the DCA beads increased with increasing amount of XG added. The XG-DCA beads showed higher water uptake and swelling in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer and distilled water than the DCA beads. A longer lag time and a higher DS release rate of the XG-DCA beads in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer were found. In contrast, the 0.3%XG-DCA beads could retard the drug release in distilled water because interaction between XG and SA gave higher tortuosity of the bead matrix. However, higher content of XG in the DCA beads increased the release rate of DS. This can be attributed to erosion of small aggregates of XG on the surface of the DCA beads. This finding suggested that XG could modulate physicochemical properties and drug release of the DCA beads, which based on the existence of molecular interaction between XG and SA.

  5. Beading instability in soft cylindrical gels with capillary energy: Weakly non-linear analysis and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taffetani, M.; Ciarletta, P.

    2015-08-01

    Soft cylindrical gels can develop a long-wavelength peristaltic pattern driven by a competition between surface tension and bulk elastic energy. In contrast to the Rayleigh-Plateau instability for viscous fluids, the macroscopic shape in soft solids evolves toward a stable beading, which strongly differs from the buckling arising in compressed elastic cylinders. This work proposes a novel theoretical and numerical approach for studying the onset and the non-linear development of the elasto-capillary beading in soft cylinders, made of neo-Hookean hyperelastic material with capillary energy at the free surface, subjected to axial stretch. Both a theoretical study, deriving the linear and the weakly non-linear stability analyses for the problem, and numerical simulations, investigating the fully non-linear evolution of the beaded morphology, are performed. The theoretical results prove that an axial elongation can not only favour the onset of beading, but also determine the nature of the elastic bifurcation. The fully non-linear phase diagrams of the beading are also derived from finite element numerical simulations, showing two peculiar morphological transitions when varying either the axial stretch or the material properties of the gel. Since the bifurcation is found to be subcritical for very slender cylinders, an imperfection sensitivity analysis is finally performed. In this case, it is shown that a surface sinusoidal imperfection can resonate with the corresponding marginally stable solution, thus selecting the emerging beading wavelength. In conclusion, the results of this study provide novel guidelines for controlling the beaded morphology in different experimental conditions, with important applications in micro-fabrication techniques, such as electrospun fibres.

  6. Effects of gelling bath on the physical properties of alginate gel beads and the biological characteristics of entrapped HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dongsheng; Liu, Yang; Wu, Hao; Ren, Ying; Ma, Xiaojun; Wu, Huijian; Sun, Guangwei

    2017-08-09

    Optimizing alginate gel beads is necessary to support the survival, proliferation, and function of entrapped hepatocytes. In this study, gelling bath was modified by decreasing calcium ion concentration and increasing sodium ion concentration. Alginate gel beads (using 36% G sodium alginate) prepared in the modified gelling bath had more homogeneous structure and better mass transfer properties compared with the traditional gelling bath that contains only calcium ions. Moreover, alginate gel beads generated in the modified gelling bath could significantly promote the HepG2 cell proliferation and the growth of cell spheroids, and maintain the albumin secretion ability similar to alginate gel beads prepared in the traditional gelling bath with only calcium ions. The mass transfer properties and cell proliferation were similar in ALG beads with different M/G ratio (36% G and 55% G) generated in the modified gelling bath, whereas they were significantly increased compared with alginate gel beads (55% G) in traditional gelling bath. These results indicated that adjusting the gelling bath was a simple and convenient method to enhance the mass transfer properties of alginate gel beads for 3D hepatocyte culture, which might provide more hepatocytes for the bioartificial liver support system. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Protecting chickens against coccidiosis in floor pens by administering Eimeria oocysts using gel beads or spray vaccination.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Mark C; Parker, Carolyn; O'Brien, Celia; Persyn, Joseph; Barlow, Darren; Miska, Katarzyna; Fetterer, Raymond

    2013-09-01

    Control of avian coccidiosis is increasingly being achieved by the administration of low doses of Eimeria oocysts to newly hatched chicks. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of gel beads containing a mixture of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella oocysts as a vaccine to protect broilers raised in contact with litter. Newly hatched chicks were either sprayed with an aqueous suspension of Eimeria oocysts or were allowed to ingest feed containing Eimeria oocysts-incorporated gel beads. Control, 1-day-old chicks were given an equivalent number of Eimeria oocysts (10(3) total) by oral gavage or received no vaccine (nonimmunized controls). All chicks were raised in floor-pen cages in direct contact with litter. At 4 wk of age, all chickens and a control nonimmunized group received a high-dose E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella challenge infection. Chickens immunized with Eimeria oocysts in gel beads or by spray vaccination displayed significantly (P < 0.05) greater weight gain (WG) compared to nonimmunized controls. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) also showed a significant (P < 0.05) improvement in both groups relative to nonimmunized controls. Moreover, WG and FCR in both groups was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from chickens immunized by oral gavage or from nonimmunized, noninfected controls. Oocyst excretion after Eimeria challenge by all immunized groups was about 10-fold less than in nonimmunized controls. These findings indicate that immunization efficacy of gel beads and spray vaccination is improved by raising immunized chicks in contact with litter.

  8. Preparation of dual crosslinked alginate-chitosan blend gel beads and in vitro controlled release in oral site-specific drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongmei; Zhan, Changyou; Fan, Lihong; Wang, Le; Zheng, Hua

    2007-05-24

    Alginate-chitosan (ALG-CS) blend gel beads were prepared based on Ca2+ or dual crosslinking with various proportions of alginate and chitosan. The homogeneous solution of alginate and chitosan was dripped into the solution of calcium chloride; the resultant Ca2+ single crosslinked beads were dipped in the solution of sodium sulfate sequentially to prepare dual crosslinked beads. The dual crosslinkage effectively promoted the stability of beads under gastrointestinal tract conditions. The sustained release profiles of single and dual crosslinked gel beads loaded bovine serum albumin (BSA), a model protein drug, were investigated in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) and simulated colonic fluid (SCF). In SGF, compared to Ca2+ single crosslinked beads, from which BSA released fast and the cumulative drug release percentages were about 80% of all formations in 4 h, the BSA total release from dual crosslinked gel beads was no more than 3% in 8 h. In SIF and SCF, Ca2+ single crosslinked beads were disrupted soon associating with the fast drug release. As to the dual crosslinked beads, the BSA total release from the ALG-CS mass ratio 9:1 (81.24%) was higher than that of 7:3 and 5:5 (less than 60%) in 8 h in SIF; the BSA release from all beads was much faster in SCF than in SIF. The dual crosslinked beads incubated in gastrointestinal tract conditions, the BSA cumulative release of ALG-CS mass ratios 9:1, 7:3 and 5:5 were respectively 2.35, 1.96, 1.76% (in SGF 4 h), 82.86, 78.83, 52.91% (in SIF 3 h) and 97.84, 96.81, 87.26% (in SCF 3 h), which suggested that the dual crosslinked beads have potential small intestine or colon site-specific drug delivery property.

  9. Diffusion in cell-free and cell immobilising kappa-carrageenan gel beads with and without chemical reaction

    PubMed

    Mateus; Alves; da Fonseca MM

    1999-06-05

    Diffusion into and from kappa-carrageenan gel beads was studied, both in the absence and presence of bacterial cells, both with and without biochemical reaction. The solutes were indole, L-serine, and L-tryptophan. The reaction was that of indole and L-serine to give L-tryptophan. Established theory concerning diffusion of a single solute in cell-free gels was found to describe well the effect of the gel on diffusivity. Simultaneous diffusion of the three solutes resulted in lower diffusivities than those for individual solutes, suggesting the need to use multicomponent diffusion theory. The effect of cells on diffusion could only be accounted for by models assuming permeable cells. Diffusion with chemical reaction was reasonably well described by an effectiveness factor calculated using an effective diffusivity estimated from diffusion data without reaction. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Fast and mild strategy, using superhydrophobic surfaces, to produce collagen/platelet lysate gel beads for skin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lima, Ana Catarina; Mano, João F; Concheiro, Angel; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2015-02-01

    Platelet lysate (PL) was encapsulated in collagen (Coll) millimetric gel beads, on biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces, under mild conditions, with the aim of obtaining easy-to-handle formulations able to provide sustained release of multiple growth factors for skin ulcers treatment. The gel particles were prepared with various concentrations of PL incorporating or not stem cells, and tested as freshly prepared or after being freeze-dried or cryopreserved. Coll + PL particles were evaluated regarding degradation in collagenase-rich environment (simulating the aggressive environment of the chronic ulcers), sustained release of total protein, PDGF-BB and VEGF, cell proliferation (using particles as the only source of growth factors), scratch wound recovery and angiogenic capability. Compared to Coll solely particles, incorporation of PL notably enhanced cell proliferation (inside and outside gels) and favored scratch wound recovery and angiogenesis. Moreover, cell-laden gel particles containing PL notably improved cell proliferation and even migration of cells from one particle towards a neighbor one, which led to cell-cell contacts and the spontaneous formation of tissue layers in which the spherical gels were interconnected by the stem cells.

  11. Immobilization of Nicotiana tabacum plant cell suspensions within calcium alginate gel beads for the production of enhanced amounts of scopolin.

    PubMed

    Gilleta; Roisin; Fliniaux; Jacquin-Dubreuil; Barbotin; Nava-Saucedo

    2000-02-01

    Scopolin-producing cells of Nicotiana tabacum were immobilized within Ca-alginate gel beads. Free cell suspensions accumulated scopolin within cytoplasmic compartments and cell disruption was necessary to recover scopolin. On the contrary, immobilized plant cells excreted considerable amounts of scopolin. Scopolin diffused throughout the gel matrix and reached the culture media. A large fraction of produced scopolin could then be recovered from the culture medium without disrupting cells. Immobilized N. tabacum cells produced more scopolin than free cell suspensions did (3.8 mg/g fresh weight biomass [into the culture media] versus 0.2 mg/g fresh weight biomass [intracellular]). Variation of the immobilization conditions revealed a marked influence on the behavior of N. tabacum plant cells: production of scopolin and enhanced excretion, cell growth, and morphological aspect of plant cell colonies. This excretion phenomenon could be used advantageously at an industrial production level.

  12. Gel Microstructure Regulates Proliferation and Differentiation of MC3T3-E1 Cells Encapsulated in Alginate Beads

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Baek-Hee; Li, Bing; Guelcher, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    For cell transplantation into damaged tissues, viable cells must be delivered to the defect site in a suitable carrier. However, the hypoxic and nutrient-limited environment in the carrier can induce massive cell death. The aims of this study were to increase the viability and regulate the behavior of osteoprogenitor cells encapsulated in alginate hydrogels through control of the gel microstructure. Cell survivability in alginate beads was improved through the use of α-MEM as the solvent for alginic acid sodium salt and CaCl2 solutions, which supplied additional nutrients for the cells compared to water or buffer. The mesh size and shear modulus of the hydrogel were hypothesized to regulate proliferation and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells. MC3T3-E1 cells demonstrated enhanced osteoblast differentiation when encapsulated in high-density alginate with smaller mesh size and more rigid mechanical properties, as confirmed by increased alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin secretion. However, MC3T3-E1 cells encapsulated in low-density alginate beads with a larger mesh size and more compliant mechanical properties exhibited increased proliferation. These results demonstrate that the microstructure of alginate hydrogels can regulate the behavior of osteoprogenitor cells, thus suggesting that the tuning the properties of the gel may be a useful approach for enhancing new bone formation. PMID:22306825

  13. Efficient Pb(II) removal using sodium alginate-carboxymethyl cellulose gel beads: Preparation, characterization, and adsorption mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ren, Huixue; Gao, Zhimin; Wu, Daoji; Jiang, Jiahui; Sun, Youmin; Luo, Congwei

    2016-02-10

    Alginate-carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) gel beads were prepared in this study using sodium alginate (SA) and sodium CMC through blending and cross-linking. The specific surface area and aperture of the prepared SA-CMC gel beads were tested. The SA-CMC structure was characterized and analyzed via infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Static adsorption experiment demonstrated that Pb(II) adsorption of SA-CMC exceeded 99% under the optimized conditions. In addition, experiments conducted under the same experimental conditions showed that the lead ion removal efficiency of SA-CMC was significantly higher than that of conventional adsorbents. The Pb(II) adsorption process of SA-CMC followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and the dynamic adsorption model could be described through a pseudo-second-order rate equation. Pb(II) removal mechanisms of SA-CMC, including physical, chemical, and electrostatic adsorptions, were discussed based on microstructure analysis and adsorption kinetics. Chemical adsorption was the main adsorption method among these mechanisms.

  14. Effects of root exudates on gel-beads/reeds combination remediation of high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Tian, Weijun; Zhao, Jing; Zhou, Yuhang; Qiao, Kaili; Jin, Xin; Liu, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Changes in root exudates, including low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), amino acids and sugars, in rhizosphere soils during the gel-beads/reeds combination remediation for high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) and the degree of the effects on HMW-PAH biodegradation were evaluated in this study. The results showed that the gel-beads/reeds combination remediation notably increased the removal rates of pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (65.0-68.9%, 60.0-68.5% and 85.2-85.9%, respectively). During the removal of HMW-PAHs, the LMWOAs, particularly maleic acid, enhanced the biodegradation of HMW-PAHs. Arginine and trehalose monitored in reed root exudates promoted the growth of plants and microorganisms and then improved the removal of HMW-PAHs, especially pyrene. However, the contribution of reed root exudates on degradation of 5- and 6-ring PAHs was minor. These results indicated that the utilization of root exudates was certainly not the only important trait for the removal of HMW-PAHs.

  15. Development of hydrogel TentaGel shell-core beads for ultrahigh throughput solution-phase screening of encoded OBOC combinatorial small molecule libraries.

    PubMed

    Baek, Hyoung Gee; Liu, Ruiwu; Lam, Kit S

    2009-01-01

    The one-bead one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial library method enables the rapid generation and screening of millions of discrete chemical compounds on beads. Most of the OBOC screening methods require the library compounds to remain tethered to the bead during screening process. Methods have also been developed to release library compounds from immobilized beads for in situ solution phase or "lawn" assays. However, this latter approach, while extremely powerful, is severely limited by the lack of suitable solid supports for such assays. Here, we report on the development of a novel hydrogel TentaGel shell-core (HTSC) bead in which hydrogel is grafted onto the polystyrene-based TentaGel (TG) bead as an outer shell (5-80 mum thick) via free radical surface-initiated polymerization. This novel shell-core bilayer resin enables the preparation of encoded OBOC combinatorial small molecule libraries, such that the library compounds reside on the highly hydrophilic outer layer and the coding tags reside in the polystyrene-based TG core. Using fluorescein as a model small molecule compound, we have demonstrated that fluorescein molecules that have been linked covalently to the hydrogel shell via a disulfide bond could readily diffuse out of the hydrogel layer into the bead surrounding after reduction with dithiothreitol. In contrast, under identical condition, the released fluorescein molecules remained bound to unmodified TG bead. We have prepared an encoded OBOC small molecule library on the novel shell-core beads and demonstrated that the beads can be readily decoded.

  16. Development of Hydrogel TentaGel Shell-Core Beads for Ultra-high Throughput Solution Phase Screening of Encoded OBOC Combinatorial Small Molecule Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Gee Baek, Hyoung; Liu, Ruiwu; Lam, Kit S.

    2009-01-01

    The one-bead one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial library method enables the rapid generation and screening of millions of discrete chemical compounds on beads. Most of the OBOC screening methods require the library compounds to remain tethered to the bead during screening process. Methods have also been developed to release library compounds from immobilized beads for in situ solution phase or “lawn” assays. However, this latter approach, while extremely powerful, is severely limited by the lack of suitable solid supports for such assays. Here we report on the development of a novel hydrogel TentaGel shell-core (HTSC) bead in which hydrogel is grafted onto the polystyrene-based TentaGel® (TG) bead as an outer shell (5–80 µm thick), via free radical surface-initiated polymerization. This novel shell-core bilayer resin enables the preparation of encoded OBOC combinatorial small molecule libraries such that the library compounds reside on the highly hydrophilic outer layer and the coding tags reside in the polystyrene-based TG core. Using fluorescein as a model small molecule compound, we have demonstrated that fluorescein molecules that have been linked covalently to the hydrogel shell via a disulfide bond, could readily diffuse out of the hydrogel layer into the bead surrounding after reduction with dithiothreitol. In contrast, under identical condition, the released fluorescein molecules remained bound to unmodified TG bead. We have prepared an encoded OBOC small molecule library on the novel shell-core beads and demonstrated that the beads can be readily decoded. PMID:19061339

  17. Modeling the evolution of complex conductivity during calcite precipitation on glass beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Philippe; Li, Shuai; Jougnot, Damien; Revil, André; Wu, Yuxin

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARYWhen pH and alkalinity increase, calcite frequently precipitates and hence modifies the petrophysical properties of porous media. The <span class="hlt">complex</span> conductivity method can be used to directly monitor calcite precipitation in porous media because it is sensitive to the evolution of the mineralogy, pore structure and its connectivity. We have developed a mechanistic grain polarization model considering the electrochemical polarization of the Stern and diffuse layer surrounding calcite particles. Our <span class="hlt">complex</span> conductivity model depends on the surface charge density of the Stern layer and on the electrical potential at the onset of the diffuse layer, which are computed using a basic Stern model of the calcite/water interface. The <span class="hlt">complex</span> conductivity measurements of Wu et al. (2010) on a column packed with glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> where calcite precipitation occurs are reproduced by our surface <span class="hlt">complexation</span> and <span class="hlt">complex</span> conductivity models. The evolution of the size and shape of calcite particles during the calcite precipitation experiment is estimated by our <span class="hlt">complex</span> conductivity model. At the early stage of the calcite precipitation experiment, modeled particles sizes increase and calcite particles flatten with time because calcite crystals nucleate at the surface of glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> and grow into larger calcite grains around glass <span class="hlt">beads</span>. At the later stage of the calcite precipitation experiment, modeled sizes and cementation exponents of calcite particles decrease with time because large calcite grains aggregate over multiple glass <span class="hlt">beads</span>, a percolation threshold is achieved, and small and discrete calcite crystals polarize.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20593859','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20593859"><span>Jeffamine derivatized Tenta<span class="hlt">Gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> and poly(dimethylsiloxane) microbead cassettes for ultrahigh-throughput in situ releasable solution-phase cell-based screening of one-<span class="hlt">bead</span>-one-compound combinatorial small molecule libraries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Townsend, Jared B; Shaheen, Farzana; Liu, Ruiwu; Lam, Kit S</p> <p>2010-09-13</p> <p>A method to efficiently immobilize and partition large quantities of microbeads in an array format in microfabricated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) cassette for ultrahigh-throughput in situ releasable solution-phase cell-based screening of one-<span class="hlt">bead</span>-one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial libraries is described. Commercially available Jeffamine triamine T-403 (∼440 Da) was derivatized such that two of its amino groups were protected by Fmoc and the remaining amino group capped with succinic anhydride to generate a carboxyl group. This resulting trifunctional hydrophilic polymer was then sequentially coupled two times to the outer layer of topologically segregated bilayer Tenta<span class="hlt">Gel</span> (TG) <span class="hlt">beads</span> with solid phase peptide synthesis chemistry resulting in <span class="hlt">beads</span> with increased loading capacity, hydrophilicity, and porosity at the outer layer. We have found that such <span class="hlt">bead</span> configuration can facilitate ultrahigh-throughput in situ releasable solution-phase screening of OBOC libraries. An encoded releasable OBOC small molecule library was constructed on Jeffamine derivatized TG <span class="hlt">beads</span> with library compounds tethered to the outer layer via a disulfide linker and coding tags in the interior of the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Compound-<span class="hlt">beads</span> could be efficiently loaded (5-10 min) into a 5 cm diameter Petri dish containing a 10,000-well PDMS microbead cassette, such that over 90% of the microwells were each filled with only one compound-<span class="hlt">bead</span>. Jurkat T-lymphoid cancer cells suspended in Matrigel were then layered over the microbead cassette to immobilize the compound-<span class="hlt">beads</span>. After 24 h of incubation at 37 °C, dithiothreitol was added to trigger the release of library compounds. Forty-eight hours later, MTT reporter assay was used to identify regions of reduced cell viability surrounding each positive <span class="hlt">bead</span>. From a total of about 20,000 <span class="hlt">beads</span> screened, 3 positive <span class="hlt">beads</span> were detected and physically isolated for decoding. A strong consensus motif was identified for these three positive compounds. These compounds</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28206933','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28206933"><span>Use of Antibiotic-Impregnated Absorbable <span class="hlt">Beads</span> and Tissue Coverage of <span class="hlt">Complex</span> Wounds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>White, Terris L; Culliford, Alfred T; Zomaya, Martin; Freed, Gary; Demas, Christopher P</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The treatment of <span class="hlt">complex</span> wounds is commonplace for plastic surgeons. Standard management is debridement of infected and devitalized tissue and systemic antibiotic therapy. In cases where vital structures are exposed within the wound, coverage is obtained with the use of vascularized tissue using both muscle and fasciocutaneous flaps. The use of nondissolving polymethylmethacrylate and absorbable antibiotic-impregnated <span class="hlt">beads</span> has been shown to deliver high concentrations of antibiotics with low systemic levels of the same antibiotic. We present a multicenter retrospective review of all cases that used absorbable antibiotic-impregnated <span class="hlt">beads</span> for <span class="hlt">complex</span> wound management from 2003 to 2013. A total of 104 cases were investigated, flap coverage was used in 97 cases (93.3%). Overall, 15 patients (14.4%) required reoperation with the highest groups involving orthopedic wounds and sternal wounds. The advantages of using absorbable antibiotic-impregnated <span class="hlt">beads</span> in <span class="hlt">complex</span> infected wounds have been demonstrated with minimal disadvantages. The utilization of these <span class="hlt">beads</span> is expanding to a variety of <span class="hlt">complex</span> infectious wounds requiring high concentrations of local antibiotics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23332458','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23332458"><span>Ultrasound-assisted dextranase entrapment onto Ca-alginate <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bashari, Mohanad; Wang, Pei; Eibaid, Ahmed; Tian, Yaoqi; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>In this research work, dextranase has immobilized onto calcium alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> using a novel ultrasound method. The process of immobilization of the enzyme was carried out in a one-step ultrasound process. Effects of ultrasound conditions on loading efficiency and immobilization yield of the enzyme onto calcium alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> were investigated. Furthermore, the activity of the free and immobilized enzymes prepared with and without ultrasound treatment, as a function of pH, temperature, recyclability and enzyme kinetic parameters, was compared. The maximum loading efficiency and the immobilization yield were observed when the immobilized dextranase was prepared with an ultrasonic irradiation at 25 kHz, 40 W for 15 min, under which the loading efficiency and the immobilization yield increased by 27.21% and 18.77%, respectively, compared with the immobilized enzymes prepared without ultrasonic irradiation. On the other hand, immobilized enzyme prepared with ultrasonic irradiation showed Vmax and KM value higher than that for the immobilized enzyme prepared without ultrasonic irradiation, likewise, both the catalytic and specificity constants of immobilized enzyme prepared with ultrasonic irradiation were higher than that for immobilized enzyme prepared without ultrasound, indicating that, this new ultrasonic method improved the catalytic kinetics activity of immobilized dextranase at all the reaction conditions studied. Compared with immobilized enzyme prepared without ultrasound treatment, the immobilized enzymes prepared with ultrasound irradiation exhibited: a higher pH optimum, optimal reaction temperature, activation energy, and thermal stability, as well as, a higher recyclability, which, illustrating the effectiveness of the sonochemical method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the effect of ultrasound treatments on the immobilization of dextranase. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoJI.209..123L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoJI.209..123L"><span>Modelling the evolution of <span class="hlt">complex</span> conductivity during calcite precipitation on glass <span class="hlt">beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leroy, Philippe; Li, Shuai; Jougnot, Damien; Revil, André; Wu, Yuxin</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>When pH and alkalinity increase, calcite frequently precipitates and hence modifies the petrophysical properties of porous media. The <span class="hlt">complex</span> conductivity method can be used to directly monitor calcite precipitation in porous media because it is sensitive to the evolution of the mineralogy, pore structure and its connectivity. We have developed a mechanistic grain polarization model considering the electrochemical polarization of the Stern and diffuse layers surrounding calcite particles. Our <span class="hlt">complex</span> conductivity model depends on the surface charge density of the Stern layer and on the electrical potential at the onset of the diffuse layer, which are computed using a basic Stern model of the calcite/water interface. The <span class="hlt">complex</span> conductivity measurements of Wu et al. on a column packed with glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> where calcite precipitation occurs are reproduced by our surface <span class="hlt">complexation</span> and <span class="hlt">complex</span> conductivity models. The evolution of the size and shape of calcite particles during the calcite precipitation experiment is estimated by our <span class="hlt">complex</span> conductivity model. At the early stage of the calcite precipitation experiment, modelled particles sizes increase and calcite particles flatten with time because calcite crystals nucleate at the surface of glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> and grow into larger calcite grains. At the later stage of the calcite precipitation experiment, modelled sizes and cementation exponents of calcite particles decrease with time because large calcite grains aggregate over multiple glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> and only small calcite crystals polarize.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7764887','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7764887"><span>11 alpha-Hydroxylation of progesterone in biphasic media using alginate-entrapped Aspergillus ochraceus <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> coated with polyurea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Houng, J Y; Chiang, W P; Chen, K C; Tiu, C</p> <p>1994-06-01</p> <p>A novel cell-immobilization technique was developed in this study for increasing substrate partition to the <span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix by coating a polyurea thin layer on the surface of Ca-alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The proposed method was simple and could be performed under mild conditions. The bioconversion of progesterone to 11 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone with these polyurea-coating alginate-entrapped Aspergillus ochraceus cells was investigated using different organic solvents in biphasic media. The reaction medium of ethyl acetate could markedly enhance the bioconversion rate with the existence of a hydrophobic layer, most likely resulting from the increasing partition of substrate to <span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix. Bioconversion with higher substrate concentration was possible using an ethyl acetate-water medium. The conversion rate increased almost linearly with increasing substrate concentration from 10 to 80 g l-1. The rate with 80 g l-1 progesterone increased up to six times greater than the rate with the immobilized cells without coating, and also exhibited a much higher rate than that reported in the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26500177','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26500177"><span>Effect of CaCO₃/HCl pretreatment on the surface modification of chitin <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> via graft copolymerization of 2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate and 4-vinylpyridine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yalinca, Zulal; Mohammed, Dana Ali Kader; Hadi, Jihad M; Yilmaz, Elvan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Although chitin, poly(N-acetylglucosamine), possesses considerable potential as a biomaterial, it has not been as thoroughly studied as its derivative chitosan. In this study, the potential of chitin <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> has been evaluated for surface modification via vinyl polymer grafting. Grafting behavior of two well-established vinyl monomers, namely 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) were investigated using cerium (IV) ammonium nitrate as the redox initiator with the aim of obtaining chemically functionalized more hydrophilic chitin surfaces. The intractable nature of chitin, which is one of its primary drawbacks as a grafting substrate was overcome by applying a CaCO3 treatment during <span class="hlt">bead</span> preparation. The maximum grafting percentage of poly(HEMA) onto chitin <span class="hlt">bead</span> without CaCO3 treatment was found to be 65%, while the value for CaCO3 treated chitin <span class="hlt">beads</span> was 515%. The maximum grafting yield of poly(4-VP) on to CaCO3 treated chitin powder was 380% at optimum conditions. The grafting system was extensively characterized before and after grafting by FT-IR, SEM, C-13 NMR and XRD analyses. Significant improvement on the swelling capacities of chitin based <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> in aqueous acidic, basic and neutral media was obtained. An account of the pros and cons of the system has been presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20748685','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20748685"><span>Sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> entrapped cobalt <span class="hlt">complex</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lima, Omar J. de; Papacidero, Andrea T.; Rocha, Lucas A.; Sacco, Herica C.; Nassar, Eduardo J.; Ciuffi, Katia J.; Bueno, Luciano A.; Messaddeq, Younes; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L</p> <p>2003-03-15</p> <p>This work describes optimized conditions for preparation of a cobalt <span class="hlt">complex</span> entrapped in alumina amorphous materials in the form of powder. The hybrid materials, CoNHG, were obtained by a nonhydrolytic sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> route through condensation of aluminum chloride with diisopropylether in the presence of cobalt chloride. The materials were calcined at various temperatures. The presence of cobalt entrapped in the alumina matrix is confirmed by ultraviolet visible spectroscopy. The materials have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analyses (DTA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The prepared alumina matrix materials are amorphous, even after heat treatment up to 750 deg. C. The XRD, TGA/DTA and TEM data support the increase of sample crystallization with increasing temperature. The specific surface area, pore size and pore diameter changed as a function of the heat treatment temperature employed. Different heat treatment temperatures result in materials with different compositions and structures, and influence their catalytic activity. The entrapped cobalt materials calcined at 750 deg. C efficiently catalyzed the epoxidation of (Z)-cyclooctene using iodozylbenzene as the oxygen donor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1369257','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1369257"><span>Immobilization of enzymes to porous-<span class="hlt">bead</span> polymers and silica <span class="hlt">gels</span> activated by graft polymerization of 2,3-epoxypropyl methacrylate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wójcik, A; Lobarzewski, J; Błaszczyńska, T</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Three types of organic polymers and <span class="hlt">bead</span>-shape silica <span class="hlt">gels</span> were activated by graft polymerization of 2,3-epoxypropyl methacrylate; in some cases, epoxide groups on the support surface were modified to NH2 groups. Eight active matrices so obtained were assessed as supports for immobilized enzymes using peroxidase, glucoamylase and urease. The immobilization yield of protein and specific activities of enzymes were better with supports containing NH2 groups than with those containing epoxide spacer arms. Maximum enzyme immobilization and storage stabilities were obtained with silica-<span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> activated by graft polymerization of 2,3-epoxypropyl methacrylate. With all eight matrices tested, the immobilized enzymes showed good stability with not less than 82% of the original activity persisting after 28 days. The developed matrices have potential for use in process-scale biotechnological operations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA614379','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA614379"><span>Local Antibiotic Delivery by a Bioabsorbable <span class="hlt">Gel</span> Is Superior to PMMA <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Depot in Reducing Infection in an Open Fracture Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>0.001). Quan- titative cultures also demonstrate significantly less bacteria in the wounds treated with the <span class="hlt">gel</span> than in the control or <span class="hlt">bead</span> groups (P... bacteria (J Orthop Trauma 2014;28:370–375) INTRODUCTION Infections commonly complicate open fractures in civilian and combat injuries despite the...strain of S. aureus used derived from ATCC 49525 originally from a septic human patient (Caliper LifeSciences, CA) and used by other investigators to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3118733','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3118733"><span>A high-throughput immobilized <span class="hlt">bead</span> screen for stable proteins and multi-protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lockard, Meghan A.; Listwan, Pawel; Pedelacq, Jean-Denis; Cabantous, Stéphanie; Nguyen, Hau B.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Waldo, Geoffrey S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We describe an in vitro colony screen to identify Escherichia coli expressing soluble proteins and stable, assembled multiprotein <span class="hlt">complexes</span>. Proteins with an N-terminal 6His tag and C-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP) S11 tag are fluorescently labeled in cells by complementation with a coexpressed GFP 1–10 fragment. After partial colony lysis, the fluorescent soluble proteins or <span class="hlt">complexes</span> diffuse through a supporting filtration membrane and are captured on Talon® resin metal affinity <span class="hlt">beads</span> immobilized in agarose. Images of the fluorescent colonies convey total expression and the level of fluorescence bound to the <span class="hlt">beads</span> indicates how much protein is soluble. Both pieces of information can be used together when selecting clones. After the assay, colonies can be picked and propagated, eliminating the need to make replica plates. We used the method to screen a DNA fragment library of the human protein p85 and preferentially obtained clones expressing the full-length ‘breakpoint cluster region-homology' and NSH2 domains. The assay also distinguished clones expressing stable multi-protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> from those that are unstable due to missing subunits. Clones expressing stable, intact heterotrimeric E.coli YheNML <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were readily identified in libraries dominated by <span class="hlt">complexes</span> of YheML missing the N subunit. PMID:21642284</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21642284','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21642284"><span>A high-throughput immobilized <span class="hlt">bead</span> screen for stable proteins and multi-protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lockard, Meghan A; Listwan, Pawel; Pedelacq, Jean-Denis; Cabantous, Stéphanie; Nguyen, Hau B; Terwilliger, Thomas C; Waldo, Geoffrey S</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>We describe an in vitro colony screen to identify Escherichia coli expressing soluble proteins and stable, assembled multiprotein <span class="hlt">complexes</span>. Proteins with an N-terminal 6His tag and C-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP) S11 tag are fluorescently labeled in cells by complementation with a coexpressed GFP 1-10 fragment. After partial colony lysis, the fluorescent soluble proteins or <span class="hlt">complexes</span> diffuse through a supporting filtration membrane and are captured on Talon(®) resin metal affinity <span class="hlt">beads</span> immobilized in agarose. Images of the fluorescent colonies convey total expression and the level of fluorescence bound to the <span class="hlt">beads</span> indicates how much protein is soluble. Both pieces of information can be used together when selecting clones. After the assay, colonies can be picked and propagated, eliminating the need to make replica plates. We used the method to screen a DNA fragment library of the human protein p85 and preferentially obtained clones expressing the full-length 'breakpoint cluster region-homology' and NSH2 domains. The assay also distinguished clones expressing stable multi-protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> from those that are unstable due to missing subunits. Clones expressing stable, intact heterotrimeric E.coli YheNML <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were readily identified in libraries dominated by <span class="hlt">complexes</span> of YheML missing the N subunit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7763595','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7763595"><span>Large-scale production of kappa-carrageenan droplets for <span class="hlt">gel-bead</span> production: theoretical and practical limitations of size and production rate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hunik, J H; Tramper, J</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Immobilization of biocatalysts in kappa-carrageenan <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> is a widely used technique nowadays. Several methods are used to produce the <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The <span class="hlt">gel-bead</span> production rate is usually sufficient to make the relatively small quantities needed for bench-scale experiments. The droplet diameter can, within limits, be adjusted to the desired size, but it is difficult to predict because of the non-Newtonian fluid behavior of the kappa-carrageenan solution. Here we present the further scale-up of the extrusion technique with the theory to predict the droplet diameters for non-Newtonian fluids. The emphasis is on the droplet formation, which is the rate-limiting step in this extrusion technique. Uniform droplets were formed by breaking up a capillary jet with a sinusoidal signal of a vibration exciter. At the maximum production rate of 27.6 dm3/h, uniform droplets with a diameter of (2.1 +/- 0.12) x 10(-3) m were obtained. This maximum flow rate was limited by the power transfer of the vibration exciter to the liquid flow. It was possible to get a good prediction of the droplet diameter by estimating the local viscosity from shear-rate calculations and an experimental relation between the shear rate and viscosity. In this way the theory of Newtonian fluids could be used for the non-Newtonian kappa-carrageenan solution. The calculated optimal break-up frequencies and droplet sizes were in good agreement with those found in the experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25188303','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25188303"><span>Insights on novel particulate self-assembled drug delivery <span class="hlt">beads</span> based on partial inclusion <span class="hlt">complexes</span> between triglycerides and cyclodextrins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aburahma, Mona Hassan</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Most of the newly designed drug molecules are lipophilic in nature and often encounter erratic absorption and low bioavailability after oral administration. Finding ways to enhance the absorption and bioavailability of these lipophilic drugs is one of the major challenges that face pharmaceutical industry nowadays. In view of that, the purpose of this review is to shed some light on a novel particulate self-assembling system named "<span class="hlt">beads</span>" than can act as a safe carrier for delivering lipophilic drugs. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> are prepared simply by mixing oils with cyclodextrin (CD) aqueous solution in mild conditions. A unique interaction between oil components and CD molecules occurs to form in situ surface-active <span class="hlt">complexes</span> which are prerequisites for <span class="hlt">beads</span> formation. This review mainly focuses on the fundamentals of <span class="hlt">beads</span> preparation through reviewing present, yet scarce, literature. The key methods used for <span class="hlt">beads</span> characterization are discussed in details. Also, the potential mechanisms by which <span class="hlt">beads</span> increase the bioavailability of lipophilic drugs are illustrated. Finally, the related research areas that needs to be addressed in future for optimizing this promising delivery system are briefly outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25980915','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25980915"><span>Rapid and successful start-up of anammox process by immobilizing the minimal quantity of biomass in PVA-SA <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ali, Muhammad; Oshiki, Mamoru; Rathnayake, Lashitha; Ishii, Satoshi; Satoh, Hisashi; Okabe, Satoshi</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Rapid start-up of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process in up-flow column reactors was successfully achieved by immobilizing minimal quantity of biomass in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-sodium alginate (SA) <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The changes in the reactor performance (i.e., nitrogen removal rate; NRR) were monitored with time. The results demonstrate that the reactor containing the immobilized biomass concentration of 0.33 g-VSS L(-1) achieved NRR of 10.8 kg-N m(-3) d(-1) after 35-day operation, whereas the reactor containing the granular biomass of 2.5 g-VSS L(-1) could achieve only NRR of 3.5 kg-N m(-3) d(-1). This indicates that the <span class="hlt">gel</span> immobilization method requires much lower seeding biomass for start-up of anammox reactor. To explain the better performance of the immobilized biomass, the biological and physicochemical properties of the immobilized biomass were characterized and compared with the naturally aggregated granular biomass. Effective diffusion coefficient (De) in the immobilized biomass was directly determined by microelectrodes and found to be three times higher than one in the granular biomass. High anammox activity (i.e., NH4(+) and NO2(-) consumption rates) was evenly detected throughout the <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> by microelectrodes due to faster and deeper substrate transport. In contrast, anammox activity was localized in the outer layers of the granular biomass, indicating that the inner biomass could not contribute to the nitrogen removal. This difference was in good agreement with the spatial distribution of microbes analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Based on these results, PVA-SA <span class="hlt">gel</span> immobilization is an efficient strategy to initiate anammox reactors with minimal quantity of anammox biomass.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27386305','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27386305"><span>Treatment of high-strength ethylene glycol waste water in an expanded granular sludge blanket reactor: use of PVA-<span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> as a biocarrier.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jin, Yue; Wang, Dunqiu; Zhang, Wenjie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Industrial-scale use of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-<span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> as biocarriers is still not being implemented due to the lack of understanding regarding the optimal operational parameters. In this study, the parameters for organic loading rate (OLR), alkalinity, recycle rate, and addition of trace elements were investigated in an expanded granular sludge blanket reactor (EGSB) treating high-strength ethylene glycol wastewater (EG) with PVA-<span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> as biocarrier. Stable chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of 95 % or greater were achieved, and continuous treatment was demonstrated with appropriate parameters being an OLR of 15 kg COD/m(3)/day, NaHCO3 added at 400 mg/L, a recycle rate of 15 L/h, and no addition of trace elements addition. A biogas production yield rate of 0.24 m(3)/kg COD was achieved in this study. A large number of long rod-shaped bacteria (Methanosaeta), were found with low acetate concentration in the EGSB reactor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12959592','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12959592"><span>Incorporation of alkaline phosphatase into layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte films on the surface of affi-<span class="hlt">gel</span> heparin <span class="hlt">beads</span>: physicochemical characterization and evaluation of the enzyme stability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Derbal, Lylia; Lesot, Hervé; Voegel, Jean Claude; Ball, Vincent</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The preparation of functionalized <span class="hlt">beads</span> in the micrometer size range that can be used to probe the action of immobilized biomolecules on cell cultures during controlled periods of time is of fundamental importance in cell biology. However, the preparation and characterization of such particles is tedious because of their fast sedimentation. It is hence difficult to prepare such <span class="hlt">beads</span> in a reproducible manner. This highlights the need to prepare an important batch of functionnalized particles and to store them under conditions where the loss of biological activity is minimized. The aim of this paper was to immobilize alkaline phosphatase (AP) as a model enzyme on the surface of Affi-<span class="hlt">gel</span> heparin <span class="hlt">beads</span> functionnalized by means of a layer-by-layer (LBL) film made of poly-l-glutamic (PGA) acid and poly-l-lysine (PLL). The enzyme has been adsorbed either on the top of the LBL film or embedded under five polyelectrolyte layers. When embedded, the enzyme was not released in buffer and retained more than 30% of its initial activity after 3 months of storage at 4 degrees C. However, when the enzyme was adsorbed on top of the LBL film, about 80% of the adsorbed enzyme was released in the buffer after a few days of storage. Longer storage did not lead to any further desorption and the remaining enzyme displayed the same evolution of its activity with time as the embedded enzyme. The time evolution of the enzyme activity on the <span class="hlt">beads</span> is compared with that in solution alone and in the presence of PGA and PLL separately.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18593356','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18593356"><span>In vitro evaluation of a fibrin <span class="hlt">gel</span> antibiotic delivery system containing mesenchymal stem cells and vancomycin alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> for treating bone infections and facilitating bone formation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hou, Tianyong; Xu, Jianzhong; Li, Qiang; Feng, Jianghua; Zen, Ling</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>Bone infection and defects are two major problems that occur in the course of treating posttraumatic open bone fractures and osteomyelitis for which local antibiotic delivery is efficacious. Further, hemostasis is an essential treatment after removal of infected bones. Herein we report a new antibiotics delivery system made of vancomycin alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> embedded in a fibrin <span class="hlt">gel</span> (Vanco-AB-FG) to treat bone infections, with the addition of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) seeded in the fibrin <span class="hlt">gel</span> to promote bone formation. The proliferation of BMMSCs was measured under different conditions of three-dimensional (3D) <span class="hlt">gel</span> or monolayer, with or without Vanco-AB; cells were labeled by enhanced green fluorescence protein, and their morphology and distribution were observed. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, real-time RT-PCR, and von Kossa staining were used for determining the osteogenic differentiation of BMMSCs. The concentrations of vancomycin resulting from the antibiotic delivery were determined; the antibiotic activity was evaluated by an assay with standard Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) as a biological target. The results showed that for Vanco-AB-FG, vancomycin concentrations remained above the breakpoint sensitivity for 22 days. The 3D culture within the <span class="hlt">gel</span> and the addition of Vanco-AB affected the cell behavior. The morphology of BMMSCs within the 3D <span class="hlt">gel</span> was different from that in monolayer. The proliferation of the cells within the 3D <span class="hlt">gel</span> was lower than that in monolayer in early stage, but in later stage the number of BMMSCs in Vanco-AB-FG was similar to that in monolayer. The ALP activity was higher in the 3D <span class="hlt">gel</span>, and the addition of Vanco-AB slightly increased ALP activity. The osteogenic gene expression levels of ALP, osteopontin, and alpha1 chain of collagen I were higher in the 3D <span class="hlt">gel</span> than those in monolayer, and additional Vanco-AB could also increase their expression. The von Kossa staining showed that the deposition of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5331217','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5331217"><span><span class="hlt">Gel</span> phase formation in dilute triblock copolyelectrolyte <span class="hlt">complexes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Srivastava, Samanvaya; Andreev, Marat; Levi, Adam E.; Goldfeld, David J.; Mao, Jun; Heller, William T.; Prabhu, Vivek M.; de Pablo, Juan J.; Tirrell, Matthew V.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Assembly of oppositely charged triblock copolyelectrolytes into phase-separated <span class="hlt">gels</span> at low polymer concentrations (<1% by mass) has been observed in scattering experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. Here we show that in contrast to uncharged, amphiphilic block copolymers that form discrete micelles at low concentrations and enter a phase of strongly interacting micelles in a gradual manner with increasing concentration, the formation of a dilute phase of individual micelles is prevented in polyelectrolyte <span class="hlt">complexation</span>-driven assembly of triblock copolyelectrolytes. <span class="hlt">Gel</span> phases form and phase separate almost instantaneously on solvation of the copolymers. Furthermore, molecular models of self-assembly demonstrate the presence of oligo-chain aggregates in early stages of copolyelectrolyte assembly, at experimentally unobservable polymer concentrations. Our discoveries contribute to the fundamental understanding of the structure and pathways of <span class="hlt">complexation</span>-driven assemblies, and raise intriguing prospects for <span class="hlt">gel</span> formation at extraordinarily low concentrations, with applications in tissue engineering, agriculture, water purification and theranostics. PMID:28230046</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28230046','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28230046"><span><span class="hlt">Gel</span> phase formation in dilute triblock copolyelectrolyte <span class="hlt">complexes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Srivastava, Samanvaya; Andreev, Marat; Levi, Adam E; Goldfeld, David J; Mao, Jun; Heller, William T; Prabhu, Vivek M; de Pablo, Juan J; Tirrell, Matthew V</p> <p>2017-02-23</p> <p>Assembly of oppositely charged triblock copolyelectrolytes into phase-separated <span class="hlt">gels</span> at low polymer concentrations (<1% by mass) has been observed in scattering experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. Here we show that in contrast to uncharged, amphiphilic block copolymers that form discrete micelles at low concentrations and enter a phase of strongly interacting micelles in a gradual manner with increasing concentration, the formation of a dilute phase of individual micelles is prevented in polyelectrolyte <span class="hlt">complexation</span>-driven assembly of triblock copolyelectrolytes. <span class="hlt">Gel</span> phases form and phase separate almost instantaneously on solvation of the copolymers. Furthermore, molecular models of self-assembly demonstrate the presence of oligo-chain aggregates in early stages of copolyelectrolyte assembly, at experimentally unobservable polymer concentrations. Our discoveries contribute to the fundamental understanding of the structure and pathways of <span class="hlt">complexation</span>-driven assemblies, and raise intriguing prospects for <span class="hlt">gel</span> formation at extraordinarily low concentrations, with applications in tissue engineering, agriculture, water purification and theranostics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatCo...814131S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatCo...814131S"><span><span class="hlt">Gel</span> phase formation in dilute triblock copolyelectrolyte <span class="hlt">complexes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Srivastava, Samanvaya; Andreev, Marat; Levi, Adam E.; Goldfeld, David J.; Mao, Jun; Heller, William T.; Prabhu, Vivek M.; de Pablo, Juan J.; Tirrell, Matthew V.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Assembly of oppositely charged triblock copolyelectrolytes into phase-separated <span class="hlt">gels</span> at low polymer concentrations (<1% by mass) has been observed in scattering experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. Here we show that in contrast to uncharged, amphiphilic block copolymers that form discrete micelles at low concentrations and enter a phase of strongly interacting micelles in a gradual manner with increasing concentration, the formation of a dilute phase of individual micelles is prevented in polyelectrolyte <span class="hlt">complexation</span>-driven assembly of triblock copolyelectrolytes. <span class="hlt">Gel</span> phases form and phase separate almost instantaneously on solvation of the copolymers. Furthermore, molecular models of self-assembly demonstrate the presence of oligo-chain aggregates in early stages of copolyelectrolyte assembly, at experimentally unobservable polymer concentrations. Our discoveries contribute to the fundamental understanding of the structure and pathways of <span class="hlt">complexation</span>-driven assemblies, and raise intriguing prospects for <span class="hlt">gel</span> formation at extraordinarily low concentrations, with applications in tissue engineering, agriculture, water purification and theranostics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017RJPCA..91.1580B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017RJPCA..91.1580B"><span><span class="hlt">Gels</span> of sodium alginate‒chitosan interpolyelectrolyte <span class="hlt">complexes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brovko, O. S.; Palamarchuk, I. A.; Val'chuk, N. A.; Chukhchin, D. G.; Bogolitsyn, K. G.; Boitsova, T. A.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Aspects of the formation of <span class="hlt">gels</span> of interpolyelectrolyte <span class="hlt">complexes</span> (IPECs) based on sodium alginate (NaAlg) and chitosan are studied. The effect the conditions of synthesis and <span class="hlt">complex</span> composition have on the morphological structure and functional properties of these <span class="hlt">complexes</span> is examined. It is established that <span class="hlt">complexation</span> in this system proceeds according to a mechanism of electrostatic interaction between the oppositely charged carboxylic groups of the L-hyaluronic acid pyranose cycles of NaAlg proximal polymer chains and chitosan's amino groups, along with a multitude of hydrogen bonds and dispersion forces. We show that the mechanism of IPEC formation is strongly influenced by the conformational state of a lyophilizing component that is present in the system in excess. The inner surfaces of cryogels based on NaAlg‒chitosan IPECs is found to be strongly influenced by the degree of conversion between the parental polyelectrolytes. The most developed mesoporous structure is obtained when a denser <span class="hlt">gel</span> forms in the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28070779','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28070779"><span>Hydrolytic Activity of Esterase-Antibody <span class="hlt">Complexes</span> Retained Within <span class="hlt">Gel</span> Capsules After <span class="hlt">Complex</span> Isolation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shimazaki, Youji; Miyatsuka, Rino</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Delipidation in biological samples is important for some diagnostic tests and protein analyses. Lipids in the samples can be hydrolyzed by native esterases (ESs) within <span class="hlt">gel</span> capsules after ES, and ES-antibody <span class="hlt">complexes</span> are specifically trapped, extracted, and separated. Acrylamide and agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span> capsules containing <span class="hlt">complexes</span> of ES antibody were produced after the <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were extracted using protein A-immobilized membranes, separated by non-denaturing electrophoresis, and stained by colloidal silver using glucose as a reductant. ES activity of ES-antibody <span class="hlt">complexes</span> within the <span class="hlt">gel</span> capsule was significantly higher than that in the <span class="hlt">complexes</span> with the control antibodies upon isolation, separation, and detection of the <span class="hlt">complex</span>. In addition, lipids bound to human serum albumin decreased after human plasma was treated with <span class="hlt">gel</span> capsules containing ES-antibody <span class="hlt">complexes</span>. We demonstrate that the <span class="hlt">gel</span> capsule containing ES-antibody <span class="hlt">complexes</span> can be successfully isolated using techniques described in this study. Furthermore, delipidation of human plasma is obtained by incubation with the <span class="hlt">gel</span> capsule. These results indicate that surplus materials such as lipids in biological samples can be removed or reduced by <span class="hlt">gel</span> capsule containing enzymes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2111849','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2111849"><span><span class="hlt">Bead</span> rings at the endoplasmic reticulum-golgi <span class="hlt">complex</span> boundary: morphological changes accompanying inihibition of intracellular transport of secretory proteins in arthropod fat body tissue</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Brodie, DA</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Golgi <span class="hlt">complex</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> are 10-nm particles arranged in rings on the smooth surface of rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) makind the forming face of the Golgi <span class="hlt">complex</span> (GC). In arthropod cells they stain specifically with bismuth. Their morphology has been studied after treatment with reagents known to interfere with GC function. Inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation (antimycin A, cyanide, and anoxia), but not an inhibitor of glycolysis (iodoacetate), both cause the <span class="hlt">bead</span> rings to collapse and the GC saccules to round up, and inhibit transition vesicle (TV) formation. Cycloheximide blocks protein synthesis on ribosomes but does not stop TV formation or disrupt <span class="hlt">bead</span> rings, even after prolonged treatment (6 h) to allow emptying of the rough ER cisternae. Thus the collapse of <span class="hlt">bead</span> rings is not attributable to inhibition of protein synthesis, and the ring structure of <span class="hlt">beads</span> does not require continued protein synthesis and secretion for its maintenance. Valinomycin has effects on the GC similar to those of antimycin A, but A23187, monensin, and lasalocid do not affect <span class="hlt">bead</span> ring structure or TV formation. These results are consistent with valinomycin’s secondarily uncoupling mitochondria, which collapses <span class="hlt">bead</span> rings and prevents TV formation. Thus inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation do not influence the <span class="hlt">beads</span> through cation movement. Because mononsin and lasalocid block secretion at the level of the condensing vacuoles, <span class="hlt">bead</span> rings are not influenced by blocks in secretion distal to them or by the backup of secretory material. These experiments are consistent with inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation collapsing <span class="hlt">bead</span> rings by decreasing intracellular ATP. The concomitant block to TV formation and the collapse of <span class="hlt">bead</span> rings suggests that integrity of the <span class="hlt">bead</span> rings is essential for the transport of secretory material from the rough ER to the GC. PMID:7251678</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3671202','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3671202"><span>3D <span class="hlt">Gel</span> Map of Arabidopsis <span class="hlt">Complex</span> I</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Peters, Katrin; Belt, Katharina; Braun, Hans-Peter</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Complex</span> I has a unique structure in plants and includes extra subunits. Here, we present a novel study to define its protein constituents. Mitochondria were isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures, leaves, and roots. Subunits of <span class="hlt">complex</span> I were resolved by 3D blue-native (BN)/SDS/SDS-PAGE and identified by mass spectrometry. Overall, 55 distinct proteins were found, seven of which occur in pairs of isoforms. We present evidence that Arabidopsis <span class="hlt">complex</span> I consists of 49 distinct types of subunits, 40 of which represent homologs of bovine <span class="hlt">complex</span> I. The nine other subunits represent special proteins absent in the animal linage of eukaryotes, most prominently a group of subunits related to bacterial gamma-type carbonic anhydrases. A <span class="hlt">Gel</span>Map http://www.gelmap.de/arabidopsis-3d-<span class="hlt">complex</span>-i/ is presented for promoting future <span class="hlt">complex</span> I research in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:23761796</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24229308','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24229308"><span>Fluorescent <span class="hlt">beads</span> disintegrate actin networks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Golde, Tom; Schuldt, Carsten; Schnauß, Jörg; Strehle, Dan; Glaser, Martin; Käs, Josef</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>We studied the influence of fluorescent polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span> on both entangled and cross-linked actin networks. Thermal <span class="hlt">bead</span> fluctuations were observed via video particle tracking and analyzed with one-point microrheology. Illumination of fluorescent <span class="hlt">beads</span> with their appropriate excitation wavelength leads to a drastic softening of actin <span class="hlt">gels</span>. Other wavelengths and bright field microscopy do not increase thermal <span class="hlt">bead</span> fluctuations. This effect cannot be significantly reduced by adding common oxygen scavengers. We conclude that the usage of fluorescent <span class="hlt">beads</span> impairs results when studying the microrheology of actin networks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1345009-gel-phase-formation-dilute-triblock-copolyelectrolyte-complexes','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1345009-gel-phase-formation-dilute-triblock-copolyelectrolyte-complexes"><span><span class="hlt">Gel</span> phase formation in dilute triblock copolyelectrolyte <span class="hlt">complexes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Srivastava, Samanvaya; Andreev, Marat; Levi, Adam E.; ...</p> <p>2017-02-23</p> <p>Assembly of oppositely charged triblock copolyelectrolytes into phase-separated <span class="hlt">gels</span> at low polymer concentrations (<1% by mass) has been observed in scattering experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. Here we show that in contrast to uncharged, amphiphilic block copolymers that form discrete micelles at low concentrations and enter a phase of strongly interacting micelles in a gradual manner with increasing concentration, the formation of a dilute phase of individual micelles is prevented in polyelectrolyte <span class="hlt">complexation</span>-driven assembly of triblock copolyelectrolytes. <span class="hlt">Gel</span> phases form and phase separate almost instantaneously on solvation of the copolymers. Furthermore, molecular models of self-assembly demonstrate the presence of oligo-chainmore » aggregates in early stages of copolyelectrolyte assembly, at experimentally unobservable polymer concentrations. Finally, our discoveries contribute to the fundamental understanding of the structure and pathways of <span class="hlt">complexation</span>-driven assemblies, and raise intriguing prospects for <span class="hlt">gel</span> formation at extraordinarily low concentrations, with applications in tissue engineering, agriculture, water purification and theranostics.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3045263','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3045263"><span>Jeffamine Derivatized Tenta<span class="hlt">Gel</span> <span class="hlt">Beads</span> and PDMS Microbead Cassettes for Ultra-high Throughput in situ Releasable Solution-Phase Cell-based Screening of OBOC Combinatorial Small Molecule Libraries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Townsend, Jared B.; Shaheen, Farzana; Liu, Ruiwu; Lam, Kit S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A method to efficiently immobilize and partition large quantities of microbeads in an array format in microfabricated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) cassette for high-throughput in situ releasable solution-phase cell-based screening of one-<span class="hlt">bead</span>-one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial libraries is described. Commercially available Jeffamine triamine T-403 (∼440 Da) was derivatized such that two of its amino groups were protected by Fmoc and the remaining amino group capped with succinic anhydride to generate a carboxyl group. This resulting tri-functional hydrophilic polymer was then sequentially coupled two times to the outer layer of topologically segregated bilayer Tenta<span class="hlt">Gel</span> (TG) <span class="hlt">beads</span> with solid phase peptide synthesis chemistry, resulting in <span class="hlt">beads</span> with increased loading capacity, hydrophilicity and porosity at the outer layer. We have found that such <span class="hlt">bead</span> configuration can facilitate ultra high-throughput in situ releasable solution-phase screening of OBOC libraries. An encoded releasable OBOC small molecule library was constructed on Jeffamine derivatized TG <span class="hlt">beads</span> with library compounds tethered to the outer layer via a disulfide linker and coding tags in the interior of the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Compound-<span class="hlt">beads</span> could be efficiently loaded (5-10 minutes) into a 5 cm diameter Petri dish containing a 10,000-well PDMS microbead cassette, such that over 90% of the microwells were each filled with only one compound-<span class="hlt">bead</span>. Jurkat T-lymphoid cancer cells suspended in Matrigel® were then layered over the microbead cassette to immobilize the compound-<span class="hlt">beads</span>. After 24 hours of incubation at 37°C, dithiothreitol was added to trigger the release of library compounds. Forty-eight hours later, MTT reporter assay was used to identify regions of reduced cell viability surrounding each positive <span class="hlt">bead</span>. From a total of about 20,000 <span class="hlt">beads</span> screened, 3 positive <span class="hlt">beads</span> were detected and physically isolated for decoding. A strong consensus motif was identified for these three positive compounds. These</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JPhy4.125...59Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JPhy4.125...59Y"><span>Photoacoustic spectroscopy study on lanthanide <span class="hlt">complexes</span> with aromatic carboxylic acid in silica <span class="hlt">gels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Y.-T.; Zhang, S.-Y.</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>Using a sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> process, lanthanide <span class="hlt">complexes</span> Ln (Sal)3.HO (Ln^3+: Nd^3+, Tb^3+; Sal: salicylic acid) are incorporated into silica <span class="hlt">gels</span> by the hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). After heat treatment at 150 °C for the lanthanide <span class="hlt">complexes</span> in <span class="hlt">gels</span>, the photoacoustic (PA) intensity of the ligand changes remarkably, while this difference can not be observed for the samples without heat treatment. Different PA intensities of lanthanide <span class="hlt">complexes</span> in silica <span class="hlt">gels</span> can be interpreted by comparison them with their luminescence spectra. The formation of lanthanide <span class="hlt">complex</span> in silica <span class="hlt">gel</span> is discussed by two aspects: radiative and nonradiative processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7858P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7858P"><span>The Glass <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Game: experimental sintering of rhyolitic ash reveals <span class="hlt">complex</span> behaviour of irregular multiphase particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pope, Robyn; Tuffen, Hugh; Owen, Jacqueline; James, Mike; Wadsworth, Fabian</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Sintering of magmatic particles profoundly influences the permeability, strength and compaction of fragmented magma in conduits and pyroclastic deposits. It involves initial rounding and agglutination of particles, with formation of inter-particle necks, followed by progressive viscous collapse of pores. The sintering behaviour of ash particles within tuffisite veins, which may mediate shallow outgassing in silicic eruptions, is of particular interest. Experimental studies on homogeneous synthetic glasses[1] have shown sintering rates to be time, temperature and grainsize-dependent, reflecting the influence of melt viscosity and pore-melt interfacial tension. A key objective is to reconstruct the temperature-time path of naturally sintered samples, so here we investigate the sintering of natural, angular ash fragments, to explore whether similar simple relationships emerge for more <span class="hlt">complex</span> particle morphologies and internal textures. A glass-rich ballistic rhyolite bomb from the Cordón Caulle 2011-2012 eruption was ground and sieved to create various grainsizes of angular ash particles. The bomb contains 70 wt.% SiO2, 0.25 wt.% H2O, and ~30 vol.% crystal phases, as phenocrysts and microlites of plagioclase and pyroxenes. Particles were spread thinly over a sapphire surface in an N2-purged heated stage, and heated to 900, 1000 and 1100 °C, corresponding to melt viscosities of 105.4-107.7 Pa.s. Images were collected every 10-600 s during isothermal sintering over tens of minutes to hours. Quantitative image analysis using ImageJ allowed quantification of evolving particle size and shape (diameter and roundness) and inter-particle neck width. The rate of particle rounding was expected to be highest for smallest particles, and to decrease through time, but unlike synthetic glass <span class="hlt">bead</span> experiments, no simple trends emerged. When the temporal evolution of particle roundness was tracked, some particles showed an unexpected, systematic increase in rounding rate with time</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26744941','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26744941"><span>A pilot-scale study on PVA <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> based integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) plant for municipal wastewater treatment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kumar Singh, Nitin; Singh, Jasdeep; Bhatia, Aakansha; Kazmi, A A</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In the present study, a pilot-scale reactor incorporating polyvinyl alcohol <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> as biomass carrier and operating in biological activated sludge mode (a combination of moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and activated sludge) was investigated for the treatment of actual municipal wastewater. The results, during a monitoring period of 4 months, showed effective removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and NH3-N at optimum conditions with 91%, ∼92% and ∼90% removal efficiencies, respectively. Sludge volume index (SVI) values of activated sludge varied in the range of 25-72 mL/g, indicating appreciable settling characteristics. Furthermore, soluble COD and BOD in the effluent of the pilot plant were reduced to levels well below discharge limits of the Punjab Pollution Control Board, India. A culture dependent method was used to enrich and isolate abundant heterotrophic bacteria in activated sludge. In addition to this, 16S rRNA genes analysis was performed to identify diverse dominant bacterial species in suspended and attached biomass. Results revealed that Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp. and Nitrosomonas communis played a significant role in biomass carrier, while Acinetobactor sp. were dominant in activated sludge of the pilot plant. Identification of ciliated protozoa populations rendered six species of ciliates in the plant, among which Vorticella was the most dominant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27842826','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27842826"><span>Pectin and enzyme <span class="hlt">complex</span> modified fish scales gelatin: Rheological behavior, <span class="hlt">gel</span> properties and nanostructure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Tao; Tu, Zong-Cai; Wang, Hui; Shangguan, Xinchen; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Nan-Hai; Bansal, Nidhi</p> <p>2017-01-20</p> <p>The rheological behavior, <span class="hlt">gel</span> properties and nanostructure of <span class="hlt">complex</span> modified fish scales gelatin (FSG) by pectin and microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) were investigated. The findings suggested that MTGase and pectin have positive effect on the gelation point, melting point, apparent viscosity and <span class="hlt">gel</span> properties of FSG. The highest values of <span class="hlt">gel</span> strength and melting temperature could be observed at 0.8% (w/v) pectin. Nevertheless, at highest pectin concentration (1.6% w/v), the <span class="hlt">gel</span> strength and melting temperature of <span class="hlt">complex</span> modified gelatin <span class="hlt">gels</span> decreased. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that MTGase catalyzed cross-links among soluble fish scales gelatin - pectin <span class="hlt">complexes</span>, which could be responsible for the observed increase in rheological behavior, <span class="hlt">gel</span> strength and melting temperature of modified <span class="hlt">complex</span> <span class="hlt">gels</span>. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=297905','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=297905"><span>Starch aerogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> obtained from inclusion <span class="hlt">complexes</span> prepared from high amylose starch and sodium palmitate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Starch aerogels are a class of low density highly porous renewable materials currently prepared from retrograded starch <span class="hlt">gels</span> and are of interest for their good surface area, porosity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Recently, we have reported on starches containing amylose-fatty acid salt h...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17897934','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17897934"><span>Discovering novel interactions at the nuclear pore <span class="hlt">complex</span> using <span class="hlt">bead</span> halo: a rapid method for detecting molecular interactions of high and low affinity at equilibrium.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Patel, Samir S; Rexach, Michael F</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>A highly sensitive, equilibrium-based binding assay termed "<span class="hlt">Bead</span> Halo" was used here to identify and characterize interactions involving components of the nucleocytoplasmic transport machinery in eukaryotes. <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Halo uncovered novel interactions between the importin Kap95 and the nucleoporins (nups) Nic96, Pom34, Gle1, Ndc1, Nup84, and Seh1, which likely occur during nuclear pore <span class="hlt">complex</span> biogenesis. <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Halo was also used to characterize the molecular determinants for binding between Kap95 and the family of nups that feature multiple phenylalanine-glycine motifs (FG nups). Binding was sensitive to the number of FG motifs present and to amino acid (AA) residues immediately flanking the FG motifs. Also, binding was reduced but not abolished when phenylalanine residues in all FG motifs were replaced by tyrosine or tryptophan. These results suggest flexibility in the binding pockets of Kap95 and synergism in binding FG motifs. The hypothesis that Nup53 and Nup59 bind directly to membranes through a C-terminal amphipathic alpha helix and to DNA via an RNA recognition motif domain was also tested and validated using <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Halo. The results support a role for these nups in nuclear pore membrane biogenesis and in gene expression. Finally, <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Halo detected binding of the nups Gle1, Nup60, and Nsp1 to phospholipid bilayers. This may reflect the known interaction between Gle1 and phosphoinositides and suggests similar interactions for Nup60 and Nsp1. As the <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Halo assay detected molecular interactions in cell lysates, as well as between purified components, it can be adapted for large-scale proteomic studies using automated robotics and microscopy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10451102','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10451102"><span>Transient association of the DNA-ligand <span class="hlt">complex</span> during <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Protozanova, E; Macgregor, R B</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>DNA frayed wires are extremely stable multistranded <span class="hlt">complexes</span> arising from the association of oligonucleotides with long terminal runs of consecutive guanines. Frayed wires originating from d(A15G15) have multiple binding sites for short complementary oligonucleotides such as dT10. We examine unusual band patterns obtained when <span class="hlt">complexes</span> formed between dT10 and DNA frayed wires are resolved on nondenaturing polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gels</span>. Since the lifetime of the dT10-frayed wire <span class="hlt">complexes</span> is shorter than the time of the <span class="hlt">gel</span> run, the interaction between the components during the <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis affects their band patterns. We have conducted chasing experiments to show that (i) the binding of dT10 to the frayed wires can occur during <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis, and (ii) dissociation of the <span class="hlt">complexes</span> occurs during the <span class="hlt">gel</span> run. Rapid repetitive dissociation-reassociation of the <span class="hlt">complexes</span> leads to a constant partitioning of dT10 between their binding sites within frayed wires. Consequently, <span class="hlt">complexes</span> composed of frayed wires and various numbers of bound ligands appear on the <span class="hlt">gel</span> as a single well-defined band. The mobilities of these bands decrease continuously with the concentration of the ligand reaching saturation when all the binding sites are occupied. This characteristic pattern is observed only for relatively unstable interactions. Longer ligands, i.e., oligonucleotides with higher affinity towards the binding sites, cease to exhibit the dynamic character of interaction during <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis. These ligands form long-lived <span class="hlt">complexes</span> with the frayed wires that appear on the <span class="hlt">gel</span> as faint smeared bands reflecting the presence of multiple stable <span class="hlt">complexes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3853756','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3853756"><span>Cavamax W7 composite psoralen ethosomal <span class="hlt">gel</span> versus cavamax W7 psoralen solid <span class="hlt">complex</span> <span class="hlt">gel</span> for topical delivery: A comparative evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kumari, Smriti; Pathak, Kamla</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Aim: The present research work was aimed to formulate and characterize psoralen-encapsulated cavamax W7 composite ethosomal <span class="hlt">gel</span> and compare its in vitro and ex vivo behavior against psoralen-cavamax W7-<span class="hlt">complex</span> reference <span class="hlt">gel</span>. Materials and Methods: A total of nine formulations of composite ethosomes were prepared by injection method using 32 factorial design and entrapment efficiency was designated as dependent variable. Concomitantly, psoralen was <span class="hlt">complexed</span> with cavamax W7 (1:1 molar ratio) by kneading method and formation of <span class="hlt">complex</span> was confirmed by Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results: F9 with vesicle size of 183 ± 2.8 nm, and highest % entrapment efficiency of 98.12 ± 1.15 was selected as optimized formulation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed uniform and spherical shaped vesicles. The optimized formulation F9 was formulated as carbapol <span class="hlt">gel</span> and compared against ethosomal <span class="hlt">gel</span>, psoralen <span class="hlt">gel</span>, and psoralen cavamax W7 <span class="hlt">complex</span> <span class="hlt">gel</span>. The <span class="hlt">gels</span> were evaluated for permeation characteristics and the rank order was composite ethosomal <span class="hlt">gel</span> > ethosomal <span class="hlt">gel</span> > psoralen-cavamax W7 <span class="hlt">complex</span> <span class="hlt">gel</span> > psoralen <span class="hlt">gel</span>. The ethosomal <span class="hlt">gel</span> (G5) with highest in vitro permeation of 82.48 ± 2.23% was subjected to in vivo Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) studies using rhodamine B as tracer. The penetration of rhodamine B was uniform, deeper, and two times faster into epidermis than control <span class="hlt">gel</span>. Conclusion: Conclusively, cavamax W7 composite ethosomes present themselves as efficient carrier for superior topical delivery of psoralen and have potential for clinical applications in minimizing side effects associated with photosensitivity of psoralen. PMID:24350036</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21727569','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21727569"><span>Fractionation of SWNT/nucleic acid <span class="hlt">complexes</span> by agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vetcher, Alexandre A; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Vetcher, Ivan A; Abramov, Semen M; Kozlov, Mikhail; Baughman, Ray H; Levene, Stephen D</p> <p>2006-08-28</p> <p>We show that aqueous dispersions of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), prepared with the aid of nucleic acids (NAs) such as RNA or DNA, can be separated into fractions using agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis. In a DC electric field, SWNT/NA <span class="hlt">complexes</span> migrate in the <span class="hlt">gel</span> in the direction of positive potential to form well-defined bands. Raman spectroscopy as a function of band position shows that nanotubes having different spectroscopic properties possess different electrophoretic mobilities. The migration patterns for SWNT/RNA and SWNT/DNA <span class="hlt">complexes</span> differ. Parallel elution of the SWNT/NA <span class="hlt">complexes</span> from the <span class="hlt">gel</span> during electrophoresis and subsequent characterization by AFM reveals differences in nanotube diameter, length and curvature. The results suggest that fractionation of nanotubes can be achieved by this procedure. We discuss factors affecting the mobility of the nanotube <span class="hlt">complexes</span> and propose analytical applications of this technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006Nanot..17.4263V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006Nanot..17.4263V"><span>Fractionation of SWNT/nucleic acid <span class="hlt">complexes</span> by agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vetcher, Alexandre A.; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Vetcher, Ivan A.; Abramov, Semen M.; Kozlov, Mikhail; Baughman, Ray H.; Levene, Stephen D.</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>We show that aqueous dispersions of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), prepared with the aid of nucleic acids (NAs) such as RNA or DNA, can be separated into fractions using agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis. In a DC electric field, SWNT/NA <span class="hlt">complexes</span> migrate in the <span class="hlt">gel</span> in the direction of positive potential to form well-defined bands. Raman spectroscopy as a function of band position shows that nanotubes having different spectroscopic properties possess different electrophoretic mobilities. The migration patterns for SWNT/RNA and SWNT/DNA <span class="hlt">complexes</span> differ. Parallel elution of the SWNT/NA <span class="hlt">complexes</span> from the <span class="hlt">gel</span> during electrophoresis and subsequent characterization by AFM reveals differences in nanotube diameter, length and curvature. The results suggest that fractionation of nanotubes can be achieved by this procedure. We discuss factors affecting the mobility of the nanotube <span class="hlt">complexes</span> and propose analytical applications of this technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27495329','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27495329"><span>Direct transfer of HRPII-magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> <span class="hlt">complexes</span> to malaria rapid diagnostic tests significantly improves test sensitivity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ricks, Keersten M; Adams, Nicholas M; Scherr, Thomas F; Haselton, Frederick R; Wright, David W</p> <p>2016-08-05</p> <p>The characteristic ease of use, rapid time to result, and low cost of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) promote their widespread use at the point-of-care for malaria detection and surveillance. However, in many settings, the success of malaria elimination campaigns depends on point-of-care diagnostics with greater sensitivity than currently available RDTs. To address this need, a sample preparation method was developed to deliver more biomarkers onto a malaria RDT by concentrating the biomarker from blood sample volumes that are too large to be directly applied to a lateral flow strip. In this design, Ni-NTA-functionalized magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> captured the Plasmodium falciparum biomarker HRPII from a P. falciparum D6 culture spiked blood sample. This transfer of magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> to the RDT was facilitated by an inexpensive 3D-printed apparatus that aligned the sample tube with the sample deposition pad and a magnet beneath the RDT. Biomarkers were released from the <span class="hlt">bead</span> surface onto the lateral flow strip using imidazole-spiked running buffer. Kinetics of HRPII binding to the Ni-NTA <span class="hlt">beads</span> as a function of blood sample volume were explored prior to determining the effect of the proposed method on the limit of detection of Paracheck RDTs. More than 80 % of HRPII biomarkers were extracted from blood sample volumes ranging from 25 to 250 µL. The time required to reach 80 % binding ranged from 5 to 60 min, depending on sample volume. Using 250 μL of blood and a 30-min biomarker binding time, the limit of detection of the Paracheck Pf RDT brand was improved by 21-fold, resulting in a limit of detection below 1 parasite/μL. This approach has the sensitivity and simplicity required to assist in malaria elimination campaigns in settings with limited access to clinical and laboratory resources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3914368','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3914368"><span>Seeds used for Bodhi <span class="hlt">beads</span> in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Bodhi <span class="hlt">beads</span> are a Buddhist prayer item made from seeds. Bodhi <span class="hlt">beads</span> have a large and emerging market in China, and demand for the <span class="hlt">beads</span> has particularly increased in Buddhism regions, especially Tibet. Many people have started to focus on and collect Bodhi <span class="hlt">beads</span> and to develop a Bodhi <span class="hlt">bead</span> culture. But no research has examined the source plants of Bodhi <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Therefore, ethnobotanical surveys were conducted in six provinces of China to investigate and document Bodhi <span class="hlt">bead</span> plants. Reasons for the development of Bodhi <span class="hlt">bead</span> culture were also discussed. Methods Six provinces of China were selected for market surveys. Information was collected using semi-structured interviews, key informant interviews, and participatory observation with traders, tourists, and local residents. Barkhor Street in Lhasa was focused on during market surveys because it is one of the most popular streets in China. Results Forty-seven species (including 2 varieties) in 19 families and 39 genera represented 52 types of Bodhi <span class="hlt">beads</span> that were collected. The most popular Bodhi <span class="hlt">bead</span> plants have a long history and religious significance. Most Bodhi <span class="hlt">bead</span> plants can be used as medicine or food, and their seeds or fruits are the main elements in these uses. ‘Bodhi seeds’ have been historically used in other countries for making ornaments, especially seeds of the legume family. Many factors helped form Bodhi <span class="hlt">bead</span> culture in China, but its foundation was in Indian Buddhist culture. Conclusions As one of the earliest adornment materials, seeds played an important role for human production and life. <span class="hlt">Complex</span> sources of Bodhi <span class="hlt">beads</span> have different cultural and historical significance. People bought and collected Bodhi <span class="hlt">beads</span> to reflect their love and admiration for the plants. Thus, the documentation of Bodhi <span class="hlt">bead</span> plants can serve as a basis for future investigation of Bodhi <span class="hlt">bead</span> culture and modern Buddhist culture. PMID:24479788</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24479788','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24479788"><span>Seeds used for Bodhi <span class="hlt">beads</span> in China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Feifei; Li, Jianqin; Liu, Bo; Zhuo, Jingxian; Long, Chunlin</p> <p>2014-01-30</p> <p>Bodhi <span class="hlt">beads</span> are a Buddhist prayer item made from seeds. Bodhi <span class="hlt">beads</span> have a large and emerging market in China, and demand for the <span class="hlt">beads</span> has particularly increased in Buddhism regions, especially Tibet. Many people have started to focus on and collect Bodhi <span class="hlt">beads</span> and to develop a Bodhi <span class="hlt">bead</span> culture. But no research has examined the source plants of Bodhi <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Therefore, ethnobotanical surveys were conducted in six provinces of China to investigate and document Bodhi <span class="hlt">bead</span> plants. Reasons for the development of Bodhi <span class="hlt">bead</span> culture were also discussed. Six provinces of China were selected for market surveys. Information was collected using semi-structured interviews, key informant interviews, and participatory observation with traders, tourists, and local residents. Barkhor Street in Lhasa was focused on during market surveys because it is one of the most popular streets in China. Forty-seven species (including 2 varieties) in 19 families and 39 genera represented 52 types of Bodhi <span class="hlt">beads</span> that were collected. The most popular Bodhi <span class="hlt">bead</span> plants have a long history and religious significance. Most Bodhi <span class="hlt">bead</span> plants can be used as medicine or food, and their seeds or fruits are the main elements in these uses. 'Bodhi seeds' have been historically used in other countries for making ornaments, especially seeds of the legume family. Many factors helped form Bodhi <span class="hlt">bead</span> culture in China, but its foundation was in Indian Buddhist culture. As one of the earliest adornment materials, seeds played an important role for human production and life. <span class="hlt">Complex</span> sources of Bodhi <span class="hlt">beads</span> have different cultural and historical significance. People bought and collected Bodhi <span class="hlt">beads</span> to reflect their love and admiration for the plants. Thus, the documentation of Bodhi <span class="hlt">bead</span> plants can serve as a basis for future investigation of Bodhi <span class="hlt">bead</span> culture and modern Buddhist culture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADP013616','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADP013616"><span>Nitric Oxide Sensors Obtained Through the Entrapment of Iron <span class="hlt">Complexes</span> in Sol-<span class="hlt">Gel</span> Matrix</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-04-05</p> <p>iron <span class="hlt">complexes</span> in sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix Juliana C. Biazzotto, Jodo F. Borin, Roberto Mendonga Faria’ and Carlos F.O Graeff Departamento de Fisica e...Matemdtica-FFCLRP-USP, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirdo Preto, Brazil 1-Instituto de Fisica de S~o Carlos-USP, C.P. 369, 13560-970 Sdo Carlos, Brazil</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23010125','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23010125"><span>Non-cytotoxic antibacterial silver-coumarin <span class="hlt">complex</span> doped sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> coatings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jaiswal, Swarna; Bhattacharya, Kunal; Sullivan, Maeve; Walsh, Maureen; Creaven, Bernadette S; Laffir, Fathima; Duffy, Brendan; McHale, Patrick</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Microbial colonisation on clinical and industrial surfaces is currently of global concern and silane based sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> coatings are being proposed as potential solutions. Sol-<span class="hlt">gels</span> are chemically inert, stable and homogeneous and can be designed to act as a reservoir for releasing antimicrobial agents over extended time periods. In the present study, silver nitrate (AgN) and a series of silver coumarin <span class="hlt">complexes</span> based on coumarin-3-carboxylatosilver (AgC) and it is 6, 7 and 8 hydroxylated analogues (Ag6, Ag7, Ag8) were incorporated into sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> coatings. The comparative antibacterial activity of the coatings was determined against meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multidrug resistance Enterobacter cloacae WT6. The percentage growth inhibitions were found in the range of 9.2 (±2.7)-66.0 (±1.2)% at low silver loadings of 0.3% (w/w) with E. cloacae being the more susceptible. Results showed that among the Ag coumarin <span class="hlt">complexes</span>, the Ag8 doped coating had the highest antibiofilm property. XPS confirmed the presence of silver in the nanoparticulate state (Ag(0)) at the coating surface where it remained after 4 days of exposure to bacterial culture. Comparative cytotoxicity studies revealed that the Ag-<span class="hlt">complex</span> coatings were less toxic than the AgN coating. Thus, it can be concluded that a sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix with Ag-coumarin <span class="hlt">complexes</span> may provide non-toxic surfaces with antibacterial properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22583846','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22583846"><span>Huperzine A-phospholipid <span class="hlt">complex</span>-loaded biodegradable thermosensitive polymer <span class="hlt">gel</span> for controlled drug release.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cai, Xiaoqing; Luan, Yuxia; Jiang, Yue; Song, Aixin; Shao, Wei; Li, Zhonghao; Zhao, Zhongxi</p> <p>2012-08-20</p> <p>The huperzine A-phospholipid <span class="hlt">complex</span> loaded biodegradable thermosensitive PLGA-PEG-PLGA polymer <span class="hlt">gel</span> was studied as injectable implant system for controlled release of huperzine-A (HA). First, HA molecules were successfully incorporated into the soybean phosphatidylcholine (SP) molecules to form the huperzine-A-soybean phosphatidylcholine <span class="hlt">complexes</span> (HA-SPC), which was proved by FT-IR, DSC, XRD, solubility study, TEM, etc. The results indicated that hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interaction between HA and SP molecules play an important role in the formation of HA-SPC. Secondly, the HA-SPC was loaded into biodegradable PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermosensitive <span class="hlt">gel</span> as injectable implant material to control the release of HA. The in vitro and in vivo drug release behaviors of the prepared products were studied. The in vitro release studies demonstrated that the HA-SPC-loaded <span class="hlt">gel</span> significantly reduced the initial burst of drug release and extended the release period to about 2 weeks. The in vivo pharmacokinetics study of HA-SPC-loaded <span class="hlt">gel</span> in rabbits showed that plasma concentration of HA (2.54-0.15ng/mL) was detected for nearly 2 weeks from delivery systems upon single subcutaneous injection. What's more, the in vitro release pattern correlated well with the in vivo pharmacokinetics profile. The present study indicates that HA-SPC loaded PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermal <span class="hlt">gel</span> may be an attractive candidate vehicle for controlled HA release.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22308120','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22308120"><span>Sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> silica films embedding NIR- emitting Yb-quinolinolate <span class="hlt">complexes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Figus, Cristiana Quochi, Francesco Piana, Giacomo; Saba, Michele; Mura, Andrea; Bongiovanni, Giovanni; Artizzu, Flavia; Mercuri, Maria Laura; Serpe, Angela; Deplano, Paola</p> <p>2014-10-21</p> <p>Sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> silica thin films embedding an ytterbium quinolinolato <span class="hlt">complex</span> (YbClQ{sub 4}) have been obtained using different alkoxides. Homogeneous, crack- and defect-free thin films of optical quality have been successfully deposited on glass substrate by dip-coating. The silica thin films have been characterized by time-resolved photoluminescence. The luminescence properties of the YbClQ{sub 4} are preserved in silica films prepared through an optimized sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> approach. The excited state lifetime of the lanthanide is comparable to those observed in bulk and longer than the corresponding ones in solution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/522375','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/522375"><span>Luminescence behavior of terbium sulphosalicylic acid <span class="hlt">complexes</span> in sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> derived host materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fan, X.; Wang, M.; Wang, Z.; Hong, Z.</p> <p>1997-08-01</p> <p>The formation and luminescence behavior of terbium sulphosalicylic acid (TbSSA) <span class="hlt">complexes</span> in sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> derived host materials have been investigated. The 5-sulphosalicylic acid (H{sub 3}SSA) was dissolved in ethanol in advance, and then the TbCl{sub 3} and ethanol containing H{sub 3}SSA were introduced into the initial precursor sol, respectively. The resulting sol exhibits intramolecular energy transfer from the coordinated sulphosalicylic acid to the terbium ion. The TbSSA <span class="hlt">complex</span> has formed in the TbCl{sub 3} and H{sub 3}SSA codoped sol. The <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were found to have notably higher fluorescence intensities than TbCl{sub 3} in both the sol and the <span class="hlt">gel</span>. In the sol, the concentration quenching was a diffusion-controlled process due to aggregation and effective collision between molecules and the fluorescence was decreased with increase of H{sub 3}SSA concentration. On the other hand, the molecules in the <span class="hlt">gel</span> were isolated in the pores of the silica network. The fluorescence intensities of TbSSA in the <span class="hlt">gel</span> were increased with the increase of concentration ratio of H{sub 3}SSA/TbCl{sub 3}. Maximum fluorescence intensity was obtained at H{sub 3}SSA/TbCl{sub 3} = 2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22305851','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22305851"><span>A charge transfer <span class="hlt">complex</span> nematic liquid crystalline <span class="hlt">gel</span> with high electrical conductivity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bhargavi, R.; Nair, Geetha G. E-mail: skpras@gmail.com; Krishna Prasad, S. E-mail: skpras@gmail.com; Majumdar, R.; Bag, Braja G.</p> <p>2014-10-21</p> <p>We describe the rheological, dielectric and elastic properties of a nematic liquid crystal <span class="hlt">gel</span> created using an anthrylidene derivative of arjunolic acid, a chiral triterpenoid, obtained from the extracts of the wood of Terminalia arjuna. In this novel <span class="hlt">gel</span>, having the electron-donor and acceptor components as minority constituents, the gelation and strengthening of charge-transfer <span class="hlt">complex</span> (CTC) formation are seen to be occurring concomitantly. In addition to being mechanically strong with a large storage modulus, the <span class="hlt">gel</span> with the maximized CTC exhibits Frank bend elastic constant values that approach nanonewton levels. The highlight of the study is the observation of 4–5 orders of magnitude increase in electrical conductivity for this <span class="hlt">gel</span>, a value that is higher than even in the CT <span class="hlt">complexes</span> of 2-d ordered columnar structures. A further important advantage of the present system over the columnar <span class="hlt">complex</span> is that the high conductivity is seen for ac probing also, and owing to the nematic nature can be switched between its anisotropic limits. Some of these features are ascribed to a specific molecular packing architecture, which reduces the trapping of the charge carriers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1570387','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1570387"><span>Multiplex <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Array Assay for Detection of 25 Soluble Cytokines in Blister Fluid of Patients with <span class="hlt">Complex</span> Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Heijmans-Antonissen, Claudia; Wesseldijk, Feikje; Munnikes, Renate JM; Huygen, Frank JPM; van der Meijden, Patrick; Hop, Wim C. J.; Hooijkaas, Herbert; Zijlstra, Freek J.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Inflammatory processes are known to be involved at least in the early phase of <span class="hlt">complex</span> regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS1). Blister fluid obtained from the involved extremities displayed increased amounts of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα compared with the noninvolved extremities. The aim of this paper is to investigate the involvement of mediators by measurement of several other cytokines using new detection techniques that enable multiple cytokine measurement in small samples. The use of a multiplex-25 <span class="hlt">bead</span> array cytokine assay and Luminex technology enabled simultaneous measurement of representative (1) proinflammatory cytokines such as GM-CSF, IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α; (2) Th1/Th2 distinguishing cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-2R, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10; (3) nonspecific acting cytokines IFN-α, IL-7, IL-12p40/p70, IL-13, IL-15, and IL-17; and (4) chemokines eotaxin, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MIG, and RANTES. Although minimal detection levels are significantly higher in the <span class="hlt">bead</span> array system than those in common ELISA assays, in blister fluid, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IL-12p40/p70, MCP-1, and MIP-1β were detectable and increased in CRPS1 affected extremities. Levels of IL-6 and TNF-α simultaneously measured by ELISA (Sanquin Compact kit) and by multiplex-25 <span class="hlt">bead</span> array assay (Biosource) were highly correlated (r = 0.85, P < .001 for IL-6 and r = 0.88, P < .001 for TNF-α). Furthermore, IP-10 and eotaxin were detectable but diminished in CRPS1, whereas detectable amounts of IL-10 were similar in involved and noninvolved extremities. Multiplex <span class="hlt">bead</span> array assays are useful systems to establish the involvement of cytokines in inflammatory processes by measurements in blister fluids of CRPS1. Ten representative cytokines were detectable. However, detection levels and amounts measured are at least 3 times higher in the multiplex-25 array assay than in the ELISA assays used simultaneously for the measurement of cytokines. PMID:16864900</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvE..91c2413T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvE..91c2413T"><span>Elastocapillarity can control the formation and the morphology of <span class="hlt">beads</span>-on-string structures in solid fibers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taffetani, M.; Ciarletta, P.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Beads</span>-on-string patterns have been experimentally observed in solid cylinders for a wide range of material properties and structural lengths, from millimetric soft <span class="hlt">gels</span> to nanometric hard fibers. In this work, we combine theoretical analysis and numerical tools to investigate the formation and nonlinear dynamics of such <span class="hlt">beaded</span> structures. We show that this morphological transition is driven by elastocapillarity, i.e., a <span class="hlt">complex</span> interplay between the effects of surface tension and bulk elasticity. Unlike buckling or wrinkling, the presence of an axial elongation is found here to favor the onset of fiber <span class="hlt">beading</span>, in agreement with existing experimental results on electrospun fibers, hydrogels, and nerves. Our results also prove that the applied stretch can be used in fabrication techniques to control the morphology of the emerging <span class="hlt">beads</span>-on-string patterns. Such quantitative predictions open the way for several applications, from tissue engineering to the design of stretchable electronics and the microfabrication of functionalized surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25981870','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25981870"><span>Confined Flocculation of Ionic Pollutants by Poly(L-dopa)-Based Polyelectrolyte <span class="hlt">Complexes</span> in Hydrogel <span class="hlt">Beads</span> for Three-Dimensional, Quantitative, Efficient Water Decontamination.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yu, Li; Liu, Xiaokong; Yuan, Weichang; Brown, Lauren Joan; Wang, Dayang</p> <p>2015-06-16</p> <p>The development of simple and recyclable adsorbents with high adsorption capacity is a technical imperative for water treatment. In this work, we have successfully developed new adsorbents for the removal of ionic pollutants from water via encapsulation of polyelectrolyte <span class="hlt">complexes</span> (PECs) made from positively charged poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and negatively charged poly(l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) (PDopa), obtained via the self-polymerization of l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-Dopa). Given the outstanding mass transport through the hydrogel host matrixes, the PDopa-PAH PEC guests loaded inside can effectively and efficiently remove various ionic pollutants, including heavy metal ions and ionic organic dyes, from water. The adsorption efficiency of the PDopa-PAH PECs can be quantitatively correlated to and tailored by the PDopa-to-PAH molar ratio. Because PDopa embodies one catechol group, one carboxyl group, and one amino group in each repeating unit, the resulting PDopa-PAH PECs exhibit the largest capacity of adsorption of heavy metal ions compared to available adsorbents. Because both PDopa and PAH are pH-sensitive, the PDopa-PAH PEC-loaded agarose hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> can be easily and completely recovered after the adsorption of ionic pollutants by adjusting the pH of the surrounding media. The present strategy is similar to the conventional process of using PECs to flocculate ionic pollutants from water, while in our system flocculation is confined to the agarose hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span>, thus allowing easy separation of the resulting adsorbents from water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23892122','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23892122"><span>Synthesis and luminescence properties of encapsulated sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> glass samarium <span class="hlt">complexes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zaitoun, M A; Momani, K; Jaradat, Q; Qurashi, I M</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Luminescence efficiency of lanthanide <span class="hlt">complexes</span> generally largely depend on the choice of the organic ligand and the host matrix in which these <span class="hlt">complexes</span> are doped. Two Sm(III) <span class="hlt">complexes</span>, namely: Sm(III) dithicarbamate - Sm(L1)3B [L1=(R)2NCS2B, R=C2H5 and B=1,10-phenanthroline] and Sm(III) <span class="hlt">complex</span> with the polytonic ligand L2=N', N'(2)-bis[(1E)-1-(2-pyridyl)ethylidene]ethanedihydrazide {Sm2-L2-(CH3COO)2; L2=C16H16N6O2} are synthesized, these <span class="hlt">complexes</span> are then trapped in sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> glass. Room temperature luminescence of Sm(L1)3B and {Sm2-L2-(CH3COO)2} <span class="hlt">complexes</span> encapsulated in sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> glass are studied using a spectrofluorometer. Up on excitation by a UV light, ligand L1B absorbs this light and transfers it into the Sm(III) ions and emission bands were observed in the visible region and were attributed to f-f transitions of Sm(III). The observed emission indicated an efficient L1B ligand as a sensitizer, while ligand L2 shows no ability to work as a sensitizer. The branching ratio I4G5/2→6H9/2/I4G5/2→6H7/2) of electric dipole transition to magnetic dipole transition was used as an effective spectroscopic probe to predict symmetry of the site in which Sm(III) is located. The encapsulation of the Samaium <span class="hlt">complexes</span> was performed for three reasons: (i) before rare earth (RE)-doped sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> glasses can be used in applications such as laser materials, several fluorescence quenching mechanisms must be overcome, we show in this work that lanthanide fluorescence is greatly enhanced by chelation and selecting a suitable host matrix (sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span>) to accommodate the lanthanide <span class="hlt">complex</span>, (ii) to improve the stability of the phosphor with efficient and high color-purity characteristics under ultraviolet excitation and (iii) this work provides a framework for preparing transparent composite glasses that are robust hosts to study the fundamental interactions between nano-materials and light. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AcSpA.115..810Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AcSpA.115..810Z"><span>Synthesis and luminescence properties of encapsulated sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> glass samarium <span class="hlt">complexes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zaitoun, M. A.; Momani, K.; Jaradat, Q.; Qurashi, I. M.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Luminescence efficiency of lanthanide <span class="hlt">complexes</span> generally largely depend on the choice of the organic ligand and the host matrix in which these <span class="hlt">complexes</span> are doped. Two Sm(III) <span class="hlt">complexes</span>, namely: Sm(III) dithicarbamate - Sm(L1)3B [L1 = (R)2NCS2B, R = C2H5 and B = 1,10-phenanthroline] and Sm(III) <span class="hlt">complex</span> with the polytonic ligand L2 = N‧, N‧2-bis[(1E)-1-(2-pyridyl)ethylidene]ethanedihydrazide {Sm2-L2-(CH3COO)2; L2 = C16H16N6O2} are synthesized, these <span class="hlt">complexes</span> are then trapped in sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> glass. Room temperature luminescence of Sm(L1)3B and {Sm2-L2-(CH3COO)2} <span class="hlt">complexes</span> encapsulated in sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> glass are studied using a spectrofluorometer. Up on excitation by a UV light, ligand L1B absorbs this light and transfers it into the Sm(III) ions and emission bands were observed in the visible region and were attributed to f-f transitions of Sm(III). The observed emission indicated an efficient L1B ligand as a sensitizer, while ligand L2 shows no ability to work as a sensitizer. The branching ratio I4G5/2→6H9/2/I4G5/2→6H7/2) of electric dipole transition to magnetic dipole transition was used as an effective spectroscopic probe to predict symmetry of the site in which Sm(III) is located. The encapsulation of the Samaium <span class="hlt">complexes</span> was performed for three reasons: (i) before rare earth (RE)-doped sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> glasses can be used in applications such as laser materials, several fluorescence quenching mechanisms must be overcome, we show in this work that lanthanide fluorescence is greatly enhanced by chelation and selecting a suitable host matrix (sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span>) to accommodate the lanthanide <span class="hlt">complex</span>, (ii) to improve the stability of the phosphor with efficient and high color-purity characteristics under ultraviolet excitation and (iii) this work provides a framework for preparing transparent composite glasses that are robust hosts to study the fundamental interactions between nano-materials and light.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17715959','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17715959"><span>Effect of salt and surfactant concentration on the structure of polyacrylate <span class="hlt">gel</span>/surfactant <span class="hlt">complexes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nilsson, Peter; Unga, Johan; Hansson, Per</p> <p>2007-09-20</p> <p>Small-angle X-ray scattering was used to elucidate the structure of crosslinked polyacrylate <span class="hlt">gel</span>/dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide <span class="hlt">complexes</span> equilibrated in solutions of varying concentrations of surfactant and sodium bromide (NaBr). Samples were swollen with no ordering (micelle free), or they were collapsed with either several distinct peaks (cubic Pm3n) or one broad correlation peak (disordered micellar). The main factor determining the structure of the collapsed <span class="hlt">complexes</span> was found to be the NaBr concentration, with the cubic structure existing up to approximately 150 mM NaBr and above which only the disordered micellar structure was found. Increasing the salt concentration decreases the polyion mediated attractive forces holding the micelles together causing swelling of the <span class="hlt">gel</span>. At sufficiently high salt concentration the micelle-micelle distance in the <span class="hlt">gel</span> becomes too large for the cubic structure to be retained, and it melts into a disordered micellar structure. As most samples were above the critical micelle concentration, the bulk of the surfactant was in the form of micelles in the solution and the surfactant concentration thereby had only a minor influence on the structure. However, in the region around 150 mM NaBr, increasing the surfactant concentration, at constant NaBr concentration, was found to change the structure from disordered micellar to ordered cubic and back to disordered again.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7859704','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7859704"><span>Pulsed field electrophoresis for the separation of protein-sodium dodecyl sulfate-<span class="hlt">complexes</span> in polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Houri, A; Starita-Geribaldi, M</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis of proteins was studied using a pulsed-current mode. A new "local field" distribution was used to correct the <span class="hlt">gel</span> patterns and optimize migration. A corrective field was applied at fixed 2 s intervals to a constant field, inducing a <span class="hlt">complex</span> relaxation mechanism. Calculated variations in the local field directions decreased the electric strain on the <span class="hlt">gel</span> during the run, with resultant optimum <span class="hlt">gel</span> structure. The relaxation mechanism was found to enhance the absolute mobility of proteins with shorter running times compared to constant field <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis (CFGE) and other pulsed field techniques. The enhancement of molecular mobility was explored by transverse pore gradient <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis. Ferguson curves which exhibited a convex shape in CFGE were linearized by the new pulsed-field method named pulsed oscillatory high-performance electrophoresis (POPE).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26322722','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26322722"><span>Polyclonal outbreak of bacteremia caused by Burkholderia cepacia <span class="hlt">complex</span> and the presumptive role of ultrasound <span class="hlt">gel</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nannini, Esteban C; Ponessa, Adriana; Muratori, Rosa; Marchiaro, Patricia; Ballerini, Viviana; Flynn, Luis; Limansky, Adriana S</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A nosocomial polyclonal outbreak associated to bacteremia caused by different Burkholderia cepacia <span class="hlt">complex</span> (BCC) species and clones is reported. Molecular characterization identified Burkholderia stabilis, Burkholderia contaminans, and Burkholderia ambifaria among BCC isolates obtained from patients in neonatal and adult intensive care units. BCC was also isolated from an intrinsically contaminated ultrasound <span class="hlt">gel</span>, which constituted the presumptive BCC source. Prior BCC outbreak related to contaminated ultrasound <span class="hlt">gels</span> have been described in the setting of transrectal prostate biopsy. Outbreak caused strains and/or clones of BCC have been reported, probably because BCC are commonly found in the natural environment; most BCC species are biofilm producers, and different species may contaminate an environmental source. The finding of multiple species or clones during the analysis of nosocomial BCC cases might not be enough to reject an outbreak from a common source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25648334','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25648334"><span>Application of multiplexed cysteine-labeled <span class="hlt">complex</span> protein sample for 2D electrophoretic <span class="hlt">gel</span> alignment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haimi, Perttu; Sikorskaite-Gudziuniene, Sidona; Baniulis, Danas</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The analysis of cellular subproteomes by 2DE is hampered by the difficulty of aligning <span class="hlt">gel</span> images from samples that have very different protein composition. Here, we present a sensitive and cost-effective fluorescent labeling method for analyzing protein samples that is not dependent on their composition. The alignment is guided by inclusion of a <span class="hlt">complex</span> mixture of proteins that is co-run with the sample. Maleimide-conjugated fluorescent dyes Dy-560 and Dy-635 are used to label the cysteine residues of the sample of interest and the alignment standard, respectively. The two differently labeled mixtures are then combined and separated on a 2D <span class="hlt">gel</span> and, after selective fluorescence detection, an unsupervised image registration process is used to align the protein patters. In a pilot study, this protocol significantly improved the accuracy of alignment of nuclear proteins with total cellular proteins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1005385','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1005385"><span>Characterization of Novel <span class="hlt">Gel</span> Casting System to Make <span class="hlt">Complex</span> Shaped Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3) Parts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>ARL-TR-7620 ● MAR 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Characterization of Novel <span class="hlt">Gel</span>-Casting System to Make <span class="hlt">Complex</span>-Shaped Aluminum...Army Research Laboratory Characterization of Novel <span class="hlt">Gel</span>-Casting System to Make <span class="hlt">Complex</span>-Shaped Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3) Parts by Carli A Moorehead...NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) US Army Research Laboratory ATTN: RDRL-WMM-E Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24691723','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24691723"><span>Development of non-denaturing off-<span class="hlt">gel</span> isoelectric focusing for the separation of uranium-protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> in fish.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bucher, Guillaume; Frelon, Sandrine; Simon, Olivier; Lobinski, Ryszard; Mounicou, Sandra</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>An off-<span class="hlt">gel</span> non-denaturing isoelectric focusing (IEF) method was developed to separate uranium-biomolecule <span class="hlt">complexes</span> from biological samples as a first step in a multidimensional metalloproteomic approach. Analysis of a synthetic uranium-bovine serum albumin <span class="hlt">complex</span> demonstrated the focusing ability of the liquid-phase IEF method and the preservation of most of the uranium-protein interactions. The developed method was applied to gill cytosol prepared from zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to depleted uranium. The results were compared in terms of resolution, recovery, and protein identities with those obtained by in-<span class="hlt">gel</span> IEF using an immobilized pH gradient <span class="hlt">gel</span> strip.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21418111','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21418111"><span>A high-definition native polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis system for the analysis of membrane <span class="hlt">complexes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ladig, Roman; Sommer, Maik S; Hahn, Alexander; Leisegang, Matthias S; Papasotiriou, Dimitrios G; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Elkehal, Rajae; Karas, Michael; Zickermann, Volker; Gutensohn, Michael; Brandt, Ulrich; Klösgen, Ralf Bernd; Schleiff, Enrico</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>Native polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis (PAGE) is an important technique for the analysis of membrane protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span>. A major breakthrough was the development of blue native (BN-) and high resolution clear native (hrCN-) PAGE techniques. Although these techniques are very powerful, they could not be applied to all systems with the same resolution. We have developed an alternative protocol for the analysis of membrane protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> of plant chloroplasts and cyanobacteria, which we termed histidine- and deoxycholate-based native (HDN-) PAGE. We compared the capacity of HDN-, BN- and hrCN-PAGE to resolve the well-studied respiratory chain <span class="hlt">complexes</span> in mitochondria of bovine heart muscle and Yarrowia lipolytica, as well as thylakoid localized <span class="hlt">complexes</span> of Medicago sativa, Pisum sativum and Anabaena sp. PCC7120. Moreover, we determined the assembly/composition of the Anabaena sp. PCC7120 thylakoids and envelope membranes by HDN-PAGE. The analysis of isolated chloroplast envelope <span class="hlt">complexes</span> by HDN-PAGE permitted us to resolve <span class="hlt">complexes</span> such as the translocon of the outer envelope migrating at approximately 700 kDa or of the inner envelope of about 230 and 400 kDa with high resolution. By immunodecoration and mass spectrometry of these <span class="hlt">complexes</span> we present new insights into the assembly/composition of these translocation machineries. The HDN-PAGE technique thus provides an important tool for future analyses of membrane <span class="hlt">complexes</span> such as protein translocons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820033947&hterms=gel+electrophoresis&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dgel%2Belectrophoresis','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820033947&hterms=gel+electrophoresis&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dgel%2Belectrophoresis"><span>Microdisc <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate of organic material from rat otoconial <span class="hlt">complexes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ross, M. D.; Pote, K. G.; Rarey, K. E.; Verma, L. M.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The gravity receptors of all vertebrates utilize a 'test mass' consisting of a <span class="hlt">complex</span> arrangement of mineral and organic substance that lies over the sensory receptor areas. In most vertebrates, the mineral is a polymorph of calcium carbonate in the form of minute, single crystals called otoconia. An investigation is conducted to determine the number of proteins in otoconial <span class="hlt">complexes</span> and their molecular weights. The investigation makes use of a microdisk <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis method reported by Gainer (1971). The most important finding of the reported research is that analysis of the proteins of the organic material of the otoconial <span class="hlt">complexes</span> is possible when sensitive microanalytical methods are employed. Further modification of the basic technique employed and the inclusion of other sensitive staining methods should mean that, in the future, protein separation by molecular weight will be possible in sample pools containing only two otoconial masses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3300002','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3300002"><span>Native <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis of human telomerase distinguishes active <span class="hlt">complexes</span> with or without dyskerin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gardano, Laura; Holland, Linda; Oulton, Rena; Le Bihan, Thierry; Harrington, Lea</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Telomeres, the ends of linear chromosomes, safeguard against genome instability. The enzyme responsible for extension of the telomere 3′ terminus is the ribonucleoprotein telomerase. Whereas telomerase activity can be reconstituted in vitro with only the telomerase RNA (hTR) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), additional components are required in vivo for enzyme assembly, stability and telomere extension activity. One such associated protein, dyskerin, promotes hTR stability in vivo and is the only component to co-purify with active, endogenous human telomerase. We used oligonucleotide-based affinity purification of hTR followed by native <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis and in-<span class="hlt">gel</span> telomerase activity detection to query the composition of telomerase at different purification stringencies. At low salt concentrations (0.1 M NaCl), affinity-purified telomerase was ‘supershifted’ with an anti-dyskerin antibody, however the association with dyskerin was lost after purification at 0.6 M NaCl, despite the retention of telomerase activity and a comparable yield of hTR. The interaction of purified hTR and dyskerin in vitro displayed a similar salt-sensitive interaction. These results demonstrate that endogenous human telomerase, once assembled and active, does not require dyskerin for catalytic activity. Native <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis may prove useful in the characterization of telomerase <span class="hlt">complexes</span> under various physiological conditions. PMID:22187156</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26226053','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26226053"><span>Pickering Emulsion <span class="hlt">Gels</span> Prepared by Hydrogen-Bonded Zein/Tannic Acid <span class="hlt">Complex</span> Colloidal Particles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zou, Yuan; Guo, Jian; Yin, Shou-Wei; Wang, Jin-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Quan</p> <p>2015-08-26</p> <p>Food-grade colloidal particles and <span class="hlt">complexes</span>, which are formed via modulation of the noncovalent interactions between macromolecules and natural small molecules, can be developed as novel functional ingredients in a safe and sustainable way. For this study was prepared a novel zein/tannic acid (TA) <span class="hlt">complex</span> colloidal particle (ZTP) based on the hydrogen-bonding interaction between zein and TA in aqueous ethanol solution by using a simple antisolvent approach. Pickering emulsion <span class="hlt">gels</span> with high oil volume fraction (φ(oil) > 50%) were successfully fabricated via one-step homogenization. Circular dichroism (CD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements, which were used to characterize the structure of zein/TA <span class="hlt">complexes</span> in ethanol solution, clearly showed that TA binding generated a conformational change of zein without altering their supramolecular structure at pH 5.0 and intermediate TA concentrations. Consequently, the resultant ZTP had tuned near neutral wettability (θ(ow) ∼ 86°) and enhanced interfacial reactivity, but without significantly decreased surface charge. These allowed the ZTP to stabilize the oil droplets and further triggered cross-linking to form a continuous network among and around the oil droplets and protein particles, leading to the formation of stable Pickering emulsion <span class="hlt">gels</span>. Layer-by-layer (LbL) interfacial architecture on the oil-water surface of the droplets was observed, which implied a possibility to fabricate hierarchical interface microstructure via modulation of the noncovalent interaction between hydrophobic protein and natural polyphenol.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26138931','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26138931"><span>Tetrapeptide-coumarin conjugate 3D networks based on hydrogen-bonded charge transfer <span class="hlt">complexes</span>: <span class="hlt">gel</span> formation and dye release.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guo, Zongxia; Gong, Ruiying; Jiang, Yi; Wan, Xiaobo</p> <p>2015-08-14</p> <p>Oligopeptide-based derivatives are important synthons for bio-based functional materials. In this article, a Gly-(L-Val)-Gly-(L-Val)-coumarin (GVGV-Cou) conjugate was synthesized, which forms 3D networks in ethanol. The <span class="hlt">gel</span> nanostructures were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM and TEM. It is suggested that the formation of charge transfer (CT) <span class="hlt">complexes</span> between the coumarin moieties is the main driving force for the <span class="hlt">gel</span> formation. The capability of the <span class="hlt">gel</span> to encapsulate and release dyes was explored. Both Congo Red (CR) and Methylene Blue (MB) can be trapped in the CT <span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix and released over time. The present <span class="hlt">gel</span> might be used as a functional soft material for guest encapsulation and release.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7143855','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7143855"><span>Megabase-scale mapping of the HLA gene <span class="hlt">complex</span> by pulsed field <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lawrance, S.K.; Smith, C.L.; Srivastava, R.; Cantor, C.R.; Weissman, S.M.</p> <p>1987-03-13</p> <p>In the study of the genetic structure of mammalian chromosomes, there exists a resolution gap between molecular cloning experiments and meiotic linkage analyses. This gap has discouraged attempts to construct full-scale genetic maps of mammalian chromosomes. The organization of the human major histocompatibility <span class="hlt">complex</span> was examined within this range by pulsed field <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis. The data obtained indicate that the <span class="hlt">complex</span> spans over 3000 kilobases and enable the construction of a megabase-scale molecular map. These results indicate that the techniques employed in DNA extraction, enzymatic digestion, electrophoresis, and hybridization are suitable for the efficient analysis of megabase regions of mammalian chromosomes and effectively bridge the resolution gap between molecular cloning and classical genetics.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15152333','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15152333"><span>Fast automatic registration of images using the phase of a <span class="hlt">complex</span> wavelet transform: application to proteome <span class="hlt">gels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Woodward, Andrew M; Rowland, Jem J; Kell, Douglas B</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p>Image registration describes the process of manipulating a distorted version of an image such that its pixels overlay the equivalent pixels in a clean, master or reference image. The need for it has assumed particular prominence in the analysis of images of electrophoretic <span class="hlt">gels</span> used in the analysis of protein expression levels in living cells, but also has fundamental applications in most other areas of image analysis. Much of the positional information of a data feature is carried in the phase of a <span class="hlt">complex</span> transform, so a <span class="hlt">complex</span> transform allows explicit specification of the phase, and hence of the position of features in the image. Registration of a test <span class="hlt">gel</span> to a reference <span class="hlt">gel</span> is achieved by using a multiresolution movement map derived from the phase of a <span class="hlt">complex</span> wavelet transform (the Q-shift wavelet transform) to dictate the warping directly via movement of the nodes of a Delaunay-triangulated mesh of points. This warping map is then applied to the original untransformed image such that the absolute magnitude of the spots remains unchanged. The technique is general to any type of image. Results are presented for a simple computer simulated <span class="hlt">gel</span>, a simple real <span class="hlt">gel</span> registration between similar "clean" <span class="hlt">gels</span> with local warping vectors distributed about one main direction, a hard problem between a reference <span class="hlt">gel</span> and a "dirty" test <span class="hlt">gel</span> with multi-directional warping vectors and many artifacts, and some typical <span class="hlt">gels</span> of present interest in post-genomic biology. The method compares favourably with others, since it is computationally rapid, effective and entirely automatic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28068028','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28068028"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">complexation</span> conditions on microcapsulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus in xanthan-chitosan polyelectrolyte <span class="hlt">complex</span> <span class="hlt">gels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, He; Song, Yajuan; Liu, Nina; Wan, Hongchang; Shu, Guowei; Liao, Na</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Lactobacillus acidophilus has become increasingly popular because of their beneficial effects on health of their host, and are called proboscis. In order to exert beneficial effects for probiotics, they must be able to tolerate the acidic conditions of the stomach environment and the bile in the small intestine. Microencapsulated form has received reasonable attention, since it can protect probiotic organisms against an unfavourable environment, and to allow their release in a viable and metabolically active state in the intestine. The aim of this study was to investigate some factores, such as chitosan solution pH and concentration, xanthan concentration, cell suspension-xanthan ratio, mixed bacteria glue liquid-chitosan ratio, which impacted the process of microencapsulation of L. acidophilus. In this study, L. acidophilus was immobilized with xanthan⁄chitosan <span class="hlt">gel</span> using extrusion method. The viable counts and encapsulation yield of L. acidophilus encapsulated in different chitosan solution pH (4.5, 5, 5.5 and 6), in different chitosan concentration (0.5%, 0.7%, 0.9% and 1.1%), in different xanthan concentration (0.5%, 0.7%, 0.9% and 1.1%), in different cell suspension-xanthan ratios (1:5, 1:10, 1:15 and 1:20), in different mixed bacteria glue liquid-chitosan ratios (1:3, 1:4, 1:5 and 1:6), have been investigated by single factor experiment method. The optimum conditions of microencapsulated L. acidophilus have been observed. The optimum chitosan solution pH for L. acidophilus was 5.5; the optimum chitosan concentration was 0.9%; the optimum xanthan concentration was 0.7%; the optimum cell suspension-xanthan ratio was 1:10; the optimum mixed bacteria glue liquid-chitosan ratio was 1:3. These results will be helpful to further optimize the process of L. acidophilus microencapsulation, and provide reference for obtaining higher viable counts and entrapped yield of L. acidophilus microcapsules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1664d0002N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1664d0002N"><span>Expanded polylactide <span class="hlt">bead</span> foaming - A new technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nofar, M.; Ameli, A.; Park, C. B.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bead</span> foaming technology with double crystal melting peak structure has been recognized as a promising method to produce low-density foams with <span class="hlt">complex</span> geometries. During the molding stage of the <span class="hlt">bead</span> foams, the double peak structure generates a strong <span class="hlt">bead-to-bead</span> sintering and maintains the overall foam structure. During recent years, polylactide (PLA) <span class="hlt">bead</span> foaming has been of the great interest of researchers due to its origin from renewable resources and biodegradability. However, due to the PLA's low melt strength and slow crystallization kinetics, the attempts have been limited to the manufacturing methods used for expanded polystyrene. In this study, for the first time, we developed microcellular PLA <span class="hlt">bead</span> foams with double crystal melting peak structure. Microcellular PLA <span class="hlt">bead</span> foams were produced with expansion ratios and average cell sizes ranging from 3 to 30-times and 350 nm to 15 µm, respectively. The generated high melting temperature crystals during the saturation significantly affected the expansion ratio and cell density of the PLA <span class="hlt">bead</span> foams by enhancing the PLA's poor melt strength and promoting heterogeneous cell nucleation around the crystals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19662982','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19662982"><span>[Nasal septum cartilage-silica <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">complex</span> for repairing nasal deformities of unilateral cleft lip].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Qingwei; Sheng, Zunqi; Tang, Shengjian; Yang, Biaobing; Yu, Xiaohua</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>To evaluate the operative methods and therapeutic effects of nasal septum cartilage-silica <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">complex</span> for two-stage repair of nasal deformities of unilateral cleft lip. From June 2001 to June 2007, 38 cases of secondary nasal deformity and septum deviation of cleft lip were treated with transplanting nasal septum cartilage-silica <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">complex</span>. Among of them, there were 21 males and 17 females, aging 14-23 years with an average of 17.6 years. All cases were with nasal deformities of unilateral cleft lip, including 21 cases of complete cleft lip and 17 cases of incomplete cleft lip. The locations were left side in 26 cases and right side in 12 cases. Nasal deformities were columella nasi deflexion, flattened nasal tip, pteleorrhine and alanasi collapse. The patients received 1-4 times operations, and the interval of two operations was 3-10 years (mean 5.5 years). According to nasal deformity, the nasal septum cartilage of 1.8 cm x 1.2 cm was cut, and transplanted into the nose point phantom surface forming "the shield" to extend nose column and to raise the tip of the nose. At the same time the nasal tip fat-connective tissue flap graft with fat knot was given. After fixation, the nasal alar cartilage and soft tissues were reduced to normal position. Primary healing of the incisions was achieved in all cases. The nasal deformity was corrected. The postoperative follow-up period was 12-18 months with an average of 15.6 months. All the patients of regional cartilage scars had no complication. The figure of nose was slinky, the height of apex of nose and the shape of nose was natural, the apex of nose, nasal ala, nostrils and nasal columella were satisfactory [(the results were satisfactory in 30 cases (78.9%), general in 8 cases (21.1%)]. The nose department overall esthetics shape was improved in all the patients, no complications of the phantom sliding, shifting and exposure, hemorrhage and infection occurred. The nasal septum cartilage-silica <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">complex</span> to repair</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28527761','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28527761"><span><span class="hlt">Bead</span>-based flow-cytometry for semi-quantitative analysis of <span class="hlt">complex</span> membrane vesicle populations released by bacteria and host cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Volgers, Charlotte; Benedikter, Birke J; Grauls, Gert E; Savelkoul, Paul H M; Stassen, Frank R M</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>During infection, the release of nano-sized membrane vesicle is a process which is common both for bacteria and host cells. Host cell-derived membrane vesicles can be involved in innate and adaptive immunity whereas bacterial membrane vesicles can contribute to bacterial pathogenicity. To study the contribution of both membrane vesicle populations during infection is highly complicated as most vesicles fall within a similar size range of 30-300nm. Specialized techniques for purification are required and often no single technique complies on its own. Moreover, techniques for vesicle quantification are either complicated to use or do not distinguish between host cell-derived and bacterial membrane vesicle subpopulations. Here we demonstrate a <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based platform that allows a semi-quantitatively analysis by flow-cytometry of bacterial and host-cell derived membrane vesicles. We show this method can be used to study heterogeneous and <span class="hlt">complex</span> vesicle populations composed of bacterial and host-cell membrane vesicles. The easy accessible design of the protocol makes it also highly suitable for screening procedures to assess how intrinsic and environmental factors affect vesicle release. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JNuM..473..249B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JNuM..473..249B"><span>The <span class="hlt">Complex</span> Sol-<span class="hlt">Gel</span> Process for producing small ThO2 microspheres</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brykala, Marcin; Rogowski, Marcin</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Thorium based fuels offer several benefits compared to uranium based fuels thus they might be an attractive alternative to conventional fuel types. This study is devoted to the synthesis and the characterization of small thorium dioxide microspheres (Ø <50 μm). Their application involves using powder-free process, called the <span class="hlt">Complex</span> Sol-<span class="hlt">Gel</span> Process. The source sols used for the processes were prepared by the method where in the starting ascorbic acid solution the solid thorium nitrate was dissolved and partially neutralized by aqueous ammonia under pH control. The microspheres of thorium-ascorbate <span class="hlt">gel</span> were obtained using the ICHTJ Process (INCT in English). Studies allowed to determine an optimal heat treatment with calcination temperature of 700 °C and temperature rate not higher than 2 °C/min which enabled us to obtain a crack-free surface of microspheres. The main parameters which have a strong influence on the synthesis method and features of the spherical particles of thorium dioxide are described in this article.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19224649','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19224649"><span><span class="hlt">Bead</span>-probe <span class="hlt">complex</span> capture a couple of SINE and LINE family from genomes of two closely related species of East Asian cyprinid directly using magnetic separation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tong, Chaobo; Guo, Baocheng; He, Shunping</p> <p>2009-02-19</p> <p>Short and long interspersed elements (SINEs and LINEs, respectively), two types of retroposons, are active in shaping the architecture of genomes and powerful tools for studies of phylogeny and population biology. Here we developed special protocol to apply biotin-streptavidin <span class="hlt">bead</span> system into isolation of interspersed repeated sequences rapidly and efficiently, in which SINEs and LINEs were captured directly from digested genomic DNA by hybridization to <span class="hlt">bead</span>-probe <span class="hlt">complex</span> in solution instead of traditional strategy including genomic library construction and screening. A new couple of SINEs and LINEs that shared an almost identical 3'tail was isolated and characterized in silver carp and bighead carp of two closely related species. These SINEs (34 members), designated HAmo SINE family, were little divergent in sequence and flanked by obvious TSD indicated that HAmo SINE was very young family. The copy numbers of this family was estimated to 2 x 105 and 1.7 x 105 per haploid genome by Real-Time qPCR, respectively. The LINEs, identified as the homologs of LINE2 in other fishes, had a conserved primary sequence and secondary structures of the 3'tail region that was almost identical to that of HAmo SINE. These evidences suggest that HAmo SINEs are active and amplified recently utilizing the enzymatic machinery for retroposition of HAmoL2 through the recognition of higher-order structures of the conserved 42-tail region. We analyzed the possible structures of HAmo SINE that lead to successful amplification in genome and then deduced that HAmo SINE, SmaI SINE and FokI SINE that were similar in sequence each other, were probably generated independently and created by LINE family within the same lineage of a LINE phylogeny in the genomes of different hosts. The presented results show the advantage of the novel method for retroposons isolation and a pair of young SINE family and its partner LINE family in two carp fishes, which strengthened the hypotheses containing the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2653535','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2653535"><span><span class="hlt">Bead</span>-probe <span class="hlt">complex</span> capture a couple of SINE and LINE family from genomes of two closely related species of East Asian cyprinid directly using magnetic separation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tong, Chaobo; Guo, Baocheng; He, Shunping</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background Short and long interspersed elements (SINEs and LINEs, respectively), two types of retroposons, are active in shaping the architecture of genomes and powerful tools for studies of phylogeny and population biology. Here we developed special protocol to apply biotin-streptavidin <span class="hlt">bead</span> system into isolation of interspersed repeated sequences rapidly and efficiently, in which SINEs and LINEs were captured directly from digested genomic DNA by hybridization to <span class="hlt">bead</span>-probe <span class="hlt">complex</span> in solution instead of traditional strategy including genomic library construction and screening. Results A new couple of SINEs and LINEs that shared an almost identical 3'tail was isolated and characterized in silver carp and bighead carp of two closely related species. These SINEs (34 members), designated HAmo SINE family, were little divergent in sequence and flanked by obvious TSD indicated that HAmo SINE was very young family. The copy numbers of this family was estimated to 2 × 105 and 1.7 × 105 per haploid genome by Real-Time qPCR, respectively. The LINEs, identified as the homologs of LINE2 in other fishes, had a conserved primary sequence and secondary structures of the 3'tail region that was almost identical to that of HAmo SINE. These evidences suggest that HAmo SINEs are active and amplified recently utilizing the enzymatic machinery for retroposition of HAmoL2 through the recognition of higher-order structures of the conserved 42-tail region. We analyzed the possible structures of HAmo SINE that lead to successful amplification in genome and then deduced that HAmo SINE, SmaI SINE and FokI SINE that were similar in sequence each other, were probably generated independently and created by LINE family within the same lineage of a LINE phylogeny in the genomes of different hosts. Conclusion The presented results show the advantage of the novel method for retroposons isolation and a pair of young SINE family and its partner LINE family in two carp fishes, which strengthened</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25164151','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25164151"><span><span class="hlt">Gel</span>-derived cation-π stacking films of carbon nanotube-graphene <span class="hlt">complexes</span> as oxygen cathodes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Tao; Matsuda, Hirofumi; Zhou, Haoshen</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>A key challenge in processing carbon nanotubes and their composites for large-scale applications is aggregation. Cation-π stacking interactions have been discovered to disperse heavily entangled single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) bundles in ionic liquids (ILs). In this work, we found that a dispersible, silky single-layer graphene (SLG) can be readily gathered together to form a crosslinked <span class="hlt">gel</span> after entrapping sufficient IL molecular via the likely noncovalent interaction. By incorporating the dispersed SWNTs into the gathered SLG <span class="hlt">gel</span> synchronously, we prepared solid, finely crosslinked SWNTs-SLG films, assisted by an avenue of 2-step extraction to remove the IL completely. The <span class="hlt">gel</span>-derived SWNTs-SLG <span class="hlt">complex</span> film was applied as a support material of oxygen cathodes for Li-O2 batteries. It exhibited a remarkable improved cycleability in comparison to made of SWNTs and SLG alone due to the finely crosslinked feature. Decorated SWNTs and SLG can also form <span class="hlt">gel</span>-derived <span class="hlt">complexes</span> via the same process to construct support-catalyst <span class="hlt">complexes</span>. A SWNTs-SLG film loaded with Ru nanoparticles exhibited not only catalytic effects, but also the ability to suppress the side reactions, and hence stabilized the whole Li-O2 battery. Our research introduces a <span class="hlt">gel</span>-derived, high-dispersed processing of carbon nanotube-graphene <span class="hlt">complexes</span> and demonstrates their favorable applications on Li-O2 batteries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003CPL...367...39B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003CPL...367...39B"><span>Charge-transfer <span class="hlt">complexes</span> of Cu(II)/HD analogue in sol <span class="hlt">gel</span> sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brinkley, J. F.; Kirkey, M. L.; Marques, A. D. S.; Lin, C. T.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>An optically transparent xerogel encapsulating Cu(II) acetate is fabricated to detect mustard gas (HD) analogues via a charge-transfer mechanism. A fast response (color change from sky blue to canary yellow) is observed for the chlorinated sulfide, and is accompanied by an absorption band at 370-420 nm. MO calculations revealed that the chlorinated HD analogue displays a charge-transfer transition extended from sulfur to chlorine atom. A 1:1 <span class="hlt">complex</span> of Cu(II)/HD analogue is preferred. For a colorimetric sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> detector prepared at pH 3, the detection limit of HD analogue is calibrated at 0.03 μl per 1.5 ml sensor volume.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17884062','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17884062"><span>Sedimentation field flow fractionation of immunoglobulin A coated polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Influence of carrier composition on <span class="hlt">complex</span> characterization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Contado, Catia; Bregola, Letizia; Dondi, Francesco</p> <p>2007-10-26</p> <p>The amount of immunoglobulin A (IgA) adsorbed on the surface of two different samples of polystyrene (PS) microbeads was evaluated using differential sedimentation field flow fractionation (SdFFF) analyses. For the first time, the SdFFF separations obtained by using, as mobile phase, solutions common to many biochemical procedures and applications have been compared and discussed. Good separation results were achieved in the different carriers, and the SdFFF gave equivalent mass per particle values in all carriers provided that the pH and ionic strength conditions of the eluents were well controlled. The IgA adsorption process onto PS occurred by maintaining unaltered the capacity of the PS-IgA substrate to selectively recognize anti-IgA (aIgA), as proven by elution of the ternary <span class="hlt">complex</span> PS-IgA-aIgA and from the monitored lack of reaction when the PS-IgA was placed in contact with aIgE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/874932','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/874932"><span>Method for preparing spherical ferrite <span class="hlt">beads</span> and use thereof</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Lauf, Robert J.; Anderson, Kimberly K.; Montgomery, Frederick C.; Collins, Jack L.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The invention allows the fabrication of small, dense, highly polished spherical <span class="hlt">beads</span> of hexagonal ferrites with selected compositions for use in nonreciprocal microwave and mm-wave devices as well as in microwave absorbent or reflective coatings, composites, and the like. A porous, generally spherical <span class="hlt">bead</span> of hydrous iron oxide is made by a sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> process to form a substantially rigid <span class="hlt">bead</span> having a generally fine crystallite size and correspondingly finely distributed internal porosity. The resulting <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">bead</span> is washed and hydrothermally reacted with a soluble alkaline earth salt (typically Ba or Sr) under conditions of elevated temperature and pressure to convert the <span class="hlt">bead</span> into a mixed hydrous iron-alkaline earth oxide while retaining the generally spherical shape. This mixed oxide <span class="hlt">bead</span> is then washed, dried, and calcined to produce the desired (BaFe.sub.12 O.sub.19 or SrFe.sub.12 O.sub.19) crystal structure. The calcined <span class="hlt">bead</span> is then sintered to form a dense <span class="hlt">bead</span> of the BaFe.sub.12 O.sub.19 and SrFe.sub.12 O.sub.19 phase suitable for polishing and incorporation into various microwave devices and components.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MApFl...1a7001H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MApFl...1a7001H"><span>A two-channel detection method for autofluorescence correction and efficient on-<span class="hlt">bead</span> screening of one-<span class="hlt">bead</span> one-compound combinatorial libraries using the COPAS fluorescence activated <span class="hlt">bead</span> sorting system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hintersteiner, Martin; Auer, Manfred</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>One-<span class="hlt">bead</span> one-compound combinatorial library <span class="hlt">beads</span> exhibit varying levels of autofluorescence after solid phase combinatorial synthesis. Very often this causes significant problems for automated on-<span class="hlt">bead</span> screening using Tenta<span class="hlt">Gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> and fluorescently labeled target proteins. Herein, we present a method to overcome this limitation when fluorescence activated <span class="hlt">bead</span> sorting is used as the screening method. We have equipped the COPAS <span class="hlt">bead</span> sorting instrument with a high-speed profiling unit and developed a spectral autofluorescence correction method. The correction method is based on a simple algebraic operation using the fluorescence data from two detection channels and is applied on-the-fly in order to reliably identify hit <span class="hlt">beads</span> by COPAS <span class="hlt">bead</span> sorting. Our method provides a practical tool for the fast and efficient isolation of hit <span class="hlt">beads</span> from one-<span class="hlt">bead</span> one-compound library screens using either fluorescently labeled target proteins or biotinylated target proteins. This method makes hit <span class="hlt">bead</span> identification easier and more reliable. It reduces false positives and eliminates the need for time-consuming pre-sorting of library <span class="hlt">beads</span> in order to remove autofluorescent <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OptMa..42..411K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OptMa..42..411K"><span>EVA thin film with thermo- and moisture-stable luminescent copolymer <span class="hlt">beads</span> composed of Eu(III) <span class="hlt">complexes</span> for improvement of energy conversion efficiency on silicon solar cell</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kataoka, Hisataka; Omagari, Shun; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Yasuchika</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Luminescent <span class="hlt">beads</span> composed of Eu(hfa)3(TPPO)2 (hfa: hexafluoroacetylacetonate, TPPO: triphenylphosphine oxide) in PMMA copolymer (polymethylmethacrylate- styrene and polymethylmethacrylate-trifluoromethylmethacrylate copolymers), PMMA-St-Eu and PMMA-TF-Eu have been reported for improvement of energy conversion efficiency on silicon solar cell. The PMMA-St-Eu and PMMA-TF-Eu <span class="hlt">beads</span> are prepared using radical initiator AIBN (2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile) without BPO (Benzoyl peroxide) which promotes decomposition of Eu(hfa)3(TPPO)2. The emission properties of EVA (ethylene vinyl acetate) film with PMMA-St-Eu or PMMA-TF-Eu <span class="hlt">beads</span> are characterized by the emission spectra and lifetimes. Thermo- and moisture-stabilities of the EVA films are performed under high temperature and high moisture condition (85°C85%RH). Increase percentage the solar cell short circuit current efficiency in the solar cell modulation using with EVA film containing PMMA-St-Eu <span class="hlt">beads</span> with size in 70 μm was estimated to 1.2%. Thermo- and moisture-stable PMMA-St-Eu and PMMA-TF-Eu <span class="hlt">beads</span> for solar sealing film are demonstrated for the first time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27246375','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27246375"><span>Effect of cooling-heating rate on sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> transformation of fish gelatin-gum arabic <span class="hlt">complex</span> coacervate phase.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anvari, Mohammad; Chung, Donghwa</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to characterize influence of different cooling and heating rates on gelation of fish gelatin (FG)-gum arabic (GA) <span class="hlt">complex</span> coacervate phase using rheological measurements. For the coacervate phase prepared at 10°C, the gelling temperature, melting temperature, <span class="hlt">gel</span> strength, and stress relaxation decreased with increasing cooling or heating rate, however, no gelation was observed at the highest cooling rate of 0.05°C/min. Similar trends were obtained for the coacervates phase prepared at 30°C, but the gelation did not occur at a cooling rate of 0.033 or 0.05°C/min. The results indicated that rheological properties of FG-GA coacervate <span class="hlt">gels</span> were highly dependent to the cooling process, where more thermos-stable and stronger <span class="hlt">gels</span> formed at slower cooling. This was probably because of higher degree of molecular rearrangements, more hydrogen bindings, and formation of greater junction zones into the <span class="hlt">gel</span> network at slower cooling rates. However, all of the FG-GA coacervate <span class="hlt">gels</span> obtained at different cooling rates were classified as a weak physical <span class="hlt">gel</span>. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2784131','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2784131"><span>Single <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based electrochemical biosensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Changchun; Schrlau, Michael G.; Bau, Haim H.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A simple, robust, single <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based electrochemical biosensor was fabricated and characterized. The sensor’s working electrode consists of an electrochemically-etched platinum wire, with a nominal diameter of 25 μm, hermetically heat-fusion sealed in a pulled glass capillary (micropipette). The sealing process does not require any epoxy or glue. A commercially available, densely functionalized agarose <span class="hlt">bead</span> was mounted on the tip of the etched platinum wire. The use of a pre-functionalized <span class="hlt">bead</span> eliminates the tedious and complicated surface functionalization process that is often the bottleneck in the development of electrochemical biosensors. We report on the use of a biotin agarose <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based, micropipette, electrochemical (Bio-BMP) biosensor to monitor H2O2 concentration and the use of a streptavidin <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based, micropipette, electrochemical (SA-BMP) biosensor to detect DNA amplicons. The Bio-BMP biosensor’s response increased linearly as the H2O2 concentration increased in the range from 1×10−6 to 1.2×10−4 M with a detection limit of 5×10−7 M. The SA-BMP was able to detect the amplicons of 1 pg DNA template of B. Cereus bacteria, thus providing better detection sensitivity than conventional <span class="hlt">gel</span>-based electropherograms. PMID:19767195</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5534119','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5534119"><span>Investigation of factors controlling GTA weld <span class="hlt">bead</span> geometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Smartt, H.B.; Key, J.F.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>In welding processes employing a consumable electrode, the input of heat and mass to the fusion zone is coupled. In contrast, in the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process, which uses a nonconsumable tungsten electrode, the input of heat and mass to the fusion zone are not coupled. As a result, the relationships between process parameters (current, arc voltage, welding speed, and filler wire speed) and weld <span class="hlt">bead</span> geometry (<span class="hlt">bead</span> width, penetration, and reinforcement) for GTA welding are <span class="hlt">complex</span>. This work presents an experimental study of the process-parameter/weld-<span class="hlt">bead</span>-geometry relationships for constant parameter GTAW of Type 304 stainless steel. <span class="hlt">Bead</span>-on-plate results for partial-penetration welds in 12.5-mm thick plate, using an automatic GTAW machine, are presented. Measurements of <span class="hlt">bead</span> width, penetration, and <span class="hlt">bead</span> transverse cross-sectional area are given for autogenous welding; measurements of <span class="hlt">bead</span> width, penetration, reinforcement, cross-sectional area, and dilution are given for nonautogenous welding.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080006880','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080006880"><span>Small, porous polyacrylate <span class="hlt">beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping Siao (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Uniformly-shaped, porous, round <span class="hlt">beads</span> are prepared by the co-polymerization of an acrylic monomer and a cross-linking agent in the presence of 0.05 to 5% by weight of an aqueous soluble polymer such as polyethylene oxide. Cross-linking proceeds at high temperature above about 50.degree.C or at a lower temperature with irradiation. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> of even shape and even size distribution of less than 2 micron diameter are formed. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> will find use as adsorbents in chromatography and as markers for studies of cell surface receptors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080012236','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080012236"><span>Crosslinked, porous, polyacrylate <span class="hlt">beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Uniformly-shaped, porous, round <span class="hlt">beads</span> are prepared by the co-polymerization of an acrylic monomer and a cross-linking agent in the presence of 0.05 to 5% by weight of an aqueous soluble polymer such as polyethylene oxide. Cross-linking proceeds at high temperature above about 50.degree. C or at a lower temperature with irradiation. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> of even shape and even size distribution of less than 2 micron diameter are formed. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> will find use as adsorbents in chromatography and as markers for studies of cell surface receptors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080006886','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080006886"><span>Crosslinked, porous, polyacrylate <span class="hlt">beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping Siao (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Uniformly-shaped, porous, round <span class="hlt">beads</span> are prepared by the co-polymerization of an acrylic monomer and a cross-linking agent in the presence of 0.05 to 5% by weight of an aqueous soluble polymer such as polyethylene oxide. Cross-linking proceeds at high temperature above about 50.degree.C or at a lower temperature with irradiation. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> of even shape and even size distribution of less than 2 micron diameter are formed. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> will find use as adsorbents in chromatography and as markers for studies of cell surface receptors.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23358934','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23358934"><span>Thermally triggered mucoadhesive in situ <span class="hlt">gel</span> of loratadine: β-cyclodextrin <span class="hlt">complex</span> for nasal delivery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Singh, Reena M P; Kumar, Anil; Pathak, Kamla</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The aim of the present study was to increase the solubility of an anti-allergic drug loratadine by making its inclusion <span class="hlt">complex</span> with β-cyclodextrin and to develop it's thermally triggered mucoadhesive in situ nasal <span class="hlt">gel</span> so as to overcome first-pass effect and consequently enhance its bioavailability. A total of eight formulations were prepared by cold method and optimized by 2(3) full factorial design. Independent variables (concentration of poloxamer 407, concentration of carbopol 934 P, and pure drug or its inclusion <span class="hlt">complex</span>) were optimized in order to achieve desired gelling temperature with sufficient mucoadhesive strength and maximum permeation across experimental nasal membrane. The design was validated by extra design checkpoint formulation (F9) and Pareto charts were used to help eliminate terms that did not have a statistically significant effect. The response surface plots and possible interactions between independent variables were analyzed using Design Expert Software 8.0.2 (Stat Ease, Inc., USA). Faster drug permeation with zero-order kinetics and target flux was achieved with formulation containing drug: β-cyclodextrin <span class="hlt">complex</span> rather than those made with free drug. The optimized formulation (F8) with a gelling temperature of 28.6±0.47°C and highest mucoadhesive strength of 7,676.0±0.97 dyn/cm2 displayed 97.74±0.87% cumulative drug permeation at 6 h. It was stable for over 3 months and histological examination revealed no remarkable damage to the nasal tissue.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25286326','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25286326"><span>A novel method for localizing reporter fluorescent <span class="hlt">beads</span> near the cell culture surface for traction force microscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Knoll, Samantha G; Ali, M Yakut; Saif, M Taher A</p> <p>2014-09-16</p> <p>PA <span class="hlt">gels</span> have long been used as a platform to study cell traction forces due to ease of fabrication and the ability to tune their elastic properties. When the substrate is coated with an extracellular matrix protein, cells adhere to the <span class="hlt">gel</span> and apply forces, causing the <span class="hlt">gel</span> to deform. The deformation depends on the cell traction and the elastic properties of the <span class="hlt">gel</span>. If the deformation field of the surface is known, surface traction can be calculated using elasticity theory. <span class="hlt">Gel</span> deformation is commonly measured by embedding fluorescent marker <span class="hlt">beads</span> uniformly into the <span class="hlt">gel</span>. The probes displace as the <span class="hlt">gel</span> deforms. The probes near the surface of the <span class="hlt">gel</span> are tracked. The displacements reported by these probes are considered as surface displacements. Their depths from the surface are ignored. This assumption introduces error in traction force evaluations. For precise measurement of cell forces, it is critical for the location of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> to be known. We have developed a technique that utilizes simple chemistry to confine fluorescent marker <span class="hlt">beads</span>, 0.1 and 1 µm in diameter, in PA <span class="hlt">gels</span>, within 1.6 μm of the surface. We coat a coverslip with poly-D-lysine (PDL) and fluorescent <span class="hlt">beads</span>. PA <span class="hlt">gel</span> solution is then sandwiched between the coverslip and an adherent surface. The fluorescent <span class="hlt">beads</span> transfer to the <span class="hlt">gel</span> solution during curing. After polymerization, the PA <span class="hlt">gel</span> contains fluorescent <span class="hlt">beads</span> on a plane close to the <span class="hlt">gel</span> surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4828080','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4828080"><span>A Novel Method for Localizing Reporter Fluorescent <span class="hlt">Beads</span> Near the Cell Culture Surface for Traction Force Microscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Knoll, Samantha G.; Ali, M. Yakut; Saif, M. Taher A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>PA <span class="hlt">gels</span> have long been used as a platform to study cell traction forces due to ease of fabrication and the ability to tune their elastic properties. When the substrate is coated with an extracellular matrix protein, cells adhere to the <span class="hlt">gel</span> and apply forces, causing the <span class="hlt">gel</span> to deform. The deformation depends on the cell traction and the elastic properties of the <span class="hlt">gel</span>. If the deformation field of the surface is known, surface traction can be calculated using elasticity theory. <span class="hlt">Gel</span> deformation is commonly measured by embedding fluorescent marker <span class="hlt">beads</span> uniformly into the <span class="hlt">gel</span>. The probes displace as the <span class="hlt">gel</span> deforms. The probes near the surface of the <span class="hlt">gel</span> are tracked. The displacements reported by these probes are considered as surface displacements. Their depths from the surface are ignored. This assumption introduces error in traction force evaluations. For precise measurement of cell forces, it is critical for the location of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> to be known. We have developed a technique that utilizes simple chemistry to confine fluorescent marker <span class="hlt">beads</span>, 0.1 and 1 µm in diameter, in PA <span class="hlt">gels</span>, within 1.6 μm of the surface. We coat a coverslip with poly-D-lysine (PDL) and fluorescent <span class="hlt">beads</span>. PA <span class="hlt">gel</span> solution is then sandwiched between the coverslip and an adherent surface. The fluorescent <span class="hlt">beads</span> transfer to the <span class="hlt">gel</span> solution during curing. After polymerization, the PA <span class="hlt">gel</span> contains fluorescent <span class="hlt">beads</span> on a plane close to the <span class="hlt">gel</span> surface. PMID:25286326</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6965795','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6965795"><span>Isolation and characterization of the pigment-protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides by lithium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Broglie, R M; Hunter, C N; Delepelaire, P; Niederman, R A; Chua, N H; Clayton, R K</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>When purified photosynthetic membranes from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides were treated with lithium dodecyl sulfate and subjected to polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis at 4 degrees C, up to 11 pigment-protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were resolved. Absorption spectra revealed that the smallest <span class="hlt">complex</span> contained reaction center pigments and the others contained the antenna components B850 and B875 in various proportions. Of these antenna <span class="hlt">complexes</span>, the largest was almost entirely B850 and the smallest contained only B875. After solubilization at 100 degrees C and electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gradient <span class="hlt">gels</span>, the B850 <span class="hlt">complex</span> gave rise to two polypeptide components migrating with apparent Mr of 10,000 and 8000, whereas with the B875 <span class="hlt">complex</span>, two components were observed with apparent Mr of 12,000 and 8000. The reaction center <span class="hlt">complex</span> gave rise to only the 24 and 21 kilodalton polypeptide subunits. Fluorescence emission spectra showed maxima at 872 and 902 nm for B850 and B875, respectively. Analyses of bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids indicated that, in the B875 <span class="hlt">complex</span>, two molecules of each of these pigments are associated with the two polypeptides. The associations of B850 and B875 in large and small <span class="hlt">complexes</span> obtained by lithium dodecyl sulfate treatment are consistent with models of their organization within the membrane.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28067019','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28067019"><span>A 19th Century "Ideal" Oil Paint Medium: A <span class="hlt">Complex</span> Hybrid Organic-Inorganic <span class="hlt">Gel</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Viguerie, Laurence; Jaber, Maguy; Pasco, Hélène; Lalevée, Jacques; Morlet-Savary, Fabrice; Ducouret, Guylaine; Rigaud, Baptiste; Pouget, Thierry; Sanchez, Clément; Walter, Philippe</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>British 19th century painters such as J. M. W. Turner, commonly modified the properties of their paint by using <span class="hlt">gels</span> called "gumtions". These <span class="hlt">gels</span> allowed them to easily tune the paint handling and drying properties. The fascinating properties of these "gumtions" were obtained by adding lead acetate to a ternary system based on mastic resin, linseed oil and turpentine. Herein, we report and investigate in depth the rheological properties of these <span class="hlt">gels</span> as well as their structure at a molecular and supra-molecular scale. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27187718','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27187718"><span>Development of transferosomal <span class="hlt">gel</span> for trans-dermal delivery of insulin using iodine <span class="hlt">complex</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marwah, Harneet; Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit K</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The main object of this current research was to examine transferosomes as a transdermal delivery system for insulin, to overwhelm the difficulties related with its subcutaneous delivery. Transferosomal <span class="hlt">gel</span> formulations were prepared by rotary evaporation sonication technique. The result revealed that insulin was successfully entrapped (78%) in optimized formulations (2.5 I.U. of the drug and 25% of sodium cholate) with cumulative percent drug release (83.11 ± 3.782). The glucose lowering study revealed that the transferosomal <span class="hlt">gel</span> with chemical penetration enhancer showed better glucose lowering effect as compared to the control <span class="hlt">gel</span>. Consequently, this study authenticated that the transferosomal <span class="hlt">gel</span> can be used as a possible substitute to the conventional formulations of insulin with progressive permeation characteristics for transdermal application.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25159881','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25159881"><span>Preparation and cytotoxicity of N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan/alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> containing gold nanoparticles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martins, Alessandro F; Facchi, Suelen P; Monteiro, Johny P; Nocchi, Samara R; Silva, Cleiser T P; Nakamura, Celso V; Girotto, Emerson M; Rubira, Adley F; Muniz, Edvani C</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Polyelectrolyte <span class="hlt">complex</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> based on N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) and sodium alginate (ALG) were obtained. This biomaterial was characterised by FTIR, TGA/DTG, DSC and SEM analysis. The good properties of polyelectrolyte <span class="hlt">complex</span> hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> were associated, for the first time, with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Through a straightforward methodology, AuNPs were encapsulated into the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The in vitro cytotoxicity assays on the Caco-2 colon cancer cells and healthy VERO cells showed that the <span class="hlt">beads</span> presented good biocompatibility on both cell lines, whereas the <span class="hlt">beads</span> loaded with gold nanoparticles (<span class="hlt">beads</span>/AuNPs) was slightly cytotoxic on the Caco-2 and VERO cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=44299','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=44299"><span>Snapshot blotting: transfer of nucleic acids and nucleoprotein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> from electrophoresis <span class="hlt">gels</span> to grids for electron microscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jett, S D; Bear, D G</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>We present a technique, "snapshot blotting," for the electrophoretic transfer of nucleic acids and nucleoprotein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> in <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis bands onto highly stable carbon film-coated grids for imaging by electron microscopy. The method permits structural analysis of macromolecular species that have been resolved by a <span class="hlt">gel</span> mobility-shift assay. To demonstrate the efficiency and integrity of the transfer process for a multiprotein-DNA assembly, we have imaged various species of a prokaryotic transcription <span class="hlt">complex</span>, using the cleavage-defective EcoRI(Q111) protein as an orientation marker and as a blockade of transcription elongation. Snapshot blotting should be of great utility in the structural characterization of nucleic acids and protein-nucleic acid interactions. Images PMID:8041711</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5324040','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5324040"><span>A stable double-stranded DNA-ethidium homodimer <span class="hlt">complex</span>: Application to picogram fluorescence detection of DNA in agarose <span class="hlt">gels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Glazer, A.N.; Mathies, R.A. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA ); Peck, K. )</p> <p>1990-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">complex</span> between double-stranded DNA and ethidium homodimer (5,5{prime}-diazadecamethylene)bis(3,8-diamino-6-phenylphenanthridinium) cation, formed at a ratio of 1 homodimer per 4 or 5 base pairs, is stable in agarose <span class="hlt">gels</span> under the usual conditions for electrophoresis. This unusual stability allows formation of the <span class="hlt">complex</span> before electrophoresis and then separation and detection in the absence of background stain. Competition experiments between the performed DNA-ethidium homodimer <span class="hlt">complex</span> and a 50-fold molar excess of unlabeled DNA show that approximately one-third of the dye is retained within the original <span class="hlt">complex</span> independent of the duration of the competition. However, dye-extraction experiments show that these are not covalent <span class="hlt">complexes</span>. After electrophoretic separation, detection of bands containing 25 pg of DNA was readily achieved in 1-mm thick agarose <span class="hlt">gels</span> with laser excitation at 488 nm and a scanning confocal fluorescence imaging system. The band intensity was linear with the amount of DNA applied from 0.2 to 1.0 ng per lane and with the number of kilobase pairs (kbp) per band within a lane. Analysis of an aliquot of a polymerase-chain-reaction mixture permitted ready detection of 80 pg of a 1.6-kbp amplified fragment. The use of the ethidium homodimer <span class="hlt">complex</span> together with laser excitation for DNA detection on <span class="hlt">gels</span> is at least two orders of magnitude more sensitive than conventional fluorescence-based procedures. The homodimer-DNA <span class="hlt">complex</span> exemplifies a class of fluorescent probes where the intercalation of dye chromophores in DNA forms a stable, highly fluorescent ensemble.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=54001','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=54001"><span>A stable double-stranded DNA-ethidium homodimer <span class="hlt">complex</span>: application to picogram fluorescence detection of DNA in agarose <span class="hlt">gels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Glazer, A N; Peck, K; Mathies, R A</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">complex</span> between double-stranded DNA and ethidium homodimer (5,5'-diazadecamethylene)bis(3,8-diamino-6-phenylphenanthridini um) cation, formed at a ratio of 1 homodimer per 4 or 5 base pairs, is stable in agarose <span class="hlt">gels</span> under the usual conditions for electrophoresis. This unusual stability allows formation of the <span class="hlt">complex</span> before electrophoresis and then separation and detection in the absence of background stain. Competition experiments between the preformed DNA-ethidium homodimer <span class="hlt">complex</span> and a 50-fold molar excess of unlabeled DNA show that approximately one-third of the dye is retained within the original <span class="hlt">complex</span> independent of the duration of the competition. However, dye-extraction experiments show that these are not covalent <span class="hlt">complexes</span>. After electrophoretic separation, detection of bands containing 25 pg of DNA was readily achieved in 1-mm thick agarose <span class="hlt">gels</span> with laser excitation at 488 nm and a scanning confocal fluorescence imaging system. The band intensity was linear with the amount of DNA applied from 0.2 to 1.0 ng per lane and with the number of kilobase pairs (kbp) per band within a lane. Analysis of an aliquot of a polymerase-chain-reaction mixture permitted ready detection of 80 pg of a 1.6-kbp amplified fragment. The use of the ethidium homodimer <span class="hlt">complex</span> together with laser excitation for DNA detection on <span class="hlt">gels</span> is at least two orders of magnitude more sensitive than conventional fluorescence-based procedures. The homodimer-DNA <span class="hlt">complex</span> exemplifies a class of fluorescent probes where the intercalation of dye chromophores in DNA forms a stable, highly fluorescent ensemble. Images PMID:2339125</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16035062','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16035062"><span>Complement inhibition reduces material-induced leukocyte activation with PEG modified polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span> (Tentagel) but not polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gorbet, M B; Sefton, M V</p> <p>2005-09-15</p> <p>With isolated leukocytes, inhibiting complement reduced material-induced leukocyte activation (CD11b) with polyethylene glycol modified polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span> (PS-PEG), but not with polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span> (PS). The PS-PEG <span class="hlt">beads</span> (Tenta<span class="hlt">Gel</span>) were complement activating as measured by SC5b-9 levels consistent with the sensitivity of these <span class="hlt">beads</span> to leukocyte inhibition with complement inhibitors. Following contact with PS and PS-PEG <span class="hlt">beads</span>, isolated leukocytes in plasma and in the absence in platelets were found to significantly upregulate CD11b, while TF expression and exposure of phosphatidylserine remained at background levels. Complement inhibition by means of sCR1 partially reduced CD11b upregulation on PS-PEG <span class="hlt">beads</span>, but had no effect with PS <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P) was able to significantly reduce both CD11b upregulation and exposure of phosphatidylserine with PS-PEG <span class="hlt">beads</span>, although it did not appear to inhibit SC5b-9 production. Pentamidine and NAAGA inhibited complement and were effective in reducing CD11b upregulation with both PS and PS-PEG. However, they also had an inhibitory effect on leukocyte signaling mechanisms, precluding their utility for further study in this context. Leukocyte adhesion occurred to similar extents on both PS and PS-PEG <span class="hlt">beads</span>. While sCR1 and P5P blocked adhesion and activation (for adherent leukocytes) on PS-PEG <span class="hlt">beads</span>, they had no effect on leukocytes adherent to PS <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The role of complement in leukocyte activation and adhesion was found to be material-dependent. Thus, leukocyte-material compatibility may be resolved by complement inhibition in some but not all cases. For these other materials (example here was PS), other mechanisms, such as fibrinogen adsorption and direct leukocyte release, may need exploitation to minimize leukocyte activation and adhesion. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 2005.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20978654','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20978654"><span><span class="hlt">Bead</span> magnetorelaxometry with an on-chip magnetoresistive sensor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Donolato, Marco; Strømme, Maria; Strömberg, Mattias; Svedlindh, Peter; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt</p> <p>2011-01-21</p> <p>Magnetorelaxometry measurements on suspensions of magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> are demonstrated using a planar Hall effect sensor chip embedded in a microfluidic system. The alternating magnetic field used for magnetizing the <span class="hlt">beads</span> is provided by the sensor bias current and the <span class="hlt">complex</span> magnetic susceptibility spectra are recorded as the 2nd harmonic of the sensor response. The <span class="hlt">complex</span> magnetic susceptibility signal appears when a magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> suspension is injected, it scales with the <span class="hlt">bead</span> concentration, and it follows the Cole-Cole expression for Brownian relaxation. The <span class="hlt">complex</span> magnetic susceptibility signal resembles that from conventional magnetorelaxometry done on the same samples apart from an offset in Brownian relaxation frequency. The time dependence of the signal can be rationalized as originating from sedimented <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMoSt1090..138V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMoSt1090..138V"><span>Building, characterising and catalytic activity testing of Co-C-protected amino acid <span class="hlt">complexes</span> covalently grafted onto chloropropylated silica <span class="hlt">gel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Varga, G.; Timár, Z.; Csendes, Z.; Bajnóczi, É. G.; Carlson, S.; Canton, S. E.; Bagi, L.; Sipos, P.; Pálinkó, I.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Co-C-protected amino acid (C-protected L-histidine, L-tyrosine, L-cysteine and L-cystine) <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were covalently grafted onto chloropropylated silica <span class="hlt">gel</span>, and the materials thus obtained were structurally characterised by mid/far IR and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. The superoxide dismutase-like activities of the substances were determined via the Beauchamp-Fridovich test reaction. It was found that covalent grafting and the preparation of the anchored <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were successful in most cases. The coordinating groups varied upon changing the conditions of the syntheses. All materials displayed catalytic activity, although catalytic activities differed widely.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22935695','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22935695"><span>Does crystal or <span class="hlt">gel</span> matter to stereochemistry of a reaction? Silver <span class="hlt">complexation</span>-promoted solid-state [2+2] reaction of an unsymmetrical olefin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Samai, Suman; Ghosh, Prabir; Biradha, Kumar</p> <p>2013-05-14</p> <p>Head-to-tail and head-to-head [2+2] photodimerization of an unsymmetrical olefin containing benzimidazole and pyridyl groups was achieved by irradiating Ag(I) <span class="hlt">complexed</span> olefin in crystalline state and <span class="hlt">gel</span> state, respectively, in stereoselective manner. The [2+2] reaction indicates that the molecular arrangement in a <span class="hlt">gel</span> is different from that of a xerogel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870000398&hterms=stock+solutions&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dstock%2Bsolutions','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870000398&hterms=stock+solutions&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dstock%2Bsolutions"><span>Clarification Procedure for <span class="hlt">Gels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barber, Patrick G.; Simpson, Norman R.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Procedure developed to obtain transparent <span class="hlt">gels</span> with consistencies suitable for crystal growth, by replacing sodium ions in silicate solution with potassium ions. Clarification process uses cation-exchange resin to replace sodium ions in stock solution with potassium ions, placed in 1M solution of soluble potassium salt. Slurry stirred for several hours to allow potassium ions to replace all other cations on resin. Supernatant solution decanted through filter, and <span class="hlt">beads</span> rinsed with distilled water. Rinsing removes excess salt but leaves cation-exchange <span class="hlt">beads</span> fully charged with potassium ions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Coil&pg=5&id=EJ673818','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Coil&pg=5&id=EJ673818"><span><span class="hlt">Bead</span>-Dazzled Baskets.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>St. Clair, Sharon</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Presents an art lesson used when teaching about North American Indians to fourth- and fifth-grade students. Explains that the students learn how to make baskets using a coil-wrap technique with colored yarns and <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Provides a step-by-step explanation of how to create the baskets. (CMK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900000248&hterms=hand+circumference&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dhand%2Bcircumference','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900000248&hterms=hand+circumference&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dhand%2Bcircumference"><span>Weld-<span class="hlt">Bead</span> Shaver</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Guirguis, Kamal; Price, Daniel S.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Hand-held power tool shaves excess metal from inside circumference of welded duct. Removes excess metal deposited by penetration of tungsten/inert-gas weld or by spatter from electron-beam weld. Produces smooth transition across joint. Easier to use and not prone to overshaving. Also cuts faster, removing 35 in. (89 cm) of weld <span class="hlt">bead</span> per hour.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25037343','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25037343"><span>Ion exchange kinetics of magnetic alginate ferrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> produced by external gelation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Teixeira, Vânea Ferreira Torres; Pereira, Nádia Rosa; Waldman, Walter Ruggeri; Ávila, Ana Luiza Cassiano Dias; Pérez, Victor Haber; Rodríguez, Rubén Jesus Sánchez</p> <p>2014-10-13</p> <p>This paper reports on a study of the influence of sodium alginate concentration and iron addition on the ion exchange kinetics of calcium alginate ferrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> produced by external gelation. The calcium absorption and sodium release of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> were fitted to Fick's second law for unsteady state diffusion in order to obtain the effective diffusion coefficients of Na(+) and Ca(2+). The dried <span class="hlt">beads</span> were characterized concerning their thermal stability, particle size distribution and morphology. The gelation kinetics showed that an increase in alginate concentration from 1% to 2% increased the Ca(2+) equilibrium concentration, but presented no effect on Ca(2+) effective diffusion coefficient. Alginate concentration higher than 2% promoted saturation of binding sites at the <span class="hlt">bead</span> surfaces. The addition of iron promoted faster diffusion of Ca(2+) inside the <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> and reduced the Ca(2+) equilibrium concentration. Also, iron particles entrapped in the alginate <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> promoted greater absorption of water compared to pure alginate <span class="hlt">gel</span> and lower thermal stability of the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The main diffusion of Ca(2+) into and Na(+) out from the <span class="hlt">bead</span> took place during the first 60 min, during which almost 85-90% of the Ca(2+) equilibrium concentration is achieved, indicating that this period is sufficient to produce a Ca-alginate <span class="hlt">bead</span> with high crosslinking of the polymer network. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21132520','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21132520"><span>Preparation and <span class="hlt">complex</span> characterization of silica holmium sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> monoliths.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cacaina, D; Areva, S; Laaksonen, H; Simon, S; Ylänen, H</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Amorphous, sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> derived SiO(2) are known to biocompatible and bioresorbable materials. Biodegradable and inert materials containing radioactive isotopes have potential application as delivery vehicles of the beta radiation to the cancer tumors inside the body. Incorporation of holmium in the sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> derived SiO(2) could lead to the formation of a biodegradable material which could be used as carrier biomaterial for the radiation of radioactive holmium to the various cancer sites. The homogeneity of the prepared sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> silica holmium monoliths was investigated by Back Scattered Electron Imaging of Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis, X-ray Induced Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. The biodegradation of the monoliths was investigated in Simulated Body Fluid and TRIS (Trizma pre-set Crystals) solution. The results show that by suitable tailoring of the sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> processing parameters holmium can be homogeneously incorporated in the silica matrix with a controlled biodegradation rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27664528','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27664528"><span>Phosphate uptake studies of cross-linked chitosan <span class="hlt">bead</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mahaninia, Mohammad H; Wilson, Lee D</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>A systematic experimental study is reported that provides a molecular based understanding of cross-linked chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> and their adsorption properties in aqueous solution containing phosphate dianion (HPO4(2-)) species. Synthetically modified chitosan using epichlorohydrin and glutaraldehyde cross-linkers result in surface modified <span class="hlt">beads</span> with variable hydrophile-lipophile character and tunable HPO4(2-) uptake properties. The kinetic and thermodynamic adsorption properties of cross-linked chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> with HPO4(2-) species were studied in aqueous solution. Complementary structure and physicochemical characterization of chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> via potentiometry, Raman spectroscopy, DSC, and dye adsorption measurements was carried out to establish structure-property relationships. The maximum uptake (Qm) of <span class="hlt">bead</span> systems with HPO4(2-) at equilibrium was 52.1mgg(-1); whereas, kinetic uptake results for chitosan <span class="hlt">bead</span>/phosphate systems are relatively rapid (0.111-0.113min(-1)) with an intraparticle diffusion rate-limiting step. The adsorption process follows a multi-step pathway involving inner- and outer-sphere <span class="hlt">complexes</span> with significant changes in hydration. Phosphate uptake strongly depends on the composition and type of cross-linker used for preparation of chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The adsorption isotherms and structural characterization of <span class="hlt">bead</span> systems illustrate the role of surface charge, hydrophile-lipophile balance, adsorption site accessibility, and hydration properties of the chitosan <span class="hlt">bead</span> surface. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17092174','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17092174"><span>Quantum dot optical encoded polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span> for DNA detection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cao, Yuan-Cheng; Liu, Tian-Cai; Hua, Xiao-Feng; Zhu, Xiao-Xia; Wang, Hai-Qiao; Huang, Zhen-Li; Zhao, Yuan-Di; Liu, Man-Xi; Luo, Qing-Ming</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>A novel multiplex analysis technology based on quantum dot (QD) optical encoded <span class="hlt">beads</span> was studied. Carboxyl functionalized polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span>, about 100 microm in size, were precisely encoded by the various ratios of two types of QDs whose emission wavelengths are 576 and 628 nm, respectively. Then the different encoded <span class="hlt">beads</span> were covalently immobilized with different probes in the existing of sulfo-NHS and 1-[3-(Dimethylamino) propyl]-3-ethylcarbodiimide methiodide, and the probe density could reach to 3.1 mmol/g. These probe-linked encoded <span class="hlt">beads</span> were used to detect the target DNA sequences in <span class="hlt">complex</span> DNA solution by hybridization. Hybridization was visualized using fluorescein isothiocynate-labeled DNA sequences. The results show that the QDs and target signals can be obviously identified from a single-<span class="hlt">bead</span>-level spectrum. This technology can detect DNA targets effectively with a detection limit of 0.2 microg/mL in <span class="hlt">complex</span> solution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10653768','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10653768"><span>Survival of Bifidobacterium longum immobilized in calcium alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> in simulated gastric juices and bile salt solution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, K Y; Heo, T R</p> <p>2000-02-01</p> <p>Bifidobacterium longum KCTC 3128 and HLC 3742 were independently immobilized (entrapped) in calcium alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> containing 2, 3, and 4% sodium alginate. When the bifidobacteria entrapped in calcium alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> were exposed to simulated gastric juices and a bile salt solution, the death rate of the cells in the <span class="hlt">beads</span> decreased proportionally with an increase in both the alginate <span class="hlt">gel</span> concentration and <span class="hlt">bead</span> size. The initial cell numbers in the <span class="hlt">beads</span> affected the numbers of survivors after exposure to these solutions; however, the death rates of the viable cells were not affected. Accordingly, a mathematical model was formulated which expressed the influences of several parameters (<span class="hlt">gel</span> concentration, <span class="hlt">bead</span> size, and initial cell numbers) on the survival of entrapped bifidobacteria after sequential exposure to simulated gastric juices followed by a bile salt solution. The model proposed in this paper may be useful for estimating the survival of bifidobacteria in <span class="hlt">beads</span> and establishing optimal entrapment conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5217392','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5217392"><span><span class="hlt">Bead</span> Based Proteome Enrichment Enhances Features of the Protein Elution Plate (PEP) for Functional Proteomic Profiling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Xing; Davies, Michael; Roy, Swapan; Kuruc, Matthew</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A novel functional proteomics technology called PEP(Protein Elution Plate) was developed to separate <span class="hlt">complex</span> proteomes from natural sources and analyze protein functions systematically. The technology takes advantage of the powerful resolution of two-dimensional <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis (2-D <span class="hlt">Gels</span>). The modification of electrophoretic conditions in combination with a high-resolution protein elution plate supports the recovery of functionally active proteins. As 2DE(2-Dimensional Electrophoresis) resolution can be limited by protein load, we investigated the use of <span class="hlt">bead</span> based enrichment technologies, called AlbuVoid™ and KinaSorb™ to determine their effect on the proteomic features which can be generated from the PEP platform. Using a variety of substrates and enzyme activity assays, we report on the benefits of combining <span class="hlt">bead</span> based enrichment to improve the signal report and the features generated for Hexokinase, Protein Kinase, Protease, and Alkaline Phosphatase activities. As a result, the PEP technology allows systematic analysis of large enzyme families and can build a comprehensive picture of protein function from a <span class="hlt">complex</span> proteome, providing biological insights that could otherwise not be observed if only protein abundances were analyzed. PMID:28248280</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150003249','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150003249"><span>Coated Aerogel <span class="hlt">Beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel <span class="hlt">beads</span>, among other materials. A coated aerogel <span class="hlt">bead</span> and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19735989','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19735989"><span>Spectrofluorimetric assessment of Ramipril using optical sensor Samarium ion-doxycycline <span class="hlt">complex</span> doped in sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Attia, M S</p> <p>2010-01-05</p> <p>A new, simple, sensitive and selective spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of Ramipril is developed. The Ramipril can remarkably quench the luminescence intensity of the Sm(3+) ion in Sm(3+)-doxycycline <span class="hlt">complex</span> at lambda(ex)=375 nm in sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix. In the same time the intensity of the emission band of the Ramipril in DMSO at 454 nm is increased due to the energy transfer from the Sm(3+)-doxycycline <span class="hlt">complex</span> to Ramipril in the excited stated. The quenching of luminescence intensity of Sm(3+)-doxycycline <span class="hlt">complex</span> doped in the sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix and the enhancement of the emission band of Ramipril at 454 nm are directly proportion to the concentration of Ramipril with a dynamic ranges of 3.4x10(-9) - 1.0x10(-7)mol l(-1) and 2.4x10(-9) - 1.0x10(-7)mol l(-1) and detection limits of 6.0x10(-10) and 5.2x10(-10)mol l(-1), respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22433935','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22433935"><span>Combining mixed titania morphologies into a <span class="hlt">complex</span> assembly thin film by iterative block-copolymer-based sol–<span class="hlt">gel</span> templating.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Niedermeier, M A; Magerl, D; Zhong, Q; Nathan, A; Körstgens, V; Perlich, J; Roth, S V; Müller-Buschbaum, P</p> <p>2012-04-13</p> <p>Sol–<span class="hlt">gel</span> templating combined with iterative spin-coating steps are used to custom-tailor hierarchically structured titania thin films. Using poly(styrene-block-ethylene oxide) P(S-b-PEO) as the structure directing agent, a foam-like structure is combined with nanogranules. Both structural elements are merged into a <span class="hlt">complex</span> assembly in thin film geometry. The resulting morphology is pictured by SEM and probed with GISAXS. The installed mesoporous titania sandwich structure exhibits holes with a size of 45 nm which makes it promising for applications in photovoltaics or photocatalysis. An optical characterization completes the structural investigation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27058913','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27058913"><span>Preparation of metal-resistant immobilized sulfate reducing bacteria <span class="hlt">beads</span> for acid mine drainage treatment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia; Han, Xuemei</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Novel immobilized sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) <span class="hlt">beads</span> were prepared for the treatment of synthetic acid mine drainage (AMD) containing high concentrations of Fe, Cu, Cd and Zn using up-flow anaerobic packed-bed bioreactor. The tolerance of immobilized SRB <span class="hlt">beads</span> to heavy metals was significantly enhanced compared with that of suspended SRB. High removal efficiencies of sulfate (61-88%) and heavy metals (>99.9%) as well as slightly alkaline effluent pH (7.3-7.8) were achieved when the bioreactor was fed with acidic influent (pH 2.7) containing high concentrations of multiple metals (Fe 469 mg/L, Cu 88 mg/L, Cd 92 mg/L and Zn 128 mg/L), which showed that the bioreactor filled with immobilized SRB <span class="hlt">beads</span> had tolerance to AMD containing high concentrations of heavy metals. Partially decomposed maize straw was a carbon source and stabilizing agent in the initial phase of bioreactor operation but later had to be supplemented by a soluble carbon source such as sodium lactate. The microbial community in the bioreactor was characterized by denaturing gradient <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of partial 16S rDNA genes. Synergistic interaction between SRB (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans) and co-existing fermentative bacteria could be the key factor for the utilization of <span class="hlt">complex</span> organic substrate (maize straw) as carbon and nutrients source for sulfate reduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23592440','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23592440"><span>Evaluation of three-dimensional <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis to improve quantitative profiling of <span class="hlt">complex</span> proteomes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Colignon, Bertrand; Raes, Martine; Dieu, Marc; Delaive, Edouard; Mauro, Sergio</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Two-dimensional remains one of the main experimental approaches in proteome analysis. However, comigration of protein leads to several limitations: lack of accuracy in protein identification, impaired comparative quantification, and PTM detection. We have optimized a third additional step of in-<span class="hlt">gel</span> separation to alleviate comigration associated drawbacks. Spot resolution is strikingly improved following this simple and rapid method and the positive impact on protein and peptide identification from MS/MS data, on the analysis of relative changes in protein abundance, and on the detection of PTM is described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9795E..20B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9795E..20B"><span>Luminescent sensing of dissolved oxygen based on Ru(II) <span class="hlt">complex</span> embedded in sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bi, Yubing; Tao, Wei; Hu, Yanli; Mao, Yimei; Zhao, Hui</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>In biological cells and tissues environment, real-time monitoring and controlling dissolved oxygen (DO) provides critical information for studying cellular metabolism process, health status and pathological features. This paper developed an optical DO sensor based on fluorescence quenching principle, prepared tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10- phenanthroline)ruthenium(II) dichloride <span class="hlt">complex</span> sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> sensing film, and studied its sensing performance. The principle of this sensor is that dissolved oxygen has quenching effect towards the fluorescence emitted by ruthenium <span class="hlt">complex</span>. So the fluorescence intensity is reduced due to the existence of DO. The measurement limit of DO was 10- 100%, the response time was 20s, and the resolution was 0.02. Compared to traditional dissolved oxygen electrode probe, this luminescent fiber had many advantages, such as smaller size, shorter response time and higher stability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19901555','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19901555"><span>Artificial induction of autophagy around polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span> in nonphagocytic cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kobayashi, Shouhei; Kojidani, Tomoko; Osakada, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Yoshimori, Tamotsu; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Haraguchi, Tokuko</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Autophagy is an intracellular event that acts as an innate cellular defense mechanism to kill invading bacteria such as group A Streptococcus in nonphagocytic epithelial-like cells. The cellular events underlying autophagosome formation upon bacterial invasion remain unclear due to the biochemical <span class="hlt">complexity</span> associated with uncharacterized bacterial components, and the difficulty of predicting the location as well as the timing of where/when autophagosome formation will take place. To overcome these problems, we monitored autophagosome formation in living nonphagocytic cells by inducing autophagy around artificial micrometer-sized <span class="hlt">beads</span> instead of bacteria. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> conjugated with bio-reactive molecules provide a powerful tool for examining biochemical properties in vitro. However, this technique has not been applied to living cells, except for phagocytes, because the <span class="hlt">beads</span> cannot be easily incorporated into nonphagocytic cells. Here we report that micrometer-sized polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span> coated with transfection reagents containing cationic lipids can be incorporated into nonphagocytic cells, and that autophagy can be efficiently induced around the <span class="hlt">beads</span> in these cells. Monitoring the process of autophagosome formation for pH-sensitive fluorescent dye (pHrodo)-conjugated <span class="hlt">beads</span> by fluorescence live cell imaging combined with correlative light and electron microscopy, we found that autophagosomes are formed around the <span class="hlt">beads</span> after partial breakdown of the endosomal membrane. In addition, the <span class="hlt">beads</span> were subsequently transferred to lysosomes within a couple of hours. Our findings demonstrate the cellular responses that lead to autophagy in response to pathogen invasion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2574764','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2574764"><span>Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Defined Protein <span class="hlt">Beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lund, Amanda W.; Bush, Jeff A.; Plopper, George E.; Stegemann, Jan P.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>There is a need to develop improved methods for directing and maintaining the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) for regenerative medicine. Here, we present a method for embedding cells in defined protein microenvironments for the directed osteogenic differentiation of hMSC. Composite matrices of collagen I and agarose were produced by emulsification and simultaneous polymerization in the presence of hMSC to produce 30–150 μm diameter hydrogel “<span class="hlt">beads</span>.” The proliferation, morphology, osteogenic gene expression, and calcium deposition of hMSC in <span class="hlt">bead</span> environments were compared to other two- and three-dimensional culture environments over 14–21 days in culture. Cells embedded within 40% collagen <span class="hlt">beads</span> exhibited equivalent proliferation rates to those in <span class="hlt">gel</span> disks, but showed upregulation of bone sialoprotein and increased calcium deposition over 2D controls. Osteocalcin gene expression was not changed in 3D <span class="hlt">beads</span> and disks, while collagen type I gene expression was downregulated relative to cells in 2D culture. The hydrogel <span class="hlt">bead</span> format allows controlled cell differentiation and is a cell delivery vehicle that may also enhance vascular invasion and host incorporation. Our results indicate that the application of such <span class="hlt">beads</span> can be used to promote the osteogenic phenotype in hMSC, which is an important step toward using them in bone repair applications. PMID:18431753</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15778044','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15778044"><span>Molecular interaction in alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> reinforced with sodium starch glycolate or magnesium aluminum silicate, and their physical characteristics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit; Pongjanyakul, Thaned; Priprem, Aroonsri</p> <p>2005-04-11</p> <p>Diclofenac calcium-alginate (DCA) <span class="hlt">beads</span> were reinforced with different amounts of sodium starch glycolate (SSG) or magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS) and were prepared using ionotropic gelation method. <span class="hlt">Complex</span> formation of sodium alginate (SA) and SSG or MAS in calcium-alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> was revealed using FTIR spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetric study indicated that diclofenac sodium (DS) in amorphous form was dispersed in the matrix of DCA <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The thermal behavior of SSG-DCA and MAS-DCA <span class="hlt">beads</span> was similar to the control <span class="hlt">bead</span>. Both additives can improve the entrapment efficiency of DCA <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The swelling and water uptake of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> depended on the properties of incorporated additives. The SSG-DCA <span class="hlt">beads</span> showed a higher water uptake and swelling than MAS-DCA <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Moreover, the swelling of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> showed a good correlation with the square root of time. The release kinetic of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer was swelling controlled mechanism, while that in distilled water followed Higuchi's model. The slower release rate and the longer lag time in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer was obtained from the SSG-DCA and MAS-DCA <span class="hlt">beads</span> because of <span class="hlt">complex</span> formation between SA and SSG or MAS. However, SSG in the <span class="hlt">beads</span> could increase the release of DS from the <span class="hlt">beads</span> in distilled water because it acted as a channeling agent. In contrast, MAS retarded the release of DS from the <span class="hlt">beads</span> in distilled water due to the stronger matrix formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005MiMic..11..154J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005MiMic..11..154J"><span>Microscopic Examination of Chitosan Polyphosphate <span class="hlt">Beads</span> with Entrapped Spores of the Biocontrol Agent, Streptomyces melanosporofaciens EF-76</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jobin, Guy; Grondin, Gilles; Couture, Geneviève; Beaulieu, Carole</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>Spores of the biocontrol agent, Streptomyces melanosporofaciens EF-76, were entrapped by <span class="hlt">complex</span> coacervation in <span class="hlt">beads</span> composed of a macromolecular <span class="hlt">complex</span> (MC) of chitosan and polyphosphate. A proportion of spores entrapped in <span class="hlt">beads</span> survived the entrapment procedure as shown by treating spores from chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> with a dye allowing the differentiation of live and dead cells. The spore-loaded chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> could be digested by a chitosanase, suggesting that, once introduced in soil, the <span class="hlt">beads</span> would be degraded to release the biocontrol agent. Spore-loaded <span class="hlt">beads</span> were examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy because the release of the biological agent depends on the spore distribution in the chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The microscopic examination revealed that the <span class="hlt">beads</span> had a porous surface and contained a network of inner microfibrils. Spores were entrapped in both the chitosan microfibrils and the <span class="hlt">bead</span> lacuna.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28514893','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28514893"><span>Cytocompatible polyion <span class="hlt">complex</span> <span class="hlt">gel</span> of poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly) for simultaneous rat bone marrow stromal cell encapsulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nurlidar, Farah; Kobayashi, Mime; Terada, Kayo; Ando, Tsuyoshi; Tanihara, Masao</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>Polyion <span class="hlt">complex</span> (PIC) <span class="hlt">gel</span> of poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly) was successfully fabricated by simply mixing polyanion and polycation derivatives of poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly), a collagen-like polypeptide. The polyanion, succinylated poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly), and the polycation, arginylated poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly), contain carboxy (pKa = 5.2) and guanidinium (pKa = 12.4) groups, respectively. Mixing the polyanion and the polycation at physiological pH (pH = 7.4) resulted in PIC <span class="hlt">gel</span>. The hydrogel formation was optimum at an equimolar ratio of carboxy to guanidinium groups, suggesting that ionic interaction is the main determinant for the hydrogel formation. The hydrogel was successfully used for simultaneous rat bone marrow stromal cell encapsulation. The encapsulated cells survived and proliferated within the hydrogel. In addition, the cells exhibited different morphology in the hydrogel compared with cells cultured on a tissue culture dish as a two-dimensional (2D) control. At day one, a round morphology and homogeneous single cell distribution were observed in the hydrogel. In contrast, the cells spread and formed a fibroblast-like morphology on the 2D control. After three days, the cells in the hydrogel maintained their morphology and some of them formed multicellular aggregates, which is similar to cell morphology in an in vivo microenvironment. These results suggest that the PIC <span class="hlt">gel</span> of poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly) can serve as a cytocompatible three-dimensional scaffold for stem cell encapsulation, supporting their viability, proliferation, and in vivo-like behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24532133','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24532133"><span>Characterization and release studies of liposomal <span class="hlt">gels</span> containing glutathione/cyclodextrins <span class="hlt">complexes</span> potentially useful for cutaneous administration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cutrignelli, Annalisa; Lopedota, Angela; Denora, Nunzio; Laquintana, Valentino; Tongiani, Serena; Franco, Massimo</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The aim of this work is to develop and characterize a formulation intended for the cutaneous administration of glutathione (γ-glutamylcysteinylglycine, GSH), potentially useful for cellular defense against UV-induced damage. For this purpose, liposomes containing GSH or GSH/cyclodextrins(CDs) inclusion <span class="hlt">complexes</span> as well as liposomes dispersed within a hydrophilic <span class="hlt">gel</span>, were evaluated. These formulations were designed in order to obtain a system combining the advantages of liposomes as vehicles for topical drug delivery with those of CDs as penetration enhancers. The studied CDs were the natural (β-CD) and chemically modified (i.e., HP-β-CD and CH3 -β-CD) cyclodextrins. The prepared liposomes showed homogeneous size distribution, mean diameter in the range 622-1435 nm, small positive charge (+3.1 to +6.6 mV), and encapsulation efficiency of the peptide in the range 13.6%-23.7%. Release studies showed that the presence of the oligosaccharide may influence to some extent the amount of drug released, whereas stability studies clearly point out that the incorporation in a hydrophilic <span class="hlt">gel</span> of 2-hydroxyethylcellulose insures a stable formulation maintaining unchanged the characteristics of liposomal vesicles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=147708','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=147708"><span>Topological <span class="hlt">complexity</span> of different populations of pBR322 as visualized by two-dimensional agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Martín-Parras, L; Lucas, I; Martínez-Robles, M L; Hernández, P; Krimer, D B; Hyrien, O; Schvartzman, J B</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Neutral/neutral two-dimensional (2D) agarose gelelectrophoresis was used to investigate populations of the different topological conformations that pBR322 can adopt in vivo in bacterial cells as well as in Xenopus egg extracts. To help in interpretation and identification of all the different signals, undigested as well as DNA samples pretreated with DNase I, topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II were analyzed. The second dimension of the 2D <span class="hlt">gel</span> system was run with or without ethidium bromide to account for any possible changes in the migration behavior of DNA molecules caused by intercalation of this planar agent. Finally, DNA samples were isolated from a recA-strain of Escherichia coli , as well as after direct labeling of the replication intermediates in extracts of Xenopus laevis eggs. Altogether, the results obtained demonstrated that 2D <span class="hlt">gels</span> can be readily used to identify most of the <span class="hlt">complex</span> topological populations that circular molecules can adopt in vivo in both bacteria and eukaryotic cells. PMID:9649629</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27611472','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27611472"><span>Magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span>-liposome hybrids enable sensitive and portable detection of DNA methyltransferase activity using personal glucose meter.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Youna; Xue, Qingwang; Liu, Jifeng; Wang, Huaisheng</p> <p>2017-01-15</p> <p>DNA methyltransferase (MTase) plays a critical role in maintaining genome methylation patterns, which has a close relationship to cancer and bacterial diseases. This encouraged the need to develop highly sensitive, simple, and robust assays for DNA MTase detection and inhibitor screening. Herein, a simple, sensitive, and specific DNA MTase activity assay was developed based on magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>-liposome hybrids combined with personal glucose meter (PGM) for quantitative detection of DNA MTase and inhibitor screening. First, a magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>-liposome hybrid probe is designed by the hybridization of p1DNA-functionalized magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> with p2DNA-functionalized glucoamylase-encapsulated liposome (<span class="hlt">GEL</span>). It integrates target recognition, magnetic separation and signal amplification within one multifunctional design. Then, in the presence of Dam MTase, the hybrids probe was methylated, and cleaved by methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease Dpn I, making liposome separated from magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> by magnetic separation. Finally, the separated liposome was decomposed, liberating the encapsulated glucoamylase to catalyze the hydrolysis of the signal substrate amylose with multiple turnovers, producing a large amount of glucose for quantitative readout by the PGM. In the proposed assay, the magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>-liposome hybrids offered excellent sensitivity due to primary amplification via releasing numerous glucoamylase from a liposome followed by a secondary enzymatic amplification. The use of portable quantitative device PGM bypasses the requirement of complicated instruments and sophisticated operations, making the method simple and feasible for on-site detection. Moreover, the proposed assay was successfully applied in <span class="hlt">complex</span> biological matrix and screen suitable inhibitor drugs for DAM for disease(s) treatment. The results reveal that the approach provides a simple, sensitive, and robust platform for DNA MTases detection and screening potential drugs in medical research and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5071761','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5071761"><span>Aggregation of soy protein-isoflavone <span class="hlt">complexes</span> and <span class="hlt">gel</span> formation induced by glucono-δ-lactone in soymilk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hsia, Sheng-Yang; Hsiao, Yu-Hsuan; Li, Wen-Tai; Hsieh, Jung-Feng</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated the glucono-δ-lactone (GDL)-induced aggregation of isoflavones and soy proteins in soymilk. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that isoflavones mixed with β-conglycinin (7S) and glycinin (11S) proteins formed 7S-isoflavone and 11S-isoflavone <span class="hlt">complexes</span> in soymilk supernatant fraction (SSF). Most of the soy protein-isoflavone <span class="hlt">complexes</span> then precipitated into the soymilk pellet fraction (SPF) following the addition of 4 mM GDL, whereupon the pH value of the soymilk dropped from 6.6 to 5.9. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and HPLC analysis suggest that the addition of 4 mM GDL induced the aggregation of most 7S (α’, α and β subunits), 11S acidic and 11S basic proteins as well as isoflavones, including most aglycones, including daidzein, glycitein, genistein and a portion of glucosides, including daidzin, glycitin, genistin, malonyldaidzin and malonylgenistin. These results provide an important reference pertaining to the effects of GDL on the aggregation of soy protein-isoflavone <span class="hlt">complexes</span> and could benefit future research regarding the production of tofu from soymilk. PMID:27760990</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SSSci..69...31P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SSSci..69...31P"><span>Sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> (template) synthesis of macroporous Mo-based catalysts for hydrothermal oxidation of radionuclide-organic <span class="hlt">complexes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Papynov, E. K.; Palamarchuk, M. S.; Mayorov, V. Yu; Modin, E. B.; Portnyagin, A. S.; Sokol'nitskaya, T. A.; Belov, A. A.; Tananaev, I. G.; Avramenko, V. A.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Molybdenum compounds are industrially demanding as heterogeneous catalysts for oxidation of various organic substances. Highly porous structure of molybdenum-containing catalysts avoids surface's colmatation and prevents blocking catalytic sites that makes these materials play a key role in processes of hydrothermal oxidation of radionuclide organic <span class="hlt">complexes</span>. The study presents an original way of sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> synthesis of new macroporous molybdenum compounds using ;core-shell; colloid template (polymer latex) as poreforming agent. We have described three individual routs of template removal via thermal decomposition to obtain porous materials based on molybdenum compounds. Thermal treatment conditions (temperature, gaseous atmosphere) have been studied with respect to their influence on composition, structure and catalytic properties of synthesized molybdenum systems. The optimal way to synthesis of crystal molybdenum (VI) oxide with ordered porous structure (mean pore size 100-160 nm) has been suggested. Catalytic properties of macroporous molybdenum materials have been investigated in the process of liquid phase and hydrothermal oxidation of such organic substances thiazine and stable Co-EDTA <span class="hlt">complex</span>. It was shown that macroporous molybdenum oxides could be applied as prospective catalysts for hydrothermal oxidation of organic radionuclide <span class="hlt">complexes</span> during the processing of radioactive waste.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...635718H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...635718H"><span>Aggregation of soy protein-isoflavone <span class="hlt">complexes</span> and <span class="hlt">gel</span> formation induced by glucono-δ-lactone in soymilk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hsia, Sheng-Yang; Hsiao, Yu-Hsuan; Li, Wen-Tai; Hsieh, Jung-Feng</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>This study investigated the glucono-δ-lactone (GDL)-induced aggregation of isoflavones and soy proteins in soymilk. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that isoflavones mixed with β-conglycinin (7S) and glycinin (11S) proteins formed 7S-isoflavone and 11S-isoflavone <span class="hlt">complexes</span> in soymilk supernatant fraction (SSF). Most of the soy protein-isoflavone <span class="hlt">complexes</span> then precipitated into the soymilk pellet fraction (SPF) following the addition of 4 mM GDL, whereupon the pH value of the soymilk dropped from 6.6 to 5.9. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and HPLC analysis suggest that the addition of 4 mM GDL induced the aggregation of most 7S (α’, α and β subunits), 11S acidic and 11S basic proteins as well as isoflavones, including most aglycones, including daidzein, glycitein, genistein and a portion of glucosides, including daidzin, glycitin, genistin, malonyldaidzin and malonylgenistin. These results provide an important reference pertaining to the effects of GDL on the aggregation of soy protein-isoflavone <span class="hlt">complexes</span> and could benefit future research regarding the production of tofu from soymilk.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22766297','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22766297"><span>Fluorescence microscopic characterization of ionic polymer <span class="hlt">bead</span>-supported phospholipid bilayer membrane systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haratake, Mamoru; Osei-Asante, Samuel; Fuchigami, Takeshi; Nakayama, Morio</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Supported phospholipid membrane structures on cationic organic polymer <span class="hlt">beads</span> were prepared using mixtures of dioleoylphosphatidylserine (PS) and egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (PC). Confocal fluorescence microscopic observations using a fluorescent membrane probe (N-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole-phosphatidylethanolamine) revealed that the phospholipid molecules in the PS/PC-<span class="hlt">bead</span> <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were along the outer surface of the <span class="hlt">beads</span>, but not inside the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The anionic PS on the most outer surface of the PS/PC-<span class="hlt">bead</span> <span class="hlt">complexes</span> was responsible for the binding of a positively charged macromolecule, rhodamine isothiocyanate dextran (M(w) 70,000) by electrostatic attractive forces. The fluidity of the membranes in the PS/PC-<span class="hlt">bead</span> <span class="hlt">complexes</span> was investigated by the fluorescence recovery after a photobleaching technique. The lateral diffusion coefficients (D) for the PS/PC-<span class="hlt">bead</span> <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were one-half or less than that for 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine giant unilamellar vesicles without solid supporting materials. Such a constrain of the phospholipid bilayer membrane in the <span class="hlt">complexes</span> appeared to be due to its immobilization on the cationic polymer <span class="hlt">bead</span> by electrostatic attractive forces between the PS and ammonium group on the surface of the <span class="hlt">bead</span>. The D values for the <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were dependent on the phospholipid composition; the PS(25 mol%)/PC(75 mol%)-<span class="hlt">bead</span> <span class="hlt">complex</span> produced a more fluid membrane than the PS(50 mol%)/PC(50 mol%)-<span class="hlt">bead</span> one. Thus, the fluidity of the phospholipid bilayer membranes formed on the cationic polymer <span class="hlt">beads</span> was significantly affected by the anionic phospholipid fraction used for the preparation of the <span class="hlt">complexes</span>. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19534462','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19534462"><span>Role of the heat-induced whey protein/kappa-casein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> in the formation of acid milk <span class="hlt">gels</span>: a kinetic study using rheology and confocal microscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guyomarc'h, Fanny; Jemin, Marlène; Le Tilly, Véronique; Madec, Marie-Noëlle; Famelart, Marie-Hélène</p> <p>2009-07-08</p> <p>The effect of heat treatment of milk on the formation of acid <span class="hlt">gel</span> was examined using confocal scanning laser microscopy and low-amplitude dynamic oscillation throughout acidification. Milk samples were reconstituted by mixing colloidal phase from unheated or preheated skim milk, labeled with rhodamine B isothiocyanate, with the aqueous phase from unheated or preheated milk, labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate. <span class="hlt">Gels</span> were made by acidification with glucono-delta-lactone. The presence of material from preheated milk, that is, either the colloidal or the aqueous phase or both, led to an increase in the gelation pH and in the final elastic modulus and to a more branched network with larger pores. During acidification, the heat-induced serum <span class="hlt">complexes</span> and the casein micelles did not appear to form separated <span class="hlt">gels</span> with time or in space. Moreover, the colocalization in the final network of serum heat-induced <span class="hlt">complexes</span> and casein micelles is particularly well observed in the presence of an aqueous phase obtained from preheated milk. Finally, because the rheological and microstructural properties of acid <span class="hlt">gels</span> containing either micelle-bound or serum heat-induced <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were similar, it was suggested that the serum heat-induced <span class="hlt">complexes</span> interacted with the casein micelles early in the course of acidification and that formation of the network did not differ significantly whether the heat-induced <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were initially found in the aqueous phase of milk or bound to casein micelles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3148842','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3148842"><span>Preparation and evaluation of lidocaine hydrochloride in cyclodextrin inclusion <span class="hlt">complexes</span> for development of stable <span class="hlt">gel</span> in association with chlorhexidine gluconate for urogenital use</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Soares da Silva, Luiz Francisco Jones; do Carmo, Flavia Almada; de Almeida Borges, Vinicius Raphael; Monteiro, Lidiane Mota; Rodrigues, Carlos Rangel; Cabral, Lúcio Mendes; de Sousa, Valeria Pereira</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Inclusions of lidocaine hydrochloride in cyclodextrins were prepared to obtain stable <span class="hlt">complexes</span> compatible for association with chlorhexidine in a new <span class="hlt">gel</span> formulation for use in urogenital applications. Two cyclodextrins, β-cyclodextrin and methyl-β-cyclodextrin, were used for encapsulating lidocaine hydrochloride through solubilization and kneading techniques. The lidocaine–cyclodextrin <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were characterized by ultraviolet spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that the techniques generated good yields of inclusion products that maintained the functional properties of lidocaine. In addition, the inclusion products obtained improved the compatibility of lidocaine hydrochloride with chlorhexidine in solution and a <span class="hlt">gel</span> formulation. The <span class="hlt">gel</span> formulation displayed desirable rheological and physicochemical properties. The results presented here are the first description of the inclusion of lidocaine with cyclodextrins, which improves compatibility with chlorhexidine in formulations for simultaneous delivery. PMID:21822378</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27451610','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27451610"><span>Optical Degradation of Colloidal Eu-<span class="hlt">Complex</span> Embedded in Silica Glass Film Using Reprecipitation and Sol-<span class="hlt">Gel</span> Methods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fukuda, Takeshi; Kurabayashi, Tomokazu; Yamaki, Tatsuki</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>A reprecipitation method has been investigated for fabricating colloidal nanoparticles using Eu-<span class="hlt">complex</span>. Herein, we investigated optical degradation characteristics of (1,10-phenanthroline)tris [4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(2-thienyl)-1,3-butanedionato]europium(III) colloidal nanoparticles, which were embedded into a silica glass film fabricated by a conventional sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> process. At first, we tried several types of good solvents for the reprecipitation method, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is found to be a suitable solvent for realizing the small diameter and the high long-term stability against the ultraviolet irradiation even though the boing point of DMSO is higher than that of water used as a poor solvent. By optimizing the good solvent and the concentration of Eu-<span class="hlt">complex</span>, the relative photoluminescence intensity of 0.96 was achieved even though the ultraviolet light was continuously irradiated for 90 min. In addition, the average diameter of 106 nm was achieved when DMSO was used as a good solvent, resulting in the high transmittance at a visible wavelength region. Therefore, we can achieve the transparent emissive thin film with a center wavelength of 612 nm, and the optical degradation was drastically reduced by forming nanoparticles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27763343','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27763343"><span>Post-denitrification using alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> containing organic carbon and activated sludge microorganisms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shams, Dilawar Farhan; Rubio, Alexandre; Elefsiniotis, Panagiotis; Singhal, Naresh</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Nitrate concentration in the final effluent is a key issue in pre-denitrification biological treatment systems. This study investigated post-denitrification with alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> containing immobilized activated sludge microorganisms and organic carbon source. A batch study was first performed to identify suitable carbon sources among acetate, glucose, calcium tartrate, starch and canola oil on the basis of nitrate removal and <span class="hlt">bead</span> stability. Canola oil and starch <span class="hlt">beads</span> exhibited significantly higher denitrification rates, greater <span class="hlt">bead</span> stability and lower nitrite accumulation (6 mg/L and 10 mg/L, respectively). Glucose and acetate <span class="hlt">beads</span> showed longer acclimation phases and degraded faster whereas tartrate <span class="hlt">beads</span> had higher nitrite build-up (39 mg/L) and degraded due to brittleness. Post-denitrification with canola oil and starch <span class="hlt">beads</span> was investigated in the final clarifier of a coupled upflow bioreactor and aerobic system treating synthetic dairy farm wastewater, and showed a denitrification efficiency of >90%. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> faded in 12 days due to alginate degradation. Therefore, enhancement in <span class="hlt">bead</span> strength or use of more stable nontoxic <span class="hlt">gel</span> would be required to further prolong the treatment. Moreover, this study was conducted at laboratory scale and further research is needed for application in real systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15638475','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15638475"><span>ROMPgel <span class="hlt">beads</span> in IRORI format: acylations revisited.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roberts, Richard S</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Functionalized "designer" polymers derived from ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMPgels) are attractive for their high loading, high purity, and ease of synthesis. Their physical state may vary from liquid to <span class="hlt">gel</span> to granular solid, making a general method of handling these polymers difficult. By incorporating a suitable norbornene-substituted linker on standard Wang <span class="hlt">beads</span>, ROMPgels can be easily grafted onto the resin, adding the convenience of a <span class="hlt">bead</span> format while still maintaining the high loading and excellent site accessibility. This advantage is demonstrated by the use of an N-hydroxysuccinimide ROMPgel (3.3 mmol g(-1), a 3-fold increase from the parent linker resin) in IRORI Kan format. Conditions for the acylation of these IRORI-formatted ROMPgels are reported, along with the scope and limitations of the choice of acylating reagents. Yields are greatly improved by the use of perfluorinated solvents as a nonparticipating cosolvent in the acylation process. A simple titration method for the quantification of the acylated ROMPgels is also reported. Spent Kans are regenerated after each use without apparent loss of activity or purity after several cycles. Due to the high loading and reduced swelling of the ROMPgel resin, up to 0.39 mmol acyl group has successfully been recovered from a single IRORI miniKan, demonstrating the high capacity of the resin and applicability to both lead discovery and optimization programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26626225','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26626225"><span>Extended release of vitamins from magnetite loaded polyanionic polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sonmez, Maria; Verisan, Cristina; Voicu, Georgeta; Ficai, Denisa; Ficai, Anton; Oprea, Alexandra Elena; Vlad, Mihaela; Andronescu, Ecaterina</p> <p>2016-08-30</p> <p>Here we explore a novel approach of increasing the release duration of folic and ascorbic acid from magnetite entrapped into calcium-alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Synthesis and characterization of magnetite-vitamins <span class="hlt">complexes</span> are reported. The magnetite-vitamins <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, SEM, BET and DTA-TG. Also calcium-alginate magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> were prepared by dripping a mixture of sodium alginate with magnetite-vitamins <span class="hlt">complexes</span> into calcium chloride solution. Extended release profile of the two experimental models was evaluated and quantified by UV-vis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25567551','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25567551"><span>Phase behavior of electrostatically <span class="hlt">complexed</span> polyelectrolyte <span class="hlt">gels</span> using an embedded fluctuation model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Audus, Debra J; Gopez, Jeffrey D; Krogstad, Daniel V; Lynd, Nathaniel A; Kramer, Edward J; Hawker, Craig J; Fredrickson, Glenn H</p> <p>2015-02-14</p> <p>Nanostructured, responsive hydrogels formed due to electrostatic interactions have promise for applications such as drug delivery and tissue mimics. These physically cross-linked hydrogels are composed of an aqueous solution of oppositely charged triblocks with charged end-blocks and neutral, hydrophilic mid-blocks. Due to their electrostatic interactions, the end-blocks microphase separate and form physical cross-links that are bridged by the mid-blocks. The structure of this system was determined using a new, efficient embedded fluctuation (EF) model in conjunction with self-consistent field theory. The calculations using the EF model were validated against unapproximated field-theoretic simulations with <span class="hlt">complex</span> Langevin sampling and were found consistent with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements on an experimental system. Using both the EF model and SAXS, phase diagrams were generated as a function of end-block fraction and polymer concentration. Several structures were observed including a body-centered cubic sphere phase, a hexagonally packed cylinder phase, and a lamellar phase. Finally, the EF model was used to explore how parameters that directly relate to polymer chemistry can be tuned to modify the resulting phase diagram, which is of practical interest for the development of new hydrogels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2483296','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2483296"><span>A new staining and evaluating procedure for protein <span class="hlt">gel</span> electropherograms based on the pyrogallol red-molybdate <span class="hlt">complex</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Csiba, A; Szécsényi-Nagy, L</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A new method is reported for staining and evaluating <span class="hlt">gel</span> electropherograms of proteins. With pyrogallol red-molybdate reagent the <span class="hlt">gel</span>-embedded proteins are transformed into a derivative of blue colour. After destaining, the blue-coloured proteins are well visible against a colourless background and can be quantified by densitometry with high reliability. The quantity of the coloured protein is directly proportional to the height of peaks in the densitogram. Colour intensity is concentration dependent. The measurement range of serum albumin was 1 to 50 micrograms/tube and 10 to 100 micrograms/slab in polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gel</span> disc electrophoresis and agar <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5036152','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5036152"><span>A <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based western for high-throughput cellular signal transduction analyses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Treindl, Fridolin; Ruprecht, Benjamin; Beiter, Yvonne; Schultz, Silke; Döttinger, Anette; Staebler, Annette; Joos, Thomas O.; Kling, Simon; Poetz, Oliver; Fehm, Tanja; Neubauer, Hans; Kuster, Bernhard; Templin, Markus F.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Dissecting cellular signalling requires the analysis of large number of proteins. The DigiWest approach we describe here transfers the western blot to a <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based microarray platform. By combining <span class="hlt">gel</span>-based protein separation with immobilization on microspheres, hundreds of replicas of the initial blot are created, thus enabling the comprehensive analysis of limited material, such as cells collected by laser capture microdissection, and extending traditional western blotting to reach proteomic scales. The combination of molecular weight resolution, sensitivity and signal linearity on an automated platform enables the rapid quantification of hundreds of specific proteins and protein modifications in <span class="hlt">complex</span> samples. This high-throughput western blot approach allowed us to identify and characterize alterations in cellular signal transduction that occur during the development of resistance to the kinase inhibitor Lapatinib, revealing major changes in the activation state of Ephrin-mediated signalling and a central role for p53-controlled processes. PMID:27659302</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23466547','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23466547"><span>Improved membrane fluidity of ionic polysaccharide <span class="hlt">bead</span>-supported phospholipid bilayer membrane systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haratake, Mamoru; Takahira, Ekuko; Yoshida, Sakura; Osei-Asante, Samuel; Fuchigami, Takeshi; Nakayama, Morio</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Supported phospholipid bilayer membranes on polysaccharide-based cationic polymer <span class="hlt">beads</span> (cationic group: -[OCH2CH(OH)CH2]2N(+)(CH3)3·X(-), 45-165 μm in diameter) were prepared using small unilamellar vesicles from mixtures of phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylcholine (PC). Confocal fluorescence microscopic observations with a fluorescent membrane probe (N-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole-phosphatidylethanolamine) revealed that the phospholipid molecules in the phospholipid-<span class="hlt">bead</span> <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were along the outer surface of the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The fluidity of the phospholipid bilayer membranes in the PS/PC-<span class="hlt">bead</span> <span class="hlt">complexes</span> was investigated by the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) technique. The lateral diffusion coefficients (D) for the PS/PC-<span class="hlt">bead</span> <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were lower than that for the 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine giant unilamellar vesicles without solid supports. Such less fluid membranes in the <span class="hlt">complexes</span> appeared to be due to the immobilization of the phospholipid bilayer membranes by electrostatic attractive forces between PS and the <span class="hlt">bead</span>. The D values for the PS/PC-<span class="hlt">bead</span> <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were dependent on the phospholipid composition; the PS(100 mol%)/PC(0 mol%)-<span class="hlt">bead</span> <span class="hlt">complex</span> had the least fluid membranes among the PS/PC-<span class="hlt">bead</span> <span class="hlt">complexes</span> tested in this study. The phospholipid bilayer membranes formed on the polysaccharide-based cationic polymer <span class="hlt">beads</span> were much more fluid than those on a polystyrene-based one. Furthermore, such fluid phospholipid bilayer membranes formed on the polysaccharide-based cationic polymer <span class="hlt">bead</span> were maintained for 10 days, even though the <span class="hlt">complex</span> sample was stood in plain buffer (pH 8.5) at ambient temperature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23587416','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23587416"><span>Optimizing alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> for the immobilisation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum in estuarine waters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Raimundo, Joana; Pereira, Patrícia; Vale, Carlos</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This study addresses the influence of calcium as hardening agent, on alginate <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">bead</span> stability and suitability for the growth of Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin (Bacillariophyceae) in estuarine waters. Alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> produced with 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6% of CaCl2 solutions were investigated for stability and suitability for growth of P. tricornutum cells, under mean salinity 27, at 220 and 440 rpm stirring laboratory conditions, and in devices placed under in situ estuarine conditions. <span class="hlt">Gel</span> stability and suitability for cell growth were evaluated through <span class="hlt">bead</span> diameter, <span class="hlt">bead</span> disruption, dissolution and loss of spherical shape, cell viability and specific growth rates. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> gelled with 5% CaCl2 were found the most suitable to sustain <span class="hlt">gel</span> stability and cell growth in the estuarine waters. These <span class="hlt">beads</span> were surveyed during dredging operations in the Tagus estuary, both in situ and in estuarine water under laboratory conditions, showing significantly lowered growth rates possibly due to Mn, Co and As accumulated in the cells. Results confirmed that the monitoring tool presented is reliable and effective for the assessment of anthropogenic impacts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24436476','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24436476"><span>Magnetically promoted rapid immunoreactions using functionalized fluorescent magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>: a proof of principle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sakamoto, Satoshi; Omagari, Kenshi; Kita, Yoshinori; Mochizuki, Yusuke; Naito, Yasuyuki; Kawata, Shintaro; Matsuda, Sachiko; Itano, Osamu; Jinno, Hiromitsu; Takeuchi, Hiroya; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Kitagawa, Yuko; Handa, Hiroshi</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Accurate detection and monitoring of disease-related biomarkers is important in understanding pathophysiology. We devised a rapid immunoreaction system that uses submicrometer polymer-coated fluorescent ferrite (FF) <span class="hlt">beads</span> containing both ferrites (magnetic iron oxide) and fluorescent europium <span class="hlt">complexes</span>. FF <span class="hlt">beads</span> were prepared by encapsulation of hydrophobic europium <span class="hlt">complexes</span> into the polymer layers of affinity magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> using organic solvent. A sandwich immunoassay using magnetic collection of antibody-coated FF <span class="hlt">beads</span> to a specific place was performed. Brain natriuretic peptide and prostate-specific antigen were selected as target detection antigens to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. An immunohistochemical staining using magnetic collection of antibody-coated FF <span class="hlt">beads</span> onto carcinoma cell samples was also performed. The sandwich immunoassays, taking advantage of the magnetic collection of antibody-coated FF <span class="hlt">beads</span>, detected target antigens within 5 min of sample addition. Without magnetic collection, the sandwich immunoassay using antibody-coated FF <span class="hlt">beads</span> required long times, similar to conventional immunoassays. Using the magnetic collection of antibody-coated FF <span class="hlt">beads</span>, immunohistochemical staining enabled discrimination of carcinoma cells within 20 min. This proof of principle system demonstrates that immunoreactions involving the magnetic collection of antibody-coated FF <span class="hlt">beads</span> allow acceleration of the antigen-antibody reaction. The simple magnetic collection of antibody-coated FF <span class="hlt">beads</span> to a specific space enables rapid detection of disease-related biomarkers and identification of carcinoma cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27842357','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27842357"><span>Characterization of Multi-subunit Protein <span class="hlt">Complexes</span> of Human MxA Using Non-denaturing Polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">Gel</span>-electrophoresis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nigg, Patricia E; Pavlovic, Jovan</p> <p>2016-10-28</p> <p>The formation of oligomeric <span class="hlt">complexes</span> is a crucial prerequisite for the proper structure and function of many proteins. The interferon-induced antiviral effector protein MxA exerts a broad antiviral activity against many viruses. MxA is a dynamin-like GTPase and has the capacity to form oligomeric structures of higher order. However, whether oligomerization of MxA is required for its antiviral activity is an issue of debate. We describe here a simple protocol to assess the oligomeric state of endogenously or ectopically expressed MxA in the cytoplasmic fraction of human cell lines by non-denaturing polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis (PAGE) in combination with Western blot analysis. A critical step of the protocol is the choice of detergents to prevent aggregation and/or precipitation of proteins particularly associated with cellular membranes such as MxA, without interfering with its enzymatic activity. Another crucial aspect of the protocol is the irreversible protection of the free thiol groups of cysteine residues by iodoacetamide to prevent artificial interactions of the protein. This protocol is suitable for a simple assessment of the oligomeric state of MxA and furthermore allows a direct correlation of the antiviral activity of MxA interface mutants with their respective oligomeric states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18642065','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18642065"><span>Immobilization and characterization of 2,3-diaminonaphthalene/cyclodextrin <span class="hlt">complexes</span> in a sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix: a new fluorimetric sensor for nitrite.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martínez-Tomé, M J; Esquembre, R; Mallavia, R; Mateo, C R</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The aromatic diamino compound 2,3-diaminonaphthalene (DAN) has been extensively used to detect and quantify nitrite ions in biological and environmental samples. We have immobilized the DAN reagent in a porous silicate glass matrix, via previous incorporation of the dye in HP-beta-CD. Changes in fluorescence intensity were used to characterize the inclusion <span class="hlt">complexes</span> and determine the association constant and stoichiometry of the process. Fluorescence spectrum of these <span class="hlt">complexes</span> was also used to monitor their immobilization within the sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix. Reactivity of the immobilized <span class="hlt">complexes</span> was evaluated with increasing concentrations of nitrite up to 10 microM (with a detection limit around 20 nM). Results show that sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> immobilization does not modify the reactivity of the dye against nitrite and serves to prepare a highly sensitive ready to use fluorescence-based sensor for the specific measurement of nitrite at submicromolar concentrations with no further sample pretreatment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3330020','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3330020"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agents on the electrochemical performance of LiFePO4/C prepared by sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>LiFePO4/C is synthesized via sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> method using Fe3+ as iron sources and different <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agents, followed by sintering at high temperature for crystallization. The amount of carbon in these composites is less than 6.8 wt.%, and the X-ray diffraction experiment confirms that all samples are pure single phase indexed with the orthorhombic Pnma space group. The particle size of the LiFePO4/C synthesized by acetic acid as a <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agent is very fine with a size of 200 nm. The electrochemical performance of this material, including reversible capacity, cycle number, and charge-discharge characteristics, is better than those of LiFePO4/C synthesized by other <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agents. The cell of this sample can deliver a discharge capacity of 161.1 mAh g-1 at the first cycle. After 30 cycles, the capacity decreases to 157.5 mAh g-1, and the capacity fading rate is 2.2%. The mechanism is studied to explain the effect of a <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agent on the synthesis of LiFePO4/C by sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> method. The results show that the <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agent with a low stability constant may be proper for the synthetic process of LiFePO4/C via sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> method. PMID:22221711</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22221711','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22221711"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agents on the electrochemical performance of LiFePO4/C prepared by sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Rong; Kang, Erwei; Jiang, Bailing; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon</p> <p>2012-01-05</p> <p>LiFePO4/C is synthesized via sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> method using Fe3+ as iron sources and different <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agents, followed by sintering at high temperature for crystallization. The amount of carbon in these composites is less than 6.8 wt.%, and the X-ray diffraction experiment confirms that all samples are pure single phase indexed with the orthorhombic Pnma space group. The particle size of the LiFePO4/C synthesized by acetic acid as a <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agent is very fine with a size of 200 nm. The electrochemical performance of this material, including reversible capacity, cycle number, and charge-discharge characteristics, is better than those of LiFePO4/C synthesized by other <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agents. The cell of this sample can deliver a discharge capacity of 161.1 mAh g-1 at the first cycle. After 30 cycles, the capacity decreases to 157.5 mAh g-1, and the capacity fading rate is 2.2%. The mechanism is studied to explain the effect of a <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agent on the synthesis of LiFePO4/C by sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> method. The results show that the <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agent with a low stability constant may be proper for the synthetic process of LiFePO4/C via sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012OptMa..35....5F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012OptMa..35....5F"><span>Photodegradation characteristics of sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span>-derived glass-coated Eu-<span class="hlt">complex</span> fabricated by solvothermal process using several silane alkoxides and solvents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fukuda, Takeshi; Kato, Sayaka; Akiyama, Shinnosuke; Honda, Zentaro; Kamata, Norihiko</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Instabilities of Eu-<span class="hlt">complex</span> against ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation and annealing are important problems to solve before they can be practically applied in several applications, such as white light-emitting diodes, bioimaging sensors, and wavelength conversion films for silicon photovoltaic cells. By now, our research group demonstrated an encapsulation technique of tris (2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonato)(1,10-phenanthroline) europium (III) (Eu (TTA)3phen) using the solvothermal process as a final annealing process of sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> synthesis. In this paper, we investigated the optimized starting solution of the sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> process to improve the long-term stability of Eu (TTA)3phen by changing the silane alkoxide and solvent. The long-term stability was improved by annealing at the high pressure condition (solvothermal process), and the longest half brightness time of 9.8 h was achieved while irradiating with the UV light of 360 nm and 5 mW/cm2. One possible reason for this result is that the hydrolysis of the sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> based glass network occurs more efficiently with the high-pressure annealing. As a result, the high-encapsulating efficiency was achieved due to the low organic component in the sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span>-derived glass network around Eu (TTA)3phen. Furthermore, the particle structure with the diameter of less than 50 nm was obtained by coating the sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span>-derived silica glass around Eu (TTA)3phen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JAP...105e4701K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JAP...105e4701K"><span>Three-dimensional pattern formation of magnetically labeled microgel <span class="hlt">beads</span> for biological tissue engineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kawamoto, H.; Inoue, H.; Nakamura, M.</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>We commenced basic research on the three-dimensional (3D) pattern formation of microgel <span class="hlt">beads</span> for applications in biological tissue engineering. In this new technique, microgel <span class="hlt">beads</span> are premagnetized by doping them with magnetic nanoparticles. Living cells will be included in the <span class="hlt">beads</span> for actual use. If a nonuniform magnetic field is applied to a solution containing these magnetized <span class="hlt">beads</span>, the <span class="hlt">beads</span> will align, contact, and form a 3D structure. The structure is controlled by the seed pattern of the magnetic particles plugged in a substrate and the profile of the magnetic field distribution. We constructed tubes, which imitate blood vessels, for demonstration using <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> whose diameters are of the order of several tens of micrometers. The diameter of the demonstrated tube was less than 0.5 mm and its length was 6.6 mm, although living cells were not included in the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Numerical calculations by using the discrete element method were conducted to confirm the formation of the tube and to predict the effect of centrifugal force, which will be applied to fill cells in the space between magnetically patterned <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Although this unique technology is in the nascent stage, this 3D pattern formation technique by the control of the magnetic field has potential to be one of the effective engineering technologies for manufacturing 3D patterned biological tissues in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16042085','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16042085"><span>Drug release from xyloglucan <span class="hlt">beads</span> coated with Eudragit for oral drug delivery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yoo, Mi Kyong; Choi, Hoo Kyun; Kim, Tae Hee; Choi, Yun Jaie; Akaike, Toshihiro; Shirakawa, Mayumi; Cho, Chong Su</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>Xyloglucan (XG), which exhibits thermal sol to <span class="hlt">gel</span> transition, non-toxicity, and low gelation concentration, is of interest in the development of sustained release carriers for drug delivery. Drug-loaded XG <span class="hlt">beads</span> were prepared by extruding dropwise a dispersion of indomethacin in aqueous XG solution (2 wt.-%) through a syringe into corn oil. Enteric coating of XG <span class="hlt">bead</span> was performed using Eudragit L 100 to improve the stability of XG <span class="hlt">bead</span> in gastrointestinal (GI) track and to achieve gastroresistant drug release. Release behavior of indomethacin from XG <span class="hlt">beads</span> in vitro was investigated as a function of loading content of drug, pH of release medium, and concentration of coating agent. Adhesive force of XG was also measured using the tensile test. Uniform-sized spherical <span class="hlt">beads</span> with particle diameters ranging from 692 +/- 30 to 819 +/- 50 microm were obtained. The effect of drug content on the release of indomethacin from XG <span class="hlt">beads</span> depended on the medium pH. Release of indomethacin from XG <span class="hlt">beads</span> was retarded by coating with Eudragit and increased rapidly with the change in medium pH from 1.2 to 7.4. Adhesive force of XG was stronger than that of Carbopol 943 P, a well-known commercial mucoadhesive polymer, in wet state. Results indicate the enteric-coated XG <span class="hlt">beads</span> may be suitable as a carrier for oral drug delivery of irritant drug in the stomach.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23167848','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23167848"><span>Thermal stability, <span class="hlt">complexing</span> behavior, and ionic transport of polymeric <span class="hlt">gel</span> membranes based on polymer PVdF-HFP and ionic liquid, [BMIM][BF4].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shalu; Chaurasia, S K; Singh, R K; Chandra, S</p> <p>2013-01-24</p> <p>PVdF-HFP + IL(1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate; [BMIM][BF(4)]) polymeric <span class="hlt">gel</span> membranes containing different amounts of ionic liquid have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and <span class="hlt">complex</span> impedance spectroscopic techniques. Incorporation of IL in PVdF-HFP polymer changes different physicochemical properties such as melting temperature (T(m)), thermal stability, structural morphology, amorphicity, and ionic transport. It is shown by FTIR, TGA (also first derivative of TGA, "DTGA") that IL partly <span class="hlt">complexes</span> with the polymer PVdF-HFP and partly remains dispersed in the matrix. The ionic conductivity of polymeric <span class="hlt">gel</span> membranes has been found to increase with increasing concentration of IL and attains a maximum value of 1.6 × 10(-2) S·cm(-1) for polymer <span class="hlt">gel</span> membrane containing 90 wt % IL at room temperature. Interestingly, the values of conductivity of membranes with 80 and 90 wt % of IL were higher than that of pure IL (100 wt %). The polymer chain breathing model has been suggested to explain it. The variation of ionic conductivity with temperature of these <span class="hlt">gel</span> polymeric membranes follows Arrhenius type thermally activated behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26383830','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26383830"><span>Nondenaturing polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis to study the dissociation of the p53·MDM2/X <span class="hlt">complex</span> by potentially anticancer compounds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sgammato, Roberta; Desiderio, Doriana; Lamberti, Anna; Raimo, Gennaro; Novellino, Ettore; Carotenuto, Alfonso; Masullo, Mariorosario</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>A new analytical method to study the dissociation of the <span class="hlt">complexes</span> between the oncosuppressor p53 and its negative modulators murine double-minute protein 2 (MDM2) or MDMX, is proposed. This technique is reliable to determine the dissociative power exerted by small molecules on the <span class="hlt">complex</span> taking advantage of the appearance of migrating MDM2 or MDMX in a native polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gel</span>, when inhibitors are added to the <span class="hlt">complex</span> mixture. Therefore, we propose this new approach to easily screen library of compounds, with potential pharmacological anticancer activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24346739','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24346739"><span>Effect of micellar and sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> media on the spectral and kinetic properties of tetracycline and its <span class="hlt">complexes</span> with Mg²⁺.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cesaretti, Alessio; Carlotti, Benedetta; Clementi, Catia; Germani, Raimondo; Elisei, Fausto</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The spectroscopic and photophysical properties of the broad-spectrum antibiotic tetracycline (TC) and its Mg(2+) <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were studied in organized media attained by means of three iso-structural quaternary ammonium surfactants able to self-assemble in water at low c.m.c. values, thus giving spherical micelles and sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> media upon increasing the concentration. Specific protonated forms of TC and its <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were introduced in these micro-heterogeneous environments and then investigated through steady-state (both in absorption and emission) and pulsed (up to femtosecond resolution) spectroscopic techniques. Free TC showed minor spectral and kinetic variations while <span class="hlt">complexes</span> remained unchanged in the presence of spherical micelles, meaning that TC is likely to be placed at the interface between the micelle and the bulk aqueous solution, without altering its bioactivity. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy proved to be a powerful tool to gain deep insight into the distribution of the investigated species between the heterogeneous structure of sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> media. In fact, according to the polarity and net charge of free TC and its <span class="hlt">complexes</span>, these species can be mostly found in the hydrophobic (intertwined worm-like micelles) or in the hydrophilic domains (basically aqueous pools) that the sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> is made up of. In the first case, the properties are dramatically altered (highly enhanced fluorescence and lengthened lifetime of the first singlet excited state up to the nanosecond time scale), leading to the improved traceability of the drug.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28941701','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28941701"><span>Biopolymer <span class="hlt">gels</span> containing fructooligosaccharides.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Silva, Karen Cristina Guedes; Sato, Ana Carla Kawazoe</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>The influence of the addition of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) in an external gelated alginate/gelatin biopolymer matrix, was evaluated in order to produce biopolymeric structures with functional effects. Solutions were characterized regarding their rheological properties, macrogels regarding their microstructure and mechanical properties and microgels were characterized in relation to their particle size distribution and morphology. Close relationship was found between the microstructure, rheological and mechanical properties of the biopolymeric systems. An increased viscosity and accentuated elastic and pseudoplastic behavior were associated to denser microstructures. The FOS addition caused changes in the evaluated properties, resulting in more cohesive structures, with smaller pores and higher viscosity, compared to alginate-gelatin <span class="hlt">gels</span>. The addition of 3% FOS to biopolymeric system provided an optimal condition, allowing the formation of stronger <span class="hlt">gels</span>, with smaller pores and <span class="hlt">beads</span> with smaller sizes, indicating the potential use of these functional systems as texture modifiers or encapsulation systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJMPB..2940033Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJMPB..2940033Y"><span>Modeling of weld <span class="hlt">bead</span> geometry for rapid manufacturing by robotic GMAW</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Tao; Xiong, Jun; Chen, Hui; Chen, Yong</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Weld-based rapid prototyping (RP) has shown great promises for fabricating 3D <span class="hlt">complex</span> parts. During the layered deposition of forming metallic parts with robotic gas metal arc welding, the geometry of a single weld <span class="hlt">bead</span> has an important influence on surface finish quality, layer thickness and dimensional accuracy of the deposited layer. In order to obtain accurate, predictable and controllable <span class="hlt">bead</span> geometry, it is essential to understand the relationships between the process variables with the <span class="hlt">bead</span> geometry (<span class="hlt">bead</span> width, <span class="hlt">bead</span> height and ratio of <span class="hlt">bead</span> width to <span class="hlt">bead</span> height). This paper highlights an experimental study carried out to develop mathematical models to predict deposited <span class="hlt">bead</span> geometry through the quadratic general rotary unitized design. The adequacy and significance of the models were verified via the analysis of variance. Complicated cause-effect relationships between the process parameters and the <span class="hlt">bead</span> geometry were revealed. Results show that the developed models can be applied to predict the desired <span class="hlt">bead</span> geometry with great accuracy in layered deposition with accordance to the slicing process of RP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/946259','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/946259"><span>Magnetic <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Based Immunoassay for Autonomous Detection of Toxins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kwon, Y; Hara, C A; Knize, M G; Hwang, M H; Venkatesteswaran, K S; Wheeler, E K; Bell, P M; Renzi, R F; Fruetel, J A; Bailey, C G</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>As a step towards toward the development of a rapid, reliable analyzer for bioagents in the environment, we are developing an automated system for the simultaneous detection of a group of select agents and toxins. To detect toxins, we modified and automated an antibody-based approach previously developed for manual medical diagnostics that uses fluorescent eTag{trademark} reporter molecules and is suitable for highly multiplexed assays. Detection is based on two antibodies binding simultaneously to a single antigen, one of which is labeled with biotin while the other is conjugated to a fluorescent eTag{trademark} through a cleavable linkage. Aqueous samples are incubated with the mixture of antibodies along with streptavidin-coated magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> coupled to a photo-activatable porphyrin <span class="hlt">complex</span>. In the presence of antigen, a molecular <span class="hlt">complex</span> is formed where the cleavable linkage is held in proximity to the photoactivable group. Upon excitation at 680 nm, free radicals are generated, which diffuse and cleave the linkage, releasing the eTags{trademark}. Released eTags{trademark} are analyzed using capillary <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Limits of detection for ovalbumin and botulinum toxoid individually were 4 ng/mL (or 80 pg) and 16 ng/mL (or 320 pg), respectively, using the manual assay. In addition, we demonstrated the use of pairs of antibodies from different sources in a single assay to decrease the rate of false positives. Automation of the assay was demonstrated on a flow-through format with higher LODs of 125 ng/mL (or 2.5 ng) each of a mixture of ovalbumin and botulinum toxoid. This versatile assay can be easily modified with the appropriate antibodies to detect a wide range of toxins and other proteins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18847280','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18847280"><span>Magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> based immunoassay for autonomous detection of toxins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kwon, Youngeun; Hara, Christine A; Knize, Mark G; Hwang, Mona H; Venkateswaran, Kodumudi S; Wheeler, Elizabeth K; Bell, Perry M; Renzi, Ronald F; Fruetel, Julie A; Bailey, Christopher G</p> <p>2008-11-15</p> <p>We are developing an automated system for the simultaneous, rapid detection of a group of select agents and toxins in the environment. To detect toxins, we modified and automated an antibody-based approach previously developed for manual medical diagnostics that uses fluorescent eTag reporter molecules and is suitable for highly multiplexed assays. Detection is based on two antibodies binding simultaneously to a single antigen, one of which is labeled with biotin while the other is conjugated to a fluorescent eTag through a cleavable linkage. Aqueous samples are incubated with the mixture of antibodies along with streptavidin-coated magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> and a photoactive porphyrin <span class="hlt">complex</span>. In the presence of antigen, a molecular <span class="hlt">complex</span> is formed where the cleavable linkage is held in proximity to the photoactive group. Upon excitation at 680 nm, free radicals are generated, which diffuse and cleave the linkage, releasing the eTags. Released eTags are analyzed using capillary <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Limits of detection for ovalbumin and botulinum toxoid individually were 4 (or 80 pg) and 16 ng/mL (or 320 pg), respectively, using the manual assay. In addition, we demonstrated the use of pairs of antibodies from different sources in a single assay to decrease the rate of false positives. Automation of the assay was demonstrated in a flow-through format with higher LODs of 32 ng/mL (or 640 ng) each of a mixture of ovalbumin and botulinum toxoid. This versatile assay can be easily modified with the appropriate antibodies to detect a wide range of toxins and other proteins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12625737','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12625737"><span>Preparation of comb-type N-isopropylacrylamide hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> and their application for size-selective separation media.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Annaka, Masahiko; Matsuura, Toyoaki; Kasai, Masaki; Nakahira, Takayuki; Hara, Yoshiaki; Okano, Teruo</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>A series of the comb-type poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (NIPAM) <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> were prepared by inverse suspension polymerization techniques. The comb-type NIPAM <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> exhibited large volume change at 30 degrees C, and their deswelling rate, defined as the time required for half-shrinking, was 10 times faster than that of the normal-type NIPAM <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> were utilized to concentrate dilute aqueous solutions of albumin, gamma-globulin, and vitamin B(12). The separation efficiencies of albumin and gamma -globulin with the comb-type NIPAM <span class="hlt">gel</span> were 80% and 85%, respectively. Whereas those with normal-type NIPAM <span class="hlt">gel</span> were 55% and 60%, respectively. The incorporation of grafted chains into <span class="hlt">gel</span> makes the effective mesh size smaller. Therefore it induces the additional obstruction effects between the solutes and network and excludes the high molecular weight solutes. After they have extracted water, their rapid deswelling property makes the <span class="hlt">gel</span> regenerate effectively by warming to release the absorbed water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740021821','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740021821"><span>Glass-<span class="hlt">bead</span> peen plating</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Graves, J. R.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Peen plating of aluminum, copper, and nickel powders was investigated. Only aluminum was plated successfully within the range of peen plating conditions studied. Optimum plating conditions for aluminum were found to be: (1) <span class="hlt">bead</span>/powder mixture containing 25 to 35% powder by weight, (2) peening intensity of 0.007A as measured by Almen strip, and (3) glass impact <span class="hlt">bead</span> diameter of at least 297 microns (0.0117 inches) for depositing-100 mesh aluminum powder. No extensive cleaning or substrate preparation is required beyond removing loose dirt or heavy oil.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23218280','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23218280"><span>Controlled antiseptic release by alginate polymer films and <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liakos, Ioannis; Rizzello, Loris; Bayer, Ilker S; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Cingolani, Roberto; Athanassiou, Athanassia</p> <p>2013-01-30</p> <p>Biodegradable polymeric materials based on blending aqueous dispersions of natural polymer sodium alginate (NaAlg) and povidone iodine (PVPI) <span class="hlt">complex</span>, which allow controlled antiseptic release, are presented. The developed materials are either free standing NaAlg films or Ca(2+)-cross-linked alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>, which properly combined with PVPI demonstrate antibacterial and antifungal activity, suitable for therapeutic applications, such as wound dressing. Glycerol was used as the plasticizing agent. Film morphology was studied by optical and atomic force microscopy. It was found that PVPI <span class="hlt">complex</span> forms well dispersed circular micro-domains within the NaAlg matrix. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> were fabricated by drop-wise immersion of NaAlg/PVPI/glycerol solutions into aqueous calcium chloride solutions to form calcium alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> encapsulating PVPI solution (CaAlg/PVPI). Controlled release of PVPI was possible when the composite films and <span class="hlt">beads</span> were brought into direct contact with water or with moist media. Bactericidal and fungicidal properties of the materials were tested against Escherichia coli bacteria and Candida albicans fungi. The results indicated very efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity within 48 h. Controlled release of PVPI into open wounds is highly desired in clinical applications to avoid toxic doses of iodine absorption by the wound. A wide variety of applications are envisioned such as external and internal wound dressings with controlled antiseptic release, hygienic and protective packaging films for medical devices, and polymer <span class="hlt">beads</span> as water disinfectants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..MARU35011J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..MARU35011J"><span>Symmetry breaking in actin <span class="hlt">gels</span> - Implications for cellular motility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>John, Karin; Peyla, Philippe; Misbah, Chaouqi</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>The physical origin of cell motility is not fully understood. Recently minimal model systems have shown, that polymerizing actin itself can produce a motile force, without the help of motor proteins. Pathogens like Shigella or Listeria use actin to propel themselves forward in their host cell. The same process can be mimicked with polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span> covered with the activating protein ActA, which reside in a solution containing actin monomers. ActA induces the growth of an actin <span class="hlt">gel</span> at the <span class="hlt">bead</span> surface. Initially the <span class="hlt">gel</span> grows symmetrically around the <span class="hlt">bead</span> until a critical size is reached. Subsequently one observes a symmetry breaking and the <span class="hlt">gel</span> starts to grow asymmetrically around the <span class="hlt">bead</span> developing a tail of actin at one side. This symmetry breaking is accompanied by a directed movement of the <span class="hlt">bead</span>, with the actin tail trailing behind the <span class="hlt">bead</span>. Force generation relies on the combination of two properties: growth and elasticity of the actin <span class="hlt">gel</span>. We study this phenomenon theoretically within the framework of a linear elasticity theory and linear flux-force relationships for the evolution of an elastic <span class="hlt">gel</span> around a hard sphere. Conditions for a parity symmetry breaking are identified analytically and illustrated numerically with the help of a phasefield model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=hermann+AND+hesse&id=EJ924489','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=hermann+AND+hesse&id=EJ924489"><span>Conscientisation in Castalia: A Freirean Reading of Hermann Hesse's "The Glass <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Game"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Roberts, Peter</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This paper considers Hermann Hesse's novel, "The Glass <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Game," in the light of Paulo Freire's educational philosophy. "The Glass <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Game" is set in Castalia, a "pedagogical province" of the 23rd century. It is argued that the central character in the book, Joseph Knecht, undergoes a <span class="hlt">complex</span> process of conscientisation. Knecht develops an…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=consciousness+AND+theory&pg=6&id=EJ924489','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=consciousness+AND+theory&pg=6&id=EJ924489"><span>Conscientisation in Castalia: A Freirean Reading of Hermann Hesse's "The Glass <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Game"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Roberts, Peter</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This paper considers Hermann Hesse's novel, "The Glass <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Game," in the light of Paulo Freire's educational philosophy. "The Glass <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Game" is set in Castalia, a "pedagogical province" of the 23rd century. It is argued that the central character in the book, Joseph Knecht, undergoes a <span class="hlt">complex</span> process of conscientisation. Knecht develops an…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...746260K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...746260K"><span>Deterministic <span class="hlt">bead</span>-in-droplet ejection utilizing an integrated plug-in <span class="hlt">bead</span> dispenser for single <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Hojin; Choi, In Ho; Lee, Sanghyun; Won, Dong-Joon; Oh, Yong Suk; Kwon, Donghoon; Sung, Hyung Jin; Jeon, Sangmin; Kim, Joonwon</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>This paper presents a deterministic <span class="hlt">bead</span>-in-droplet ejection (BIDE) technique that regulates the precise distribution of microbeads in an ejected droplet. The deterministic BIDE was realized through the effective integration of a microfluidic single-particle handling technique with a liquid dispensing system. The integrated <span class="hlt">bead</span> dispenser facilitates the transfer of the desired number of <span class="hlt">beads</span> into a dispensing volume and the on-demand ejection of <span class="hlt">bead</span>-encapsulated droplets. Single <span class="hlt">bead</span>-encapsulated droplets were ejected every 3 s without any failure. Multiple-<span class="hlt">bead</span> dispensing with deterministic control of the number of <span class="hlt">beads</span> was demonstrated to emphasize the originality and quality of the proposed dispensing technique. The dispenser was mounted using a plug-socket type connection, and the dispensing process was completely automated using a programmed sequence without any microscopic observation. To demonstrate a potential application of the technique, <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based streptavidin-biotin binding assay in an evaporating droplet was conducted using ultralow numbers of <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The results evidenced the number of <span class="hlt">beads</span> in the droplet crucially influences the reliability of the assay. Therefore, the proposed deterministic <span class="hlt">bead</span>-in-droplet technology can be utilized to deliver desired <span class="hlt">beads</span> onto a reaction site, particularly to reliably and efficiently enrich and detect target biomolecules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16867005','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16867005"><span>Juxta-clavicular <span class="hlt">beaded</span> lines.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Franco, Gennaro; Donati, Pietro; Muscardin, Luca; Maini, Antonio; Morrone, Aldo</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>We present a case series of 63 patients diagnosed with juxta-clavicular <span class="hlt">beaded</span> lines. This condition is more frequent in dark-skinned people and corresponds to an anatomical variant of simple sebaceous hyperplasia. In view of the strong reactivity of the melanocytes in dark-skinned people, and of the possible hypochromic results, no treatment is advised.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1360052','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1360052"><span><span class="hlt">Gel</span> Fabrication of Molybdenum “Beads”</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lowden, Richard Andrew; Armstrong, Beth L.; Cooley, Kevin M.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Spherical molybdenum particles or “beads” of various diameters are of interest as feedstock materials for the additive manufacture of targets and assemblies used in the production of <sup>99</sup>Mo medical isotopes using accelerator technology. Small metallic <span class="hlt">beads</span> or ball bearings are typically fabricated from wire; however, small molybdenum spheres cannot readily be produced in this manner. Sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> processes are often employed to produce small dense microspheres of metal oxides across a broad diameter range that in the case of molybdenum could be reduced and sintered to produce metallic spheres. These Sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> type processes were examined for forming molybdenum oxide <span class="hlt">beads</span>; however, the molybdenum trioxide was chemically incompatible with commonly used gelation materials. As an alternative, an aqueous alginate process being assessed for the fabrication of oxide spheres for catalyst applications was employed to form molybdenum trioxide <span class="hlt">beads</span> that were successfully reduced and sintered to produce small molybdenum spheres.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23659866','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23659866"><span>An innovative bioremediation strategy using a bacterial consortium entrapped in chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Angelim, Alysson Lira; Costa, Samantha Pinheiro; Farias, Bárbara Cibelle Soares; Aquino, Lyanderson Freitas; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel</p> <p>2013-09-30</p> <p>This aim of this work was to develop a bioremediation strategy for oil-contaminated mangrove sediments using chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> containing an immobilised hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial consortium. The consortium composed of 17 isolates was obtained from an enrichment culture. The isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing, which revealed 12 different genera. Thirteen isolates showed resistance to chitosan and were thus able to be trapped in chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> for microcosm evaluation. The data revealed that entrapped consortium grew in the microcosms until day 15, which is when the <span class="hlt">beads</span> disintegrated and released their biomass into the sediments. Bacterial bioaugmentation within the sediments was confirmed by cell counts; additionally, the dynamics of the bacterial populations were analysed through denaturing gradient <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis. The chitosan showed a prebiotic effect on the autochthonous bacterial communities. Therefore, chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> containing selected immobilised bacteria attain two bioremediation purposes, bioaugmentation and biostimulation, and thus represent an emergent approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25933528','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25933528"><span>Preparation of fucoidan-shelled and genipin-crosslinked chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> for antibacterial application.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yu, Shu-Huei; Wu, Shao-Jung; Wu, Jui-Yu; Wen, De-Yu; Mi, Fwu-Long</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>In this study, a fucoidan-shelled chitosan <span class="hlt">bead</span> was developed with the purpose of oral delivery of berberine to inhibit the growth of bacteria. The cross-linking level and swelling property of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> were affected by the pH value and the composition of the genipin/fucoidan combined gelling agent. The drug release of the berberine-loaded <span class="hlt">beads</span> was faster in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) than those in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.4). Furthermore, a nanoparticles/<span class="hlt">beads</span> <span class="hlt">complex</span> system was developed by incorporation of berberine-loaded chitosan/fucoidan nanoparticles in the fucoidan-shelled chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The nanoparticles/<span class="hlt">beads</span> <span class="hlt">complex</span> served as a drug carrier to delay the berberine release in simulated gastric fluid, with an estimated lag time of 2 h. Our results showed that the berberine-loaded <span class="hlt">beads</span> and nanoparticles/<span class="hlt">beads</span> <span class="hlt">complex</span> could effectively inhibit the growth inhibition of common clinical pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and have the advantage of continually releasing berberine to inhibit the growth of the bacteria over 24 h.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gel&id=EJ920086','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gel&id=EJ920086"><span>Biocatalysis with Sol-<span class="hlt">Gel</span> Encapsulated Acid Phosphatase</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kulkarni, Suhasini; Tran, Vu; Ho, Maggie K.-M.; Phan, Chieu; Chin, Elizabeth; Wemmer, Zeke; Sommerhalter, Monika</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This experiment was performed in an upper-level undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course. Students learned how to immobilize an enzyme in a sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix and how to perform and evaluate enzyme-activity measurements. The enzyme acid phosphatase (APase) from wheat germ was encapsulated in sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> that were prepared from the precursor…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=enzyme&id=EJ920086','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=enzyme&id=EJ920086"><span>Biocatalysis with Sol-<span class="hlt">Gel</span> Encapsulated Acid Phosphatase</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kulkarni, Suhasini; Tran, Vu; Ho, Maggie K.-M.; Phan, Chieu; Chin, Elizabeth; Wemmer, Zeke; Sommerhalter, Monika</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This experiment was performed in an upper-level undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course. Students learned how to immobilize an enzyme in a sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix and how to perform and evaluate enzyme-activity measurements. The enzyme acid phosphatase (APase) from wheat germ was encapsulated in sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> that were prepared from the precursor…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17683747','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17683747"><span>Fully automated immunoassay for detection of prostate-specific antigen using nano-magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> and micro-polystyrene <span class="hlt">bead</span> composites, '<span class="hlt">Beads</span> on <span class="hlt">Beads</span>'.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matsunaga, Tadashi; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Yoshino, Tomoko; Takeyama, Haruko; Takahashi, Masaaki; Ginya, Harumi; Aasahina, Junko; Tajima, Hideji</p> <p>2007-08-06</p> <p>Magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> have served as a conventional bioassay platform in biotechnology. In this study, a fully automated immunoassay was performed using novel nano- and microbead-composites constructed by assembling nano-magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> onto polystyrene microbeads, designated '<span class="hlt">Beads</span> on <span class="hlt">Beads</span>'. Nano-sized bacterial magnetic particles (BacMPs) displaying the immunoglobulin G (IgG)-binding domain of protein A (ZZ domain) were used for the construction of '<span class="hlt">Beads</span> on <span class="hlt">Beads</span>' via the interaction of biotin-streptavidin. The efficient assembly of '<span class="hlt">Beads</span> on <span class="hlt">Beads</span>' was performed by gradual addition of biotin-labeled BacMPs onto streptavidin-coated polystyrene microbeads. Approximately 2000 BacMPs were uniformly assembled on a single microbead without aggregation. The constructed '<span class="hlt">Beads</span> on <span class="hlt">Beads</span>' were magnetized and separated from the suspension by using an automated magnetic separation system with a higher efficiency than BacMPs alone. Furthermore, fully automated detection of prostate-specific antigens was performed with the detection limit of 1.48 ng mL(-1). From this preliminary assay, it can be seen that '<span class="hlt">Beads</span> on <span class="hlt">Beads</span>' could be a powerful tool in the development of high-throughput, fully automated multiplexed bioassays.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26012512','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26012512"><span>Influence of Xanthan-Curdlan Hydrogel <span class="hlt">Complex</span> on Freeze-Thaw Stability and Rheological Properties of Whey Protein Isolate <span class="hlt">Gel</span> over Multiple Freeze-Thaw Cycle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shiroodi, Setareh Ghorban; Rasco, Barbara A; Lo, Y Martin</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The effect of adding xanthan-curdlan hydrogel <span class="hlt">complex</span> (XCHC) at 2 concentrations (0.25 and 0.5% w/w) on the freeze-thaw stability of heat-induced whey protein isolate (WPI) <span class="hlt">gel</span> was investigated. Samples were stored at 4 °C for 24 h before subjected to 5 freeze-thaw cycles alternating between -16 °C (18 h) and 25 °C (6 h). Adding XCHC to the WPI solution resulted in the reduction of a significant amount of syneresis up to 5 repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Addition of XCHC decreased the amount of syneresis from 45% in the control sample (pure WPI <span class="hlt">gel</span>) to 31.82% and 5.44% in the samples containing 0.25% and 0.5% gum, respectively, after the 5th freeze-thaw cycle. XCHC increased the storage modulus (G') of the <span class="hlt">gels</span> and minimized the changes of the G' values over the 5 freeze-thaw cycles, indicating improvement of the stability of the system. Furthermore, the minimum protein concentration for <span class="hlt">gel</span> formation decreased in the presence of the XCHC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that addition of XCHC resulted in the formation of a well-structured <span class="hlt">gel</span> with numerous small pores in the network, which consequently improved the water retention ability during the temperature abuses up to 5 freeze-thaw cycles. These results have important implications for using XCHC in the formulation of the frozen WPI-based products with improved freeze-thaw stability and rheological properties. Application of XCHC in the formulation of frozen dairy-based food products has the potential to enhance freeze-thaw stability and minimize moisture migration caused by temperature abuses of the products during distribution and consumer application. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19111313','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19111313"><span>Surface-modified polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span> as photografting imprinted polymer matrix for chromatographic separation of proteins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qin, Lei; He, Xi-Wen; Zhang, Wei; Li, Wen-You; Zhang, Yu-Kui</p> <p>2009-01-30</p> <p>A new and facile fabricating method for lysozyme molecularly imprinted polymer <span class="hlt">beads</span> (lysozyme-MIP <span class="hlt">beads</span>) in aqueous media was presented. Mesoporous chloromethylated polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span> (MCP <span class="hlt">beads</span>) containing dithiocarbamate iniferter (initiator transfer agent terminator) were used as supports for the grafting of lysozyme imprinted copolymers with acrylamide and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide through surface initiated living-radical polymerization (SIP). After the polymerization, a layer of lysozyme-MIP was formed on the MCP <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The SIP allowed an efficient control of the grafting process and suppressed solution propagation. Therefore, the obtained lysozyme-MIP <span class="hlt">beads</span> had a large quantity of well-distributed pores on the surface without any visible <span class="hlt">gel</span> formation in solution and were more advantageous comparing with traditional MIPs which were prepared by traditionally initiated radical polymerization. The obtained composites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, nitrogen sorption analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Chromatographic behaviors of the column packed with lysozyme-MIP <span class="hlt">beads</span> exhibited ability in separating lysozyme from competitive protein (bovine hemoglobin, bovine serum albumin, ovalbumin or cytochrome c) in aqueous mobile phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJT....33..627I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJT....33..627I"><span>Thermophysical and Magnetic Properties of Carbon <span class="hlt">Beads</span> Containing Cobalt Nanocrystallites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Izydorzak, M.; Skumiel, A.; Leonowicz, M.; Kaczmarek-Klinowska, M.; Pomogailo, A. D.; Dzhardimalieva, G. I.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Magnetic Co-<span class="hlt">beads</span> were fabricated in the course of a three-step procedure comprising preparation of a metal-acrylamide <span class="hlt">complex</span>, followed by frontal polymerization and finally pyrolysis of the polymer. The composites obtained were composed of cobalt nanocrystallites stabilized in a carbon matrix built of disordered graphite. The crystallite size, material morphology, fraction of the magnetic component, and thus the magnetic properties can be tailored by a proper choice of the processing variables. The samples were subjected to an alternating magnetic field of different strengths ( H = 0 to 5 kA · m-1) at a frequency of f = 500 kHz. From the calorimetric measurements, we concluded that the relaxation processes dominate in the heat generation mechanism for the <span class="hlt">beads</span> pyrolyzed at 773 K. For the <span class="hlt">beads</span> pyrolyzed at 1073 K, significant values of magnetic properties, such as the coercive force and remanence give substantial contribution to the energy losses for hysteresis. The specific absorption coefficient ( SAR) related to the cobalt mass unit for the 1073 K pyrolyzed <span class="hlt">beads</span> {({SAR} = 1340 W \\cdot g^{-1 }_cobalt)} is in very good conformity with the results obtained by other authors. The effective density power loss, caused by eddy currents, can be neglected for heating processes applied in magnetic hyperthermia. The Co-<span class="hlt">beads</span> can potentially be applied for hyperthermia treatment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22743162','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22743162"><span>Enhanced arsenic removal using mixed metal oxide impregnated chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yamani, Jamila S; Miller, Sarah M; Spaulding, Matthew L; Zimmerman, Julie B</p> <p>2012-09-15</p> <p>Mixed metal oxide impregnated chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> (MICB) containing nanocrystalline Al₂O₃ and nanocrystalline TiO₂ were successfully developed. This adsorbent exploits the high capacity of Al₂O₃ for arsenate and the photocatalytic activity of TiO₂ to oxidize arsenite to arsenate, resulting in a removal capacity higher than that of either metal oxide alone. The composition of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> was optimized for maximum arsenite removal in the presence of UV light. The mechanism of removal was investigated and a mode of action was proposed wherein TiO₂ oxidizes arsenite to arsenate which is then removed from solution by Al₂O₃. Pseudo-second order kinetics were used to validate the proposed mechanism. MICB is a more efficient and effective adsorbent for arsenic than TiO₂-impregnated chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> (TICB), previously reported on, yet maintains a desirable life cycle, free of <span class="hlt">complex</span> synthesis processes, toxic materials, and energy inputs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22851224','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22851224"><span>Electro-Fenton decolourisation of dyes in an airlift continuous reactor using iron alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Iglesias, O; Rosales, E; Pazos, M; Sanromán, M A</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>In this study, electro-Fenton dye degradation was performed in an airlift continuous reactor configuration by harnessing the catalytic activity of Fe alginate <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Electro-Fenton experiments were carried out in an airlift reactor with a working volume of 1.5 L, air flow of 1.5 L/min and 115 g of Fe alginate <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span>. An electric field was applied by two graphite bars connected to a direct current power supply with a constant potential drop. In this study, Lissamine Green B and Reactive Black 5 were selected as model dyes. Fe alginate <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> can be used as an effective heterogeneous catalyst for the degradation of organic dyes in the electro-Fenton process, as they are more efficient than the conventional electrochemical techniques. At optimal working conditions (3 V and pH 2), the continuous process was performed. For both dyes, the degree of decolourisation increases when the residence time augments. Taking into account hydrodynamic and kinetic behaviour, a model to describe the reactor profile was obtained, and the standard deviation between experimental and theoretical data was lower than 6%. The results indicate the suitability of the electro-Fenton technique to oxidise polluted effluents in the presence of Fe alginate <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Moreover, the operation is possible in a continuous airlift reactor, due to the entrapment of iron in the alginate matrix.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12909732','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12909732"><span>Calcium alginate <span class="hlt">gel</span> as encapsulation matrix for coimmobilized enzyme systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Blandino, A; Macías, M; Cantero, D</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>Encapsulation within calcium alginate <span class="hlt">gel</span> capsules was used to produce a coimmobilized enzyme system. Glucose oxidase (GOD) and catalase (CAT) were chosen as model enzymes. The same values of Vmax and Km app for the GOD encapsulated system and for the GOD-CAT coencapsulated system were calculated. When <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> and capsules were compared, the same catalyst deactivation sequence for the two enzymes was observed. However, when capsules were employed as immobilization support, GOD efficiencies were higher than for the <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span>. These results were explained in terms of the structure of the capsules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA174202','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA174202"><span>Thermal Profile of Metallic <span class="hlt">Beads</span> in a <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Sterilizer,</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1986-08-01</p> <p>another commonly used chairside sterilization method, principally for endodontic instruments. The <span class="hlt">bead</span> sterilizer consists of a heated chamber containing...sterilization of endodontic instruments. However, several investigators have shown sterilization times ranging from 3 seconds to 14 minutes, are...et.al. The effect of autoclave sterilization on endodontic files. Oral Surg 55(2): 204-207, 1983. 3. Parkes, R. B. and Kolstad, R. A. Effects of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26540139','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26540139"><span>Supramolecular Construction of Multifluorescent <span class="hlt">Gels</span>: Interfacial Assembly of Discrete Fluorescent <span class="hlt">Gels</span> through Multiple Hydrogen Bonding.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ji, Xiaofan; Shi, Bingbing; Wang, Hu; Xia, Danyu; Jie, Kecheng; Wu, Zi Liang; Huang, Feihe</p> <p>2015-12-22</p> <p>Multifluorescent supramolecular <span class="hlt">gels</span> with <span class="hlt">complex</span> structures are constructed from discrete fluorescent <span class="hlt">gels</span>, which serve as the building blocks, through hydrogen bonding interactions at interfaces. The multifluorescent <span class="hlt">gel</span> can realize rapid healing within only ≈100 s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21386432','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21386432"><span>Fluctuations of cytoskeleton-bound microbeads--the effect of <span class="hlt">bead</span>-receptor binding dynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Metzner, C; Raupach, C; Mierke, C T; Fabry, B</p> <p>2010-05-19</p> <p>The cytoskeleton (CSK) of living cells is a crosslinked fiber network, subject to ongoing biochemical remodeling processes that can be visualized by tracking the spontaneous motion of CSK-bound microbeads. The <span class="hlt">bead</span> motion is characterized by anomalous diffusion with a power-law time evolution of the mean square displacement (MSD), and can be described as a stochastic transport process with apparent diffusivity D and power-law exponent β: MSD ∼ D (t/t(0))(β). Here we studied whether D and β change with the time that has passed after the initial <span class="hlt">bead</span>-cell contact, and whether they are sensitive to <span class="hlt">bead</span> coating (fibronectin, integrin antibodies, poly-L-lysine, albumin) and <span class="hlt">bead</span> size (0.5-4.5 µm). The measurements are interpreted in the framework of a simple model that describes the <span class="hlt">bead</span> as an overdamped particle coupled to the fluctuating CSK network by an elastic spring. The viscous damping coefficient characterizes the degree of <span class="hlt">bead</span> internalization into the cell, and the spring constant characterizes the strength of the binding of the <span class="hlt">bead</span> to the CSK. The model predicts distinctive signatures of the MSD that change with time as the <span class="hlt">bead</span> couples more tightly to the CSK and becomes internalized. Experimental data show that the transition from the unbound to the tightly bound state occurs in an all-or-nothing manner. The time point of this transition shows considerable variability between individual cells (2-30 min) and depends on the <span class="hlt">bead</span> size and <span class="hlt">bead</span> coating. On average, this transition occurs later for smaller <span class="hlt">beads</span> and <span class="hlt">beads</span> coated with ligands that trigger the formation of adhesion <span class="hlt">complexes</span> (fibronectin, integrin antibodies). Once the <span class="hlt">bead</span> is linked to the CSK, however, the ligand type and <span class="hlt">bead</span> size have little effect on the MSD. On longer timescales of several hours after <span class="hlt">bead</span> addition, smaller <span class="hlt">beads</span> are internalized into the cell more readily, leading to characteristic changes in the MSD that are consistent with increased viscous damping by the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4481928','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4481928"><span>Highly Sensitive Bacteria Quantification Using Immunomagnetic Separation and Electrochemical Detection of Guanine-Labeled Secondary <span class="hlt">Beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jayamohan, Harikrishnan; Gale, Bruce K.; Minson, Bj; Lambert, Christopher J.; Gordon, Neil; Sant, Himanshu J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we report the ultra-sensitive indirect electrochemical detection of E. coli O157:H7 using antibody functionalized primary (magnetic) <span class="hlt">beads</span> for capture and polyguanine (polyG) oligonucleotide functionalized secondary (polystyrene) <span class="hlt">beads</span> as an electrochemical tag. Vacuum filtration in combination with E. coli O157:H7 specific antibody modified magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> were used for extraction of E. coli O157:H7 from 100 mL samples. The magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> conjugated E. coli O157:H7 cells were then attached to polyG functionalized secondary <span class="hlt">beads</span> to form a sandwich <span class="hlt">complex</span> (magnetic <span class="hlt">bead/E</span>. coli/ secondary <span class="hlt">bead</span>). While the use of magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> for immuno-based capture is well characterized, the use of oligonucleotide functionalized secondary <span class="hlt">beads</span> helps combine amplification and potential multiplexing into the system. The antibody functionalized secondary <span class="hlt">beads</span> can be easily modified with a different antibody to detect other pathogens from the same sample and enable potential multiplexing. The polyGs on the secondary <span class="hlt">beads</span> enable signal amplification up to 108 guanine tags per secondary <span class="hlt">bead</span> (7.5 × 106 biotin-FITC per secondary <span class="hlt">bead</span>, 20 guanines per oligonucleotide) bound to the target (E. coli). A single-stranded DNA probe functionalized reduced graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode was used to bind the polyGs on the secondary <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Fluorescent imaging was performed to confirm the hybridization of the <span class="hlt">complex</span> to the electrode surface. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to quantify the amount of polyG involved in the hybridization event with tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) ( Ru(bpy)32+) as the mediator. The amount of polyG signal can be correlated to the amount of E. coli O157:H7 in the sample. The method was able to detect concentrations of E. coli O157:H7 down to 3 CFU/100 mL, which is 67 times lower than the most sensitive technique reported in literature. The signal to noise ratio for this work was 3. We also demonstrate the use of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26007743','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26007743"><span>Highly sensitive bacteria quantification using immunomagnetic separation and electrochemical detection of guanine-labeled secondary <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jayamohan, Harikrishnan; Gale, Bruce K; Minson, Bj; Lambert, Christopher J; Gordon, Neil; Sant, Himanshu J</p> <p>2015-05-22</p> <p>In this paper, we report the ultra-sensitive indirect electrochemical detection of E. coli O157:H7 using antibody functionalized primary (magnetic) <span class="hlt">beads</span> for capture and polyguanine (polyG) oligonucleotide functionalized secondary (polystyrene) <span class="hlt">beads</span> as an electrochemical tag. Vacuum filtration in combination with E. coli O157:H7 specific antibody modified magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> were used for extraction of E. coli O157:H7 from 100 mL samples. The magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> conjugated E. coli O157:H7 cells were then attached to polyG functionalized secondary <span class="hlt">beads</span> to form a sandwich <span class="hlt">complex</span> (magnetic <span class="hlt">bead/E</span>. coli secondary <span class="hlt">bead</span>). While the use of magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> for immuno-based capture is well characterized, the use of oligonucleotide functionalized secondary <span class="hlt">beads</span> helps combine amplification and potential multiplexing into the system. The antibody functionalized secondary <span class="hlt">beads</span> can be easily modified with a different antibody to detect other pathogens from the same sample and enable potential multiplexing. The polyGs on the secondary <span class="hlt">beads</span> enable signal amplification up to 10⁸ guanine tags per secondary <span class="hlt">bead</span> (7.5 x 10⁶ biotin-FITC per secondary <span class="hlt">bead</span>, 20 guanines per oligonucleotide) bound to the target (E. coli). A single-stranded DNA probe functionalized reduced graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode was used to bind the polyGs on the secondary <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Fluorescent imaging was performed to confirm the hybridization of the <span class="hlt">complex</span> to the electrode surface. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to quantify the amount of polyG involved in the hybridization event with tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) (Ru(bpy)3(2+)) as the mediator. The amount of polyG signal can be correlated to the amount of E. coli O157:H7 in the sample. The method was able to detect concentrations of E. coli O157:H7 down to 3 CFU/100 mL, which is 67 times lower than the most sensitive technique reported in literature. The signal to noise ratio for this work was 3. We also demonstrate the use of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/619431','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/619431"><span>Investigations of the uptake of transuranic radionuclides by humic and fulvic acids chemically immobilized on silica <span class="hlt">gel</span> and their competitive release by <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bulman, R.A.; Szabo, G.; Clayton, R.F.; Clayton, C.R.</p> <p>1998-07-01</p> <p>The chemistry of the interactions of transuranic elements (TUs) with humic substances needs to be understood so that humate-mediated movement of transuranic radionuclides through the environment can be predicted. This paper reports the chemical immobilization on silica <span class="hlt">gel</span> of humic and fulvic acids and evaluates the potential of these new materials for the retention of Pu and Am. In addition to the preparation of the foregoing immobilized humic substances, other low molecular weight metal-binding ligands have also been immobilized on silica <span class="hlt">gel</span> to investigate the binding sites for transuranic elements (TUs) in humic substances. The X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) of Th(IV) <span class="hlt">complexed</span> by humic acid and the immobilized humic acid are similar thus it appears that immobilization of humic acid does not generate any configurational changes in the Th(IV)-binding sites of the macromolecule. A variety of chelating agents partly mobilize these TUs sorbed on the solid phases. A batch method was used to determine the distribution coefficients (R{sub d}) of Pu and Am between the silica <span class="hlt">gels</span> and aqueous solutions of phosphate and citrate. The effects of the immobilized ligands, the anions and pH in the solution on sorption were assessed. Distributed coefficients (R{sub d}) for the uptake of Pu and Am by these prepared solid phases are, in some cases, of a similar order of magnitude as those determined for soil and particles suspended in terrestrial surface waters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26828685','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26828685"><span>Development of a long-acting, protein-loaded, redox-active, injectable <span class="hlt">gel</span> formed by a polyion <span class="hlt">complex</span> for local protein therapeutics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ishii, Shiro; Kaneko, Junya; Nagasaki, Yukio</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Although cancer immunotherapies are attracting much attention, it is difficult to develop bioactive proteins owing to the severe systemic toxicity. To overcome the issue, we designed new local protein delivery system by using a protein-loaded, redox-active, injectable <span class="hlt">gel</span> (RIG), which is formed by a polyion <span class="hlt">complex</span> (PIC) comprising three components, viz., cationic polyamine-poly(ethylene glycol)-polyamine triblock copolymer possessing ROS-scavenging moieties as side chains; anionic poly(acrylic acid); and a protein. The mixture formed the protein-loaded PIC flower micelles at room temperature, which immediately converted to a <span class="hlt">gel</span> with high mechanical strength upon exposure to physiological conditions. Because the protein electrostatically interacts with the PIC <span class="hlt">gel</span> network, RIG provided a sustained release of the protein without a significant initial burst, regardless of the types of proteins in vitro, and much longer retention of the protein at the local injection site in mice than that of the naked protein. Subcutaneous injections of IL-12@RIG in the vicinity of tumor tissue showed remarkable tumor growth inhibition in tumor-bearing mice, compared to that observed with injection of IL-12 alone, suppressing adverse events caused by IL-12-induced ROS. Our results indicate that RIG has potential as a platform technology for an injectable sustained-release carrier for proteins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27612709','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27612709"><span>A novel <span class="hlt">gel</span> based on an ionic <span class="hlt">complex</span> from a dendronized polymer and ciprofloxacin: Evaluation of its use for controlled topical drug release.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>García, Mónica C; Cuggino, Julio C; Rosset, Clarisa I; Páez, Paulina L; Strumia, Miriam C; Manzo, Ruben H; Alovero, Fabiana L; Alvarez Igarzabal, Cecilia I; Jimenez-Kairuz, Alvaro F</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The development and characterization of a novel, <span class="hlt">gel</span>-type material based on a dendronized polymer (DP) loaded with ciprofloxacin (CIP), and the evaluation of its possible use for controlled drug release, are presented in this work. DP showed biocompatible and non-toxic behaviors in cultured cells, both of which are considered optimal properties for the design of a final material for biomedical applications. These results were encouraging for the use of the polymer loaded with CIP (as a drug model), under <span class="hlt">gel</span> form, in the development of a new controlled-release system to be evaluated for topical administration. First, DP-CIP ionic <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were obtained by an acid-base reaction using the high density of carboxylic acid groups of the DP and the amine groups of the CIP. The <span class="hlt">complexes</span> obtained in the solid state were broadly characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, XRP diffraction, DSC-TG analysis and optical microscopy techniques. <span class="hlt">Gels</span> based on the DP-CIP <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were easily prepared and presented excellent mechanical behaviors. In addition, optimal properties for application on mucosal membranes and skin were achieved due to their high biocompatibility and acute skin non-irritation. Slow and sustained release of CIP toward simulated physiological fluids was observed in the assays (in vitro), attributed to ion exchange phenomenon and to the drug reservoir effect. An in vitro bacterial growth inhibition assay showed significant CIP activity, corresponding to 38 and 58% of that exhibited by a CIP hydrochloride solution at similar CIP concentrations, against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. However, CIP delivery was appropriate, both in terms of magnitude and velocity to allow for a bactericidal effect. In conclusion, the final product showed promising behavior, which could be exploited for the treatment of topical and mucosal opportunistic infections in human or veterinary applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18394833','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18394833"><span>Boronate-containing polymers form affinity <span class="hlt">complexes</span> with mucin and enable tight and reversible occlusion of mucosal lumen by poly(vinyl alcohol) <span class="hlt">gel</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ivanov, Alexander E; Nilsson, Lars; Galaev, Igor Yu; Mattiasson, Bo</p> <p>2008-06-24</p> <p>Copolymers of N-acryloyl-m-aminophenylboronic acid (NAAPBA) with N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAA) formed insoluble interpolymer <span class="hlt">complexes</span> with mucin from porcine stomach at pH 9.0. The <span class="hlt">complex</span> formation based on boronate-sugar interactions took place between the similarly charged macromolecules and resulted in coacervate particles formation, which depended both on pH and ionic strength of the solution. The coacervation rate displayed a maximum at the intermediate DMAA-NAAPBA copolymer: mucin weight ratio, that is a pattern typical of interpolymer <span class="hlt">complex</span> formation. The effective hydrodynamic particle diameter of the coacervates monotonously grew from 155+/-20 nm up to 730+/-120 nm in 2 days in 0.1M sodium bicarbonate buffer solution, pH 9.0. Electrophoretic mobility of the resultant nanoparticles was intermediate between those of individual polymers, whereas the particles zeta-potential was -7.5+/-0.4 mV in the above buffer solution. Pre-treatment of the inner mucosal epithelium of excised male pig urethras with 5% (w/v) solutions of acrylamide-NAAPBA or DMAA-NAAPBA copolymers at pH 8.8 allowed for tight occlusion of the lumen by poly(vinyl alcohol)-borax <span class="hlt">gel</span> injected via a two-way catheter. Leakage of 0.15M NaCl solution through the thus occluded organs could be prevented, while the leakage through the organs occluded by the <span class="hlt">gel</span> without the pre-treatment was unavoidable. The <span class="hlt">gel</span> plug could be quickly dissolved on demand after injection of 5% (w/v) aqueous fructose solution into the lumen. The described technique may be useful for temporal occlusion of mucosal lumens in living organisms. In contrast to the conventional mucoadhesive polymers like polyacrylic acid or chitosan, the boronate-containing copolymers display their mucoadhesivity at weakly alkaline pH of 8-9 and physiological ionic strength.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24650036','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24650036"><span>New ethanol and propylene glycol free <span class="hlt">gel</span> formulations containing a minoxidil-methyl-β-cyclodextrin <span class="hlt">complex</span> as promising tools for alopecia treatment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lopedota, Angela; Cutrignelli, Annalisa; Denora, Nunzio; Laquintana, Valentino; Lopalco, Antonio; Selva, Stefano; Ragni, Lorella; Tongiani, Serena; Franco, Massimo</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>New topical totally aqueous formulations that improve the low water solubility of minoxidil and realize an adequate permeability of drug in the skin are proposed. These formulations are lacking in propylene glycol and alcohol that are the principal irritant ingredients present in minoxidil commercial solutions. In order to enhance poor water solubility of minoxidil randomly methyl-β-cyclodextrin was used, and four hydrogels such as, calcium alginate, sodium alginate, carbopol 934 and hydroxyethylcellulose were utilized to ensure a prolonged time of contact with the scalp. The inclusion <span class="hlt">complex</span> minoxidil/methyl-β-cyclodextrin with a molar ratio 1:1 was obtained by freeze drying and evaluated by NMR, FT-IR and DSC analysis. An apparent stability constant of formed inclusion <span class="hlt">complex</span> was calculated by phase solubility diagram and its value was 400 M(-1). The solid inclusion <span class="hlt">complex</span> was used to prepare <span class="hlt">gel</span> formulations with similar dose to minoxidil commercial solution. The <span class="hlt">gels</span> were evaluated for various technological parameters including rheological behavior, in vitro drug release and ex vivo permeation through pig skin. The best performance was observed for the calcium alginate formulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23007128','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23007128"><span>Silica sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> glasses incorporating dual-luminescent Yb quinolinolato <span class="hlt">complex</span>: processing, emission and photosensitising properties of the 'antenna' ligand.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Artizzu, Flavia; Quochi, Francesco; Saba, Michele; Loche, Danilo; Mercuri, Maria Laura; Serpe, Angela; Mura, Andrea; Bongiovanni, Giovanni; Deplano, Paola</p> <p>2012-11-14</p> <p>The [Yb(5,7ClQ)(2)(H5,7ClQ)(2)Cl] (1) <span class="hlt">complex</span>, that exhibits dual-luminescence in the visible (ligand-centered) and in the NIR (Yb-centered), has been incorporated into a silica sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> glass obtaining 1-doped glassy material which is optically transparent and homogeneous and with good mechanical properties. The doped sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> glass can be considered a "solid state solution" and photophysical studies demonstrate that the emissive properties of the dopant <span class="hlt">complex</span> are preserved in the silica matrix. Observed NIR decay times fall in the μs range and are likely limited by "second-sphere" matrix interactions. The ligand-to-metal energy transfer mechanism occurs on ultrafast timescale and involves ligand triplet states. The sensitization efficiency of the antenna quinolinolato ligand toward Yb(3+) is estimated to be as high as ~80%. The Yb natural radiative lifetime observed for 1 in MeCN-EtOH solution (τ(rad) = 438 μs) is the shortest reported so far for ytterbium <span class="hlt">complexes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1300761','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1300761"><span>Growing an actin <span class="hlt">gel</span> on spherical surfaces.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Noireaux, V; Golsteyn, R M; Friederich, E; Prost, J; Antony, C; Louvard, D; Sykes, C</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Inspired by the motility of the bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, we have experimentally studied the growth of an actin <span class="hlt">gel</span> around spherical <span class="hlt">beads</span> grafted with ActA, a protein known to be the promoter of bacteria movement. On ActA-grafted <span class="hlt">beads</span> F-actin is formed in a spherical manner, whereas on the bacteria a "comet-like" tail of F-actin is produced. We show experimentally that the stationary thickness of the <span class="hlt">gel</span> depends on the radius of the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Moreover, the actin <span class="hlt">gel</span> is not formed if the ActA surface density is too low. To interpret our results, we propose a theoretical model to explain how the mechanical stress (due to spherical geometry) limits the growth of the actin <span class="hlt">gel</span>. Our model also takes into account treadmilling of actin. We deduce from our work that the force exerted by the actin <span class="hlt">gel</span> on the bacteria is of the order of 10 pN. Finally, we estimate from our theoretical model possible conditions for developing actin comet tails. PMID:10692348</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16592604','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16592604"><span>Lithium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis of thylakoid membranes at 4 degrees C: Characterizations of two additional chlorophyll a-protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Delepelaire, P; Chua, N H</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Lithium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii thylakoid membranes at room temperature gave two chlorophyll-protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span>, CP I and CP II, as had been reported previously. However, when the electrophoresis was performed at 4 degrees C, there was an increase in the amount of chlorophyll associated with CP I and CP II, and in addition, three other chlorophyll-protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> appeared. Two of these <span class="hlt">complexes</span>, designated CP III and CP IV, were characterized and found to be similar in their compositions. Each <span class="hlt">complex</span> contains four to five molecules of chlorophyll a, one molecule of beta-carotene, and one polypeptide chain. The apoprotein of CP III is polypeptide 5 (M(r) 50,000) and that of CP IV is polypeptide 6 (M(r) 47,000); the two polypeptides are structurally unrelated. Chlorophyll-protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> similar to C. reinhardtii CP III and CP IV were also detected in higher plants (e.g., Pisum sativum). The apoproteins of the higher plant <span class="hlt">complexes</span> are immunochemically related to those of the C. reinhardtii <span class="hlt">complexes</span>, as shown by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. Absorption spectra of CP III and CP IV at -196 degrees C revealed a component at 682 nm. This observation, together with the previous results on photosystem II mutants [Chua, N.-H. & Bennoun, P. (1975) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72, 2175-2179], provides indirect evidence that CP III and CP IV may be involved in the primary photochemistry of photosystem II.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8943000','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8943000"><span>Melanotropic peptide-conjugated <span class="hlt">beads</span> for microscopic visualization and characterization of melanoma melanotropin receptors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sharma, S D; Jiang, J; Hadley, M E; Bentley, D L; Hruby, V J</p> <p>1996-11-26</p> <p>We developed two solid-phase reagent systems for microscopic visualization and characterization of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) receptors of melanoma cells. Multiple copies of [Nle-4,D-Phe-7]-alpha-MSH, a potent analog of alpha-MSH, were conjugated to microspheres (latex <span class="hlt">beads</span>) or macrospheres (polyamide <span class="hlt">beads</span>) through a thioether or disulfide bond. Binding between the <span class="hlt">beads</span> and mouse and human melanoma cells was examined by scanning electron microscopy and by light microscopy. Each mouse and human melanoma cell (of all cell lines) evinced binding to the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Binding of the melanotropin conjugates was not restricted to any one phase of the cell cycle. Specificity of binding was demonstrated by several studies. Negative controls included cell types of nonmelanocyte origin (e.g., mammary cancer cells) and <span class="hlt">beads</span> that lacked the melanotropic ligand or had other attached ligands. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> with a disulfide-linked melanotropin analog served as a direct control. Treatment of these <span class="hlt">beads</span> with DTT during or before incubation of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> with melanoma cells (resulting in release of the MSH analog from the <span class="hlt">beads</span>) eliminated binding of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> to melanoma cells. Binding interactions between melanoma cells and melanotropin-bound <span class="hlt">beads</span> also could be abolished by prior incubation with unconjugated MSH analog. During these experiments, certain membrane receptor-hormone associated phenomena, such as capping (aggregation) of the receptor-ligand <span class="hlt">complex</span>, also were observed. These results provide visual evidence that MSH receptors are a property common to melanoma cells. Normal human epidermal melanocytes and keratinocytes were also shown to express melanotropin receptors by the same criteria established for melanoma cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=19401','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=19401"><span>Melanotropic peptide-conjugated <span class="hlt">beads</span> for microscopic visualization and characterization of melanoma melanotropin receptors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sharma, Shubh D.; Jiang, Jinwen; Hadley, Mac E.; Bentley, David L.; Hruby, Victor J.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>We developed two solid-phase reagent systems for microscopic visualization and characterization of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) receptors of melanoma cells. Multiple copies of [Nle-4,d-Phe-7]-α-MSH, a potent analog of α-MSH, were conjugated to microspheres (latex <span class="hlt">beads</span>) or macrospheres (polyamide <span class="hlt">beads</span>) through a thioether or disulfide bond. Binding between the <span class="hlt">beads</span> and mouse and human melanoma cells was examined by scanning electron microscopy and by light microscopy. Each mouse and human melanoma cell (of all cell lines) evinced binding to the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Binding of the melanotropin conjugates was not restricted to any one phase of the cell cycle. Specificity of binding was demonstrated by several studies. Negative controls included cell types of nonmelanocyte origin (e.g., mammary cancer cells) and <span class="hlt">beads</span> that lacked the melanotropic ligand or had other attached ligands. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> with a disulfide-linked melanotropin analog served as a direct control. Treatment of these <span class="hlt">beads</span> with DTT during or before incubation of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> with melanoma cells (resulting in release of the MSH analog from the <span class="hlt">beads</span>) eliminated binding of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> to melanoma cells. Binding interactions between melanoma cells and melanotropin-bound <span class="hlt">beads</span> also could be abolished by prior incubation with unconjugated MSH analog. During these experiments, certain membrane receptor-hormone associated phenomena, such as capping (aggregation) of the receptor-ligand <span class="hlt">complex</span>, also were observed. These results provide visual evidence that MSH receptors are a property common to melanoma cells. Normal human epidermal melanocytes and keratinocytes were also shown to express melanotropin receptors by the same criteria established for melanoma cells. PMID:8943000</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16817166','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16817166"><span>Detection and analysis of protein-protein interactions in organellar and prokaryotic proteomes by native <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis: (Membrane) protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> and supercomplexes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krause, Frank</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>It is an essential and challenging task to unravel protein-protein interactions in their actual in vivo context. Native <span class="hlt">gel</span> systems provide a separation platform allowing the analysis of protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> on a rather proteome-wide scale in a single experiment. This review focus on blue-native (BN)-PAGE as the most versatile and successful <span class="hlt">gel</span>-based approach to separate soluble and membrane protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> of intricate protein mixtures derived from all biological sources. BN-PAGE is a charge-shift method with a running pH of 7.5 relying on the gentle binding of anionic CBB dye to all membrane and many soluble protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span>, leading to separation of protein species essentially according to their size and superior resolution than other fractionation techniques can offer. The closely related colorless-native (CN)-PAGE, whose applicability is restricted to protein species with intrinsic negative net charge, proved to provide an especially mild separation capable of preserving weak protein-protein interactions better than BN-PAGE. The essential conditions determining the success of detecting protein-protein interactions are the sample preparations, e.g. the efficiency/mildness of the detergent solubilization of membrane protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span>. A broad overview about the achievements of BN- and CN-PAGE studies to elucidate protein-protein interactions in organelles and prokaryotes is presented, e.g. the mitochondrial protein import machinery and oxidative phosphorylation supercomplexes. In many cases, solubilization with digitonin was demonstrated to facilitate an efficient and particularly gentle extraction of membrane protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> prone to dissociation by treatment with other detergents. In general, analyses of protein interactomes should be carried out by both BN- and CN-PAGE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22837988','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22837988"><span>The elution of colistimethate sodium from polymethylmethacrylate and calcium phosphate cement <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Waterman, Paige; Barber, Melissa; Weintrob, Amy C; VanBrakle, Regina; Howard, Robin; Kozar, Michael P; Andersen, Romney; Wortmann, Glenn</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Gram-negative bacilli resistance to all antibiotics, except for colistimethate sodium (CMS), is an emerging healthcare concern. Incorporating CMS into orthopedic cement to treat bone and soft-tissue infections due to these bacteria is attractive, but the data regarding the elution of CMS from cement are conflicting. The in vitro analysis of the elution of CMS from polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and calcium phosphate (CP) cement <span class="hlt">beads</span> is reported. PMMA and CP <span class="hlt">beads</span> containing CMS were incubated in phosphate-buffered saline and the eluate sampled at sequential time points. The inhibition of the growth of a strain of Acinetobacter baumannii <span class="hlt">complex</span> by the eluate was measured by disk diffusion and microbroth dilution assays, and the presence of CMS in the eluate was measured by mass spectroscopy. Bacterial growth was inhibited by the eluate from both PMMA and CP <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Mass spectroscopy demonstrated greater elution of CMS from CP <span class="hlt">beads</span> than PMMA <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The dose of CMS in PMMA <span class="hlt">beads</span> was limited by failure of <span class="hlt">bead</span> integrity. CMS elutes from both CP and PMMA <span class="hlt">beads</span> in amounts sufficient to inhibit bacterial growth in vitro. The clinical implications of these findings require further study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvE..84b1907L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvE..84b1907L"><span>Effectiveness of <span class="hlt">beads</span> for tracking small-scale molecular motor dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lade, Steven J.; Craig, Erin M.; Linke, Heiner</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>Investigations into molecular motor dynamics are increasingly focused on small-scale features of the motor’s motion. We define performance measures of a common type of single-molecule motility assay, the <span class="hlt">bead</span> assay, for its ability to detect such features. Using numerical models, we explore the dependence of assay performance on a number of experimentally controllable parameters, including <span class="hlt">bead</span> size, optical force, and the method of attaching the <span class="hlt">bead</span> to the motor. We find that the best parameter choice depends on the objective of the experiments, and give a guide to parameter selection. Comparison of the models against experimental data from a recent <span class="hlt">bead</span> assay of myosin V exemplifies how our methods can also be used to extract additional information from <span class="hlt">bead</span> assays, particularly that related to small-scale features. By analyzing the experimental data we find evidence for previously undetected multiple waiting states of the <span class="hlt">bead</span>-motor <span class="hlt">complex</span>. Furthermore, from numerical simulations we find that equilibrium <span class="hlt">bead</span> dynamics display features previously attributed to aborted motor steps, and that <span class="hlt">bead</span> dynamics alone can produce multiple subphases during a step.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22580796','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22580796"><span>Removal and recovery of uranium (VI) from aqueous solutions by immobilized Aspergillus niger powder <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ding, De-Xin; Tan, Xiang; Hu, Nan; Li, Guang-Yue; Wang, Yong-Dong; Tan, Yan</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>The immobilized Aspergillus niger powder <span class="hlt">beads</span> were obtained by entrapping nonviable A. niger powder into Ca-alginate <span class="hlt">gel</span>. The effects of pH, contact time, initial uranium (VI) concentration and biomass dosage on the biosorption of uranium (VI) onto the <span class="hlt">beads</span> from aqueous solutions were investigated in a batch system. Biosorption equilibrium data were agreeable with Langmuir isotherm model and the maximum biosorption capacity of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> for uranium (VI) was estimated to be 649.4 mg/g at 30 °C. The biosorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model and intraparticle diffusion equation. The variations in enthalpy (26.45 kJ/mol), entropy (0.167 kJ/mol K) and Gibbs free energy were calculated from the experimental data. SEM and EDS analysis indicated that the <span class="hlt">beads</span> have strong adsorption capability for uranium (VI). The adsorbed uranium (VI) on the <span class="hlt">beads</span> could be released with HNO(3) or HCl. The results showed that the immobilized A. niger powder <span class="hlt">beads</span> had great potential for removing and recovering uranium (VI) from aqueous solutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28535444','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28535444"><span>Passive detection of Pb in water using rock phosphate agarose <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Edenborn, Harry M; Howard, Bret H; Sams, James I; Vesper, Dorothy J; Edenborn, Sherie L</p> <p>2017-08-15</p> <p>In this study, passive detectors for Pb were prepared by immobilizing powdered rock phosphate in agarose <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Rock phosphate has been used to treat Pb-contaminated waters and soil by fixing the metal as an insoluble pyromorphite mineral. Under lab conditions, Pb was rapidly adsorbed from aqueous solution by the <span class="hlt">beads</span> over time, consistent with the acidic dissolution of rock phosphate, the precipitation of pyromorphite within the pore space of the agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix, and surface exchange reactions. Net accumulation of Pb occurred when <span class="hlt">beads</span> were exposed to simulated periodic releases of Pb over time. Under field conditions, <span class="hlt">beads</span> in mesh bags were effective at detecting dissolved Pb being transported as surface runoff from a site highly contaminated with Pb. Rates of Pb accumulation in <span class="hlt">beads</span> under field conditions appeared to be correlated with the frequency of storm events and total rainfall. The rock phosphate agarose <span class="hlt">bead</span> approach could be an inexpensive way to carry out source-tracking of Pb pollution, to verify the successful remediation of sites with Pb-contaminated soil, and to routinely monitor public water systems for potential Pb contamination. Published by Elsevier B.V.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MMTB...45.2000O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MMTB...45.2000O"><span>Processing and Characterization of MMC <span class="hlt">Beads</span> Based on Zirconia and TRIP Steel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oppelt, Marie; Wenzel, Claudia; Aneziris, Christos G.; Berek, Harry</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A novel process for metal-matrix composite fabrication with the special focus on single <span class="hlt">beads</span> and sintered <span class="hlt">bead</span> structures is explored. The used <span class="hlt">gel</span>-casting process by sodium alginate gelation is introduced, and various analyses with significant results are presented. The suspensions contained 16-7-3 steel and zirconia particles as well as sodium alginate and were subsequently added dropwise into water which contained solidifying agent for forming rubbery, substantially round <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Sintered <span class="hlt">beads</span> with adequate strength (~400 MPa) and perfect surface, homogeneous microstructure, and high energy absorption capability have been produced by this casting process. At lower strains (up to 15 pct), all zirconia reinforced steel <span class="hlt">beads</span> obtain higher specific energy absorption (SEA) in comparison to pure steel <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Especially the composition of 90 vol pct TRIP steel and 10 vol pct zirconia shows a significant improved energy absorption capability with 27.7 MJ/m3 at a strain of 15 pct. Pure steel only exhibits a SEA of 13.1 MJ/m3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26592698','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26592698"><span>Tapioca starch blended alginate mucoadhesive-floating <span class="hlt">beads</span> for intragastric delivery of Metoprolol Tartrate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Biswas, Nikhil; Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The objective of the study was to develop tapioca starch blended alginate mucoadhesive-floating <span class="hlt">beads</span> for the intragastric delivery of Metoprolol Tartrate (MT). The <span class="hlt">beads</span> were prepared by ionotropic gelation method using calcium chloride as crosslinker and gas forming calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as floating inducer. The alginate <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> having 51-58% entrapped MT showed 90% release within 45 min in gastric medium (pH 1.2). Tapioca starch blending markedly improved the entrapment efficiency (88%) and sustained the release for 3-4 h. A 12% w/w HPMC coating on these <span class="hlt">beads</span> extended the release upto 9-11 h. In vitro wash off and buoyancy test in gastric media revealed that the <span class="hlt">beads</span> containing CaCO3 has gastric residence of more than 12 h. In vitro optimized multi-unit formulation consisting of immediate and sustained release mucoadhesive-floating <span class="hlt">beads</span> (40:60) showed good initial release of 42% MT within 1h followed by a sustained release of over 90% for 11 h. Pharmacokinetic study performed in rabbit model showed that the relative oral bioavailability of MT after administration of oral solution, sustain release and optimized formulation was 51%, 67% and 87%, respectively. Optimized formulation showed a higher percent inhibition of isoprenaline induced heart rate in rabbits for almost 12 h.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080012235','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080012235"><span>Ionene modified small polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rembaum, Alan (Inventor)</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Linear ionene polyquaternary cationic polymeric segments are bonded by means of the Menshutkin reaction (quaternization) to biocompatible, extremely small, porous particles containing halide or tertiary amine sites which are centers for attachment of the segments. The modified <span class="hlt">beads</span> in the form of emulsions or suspensions offer a large, positively-charged surface area capable of irreversibly binding polyanions such as heparin, DNA, RNA or bile acids to remove them from solution or of reversibly binding monoanions such as penicillin, pesticides, sex attractants and the like for slow release from the suspension.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27451205','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27451205"><span>Fabrication and characterization of Pickering emulsions and oil <span class="hlt">gels</span> stabilized by highly charged zein/chitosan <span class="hlt">complex</span> particles (ZCCPs).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Li-Juan; Yin, Shou-Wei; Wu, Lei-Yan; Qi, Jun-Ru; Guo, Jian; Yang, Xiao-Quan</p> <p>2016-12-15</p> <p>Herein, we reported a facile method to fabricate ultra-stable, surfactant- and antimicrobial-free Pickering emulsions by designing and modulating emulsions' interfaces via zein/chitosan colloid particles (ZCCPs). Highly charged ZCCPs with neutral wettability were produced by a facile anti-solvent procedure. The ZCCPs were shown to be effective Pickering emulsifiers because the emulsions formed were highly resistant to coalescence over a 9-month storage period. The ZCCPs were adsorbed irreversibly at the interface during emulsification, forming a hybrid network framework in which zein particles were embedded within the chitosan network, yielding ultra-stable food-grade zein/chitosan colloid particles stabilized Pickering emulsions (ZCCPEs). Moreover, stable surfactant-free oil <span class="hlt">gels</span> were obtained by a one-step freeze-drying process of the precursor ZCCPEs. This distinctive interfacial architecture accounted for the favourable physical performance, and potentially oxidative and microbial stability of the emulsions and/or oil <span class="hlt">gels</span>. This work opens up a promising route via a food-grade Pickering emulsion-template approach to transform liquid oil into solid-like fats with zero trans-fat formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15468243','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15468243"><span>Surface-grafted polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span> with comb-like poly(ethylene glycol) chains: preparation and biological application.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Byun, Jang-Woong; Kim, Jong-Uk; Chung, Woo-Jae; Lee, Yoon-Sik</p> <p>2004-05-17</p> <p>We prepared surface-grafted polystyrene (PS) <span class="hlt">beads</span> with comb-like poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains. To accomplish this, conventional <span class="hlt">gel</span>-type PS <span class="hlt">beads</span> (35-75 microm) were treated with ozone gas to introduce hydroperoxide groups onto the surface. Using these hydroperoxide groups, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA, Mn= 22,000-25,000) was grafted onto the surface of the PS <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The ester groups of the grafted PMMA were reduced to hydroxyl groups with lithium aluminum hydride (LAH). After adding ethylene oxide (EO) to the hydroxyl groups, we obtained the PS-sg-PEG <span class="hlt">beads</span>, which had a rugged surface and a diameter of 80-150 microm. We could obtain several kinds of the PS-sg-PEG <span class="hlt">beads</span> by controlling the chain lengths of the grafted PMMA and the molecular weights of the PEG chains. The grafted PEG layer was about 30-50 microm thick, which was verified from the cross-sectioned views of the fluorescamine-labeled <span class="hlt">beads</span>. These fluorescence images proved that the <span class="hlt">beads</span> possessed a pellicular structure. Furthermore, we found that the surface-grafted PEG chains had the characteristic property of reducing non-specific protein adsorption on the <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22309712','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22309712"><span>Immobilization of thermoalkalophilic recombinant esterase enzyme by entrapment in silicate coated Ca-alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> and its hydrolytic properties.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gülay, Seçkin; Şanlı-Mohamed, Gülşah</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Thermoalkalophilic esterase enzyme from Balçova (Agamemnon) geothermal site were aimed to be immobilized effectively via a simple and cost-effective protocol in silicate coated Calcium alginate (Ca-alginate) <span class="hlt">beads</span> by entrapment. The optimal immobilization conditions of enzyme in Ca-alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> were investigated and obtained with 2% alginate using 0.5mg/ml enzyme and 0.7 M CaCl(2) solution. In order to prevent enzyme from leaking out of the <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span>, Ca-alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> were then coated with silicate. Enzyme loading efficiency and immobilization yield for silicate coated <span class="hlt">beads</span> was determined as 98.1% and 71.27%, respectively and compared with non-coated ones which were 68.5% and 45.80%, respectively. Surface morphologies, structure and elemental analysis of both silicate coated and non-coated alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> were also compared using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Moreover, silicate coated alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> enhanced reusability of esterase in continuous processes compared to non-coated <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The hydrolytic properties of free and immobilized enzyme in terms of storage and thermal stability as well as the effects of the temperature and pH were determined. It was observed that operational, thermal and storage stabilities of the esterase were increased with immobilization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Binomial+AND+Distribution&pg=3&id=EJ288759','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Binomial+AND+Distribution&pg=3&id=EJ288759"><span><span class="hlt">BEADS</span>: A Realistic Approach to Elementary Statistics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gamble, Andy</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Having students gather their own statistics is promoted. The <span class="hlt">BEADS</span> program provides an alternative; it simulated sampling from a binomial distribution. Illustrations from the program are included. (MNS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhDT.......126A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhDT.......126A"><span>Single- and dual-<span class="hlt">bead</span> microrheology of semiflexiblefd virus solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Addas, Karim M.</p> <p></p> <p>Semiflexible polymers are of great biological importance in determining the mechanical properties of cells. Techniques collectively known as microrheology have recently been developed to measure the viscoelastic properties of solutions of sub-microliter volumes. We employ one such technique, which uses single or dual focused laser beams, to trap one or a pair of micron-sized silica <span class="hlt">beads</span>, and interferometric photodiode detection to measure passively the position fluctuations of the trapped <span class="hlt">beads</span> with nanometer resolution and high bandwidth of detection. One- and two-<span class="hlt">bead</span>, frequency-dependent <span class="hlt">complex</span> shear moduli can be extracted from the position fluctuations via the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The two-<span class="hlt">bead</span> method is used to extract the bulk viscoelastic properties of the solution. Using particle tracking microrheology, we report measurements of shear moduli of solutions of fd viruses, which are filamentous, semiflexible, and monodisperse bacteriophages each 0.9 mum long, 7 nm in diameter, and having a persistence length of 2.2 mum. Recent theoretical treatments of semiflexible polymer dynamics provide some quantitative predictions of the rheological properties of such a model system, although the exact limit of short semiflexible rods has not been treated yet. The fd samples measured span the dilute, semi-dilute and concentrated regimes. In the dilute regime the shear modulus is dominated by (rigid rod) rotational relaxation, whereas the high-frequency regime reflects single-semi flexible filament dynamics consistent with the theoretical prediction. Due to the short length of fd viruses used in this study, the intermediate regime does not exhibit a well developed plateau which is expected to occur for long filaments. A dynamic scaling analysis of the shear modulus gives rise to a concentration scaling of c1.36 (r = 0.99) in the transition regime and a frequency scaling of f0.63 (r = 0.98) at high frequencies. One- and two-<span class="hlt">bead</span> microrheology results agree for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6561637','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6561637"><span>Properties of cellulase immobilized on agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span> with spacer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chim-anage, P.; Kashiwagi, Y.; Magae, Y.; Ohta, T.; Sasaki, T.</p> <p>1986-12-01</p> <p>Cellulase produced by fungus Trichoderma viride was immobilized on agarose <span class="hlt">beads</span> (Sepharose 4B) activated by cyanogen bromide and also on activated agarose <span class="hlt">beads</span> that contained spacer arm (activated Ch-Sepharose 4B and Affi-<span class="hlt">Gel</span> 15). The CMCase activity retained by immobilized cellulase on activated Sepharose containing the spacer tended to be higher than that immobilized without spacer, although the extent of protein immobilization was lower. Also, the higher substrate specificity for cellulase immobilized on <span class="hlt">beads</span> with spacer was obtained for cellobiose, acid-swollen cellulose, or cellulose powder. The hydrolysis product from their substrates was mainly glucose. 10 references.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17878594','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17878594"><span>Surfactant <span class="hlt">gel</span> adsorption of platinum(II), (IV) and palladium(II) as chloro-<span class="hlt">complexes</span> and kinetic separation of palladium from platinum using EDTA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Murakami, Yoshiko; Hiraiwa, Kaoru; Sasaki, Yoshiaki; Fujiwara, Isamu; Tagashira, Shoji</p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>A micellar solution of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) can separate into two phases due to a temperature change or to the addition of salts. Platinum(II), (IV) and palladium(II) reacted with chloride ions to form stable anionic <span class="hlt">complexes</span> of PtCl4(2-), PtCl6(2-) and PdCl4(2-), respectively, and were adsorbed onto the CPC <span class="hlt">gel</span> phase. The CPC phase plays the role of an ion-exchange adsorbent for the anionic <span class="hlt">complexes</span>. By such a procedure, the precious metals of platinum and palladium could be separated from base metals such as copper, zinc and iron. The kinetic separation was performed by a ligand exchange reaction of the palladium(II) chloro-<span class="hlt">complex</span> with EDTA at 60 degrees C. The anionic palladium(II)-EDTA <span class="hlt">complex</span> could not bind the opposite charged CP+ and was desorbed from the CPC phase. In the aqueous phase, the recovery of palladium(II) by the double-desorption was 101.1 +/- 1.2%. The platinum(II) and (IV) chloro-<span class="hlt">complexes</span> were stable for at least 30 min and remained in the CPC phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22497656','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22497656"><span>The release rate of curcumin from calcium alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> regulated by food emulsifiers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Song, Shili; Wang, Zhen; Qian, Yuhua; Zhang, Lijie; Luo, Erfeng</p> <p>2012-05-02</p> <p>Curcumin-loaded alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>, which contain different food emulsifiers, have been prepared using CaCl₂ as the cross-linking agent. The controlled release of the curcumin from the <span class="hlt">beads</span> was investigated at room temperature. For calcium alginate/Span-80/Tween-80 (A/S/T) formulations, almost all of the curcumin loaded in the <span class="hlt">beads</span> was released into the medium within about 20 h, and the release rates could be regulated by changing the concentration of both Tween-80 and Span-80. However, for the systems of calcium alginate/Q-12A/F-18A (A/Q/F), about 60% of the curcumin loaded in the <span class="hlt">beads</span> was released at the end of experiments. The studies of scanning electron microscopy indicated that the microstructure of the walls of <span class="hlt">beads</span> could significantly vary with the concentration or type of emulsifiers. The Fourier transform infrared spectral measurements confirmed that the interactions between calcium alginate and polyglycerol fatty acid esters were stronger than that between calcium alginate and Tween-80/Span-80. The results of swelling studies demonstrated that the initial rates of water uptake for A/Q/F <span class="hlt">beads</span> were higher than that for A/S/T <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Moreover, the data of release rates were fitted by an empirical equation, which showed that the release mechanism of curcumin from the alginate <span class="hlt">gels</span> varied with the composition of emulsifiers for the A/S/T systems. This work provides an important insight into the effect of food emulsifiers on the release rates of the curcumin from calcium alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> and will be helpful for the application of the systems in controlled release of other hydrophobic drug.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27612839','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27612839"><span><span class="hlt">Beads</span>, <span class="hlt">beaded</span>-fibres and fibres: Tailoring the morphology of poly(caprolactone) using pressurised gyration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hong, Xianze; Edirisinghe, Mohan; Mahalingam, Suntharavathanan</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>This work focuses on forming <span class="hlt">bead</span> on string poly(caprolactone) (PCL) by using gyration under pressure. The fibre morphology of <span class="hlt">bead</span> on string is an interesting feature that falls between <span class="hlt">bead</span>-free fibres and droplets, and it could be effectively controlled by the rheological properties of spinning dopes and the major processing parameters of the pressurised gyration system which are working pressure and rotating speed. <span class="hlt">Bead</span> products were not always spherical in shape and tended to be more elliptical, therefore both their width and length were measured. The average <span class="hlt">bead</span> width and length produced spanned a range 145-660μm and 140-1060μm, respectively. The average distance between two adjacent <span class="hlt">beads</span> (i.e. inter-<span class="hlt">bead</span> distance) and the <span class="hlt">bead</span> size (width and length) are shown to be a function of processing parameters and polymer concentration. An interesting morphology i.e. <span class="hlt">beads</span> with short fibre was observed when using a high polymer concentration. <span class="hlt">Bead</span> on string structure agglomeration was promoted by a low polymer concentration. Formation of droplets or agglomerated <span class="hlt">bead</span> on string is promoted below 5wt% polymer concentration, and <span class="hlt">beads</span> with short fibre were present in the microstructure beyond a polymer concentration of 20wt%. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T53C1606F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T53C1606F"><span>Possible silica <span class="hlt">gel</span> in the Olive Fault, Naukluft Nappe <span class="hlt">Complex</span>, Namibia: A geologic record of dynamic weakening in faults during continental orogenesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Faber, C.; Rowe, C. D.; Miller, J. A.; Backeberg, N.; Sylvester, F.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The apparently low frictional strength of faults during earthquake slip is not sufficiently well explained. Dynamic weakening has been observed in recent laboratory experiments at seismic slip rates, even if materials are strong at slow slip rates. Di Toro et al. (2004) performed experiments on crystalline rocks at slip rates of 1m/s and observed frictional strength drops to near zero. Examination of the slip surface revealed an amorophous silica had formed during fast slip and interpreted this as a solidified silica <span class="hlt">gel</span>. If similar silica <span class="hlt">gel</span> forms during earthquakes, and solidifies to amorphous silica, it would be expected to slowly crystallize over time. Ujiie et al (2007) reported a microcrystalline silica fault vein from the Shimanto <span class="hlt">Complex</span> (Japan) which contains colloidal microspheres of silica, consistent with its origin as a silica <span class="hlt">gel</span>. This vein may have been created during seismic slip, although other explanations are possible. No other natural examples of this potentially important coseismic weakening mechanism have been reported. To investigate whether silica <span class="hlt">gel</span> actually forms during seismic slip, it will be necessary to discover and fully characterize additional natural examples. The Naukluft Nappe <span class="hlt">Complex</span> in central Namibia is a foreland thrust stack at the distal southern margin of the Pan-African Damara Orogen (active at ~ 550Ma). A fault vein of microcrystalline silica has been found in an intra-nappe thrust fault . The vein occurs as a mostly continuous, planar, 0.1-1.0cm-thick fault vein within dolomite breccias of the Olive Fault. There are no other veins of silica associated with the fault. The hanging wall and footwall are dolomite and calcareous shales, respectively. The layer is petrographically similar to the microcrystalline silica described by Ujiie et al. (2007). The silica layer is purple-blue to white in color cathodoluminescence, in contrast to the bright turquoise typical of quartz. Although X-ray diffraction spectra show only</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27124678','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27124678"><span>Design of a Microfluidic Chip for Magnetic-Activated Sorting of One-<span class="hlt">Bead</span>-One-Compound Libraries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cho, Choi-Fong; Lee, Kyungheon; Speranza, Maria-Carmela; Bononi, Fernanda C; Viapiano, Mariano S; Luyt, Leonard G; Weissleder, Ralph; Chiocca, E Antonio; Lee, Hakho; Lawler, Sean E</p> <p>2016-06-13</p> <p>Molecular targeting using ligands specific to disease markers has shown great promise for early detection and directed therapy. <span class="hlt">Bead</span>-based combinatorial libraries have served as powerful tools for the discovery of novel targeting agents. Screening platforms employing magnetic capture have been used to achieve rapid and efficient identification of high-affinity ligands from one-<span class="hlt">bead</span>-one-compound (OBOC) libraries. Traditional manual methodologies to isolate magnetized "hit" <span class="hlt">beads</span> are tedious and lack accuracy, and existing instruments to expedite <span class="hlt">bead</span> sorting tend to be costly and <span class="hlt">complex</span>. Here, we describe the design and construction of a simple and inexpensive microfluidic magnetic sorting device using standard photolithography and soft lithography approaches to facilitate high-throughput isolation of magnetized positive hit <span class="hlt">beads</span> from combinatorial libraries. We have demonstrated that the device is able to sort magnetized <span class="hlt">beads</span> with superior accuracy compared to conventional manual sorting approaches. This chip offers a very convenient yet inexpensive alternative for screening OBOC libraries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25615602','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25615602"><span>Effect of natural and semisynthetic pseudoguianolides on the stability of NF-κB:DNA <span class="hlt">complex</span> studied by agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Villagomez, Rodrigo; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni; Sterner, Olov; Almanza, Giovanna; Linares-Pastén, Javier A</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is a promising target for drug discovery. NF-κB is a heterodimeric <span class="hlt">complex</span> of RelA and p50 subunits that interact with the DNA, regulating the expression of several genes; its dysregulation can trigger diverse diseases including inflammation, immunodeficiency, and cancer. There is some experimental evidence, based on whole cells studies, that natural sesquiterpene lactones (Sls) can inhibit the interaction of NF-κB with DNA, by alkylating the RelA subunit via a Michael addition. In the present work, 28 natural and semisynthetic pseudoguianolides were screened as potential inhibitors of NF-κB in a biochemical assay that was designed using pure NF-κB heterodimer, pseudoguianolides and a ~1000 bp palindromic DNA fragment harboring two NF-κB recognition sequences. By comparing the relative amount of free DNA fragment to the NF-κB - DNA <span class="hlt">complex</span>, in a routine agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis, the destabilizing effect of a compound on the <span class="hlt">complex</span> is estimated. The results of the assay and the following structure-activity relationship study, allowed the identification of several relevant structural features in the pseudoguaianolide skeleton, which are necessary to enhance the dissociating capacity of NF-κB-DNA <span class="hlt">complex</span>. The most active compounds are substituted at C-3 (α-carbonyl), in addition to having the α-methylene-γ-lactone moiety which is essential for the alkylation of RelA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11849074','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11849074"><span>(29)Si NMR shifts and relative stabilities calculated for hypercoordinated silicon-polyalcohol <span class="hlt">complexes</span>: role in sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> and biogenic silica synthesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sahai, Nita; Tossell, John A</p> <p>2002-02-25</p> <p>Penta- and hexa-coordinated silicon is rare, occurring as a transient species in some glasses, nonaqueous organosilicon solutions and organosilicon <span class="hlt">gels</span> such as silicone, and is stable at high pressures within the earth in dense phases such as stishovite. The stable form expected in aqueous solution is quadra-coordinated silicon. A recent study proposed the existence of hypercoordinated silicon-polyalcohol <span class="hlt">complexes</span> in aqueous solution, based on (29)Si NMR shifts at -102 to -103 ppm and -145 to -147 ppm. Here, we report ab initio molecular orbital calculations of (29)Si NMR chemical shifts and relative stabilities of silicon-polyalcohol monocyclic and spirocyclic <span class="hlt">complexes</span>, from ethylene glycol (C(2)H(6)O(2)) to arabitol (C(5)H(12)O(5)) with Si in quadra-, penta- and hexa-coordination ((Q)Si, (P)Si, (H)Si), calculated at the HF/6-311+G(2d,p)//HF/6-31G* level. Calculated shifts are accurate with a 1-8% error for (Q)Si and 2-9% for (P)Si. Shifts calculated for the hypercoordinated silicon <span class="hlt">complexes</span> having structures proposed in the literature are much more negative (-128 and -180 ppm for (P)Si and (H)Si) than observed. We propose that cyclic trimers <span class="hlt">complexed</span> by polyalcohols can explain the -102 ppm shift, where the Si atoms are all (Q)Si, or where two silicons are (Q)Si and one is (P)Si with rapid exchange between the Si sites. The -145 ppm resonance results from structures similar to those proposed in the experimental NMR study for the -102 ppm peak. Our relative stability calculations indicate that structures proposed in the literature for hypercoordinated silicon <span class="hlt">complexes</span> are thermodynamically unstable in aqueous solution at acidic to neutral conditions but may exist in degrading silicone-<span class="hlt">gel</span> breast-implants. Thus, aqueous hypercoordinated silicon-polyalcohol <span class="hlt">complexes</span> are unlikely to play an important role in biological silicon uptake and hold little promise for novel silica synthesis routes from aqueous solutions under nonextreme conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=256495','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=256495"><span>Biocompatibility of Pectin-Protein <span class="hlt">Gels</span> and Microencapsulates: In Vivo Study on Rats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Pectin-protein <span class="hlt">complex</span> hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> were tested in vivo on rats. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> were pre-loaded with a model drug, piroxicam (PX), in ethanol at different loading rates. The rats were starved 8 hr prior to experiment. The rats were then fed with the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Blood samples were taken in 2, 4, 6, 12, and 2...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780000518&hterms=gas+chromatography&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dgas%2Bchromatography','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780000518&hterms=gas+chromatography&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dgas%2Bchromatography"><span>Porous <span class="hlt">bead</span> packings for gas chromatography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pollock, G. E.; Woeller, F. H.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Porous polyaromatic packing <span class="hlt">beads</span> have low polarity, high efficiency, short retention time, and may be synthesized in size range of 50 to 150 micrometers (100 to 270 mesh). Mechanically strong <span class="hlt">beads</span> may be produced using various materials depending on elements and compounds to be identified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AIPC..975.1654L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AIPC..975.1654L"><span>Ultrasonic Characterization of Glass <span class="hlt">Beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lassila, I.; Siiriä, S.; Gates, F. K.; Hæggström, E.</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>We report on the progress in developing a method for an in-line granule size measurement using ultrasonic through transmission method. The knowledge of granule size is important in the production of pharmaceutical dosage forms where the current optical and rheological methods have limitations such as fouling of the optical windows. The phase velocity of a wave propagated through interstitial air between glass balls of 1, 2 and 10 mm in diameter was 254±5 m/s, 261±3 m/s and 320±9 m/s, respectively. The power spectral density of the received signals showed that high frequencies were attenuated more in case of smaller <span class="hlt">beads</span> due to increased scattering.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24354669','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24354669"><span>Oil-cyclodextrin based <span class="hlt">beads</span> for oral delivery of poorly-soluble drugs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hamoudi, M C; Bochot, A</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The main interest of cyclodextrins results from their ability to form inclusion <span class="hlt">complexes</span> with hydrophobic molecules. This property is employed in pharmaceutical industry to facilitate the formulation of poorly-soluble and/or fragile drugs. Cyclodextrins are also used to form or stabilise dispersed systems. An original multiparticulate system named "<span class="hlt">beads</span>" is obtained thanks to the interactions occurring between the molecules of α cyclodextrin and the triglycerides of vegetable oils. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> are prepared by a simple process involving the external shaking of a mixture of an aqueous solution of α cyclodextrin with soybean oil. This is done without any organic solvent or surface-active agent. Once freezedried, <span class="hlt">beads</span> have a diameter of 1.6 mm and a high lipid content. They consist in a partially crystalline matrix of cyclodextrin surrounding microdomains of oil. The coating of <span class="hlt">beads</span> with a layer of α cyclodextrin improves their resistance in gastro- intestinal fluids and prolongs the release of drugs. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> can also be manufactured from mineral oils with α cyclodextrin and from silicone oils with γ cyclodextrin. Poorly-soluble drugs which do not form inclusion <span class="hlt">complexes</span> with α cyclodextrin are encapsulated in <span class="hlt">beads</span> with high efficiency and drug loading. In rats, the oral bioavailability of isotretinoin is twofold enhanced with uncoated <span class="hlt">beads</span> as compared to the lipid content of a soft capsule. The relative oral bioavailability of indomethacin is improved with both coated and uncoated <span class="hlt">beads</span> versus a commercial hard capsule. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> demonstrate an important potential for the encapsulation of poorly-soluble and/or fragile compounds and their delivery by oral route.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23357812','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23357812"><span>Viscosity stability of O/W emulsion containing α-<span class="hlt">gel</span> through an ionic-<span class="hlt">complex</span> system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Uyama, Makoto; Ikuta, Kaori; Teshigawara, Takashi; Watanabe, Kei; Miyahara, Reiji</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Although many active ingredients are used in cosmetic products for moisturizing and whitening the skin, they are often electrolytes, and the stabilities of oil in water (O/W) type emulsion formulae containing electrolytes are generally difficult to control. To solve this problem, formulae containing an α-crystalline phase (α-<span class="hlt">gel</span>) consisting of water, higher alcohols, and anionic surfactants such as sodium N-stearoyl-N-methyl-taurate (SMT) have been developed. However, in spite of their excellent salt tolerance, these formulae have poor viscosity stability under non-electrolyte conditions, and the viscosity decreases over time. To obtain adequate viscosity stability, the required electrolyte concentration is approximately 1wt%, which is somewhat high for cosmetic applications. To replace the salts, distearyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DSAC), a cationic surfactant, with an opposite electric charge to SMT, was used in O/W emulsion formulae, resulting in improved viscosity stability at a lower concentration than that of salts. The stabilization mechanism with DSAC was found to be different from that of salts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/63214','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/63214"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">complexing</span> ligands on the adsorption of Cu(II) onto the silica <span class="hlt">gel</span> surface. 1: Adsorption of ligands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Park, Y.J.; Jung, K.H.; Park, K.K.; Park, K.K.</p> <p>1995-04-01</p> <p>The adsorption of several ligands on silica <span class="hlt">gel</span> was investigated in aqueous solutions. The ligands used were 2,2{prime},6{prime},2{double_prime}-terpyridine, pyridine, 3,4-lutidine, 2-aminomethyl pyridine, 2-pyridine methanol, picolinic acid, salicylic acid, and 5-sulfosalicylic acid. The adsorption behaviors of these ligands were interpreted by means of three adsorption modes: ion exchange, hydrogen bonding, and hydrophobic interaction. For 2,2{prime},6{prime},2{double_prime}-terpyridine, pyridine, and 3,4-lutidine, the adsorption maxima appeared near their respective pK{sub a} values and were found to be due mainly to ion exchange, whereas the adsorption of these ligands at low pH was strongly attributed to hydrophobic interaction. The adsorption of 2-aminomethyl pyridine increased with increasing pH over the entire pH range investigated and was due mainly to ion exchange. Picolinic acid was adsorbed mainly by hydrogen bonding either via pyridine N atoms at low pH or via carboxylic O atoms at high pH. 2-Pyridine methanol was adsorbed by hydrophobic interaction at low pH and by hydrogen bonding at high pH. The adsorptions of salicylic and 5-sulfosalicylic acid were very small over the entire pH ranges investigated. For the adsorption mechanism, the Stern model was used to fit adsorption data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1784553','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1784553"><span><span class="hlt">Complexity</span> of vaginal microflora as analyzed by PCR denaturing gradient <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis in a patient with recurrent bacterial vaginosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Devillard, Estelle; Burton, Jeremy P; Reid, Gregor</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVE: Gardnerella vaginalis has long been the most common pathogen associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV). We aimed to test our hypothesis that symptoms and signs of BV do not necessarily indicate colonization by this organism, and often will not respond to standard metronidazole or clindamycin treatment. METHODS: Using a relatively new molecular tool, PCR denaturing gradient <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis (DGGE), the vaginal microflora of a woman with recalcitrant signs and symptoms of BV was investigated over a 6-week timeframe. RESULTS: The vagina was colonized by pathogenic enterobacteriaceae, staphylococci and Candida albicans. The detection of the yeast by PCR-DGGE is particularly novel and enhances the ability of this tool to examine the true nature of the vaginal microflora. The patient had not responded to antifungal treatment, antibiotic therapy targeted at anaerobic Gram-negative pathogens such as Gardnerella, nor daily oral probiotic intake of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. The failure to find the GG strain in the vagina indicated it did not reach the site, and the low counts of lactobacilli demonstrated that therapy with this probiotic did not appear to influence the vaginal flora. CONCLUSIONS: BV is not well understood in terms of its causative organisms, and further studies appear warranted using non-culture, molecular methods. Only when the identities of infecting organisms are confirmed can effective therapy be devized. Such therapy may include the use of probiotic lactobacilli, but only using strains which confer a benefit on the vagina of pre- and postmenopausal women. PMID:16040324</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090010270','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090010270"><span>Fused <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Analysis of Diogenite Meteorites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mittlefehldt, D.W.; Beck, B.W.; McSween, H.Y.; Lee, C.T. A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Bulk rock chemistry is an essential dataset in meteoritics and planetary science [1]. A common method used to obtain the bulk chemistry of meteorites is ICP-MS. While the accuracy, precision and low detection limits of this process are advantageous [2], the sample size used for analysis (approx.70 mg) can be a problem in a field where small and finite samples are the norm. Fused <span class="hlt">bead</span> analysis is another bulk rock analytical technique that has been used in meteoritics [3]. This technique involves forming a glass <span class="hlt">bead</span> from 10 mg of sample and measuring its chemistry using a defocused beam on a microprobe. Though the ICP-MS has lower detection limits than the microprobe, the fused <span class="hlt">bead</span> method destroys a much smaller sample of the meteorite. Fused <span class="hlt">bead</span> analysis was initially designed for samples with near-eutectic compositions and low viscosities. Melts generated of this type homogenize at relatively low temperatures and produce primary melts near the sample s bulk composition [3]. The application of fused <span class="hlt">bead</span> analysis to samples with noneutectic melt compositions has not been validated. The purpose of this study is to test if fused <span class="hlt">bead</span> analysis can accurately determine the bulk rock chemistry of non-eutectic melt composition meteorites. To determine this, we conduct two examinations of the fused <span class="hlt">bead</span>. First, we compare ICP-MS and fused <span class="hlt">bead</span> results of the same samples using statistical analysis. Secondly, we inspect the <span class="hlt">beads</span> for the presence of crystals and chemical heterogeneity. The presence of either of these would indicate incomplete melting and quenching of the <span class="hlt">bead</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27485094','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27485094"><span>Repair of segmental radial defects in dogs using tailor-made titanium mesh cages with plates combined with calcium phosphate granules and basic fibroblast growth factor-binding ion <span class="hlt">complex</span> <span class="hlt">gel</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Honnami, Muneki; Choi, Sungjin; Liu, I-Li; Kamimura, Wataru; Taguchi, Tetsushi; Ichimura, Makoto; Urushisaki, Yukinori; Hojo, Hironori; Shimohata, Nobuyuki; Ohba, Shinsuke; Amaya, Koichi; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Ryohei; Chung, Ung-Il; Sasaki, Nobuo; Mochizuki, Manabu</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Repair of large segmental defects of long bones are a tremendous challenge that calls for a novel approach to supporting immediate weight bearing and bone regeneration. This study investigated the functional and biological characteristics of a combination of a tailor-made titanium mesh cage with a plate (tTMCP) with tetrapod-shaped alpha tricalcium phosphate granules (TB) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-binding ion <span class="hlt">complex</span> <span class="hlt">gel</span> (f-IC <span class="hlt">gel</span>) to repair 20-mm segmental radial defects in dogs. The defects were created surgically in 18 adult beagle dogs and treated by implantation of tTMCPs with TB with (TB-<span class="hlt">gel</span> group) or without (TB group) f-IC <span class="hlt">gel</span>. Each tTMCP fitted the defect well, and all dogs could bear weight on the affected limb immediately after surgery. Dogs were euthanized 4, 8 and 24 weeks after implantation. Histomorphometry showed greater infiltration of new vessels and higher bone union rate in the TB-<span class="hlt">gel</span> group than in the TB group. The lamellar bone volume and mineral apposition rate did not differ significantly between the groups, indicating that neovascularization may be the primary effect of f-IC <span class="hlt">gel</span> on bone regeneration. This combination method which is tTMCP combined with TB and f-IC <span class="hlt">gel</span>, would be useful for the treatment of segmental long bone defects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3688448','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3688448"><span>Interactions by 2D <span class="hlt">Gel</span> Electrophoresis Overlap (iGEO): a novel high fidelity approach to identify constituents of protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Here we describe a novel approach used to identify the constituents of protein <span class="hlt">complexes</span> with high fidelity, using the integrin-associated scaffolding protein PINCH as a test case. PINCH is comprised of five LIM domains, zinc-finger protein interaction modules. In Drosophila melanogaster, PINCH has two known high-affinity binding partners—Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) that binds to LIM1 and Ras Suppressor 1 (RSU1) that binds to LIM5—but has been postulated to bind additional proteins as well. Results To purify PINCH <span class="hlt">complexes</span>, in parallel we fused different affinity tags (Protein A and Flag) to different locations within the PINCH sequence (N- and C-terminus). We expressed these tagged versions of PINCH both in cell culture (overexpressed in Drosophila S2 cell culture in the presence of endogenous PINCH) and in vivo (at native levels in Drosophila lacking endogenous PINCH). After affinity purification, we analyzed PINCH <span class="hlt">complexes</span> by a novel 2D-<span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis analysis, iGEO (interactions by 2D <span class="hlt">Gel</span> Electrophoresis Overlap), with mass spectrometric identification of individual spots of interest. iGEO allowed the identification of protein partners that associate with PINCH under two independent purification strategies, providing confidence in the significance of the interaction. Proteins identified by iGEO were validated against a highly inclusive list of candidate PINCH interacting proteins identified in previous analyses by MuDPIT mass spectrometry. Conclusions The iGEO strategy confirmed a core <span class="hlt">complex</span> comprised of PINCH, RSU1, ILK, and ILK binding partner Parvin. Our iGEO method also identified five novel protein partners that specifically interacted with PINCH in Drosophila S2 cell culture. Because of the improved reproducibility of 2D-GE methodology and the increasing affordability of the required labeling reagents, iGEO is a method that is accessible to most moderately well-equipped biological laboratories. The biochemical co</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NRL.....9..134M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NRL.....9..134M"><span>Growth mechanisms of MgO nanocrystals via a sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> synthesis using different <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mastuli, Mohd Sufri; Kamarulzaman, Norlida; Nawawi, Mohd Azizi; Mahat, Annie Maria; Rusdi, Roshidah; Kamarudin, Norashikin</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>In the preparation of nanostructured materials, it is important to optimize synthesis parameters in order to obtain the desired material. This work investigates the role of <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agents, oxalic acid and tartaric acid, in the production of MgO nanocrystals. Results from simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis (STA) show that the two different synthesis routes yield precursors with different thermal profiles. It is found that the thermal profiles of the precursors can reveal the effects of crystal growth during thermal annealing. X-ray diffraction confirms that the final products are pure, single phase and of cubic shape. It is also found that <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agents can affect the rate of crystal growth. The structures of the oxalic acid and tartaric acid as well as the <span class="hlt">complexation</span> sites play very important roles in the formation of the nanocrystals. The <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agents influence the rate of growth which affects the final crystallite size of the materials. Surprisingly, it is also found that oxalic acid and tartaric acid act as surfactants inhibiting crystal growth even at a high temperature of 950°C and a long annealing time of 36 h. The crystallite formation routes are proposed to be via linear and branched polymer networks due to the different structures of the <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4003522','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4003522"><span>Growth mechanisms of MgO nanocrystals via a sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> synthesis using different <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In the preparation of nanostructured materials, it is important to optimize synthesis parameters in order to obtain the desired material. This work investigates the role of <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agents, oxalic acid and tartaric acid, in the production of MgO nanocrystals. Results from simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis (STA) show that the two different synthesis routes yield precursors with different thermal profiles. It is found that the thermal profiles of the precursors can reveal the effects of crystal growth during thermal annealing. X-ray diffraction confirms that the final products are pure, single phase and of cubic shape. It is also found that <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agents can affect the rate of crystal growth. The structures of the oxalic acid and tartaric acid as well as the <span class="hlt">complexation</span> sites play very important roles in the formation of the nanocrystals. The <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agents influence the rate of growth which affects the final crystallite size of the materials. Surprisingly, it is also found that oxalic acid and tartaric acid act as surfactants inhibiting crystal growth even at a high temperature of 950°C and a long annealing time of 36 h. The crystallite formation routes are proposed to be via linear and branched polymer networks due to the different structures of the <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agents. PMID:24650322</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23956148','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23956148"><span>High pH reversed-phase chromatography as a superior fractionation scheme compared to off-<span class="hlt">gel</span> isoelectric focusing for <span class="hlt">complex</span> proteome analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stein, Derek R; Hu, Xiaojie; McCorrister, Stuart J; Westmacott, Garrett R; Plummer, Francis A; Ball, Terry B; Carpenter, Michael S</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>MS/MS is the technology of choice for analyzing <span class="hlt">complex</span> protein mixtures. However, due to the intrinsic <span class="hlt">complexity</span> and dynamic range present in higher eukaryotic proteomes, prefractionation is an important step to maximize the number of proteins identified. Off-<span class="hlt">gel</span> IEF (OG-IEF) and high pH RP (Hp-RP) column chromatography have both been successfully utilized as a first-dimension peptide separation technique in shotgun proteomic experiments. Here, a direct comparison of the two methodologies was performed on ex vivo peripheral blood mononuclear cell lysate. In 12-fraction replicate analysis, Hp-RP resulted in more peptides and proteins identified than OG-IEF fractionation. Distributions of peptide pIs and hydropathy did not reveal any appreciable bias in either technique. Resolution, defined here as the ability to limit a specific peptide to one particular fraction, was significantly better for Hp-RP. This leads to a more uniform distribution of total and unique peptides for Hp-RP across all fractions collected. These results suggest that fractionation by Hp-RP over OG-IEF is the better choice for typical <span class="hlt">complex</span> proteome analysis. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/624329','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/624329"><span>Metal-anion sorption by chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span>: Equilibrium and kinetic studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Guibal, E.; Milot, C.; Tobin, J.M.</p> <p>1998-04-01</p> <p>Chitosan is a well-known biopolymer, whose high nitrogen content confers remarkable ability for the sorption of metal ions from dilute effluents. However, its sorption performance in both equilibrium and kinetic terms is controlled by diffusion processes. <span class="hlt">Gel</span> <span class="hlt">bead</span> formation allows an expansion of the polymer network, which improves access to the internal sorption sites and enhances diffusion mechanisms. Molybdate and vanadate recovery using glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> reaches uptake capacities as high as 7--8 mmol/g, depending on the pH. The optimum pH (3--3.5) corresponded to the predominance range of hydrolyzed polynuclear metal forms and optimum electrostatic attraction. While for <span class="hlt">beads</span>, particle size does not influence equilibrium, for flakes, increasing sorbent radius significantly decreases uptake capacities to 1.5 mmol/g. Sorption kinetics are mainly controlled by intraparticle diffusion for <span class="hlt">beads</span>, while for flakes the controlling mechanisms are both external and intraparticle diffusion. The <span class="hlt">gel</span> conditioning increases the intraparticle diffusivity by 3 orders of magnitude: intraparticle diffusivities range between 10{sup {minus}13} and 10{sup {minus}10} m{sup 2}/min, depending on the sorbent size and the conditioning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19542643','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19542643"><span>Nitrogen removal performance of anaerobic ammonia oxidation co-culture immobilized in different <span class="hlt">gel</span> carriers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhu, Gang-Li; Hu, Yong-You; Wang, Qi-Rui</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Four materials were prepared as carriers for immobilizing anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing sludge. Nitrogen removal performance by these immobilized <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">bead</span> groups was evaluated. The removal ratios of ammonium and nitrite by CMC anammox-immobilized <span class="hlt">beads</span> were 100% and 95.3% in 48 hours, respectively. The removal efficiencies of ammonium and nitrite by SA, PVA-SA and PVA anammox-immobilized <span class="hlt">beads</span> were lower than the CMC <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Subsequently, the physical properties of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> were studied. PVA-SA was found to be the best support material among the four by comparing the case of the immobilization procedure, nitrogen removal efficiencies, and the costs of materials. PVA-SA <span class="hlt">gel</span> entrapment was optimized by an orthogonal experiment. The SEM micrographs displayed that the surface structure of PVA-SA immobilized <span class="hlt">beads</span> is loose and finely porous, which facilitates diffusion of the nitrogen. The SEM micrographs also clearly showed that anammox bacteria existed in the <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span>. All results clearly demonstrate that immobilizing anammox sludge in <span class="hlt">gel</span> carriers is feasible and exhibit good performance. This research provided a new route to maintain sufficient amount of anammox sludge in a practical anammox reactor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16881792','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16881792"><span>Stability of gold <span class="hlt">bead</span> tissue markers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miller, Joel M; Rossi, Ethan A; Wiesmair, Martin; Alexander, Danielle E; Gallo, Orazio</p> <p>2006-04-27</p> <p>Significant soft tissue features in the orbit and elsewhere are not resolved by MRI or any other imaging method. We describe a new method that uses tiny ( approximately 0.1 mm diameter) gold <span class="hlt">beads</span> as markers to visualize movements of such tissues with high spatial resolution ( approximately 100 microm) and moderate temporal resolution ( approximately 100 ms). We describe <span class="hlt">bead</span> fabrication, implantation, imaging, and image processing to extract three-dimensional <span class="hlt">bead</span> coordinates. We then present results of an experiment to determine the stability of gold <span class="hlt">bead</span> tissue markers (GBTMs) over time in normally moving orbital tissues. Most <span class="hlt">beads</span> (76%) implanted in sclera, muscle, tendon, and connective tissue were highly stable over the 6-month measurement period. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> that were judged unstable drifted only a few 100 microm. <span class="hlt">Bead</span> flows with gaze suggested that posterior Tenon's capsule moves with the globe, that the lateral rectus belly may sideslip, producing "bridle forces," and that the posterior medial rectus pulley sling moves freely anteriorly and posteriorly, but hardly vertically, as required by the "coordinated active pulley" hypothesis. The GBTM method seems applicable to study such short time course phenomena as extraocular muscle (EOM) and connective tissue movement as a function of gaze and such long time course phenomena as myopic eye growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5345812','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5345812"><span><span class="hlt">Bead</span> mediated separation of microparticles in droplets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sung, Ki-Joo; Lin, Xiaoxia Nina; Burns, Mark A.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Exchange of components such as particles and cells in droplets is important and highly desired in droplet microfluidic assays, and many current technologies use electrical or magnetic fields to accomplish this process. <span class="hlt">Bead</span>-based microfluidic techniques offer an alternative approach that uses the bead’s solid surface to immobilize targets like particles or biological material. In this paper, we demonstrate a <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based technique for exchanging droplet content by separating fluorescent microparticles in a microfluidic device. The device uses posts to filter surface-functionalized <span class="hlt">beads</span> from a droplet and re-capture the filtered <span class="hlt">beads</span> in a new droplet. With post spacing of 7 μm, <span class="hlt">beads</span> above 10 μm had 100% capture efficiency. We demonstrate the efficacy of this system using targeted particles that bind onto the functionalized <span class="hlt">beads</span> and are, therefore, transferred from one solution to another in the device. Binding capacity tests performed in the bulk phase showed an average binding capacity of 5 particles to each <span class="hlt">bead</span>. The microfluidic device successfully separated the targeted particles from the non-targeted particles with up to 98% purity and 100% yield. PMID:28282412</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1653b0036E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1653b0036E"><span>Formulation of nano-zinc oxide into biocomposite <span class="hlt">beads</span> for dye decolorization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Elkady, M. F.; Hassan, H. Shokry; El-Shazly, A. H.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Zinc oxide nano-powder was prepared using sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> technique to be encapsulated onto polymeric blend composed from alginate and polyvinyl alcohol to fabricate novel bio-composite <span class="hlt">beads</span> of nano-zinc oxide. The XRD patterns of both zinc oxide nano-powder and its polymeric hybrid were crystalline in their nature. The FTIR analysis of the fabricated ZnO polymeric hybrid confirms the binding between zinc oxide and the polymeric matrix. The BET analysis demonstrated that the calculated specific surface area of the formulated ZnO <span class="hlt">beads</span> that equal to 22.8 m2/g is comparatively less than that of the free ZnO nano-powdered that equivalent to 64.9 m2/g. The thermal stability of ZnO nano-powdered dramatically decreased with its immobilization into the polymeric alginate and PVA matrix. The formulated <span class="hlt">beads</span> had very strong mechanical strength and they are difficult to be broken up to 1500rpm. Moreover, this hybrid <span class="hlt">beads</span> are chemically stable at the acidic media. The formulated ZnO hybrid <span class="hlt">beads</span> verified to be good adsorbent material for C.I basic blue 41 (CB41).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24945580','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24945580"><span>Magnetic Pycnoporus sanguineus-loaded alginate composite <span class="hlt">beads</span> for removing dye from aqueous solutions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Chih-Hui; Shih, Ming-Cheng; Chiu, Han-Chen; Huang, Keng-Shiang</p> <p>2014-06-18</p> <p>Dye pollution in wastewater is a severe environmental problem because treating water containing dyes using conventional physical, chemical, and biological treatments is difficult. A conventional process is used to adsorb dyes and filter wastewater. Magnetic filtration is an emerging technology. In this study, magnetic Pycnoporus sanguineus-loaded alginate composite <span class="hlt">beads</span> were employed to remove a dye solution. A white rot fungus, P. sanguineus, immobilized in alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> were used as a biosorbent to remove the dye solution. An alginate polymer could protect P. sanguineus in acidic environments. Superparamagnetic nanomaterials, iron oxide nanoparticles, were combined with alginate <span class="hlt">gels</span> to form magnetic alginate composites. The magnetic guidability of alginate composites and biocompatibility of iron oxide nanoparticles facilitated the magnetic filtration and separation processes. The fungus cells were immobilized in loaded alginate composites to study the influence of the initial dye concentration and pH on the biosorption capacity. The composite <span class="hlt">beads</span> could be removed easily post-adsorption by using a magnetic filtration process. When the amount of composite <span class="hlt">beads</span> was varied, the results of kinetic studies of malachite green adsorption by immobilized cells of P. sanguineus fitted well with the pseudo-second-order model. The results indicated that the magnetic composite <span class="hlt">beads</span> effectively adsorbed the dye solution from wastewater and were environmentally friendly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21953367','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21953367"><span>Encapsulation of thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.) aqueous extract in calcium alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stojanovic, Radoslava; Belscak-Cvitanovic, Ana; Manojlovic, Verica; Komes, Drazenka; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Encapsulation of Thymus serpyllum L. aqueous extract within calcium alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> was studied in order to produce dosage formulations containing polyphenolic compounds. Electrostatic extrusion was applied for encapsulation of thyme aqueous extract in alginate <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span>. In addition to hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span>, heat-dried and freeze-dried forms of <span class="hlt">beads</span> were examined. Encapsulation systems were examined and compared in order to choose the optimal one with respect to entrapment efficiency, preservation of antioxidant activity and thermal behaviour under heating conditions simulating the usual food processing. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> obtained with approximately 2 mg g⁻¹ of gallic acid equivalents encapsulated in 0.015 g mL⁻¹ of alginate were spheres of a uniform size of about 730 µm. Encapsulation efficiency varied in the range 50-80% depending on the encapsulation method. Besides, the analysis reveals that the encapsulation process and the material used did not degrade the bioactive compounds, as the total antioxidant content remained unchanged. This was verified by Fourier transform infrared analysis, which proved the absence of chemical interactions between extracted compounds and alginate. Addition of a filler substance, such as sucrose and inulin, in the dried product reduced its collapse and roundness distortion during drying process. This study demonstrates the potential of using hydrogel material for encapsulation of plant poplyphenols to improve their functionality and stability in food products. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25086393','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25086393"><span>Adsorption of a cationic surfactant by a magsorbent based on magnetic alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Obeid, Layaly; El Kolli, Nadia; Dali, Noëlle; Talbot, Delphine; Abramson, Sébastien; Welschbillig, Mathias; Cabuil, Valérie; Bée, Agnès</p> <p>2014-10-15</p> <p>Adsorption of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a cationic surfactant, by magnetic alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> (MagAlgbeads) was investigated. The magnetic adsorbent (called magsorbent) was prepared by encapsulation of magnetic functionalized nanoparticles in an alginate <span class="hlt">gel</span>. The influence on CPC adsorption of several parameters such as contact time, pH and initial surfactant concentration was studied. The equilibrium isotherm shows that adsorption occurs through both electrostatic interactions with charge neutralization of the carboxylate groups of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> and hydrophobic interactions inducing the formation of surfactant aggregates in the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The dosage of calcium ions released in the solution turns out to be a useful tool for understanding the adsorption mechanisms. Adsorption is accompanied by a shrinking of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> that corresponds to a 45% reduction of the volume. Adsorption kinetic experiments show that equilibrium time is strongly dependent on the surfactant concentration, which monitors the nature of the interactions. On the other hand, since the pH affects the ionization state of adsorption sites, adsorption depends on the pH solution, maximum adsorption being obtained in a large pH range (3.2-12) in agreement with the pKa value of alginate (pKa=3.4-4.2). Finally, due to the formation of micelle-like surfactants aggregates in the magnetic alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>, they could be used as a new efficient magsorbent for hydrophobic pollutants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1847d0005A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1847d0005A"><span>Effects of silica content on the formation and morphology of ENR/PVC/Silica composites <span class="hlt">beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abdullah, Nurul Amni; Tahiruddin, Nordiana Suhada Mohmad; Othaman, Rizafizah</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>The effects of silica content in preparing silica-filled epoxidized natural rubber/polyvinyl chloride (ENR/PVC) <span class="hlt">beads</span> were investigated. ENR/PVC matrix blend used was of composition 60% (ENR50) and 40% (PVC) by weight. The matrix blend was then dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF) by sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> technique prior to addition of silica fume as filler at varying amounts up to 25 wt% of the matrix mass. The composites <span class="hlt">beads</span> were formed via phase inversion method by dropping the polymeric solution into a non-solvent. The size and shape were improved by adding in an increased amount of silica. Morphological studies showed distinct features of <span class="hlt">beads</span>' surface in terms of homogeneity of silica particle distribution and presence of agglomerations and voids within the ENR/PVC matrix. Formation of silica network was apparent on the <span class="hlt">bead</span> at 25 wt% silica content. The <span class="hlt">bead</span> formation was found to be significantly affected by the silica loading in the ENR/PVC solution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19196707','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19196707"><span>SISCAPA peptide enrichment on magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> using an in-line <span class="hlt">bead</span> trap device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anderson, N Leigh; Jackson, Angela; Smith, Derek; Hardie, Darryl; Borchers, Christoph; Pearson, Terry W</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>A SISCAPA (stable isotope standards and capture by anti-peptide antibodies) method for specific antibody-based capture of individual tryptic peptides from a digest of whole human plasma was developed using a simplified magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> protocol and a novel rotary magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> trap device. Following off-line equilibrium binding of peptides by antibodies and subsequent capture of the antibodies on magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>, the <span class="hlt">bead</span> trap permitted washing of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> and elution of bound peptides inside a 150-microm-inner diameter capillary that forms part of a nanoflow LC-MS/MS system. The <span class="hlt">bead</span> trap sweeps <span class="hlt">beads</span> against the direction of liquid flow using a continuous succession of moving high magnetic field-gradient trap regions while mixing the <span class="hlt">beads</span> with the flowing liquid. This approach prevents loss of low abundance captured peptides and allows automated processing of a series of SISCAPA reactions. Selected tryptic peptides of alpha(1)-antichymotrypsin and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein were enriched relative to a high abundance serum albumin peptide by 1,800 and 18,000-fold, respectively, as measured by multiple reaction monitoring. A large majority of the peptides that are bound nonspecifically in SISCAPA reactions were shown to bind to components other than the antibody (e.g. the magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>), suggesting that substantial improvement in enrichment could be achieved by development of improved inert <span class="hlt">bead</span> surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2689780','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2689780"><span>SISCAPA Peptide Enrichment on Magnetic <span class="hlt">Beads</span> Using an In-line <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Trap Device*S⃞</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Anderson, N. Leigh; Jackson, Angela; Smith, Derek; Hardie, Darryl; Borchers, Christoph; Pearson, Terry W.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A SISCAPA (stable isotope standards and capture by anti-peptide antibodies) method for specific antibody-based capture of individual tryptic peptides from a digest of whole human plasma was developed using a simplified magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> protocol and a novel rotary magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> trap device. Following off-line equilibrium binding of peptides by antibodies and subsequent capture of the antibodies on magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>, the <span class="hlt">bead</span> trap permitted washing of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> and elution of bound peptides inside a 150-μm-inner diameter capillary that forms part of a nanoflow LC-MS/MS system. The <span class="hlt">bead</span> trap sweeps <span class="hlt">beads</span> against the direction of liquid flow using a continuous succession of moving high magnetic field-gradient trap regions while mixing the <span class="hlt">beads</span> with the flowing liquid. This approach prevents loss of low abundance captured peptides and allows automated processing of a series of SISCAPA reactions. Selected tryptic peptides of α1-antichymotrypsin and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein were enriched relative to a high abundance serum albumin peptide by 1,800 and 18,000-fold, respectively, as measured by multiple reaction monitoring. A large majority of the peptides that are bound nonspecifically in SISCAPA reactions were shown to bind to components other than the antibody (e.g. the magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>), suggesting that substantial improvement in enrichment could be achieved by development of improved inert <span class="hlt">bead</span> surfaces. PMID:19196707</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11936253','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11936253"><span>Magnetite-alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> for purification of some starch degrading enzymes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Teotia, Sunita; Gupta, M N</p> <p>2002-03-01</p> <p>Starch degrading enzymes, viz., beta-amylase, glucoamylase, and pullulanase, were purified using magnetite-alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>. In each case, the enzyme activity was eluted by using 1.0 M maltose. beta-Amylase (sweet potato), glucoamylase (Aspergillus niger), and pullulanase (Bacillus acidopullulyticus) from their crude preparations were purified 37-, 31-, and 49-fold with 86, 87, and 95% activity recovery, respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis analysis showed single band in each case.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JMMM..293..135M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JMMM..293..135M"><span>Ultra-fast synthesis of magnetic and luminescent silica <span class="hlt">beads</span> for versatile bioanalytical applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Müller-Schulte, Detlef; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Borm, Paul</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>A method for the synthesis of both spherically shaped micro/nano silica particles and silica hybrid particles using a novel inverse sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> suspension technique was developed. The technique enables the synthesis of <span class="hlt">beads</span> within seconds and provides a simple basis for quantum dot and biosubstances encapsulation. The carriers can be used as DNA adsorbents, individually addressable optical codes for bioassays and biomolecule library screening as well as photonic crystals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10940862','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10940862"><span>Characterization of an encapsulation device for the production of monodisperse alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> for cell immobilization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Serp, D; Cantana, E; Heinzen, C; Von Stockar, U; Marison, I W</p> <p>2000-10-05</p> <p>An encapsulation device, designed on the basis of the laminar jet break-up technique, is characterized for cell immobilization with different types of alginate. The principle of operation of the completely sterilizable encapsulator, together with techniques for the continuous production of <span class="hlt">beads</span> from 250 microm to 1 mm in diameter, with a size distribution below 5%, at a flow rate of 1-15 mL/min, is described. A modification of the device, to incorporate an electrostatic potential between the alginate droplets and an internal electrode, results in enhanced monodispersity with no adverse effects on cell viability. The maximum cell loading capacity of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> strongly depends on the nozzle diameter as well as the cells used. For the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma, it is possible to generate 700 microm alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> with an initial cell concentration of 1 x 10(8) cells/mL of alginate whereas only 1 x 10(6) cells/ml could be entrapped within 400 microm <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> have been characterized with respect to mechanical resistance and size distribution immediately after production and as a function of storage conditions. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> remain stable in the presence of acetic acid, hydrochloric acid, water, basic water, and sodium ions. The latter stability applies when the ratio of sodium: calcium ions is less than 1/5. <span class="hlt">Complexing</span> agents such as sodium citrate result in the rapid solubilization of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> due to calcium removal. The presence of cells does not affect the mechanical resistance of the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Finally, the mechanical resistance of alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> can be doubled by treatment with 5-10 kDa chitosan, resulting in reduced leaching of cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1390624','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1390624"><span>A small (58-nm) attached sphere perturbs the sieving of 40-80-kilobase DNA in 0.2-2.5% agarose <span class="hlt">gels</span>: analysis of bacteriophage T7 capsid-DNA <span class="hlt">complexes</span> by use of pulsed field electrophoresis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Serwer, P; Hayes, S J; Moreno, E T; Park, C Y</p> <p>1992-09-15</p> <p>Although the icosahedral bacteriophage T7 capsid has a diameter (58 nm) that is 234-fold smaller than the length of the linear, double-stranded T7 DNA, binding of a T7 capsid to T7 DNA is found here to have dramatic effects on the migration of the DNA during both pulsed field agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis (PFGE; the field inversion mode is used) and constant field agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis (CFGE). For these studies, capsid-DNA <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were obtained by expelling DNA from mature bacteriophage T7; this procedure yields DNA with capsids bound at a variable position on the DNA. When subjected to CFGE at 2-6 V/cm in 0.20-2.5% agarose <span class="hlt">gels</span>, capsid-DNA <span class="hlt">complexes</span> arrest at the electrophoretic origin. Progressively lowering the electrical potential gradient to 0.5 V/cm results in migration; most <span class="hlt">complexes</span> form a single band. The elevated electrical potential gradient (3 V/cm) induced arrest of capsid-DNA <span class="hlt">complexes</span> is reversed when PFGE is used instead of CFGE. For some conditions of PFGE, the mobility of capsid-DNA <span class="hlt">complexes</span> is a function of the position of the capsid on the DNA. During either CFGE (0.5 V/cm) or PFGE, capsid-DNA <span class="hlt">complexes</span> increasingly separate from capsid-free DNA as the percentage of agarose increases. During these studies, capsid-DNA <span class="hlt">complexes</span> are identified by electron microscopy of enzymatically-digested pieces of agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span>; this is apparently the first successful electron microscopy of DNA from an agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span>.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017RJPCA..91.1791M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017RJPCA..91.1791M"><span>Physicochemical properties of sorbents based on silica <span class="hlt">gel</span> modified by 1-phenylazo-2-naphtholic <span class="hlt">complexes</span> of transition metals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Makarycheva, A. I.; Slizhov, Yu. G.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Gas chromatography sorbents based on Silokhrom C80 and modified by 1-phenylazo-2-naphtholic <span class="hlt">complexes</span> of 3 d metals (Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II)) are obtained. Their structural, chromatographic, and sorption characteristics are investigated. It is found that modifying them with 1-phenylazo-2-naphthols of transition metals has a considerable effect on the chromatographic polarity and selectivity of sorption materials. The prospects for the practical application of the obtained sorbents are demonstrated by experiments on the gas chromatographic separation of mixtures of different classes of organic compounds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=263790','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=263790"><span>Polyclonal infections due to Mycobacterium avium <span class="hlt">complex</span> in patients with AIDS detected by pulsed-field <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis of sequential clinical isolates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Slutsky, A M; Arbeit, R D; Barber, T W; Rich, J; von Reyn, C F; Pieciak, W; Barlow, M A; Maslow, J N</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Invasive infection with organisms of the Mycobacterium avium <span class="hlt">complex</span> (MAC) is common among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. In previous studies, we analyzed multiple individual colonies of MAC isolated from specimens obtained at the same time and observed that 14 to 20% of patients are simultaneously infected with more than one strain. In this study, we examined sequential isolates from 12 patients with AIDS who had two or more MAC isolates available from clinical specimens collected more than 1 week apart; the intervals between the first and last specimens ranged from 8 to 192 (median, 46) days. For each isolate, restriction digests of genomic DNA were analyzed by pulsed-field <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis; DNA was prepared by using a protocol, described here in detail, which had been optimized for conditions of bacterial growth and lysis. The pulsed-field <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis analysis identified four patients (33%) infected with two different MAC strains. Both M. avium and M. intracellulare were cultured from blood specimens from two patients. In each of the four patients, the second strain was identified from a culture taken within 14 days of the initial study isolate, and in three of these patients, the first strain was detected again in a subsequent culture. These observations suggest that the presence of two different strains among isolates from sequential cultures may reflect ongoing polyclonal infection. We conclude that polyclonal infection with MAC is common among patients with AIDS. The identification of such infections may be critical in the development of effective treatments. Images PMID:7929773</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4299378','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4299378"><span>Ultrasensitive proteome analysis using paramagnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hughes, Christopher S; Foehr, Sophia; Garfield, David A; Furlong, Eileen E; Steinmetz, Lars M; Krijgsveld, Jeroen</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In order to obtain a systems-level understanding of a <span class="hlt">complex</span> biological system, detailed proteome information is essential. Despite great progress in proteomics technologies, thorough interrogation of the proteome from quantity-limited biological samples is hampered by inefficiencies during processing. To address these challenges, here we introduce a novel protocol using paramagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>, termed Single-Pot Solid-Phase-enhanced Sample Preparation (SP3). SP3 provides a rapid and unbiased means of proteomic sample preparation in a single tube that facilitates ultrasensitive analysis by outperforming existing protocols in terms of efficiency, scalability, speed, throughput, and flexibility. To illustrate these benefits, characterization of 1,000 HeLa cells and single Drosophila embryos is used to establish that SP3 provides an enhanced platform for profiling proteomes derived from sub-microgram amounts of material. These data present a first view of developmental stage-specific proteome dynamics in Drosophila at a single-embryo resolution, permitting characterization of inter-individual expression variation. Together, the findings of this work position SP3 as a superior protocol that facilitates exciting new directions in multiple areas of proteomics ranging from developmental biology to clinical applications. PMID:25358341</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17655349','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17655349"><span>Deswelling kinetics of polyacrylate <span class="hlt">gels</span> in solutions of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nilsson, Peter; Hansson, Per</p> <p>2007-08-23</p> <p>The deswelling kinetics of single sodium polyacrylate <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> (radius 40-160 microm) in aqueous solutions of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide under conditions of forced convection are investigated using micromanipulator assisted light microscopy. The purpose of the study is to further evaluate a previously published model (J. Phys. Chem. B 2003, 107, 9203) using a higher homolog surfactant. For <span class="hlt">gels</span> with expected fast deswelling (small <span class="hlt">gel</span> size/low surfactant concentration) and/or in low electrolyte concentration, the model is found to correctly predict the deswelling characteristics of the <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span>. However, for some <span class="hlt">gels</span> with expected slow deswelling, especially in high electrolyte concentration (10 mM NaBr), the model widely underestimates the required deswelling time. The reason for this is argued to be the longer time frame and high bromide concentration allowing the formation of a denser, more ordered structure in the surface phase, which resists the deformation and reorganization of material necessary for deswelling. Unexpectedly long lag times before the start of deswelling are also found for <span class="hlt">gels</span> in low surfactant concentration, indicating that a relatively high surfactant concentration in the <span class="hlt">gel</span>, greatly exceeding the critical aggregation concentration, is needed to start formation of a collapsed surface phase. This critical surfactant concentration is found to be dependent on initial <span class="hlt">gel</span> radius, as small <span class="hlt">gels</span> require a relatively higher concentration to initiate collapse.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3894740','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3894740"><span>Correlated matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and fluorescent imaging of photocleavable peptide-coded random <span class="hlt">bead</span>-arrays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lim, Mark J; Liu, Ziying; Braunschweiger, Karen I; Awad, Amany; Rothschild, Kenneth J</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>RATIONALE Rapidly performing global proteomic screens is an important goal in the post-genomic era. Correlated matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and fluorescent imaging of photocleavable peptide-coded random <span class="hlt">bead</span>-arrays was evaluated as a critical step in a new method for proteomic screening that combines many of the advantages of MS with fluorescence-based microarrays. METHODS Small peptide-coded model <span class="hlt">bead</span> libraries containing up to 20 different <span class="hlt">bead</span> species were constructed by attaching peptides to 30–34 µm diameter glass, agarose or Tenta<span class="hlt">Gel</span>® <span class="hlt">beads</span> using photocleavable biotin or a custom-designed photocleavable linker. The peptide-coded <span class="hlt">bead</span> libraries were randomly arrayed into custom gold-coated micro-well plates with 45 µm diameter wells and subjected to fluorescence and MALDI mass spectrometric imaging (MALDI-MSI). RESULTS Photocleavable mass-tags from individual <span class="hlt">beads</span> in these libraries were spatially localized as ∼65 µm spots using MALDI-MSI with high sensitivity and mass resolution. Fluorescently tagged <span class="hlt">beads</span> were identified and correlated with their matching photocleavable mass-tags by comparing the fluorescence and MALDI-MS images of the same <span class="hlt">bead</span>-array. Post-translational modification of the peptide Kemptide was also detected on individual <span class="hlt">beads</span> in a photocleavable peptide-coded <span class="hlt">bead</span>-array by MALDI-MSI alone, after exposure of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> to protein kinase A (PKA). CONCLUSIONS Correlated MALDI-MS and fluorescent imaging of photocleavable peptide-coded random <span class="hlt">bead</span>-arrays can provide a basis for performing global proteomic screening. © 2013 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24285390</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19710000255','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19710000255"><span>Plating by glass-<span class="hlt">bead</span> peening</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Babecki, A. J.; Haehner, C. L.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>Technique permits plating of primarily metallic substrates with either metals or nonmetals at normal temperature. Peening uses compressed air to apply concurrent streams of small glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> and powdered plating material to the substrate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=string+AND+theory&pg=5&id=EJ567976','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=string+AND+theory&pg=5&id=EJ567976"><span><span class="hlt">Beads</span> + String = Atoms You Can See.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hermann, Christine K. F.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Presents hands-on activities that give students a head start in learning the vocabulary and basic theory involved in understanding atomic structure. Uses <span class="hlt">beads</span> to represent protons, neutrons, and electrons and string to represent orbitals. (DDR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=String+AND+theory&pg=5&id=EJ567976','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=String+AND+theory&pg=5&id=EJ567976"><span><span class="hlt">Beads</span> + String = Atoms You Can See.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hermann, Christine K. F.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Presents hands-on activities that give students a head start in learning the vocabulary and basic theory involved in understanding atomic structure. Uses <span class="hlt">beads</span> to represent protons, neutrons, and electrons and string to represent orbitals. (DDR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25864009','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25864009"><span>Fibrous polymer grafted magnetic chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> with strong poly(cation-exchange) groups for single step purification of lysozyme.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bayramoglu, Gulay; Tekinay, Turgay; Ozalp, V Cengiz; Arica, M Yakup</p> <p>2015-05-15</p> <p>Lysozyme is an important polypetide used in medical and food applications. We report a novel magnetic strong cation exchange <span class="hlt">beads</span> for efficient purification of lysozyme from chicken egg white. Magnetic chitosan (MCHT) <span class="hlt">beads</span> were synthesized via phase inversion method, and then grafted with poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (p(GMA)) via the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). Epoxy groups of the grafted polymer, were modified into strong cation-exchange groups (i.e., sulfonate groups) in the presence of sodium sulfite. The MCTH and MCTH-g-p(GMA)-SO3H <span class="hlt">beads</span> were characterized by ATR-FTIR, SEM, and VSM. The sulphonate groups content of the modified MCTH-g-p(GMA)-4 <span class="hlt">beads</span> was found to be 0.53mmolg(-1) of <span class="hlt">beads</span> by the potentiometric titration method. The MCTH-g-p(GMA)-SO3H <span class="hlt">beads</span> were first used as an ion-exchange support for adsorption of lysozyme from aqueous solution. The influence of different experimental parameters such as pH, contact time, and temperature on the adsorption process was evaluated. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 208.7mgg(-1) <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Adsorption of lysozyme on the MCTH-g-p(GMA)-SO3H <span class="hlt">beads</span> fitted to Langmuir isotherm model and followed the pseudo second-order kinetic. More than 93% of the adsorbed lysozyme was desorbed using Na2CO3 solution (pH 11.0). The purity of the lysozyme was checked by HPLC and SDS <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis. In addition, the MCTH-g-p(GMA)-SO3H <span class="hlt">beads</span> prepared in this work showed promising potential for separation of various anionic molecules.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28763767','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28763767"><span>Zero-valent iron nanoparticles embedded into reduced graphene oxide-alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> for efficient chromium (VI) removal.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lv, Xiaoshu; Zhang, Yuling; Fu, Wenyang; Cao, Jiazhen; Zhang, Jiao; Ma, Hanbo; Jiang, Guangming</p> <p>2017-11-15</p> <p>Zero-valent iron nanoparticles (Fe(0) NPs) technologies are often challenged by poor dispersibility, chemical instability to oxidation, and mobility during processing, storage and use. This work reports a facile approach to synthesize Fe(0) NPs embedded reduced graphene oxide-alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> (Fe@GA <span class="hlt">beads</span>) via the immobilization of pre-synthesized Fe(0) NPs into graphene oxide modified alginate <span class="hlt">gel</span> followed by a modelling and in-situ reduction process. The structure/composition characterization of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> finds that the graphene sheets and the Fe(0) NPs (a shape of ellipsoid and a size of <100nm) are uniformly dispersed within the alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>. We demonstrate that these Fe@GA <span class="hlt">beads</span> show a robust performance in aqueous Cr(VI) removal. With a optimized Fe and alginate content, Fe@GA <span class="hlt">bead</span> can achieve a high Cr(VI) removal efficiency and an excellent mechanical strength. The initial Cr(VI) concentration, ionic strength, temperature and especially solution pH are all critical factors to control the Fe@GA <span class="hlt">beads</span> performance in Cr(VI) removal. Fitness of the pseudo second-order adsorption model with data suggests adsorption is the rate-controlling step, and both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm are suitable to describe the removal behavior. The possible Cr(VI) removal path by Fe@GA <span class="hlt">beads</span> is put forward, and the synergistic effect in this ternary system implies the potentials of Fe@GA <span class="hlt">beads</span> in pollutant removal from water body. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AIPC.1027.1093H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AIPC.1027.1093H"><span>Modeling Aspects of Two-<span class="hlt">Bead</span> Microrheology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hohenegger, Christel; Forest, M. Gregory</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>We revisit the Mason and Weitz (Phys. Rev. Lett., 74, 1995) and Levine and Lubensky (Phys. Rev. Lett., 85, 2000) analysis for one- and two-<span class="hlt">bead</span> microrheology. Our first motivation is the possibility of drawing inferences from experimental data about local diffusive properties of individual <span class="hlt">beads</span> and nonlocal dynamic moduli of the medium separating the two <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Our second motivation is the ability to perform direct numerical simulations of hydrodynamically coupled Brownian <span class="hlt">beads</span> in soft matter. For both goals, we first must have a model for the coupling between these two transport properties. We reformulate the coupled generalized Langevin equations (GLE) following the scalar GLE analysis of Fricks et al. (J. Appl. Math., 2008), assuming an exponential series parametrization of both local and nonlocal memory kernels. We then show the two-<span class="hlt">bead</span> GLE model can be represented as a vector Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, which allows for a fast and statistically accurate numerical simulation of coupled <span class="hlt">bead</span> paths (time series) and of ensemble-averaged statistics of the process. In this proceedings, we announce the framework to accomplish these two goals of inversion and direct simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26276456','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26276456"><span>Acupressure <span class="hlt">Bead</span> in the Eustachian Tube.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Igarashi, Kazunori; Matsumoto, Yu; Kakigi, Akinobu</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>In this article, we aim to enlighten practitioners and patients involved with acupressure <span class="hlt">beads</span> and to contribute to their safer use by reporting a unique case of insidious intrusion of an acupressure <span class="hlt">bead</span> into the eustachian tube. A metallic object was found in the eustachian tube of a patient while conducting a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. The object was later confirmed to be an auricular acupressure <span class="hlt">bead</span>, and was successfully removed by performing a tympanoplasty and a canal wall down mastoidectomy. The <span class="hlt">bead</span> was assumed to have passed through an existing perforation of the tympanic membrane. According to previously published literature, tympanic membrane perforations exist in ∼1% of the population. Therefore, middle-ear foreign bodies are relatively common occurrences for otolaryngologists. However, metallic objects such as acupressure <span class="hlt">beads</span> are especially important in the sense that they can cause severe burns during MRI. To avoid potential complications, acupressure-<span class="hlt">bead</span> practitioners should be aware of the possibility that intrusions through the tympanic membrane could go unnoticed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22915363','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22915363"><span>NIST/ISAC standardization study: variability in assignment of intensity values to fluorescence standard <span class="hlt">beads</span> and in cross calibration of standard <span class="hlt">beads</span> to hard dyed <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hoffman, Robert A; Wang, Lili; Bigos, Martin; Nolan, John P</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Results from a standardization study cosponsored by the International Society for Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC) and the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are reported. The study evaluated the variability of assigning intensity values to fluorophore standard <span class="hlt">beads</span> by <span class="hlt">bead</span> manufacturers and the variability of cross calibrating the standard <span class="hlt">beads</span> to stained polymer <span class="hlt">beads</span> (hard-dyed <span class="hlt">beads</span>) using different flow cytometers. Hard dyed <span class="hlt">beads</span> are generally not spectrally matched to the fluorophores used to stain cells, and spectral response varies among flow cytometers. Thus if hard dyed <span class="hlt">beads</span> are used as fluorescence calibrators, one expects calibration for specific fluorophores (e.g., FITC or PE) to vary among different instruments. Using standard <span class="hlt">beads</span> surface-stained with specific fluorophores (FITC, PE, APC, and Pacific Blue™), the study compared the measured intensity of fluorophore standard <span class="hlt">beads</span> to that of hard dyed <span class="hlt">beads</span> through cross calibration on 133 different flow cytometers. Using robust CV as a measure of variability, the variation of cross calibrated values was typically 20% or more for a particular hard dyed <span class="hlt">bead</span> in a specific detection channel. The variation across different instrument models was often greater than the variation within a particular instrument model. As a separate part of the study, NIST and four <span class="hlt">bead</span> manufacturers used a NIST supplied protocol and calibrated fluorophore solution standards to assign intensity values to the fluorophore <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Values assigned to the reference <span class="hlt">beads</span> by different groups varied by orders of magnitude in most cases, reflecting differences in instrumentation used to perform the calibration. The study concluded that the use of any spectrally unmatched hard dyed <span class="hlt">bead</span> as a general fluorescence calibrator must be verified and characterized for every particular instrument model. Close interaction between <span class="hlt">bead</span> manufacturers and NIST is recommended to have reliable and uniformly assigned</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27920762','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27920762"><span>Artificial Intelligence vs. Statistical Modeling and Optimization of Continuous <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Milling Process for Bacterial Cell Lysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haque, Shafiul; Khan, Saif; Wahid, Mohd; Dar, Sajad A; Soni, Nipunjot; Mandal, Raju K; Singh, Vineeta; Tiwari, Dileep; Lohani, Mohtashim; Areeshi, Mohammed Y; Govender, Thavendran; Kruger, Hendrik G; Jawed, Arshad</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>For a commercially viable recombinant intracellular protein production process, efficient cell lysis and protein release is a major bottleneck. The recovery of recombinant protein, cholesterol oxidase (COD) was studied in a continuous <span class="hlt">bead</span> milling process. A full factorial response surface methodology (RSM) design was employed and compared to artificial neural networks coupled with genetic algorithm (ANN-GA). Significant process variables, cell slurry feed rate (A), <span class="hlt">bead</span> load (B), cell load (C), and run time (D), were investigated and optimized for maximizing COD recovery. RSM predicted an optimum of feed rate of 310.73 mL/h, <span class="hlt">bead</span> loading of 79.9% (v/v), cell loading OD600nm of 74, and run time of 29.9 min with a recovery of ~3.2 g/L. ANN-GA predicted a maximum COD recovery of ~3.5 g/L at an optimum feed rate (mL/h): 258.08, <span class="hlt">bead</span> loading (%, v/v): 80%, cell loading (OD600nm): 73.99, and run time of 32 min. An overall 3.7-fold increase in productivity is obtained when compared to a batch process. Optimization and comparison of statistical vs. artificial intelligence techniques in continuous <span class="hlt">bead</span> milling process has been attempted for the very first time in our study. We were able to successfully represent the <span class="hlt">complex</span> non-linear multivariable dependence of enzyme recovery on <span class="hlt">bead</span> milling parameters. The quadratic second order response functions are not flexible enough to represent such <span class="hlt">complex</span> non-linear dependence. ANN being a summation function of multiple layers are capable to represent <span class="hlt">complex</span> non-linear dependence of variables in this case; enzyme recovery as a function of <span class="hlt">bead</span> milling parameters. Since GA can even optimize discontinuous functions present study cites a perfect example of using machine learning (ANN) in combination with evolutionary optimization (GA) for representing undefined biological functions which is the case for common industrial processes involving biological moieties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5118707','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5118707"><span>Artificial Intelligence vs. Statistical Modeling and Optimization of Continuous <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Milling Process for Bacterial Cell Lysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Haque, Shafiul; Khan, Saif; Wahid, Mohd; Dar, Sajad A.; Soni, Nipunjot; Mandal, Raju K.; Singh, Vineeta; Tiwari, Dileep; Lohani, Mohtashim; Areeshi, Mohammed Y.; Govender, Thavendran; Kruger, Hendrik G.; Jawed, Arshad</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>For a commercially viable recombinant intracellular protein production process, efficient cell lysis and protein release is a major bottleneck. The recovery of recombinant protein, cholesterol oxidase (COD) was studied in a continuous <span class="hlt">bead</span> milling process. A full factorial response surface methodology (RSM) design was employed and compared to artificial neural networks coupled with genetic algorithm (ANN-GA). Significant process variables, cell slurry feed rate (A), <span class="hlt">bead</span> load (B), cell load (C), and run time (D), were investigated and optimized for maximizing COD recovery. RSM predicted an optimum of feed rate of 310.73 mL/h, <span class="hlt">bead</span> loading of 79.9% (v/v), cell loading OD600 nm of 74, and run time of 29.9 min with a recovery of ~3.2 g/L. ANN-GA predicted a maximum COD recovery of ~3.5 g/L at an optimum feed rate (mL/h): 258.08, <span class="hlt">bead</span> loading (%, v/v): 80%, cell loading (OD600 nm): 73.99, and run time of 32 min. An overall 3.7-fold increase in productivity is obtained when compared to a batch process. Optimization and comparison of statistical vs. artificial intelligence techniques in continuous <span class="hlt">bead</span> milling process has been attempted for the very first time in our study. We were able to successfully represent the <span class="hlt">complex</span> non-linear multivariable dependence of enzyme recovery on <span class="hlt">bead</span> milling parameters. The quadratic second order response functions are not flexible enough to represent such <span class="hlt">complex</span> non-linear dependence. ANN being a summation function of multiple layers are capable to represent <span class="hlt">complex</span> non-linear dependence of variables in this case; enzyme recovery as a function of <span class="hlt">bead</span> milling parameters. Since GA can even optimize discontinuous functions present study cites a perfect example of using machine learning (ANN) in combination with evolutionary optimization (GA) for representing undefined biological functions which is the case for common industrial processes involving biological moieties. PMID:27920762</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...620516X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...620516X"><span>“Nanofiltration” Enabled by Super-Absorbent Polymer <span class="hlt">Beads</span> for Concentrating Microorganisms in Water Samples</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xie, Xing; Bahnemann, Janina; Wang, Siwen; Yang, Yang; Hoffmann, Michael R.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Detection and quantification of pathogens in water is critical for the protection of human health and for drinking water safety and security. When the pathogen concentrations are low, large sample volumes (several liters) are needed to achieve reliable quantitative results. However, most microbial identification methods utilize relatively small sample volumes. As a consequence, a concentration step is often required to detect pathogens in natural waters. Herein, we introduce a novel water sample concentration method based on superabsorbent polymer (SAP) <span class="hlt">beads</span>. When SAP <span class="hlt">beads</span> swell with water, small molecules can be sorbed within the <span class="hlt">beads</span>, but larger particles are excluded and, thus, concentrated in the residual non-sorbed water. To illustrate this approach, millimeter-sized poly(acrylamide-co-itaconic acid) (P(AM-co-IA)) <span class="hlt">beads</span> are synthesized and successfully applied to concentrate water samples containing two model microorganisms: Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Experimental results indicate that the size of the water channel within water swollen P(AM-co-IA) hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> is on the order of several nanometers. The millimeter size coupled with a negative surface charge of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> are shown to be critical in order to achieve high levels of concentration. This new concentration procedure is very fast, effective, scalable, and low-cost with no need for <span class="hlt">complex</span> instrumentation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26876979','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26876979"><span>"Nanofiltration" Enabled by Super-Absorbent Polymer <span class="hlt">Beads</span> for Concentrating Microorganisms in Water Samples.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xie, Xing; Bahnemann, Janina; Wang, Siwen; Yang, Yang; Hoffmann, Michael R</p> <p>2016-02-15</p> <p>Detection and quantification of pathogens in water is critical for the protection of human health and for drinking water safety and security. When the pathogen concentrations are low, large sample volumes (several liters) are needed to achieve reliable quantitative results. However, most microbial identification methods utilize relatively small sample volumes. As a consequence, a concentration step is often required to detect pathogens in natural waters. Herein, we introduce a novel water sample concentration method based on superabsorbent polymer (SAP) <span class="hlt">beads</span>. When SAP <span class="hlt">beads</span> swell with water, small molecules can be sorbed within the <span class="hlt">beads</span>, but larger particles are excluded and, thus, concentrated in the residual non-sorbed water. To illustrate this approach, millimeter-sized poly(acrylamide-co-itaconic acid) (P(AM-co-IA)) <span class="hlt">beads</span> are synthesized and successfully applied to concentrate water samples containing two model microorganisms: Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Experimental results indicate that the size of the water channel within water swollen P(AM-co-IA) hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> is on the order of several nanometers. The millimeter size coupled with a negative surface charge of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> are shown to be critical in order to achieve high levels of concentration. This new concentration procedure is very fast, effective, scalable, and low-cost with no need for <span class="hlt">complex</span> instrumentation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4753426','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4753426"><span>“Nanofiltration” Enabled by Super-Absorbent Polymer <span class="hlt">Beads</span> for Concentrating Microorganisms in Water Samples</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xie, Xing; Bahnemann, Janina; Wang, Siwen; Yang, Yang; Hoffmann, Michael R.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Detection and quantification of pathogens in water is critical for the protection of human health and for drinking water safety and security. When the pathogen concentrations are low, large sample volumes (several liters) are needed to achieve reliable quantitative results. However, most microbial identification methods utilize relatively small sample volumes. As a consequence, a concentration step is often required to detect pathogens in natural waters. Herein, we introduce a novel water sample concentration method based on superabsorbent polymer (SAP) <span class="hlt">beads</span>. When SAP <span class="hlt">beads</span> swell with water, small molecules can be sorbed within the <span class="hlt">beads</span>, but larger particles are excluded and, thus, concentrated in the residual non-sorbed water. To illustrate this approach, millimeter-sized poly(acrylamide-co-itaconic acid) (P(AM-co-IA)) <span class="hlt">beads</span> are synthesized and successfully applied to concentrate water samples containing two model microorganisms: Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Experimental results indicate that the size of the water channel within water swollen P(AM-co-IA) hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> is on the order of several nanometers. The millimeter size coupled with a negative surface charge of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> are shown to be critical in order to achieve high levels of concentration. This new concentration procedure is very fast, effective, scalable, and low-cost with no need for <span class="hlt">complex</span> instrumentation. PMID:26876979</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=91528','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=91528"><span>Optimization of Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis for <span class="hlt">Complex</span> Marine Bacterioplankton Communities and Comparison with Denaturing Gradient <span class="hlt">Gel</span> Electrophoresis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Moeseneder, Markus M.; Arrieta, Jesús M.; Muyzer, Gerard; Winter, Christian; Herndl, Gerhard J.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The potential of terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and the detection of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) by capillary electrophoresis (CE) to characterize marine bacterioplankton communities was compared with that of denaturing gradient <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis (DGGE). A protocol has been developed to optimize the separation and detection of OTUs between 20 and 1,632 bp by using CE and laser-induced fluorescence detection. Additionally, we compared T-RFLP fingerprinting to DGGE optimized for detection of less abundant OTUs. Similar results were obtained with both fingerprinting techniques, although the T-RFLP approach and CE detection of OTUs was more sensitive, as indicated by the higher number of OTUs detected. We tested the T-RFLP fingerprinting technique on <span class="hlt">complex</span> marine bacterial communities by using the 16S rRNA gene and 16S rRNA as templates for PCR. Samples from the Northern and Middle Adriatic Sea and from the South and North Aegean Sea were compared. Distinct clusters were identifiable for different sampling sites. Thus, this technique is useful for rapid evaluation of the biogeographical distribution and relationships of bacterioplankton communities. PMID:10427043</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMMM..398..109H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMMM..398..109H"><span>Influence of carboxylic acid type on microstructure and magnetic properties of polymeric <span class="hlt">complex</span> sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> driven NiFe2O4</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hessien, M. M.; Mostafa, Nasser Y.; Abd-Elkader, Omar H.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Citric, oxalic and tartaric acids were used for synthesis of NiFe2O4 using polymeric <span class="hlt">complex</span> precursor route. The dry precursor <span class="hlt">gels</span> were calcined at various temperatures (400-1100 °C) for 2 h. All carboxylic acids produce iron-deficient NiFe2O4 with considerable amount of α-Fe2O3 at 400 °C. Increase in the annealing temperature caused reaction of α-Fe2O3 with iron-deficient ferrite phase. The amount of initially formed α-Fe2O3 is directly correlated with stability constant and inversely correlated with the decomposition temperature of Fe(III) carboxylate precursors. In case of tartaric acid precursor, single phase of the ferrite was obtained at 450 °C. However, in case of oxalic acid and citric acid precursors, single phase ferrite was obtained at 550 °C and 700 °C, respectively. The lattice parameters were increased with increasing annealing temperature and with decreasing the amount of α-Fe2O3. Maximum saturation magnetization (55 emu/g) was achieved using tartaric acid precursor annealed at 1100 °C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JAP...107e4702F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JAP...107e4702F"><span>On-chip magnetic separation of superparamagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> for integrated molecular analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Florescu, Octavian; Wang, Kevan; Au, Patrick; Tang, Jimmy; Harris, Eva; Beatty, P. Robert; Boser, Bernhard E.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>We have demonstrated a postprocessed complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit (IC) capable of on-chip magnetic separation, i.e., removing via magnetic forces the nonspecifically bound magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> from the detection area on the surface of the chip. Initially, 4.5 μm wide superparamagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> sedimenting out of solution due to gravity were attracted to the detection area by a magnetic concentration force generated by flowing current through a conductor embedded in the IC. After sedimentation, the magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> that did not bind strongly to the functionalized surface of the IC through a specific biochemical <span class="hlt">complex</span> were removed by a magnetic separation force generated by flowing current through another conductor placed laterally to the detection area. As the spherical <span class="hlt">bead</span> pivoted on the surface of the chip, the lateral magnetic force was further amplified by mechanical leveraging, and 50 mA of current flowing through the separation conductor placed 18 μm away from the <span class="hlt">bead</span> resulted in 7.5 pN of tensile force on the biomolecular tether immobilizing the <span class="hlt">bead</span>. This force proved high enough to break nonspecific interactions while leaving specific antibody-antigen bonds intact. A sandwich capture immunoassay on purified human immunoglobulin G showed strong correlation with a control enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and a detection limit of 10 ng/ml or 70 pM. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> bound to the detection area after on-chip magnetic separation were detected optically. To implement a fully integrated molecular diagnostics platform, the on-chip magnetic separation functionality presented in this work can be readily combine with state-of-the art CMOS-based magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> detection technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20691973','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20691973"><span>Fabrication of superporous agarose <span class="hlt">beads</span> for protein adsorption: effect of CaCO3 granules content.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Du, Kai-Feng; Bai, Shu; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Yan</p> <p>2010-09-10</p> <p>Agarose <span class="hlt">gels</span> were fabricated by water-in-oil emulsification with the addition of CaCO(3) granules at 8-16 wt%. Thus agarose <span class="hlt">beads</span> of different superporosities were produced after dissolving the solid porogen. The superporous agarose (SA) and homogeneous agarose <span class="hlt">gels</span> were double cross-linked and modified with diethylaminoethyl chloride to produce anion exchangers. We have proposed to use a superporous replica (porous titania microspheres) to examine the superporous structure and pore size distribution of the soft <span class="hlt">gel</span>. The replica was prepared with the agarose <span class="hlt">gel</span> entrapping CaCO(3) granules by a sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span>-templating method. It was found that the superpores created by CaCO(3) granules were uniformly distributed and ranged from 0.95 microm to 1.33 microm. The physical properties of the <span class="hlt">gels</span> were significantly affected by the porogen content. Importantly, by increasing the solid porogen to 12 wt%, the bed permeability and effective porosity increased about 48% and 33%, respectively. Further increase in the porogen to 16 wt% led to a decrease of the mechanical strength. With increasing superpores in the <span class="hlt">beads</span>, the dynamic adsorption capacity of the packed columns increased obviously at 305-916 cm/h. Besides, the column efficiency changed less with increasing flow velocity up to 1200 cm/h. It was concluded that the use of 12 wt% CaCO(3) granules in agarose solution was beneficial for the fabrication of the SA <span class="hlt">gel</span> with good mechanical stability and promising performance for protein chromatography.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Acids&pg=6&id=EJ997045','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Acids&pg=6&id=EJ997045"><span>The <span class="hlt">Beads</span> of Translation: Using <span class="hlt">Beads</span> to Translate mRNA into a Polypeptide Bracelet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dunlap, Dacey; Patrick, Patricia</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>During this activity, by making <span class="hlt">beaded</span> bracelets that represent the steps of translation, students simulate the creation of an amino acid chain. They are given an mRNA sequence that they translate into a corresponding polypeptide chain (<span class="hlt">beads</span>). This activity focuses on the events and sites of translation. The activity provides students with a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=RNA&pg=3&id=EJ997045','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=RNA&pg=3&id=EJ997045"><span>The <span class="hlt">Beads</span> of Translation: Using <span class="hlt">Beads</span> to Translate mRNA into a Polypeptide Bracelet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dunlap, Dacey; Patrick, Patricia</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>During this activity, by making <span class="hlt">beaded</span> bracelets that represent the steps of translation, students simulate the creation of an amino acid chain. They are given an mRNA sequence that they translate into a corresponding polypeptide chain (<span class="hlt">beads</span>). This activity focuses on the events and sites of translation. The activity provides students with a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28745751','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28745751"><span>Structuring and calorie control of bakery products by templating batter with ultra melt-resistant food-grade hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thompson, Benjamin R; Horozov, Tommy S; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Paunov, Vesselin N</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>We report the use of a temperature insensitive, food-grade hydrogel to reduce the caloric density of pancakes that were prepared at temperatures much higher than the boiling point of water. This cheap, facile method utilises a mixed agar-methylcellulose hydrogel, which was blended to produce a slurry of hydrogel microbeads. The pancake batter was mixed with a controlled volume percentage of slurry of hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> and cooked. From bomb calorimetry experiments, the composites were found to have a reduced caloric density that reflects the volume percentage of hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> mixed with the batter. Using this procedure, we were able to reduce the caloric density of pancakes by up to 23 ± 3% when the volume percentage of hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> initially used was 25%. The method is not limited to pancakes and could potentially be applied to various other food products. The structure and morphology of the freeze-dried pancakes and pancake-hydrogel composites were investigated and pores of a similar size to the hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> were found, confirming that the <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> maintained their structure during the cooking process. There is scope for further development of this method by the encapsulation of nutritionally beneficial or flavour enhancing ingredients within the hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4295590','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4295590"><span>Immobilization of Aspergillus niger F7-02 Lipase in Polysaccharide Hydrogel <span class="hlt">Beads</span> of Irvingia gabonensis Matrix</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kareem, Safaradeen Olateju; Adio, Olayinka Quadri; Osho, Michael Bamitale</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The potential of polysaccharide Irvingia gabonensis matrix as enzyme immobilization support was investigated. Lipase of Aspergillus niger F7-02 was immobilized by entrapment using glutaraldehyde as the cross-linking agent and stabilized in ethanolic-formaldehyde solution. The pH and temperature stability and activity yield of the immobilized enzyme were determined. Such parameters as enzyme load, <span class="hlt">bead</span> size, number of <span class="hlt">beads</span>, and <span class="hlt">bead</span> reusability were also optimized. Adequate <span class="hlt">gel</span> strength to form stabilized <span class="hlt">beads</span> was achieved at 15.52% (w/v) Irvingia gabonensis powder, 15% (v/v) partially purified lipase, 2.5% (v/v) glutaraldehyde, and 3 : 1 (v/v) ethanolic-formaldehyde solution. There was 3.93-fold purification when the crude enzyme was partially purified in two-step purification using Imarsil and activated charcoal. Optimum lipase activity 75.3 Ug−1 was achieved in 50 mL test solution containing 15 <span class="hlt">beads</span> of 7 mm <span class="hlt">bead</span> size. Relative activity 80% was retained at eight repeated cycles. The immobilization process gave activity yield of 59.1% with specific activity of 12.3 Umg−1 and stabilized at optimum pH 4.5 and temperature 55°C. Thus the effectiveness and cost-efficiency of I. gabonensis as a polymer matrix for lipase immobilization have been established. PMID:25614829</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25614829','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25614829"><span>Immobilization of Aspergillus niger F7-02 Lipase in Polysaccharide Hydrogel <span class="hlt">Beads</span> of Irvingia gabonensis Matrix.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kareem, Safaradeen Olateju; Adio, Olayinka Quadri; Osho, Michael Bamitale</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The potential of polysaccharide Irvingia gabonensis matrix as enzyme immobilization support was investigated. Lipase of Aspergillus niger F7-02 was immobilized by entrapment using glutaraldehyde as the cross-linking agent and stabilized in ethanolic-formaldehyde solution. The pH and temperature stability and activity yield of the immobilized enzyme were determined. Such parameters as enzyme load, <span class="hlt">bead</span> size, number of <span class="hlt">beads</span>, and <span class="hlt">bead</span> reusability were also optimized. Adequate <span class="hlt">gel</span> strength to form stabilized <span class="hlt">beads</span> was achieved at 15.52% (w/v) Irvingia gabonensis powder, 15% (v/v) partially purified lipase, 2.5% (v/v) glutaraldehyde, and 3 : 1 (v/v) ethanolic-formaldehyde solution. There was 3.93-fold purification when the crude enzyme was partially purified in two-step purification using Imarsil and activated charcoal. Optimum lipase activity 75.3 Ug(-1) was achieved in 50 mL test solution containing 15 <span class="hlt">beads</span> of 7 mm <span class="hlt">bead</span> size. Relative activity 80% was retained at eight repeated cycles. The immobilization process gave activity yield of 59.1% with specific activity of 12.3 Umg(-1) and stabilized at optimum pH 4.5 and temperature 55°C. Thus the effectiveness and cost-efficiency of I. gabonensis as a polymer matrix for lipase immobilization have been established.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24461838','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24461838"><span>Synthesis of phenolic precursor-based porous carbon <span class="hlt">beads</span> in situ dispersed with copper-silver bimetal nanoparticles for antibacterial applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Khare, Prateek; Sharma, Ashutosh; Verma, Nishith</p> <p>2014-03-15</p> <p>Copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) bimetal-dispersed polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span> (~0.7 mm) were synthesized by suspension polymerization using phenol and formaldehyde monomers. The Cu:Ag bimetal nanoparticles (Nps) were incorporated into the polymeric matrix at the incipience of <span class="hlt">gel</span> formation during polymerization using an anionic surfactant. The prepared bimetal-doped polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span> were carbonized, activated using steam, and reduced in a hydrogen atmosphere to produce metal Nps-doped porous carbon <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The prepared bimetal (Cu and Ag) Nps-doped <span class="hlt">beads</span> exhibited significantly larger anti-bacterial activities than single-(Cu or Ag) metal-doped <span class="hlt">beads</span> for both gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria. The prepared materials contained the total optimized amounts of Cu and Ag. These amounts were smaller (approximately half) than the amount of single metal (Cu or Ag) required for preparing single-metal-doped <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Although Cu Nps exhibit lesser antibacterial activity than Ag Nps, it enhanced the porosity of the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The prepared bimetal <span class="hlt">beads</span> remained effective for 120 h, completely inhibiting the bacterial growth, and therefore, they are potential antibacterial agents for water purification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16134088','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16134088"><span>New biodegradable amphiphilic block copolymers of epsilon-caprolactone and delta-valerolactone catalyzed by novel aluminum metal <span class="hlt">complexes</span>. II. Micellization and solution to <span class="hlt">gel</span> transition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Jing; Jia, Lin; Hao, Qinghui; Li, Yang; Li, Qiaobo; Fang, Qiang; Cao, Amin</p> <p>2005-09-16</p> <p>In our previous study [J. Yang, L. Jia, L. Yin, J. Yu, Z. Shi, Q. Fang, A. Cao, Macromol. Biosci. 2004, 4, 1092.], new biodegradable copolymers of diblock methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(delta-valerolactone), and triblock poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) and poly(delta-valerolactone)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(delta-valero-lactone) bearing narrow molecular weight distributions and well-defined block architectures were reported to be prepared with our original aluminum metal <span class="hlt">complex</span> templates. This work will continue to report new investigations on their water solubility, and reversible thermal responsive micellization and solution to <span class="hlt">gel</span> transition in distilled water. Among the new synthesized copolymers (P1-P23), seven diblock or triblock samples (P3, P6, P7, P11, P12, P19, and P21) with higher hydrophilic building block populations were revealed to be water soluble under ambient temperature. By means of UV spectrophotometer attached with a thermostat, important parameters as critical micellization mass concentrations (CMCs) and critical micellization temperatures (CMTs) were characterized for these new amphiphile dilute aqueous solution with the aid of an lipophilic organic dye probe of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH). Furthermore, the critical gelation temperatures (CGTs) were simultaneously investigated for these water-soluble block copolymers via a tube tilting method. It was found that the CMC, CMT, and CGT were strongly affected by the population and nature of the hydrophobic building blocks, and a higher hydrophobicity of the new amphiphilic block copolymer finally led to lower CMC and CMT, and higher CGT. In addition, the salts of KBr and NaCl were found to play as a salt-out effect on the solution to <span class="hlt">gel</span> transition for the diblock P6 and triblock P11, exhibiting an interesting tunable gelation temperature close</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....1111391A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....1111391A"><span><span class="hlt">Beaded</span> streams of Arctic permafrost landscapes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arp, C. D.; Whitman, M. S.; Jones, B. M.; Grosse, G.; Gaglioti, B. V.; Heim, K. C.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Beaded</span> streams are widespread in permafrost regions and are considered a common thermokarst landform. However, little is known about their distribution, how and under what conditions they form, and how their intriguing morphology translates to ecosystem functions and habitat. Here we report on a Circum-Arctic inventory of <span class="hlt">beaded</span> streams and a watershed-scale analysis in northern Alaska using remote sensing and field studies. We mapped over 400 channel networks with <span class="hlt">beaded</span> morphology throughout the continuous permafrost zone of northern Alaska, Canada, and Russia and found the highest abundance associated with medium- to high-ice content permafrost in moderately sloping terrain. In the Fish Creek watershed, <span class="hlt">beaded</span> streams accounted for half of the drainage density, occurring primarily as low-order channels initiating from lakes and drained lake basins. <span class="hlt">Beaded</span> streams predictably transition to alluvial channels with increasing drainage area and decreasing channel slope, although this transition is modified by local controls on water and sediment delivery. Comparison of one <span class="hlt">beaded</span> channel using repeat photography between 1948 and 2013 indicate relatively stable form and 14C dating of basal sediments suggest channel formation may be as early as the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Contemporary processes, such as deep snow accumulation in stream gulches effectively insulates river ice and allows for perennial liquid water below most <span class="hlt">beaded</span> stream pools. Because of this, mean annual temperatures in pool beds are greater than 2 °C, leading to the development of perennial thaw bulbs or taliks underlying these thermokarst features. In the summer, some pools stratify thermally, which reduces permafrost thaw and maintains coldwater habitats. Snowmelt generated peak-flows decrease rapidly by two or more orders of magnitude to summer low flows with slow reach-scale velocity distributions ranging from 0.1 to 0.01 m s-1, yet channel runs still move water rapidly between pools</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16241383','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16241383"><span><span class="hlt">Bead</span>-Fourier path integral molecular dynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ivanov, Sergei D; Lyubartsev, Alexander P; Laaksonen, Aatto</p> <p>2003-06-01</p> <p>Molecular dynamics formulation of <span class="hlt">Bead</span>-Fourier path integral method for simulation of quantum systems at finite temperatures is presented. Within this scheme, both the <span class="hlt">bead</span> coordinates and Fourier coefficients, defining the path representing the quantum particle, are treated as generalized coordinates with corresponding generalized momenta and masses. Introduction of the Fourier harmonics together with the center-of-mass thermostating scheme is shown to remove the ergodicity problem, known to pose serious difficulties in standard path integral molecular dynamics simulations. The method is tested for quantum harmonic oscillator and hydrogen atom (Coulombic potential). The simulation results are compared with the exact analytical solutions available for both these systems. Convergence of the results with respect to the number of <span class="hlt">beads</span> and Fourier harmonics is analyzed. It was shown that addition of a few Fourier harmonics already improves the simulation results substantially, even for a relatively small number of <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The proposed <span class="hlt">Bead</span>-Fourier path integral molecular dynamics is a reliable and efficient alternative to simulations of quantum systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020000780','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020000780"><span>Aerogel <span class="hlt">Beads</span> as Cryogenic Thermal Insulation System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Rouanet, S.; Thompson, Karen (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>An investigation of the use of aerogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> as thermal insulation for cryogenic applications was conducted at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. Steady-state liquid nitrogen boiloff methods were used to characterize the thermal performance of aerogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> in comparison with conventional insulation products such as perlite powder and multilayer insulation (MLI). Aerogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> produced by Cabot Corporation have a bulk density below 100 kilograms per cubic meter (kg/cubic m) and a mean particle diameter of 1 millimeter (mm). The apparent thermal conductivity values of the bulk material have been determined under steady-state conditions at boundary temperatures of approximately 293 and 77 kelvin (K) and at various cold vacuum pressures (CVP). Vacuum levels ranged from 10(exp -5) torr to 760 torr. All test articles were made in a cylindrical configuration with a typical insulation thickness of 25 mm. Temperature profiles through the thickness of the test specimens were also measured. The results showed the performance of the aerogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> was significantly better than the conventional materials in both soft-vacuum (1 to 10 torr) and no-vacuum (760 torr) ranges. Opacified aerogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> performed better than perlite powder under high-vacuum conditions. Further studies for material optimization and system application are in progress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhRvE..67f6710I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhRvE..67f6710I"><span><span class="hlt">Bead</span>-Fourier path integral molecular dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ivanov, Sergei D.; Lyubartsev, Alexander P.; Laaksonen, Aatto</p> <p>2003-06-01</p> <p>Molecular dynamics formulation of <span class="hlt">Bead</span>-Fourier path integral method for simulation of quantum systems at finite temperatures is presented. Within this scheme, both the <span class="hlt">bead</span> coordinates and Fourier coefficients, defining the path representing the quantum particle, are treated as generalized coordinates with corresponding generalized momenta and masses. Introduction of the Fourier harmonics together with the center-of-mass thermostating scheme is shown to remove the ergodicity problem, known to pose serious difficulties in standard path integral molecular dynamics simulations. The method is tested for quantum harmonic oscillator and hydrogen atom (Coulombic potential). The simulation results are compared with the exact analytical solutions available for both these systems. Convergence of the results with respect to the number of <span class="hlt">beads</span> and Fourier harmonics is analyzed. It was shown that addition of a few Fourier harmonics already improves the simulation results substantially, even for a relatively small number of <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The proposed <span class="hlt">Bead</span>-Fourier path integral molecular dynamics is a reliable and efficient alternative to simulations of quantum systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100027520','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100027520"><span>Aerosol <span class="hlt">gels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sorensen, Christopher M. (Inventor); Chakrabarti, Amitabha (Inventor); Dhaubhadel, Rajan (Inventor); Gerving, Corey (Inventor)</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>An improved process for the production of ultralow density, high specific surface area <span class="hlt">gel</span> products is provided which comprises providing, in an enclosed chamber, a mixture made up of small particles of material suspended in gas; the particles are then caused to aggregate in the chamber to form ramified fractal aggregate <span class="hlt">gels</span>. The particles should have a radius (a) of up to about 50 nm and the aerosol should have a volume fraction (f.sub.v) of at least 10.sup.-4. In preferred practice, the mixture is created by a spark-induced explosion of a precursor material (e.g., a hydrocarbon) and oxygen within the chamber. New compositions of matter are disclosed having densities below 3.0 mg/cc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18379932','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18379932"><span>Alternate polyelectrolyte coating of chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> for extending drug release.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Srinatha, A; Pandit, Jayanta K</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In the present study, we addressed the factors modifying ciprofloxacin release from multiple coated <span class="hlt">beads</span>. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> were prepared by simple ionic cross-linking with sodium tripolyphoshate and coated with alginate and/or chitosan to prepare single, double, or multilayered <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The water uptake capacity depended on the nature of <span class="hlt">beads</span> (coated or uncoated) and pH of test medium. The number of coatings given to the <span class="hlt">beads</span> influenced ciprofloxacin release rate. The coating significantly decreased the drug release from the <span class="hlt">beads</span> in comparison to uncoated <span class="hlt">beads</span> (p < 0.001). When the <span class="hlt">beads</span> were given three coatings, viz., alginate, chitosan, and again alginate, the drug release appeared to follow the pattern exhibited by colon-targeted drug delivery systems with time dependent release behavior. The increase in coating formed a barrier for easy ingress of dissolution medium into the <span class="hlt">bead</span> matrix, reducing the diffusion of drug.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19023486','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19023486"><span>Heterogeneous immunoassays using magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> on a digital microfluidic platform.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sista, Ramakrishna S; Eckhardt, Allen E; Srinivasan, Vijay; Pollack, Michael G; Palanki, Srinivas; Pamula, Vamsee K</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>A digital microfluidic platform for performing heterogeneous sandwich immunoassays based on efficient handling of magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> is presented in this paper. This approach is based on manipulation of discrete droplets of samples and reagents using electrowetting without the need for channels where the droplets are free to move laterally. Droplet-based manipulation of magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> therefore does not suffer from clogging of channels. Immunoassays on a digital microfluidic platform require the following basic operations: <span class="hlt">bead</span> attraction, <span class="hlt">bead</span> washing, <span class="hlt">bead</span> retention, and <span class="hlt">bead</span> resuspension. Several parameters such as magnetic field strength, pull force, position, and buffer composition were studied for effective <span class="hlt">bead</span> operations. Dilution-based washing of magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> was demonstrated by immobilizing the magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> using a permanent magnet and splitting the excess supernatant using electrowetting. Almost 100% <span class="hlt">bead</span> retention was achieved after 7776-fold dilution-based washing of the supernatant. Efficient resuspension of magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> was achieved by transporting a droplet with magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> across five electrodes on the platform and exploiting the flow patterns within the droplet to resuspend the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. All the magnetic-<span class="hlt">bead</span> droplet operations were integrated together to generate standard curves for sandwich heterogeneous immunoassays on human insulin and interleukin-6 (IL-6) with a total time to result of 7 min for each assay.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2726047','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2726047"><span>Heterogeneous Immunoassays Using Magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> On a Digital Microfluidic Platform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sista, Ramakrishna S.; Eckhardt, Allen E.; Srinivasan, Vijay; Pollack, Michael G.; Palanki, Srinivas; Pamula, Vamsee K.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A digital microfluidic platform for performing heterogeneous sandwich immunoassays based on efficient handling of magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> is presented in this paper. This approach is based on manipulation of discrete droplets of samples and reagents using electrowetting without the need for channels where the droplets are free to move laterally. Droplet-based manipulation of magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> therefore does not suffer from clogging of channels. Immunoassays on a digital microfluidic platform require the following basic operations: <span class="hlt">bead</span> attraction, <span class="hlt">bead</span> washing, <span class="hlt">bead</span> retention, and <span class="hlt">bead</span> resuspension. Several parameters such as magnetic field strength, pull force, position, and buffer composition were studied for effective <span class="hlt">bead</span> operations. Dilution-based washing of magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> was demonstrated by immobilizing the magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> using a permanent magnet and splitting the excess supernatant using electrowetting. Almost 100% <span class="hlt">bead</span> retention was achieved after 7776 fold dilution-based washing of the supernatant. Efficient resuspension of magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> was achieved by transporting a droplet with magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> across five electrodes on the platform and exploiting the flow patterns within the droplet to resuspend the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. All the magnetic-<span class="hlt">bead</span> droplet operations were integrated together to generate standard curves for sandwich heterogeneous immunoassays on Human Insulin and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) with a total time to result of seven minutes for each assay. PMID:19023486</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApSS..257.6963Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApSS..257.6963Q"><span>Preparation of silver nanoparticle containing silica micro <span class="hlt">beads</span> and investigation of their antibacterial activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Quang, Dang Viet; Sarawade, Pradip B.; Hilonga, Askwar; Kim, Jong-Kil; Chai, Young Gyu; Kim, Sang Hoon; Ryu, Jae-Yong; Kim, Hee Taik</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>Silver nanoparticle containing silica micro <span class="hlt">beads</span> (Ag-NPBs) were successfully prepared by using sodium silicate, a cheap precursor, involving chemical reductive method. First, silica <span class="hlt">gel</span> was synthesized and crushed into micro <span class="hlt">beads</span> which have sizes ranging from 0.5 to 1 mm. Silica micro <span class="hlt">beads</span> were then modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane to graft amino functional groups onto their surface. Silver ions were loaded onto the surface of the modified silica and reduced to silver crystal by adding NaBH 4. The presence of silver nanoparticles as well as structure of materials was characterized with FT-IR, XRD, BET, FE-SEM, TEM, UV-vis spectrophotometer, and optical microscope. Silver nanoparticles with an average size about 5 nm were found in the pore and on the surface of amino functionalized silica <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Ag-NPBs samples were tested for their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ( E. coli). The antibacterial activity was examined by both zone inhibition and test tube test method. Biological results indicated that the synthesized materials have an excellent antibacterial performance against E. coli which was completely inhibited after 5 min contact with Ag-NPBs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.P23A2159H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.P23A2159H"><span>Cooling rates of lunar volcanic glass <span class="hlt">beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hui, H.; Hess, K. U.; Zhang, Y.; Peslier, A. H.; Lange, R. A.; Dingwell, D. B.; Neal, C. R.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>It is widely accepted that the Apollo 15 green and Apollo 17 orange glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> are of volcanic origin. The diffusion profiles of volatiles in these glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> are believed to be due to degassing during eruption (Saal et al., 2008). The degree of degassing depends on the initial temperature and cooling rate. Therefore, the estimations of volatiles in parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits depend on melt cooling rates. Furthermore, lunar glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> may have cooled in volcanic environments on the moon. Therefore, the cooling rates may be used to assess the atmospheric condition in an early moon, when volcanic activities were common. The cooling rates of glasses can be inferred from direct heat capacity measurements on the glasses themselves (Wilding et al., 1995, 1996a,b). This method does not require knowledge of glass cooling environments and has been applied to calculate the cooling rates of natural silicate glasses formed in different terrestrial environments. We have carried out heat capacity measurements on hand-picked lunar glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> using a Netzsch DSC 404C Pegasus differential scanning calorimeter at University of Munich. Our preliminary results suggest that the cooling rate of Apollo 17 orange glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> may be 12 K/min, based on the correlation between temperature of the heat capacity curve peak in the glass transition range and glass cooling rate. The results imply that the parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits may have contained more water initially than the early estimations (Saal et al., 2008), which used higher cooling rates, 60-180 K/min in the modeling. Furthermore, lunar volcanic glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> could have been cooled in a hot gaseous medium released from volcanic eruptions, not during free flight. Therefore, our results may shed light on atmospheric condition in an early moon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160014038','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160014038"><span>Cooling Rates of Lunar Volcanic Glass <span class="hlt">Beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hui, Hejiu; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Zhang, Youxue; Peslier, Anne; Lange, Rebecca; Dingwell, Donald; Neal, Clive</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>It is widely accepted that the Apollo 15 green and Apollo 17 orange glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> are of volcanic origin. The diffusion profiles of volatiles in these glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> are believed to be due to degassing during eruption (Saal et al., 2008). The degree of degassing depends on the initial temperature and cooling rate. Therefore, the estimations of volatiles in parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits depend on melt cooling rates. Furthermore, lunar glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> may have cooled in volcanic environments on the moon. Therefore, the cooling rates may be used to assess the atmospheric condition in an early moon, when volcanic activities were common. The cooling rates of glasses can be inferred from direct heat capacity measurements on the glasses themselves (Wilding et al., 1995, 1996a,b). This method does not require knowledge of glass cooling environments and has been applied to calculate the cooling rates of natural silicate glasses formed in different terrestrial environments. We have carried out heat capacity measurements on hand-picked lunar glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> using a Netzsch DSC 404C Pegasus differential scanning calorimeter at University of Munich. Our preliminary results suggest that the cooling rate of Apollo 17 orange glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> may be 12 K/min, based on the correlation between temperature of the heat capacity curve peak in the glass transition range and glass cooling rate. The results imply that the parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits may have contained more water initially than the early estimations (Saal et al., 2008), which used higher cooling rates, 60-180 K/min in the modeling. Furthermore, lunar volcanic glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> could have been cooled in a hot gaseous medium released from volcanic eruptions, not during free flight. Therefore, our results may shed light on atmospheric condition in an early moon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26241717','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26241717"><span>Two Year Old With Water <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Ingestion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jackson, Jami; Randell, Kimberly A; Knapp, Jane F</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Foreign body ingestion is a common pediatric complaint. Two case reports describe intestinal obstruction in children from an ingestion of a single superabsorbent water ball, requiring surgical removal. We describe nonsurgical management of an asymptomatic child who ingested approximately 100 superabsorbent water <span class="hlt">beads</span>.Because of the risk for subsequent intestinal obstruction, the patient was admitted for whole bowel irrigation. This case report is the first describing use of whole bowel irrigation in the management of an asymptomatic patient with multiple water <span class="hlt">beads</span> ingestion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22328392','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22328392"><span>Cytokine measurement using cytometric <span class="hlt">bead</span> arrays.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Castillo, Luis; MacCallum, Donna M</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Cytokines can be measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or multiplex assay. Both techniques are commonly used in immunology to detect the presence of antibody or antigen in a sample. However, multiplex <span class="hlt">bead</span> array technology provides the means to simultaneously measure multiple analytes in a single reaction, thereby saving time and resources. This method can detect up to 30 proteins at once, using a relatively small sample volume, without losing sensitivity, accuracy, or reproducibility. In this chapter, we describe the cytometric <span class="hlt">bead</span> array (CBA) approach to simultaneously measure multiple cytokines in biological samples such as spleen, kidney, or serum from mice infected with the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989JChPh..90.5729P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989JChPh..90.5729P"><span>Anisotropic <span class="hlt">bead</span> models for molecular hydrodynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pastor, Richard W.; Zwanzig, Robert</p> <p>1989-05-01</p> <p>Some qualitative effects of slip hydrodynamic boundary conditions can be incorporated into <span class="hlt">bead</span> models by replacing the scalar friction constant of a <span class="hlt">bead</span> with a friction tensor. Translational and rotational diffusion coefficients are calculated analytically and exactly for polygons, analytically but approximately for spherical shells, and numerically by the method of Bloomfield and de la Torre. The calculated diffusion constants of benzene agree with experiment; such agreement is not possible using scalar friction constants. Some comments are made about the transition from overall slip to stick hydrodynamic behavior when tensor friction constants are used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/836212','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/836212"><span><span class="hlt">Bead</span> and Process for Removing Dissolved Metal Contaminants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Summers, Bobby L., Jr.; Bennett, Karen L.; Foster, Scott A.</p> <p>2005-01-18</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">bead</span> is provided which comprises or consists essentially of activated carbon immobilized by crosslinked poly (carboxylic acid) binder, sodium silicate binder, or polyamine binder. The <span class="hlt">bead</span> is effective to remove metal and other ionic contaminants from dilute aqueous solutions. A method of making metal-ion sorbing <span class="hlt">beads</span> is provided, comprising combining activated carbon, and binder solution (preferably in a pin mixer where it is whipped), forming wet <span class="hlt">beads</span>, and heating and drying the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The binder solution is preferably poly(acrylic acid) and glycerol dissolved in water and the wet <span class="hlt">beads</span> formed from such binder solution are preferably heated and crosslinked in a convection oven.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2113074','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2113074"><span>Latex <span class="hlt">beads</span> as probes of a neural crest pathway: effects of laminin, collagen, and surface charge on <span class="hlt">bead</span> translocation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>In the trunk region of avian embryos, neural crest cells migrate along two pathways: dorsally just under the ectoderm, and ventrally between the neural tube and the somites. Previous work from this laboratory has shown that uncoated latex <span class="hlt">beads</span> are able to translocate along the ventral neural crest pathway after injection into young embryos; however, <span class="hlt">beads</span> coated with fibronectin are restricted from the ventral route ( Bronner -Fraser, M.E., 1982, Dev. Biol., 91: 50-63). Here, we extend these observations to determine the effects of other macromolecules on <span class="hlt">bead</span> distribution. The data show that laminin-coated <span class="hlt">beads</span>, like fibronectin-coated <span class="hlt">beads</span>, are restricted from the ventral pathway. In contrast, <span class="hlt">beads</span> coated with type I collagen translocate ventrally after injection. Because macromolecules have characteristic charge properties, changes in surface charge caused by coating the <span class="hlt">beads</span> may confound interpretation of the results. Electrostatic effects on <span class="hlt">bead</span> movement were examined by coating the latex <span class="hlt">beads</span> with polyamino acids in order to predictably alter the initial surface charge. The surface charge before injection was measured for <span class="hlt">beads</span> coated with amino acid polymers or with various biologically important macromolecules; the subsequent translocation ability of these <span class="hlt">beads</span> was then monitored in the embryo. Polylysine-coated <span class="hlt">beads</span> (positively charged) were restricted from the ventral pathway as were fibronectin and laminin-coated <span class="hlt">beads</span>, even though fibronectin and laminin <span class="hlt">beads</span> were both negatively charged. In contrast, polytyrosine -coated <span class="hlt">beads</span> ( neutrally charged) translocated ventrally as did negatively charged collagen-coated or uncoated <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The results demonstrate that no correlation exists between the charge properties on the latex <span class="hlt">bead</span> surface and their subsequent ability to translocate along the ventral pathway. Therefore, an adhesion mechanism independent of surface charge effects must explain the restriction or translocation of latex <span class="hlt">beads</span> on a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1224938','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1224938"><span>Preparation of <span class="hlt">bead</span>-tailed actin filaments: estimation of the torque produced by the sliding force in an in vitro motility assay.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Suzuki, N; Miyata, H; Ishiwata, S; Kinosita, K</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>By coating covalently the surface of a polystyrene <span class="hlt">bead</span> (diameter = 1 micron) with gelsolin, we have succeeded in attaching the <span class="hlt">bead</span> selectively at the barbed end of an actin filament and forming a 1:1 <span class="hlt">bead</span>-actin filament <span class="hlt">complex</span>. On a layer of heavy meromyosin on a nitrocellulose-coated coverglass, this <span class="hlt">bead</span>-actin filament <span class="hlt">complex</span> slid smoothly, trailing the <span class="hlt">bead</span> at its end. Therefore we called this preparation "<span class="hlt">bead</span>-tailed" actin filaments. The sliding velocity was indistinguishable from that of nonbeaded filaments. With use of this system, we tried to detect the axial rotation (rotation around the filament axis) in a sliding actin filament. Although a single <span class="hlt">bead</span> at the tail end did not serve as the marker for the axial rotation, we occasionally found another <span class="hlt">bead</span> bound to the tail <span class="hlt">bead</span>. In this case, the orientation of the <span class="hlt">bead</span>-aggregate could be followed continuously with a video monitor while the filament was sliding over heavy meromyosin. We observed that actin filaments slid over distances of many tens of micrometers without showing a complete turn of the <span class="hlt">bead</span>-aggregates. On the basis of the calculation of rotational friction drag on the <span class="hlt">bead</span>-aggregate, we estimate that the rotational component of the sliding force and the torque produced on a sliding actin filament (length < or = 10 microns) did not accumulate > 1 pN and 5 pN.nm, respectively. In the present system of randomly oriented heavy meromyosin lying on a nitrocellulose film without an external load. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:8770216</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870000506&hterms=Ramon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DRamon','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870000506&hterms=Ramon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DRamon"><span>Glass-<span class="hlt">Bead</span> Blasting Alters Antenna Surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fortenberry, James W.; Jilka, Richard L.; Kimmel, Boyce; Garcia, Ramon D.; Cofield, Richard E.; Klose, Gerhardt J.; O'Toole, Thomas</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Thermal-emissivity properties improved, and focal length adjusted. Experiments show gentle blasting with glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> produces beneficial changes in macroscopic surface shapes and in microscopic surface features of lightweight microwave reflectors made of thin metal reflective surfaces on deformable substrates of aluminum honeycomb.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28481524','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28481524"><span>Alginate <span class="hlt">Beads</span> Containing Lactase: Stability and Microstructure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Traffano-Schiffo, Maria Victoria; Aguirre Calvo, Tatiana R; Castro-Giraldez, Marta; Fito, Pedro J; Santagapita, Patricio R</p> <p>2017-06-12</p> <p>β-Galactosidase (lactase) is a widely used enzyme in the food industry; however, it has low stability against thermal and mechanical treatments. Due to this, the purpose of the present research was to analyze the encapsulation of lactase in alginate-Ca(II) <span class="hlt">beads</span> in order to maintain its enzymatic activity toward freezing, freezing/thawing, and storage. Also, the effect of the addition of trehalose, and arabic and guar gums and their influence on the microstructure as well as on thermal properties and molecular mobility were studied. Lactase was successfully encapsulated in alginate-Ca(II) <span class="hlt">beads</span>, and the inclusion of trehalose was critical for activity preservation toward treatments, being improved in guar gum-containing systems. The gums increased the Tm' values, which represents a valuable technological improvement. Finally, the presence of secondary excipients affected the microstructure, showing rods with smaller outer diameter and with lower compactness than alginate-Ca(II) <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Also, <span class="hlt">bead</span> composition greatly affects the size, shape, and relaxation times.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25439889','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25439889"><span>Wood mimetic hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> for enzyme immobilization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Park, Saerom; Kim, Sung Hee; Won, Keehoon; Choi, Joon Weon; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Hyung Joo; Yang, Yung-Hun; Lee, Sang Hyun</p> <p>2015-01-22</p> <p>Wood component-based composite hydrogels have potential applications in biomedical fields owing to their low cost, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. The controllable properties of wood mimetic composites containing three major wood components are useful for enzyme immobilization. Here, lipase from Candida rugosa was entrapped in wood mimetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> containing cellulose, xylan, and lignin by dissolving wood components with lipase in [Emim][Ac], followed by reconstitution. Lipase entrapped in cellulose/xylan/lignin <span class="hlt">beads</span> in a 5:3:2 ratio showed the highest activity; this ratio is very similar to that in natural wood. The lipase entrapped in various wood mimetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> showed increased thermal and pH stability. The half-life times of lipase entrapped in cellulose/alkali lignin hydrogel were 31- and 82-times higher than those of free lipase during incubation under denaturing conditions of high temperature and low pH, respectively. Owing to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and controllable properties, wood mimetic hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> can be used to immobilize various enzymes for applications in the biomedical, bioelectronic, and biocatalytic fields.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25820739','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25820739"><span>A <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based multiplex sandwich immunoassay to assess the abundance and posttranslational modification state of β-catenin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Groll, Nicola; Sommersdorf, Cornelia; Joos, Thomas O; Poetz, Oliver</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A system-wide analysis of cell signaling involves detecting and quantifying a range of proteins and their posttranslational modification states in the same cellular sample. We propose a protocol for a miniaturized, <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based array and describe its efficiency in characterizing the different forms and functions of β-catenin. The protocol provides detailed instructions for cell culture and <span class="hlt">bead</span> array assays that enable insights into <span class="hlt">complex</span> networks at the systems level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=265389','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=265389"><span>Use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms resolved by pulsed-field <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis for subspecies identification of mycobacteria in the Mycobacterium avium <span class="hlt">complex</span> and for isolation of DNA probes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Coffin, J W; Condon, C; Compston, C A; Potter, K N; Lamontagne, L R; Shafiq, J; Kunimoto, D Y</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Mycobacterial strains from the Mycobacterium avium <span class="hlt">complex</span> were compared with each other and with Mycobacterium phlei isolates by restriction endonuclease digestion of chromosomal DNA with SspI and analysis by pulsed-field <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis. Characteristic profiles were observed for known typed strains, and five groups were identified. Primary bovine isolates identified as Mycobacterium paratuberculosis by classical methods were shown to fall into both the M. paratuberculosis- and M. avium-like groups. M. paratuberculosis 18 was in the latter category. Two Mycobacterium intracellulare strains of different Schaefer serotypes had different digestion profiles. In addition, this system was exploited for the preparation of DNA probes by the isolation, digestion, and subcloning of DNA fragments separated by pulsed-field <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis. Probe JC12 hybridized only to M. avium <span class="hlt">complex</span> strains, but not to M. phlei, showing characteristic hybridization profiles for each of the groups previously identified by pulsed-field <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis. The approach taken in the study lends itself to the comparative analysis of members of the M. avium <span class="hlt">complex</span> and to the isolation and characterization of DNA probes with specificity for these mycobacteria. Images PMID:1352787</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......327H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......327H"><span>Development of Expanded Thermoplastic Polyurethane <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Foams and Their Sintering Mechanism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hossieny, Nemat</p> <p></p> <p>Polymer <span class="hlt">bead</span> foaming technology represents a breakthrough in the production of low density plastic foamed components that have a <span class="hlt">complex</span> geometrical structure and has helped to expand the market for plastic foams by broadening their applications. In this research, the unique microstructure of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) consisting of phase-separated hard segment (HS) domains dispersed in the soft segment (SS) matrix has been utilized to develop expanded TPU (E-TPU) <span class="hlt">bead</span> foam with microcellular morphologies and also to create inter-<span class="hlt">bead</span> sintering into three dimensional products using steam-chest molding machine. The phase-separation and crystallization behavior of the HS chains in the TPU microstructure was systematically studied in the presence of dissolved gases and also by changing the microstructure of TPU by melt-processing and addition of nano-/micro-sized additives. It was observed that the presence of gas improved the phase separation (i.e. crystallization) of HSs and increased the overall crystallinity of the TPU. It was also shown that by utilizing the HS crystalline domains, the overall foaming behavior of TPU (i.e. cell nucleation and expansion ratio) can be significantly improved. Moreover, the HS crystalline domains can be effective for both sintering of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> as well strengthening the individual <span class="hlt">beads</span> to improve the property of the moulded part. It was also observed that unlike other polymer <span class="hlt">bead</span> foaming technologies, the E-TPU <span class="hlt">bead</span> foaming sintering does not require formation of double melting-peak. The original broad melting peak existing in the TPU microstructure due to the wide size distribution of HS crystallites can be effectively utilized for the purpose of sintering as well as maintenance of the overall dimensional stability of the moulded part.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21964748','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21964748"><span>Bubble cell for magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> trapping in capillary electrophoresis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gassner, Anne-Laure; Proczek, Gaëlle; Girault, Hubert H</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>A bubble cell capillary classically used to extend the optical path length for UV-vis detection is employed here to trap magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>. With this system, a large amount of <span class="hlt">beads</span> can be captured without inducing a strong pressure drop, as it is the case with magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> trapped in a standard capillary, thereby having less effect on the experimental conditions. Using numerical simulations and microscopic visualizations, the capture of <span class="hlt">beads</span> inside a bubble cell was investigated with two magnet configurations. Pressure-driven and electro-osmotic flow velocities were measured for different amounts of protein-A-coated <span class="hlt">beads</span> or C18-functionalized <span class="hlt">beads</span> (RPC-18). Solid-phase extraction of a model antibody on protein-A <span class="hlt">beads</span> and preconcentration of fluorescein on RPC-18 <span class="hlt">beads</span> were performed as proof of concept experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27523075','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27523075"><span>Effect of Cellulose Acetate <span class="hlt">Beads</span> on Interleukin-23 Release.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nishise, Shoichi; Abe, Yasuhiko; Nomura, Eiki; Sato, Takeshi; Sasaki, Yu; Iwano, Daisuke; Yoshizawa, Kazuya; Yagi, Makoto; Sakuta, Kazuhiro; Ueno, Yoshiyuki</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Interleukin (IL)-23, which is released by activated monocytes and neutrophils, promotes production of high levels of IL-17 by T-helper 17 cells. Cellulose acetate (CA) <span class="hlt">beads</span> are used as carriers for granulocyte and monocyte (GM) adsorptive apheresis using Adacolumn. Contact between blood and CA <span class="hlt">beads</span> induces cytokine release; however, their inflammatory effects on IL-23 release are unclear. We aimed to clarify the effect of CA <span class="hlt">beads</span> on IL-23 release in vitro. We incubated peripheral blood with and without CA <span class="hlt">beads</span> and measured IL-23. Compared to blood samples incubated without CA <span class="hlt">beads</span>, blood samples incubated with CA <span class="hlt">beads</span> had significantly decreased amounts of IL-23. In conclusion, CA <span class="hlt">beads</span> inhibited IL-23 release from adsorbed GMs. The biological effects of this decrease in IL-23 release during GM adsorption to CA <span class="hlt">beads</span> need further clarification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27264502','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27264502"><span>Effect of methacrylic acid <span class="hlt">beads</span> on the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway and macrophage polarization in a subcutaneous injection mouse model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lisovsky, Alexandra; Zhang, David K Y; Sefton, Michael V</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) (MAA) <span class="hlt">beads</span> promote a vascular regenerative response when used in diabetic wound healing. Previous studies reported that MAA <span class="hlt">beads</span> modulated the expression of sonic hedgehog (Shh) and inflammation related genes in diabetic wounds. The aim of this work was to follow up on these observations in a subcutaneous injection model to study the host response in the absence of the confounding factors of diabetic wound healing. In this model, MAA <span class="hlt">beads</span> improved vascularization in healthy mice of both sexes compared to control poly(methyl methacrylate) (MM) <span class="hlt">beads</span>, with a stronger effect seen in males than females. MAA-induced vessels were perfusable, as evidenced from the CLARITY-processed images. In Shh-Cre-eGFP/Ptch1-LacZ non-diabetic transgenic mice, the increased vessel formation was accompanied by a higher density of cells expressing GFP (Shh) and β-Gal (patched 1, Ptch1) suggesting MAA enhanced the activation of the Shh pathway. Ptch1 is the Shh receptor and a target of the pathway. MAA <span class="hlt">beads</span> also modulated the inflammatory cell infiltrate in CD1 mice: more neutrophils and more macrophages were noted with MAA relative to MM <span class="hlt">beads</span> at days 1 and 7, respectively. In addition, MAA <span class="hlt">beads</span> biased macrophages towards a MHCII-CD206+ ("M2") polarization state. This study suggests that the Shh pathway and an altered inflammatory response are two elements of the <span class="hlt">complex</span> mechanism whereby MAA-based biomaterials effect vascular regeneration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19596091','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19596091"><span>In situ generation of sodium alginate/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite <span class="hlt">beads</span> as drug-controlled release matrices.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, J; Wang, Q; Wang, A</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>In order to find a new way to slow down the release of drugs and to solve the burst release problem of drugs from traditionally used hydrogel matrices, a series of novel pH-sensitive sodium alginate/hydroxyapatite (SA/HA) nanocomposite <span class="hlt">beads</span> was prepared by the in situ generation of HA micro-particles in the <span class="hlt">beads</span> during the sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> transition process of SA. The SA/HA nanocomposites were characterized by Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and field emission SEM in order to reveal their composition and surface morphology as well as the role that the in situ generated HA micro-particles play. The factors influencing the swelling behavior, drug loading and controlled release behavior of the SA/HA nanocomposite <span class="hlt">beads</span> were also investigated using diclofenac sodium (DS) as the model drug. The HA micro-particles act as inorganic crosslinkers in the nanocomposites, which could contract and restrict the movability of the SA polymer chains, and then change the surface morphology and decrease the swell ratio. Meanwhile, the entrapment efficiency of DS was improved, and the burst release of DS was overcome. The factors (including concentration of Ca(2+), reaction time and temperature) affecting the growth of HA micro-particles have a clear influence on the entrapment efficiency and release rate of DS. In this work, the nanocomposite <span class="hlt">beads</span> prepared under optimum condition could prolong the release of DS for 8h more compared with the pristine SA hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=drugs&pg=4&id=EJ972159','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=drugs&pg=4&id=EJ972159"><span>A Controlled Drug-Delivery Experiment Using Alginate <span class="hlt">Beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Farrell, Stephanie; Vernengo, Jennifer</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes a simple, cost-effective experiment which introduces students to drug delivery and modeling using alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Students produce calcium alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> loaded with drug and measure the rate of release from the <span class="hlt">beads</span> for systems having different stir rates, geometries, extents of cross-linking, and drug molecular weight.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2852877','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2852877"><span>Metal-Containing Polystyrene <span class="hlt">Beads</span> as Standards for Mass Cytometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Abdelrahman, Ahmed I.; Ornatsky, Olga; Bandura, Dmitry; Kinach, Robert; Dai, Sheng; Thickett, Stuart C.; Tanner, Scott</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>We examine the suitability of metal-containing polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span> for the calibration of a mass cytometer instrument, a single particle analyser based on an inductively coupled plasma ion source and a time of flight mass spectrometer. These metal-containing <span class="hlt">beads</span> are also verified for their use as internal standards for this instrument. These <span class="hlt">beads</span> were synthesized by multiple-stage dispersion polymerization with acrylic acid as a comonomer. Acrylic acid acts as a ligand to anchor the metal ions within the interior of the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Mass cytometry enabled the <span class="hlt">bead-by-bead</span> measurement of the metal-content and determination of the metal-content distribution. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> synthesized by dispersion polymerization that involved three stages were shown to have narrower <span class="hlt">bead-to-bead</span> variation in their lanthanide content than <span class="hlt">beads</span> synthesized by 2-stage dispersion polymerization. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> exhibited insignificant release of their lanthanide content to aqueous solutions of different pHs over a period of six months. When mixed with KG1a or U937 cell lines, metal-containing polymer <span class="hlt">beads</span> were shown not to affect the mass cytometry response to the metal content of element-tagged antibodies specifically attached to these cells. PMID:20390041</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Drugs&pg=5&id=EJ972159','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Drugs&pg=5&id=EJ972159"><span>A Controlled Drug-Delivery Experiment Using Alginate <span class="hlt">Beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Farrell, Stephanie; Vernengo, Jennifer</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes a simple, cost-effective experiment which introduces students to drug delivery and modeling using alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Students produce calcium alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> loaded with drug and measure the rate of release from the <span class="hlt">beads</span> for systems having different stir rates, geometries, extents of cross-linking, and drug molecular weight.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20390041','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20390041"><span>Metal-Containing Polystyrene <span class="hlt">Beads</span> as Standards for Mass Cytometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abdelrahman, Ahmed I; Ornatsky, Olga; Bandura, Dmitry; Baranov, Vladimir; Kinach, Robert; Dai, Sheng; Thickett, Stuart C; Tanner, Scott; Winnik, Mitchell A</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>We examine the suitability of metal-containing polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span> for the calibration of a mass cytometer instrument, a single particle analyser based on an inductively coupled plasma ion source and a time of flight mass spectrometer. These metal-containing <span class="hlt">beads</span> are also verified for their use as internal standards for this instrument. These <span class="hlt">beads</span> were synthesized by multiple-stage dispersion polymerization with acrylic acid as a comonomer. Acrylic acid acts as a ligand to anchor the metal ions within the interior of the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Mass cytometry enabled the <span class="hlt">bead-by-bead</span> measurement of the metal-content and determination of the metal-content distribution. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> synthesized by dispersion polymerization that involved three stages were shown to have narrower <span class="hlt">bead-to-bead</span> variation in their lanthanide content than <span class="hlt">beads</span> synthesized by 2-stage dispersion polymerization. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> exhibited insignificant release of their lanthanide content to aqueous solutions of different pHs over a period of six months. When mixed with KG1a or U937 cell lines, metal-containing polymer <span class="hlt">beads</span> were shown not to affect the mass cytometry response to the metal content of element-tagged antibodies specifically attached to these cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4263578','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4263578"><span>Lab-on-a-Chip Magneto-Immunoassays: How to Ensure Contact between Superparamagnetic <span class="hlt">Beads</span> and the Sensor Surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Eickenberg, Bernhard; Meyer, Judith; Helmich, Lars; Kappe, Daniel; Auge, Alexander; Weddemann, Alexander; Wittbracht, Frank; Hütten, Andreas</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Lab-on-a-chip immuno assays utilizing superparamagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> as labels suffer from the fact that the majority of <span class="hlt">beads</span> pass the sensing area without contacting the sensor surface. Different solutions, employing magnetic forces, ultrasonic standing waves, or hydrodynamic effects have been found over the past decades. The first category uses magnetic forces, created by on-chip conducting lines to attract <span class="hlt">beads</span> towards the sensor surface. Modifications of the magnetic landscape allow for additional transport and separation of different <span class="hlt">bead</span> species. The hydrodynamic approach uses changes in the channel geometry to enhance the capture volume. In acoustofluidics, ultrasonic standing waves force µm-sized particles onto a surface through radiation forces. As these approaches have their disadvantages, a new sensor concept that circumvents these problems is suggested. This concept is based on the granular giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect that can be found in <span class="hlt">gels</span> containing magnetic nanoparticles. The proposed design could be realized in the shape of paper-based test strips printed with <span class="hlt">gel</span>-based GMR sensors. PMID:25586262</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25586262','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25586262"><span>Lab-on-a-Chip Magneto-Immunoassays: How to Ensure Contact between Superparamagnetic <span class="hlt">Beads</span> and the Sensor Surface.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eickenberg, Bernhard; Meyer, Judith; Helmich, Lars; Kappe, Daniel; Auge, Alexander; Weddemann, Alexander; Wittbracht, Frank; Hütten, Andreas</p> <p>2013-09-17</p> <p>Lab-on-a-chip immuno assays utilizing superparamagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> as labels suffer from the fact that the majority of <span class="hlt">beads</span> pass the sensing area without contacting the sensor surface. Different solutions, employing magnetic forces, ultrasonic standing waves, or hydrodynamic effects have been found over the past decades. The first category uses magnetic forces, created by on-chip conducting lines to attract <span class="hlt">beads</span> towards the sensor surface. Modifications of the magnetic landscape allow for additional transport and separation of different <span class="hlt">bead</span> species. The hydrodynamic approach uses changes in the channel geometry to enhance the capture volume. In acoustofluidics, ultrasonic standing waves force µm-sized particles onto a surface through radiation forces. As these approaches have their disadvantages, a new sensor concept that circumvents these problems is suggested. This concept is based on the granular giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect that can be found in <span class="hlt">gels</span> containing magnetic nanoparticles. The proposed design could be realized in the shape of paper-based test strips printed with <span class="hlt">gel</span>-based GMR sensors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23910969','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23910969"><span>Construction of microscale structures in enclosed microfluidic networks by using a magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> based method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Yang, Jun; Yang, Zhong; Wan, Xiaoping; Hu, Ning; Zheng, Xiaolin</p> <p>2013-08-20</p> <p>A large number of microscale structures have been used to elaborate flowing control or <span class="hlt">complex</span> biological and chemical reaction on microfluidic chips. However, it is still inconvenient to fabricate microstructures with different heights (or depths) on the same substrate. These kinds of microstructures can be fabricated by using the photolithography and wet-etching method step by step, but involves time-consuming design and fabrication process, as well as complicated alignment of different masters. In addition, few existing methods can be used to perform fabrication within enclosed microfluidic networks. It is also difficult to change or remove existing microstructures within these networks. In this study, a magnetic-<span class="hlt">beads</span>-based approach is presented to build microstructures in enclosed microfluidic networks. Electromagnetic field generated by microfabricated conducting wires (coils) is used to manipulate and trap magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> on the bottom surface of a microchannel. These trapped <span class="hlt">beads</span> are accumulated to form a microscale pile with desired shape, which can adjust liquid flow, dock cells, modify surface, and do some other things as those fabricated microstructures. Once the electromagnetic field is changed, trapped <span class="hlt">beads</span> may form new shapes or be removed by a liquid flow. Besides being used in microfabrication, this magnetic-<span class="hlt">beads</span>-based method can be used for novel microfluidic manipulation. It has been validated by forming microscale dam structure for cell docking and modified surface for cell patterning, as well as guiding the growth of neurons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24737618','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24737618"><span>Simple enrichment of thiol-containing biomolecules by using zinc(II)-cyclen-functionalized magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fujioka, Haruto; Tsunehiro, Masaya; Kawaguchi, Maho; Kuramoto, Yasuhiro; Kurosaki, Hiromasa; Hieda, Yuhzo; Kinoshita-Kikuta, Emiko; Kinoshita, Eiji; Koike, Tohru</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>A simple and efficient method based on magnetic-<span class="hlt">bead</span> technology has been developed for the enrichment of thiol-containing biomolecules, such as l-glutathione and cysteine-containing peptides. The thiol-binding site on the <span class="hlt">bead</span> is a mononuclear <span class="hlt">complex</span> of zinc(II) with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (cyclen); this is linked to a hydrophilic cross-linked agarose coating on a particle that has a magnetic core. All steps for the thiol-affinity separation are conducted in aqueous buffers with 0.10 mL of the magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> in a 1.5 mL microtube. The entire separation protocol for thiol-containing compounds, from addition to elution, requires less than one hour per sample, provided the buffers and the zinc(II)-cyclen-functionalized magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> have been prepared in advance. The thiol-affinity magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> are reusable at least 15 times without a decrease in their thiol-binding ability, and they are stable for six months at room temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3397282','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3397282"><span>Location of Biomarkers and Reagents within Agarose <span class="hlt">Beads</span> of a Programmable Bio-nano-chip</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jokerst, Jesse V.; Chou, Jie; Camp, James P.; Wong, Jorge; Lennart, Alexis; Pollard, Amanda A.; Floriano, Pierre N.; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Simmons, Glennon W.; Zhou, Yanjie; Ali, Mehnaaz F.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The slow development of cost-effective medical microdevices with strong analytical performance characteristics is due to a lack of selective and efficient analyte capture and signaling. The recently developed programmable bio-nano-chip (PBNC) is a flexible detection device with analytical behavior rivaling established macroscopic methods. The PBNC system employs ≈300 μm-diameter <span class="hlt">bead</span> sensors composed of agarose “nanonets” that populate a microelectromechanical support structure with integrated microfluidic elements. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> are an efficient and selective protein-capture medium suitable for the analysis of <span class="hlt">complex</span> fluid samples. Microscopy and computational studies probe the 3D interior of the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The relative contributions that the capture and detection of moieties, analyte size, and <span class="hlt">bead</span> porosity make to signal distribution and intensity are reported. Agarose pore sizes ranging from 45 to 620 nm are examined and those near 140 nm provide optimal transport characteristics for rapid (<15 min) tests. The system exhibits efficient (99.5%) detection of <span class="hlt">bead</span>-bound analyte along with low (≈2%) nonspecific immobilization of the detection probe for carcinoembryonic antigen assay. Furthermore, the role analyte dimensions play in signal distribution is explored, and enhanced methods for assay building that consider the unique features of biomarker size are offered. PMID:21290601</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21290601','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21290601"><span>Location of biomarkers and reagents within agarose <span class="hlt">beads</span> of a programmable bio-nano-chip.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jokerst, Jesse V; Chou, Jie; Camp, James P; Wong, Jorge; Lennart, Alexis; Pollard, Amanda A; Floriano, Pierre N; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Simmons, Glennon W; Zhou, Yanjie; Ali, Mehnaaz F; McDevitt, John T</p> <p>2011-03-07</p> <p>The slow development of cost-effective medical microdevices with strong analytical performance characteristics is due to a lack of selective and efficient analyte capture and signaling. The recently developed programmable bio-nano-chip (PBNC) is a flexible detection device with analytical behavior rivaling established macroscopic methods. The PBNC system employs ≈300 μm-diameter <span class="hlt">bead</span> sensors composed of agarose "nanonets" that populate a microelectromechanical support structure with integrated microfluidic elements. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> are an efficient and selective protein-capture medium suitable for the analysis of <span class="hlt">complex</span> fluid samples. Microscopy and computational studies probe the 3D interior of the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The relative contributions that the capture and detection of moieties, analyte size, and <span class="hlt">bead</span> porosity make to signal distribution and intensity are reported. Agarose pore sizes ranging from 45 to 620 nm are examined and those near 140 nm provide optimal transport characteristics for rapid (<15 min) tests. The system exhibits efficient (99.5%) detection of <span class="hlt">bead</span>-bound analyte along with low (≈2%) nonspecific immobilization of the detection probe for carcinoembryonic antigen assay. Furthermore, the role analyte dimensions play in signal distribution is explored, and enhanced methods for assay building that consider the unique features of biomarker size are offered. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27829609','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27829609"><span>Pharmacokinetic Studies of <span class="hlt">Gel</span> System Containing Ibuprofen Solid Nanoparticles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nagai, Noriaki; Tanino, Tadatoshi; Ito, Yoshimasa</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>In the therapy of rheumatoid arthritis, ibuprofen (IBU) is widely used; however, it has been limited the clinical use by its systemic side effect, such as gastrointestinal lesions. Therefore, we prepared topical <span class="hlt">gel</span> ointment used IBU solid nanoparticles (IBUnano-<span class="hlt">gel</span> formulation). In addition, we demonstrated their anti-inflammatory effect by using arthritis model rat (adjuvant-induced arthritis rat, AA rat). The <span class="hlt">gel</span> formulations were prepared using additives (Carbopol 934, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and methylcellulose) and <span class="hlt">bead</span> mill-method. The IBU particle size in the IBUnano-<span class="hlt">gel</span> formulation was 208 nm. The increase in inflammation of the hind feet of AA rats was attenuated by the treatment with the IBUnano-<span class="hlt">gel</span> formulation, and preventive effect was higher than that of a <span class="hlt">gel</span> formulation containing IBUmicroparticles (IBUmicro-<span class="hlt">gel</span> formulation, mean particle size 85.4 μm); the accumulation and permeability through the skin of IBU from the IBUnano-<span class="hlt">gel</span> formulation were significantly larger in comparison with the IBUmicro-<span class="hlt">gel</span> formulation. Further, no gastrointestinal lesions were observed in AA rats following the repetitive administration of the 5% IBUnano-<span class="hlt">gel</span> formulation (0.30 g) for 42 days (once a day). These results suggest that the dermal application of IBU-nanoparticles provide effective and efficient therapy that spares patients from unwanted side effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19945281','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19945281"><span>New approach for petroleum hydrocarbon degradation using bacterial spores entrapped in chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barreto, R V G; Hissa, D C; Paes, F A; Grangeiro, T B; Nascimento, R F; Rebelo, L M; Craveiro, A A; Melo, V M M</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Spores of Bacillus subtilis LAMI008 were entrapped in 3-mm chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> and cross-linked with 0.3% glutaraldehyde for n-hexadecane biodegradation and biosurfactant recovery. When exposed to nutrients, the spores generated vegetative cells without morphological alterations as revealed by atomic force microscopy. The entrapped cells degraded almost 100% of 1% of n-hexadecane in medium supplemented with 1% glucose and produce biosurfactant within 48 h, as well as free cells. The number of viable cells inside the <span class="hlt">beads</span> was maintained throughout the n-hexadecane degradation process and the released biosurfactant was not used as a carbon source. Entrapment of bacterial spores in chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> overcomes problems with stability, storage, and long term cell viability encountered with vegetative cells. This approach can potentially be utilized for biodegradation of <span class="hlt">complex</span> compounds by entrapping spores of different species of bacteria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28087408','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28087408"><span>Effects of loading concentration, blood and synovial fluid on antibiotic release and anti-biofilm activity of bone cement <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dusane, Devendra H; Diamond, Scott M; Knecht, Cory S; Farrar, Nicholas R; Peters, Casey W; Howlin, Robert P; Swearingen, Matthew C; Calhoun, Jason H; Plaut, Roger D; Nocera, Tanya M; Granger, Jeffrey F; Stoodley, Paul</p> <p>2017-02-28</p> <p>Antibiotic loaded cement <span class="hlt">beads</span> are commonly used for the treatment of biofilm related orthopaedic periprosthetic infections; however the effects of antibiotic loading and exposure of <span class="hlt">beads</span> to body fluids on release kinetics are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of (i) antibiotic loading density (ii) loading amount (iii) material type and (iv) exposure to body fluids (blood or synovial fluid) on release kinetics and efficacy of antibiotics against planktonic and lawn biofilm bacteria. Short-term release into an agar <span class="hlt">gel</span> was evaluated using a fluorescent tracer (fluorescein) incorporated in the carrier materials calcium sulfate (CaSO4) and poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA). Different fluorescein concentrations in CaSO4 <span class="hlt">beads</span> were evaluated. Mechanical properties of fluorescein-incorporated <span class="hlt">beads</span> were analyzed. Efficacy of the antibiotics vancomycin (VAN) or tobramycin (TOB) alone and in combination was evaluated against lawn biofilms of bioluminescent strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Zones of inhibition of cultures (ZOI) were measured visually and using an in-vivo imaging system (IVIS). The influence of body fluids on release was assessed using CaSO4 <span class="hlt">beads</span> that contained fluorescein or antibiotics and were pre-coated with human blood or synovial fluid. The spread from the <span class="hlt">beads</span> followed a square root of time relationship in all cases. The loading concentration had no influence on short-term fluorescein release and pre-coating of <span class="hlt">beads</span> with body fluids did not affect short-term release or antibacterial activity. Compared to PMMA, CaSO4 had a more rapid short term rate of elution and activity against planktonic and lawn biofilms. This study highlights the importance of considering antibiotic loading and packing density when investigating the clinical application of bone cements for infection management.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3354777','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3354777"><span>Robust Optimization of Alginate-Carbopol 940 <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Formulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>López-Cacho, J. M.; González-R, Pedro L.; Talero, B.; Rabasco, A. M.; González-Rodríguez, M. L.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Formulation process is a very <span class="hlt">complex</span> activity which sometimes implicates taking decisions about parameters or variables to obtain the best results in a high variability or uncertainty context. Therefore, robust optimization tools can be very useful for obtaining high quality formulations. This paper proposes the optimization of different responses through the robust Taguchi method. Each response was evaluated like a noise variable, allowing the application of Taguchi techniques to obtain a response under the point of view of the signal to noise ratio. A L18 Taguchi orthogonal array design was employed to investigate the effect of eight independent variables involved in the formulation of alginate-Carbopol <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Responses evaluated were related to drug release profile from <span class="hlt">beads</span> (t50% and AUC), swelling performance, encapsulation efficiency, shape and size parameters. Confirmation tests to verify the prediction model were carried out and the obtained results were very similar to those predicted in every profile. Results reveal that the robust optimization is a very useful approach that allows greater precision and accuracy to the desired value. PMID:22645438</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARX34013A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARX34013A"><span>Dynamics of a DNA <span class="hlt">Gel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Adhikari, Ramesh; Bhattacharya, Aniket; Dogariu, Aristide</p> <p></p> <p>We study in silico the properties of a <span class="hlt">gel</span> consisting of DNA strands (modeled as semi-flexible chains) and linkers of varying flexibility, length, and topology. These linkers are envisioned and modeled as active components with additional attributes so as to mimic properties of a synthetic DNA <span class="hlt">gel</span> containing motor proteins. We use Brownian dynamics to directly obtain frequency dependent <span class="hlt">complex</span> shear moduli of the <span class="hlt">gel</span>. We further carry out force spectroscopy on these computer generated <span class="hlt">gels</span> and study the relaxation properties as a function of the important parameters of the model, e.g., densities and relative ratios of the DNAs and the linkers, the average life time of a link, etc. Our studies are relevant for designing synthetic bio-materials for both materials and medical applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1089400','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1089400"><span>Formulation and method for preparing <span class="hlt">gels</span> comprising hydrous hafnium oxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Collins, Jack L; Hunt, Rodney D; Montgomery, Frederick C</p> <p>2013-08-06</p> <p>Formulations useful for preparing hydrous hafnium oxide <span class="hlt">gels</span> contain a metal salt including hafnium, an acid, an organic base, and a <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agent. Methods for preparing <span class="hlt">gels</span> containing hydrous hafnium oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce <span class="hlt">gel</span> formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including hafnium, an acid, an organic base, and a <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1134306','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1134306"><span>Formulation and method for preparing <span class="hlt">gels</span> comprising hydrous aluminum oxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Collins, Jack L.</p> <p>2014-06-17</p> <p>Formulations useful for preparing hydrous aluminum oxide <span class="hlt">gels</span> contain a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agent. Methods for preparing <span class="hlt">gels</span> containing hydrous aluminum oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce <span class="hlt">gel</span> formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1084230','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1084230"><span>Formulation and method for preparing <span class="hlt">gels</span> comprising hydrous cerium oxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Collins, Jack L; Chi, Anthony</p> <p>2013-05-07</p> <p>Formulations useful for preparing hydrous cerium oxide <span class="hlt">gels</span> contain a metal salt including cerium, an organic base, and a <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agent. Methods for preparing <span class="hlt">gels</span> containing hydrous cerium oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce <span class="hlt">gel</span> formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including cerium, an organic base, and a <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6574445','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6574445"><span>A newly developed chromium(III) <span class="hlt">gel</span> technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sydansk, R.D. . Research Div.)</p> <p>1990-08-01</p> <p>Laboratory testing of a recently developed chromium(III) (Cr(III)) <span class="hlt">gel</span> technology is reported. The <span class="hlt">gels</span> can be used in conjunction with a number of oilfield treatments. The single-fluid acrylamide-polymer/Cr(III)-carboxylate aqueous <span class="hlt">gels</span> are formed by crosslinking acrylamide polymer with a Cr(III)-carboxylate-<span class="hlt">complex</span> crosslinking agent. Representative <span class="hlt">gel</span> compositions and associated <span class="hlt">gel</span> properties are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NJPh...16i2002G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NJPh...16i2002G"><span>Collective dynamics effect transient subdiffusion of inert tracers in flexible <span class="hlt">gel</span> networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Godec, Aljaž; Bauer, Maximilian; Metzler, Ralf</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Based on extensive Brownian dynamics simulations we study the thermal motion of a tracer <span class="hlt">bead</span> in a cross-linked, flexible <span class="hlt">gel</span> in the limit when the tracer particle size is comparable to or even larger than the equilibrium mesh size of the <span class="hlt">gel</span>. The analysis of long individual trajectories of the tracer demonstrates the existence of pronounced transient anomalous diffusion. From the time averaged mean squared displacement and the time averaged van Hove correlation functions we elucidate the many-body origin of the non-Brownian tracer <span class="hlt">bead</span> dynamics. Our results shed new light onto the ongoing debate over the physical origin of steric tracer interactions with structured environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EL.....9034001S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EL.....9034001S"><span>Disordered spherical <span class="hlt">bead</span> packs are anisotropic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schröder-Turk, G. E.; Mickel, W.; Schröter, M.; Delaney, G. W.; Saadatfar, M.; Senden, T. J.; Mecke, K.; Aste, T.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Investigating how tightly objects pack space is a long-standing problem, with relevance for many disciplines from discrete mathematics to the theory of glasses. Here we report on the fundamental yet so far overlooked geometric property that disordered mono-disperse spherical <span class="hlt">bead</span> packs have significant local structural anisotropy manifest in the shape of the free space associated with each <span class="hlt">bead</span>. Jammed disordered packings from several types of experiments and simulations reveal very similar values of the cell anisotropy, showing a linear decrease with packing fraction. Strong deviations from this trend are observed for unjammed configurations and for partially crystalline packings above 64%. These findings suggest an inherent geometrical reason why, in disordered packings, anisotropic shapes can fill space more efficiently than spheres, and have implications for packing effects in non-spherical liquid crystals, foams and structural glasses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JQSRT.179..105A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JQSRT.179..105A"><span>Discrete dipole approximation simulation of <span class="hlt">bead</span> enhanced diffraction grating biosensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arif, Khalid Mahmood</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We present the discrete dipole approximation simulation of light scattering from <span class="hlt">bead</span> enhanced diffraction biosensor and report the effect of <span class="hlt">bead</span> material, number of <span class="hlt">beads</span> forming the grating and spatial randomness on the diffraction intensities of 1st and 0th orders. The dipole models of gratings are formed by volume slicing and image processing while the spatial locations of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> on the substrate surface are randomly computed using discrete probability distribution. The effect of <span class="hlt">beads</span> reduction on far-field scattering of 632.8 nm incident field, from fully occupied gratings to very coarse gratings, is studied for various <span class="hlt">bead</span> materials. Our findings give insight into many difficult or experimentally impossible aspects of this genre of biosensors and establish that <span class="hlt">bead</span> enhanced grating may be used for rapid and precise detection of small amounts of biomolecules. The results of simulations also show excellent qualitative similarities with experimental observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2438400','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2438400"><span>Green stone <span class="hlt">beads</span> at the dawn of agriculture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bar-Yosef Mayer, Daniella E.; Porat, Naomi</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The use of <span class="hlt">beads</span> and other personal ornaments is a trait of modern human behavior. During the Middle and Upper Paleolithic periods, <span class="hlt">beads</span> were made out of shell, bone, ivory, egg shell, and occasionally of minerals. During the transition to agriculture in the Near East, stone, in particular green stone, was used for the first time to make <span class="hlt">beads</span> and pendants. We observed that a large variety of minerals of green colors were sought, including apatite, several copper-bearing minerals, amazonite and serpentinite. There seems to be an increase with time of distance from which the green minerals were sought. Because <span class="hlt">beads</span> in white, red, yellow, brown, and black colors had been used previously, we suggest that the occurrence of green <span class="hlt">beads</span> is directly related to the onset of agriculture. Green <span class="hlt">beads</span> and <span class="hlt">bead</span> blanks were used as amulets to ward off the evil eye and as fertility charms. PMID:18559861</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25650774','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25650774"><span>Noncovalent hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> as microcarriers for cell culture.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wieduwild, Robert; Krishnan, Swati; Chwalek, Karolina; Boden, Annett; Nowak, Mirko; Drechsel, David; Werner, Carsten; Zhang, Yixin</p> <p>2015-03-23</p> <p>Hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> as microcarriers could have many applications in biotechnology. However, <span class="hlt">bead</span> formation by noncovalent cross-linking to achieve high cell compatibility by avoiding chemical reactions remains challenging because of rapid gelation rates and/or low stability. Here we report the preparation of homogeneous, tunable, and robust hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> from peptide-polyethylene glycol conjugates and oligosaccharides under mild, cell-compatible conditions using a noncovalent crosslinking mechanism. Large proteins can be released from <span class="hlt">beads</span> easily. Further noncovalent modification allows for <span class="hlt">bead</span> labeling and functionalization with various compounds. High survival rates of embedded cells were achieved under standard cell culture conditions and after freezing the <span class="hlt">beads</span>, demonstrating its suitability for encapsulating and conserving cells. Hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> as functional system have been realized by generating protein-producing microcarriers with embedded eGFP-secreting insect cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18559861','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18559861"><span>Green stone <span class="hlt">beads</span> at the dawn of agriculture.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bar-Yosef Mayer, Daniella E; Porat, Naomi</p> <p>2008-06-24</p> <p>The use of <span class="hlt">beads</span> and other personal ornaments is a trait of modern human behavior. During the Middle and Upper Paleolithic periods, <span class="hlt">beads</span> were made out of shell, bone, ivory, egg shell, and occasionally of minerals. During the transition to agriculture in the Near East, stone, in particular green stone, was used for the first time to make <span class="hlt">beads</span> and pendants. We observed that a large variety of minerals of green colors were sought, including apatite, several copper-bearing minerals, amazonite and serpentinite. There seems to be an increase with time of distance from which the green minerals were sought. Because <span class="hlt">beads</span> in white, red, yellow, brown, and black colors had been used previously, we suggest that the occurrence of green <span class="hlt">beads</span> is directly related to the onset of agriculture. Green <span class="hlt">beads</span> and <span class="hlt">bead</span> blanks were used as amulets to ward off the evil eye and as fertility charms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17433454','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17433454"><span>Optimization of the virus concentration method using polyethyleneimine-conjugated magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> and its application to the detection of human hepatitis A, B and C viruses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Uchida, Eriko; Kogi, Mieko; Oshizawa, Tadashi; Furuta, Birei; Satoh, Koei; Iwata, Akiko; Murata, Mitsuhiro; Hikata, Mikio; Yamaguchi, Teruhide</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>To enhance the sensitivity of virus detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), a novel virus concentration method using polyethyleneimine (PEI)-conjugated magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> was developed in our previous study. However, several viruses could not be concentrated by this method. In this paper, the conditions of virus concentration were optimized to concentrate a wide range of viruses more efficiently. The PEI <span class="hlt">beads</span> adsorbed viruses more efficiently than other cationic polymers, and the optimum virus concentration was obtained under weak acidic conditions. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that several serum proteins, such as complement type 3, complement type 4 and immunoglobulin M (IgM), were co-adsorbed by the PEI <span class="hlt">beads</span>, suggesting that the <span class="hlt">beads</span> may adsorb viruses not only by direct adsorption, but also via immune <span class="hlt">complex</span> formation. This hypothesis was confirmed by the result that poliovirus, which PEI <span class="hlt">beads</span> could not adsorb directly, could be concentrated by the <span class="hlt">beads</span> via immune <span class="hlt">complex</span> formation. On the other hand, hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viruses were adsorbed directly by PEI <span class="hlt">beads</span> almost completely. Like poliovirus, hepatitis B virus (HBV) was concentrated efficiently by the addition of anti-HBV IgM. In conclusion, virus concentration using PEI <span class="hlt">beads</span> is a useful method to concentrate a wide range of viruses and can be used to enhance the sensitivity of detection of HAV, HBV and HCV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030107526','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030107526"><span>Ceramic Spheres From Cation Exchange <span class="hlt">Beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dynys, F. W.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Porous ZrO2 and hollow TiO2 spheres were synthesized from a strong acid cation exchange resin. Spherical cation exchange <span class="hlt">beads</span>, polystyrene based polymer, were used as a morphological-directing template. Aqueous ion exchange reaction was used to chemically bind (ZrO)(2+) ions to the polystyrene structure. The pyrolysis of the polystyrene at 600 C produces porous ZrO2 spheres with a surface area of 24 sq m/g with a mean sphere size of 42 microns. Hollow TiO2 spheres were synthesized by using the <span class="hlt">beads</span> as a micro-reactor. A direct surface reaction - between titanium isopropoxide and the resin <span class="hlt">beads</span> forms a hydrous TiO2 shell around the polystyrene core. The pyrolysis of the polystyrene core at 600 C produces hollow anatase spheres with a surface area of 42 sq m/g with a mean sphere size of 38 microns. The formation of ceramic spheres was studied by XRD, SEM and B.E.T. nitrogen adsorption measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/323716','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/323716"><span>Molybdate sorption by cross-linked chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span>: Dynamic studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Guibal, E.; Milot, C.; Roussy, J.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Recent trends in environmental monitoring have induced increasing development of new wastewater treatment techniques. Membrane processes, electrochemical techniques, or ion-exchange systems are widely used, but biosorption has been recognized in the last 30 years as a promising way to reduce the contamination of surface water issued from industrial effluent. Chitosan, a biopolymer extracted from crustacean shells, exhibits high sorption capacities for metal ion recovery. Sorption efficiency and removal rates are controlled by several diffusion mechanisms. Chitosan <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> have been prepared and have shown enhanced sorption performance in batch systems. This study shows that, in continuous systems, sorption capacities can reach 700 mg/g, a level close to that obtained in batch studies. The effects of metal concentration, flow velocity, and column size are investigated and demonstrate that, because of diffusion mechanisms, the optimum concentration range is approximately 50 to 100 mg/L. In column systems, the Biot number, though greater than 1, is lower than the Biot number obtained in batch systems, indicating that external mass transfer influences mass transfer at the low superficial velocity investigated in this work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28254320','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28254320"><span>The control of <span class="hlt">beads</span> diameter of <span class="hlt">bead</span>-on-string electrospun nanofibers and the corresponding release behaviors of embedded drugs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Tingxiao; Ding, Xin; Tian, Lingling; Hu, Jiyong; Yang, Xudong; Ramakrishna, Seeram</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bead</span>-on-string nanofibers, with appropriate control of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> diameter, are potential fibrous structures for efficient encapsulation of particle drugs in micron scales and could achieve controlled drug release for tissue engineering applications. In this study, the <span class="hlt">beads</span> diameter of electrospun <span class="hlt">bead</span>-on-string nanofibers was controlled by adjusting the concentration of spinning polymer, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and the solvent ratio of chloroform to acetone. The images of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested that <span class="hlt">bead</span>-on-string nanofibers could be successfully obtained only with a certain range of PLGA solution concentration. Moreover, with the decrease in the solvent ratio of chloroform to acetone, the range was left-shifted towards a smaller concentration. In addition, increase in the PLGA solution concentration within the range the <span class="hlt">beads</span> diameter became greater and the shape of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> changed from oval to slender when increasing the PLGA concentration within the range. The <span class="hlt">bead</span>-on-string nanofibers with different <span class="hlt">beads</span> diameter were further used to load micro-particle drugs of tetracycline hydrochloride, as a model drug, to examine the release behavior of nanofibers scaffold. The release profiles of drug loaded <span class="hlt">bead</span>-on-string nanofibers demonstrated the possibility to alleviate the burst drug release by means of <span class="hlt">beads</span> diameter control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5385560','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5385560"><span>Deterministic <span class="hlt">bead</span>-in-droplet ejection utilizing an integrated plug-in <span class="hlt">bead</span> dispenser for single bead–based applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, Hojin; Choi, In Ho; Lee, Sanghyun; Won, Dong-Joon; Oh, Yong Suk; Kwon, Donghoon; Sung, Hyung Jin; Jeon, Sangmin; Kim, Joonwon</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents a deterministic <span class="hlt">bead</span>-in-droplet ejection (BIDE) technique that regulates the precise distribution of microbeads in an ejected droplet. The deterministic BIDE was realized through the effective integration of a microfluidic single-particle handling technique with a liquid dispensing system. The integrated <span class="hlt">bead</span> dispenser facilitates the transfer of the desired number of <span class="hlt">beads</span> into a dispensing volume and the on-demand ejection of <span class="hlt">bead</span>-encapsulated droplets. Single bead–encapsulated droplets were ejected every 3 s without any failure. Multiple-<span class="hlt">bead</span> dispensing with deterministic control of the number of <span class="hlt">beads</span> was demonstrated to emphasize the originality and quality of the proposed dispensing technique. The dispenser was mounted using a plug-socket type connection, and the dispensing process was completely automated using a programmed sequence without any microscopic observation. To demonstrate a potential application of the technique, <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based streptavidin–biotin binding assay in an evaporating droplet was conducted using ultralow numbers of <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The results evidenced the number of <span class="hlt">beads</span> in the droplet crucially influences the reliability of the assay. Therefore, the proposed deterministic <span class="hlt">bead</span>-in-droplet technology can be utilized to deliver desired <span class="hlt">beads</span> onto a reaction site, particularly to reliably and efficiently enrich and detect target biomolecules. PMID:28393911</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11755397','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11755397"><span>A one-<span class="hlt">bead</span>, one-stock solution approach to chemical genetics: part 2.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Clemons, P A; Koehler, A N; Wagner, B K; Sprigings, T G; Spring, D R; King, R W; Schreiber, S L; Foley, M A</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>Chemical genetics provides a systematic means to study biology using small molecules to effect spatial and temporal control over protein function. As complementary approaches, phenotypic and proteomic screens of structurally diverse and <span class="hlt">complex</span> small molecules may yield not only interesting individual probes of biological function, but also global information about small molecule collections and the interactions of their members with biological systems. We report a general high-throughput method for converting high-capacity <span class="hlt">beads</span> into arrayed stock solutions amenable to both phenotypic and proteomic assays. Polystyrene <span class="hlt">beads</span> from diversity-oriented syntheses were arrayed individually into wells. Bound compounds were cleaved, eluted, and resuspended to generate 'mother plates' of stock solutions. The second phase of development of our technology platform includes optimized cleavage and elution conditions, a novel <span class="hlt">bead</span> arraying method, and robotic distribution of stock solutions of small molecules into 'daughter plates' for direct use in chemical genetic assays. This library formatting strategy enables what we refer to as annotation screening, in which every member of a library is annotated with biological assay data. This phase was validated by arraying and screening 708 members of an encoded 4320-member library of structurally diverse and <span class="hlt">complex</span> dihydropyrancarboxamides. Our 'one-<span class="hlt">bead</span>, multiple-stock solution' library formatting strategy is a central element of a technology platform aimed at advancing chemical genetics. Annotation screening provides a means for biology to inform chemistry, complementary to the way that chemistry can inform biology in conventional ('investigator-initiated') small molecule screens.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=516445','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=516445"><span>Performance of dye-affinity <span class="hlt">beads</span> for aluminium removal in magnetically stabilized fluidized bed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yavuz, Handan; Say, Ridvan; Andaç, Müge; Bayraktar, Necmi; Denizli, Adil</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Background Aluminum has recently been recognized as a causative agent in dialysis encephalopathy, osteodystrophy, and microcytic anemia occurring in patients with chronic renal failure who undergo long-term hemodialysis. Only a small amount of Al(III) in dialysis solutions may give rise to these disorders. Methods Magnetic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (mPHEMA) <span class="hlt">beads</span> in the size range of 80–120 μm were produced by free radical co-polymerization of HEMA and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) in the presence of magnetite particles (Fe3O4). Then, metal <span class="hlt">complexing</span> ligand alizarin yellow was covalently attached onto mPHEMA <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Alizarin yellow loading was 208 μmol/g. These <span class="hlt">beads</span> were used for the removal of Al(III) ions from tap and dialysis water in a magnetically stabilized fluidized bed. Results Al(III) adsorption capacity of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> decreased with an increase in the flow-rate. The maximum Al(III) adsorption was observed at pH 5.0. Comparison of batch and magnetically stabilized fluidized bed (MSFB) maximum capacities determined using Langmuir isotherms showed that dynamic capacity (17.5 mg/g) was somewhat higher than the batch capacity (11.8 mg/g). The dissociation constants for Al(III) were determined using the Langmuir isotherm equation to be 27.3 mM (MSFB) and 6.7 mM (batch system), indicating medium affinity, which was typical for pseudospecific affinity ligands. Al(III) ions could be repeatedly adsorbed and desorbed with these <span class="hlt">beads</span> without noticeable loss in their Al(III) adsorption capacity. Conclusions Adsorption of Al(III) demonstrate the affinity of magnetic dye-affinity <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The MSFB experiments allowed us to conclude that this inexpensive sorbent system may be an important alternative to the existing adsorbents in the removal of aluminium. PMID:15329149</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4381389','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4381389"><span>Development of floating chitosan-xanthan <span class="hlt">beads</span> for oral controlled release of glipizide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kulkarni, Nilesh; Wakte, Pravin; Naik, Jitendra</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Introduction: The aim of the present work was to develop controlled release, floating and mucoadhesive <span class="hlt">beads</span> of glipizide by using the polyionic <span class="hlt">complexation</span> technique. Plasma half-life of glipizide being 2–4 h was selected for development of controlled release dosage form. Methods: Formulation batches were designed by employing chitosan as cationic and xanthan gum as anionic polymers. In vitro drug release was evaluated for the period of 24 h in phosphate buffer pH 7.4. Results: Sustained release of drug was observed in all formulation batches with % drug release ranging from 87.50% to 100.67%, no significant effect on the drug release was observed after varying chitosan to xanthan gum ratio. Encapsulation efficiency was found to be in the range of 79.48 ± 1.10–94.48 ± 1.52. In vitro bioadhesion studies showed that <span class="hlt">beads</span> had satisfactory bioadhesive strength ranging from 67.11% ± 1.73% to 93.12% ± 1.56%. Buoyancy studies revealed that <span class="hlt">beads</span> possess comparable floating capacity in the gastric fluids. Swelling kinetics was carried in pH 1.2 and 7.4 buffers. Significant difference (P < 0.05) in swelling kinetics was observed. Drug to polymer interaction was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry studies. Scanning electron microscopy studies revealed that formed <span class="hlt">beads</span> were discrete with rough and wrinkled surfaces. Conclusions: In conclusion, <span class="hlt">beads</span> were successfully formed by employing chitosan and xanthan gum and showed to possess sustained release effect. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> also showed pH dependent swelling kinetics, this property can also be applied for the drugs which are susceptible to the acidic environment in the stomach, and comparable bioadhesive and floating properties were also observed. PMID:25838991</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20123210','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20123210"><span>Drug-eluting <span class="hlt">beads</span> for liver embolization: concentration of doxorubicin in tissue and in <span class="hlt">beads</span> in a pig model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Namur, Julien; Wassef, Michel; Millot, Jean-Marc; Lewis, Andrew L; Manfait, Michel; Laurent, Alexandre</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>To evaluate the local tissue concentrations of the antineoplastic agent doxorubicin and the amount of drug still present inside drug delivery embolization <span class="hlt">beads</span> at different time points after embolization and to compare doxorubicin levels with histologic modifications around the <span class="hlt">beads</span> in a pig liver model. It was hypothesized that doxorubicin-eluting <span class="hlt">beads</span> maintain cytotoxic concentrations of drug locally over a period of several weeks, as suggested by in vitro elution tests. Left lobe hepatic artery embolization was performed in 10 pigs with 100-300-microm or 700-900-microm <span class="hlt">beads</span> loaded with 37.5 mg doxorubicin/mL. Control unloaded 100-300-microm <span class="hlt">beads</span> were injected in five pigs. Livers were sampled 28 days or 90 days after embolization. The amount of drug retained inside the <span class="hlt">beads</span> was assessed with infrared microspectroscopy. Doxorubicin concentration and distribution in the tissue around the <span class="hlt">beads</span> were determined with microspectrofluorimetry and compared with tissue modifications on hematein eosin saffron-stained sections. Doxorubicin-eluting <span class="hlt">beads</span> eluted 43% of their initial drug load after 28 days and 89% after 90 days. Doxorubicin was present in tissues around the <span class="hlt">beads</span> at both time points, with a significant decrease over time (P = .0004). The drug was detected at distances as far as 600 microm from the <span class="hlt">bead</span> edge. Doxorubicin tissue concentrations ranged from 0.55 microM to 6.80 microM, [corrected] which are cytotoxic levels in hepatocyte cell cultures. High concentrations of drug were associated with coagulative necrosis of liver parenchyma. Doxorubicin-eluting <span class="hlt">beads</span> 100-300 microm in size induced more necrosis than 700-900-microm <span class="hlt">beads</span> (P = .0036). Doxorubicin-eluting <span class="hlt">beads</span> deliver high concentrations of the drug over a period of at least 3 months at several hundred micrometers from the <span class="hlt">bead</span>, leading to significant cytotoxic effects. Copyright (c) 2010 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25006685','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25006685"><span>Surface grafted chitosan <span class="hlt">gels</span>. Part II. <span class="hlt">Gel</span> formation and characterization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Chao; Thormann, Esben; Claesson, Per M; Tyrode, Eric</p> <p>2014-07-29</p> <p>Responsive biomaterial hydrogels attract significant attention due to their biocompatibility and degradability. In order to make chitosan based <span class="hlt">gels</span>, we first graft one layer of chitosan to silica, and then build a chitosan/poly(acrylic acid) multilayer using the layer-by-layer approach. After cross-linking the chitosan present in the polyelectrolyte multilayer, poly(acrylic acid) is partly removed by exposing the multilayer structure to a concentrated carbonate buffer solution at a high pH, leaving a surface-grafted cross-linked <span class="hlt">gel</span>. Chemical cross-linking enhances the <span class="hlt">gel</span> stability against detachment and decomposition. The chemical reaction between gluteraldehyde, the cross-linking agent, and chitosan was followed in situ using total internal reflection Raman (TIRR) spectroscopy, which provided a molecular insight into the <span class="hlt">complex</span> reaction mechanism, as well as the means to quantify the cross-linking density. The amount of poly(acrylic acid) trapped inside the surface grafted films was found to decrease with decreasing cross-linking density, as confirmed in situ using TIRR, and ex situ by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements on dried films. The responsiveness of the chitosan-based <span class="hlt">gels</span> with respect to pH changes was probed by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and TIRR. Highly cross-linked <span class="hlt">gels</span> show a small and fully reversible behavior when the solution pH is switched between pH 2.7 and 5.7. In contrast, low cross-linked <span class="hlt">gels</span> are more responsive to pH changes, but the response is fully reversible only after the first exposure to the acidic solution, once an internal restructuring of the <span class="hlt">gel</span> has taken place. Two distinct pKa's for both chitosan and poly(acrylic acid), were determined for the cross-linked structure using TIRR. They are associated with populations of chargeable groups displaying either a bulk like dissociation behavior or forming ionic <span class="hlt">complexes</span> inside the hydrogel film.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23581779','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23581779"><span>Fabrication and characterization of macroporous epichlorohydrin cross-linked alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> as protein adsorbent.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Weican; Ji, Xiaofei; Sun, Caiyun; Lu, Xuemei</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Porous epichlorohydrin cross-linked alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> (ECAB) were prepared by the following method. Na-alginate solution containing Na2SO4 was introduced dropwise into CaCl2 solution to simultaneously form CaSO4 precipitate and Ca-alginate <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The resultant <span class="hlt">beads</span> were cross-linked with epichlorohydrin and then thoroughly washed with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution to remove CaSO4. The structural features of porous ECAB were assessed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and experiments on water content and adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The results showed that macroporous ECAB can be obtained when the mass ratio of sodium sulfate to sodium alginate is 4:1. The adsorption behavior of the macroporous ECAB was well described by the Langmuir isotherm with maximum adsorption capacity equal to 740 mg BSA/g dry weight in 50 mM Na2HPO4-citric acid buffer (pH 4.0). BSA was more effectively adsorbed by macroporous ECAB at around pH 3 and the mechanism of the adsorption of BSA to the ECAB was ion exchange. Finally, experiments of a concentration of 1 mg/mL BSA using macroporous ECAB were performed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18656989','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18656989"><span>Synthesis, screening, and sequencing of cysteine-rich one-<span class="hlt">bead</span> one-compound peptide libraries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Juskowiak, Gary L; McGee, Christopher J; Greaves, John; Van Vranken, David L</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Cysteine-rich peptides are valued as tags for biarsenical fluorophores and as environmentally important reagents for binding toxic heavy metals. Due to the inherent difficulties created by cysteine, the power of one-<span class="hlt">bead</span> one-compound (OBOC) libraries has never been applied to the discovery of short cysteine-rich peptides. We have developed the first method for the synthesis, screening, and sequencing of cysteine-rich OBOC peptide libraries. First, we synthesized a heavily biased cysteine-rich OBOC library, incorporating 50% cysteine at each position (Ac-X8-KM-Tenta<span class="hlt">Gel</span>). Then, we developed conditions for cysteine alkylation, cyanogen bromide cleavage, and direct MS/MS sequencing of that library at the single <span class="hlt">bead</span> level. The sequencing efficiency of this library was comparable to a traditional cysteine-free library. To validate screening of cysteine-rich OBOC libraries, we reacted a library with the biarsenical FlAsH and identified <span class="hlt">beads</span> bearing the known biarsenical-binding motif (CCXXCC). These results enable OBOC libraries to be used in high-throughput discovery of cysteine-rich peptides for protein tagging, environmental remediation of metal contaminants, or cysteine-rich pharmaceuticals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16619210','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16619210"><span>Encapsulation of plant growth-promoting bacteria in alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> enriched with humic acid.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Young, Chiu-Chung; Rekha, P D; Lai, Wei-An; Arun, A B</p> <p>2006-09-05</p> <p>The key to achieving successful, reproducible results following the introduction of beneficial microbes into soil relies on the survival rate of the inoculated bacteria in a heterogeneous soil environment and hence an improved encapsulation method was developed. Owing to the constraints associated with the inoculum formulation, in this study, encapsulation of a plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) isolate Bacillus subtilis CC-pg104 was attempted with alginate by enriching the <span class="hlt">bead</span> microenvironment with humic acid. High viability of the encapsulated bacteria was observed with minimum cell loss upon storage for 5 months. Steady and constant cell release from the <span class="hlt">bead</span> was observed for 1 week at different pH. Encapsulated cells remained active as evidenced by their ability to solubilize calcium phosphate in vitro. Successful plant growth promotion of lettuce by the encapsulated bacteria under gnotobiotic and sterile environment was also achieved. Feasibility of this improved encapsulation technique is mainly due to the dual benefits of humic acid to microbe and plant and its chemical properties allowing an easy mixing with alginate without interfering in the formation of the alginate <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> by cross-linking with Ca2+ ions. Thus, the encapsulation method described in this study can be effectively used to protect the PGPB inoculum from adverse conditions of the soil for their successful establishment in the rhizosphere. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJMMM..24..550N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJMMM..24..550N"><span>Effect of coaxial laser cladding parameters on <span class="hlt">bead</span> formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Noskov, A. I.; Gilmutdinov, A. Kh.; Yanbaev, R. M.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>We investigated the shape and morphology of nickel-based powder particles (Sulzer Metco) and coatings produced by laser gas-powder deposition onto steel substrates. Laser deposition was performed using an LC-10 IPG-Photonics laser <span class="hlt">complex</span> equipped with a 10-kW fiber laser. The shape and microstructure of the samples were studied using optical and electronic microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The results showed that the deposition speed and laser power significantly influenced the shape and size of the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The depth of diffusion of nickel into the steel substrate after deposition was less than 20 μm; the microstructure of the resulting coating was fcc Fe3Ni. As a result, detailed information about the form and shape of the filler powder, modes of its deposition, and the resulting coating structure was obtained; this information is important for the production of high-quality products by additive technologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23392210','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23392210"><span>Attomolar protein detection using a magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> surface coverage assay.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tekin, H Cumhur; Cornaglia, Matteo; Gijs, Martin A M</p> <p>2013-03-21</p> <p>We demonstrate a microfluidic method for ultra-sensitive protein detection in serum. First, 'large' (2.8 μm) antibody-functionalized magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> specifically capture antigen from a serum matrix under active microfluidic mixing. Subsequently, the large <span class="hlt">beads</span> loaded with the antigens are gently exposed to a surface pattern of fixed 'small' (1.0 μm) antibody-coated magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>. During the exposure, attractive magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> dipole-dipole interactions improve the contact between the two <span class="hlt">bead</span> types and help the antigen-antibody immunocomplex formation, while non-specific large <span class="hlt">bead</span> adsorption is limited by exploiting viscous drag forces in the microfluidic channel on the small-<span class="hlt">bead</span> pattern. This efficient antigen-antibody recognition and binding mechanism mimics a biological process of selective recognition of tissue molecules, like is the case when leukocytes roll and slow down on blood vessel walls by selectin-mediated adhesion. After exposure of the large <span class="hlt">beads</span> to the pattern of small <span class="hlt">beads</span>, the antigen concentration is detected by simply counting the number of surface pattern-bound large magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The new technique allows detection of proteins down to the sub-zeptomole range. In particular, we demonstrate detection of only 200 molecules of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) in a serum sample volume of 5 μL, corresponding to a concentration of 60 attomolar or 1 fg mL(-1).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23094984','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23094984"><span>Discovery of novel integrin ligands from combinatorial libraries using a multiplex "<span class="hlt">beads</span> on a <span class="hlt">bead</span>" approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cho, Choi-Fong; Amadei, Giulio A; Breadner, Daniel; Luyt, Leonard G; Lewis, John D</p> <p>2012-11-14</p> <p>The development of screening approaches to identify novel affinity ligands has paved the way for a new generation of molecular targeted nanomedicines. Conventional methods typically bias the display of the target protein to ligands during the screening process. We have developed an unbiased multiplex "<span class="hlt">beads</span> on a <span class="hlt">bead</span>" strategy to isolate, characterize, and validate high affinity ligands from OBOC libraries. Novel non-RGD peptides that target α(v)β(3) integrin were discovered that do not affect cancer or endothelial cell biology. The peptides identified here represent novel integrin-targeted agents that can be used to develop targeted nanomedicines without the risk of increased tumor invasion and metastasis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20560531','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20560531"><span>Novel spectrofluorimetric method for measuring the activity of the enzyme alpha-L-fucosidase using the nano composite optical sensor samarium(III)-doxycycline <span class="hlt">complex</span> doped in sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Attia, M S; Othman, A M; Aboaly, M M; Abdel-Mottaleb, M S A</p> <p>2010-07-15</p> <p>A novel, simple, sensitive, and precise spectrofluorimetric method was developed for measuring the activity of the enzyme alpha-L-fucosidase (AFU). The method was based upon measuring the quenching of the luminescence intensity of the produced yellow colored <span class="hlt">complex</span> ion associate of 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol [2-CNP] and a nano composite optical sensor samarium(III)-doxycycline [Sm(3+)-DC](+) <span class="hlt">complex</span> in a sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix at 645 nm. The remarkable quenching of the luminescence intensity of the [Sm(3+)-DC](+) <span class="hlt">complex</span> doped in a sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix by various concentrations of the reagent [2-CNP] was successfully used as an optical sensor for the assessment of AFU activity. The calibration plot was achieved over the concentration range 3.4 x 10(-9)-1.0 x 10(-6) mol L(-1) [2-CNP] with a correlation coefficient of 0.99 and a detection limit of 6.0 x 10(-10) mol L(-1). The method was used satisfactorily for the assessment of the AFU activity in a number of serum samples collected from various patients. A significant correlation between the luminescence activity of the enzyme AFU measured by the proposed procedure and the standard method was applied to patients and controls. The method proceeds without practical artifacts compared to the standard method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22485921','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22485921"><span>SDS-Polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">Gel</span> Electrophoresis of Proteins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sambrook, Joseph; Russell, David W</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>INTRODUCTIONThis protocol describes the separation of proteins by SDS-polyacrylamide <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis. SDS is used with a reducing agent and heat to dissociate the proteins. SDS-polypeptide <span class="hlt">complexes</span> form and migrate through the <span class="hlt">gels</span> according to the size of the polypeptide. By using markers of known molecular weight, the molecular weight of the polypeptide chain(s) can be estimated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19022651','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19022651"><span>Controlled torque on superparamagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> for functional biosensors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Janssen, X J A; Schellekens, A J; van Ommering, K; van Ijzendoorn, L J; Prins, M W J</p> <p>2009-03-15</p> <p>We demonstrate that a rotating magnetic field can be used to apply a controlled torque on superparamagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> which leads to a tunable <span class="hlt">bead</span> rotation frequency in fluid. Smooth rotation is obtained for field rotation frequencies many orders of magnitude higher than the <span class="hlt">bead</span> rotation frequency. A quantitative model is developed, based on results from a comprehensive set of experiments at different field strengths and frequencies. At low frequencies (<10Hz), rotation is due to a small permanent magnetic moment in the <span class="hlt">bead</span>. At high frequencies (kHz-MHz), the torque results from a phase lag between the applied field and the induced magnetic moment, caused by the non-zero relaxation time of magnetic nanoparticles in the <span class="hlt">bead</span>. The control of torque and rotation will enable novel functional assays in <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based biosensors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NJPh...15b5022C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NJPh...15b5022C"><span>Active <span class="hlt">gel</span> model of amoeboid cell motility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Callan-Jones, A. C.; Voituriez, R.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>We develop a model of amoeboid cell motility based on active <span class="hlt">gel</span> theory. Modeling the motile apparatus of a eukaryotic cell as a confined layer of finite length of poroelastic active <span class="hlt">gel</span> permeated by a solvent, we first show that, due to active stress and <span class="hlt">gel</span> turnover, an initially static and homogeneous layer can undergo a contractile-type instability to a polarized moving state in which the rear is enriched in <span class="hlt">gel</span> polymer. This agrees qualitatively with motile cells containing an actomyosin-rich uropod at their rear. We find that the <span class="hlt">gel</span> layer settles into a steadily moving, inhomogeneous state at long times, sustained by a balance between contractility and filament turnover. In addition, our model predicts an optimal value of the <span class="hlt">gel</span>-substrate adhesion leading to maximum layer speed, in agreement with cell motility assays. The model may be relevant to motility of cells translocating in <span class="hlt">complex</span>, confining environments that can be mimicked experimentally by cell migration through microchannels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1585966','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1585966"><span>Immobilization of proteins on agarose <span class="hlt">beads</span>, monitored in real time by <span class="hlt">bead</span> injection spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ruzicka*, Jaromir; Carroll, Andrea D.; Lähdesmäki, Ilkka</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Summary This work introduces a novel tool for the examination and optimization of protein immobilization protocols, by measuring the rate and yield of coupling reactions, as they take place on the surface of agarose <span class="hlt">beads</span> in a well-stirred microreactor. The power of the <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Injection Spectroscopy (BIS) technique is demonstrated on examples of amino coupling reactions for albumin, ovalbumin, lysozyme, human IgG, ribonuclease A and cytochrome C, using commercially available Aminolink® agarose <span class="hlt">beads</span>. It was found, surprisingly, that currently recommended protocols for reductive amination can be shortened from several hours to several minutes, and that, contrary to literature data, the yield of coupling is dependent on pH and the isoelectric point of the protein. In addition, leakage of immobilized ligands can be measured by direct spectroscopic interrogation of captured <span class="hlt">beads</span> in situ. The methodology presented in this work documents that BIS is a useful tool for quality control of agarose-based chromatographic supports, as well as for the optimization of a wide variety of immobilization chemistries, as used for synthesis of chromatographic supports, immobilization of enzymes, and derivatization of biosensing surfaces. PMID:16802025</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22379306','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22379306"><span>A new simplified <span class="hlt">beading</span> and boxing procedure for elastic impression.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vyas, Anup; Maru, Kavita; Bali, Sandeep Kaur; Jain, Sumet; Shukla, Jyotsna; Kataria, Neene</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Beading</span> and Boxing of impression is taught in most dental colleges. The boxing procedure is crucial step to preserve the details of the final impression especially of the vestibular area. This article describes an alternative <span class="hlt">beading</span>-boxing procedure that is compatible with all impression materials, is efficient, simple, inexpensive, and practicable. Use of commercially available instant adhesive around the border to act as a joining agent between elastic impressions and <span class="hlt">beading</span> wax or <span class="hlt">bead</span> made up of base plate wax is advocated in this technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/127062','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/127062"><span>Characterization of crosslinked polystyrene(PS) <span class="hlt">beads</span> in SBR matrix</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cha, Yoon-Jong; Choe, Soonja</p> <p>1995-12-01</p> <p>Monodisperse sized crosslinked polystyrene(PS) <span class="hlt">beads</span> were prepared by a reaction of semibatch emulsion polymerization with styrene monomer, divinylbenzene(DVB) crosslinking agent and potassium persulfate(K{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 9}) initiator in the absence of emulsifier. The glass transition temperature(T{sub g}) and the mean diameter of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> were increased from 100{degrees}C to 135{degrees}C and from 402 nm to 532 nm, respectively, for an incorporation of 2 to 10 mol% DVB. Crosslinking density was also linearly increased with DVB content. SEM microphotographs of SBR composite filled with various contents of PS <span class="hlt">beads</span> revealed that PS <span class="hlt">beads</span> are relatively well dispersed without changing the spherical shape of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> in all range of compositions. In stress-strain analysis, elongation at break and tensile strength of SBR composite were increased with the <span class="hlt">bead</span> content. Applicability of the PS <span class="hlt">beads</span> as a filler in SBR matrix is tested by plotting Mooney-Rivlin or Guth-Smallwood equations. However, mechanical properties of the composite with the <span class="hlt">beads</span> were not so excellent as those of the composite with carbon black. Crosslinked PS <span class="hlt">beads</span> are still tentative as a white color reinforcing filler on SBR matrix.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1823b0118S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1823b0118S"><span>Adsorption of CO2 by alginate immobilized zeolite <span class="hlt">beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Suratman, A.; Kunarti, E. S.; Aprilita, N. H.; Pamurtya, I. C.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Immobilized zeolit in alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> for adsorption of CO2 was developed. Alginate immobilized zeolit <span class="hlt">beads</span> was generated by dropping the mixture of Na-alginate and zeolite solution into Ca2+ solution. The adsorption efficacy such as the influence of contact time, mass of zeolite, flowrate of CO2, and mass of adsorbent was evaluated. The adsorption of CO2 onto alginate immobilized zeolit <span class="hlt">beads</span> was investigated by performing both equilibrium and kinetic batch test. <span class="hlt">Bead</span> was characterized by FTIR and SEM. Alginate immobilized zeolit <span class="hlt">beads</span> demonstrated significantly higher sorption efficacy compared to plain alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> and zeolite with 0.25 mmol CO2 adsorbed /g adsorbent. Optimum condition was achieved with mass composition of alginate:zeolite (3:1), flowrate 50 mL/min for 20 minutes. The alginate immobilized zeolit <span class="hlt">beads</span> showed that adsorption of CO2 followed Freundlich isotherm and pseudo second order kinetic model. Adsorption of CO2 onto alginate immobilized zeolite <span class="hlt">beads</span> is a physisorption with adsorption energy of 6.37 kJ/mol. This results indicates that the alginate immobilized zeolit <span class="hlt">beads</span> can be used as promising adsorbents for CO2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26066460','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26066460"><span>Biological magnetometry: torque on superparamagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> in magnetic fields.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Oene, Maarten M; Dickinson, Laura E; Pedaci, Francesco; Köber, Mariana; Dulin, David; Lipfert, Jan; Dekker, Nynke H</p> <p>2015-05-29</p> <p>Superparamagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> are widely used in biochemistry and single-molecule biophysics, but the nature of the anisotropy that enables the application of torques remains controversial. To quantitatively investigate the torques experienced by superparamagnetic particles, we use a biological motor to rotate <span class="hlt">beads</span> in a magnetic field and demonstrate that the underlying potential is π periodic. In addition, we tether a <span class="hlt">bead</span> to a single DNA molecule and show that the angular trap stiffness increases nonlinearly with magnetic field strength. Our results indicate that the superparamagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>' anisotropy derives from a nonuniform intrabead distribution of superparamagnetic nanoparticles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1712e0019J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1712e0019J"><span>Dispersion of fine phosphor particles by newly developed <span class="hlt">beads</span> mill</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Joni, I. Made; Panatarani, C.; Maulana, Dwindra W.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+ particles has advanced properties compare to conventional particles applied for compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) as three band phosphor. However, suspension of fine particles easily agglomerated during preparation of spray coating of the CFL tube. Therefore, it is introduced newly developed <span class="hlt">beads</span> mill system to disperse fine phosphor. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> mill consist of glass <span class="hlt">beads</span>, dispersing chamber (impellers), separator chamber, slurry pump and motors. The first important performance of <span class="hlt">beads</span> mill is the performance of the designed on separating the <span class="hlt">beads</span> with the suspended fine particles. We report the development of <span class="hlt">beads</span> mill and its separation performance vary in flow rate and separator rotation speeds. The 27 kg of glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> with 30 µm in size was poured into dispersing chamber and then water was pumped continuously through the slurry pump. The samples for the separation test was obtained every 1 hours vary in rotation speed and slurry flow rate. The results shows that the separation performance was 99.99 % obtained for the rotation speed of >1000 rpm and flow rate of 8 L/minute. The performances of the system was verified by dispersing fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+ particles with concentration 1 wt.%. From the observed size distribution of particles after <span class="hlt">beads</span> mill, it is concluded that the current design of <span class="hlt">bead</span> mill effectively dispersed fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990Natur.348..348B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990Natur.348..348B"><span><span class="hlt">Bead</span> movement by single kinesin molecules studied with optical tweezers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Block, Steven M.; Goldstein, Lawrence S. B.; Schnapp, Bruce J.</p> <p>1990-11-01</p> <p>KINESIN, a mechanoenzyme that couples ATP hydrolysis to movement along microtubules, is thought to power vesicle transport and other forms of microtubule-based motility1-6. Here, microscopic silica <span class="hlt">beads</span>7 were precoated with carrier protein8,9, exposed to low concentrations of kinesin, and individually manipulated with a single-beam gradient-force optical particle trap10-12 ('optical tweezers') directly onto microtubules. Optical tweezers greatly improved the efficiency of the <span class="hlt">bead</span> assay, particularly at the lowest kinesin concentrations (corresponding to ~1 molecule per <span class="hlt">bead</span>). <span class="hlt">Beads</span> incubated with excess kinesin moved smoothly along a microtubule for many micrometres, but <span class="hlt">beads</span> carrying from 0.17-3 kinesin molecules per <span class="hlt">bead</span>, moved, on average, only about 1.4 µm and then spontaneously released from the microtuble. Application of the optical trap directly behind such moving <span class="hlt">beads</span> often pulled them off the microtubule and back into the centre of the trap. This did not occur when a <span class="hlt">bead</span> was bound by an AMP.PNP-induced rigor linkage, or when <span class="hlt">beads</span> were propelled by several kinesin molecules. Our results are consistent with a model in which kinesin detaches briefly from the microtubule during a part of each mechanochemical cycle, rather than a model in which kinesin remains bound at all times.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5996....1T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5996....1T"><span>Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 using immuno <span class="hlt">beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tu, Shu-I.; Gehring, Andrew</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>A new fluorescent sandwich method for the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was developed. Strepavidin coated magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> and fluorescence <span class="hlt">beads</span> reacted with biotinylated anti E. coli O157 antibodies to form the immuno magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> (IMB) and immuno fluorescence <span class="hlt">beads</span> (IFB), respectively. The E. coli bacteria captured by IMB were further labeled with IFB to form IMBM-(E. coliO157:H7)N-IFBO sandwich <span class="hlt">complexes</span> where the subscripts M, N and O were integral numbers. Using broth cultured E. coli O157:H7, the sandwich method was able to detect the bacteria at the level of ~ 103to 104 CFU/mL. Known quantity of freshly cultured E. coli O157:H7 cells were added to ground beef obtained from local markets. The bacteria in inoculated beef patties were enriched in EC broth containing novobiocin. After enriched for 4 h at 40 °C, the developed IMB-IFB method was applied to detect the presence of E. coli O157:H7. The results demonstrated that the developed method could detect the presence of 1 CFU of E. coli O157:H7 per gram of ground beef.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10099597','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10099597"><span>Hyaluronate-alginate <span class="hlt">gel</span> as a novel biomaterial: mechanical properties and formation mechanism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oerther, S; Le Gall, H; Payan, E; Lapicque, F; Presle, N; Hubert, P; Dexheimer, J; Netter, P</p> <p>1999-04-20</p> <p>With the aim of producing a biomaterial for surgical applications, the alginate-hyaluronate association has been investigated to combine the <span class="hlt">gel</span>-forming properties of alginate with the healing properties of hyaluronate. <span class="hlt">Gels</span> were prepared by diffusion of calcium into alginate-hyaluronate mixtures, with an alginate content of 20 mg/mL. The hyaluronate source was shown to have significant effect on the aspect and the properties of the <span class="hlt">gels</span>. The <span class="hlt">gels</span> have viscoelastic behaviour and the transient measurements carried out in creep mode could be interpreted through a Kelvin-Voigt generalised model: experimental data led to the steady state hardness and a characteristic viscosity of the <span class="hlt">gel</span>. <span class="hlt">Gels</span> prepared from Na rooster comb hyaluronate with weight ratio up to 0.50 have satisfactory mechanical properties, and fully stable <span class="hlt">gels</span> are obtained after a few days; on the contrary, use of lower molecular weight hyaluronate led to loose <span class="hlt">gels</span> for hyaluronate contents over 0.25. <span class="hlt">Gel</span> formation was investigated by measurements of the exchange fluxes between the calcium chloride solution and the forming <span class="hlt">gel</span>, which allowed thorough investigations of the occuring diffusion phenomena of water, calcium ion and hyaluronate. Strong interactions of water with hyaluronate reduce significantly the rate of weight loss from the <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> and allows higher water content in steady-state <span class="hlt">gels</span>. Calcium content in the <span class="hlt">gel</span> samples could be correlated to the actual alginate concentration, whatever the nature and the weight ratio of hyaluronate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28955365','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28955365"><span>A Comprehensive Quality Evaluation System for <span class="hlt">Complex</span> Herbal Medicine Using PacBio Sequencing, PCR-Denaturing Gradient <span class="hlt">Gel</span> Electrophoresis, and Several Chemical Approaches.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zheng, Xiasheng; Zhang, Peng; Liao, Baosheng; Li, Jing; Liu, Xingyun; Shi, Yuhua; Cheng, Jinle; Lai, Zhitian; Xu, Jiang; Chen, Shilin</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Herbal medicine is a major component of complementary and alternative medicine, contributing significantly to the health of many people and communities. Quality control of herbal medicine is crucial to ensure that it is safe and sound for use. Here, we investigated a comprehensive quality evaluation system for a classic herbal medicine, Danggui Buxue Formula, by applying genetic-based and analytical chemistry approaches to authenticate and evaluate the quality of its samples. For authenticity, we successfully applied two novel technologies, third-generation sequencing and PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis), to analyze the ingredient composition of the tested samples. For quality evaluation, we used high performance liquid chromatography assays to determine the content of chemical markers to help estimate the dosage relationship between its two raw materials, plant roots of Huangqi and Danggui. A series of surveys were then conducted against several exogenous contaminations, aiming to further access the efficacy and safety of the samples. In conclusion, the quality evaluation system demonstrated here can potentially address the authenticity, quality, and safety of herbal medicines, thus providing novel insight for enhancing their overall quality control. Highlight: We established a comprehensive quality evaluation system for herbal medicine, by combining two genetic-based approaches third-generation sequencing and DGGE (denaturing gradient <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis) with analytical chemistry approaches to achieve the authentication and quality connotation of the samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JCrGr.415...25S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JCrGr.415...25S"><span>Study on third order nonlinear optical properties of a metal organic <span class="hlt">complex</span>-Monothiourea-cadmium Sulphate Dihydrate single crystals grown in silica <span class="hlt">gel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sivanandan, T.; Kalainathan, S.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The third order nonlinear optical properties of Monothiourea-cadmium Sulphate Dihydrate crystal were measured using a He-Ne laser (λ=632.8 nm) by a Z-scan technique. The magnitude of nonlinear refractive index (n2) and nonlinear absorption coefficient was found to be 4.4769×10-11 m2/W and 1.233×10-2 m/W respectively. The third order non-linear optical susceptibility χ(3) was found to be in the order of 3.6533×10-2 esu. The negative sign of non-linear refractive index shows the self-defocusing nature of the <span class="hlt">gel</span> grown crystal. The second-order molecular hyperpolarizability γ of the grown crystal is 1.2822×10-33 esu. Laser damage threshold was measured by using an Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm). Photoconductivity studies of the <span class="hlt">gel</span> grown crystal revealed that the crystal possesses positive photoconducting nature. The results obtained from Z-scan, laser damage threshold and photoconducting studies reveal that the crystal can be a possible candidate material for photonics device, optical switches, and optical power limiting application.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5601397','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5601397"><span>A Comprehensive Quality Evaluation System for <span class="hlt">Complex</span> Herbal Medicine Using PacBio Sequencing, PCR-Denaturing Gradient <span class="hlt">Gel</span> Electrophoresis, and Several Chemical Approaches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zheng, Xiasheng; Zhang, Peng; Liao, Baosheng; Li, Jing; Liu, Xingyun; Shi, Yuhua; Cheng, Jinle; Lai, Zhitian; Xu, Jiang; Chen, Shilin</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Herbal medicine is a major component of complementary and alternative medicine, contributing significantly to the health of many people and communities. Quality control of herbal medicine is crucial to ensure that it is safe and sound for use. Here, we investigated a comprehensive quality evaluation system for a classic herbal medicine, Danggui Buxue Formula, by applying genetic-based and analytical chemistry approaches to authenticate and evaluate the quality of its samples. For authenticity, we successfully applied two novel technologies, third-generation sequencing and PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis), to analyze the ingredient composition of the tested samples. For quality evaluation, we used high performance liquid chromatography assays to determine the content of chemical markers to help estimate the dosage relationship between its two raw materials, plant roots of Huangqi and Danggui. A series of surveys were then conducted against several exogenous contaminations, aiming to further access the efficacy and safety of the samples. In conclusion, the quality evaluation system demonstrated here can potentially address the authenticity, quality, and safety of herbal medicines, thus providing novel insight for enhancing their overall quality control. Highlight: We established a comprehensive quality evaluation system for herbal medicine, by combining two genetic-based approaches third-generation sequencing and DGGE (denaturing gradient <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis) with analytical chemistry approaches to achieve the authentication and quality connotation of the samples. PMID:28955365</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21930278','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21930278"><span>Simple solution for a <span class="hlt">complex</span> problem: proanthocyanidins, galloyl glucoses and ellagitannins fit on a single calibration curve in high performance-<span class="hlt">gel</span> permeation chromatography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stringano, Elisabetta; Gea, An; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Mueller-Harvey, Irene</p> <p>2011-10-28</p> <p>This study was undertaken to explore <span class="hlt">gel</span> permeation chromatography (GPC) for estimating molecular weights of proanthocyanidin fractions isolated from sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia). The results were compared with data obtained by thiolytic degradation of the same fractions. Polystyrene, polyethylene glycol and polymethyl methacrylate standards were not suitable for estimating the molecular weights of underivatized proanthocyanidins. Therefore, a novel HPLC-GPC method was developed based on two serially connected Polar<span class="hlt">Gel</span>-L columns using DMF that contained 5% water, 1% acetic acid and 0.15 M LiBr at 0.7 ml/min and 50 °C. This yielded a single calibration curve for galloyl glucoses (trigalloyl glucose, pentagalloyl glucose), ellagitannins (pedunculagin, vescalagin, punicalagin, oenothein B, gemin A), proanthocyanidins (procyanidin B2, cinnamtannin B1), and several other polyphenols (catechin, epicatechin gallate, epicallocatechin gallate, amentoflavone). These GPC predicted molecular weights represented a considerable advance over previously reported HPLC-GPC methods for underivatized proanthocyanidins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23795723','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23795723"><span>Comparison of some biochemical properties of artichoke polyphenol oxidase entrapped in alginate-carrageenan and alginate <span class="hlt">gels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yagar, Hulya; Kocaturk, Selin</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC.1.14.18.1) isolated from artichoke (Cynara scolymus) was entrapped within alginate and alginate+ carrageenan <span class="hlt">beads</span>, and the catecholase and cresolase activities of both entrapped enzymes were determined. Some properties of these immobilized enzymes such as optimum pH and temperature, kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax), thermal, and storage stability were determined and compared to each other. The highest catecholase activity was observed in alginate <span class="hlt">gel</span> (370 U/g <span class="hlt">bead</span>) while the highest cresolase activity was in alginate+ carrageenan <span class="hlt">gel</span> (90 U/g <span class="hlt">bead</span>). For catecholase and cresolase activities, optimum pHs of alginate and alginate+ carrageenan <span class="hlt">beads</span> were determined to be 7.0 and 4.0, respectively. Optimum temperatures for catecholase activity were determined to be 40°C for both entrapped enzymes. These values for cresolase activity were 30°C and 20°C, respectively. Immobilized artichoke PPOs greatly preserved their thermal stability which exists anyway. The catalytic efficiency value (Vmax/Km) of the alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> is approximately high as two-and-a-half folds of that of alginate+κ-carrageenan <span class="hlt">beads</span> for cresolase activity. These values were very close for catecholase activity. Immobilized <span class="hlt">beads</span> saved their both activities after 30 days of storage at 4°C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JChPh.117.6873A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JChPh.117.6873A"><span>Brownian dynamics studies on DNA <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis. II. ``Defect'' dynamics in the elongation-contraction motion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Azuma, Ryuzo</p> <p>2002-10-01</p> <p>By means of the Brownian dynamics (BD) method of simulations we have developed, we study the dynamics of individual DNA molecules which are undergoing constant field <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis (CFGE), focusing on the relevance of the "defect" concept due to de Gennes in CFGE. The corresponding objects, which we call slack <span class="hlt">beads</span> (s-<span class="hlt">beads</span>), are explicitly introduced in our BD model. In equilibrium under a vanishing field, the distance between s-<span class="hlt">beads</span> and their hopping range is found to be randomly distributed following a Poisson distribution. In strong fields, where a chain undergoes elongation-contraction motion, s-<span class="hlt">beads</span> are observed to be alternately annihilated in elongation and created in the contraction of the chain. On the other hand, the distribution of hopping ranges of s-<span class="hlt">beads</span> does not differ much from that in equilibrium. The results indicate that in the elongation-contraction motion of the chain, a large number of random movements of s-<span class="hlt">beads</span> are involved. We have also confirmed that these features of s-<span class="hlt">beads</span> agree qualitatively with those of s-monomers in the extended bond fluctuation model (EBFM) which we recently proposed. This agreement strongly supports the stochastic semilocal movement of s-monomers which we a priori introduced into the EBFM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...516254K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...516254K"><span>Manual control of catalytic reactions: Reactions by an apoenzyme <span class="hlt">gel</span> and a cofactor <span class="hlt">gel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kobayashi, Yuichiro; Takashima, Yoshinori; Hashidzume, Akihito; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Harada, Akira</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Enzymes play a vital role in catalysing almost all chemical reactions that occur in biological systems. Some enzymes must form <span class="hlt">complexes</span> with non-protein molecules called cofactors to express catalytic activities. Although the control of catalytic reactions via apoenzyme-cofactor <span class="hlt">complexes</span> has attracted significant attention, the reports have been limited to the microscale. Here, we report a system to express catalytic activity by adhesion of an apoenzyme <span class="hlt">gel</span> and a cofactor <span class="hlt">gel</span>. The apoenzyme and cofactor <span class="hlt">gels</span> act as catalysts when they form a <span class="hlt">gel</span> assembly, but they lose catalytic ability upon manual dissociation. We successfully construct a system with switchable catalytic activity via adhesion and separation of the apoenzyme <span class="hlt">gel</span> with the cofactor <span class="hlt">gel</span>. We expect that this methodology can be applied to regulate the functional activities of enzymes that bear cofactors in their active sites, such as the oxygen transport of haemoglobin or myoglobin and the electron transport of cytochromes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4633677','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4633677"><span>Manual control of catalytic reactions: Reactions by an apoenzyme <span class="hlt">gel</span> and a cofactor <span class="hlt">gel</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kobayashi, Yuichiro; Takashima, Yoshinori; Hashidzume, Akihito; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Harada, Akira</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Enzymes play a vital role in catalysing almost all chemical reactions that occur in biological systems. Some enzymes must form <span class="hlt">complexes</span> with non-protein molecules called cofactors to express catalytic activities. Although the control of catalytic reactions via apoenzyme–cofactor <span class="hlt">complexes</span> has attracted significant attention, the reports have been limited to the microscale. Here, we report a system to express catalytic activity by adhesion of an apoenzyme <span class="hlt">gel</span> and a cofactor <span class="hlt">gel</span>. The apoenzyme and cofactor <span class="hlt">gels</span> act as catalysts when they form a <span class="hlt">gel</span> assembly, but they lose catalytic ability upon manual dissociation. We successfully construct a system with switchable catalytic activity via adhesion and separation of the apoenzyme <span class="hlt">gel</span> with the cofactor <span class="hlt">gel</span>. We expect that this methodology can be applied to regulate the functional activities of enzymes that bear cofactors in their active sites, such as the oxygen transport of haemoglobin or myoglobin and the electron transport of cytochromes. PMID:26537172</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.444a2001M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.444a2001M"><span>Fundamentals of <span class="hlt">gel</span> dosimeters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McAuley, K. B.; Nasr, A. T.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Fundamental chemical and physical phenomena that occur in Fricke <span class="hlt">gel</span> dosimeters, polymer <span class="hlt">gel</span> dosimeters, micelle <span class="hlt">gel</span> dosimeters and genipin <span class="hlt">gel</span> dosimeters are discussed. Fricke <span class="hlt">gel</span> dosimeters are effective even though their radiation sensitivity depends on oxygen concentration. Oxygen contamination can cause severe problems in polymer <span class="hlt">gel</span> dosimeters, even when THPC is used. Oxygen leakage must be prevented between manufacturing and irradiation of polymer <span class="hlt">gels</span>, and internal calibration methods should be used so that contamination problems can be detected. Micelle <span class="hlt">gel</span> dosimeters are promising due to their favourable diffusion properties. The introduction of micelles to <span class="hlt">gel</span> dosimetry may open up new areas of dosimetry research wherein a range of water-insoluble radiochromic materials can be explored as reporter molecules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24149846','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24149846"><span>Synthesis, structural, photophysical and electrochemical studies of various d-metal <span class="hlt">complexes</span> of btp [2,6-bis(1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine] ligands that give rise to the formation of metallo-supramolecular <span class="hlt">gels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Byrne, Joseph P; Kitchen, Jonathan A; Kotova, Oxana; Leigh, Vivienne; Bell, Alan P; Boland, John J; Albrecht, Martin; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur</p> <p>2014-01-07</p> <p>2,6-Bis(1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine (btp) is a terdentate binding motif that is synthesised modularly via the CuAAC reaction. Herein, we present the synthesis of ligands 1 and 2 and the investigation of the coordination chemistry, photophysical behaviour and electrochemistry of <span class="hlt">complexes</span> of these with a number of d-metal ions (e.g. Ru(II), Ir(III), Ni(II) and Pt(II)). The X-ray crystal structures of ligand 1 and the <span class="hlt">complexes</span> [Ru·2(2)](PF6)Cl, [Ni·1(2)](PF6)Cl and [Ir·1Cl3] are also presented. All of the <span class="hlt">complexes</span> displayed non-classical triazolyl C-H···Cl(-) hydrogen bonding. All but one <span class="hlt">complex</span> showed no metal-based luminescence at room temperature, while all of the Pt(ii) <span class="hlt">complexes</span> displayed luminescence at 77 K. The electrochemistry of the Ru(II) <span class="hlt">complexes</span> was also studied and these <span class="hlt">complexes</span> were found to have higher oxidation potentials than analogous compounds. The redox behaviour of [RuL2](2+) <span class="hlt">complexes</span> with both 1 and 2 was nearly identical, while [Ru·1Cl2(DMSO)] was oxidised at significantly lower potential. We also show that the Ru(II) <span class="hlt">complex</span> of 2, [Ru·2(2)](PF6)Cl, gave rise to the formation of a metallo-supramolecular <span class="hlt">gel</span>, the morphology of which was studied using scanning electron and helium ion microscopy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28188808','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28188808"><span>Characterization of a novel intrinsically radiopaque Drug-eluting <span class="hlt">Bead</span> for image-guided therapy: DC <span class="hlt">Bead</span> LUMI™.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ashrafi, Koorosh; Tang, Yiqing; Britton, Hugh; Domenge, Orianne; Blino, Delphine; Bushby, Andrew J; Shuturminska, Kseniya; den Hartog, Mark; Radaelli, Alessandro; Negussie, Ayele H; Mikhail, Andrew S; Woods, David L; Krishnasamy, Venkatesh; Levy, Elliot B; Wood, Bradford J; Willis, Sean L; Dreher, Matthew R; Lewis, Andrew L</p> <p>2017-03-28</p> <p>We have developed a straightforward and efficient method of introducing radiopacity into Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS) hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> (DC Bead™) that are currently used in the clinic to treat liver malignancies. Coupling of 2,3,5-triiodobenzaldehyde to the PVA backbone of pre-formed <span class="hlt">beads</span> yields a uniformly distributed level of iodine attached throughout the <span class="hlt">bead</span> structure (~150mg/mL) which is sufficient to be imaged under standard fluoroscopy and computed tomography (CT) imaging modalities used in treatment procedures (DC <span class="hlt">Bead</span> LUMI™). Despite the chemical modification increasing the density of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> to ~1.3g/cm(3) and the compressive modulus by two orders of magnitude, they remain easily suspended, handled and administered through standard microcatheters. As the core chemistry of DC <span class="hlt">Bead</span> LUMI™ is the same as DC Bead™, it interacts with drugs using ion-exchange between sulfonic acid groups on the polymer and the positively charged amine groups of the drugs. Both doxorubicin (Dox) and irinotecan (Iri) elution kinetics for all <span class="hlt">bead</span> sizes evaluated were within the parameters already investigated within the clinic for DC Bead™. Drug loading did not affect the radiopacity and there was a direct relationship between <span class="hlt">bead</span> attenuation and Dox concentration. The ability (Dox)-loaded DC <span class="hlt">Bead</span> LUMI™ to be visualized in vivo was demonstrated by the administration of into hepatic arteries of a VX2 tumor-bearing rabbit under fluoroscopy, followed by subsequent CT imaging.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1176313','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1176313"><span>Nanocrystal/sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> nanocomposites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Klimov, Victor L.; Petruska, Melissa A.</p> <p>2010-05-25</p> <p>The present invention is directed to a process for preparing a solid composite having colloidal nanocrystals dispersed within a sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix, the process including admixing colloidal nanocrystals with an amphiphilic polymer including hydrophilic groups selected from the group consisting of --COOH, --OH, --SO.sub.3H, --NH.sub.2, and --PO.sub.3H.sub.2 within a solvent to form an alcohol-soluble colloidal nanocrystal-polymer <span class="hlt">complex</span>, admixing the alcohol-soluble colloidal nanocrystal-polymer <span class="hlt">complex</span> and a sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> precursor material, and, forming the solid composite from the admixture. The present invention is also directed to the resultant solid composites and to the alcohol-soluble colloidal nanocrystal-polymer <span class="hlt">complexes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26735030','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26735030"><span>Pooling of Immunomagnetic Separation <span class="hlt">Beads</span> Does Not Affect Detection Sensitivity of Six Major Serogroups of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Cattle Feces.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Noll, Lance W; Baumgartner, William C; Shridhar, Pragathi B; Cull, Charley A; Dewsbury, Diana M; Shi, Xiaorong; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Renter, David G; Nagaraja, T G</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) of the serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, often called non-O157 STEC, are foodborne pathogens. Cattle are asymptomatic reservoirs for STEC; the organisms reside in the hindgut and are shed in the feces, which serve as the source of food product contaminations. Culture-based detection of non-O157 STEC involves an immunomagnetic separation (IMS) step to capture the specific serogroups in <span class="hlt">complex</span> matrices, such as feces. The IMS procedure is time consuming and labor intensive because of the need to subject each fecal sample to six individual <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate whether pooling of IMS <span class="hlt">beads</span> affects sensitivity of non-O157 STEC detection compared with using individual IMS <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The evaluation was done by comparing detection of serogroups in feces spiked with pure cultures (experiments 1 and 2) and from feces (n = 384) of naturally shedding cattle (experiment 3). In spiked fecal samples, detection with pools of three, four, six, or seven <span class="hlt">beads</span> was similar to, or at times higher than, detection with individual IMS <span class="hlt">beads</span>. In experiment 3, the proportions of fecal samples that tested positive for the six serogroups as detected by individual or pooled <span class="hlt">beads</span> were similar. Based on noninferiority tests, detection with pooled <span class="hlt">beads</span> was not substantially inferior to detection with individual <span class="hlt">beads</span> (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the pooling of IMS <span class="hlt">beads</span> is a better option for detection of STEC serogroups in fecal samples compared with individual <span class="hlt">beads</span> because the procedure saves time and labor and has the prospect of a higher throughput.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19259719','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19259719"><span>Decolouration of azo dyes by Phanerochaete chrysosporium immobilised into alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Enayatzamir, Kheirghadam; Alikhani, Hossein A; Yakhchali, Bagher; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Rodríguez-Couto, Susana</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Because of high discharged volumes and effluent composition, wastewater from the textile industry can be considered as the most polluting amongst all industrial sectors, thus greatly requiring appropriate treatment technologies. Although some abiotic methods for the reduction of several dyes exist, these require highly expensive catalysts and reagents. Biotechnological approaches were proven to be potentially effective in the treatment of this pollution source in an eco-efficient manner. The white-rot fungi are, so far, the most efficient microorganisms in degrading synthetic dyes. This white-rot fungi's property is due to the production of extracellular lignin-modifying enzymes, which are able to degrade a wide range of xenobiotic compounds because of their low substrate specificity. In this paper, we studied the ability of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium immobilised into Ca-alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> to decolourise different recalcitrant azo dyes such as Direct Violet 51 (DV), Reactive Black 5 (RB), Ponceau Xylidine (PX) and Bismark Brown R (BB) in successive batch cultures. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the immobilisation of P. chrysosporium into Ca-alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> for its application in dye decolouration. P. chrysosporium was immobilised into Ca-alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> using a method of <span class="hlt">gel</span> recoating to minimise cellular leaking. The immobilised fungus was transferred to 250-ml Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 ml of growth medium and incubated on an orbital shaker at 150 rpm and 30 degrees C for 7 days. The ratio of <span class="hlt">beads</span>/medium used was 10% (w/v). The dyes were added into the culture flasks when MnP production started (50 U l(-1)), which corresponded with the seventh cultivation day. MnP activity and dye decolouration were measured spectrophotometrically. The dyes DV, RB and PX were almost totally decolourised at the end of each batch during the course of three successive batches. However, the dye BB was more resistant to decolouration and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9802E..0IA','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9802E..0IA"><span>Internal structure analysis of particle-double network <span class="hlt">gels</span> used in a <span class="hlt">gel</span> organ replica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abe, Mei; Arai, Masanori; Saito, Azusa; Sakai, Kazuyuki; Kawakami, Masaru; Furukawa, Hidemitsu</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In recent years, the fabrication of patient organ replicas using 3D printers has been attracting a great deal of attention in medical fields. However, the cost of these organ replicas is very high as it is necessary to employ very expensive 3D printers and printing materials. Here we present a new <span class="hlt">gel</span> organ replica, of human kidney, fabricated with a conventional molding technique, using a particle-double network hydrogel (P-DN <span class="hlt">gel</span>). The replica is transparent and has the feel of a real kidney. It is expected that <span class="hlt">gel</span> organ replicas produced this way will be a useful tool for the education of trainee surgeons and clinical ultrasonography technologists. In addition to developing a <span class="hlt">gel</span> organ replica, the internal structure of the P-DN <span class="hlt">gel</span> used is also discussed. Because the P-DN <span class="hlt">gel</span> has a <span class="hlt">complex</span> structure comprised of two different types of network, it has not been possible to investigate them internally in detail. <span class="hlt">Gels</span> have an inhomogeneous network structure. If it is able to get a more uniform structure, it is considered that this would lead to higher strength in the <span class="hlt">gel</span>. In the present study we investigate the structure of P-DN <span class="hlt">gel</span>, using the <span class="hlt">gel</span> organ replica. We investigated the internal structure of P-DN <span class="hlt">gel</span> using Scanning Microscopic Light Scattering (SMILS), a non-contacting and non-destructive.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27481656','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27481656"><span>Nanofibrous polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span> from aramid fibers for efficient bilirubin removal.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peng, Zihang; Yang, Ye; Luo, Jiyue; Nie, Chuanxiong; Ma, Lang; Cheng, Chong; Zhao, Changsheng</p> <p>2016-08-16</p> <p>Polymer based hemoperfusion has been developed as an effective therapy to remove the extra bilirubin from patients. However, the currently applied materials suffer from either low removal efficiency or poor blood compatibility. In this study, we report the development of a new class of nanofibrous absorbent that exhibited high bilirubin removal efficiency and good blood compatibility. The Kevlar nanofiber was prepared by dissolving micron-sized Kevlar fiber in proper solvent, and the <span class="hlt">beads</span> were prepared by dropping Kevlar nanofiber solutions into ethanol. Owing to the nanofiborous structure of the Kevlar nanofiber, the <span class="hlt">beads</span> displayed porous structures and large specific areas, which would facilitate the adsorption of toxins. In the adsorption test, it was noticed that the <span class="hlt">beads</span> possessed an adsorption capacity higher than 40 mg g(-1) towards bilirubin. In plasma mimetic solutions, the <span class="hlt">beads</span> still showed high bilirubin removal efficiency. Furthermore, after incorporating with carbon nanotubes, the <span class="hlt">beads</span> were found to have increased adsorption capacity for human degradation waste. Moreover, the <span class="hlt">beads</span> showed excellent blood compatibility in terms of a low hemolysis ratio, prolonged clotting times, suppressed coagulant activation, limited platelet activation, and inhibited blood related inflammatory activation. Additionally, the <span class="hlt">beads</span> showed good compatibility with endothelial cells. In general, the Kevlar nanofiber <span class="hlt">beads</span>, which integrated with high adsorption capacity, good blood compatibility and low cytotoxicity, may have great potential for hemoperfusion and some other applications in biomedical fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Scavengers&pg=7&id=EJ445266','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Scavengers&pg=7&id=EJ445266"><span>Activities to Grow On: Buttons, <span class="hlt">Beads</span>, and Beans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gonzolis, Amy; And Others</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Presents new ideas for using buttons, beans, and <span class="hlt">beads</span> as teaching manipulatives for elementary school children. The ideas include a button scavenger hunt, a button count, a cup puppet bean game, a numbers guessing game with beans in jars, and a <span class="hlt">bead</span> stringing activity. (SM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Scavengers&pg=6&id=EJ445266','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Scavengers&pg=6&id=EJ445266"><span>Activities to Grow On: Buttons, <span class="hlt">Beads</span>, and Beans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gonzolis, Amy; And Others</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Presents new ideas for using buttons, beans, and <span class="hlt">beads</span> as teaching manipulatives for elementary school children. The ideas include a button scavenger hunt, a button count, a cup puppet bean game, a numbers guessing game with beans in jars, and a <span class="hlt">bead</span> stringing activity. (SM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28373099','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28373099"><span>Towards Hypoxia-responsive Drug-eluting Embolization <span class="hlt">Beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ashrafi, Koorosh; Heaysman, Clare L; Phillips, Gary J; Lloyd, Andrew W; Lewis, Andrew L</p> <p>2017-05-30</p> <p>Drug release from chemoembolization microspheres stimulated by the presence of a chemically reducing environment may provide benefits for targeting drug resistant and metastatic hypoxic tumours. A water-soluble disulfide-based bifunctional cross-linker bis(acryloyl)-(l)-cystine (BALC) was synthesised, characterised and incorporated into a modified poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVA) hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> at varying concentrations using reverse suspension polymerisation. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> were characterised to confirm the amount of cross-linker within each formulation and its effects on the <span class="hlt">bead</span> properties. Elemental and UV/visible spectroscopic analysis confirmed the incorporation of BALC within the <span class="hlt">beads</span> and sizing studies showed that in the presence of a reducing agent, all <span class="hlt">bead</span> formulations increased in mean diameter. The BALC <span class="hlt">beads</span> could be loaded with doxorubicin hydrochloride and amounts in excess of 300mg of drug per mL of hydrated <span class="hlt">beads</span> could be achieved but required conversion of the carboxylic acid groups of the BALC to their sodium carboxylate salt forms. Elution of doxorubicin from the <span class="hlt">beads</span> demonstrated a controlled release via ionic exchange. Some formulations exhibited an increase in size and release of drug in the presence of a reducing agent, and therefore demonstrated the ability to respond to an in vitro reducing environment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19670000023','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19670000023"><span>Tests show that aluminum welds are improved by <span class="hlt">bead</span> removal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hood, D. W.</p> <p>1967-01-01</p> <p>Tests with 2218-T87 aluminum alloy plate indicate improvements in strength, ductility, fatigue properties, and burst pressure result when one or both of the top and bottom weld <span class="hlt">beads</span> are removed. There is, however, a drop in yield strength. The consistency of test data is considerably improved by weld <span class="hlt">bead</span> removal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1011358.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1011358.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Bead</span> Collage: An Arts-Based Research Method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kay, Lisa</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, "<span class="hlt">bead</span> collage," an arts-based research method that invites participants to reflect, communicate and construct their experience through the manipulation of <span class="hlt">beads</span> and found objects is explained. Emphasizing the significance of one's personal biography and experiences as a researcher, I discuss how my background as an…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003SPIE.4966..146L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003SPIE.4966..146L"><span>Self-encoding resin <span class="hlt">beads</span> of combinatorial library screening</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lei, Du; Zhao, Yuandi; Cheng, Tongsheng; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>The latest self-encoding resin <span class="hlt">bead</span> is a novel technology for solid phase synthesis combinatorial library screening. A new encode-positional deconvolution strategy which was based on that technology been illustrated compared with positional scanning and iterative strategies. The self-encoding resin <span class="hlt">beads</span> technology provides an efficient method for improving the high-throughput screening of combinatorial library.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1049822','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1049822"><span><span class="hlt">Bead</span>-based microfluidic immunoassay for diagnosis of Johne's disease</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wadhwa, Ashutosh; Foote, Robert; Shaw, Robert W; Eda, Shigetoshi</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Microfluidics technology offers a platform for development of point-of-care diagnostic devices for various infectious diseases. In this study, we examined whether serodiagnosis of Johne s disease (JD) can be conducted in a <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based microfluidic assay system. Magnetic micro-<span class="hlt">beads</span> were coated with antigens of the causative agent of JD, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The antigen-coated <span class="hlt">beads</span> were incubated with serum samples of JD-positive or negative serum samples and then with a fluorescently-labeled secondary antibody (SAB). To confirm binding of serum antibodies to the antigen, the <span class="hlt">beads</span> were subjected to flow cytometric analysis. Different conditions (dilutions of serum and SAB, types of SAB, and types of magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>) were optimized for a great degree of differentiation between the JD-negative and JD-positive samples. Using the optimized conditions, we tested a well-classified set of 155 serum samples from JD negative and JD-positive cattle by using the <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based flow cytometric assay. Of 105 JD-positive samples, 63 samples (60%) showed higher antibody binding levels than a cut-off value determined by using antibody binding levels of JD-negative samples. In contrast, only 43-49 JD-positive samples showed higher antibody binding levels than the cut-off value when the samples were tested by commercially-available immunoassays. Microfluidic assays were performed by magnetically immobilizing a number of <span class="hlt">beads</span> within a microchannel of a glass microchip and detecting antibody on the collected <span class="hlt">beads</span> by laser-induced fluorescence. Antigen-coated magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> treated with bovine serum sample and fluorescently-labeled SAB were loaded into a microchannel to measure the fluorescence (reflecting level of antibody binding) on the <span class="hlt">beads</span> in the microfluidic system. When the results of five bovine serum samples obtained with the system were compared to those obtained with the flow cytometer, a high level of correlation (linear regression, r2 = 0.994) was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/983043','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/983043"><span>Switchable cell trapping using superparamagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bryan, M. T.; Smith, K. H.; Real, M. E.; Bashir, M. A.; Fry, P. W.; Fischer, P.; Im, M.-Y.; Schrefl, T.; Allwood, D. A.; Haycock, J. W.</p> <p>2010-04-30</p> <p>Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} microwires are investigated as the basis of a switchable template for positioning magnetically-labeled neural Schwann cells. Magnetic transmission X-ray microscopy and micromagnetic modeling show that magnetic domain walls can be created or removed in zigzagged structures by an applied magnetic field. Schwann cells containing superparamagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> are trapped by the field emanating from the domain walls. The design allows Schwann cells to be organized on a surface to form a connected network and then released from the surface if required. As aligned Schwann cells can guide nerve regeneration, this technique is of value for developing glial-neuronal co-culture models in the future treatment of peripheral nerve injuries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/890828','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/890828"><span>Accelerator Structure <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Pull Measurement at SLAC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lewandowski, J.R.; Bowden, G.; Miller, R.H.; Wang, J.W.; /SLAC</p> <p>2005-05-13</p> <p>Microwave measurement and tuning of accelerator structures are important issues for the current and next generation of high energy physics machines. Application of these measurements both before and after high power processing can reveal information about the structure but may be misinterpreted if measurement conditions are not carefully controlled. For this reason extensive studies to characterize the microwave measurements have been made at SLAC. For the <span class="hlt">bead</span> pull a reproducible measurement of less than 1 degree of phase accuracy in total phase drift is needed in order to resolve issues such as phase changes due to structure damage during high power testing. Factors contributing to measurement errors include temperature drift, mechanical vibration, and limitations of measurement equipment such as the network analyzer. Results of this continuing effort will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26495894','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26495894"><span>HEA <span class="hlt">Bead</span>Chip™ technology in immunohematology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paccapelo, Cinzia; Truglio, Francesca; Antonietta Villa, Maria; Revelli, Nicoletta; Marconi, Maurizio</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Classic methods to determine human red blood cell (RBC) antigens are based on serologic testing. Thanks to increased knowledge of the molecular basis associated with many blood group antigens, it is currently possible to predict their presence or absence on the red cell membrane. Several molecular techniques have been developed to detect the most important allelic variations attributable to single nucleotide polymorphisms. The human erythrocyte antigen (HEA) <span class="hlt">Bead</span>Chip™ system manufactured by BioArray Solutions (Immucor, Warren, NJ) is one of the commercial DNA array platforms currently available to predict HEAs by DNA analysis. This technology provides a useful tool to increase the inventory of antigen-negative RBC units and prevent immunization of patients who require chronic transfusion by providing compatible RBC units based on matching by DNA testing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18177553','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18177553"><span>Ionically cross-linked carrageenan-alginate hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mohamadnia, Z; Zohuriaan-Mehr, M J; Kabiri, K; Jamshidi, A; Mobedi, H</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> based on the carbohydrate biopolymers kappa-carrageenan and sodium alginate were newly prepared. Both classical and experimental design (Taguchi) methods were used to obtain the optimum conditions for the full-polysaccharide hydrogel preparation. The carrageenan-alginate (Caralgi) <span class="hlt">beads</span> exhibited a surface morphology smoother than that of the one-polysaccharide network <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Infrared spectroscopy and DSC/TGA thermal methods were used to study the chemical structure and thermal properties of the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The carrageenan parts appreciably enhanced thermostability of the networks. The fully carbohydrate-based hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> are expected to be biologically compatible and degradable. They are being considered as new carriers for drug loading and controlled delivery systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17516249','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17516249"><span>Optimization of alpha-amylase immobilization in calcium alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ertan, Figen; Yagar, Hulya; Balkan, Bilal</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>alpha-Amylase enzyme was produced by Aspergillus sclerotiorum under SSF conditions, and immobilized in calcium alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Effects of immobilization conditions, such as alginate concentration, CaCl(2) concentration, amount of loading enzyme, <span class="hlt">bead</span> size, and amount of <span class="hlt">beads</span>, on enzymatic activity were investigated. Optimum alginate and CaCl(2) concentration were found to be 3% (w/v). Using a loading enzyme concentration of 140 U mL(-1), and <span class="hlt">bead</span> (diameter 3 mm) amount of 0.5 g, maximum enzyme activity was observed. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> prepared at optimum immobilization conditions were suitable for up to 7 repeated uses, losing only 35% of their initial activity. Among the various starches tested, the highest enzyme activity (96.2%) was determined in soluble potato starch hydrolysis for 120 min at 40 degrees C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15612999','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15612999"><span>Biodesulfurization using Pseudomonas delafieldii in magnetic polyvinyl alcohol <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guobin, S; Jianmin, X; Chen, G; Huizhou, L; Jiayong, C</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>To immobilize Pseudomonas delafieldii R-8 cells in magnetic polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) <span class="hlt">beads</span> for biodesulfurization. Magnetic PVA <span class="hlt">beads</span> were prepared by a freezing-thawing technique under liquid nitrogen. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> have distinct super-paramagnetic properties and their saturation magnetization is 8.02 emu g(-1). The desulfurization rate of the immobilized cells could reach 40.2 mmol kg(-1) h(-1). Desulfurization patterns of dibenzothiophene in model oil with the immobilized and free cells were represented by the Michaelis-Menten equation. The Michaelis constant for both immobilized and free cells was 1.3 mmol l(-1). The cells immobilized in magnetic PVA <span class="hlt">beads</span> could be stably stored and be repeatedly used over 12 times for biodesulfurization. The immobilized cells could be easily separated by magnetic field. Magnetic PVA <span class="hlt">beads</span> are easy to prepare. The immobilization process in the paper is to increase the efficiency of cells and to decrease the cost of operations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24854245','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24854245"><span>Incorporation of pyrene in polypyrrole/polystyrene magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Głowala, Paulina; Budniak, Adam; Krug, Pamela; Wysocka, Barbara; Berbeć, Sylwia; Dec, Robert; Dołęga, Izabela; Kacprzak, Kamil; Wojciechowski, Jarosław; Kawałko, Jakub; Kępka, Paweł; Kępińska, Daria; Kijewska, Krystyna; Mazur, Maciej</p> <p>2014-10-15</p> <p>Pyrene, a fluorescent dye, was incorporated into polystyrene particles coated with polypyrrole. The incorporation was achieved by treating the polypyrrole/polystyrene (PPy/PS) <span class="hlt">beads</span> in a tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution of the pyrene fluorophore followed by rinsing with methanol. The polystyrene cores of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> swell in THF, allowing penetration of pyrene molecules into the polystyrene structure. The addition of methanol causes contraction of the swollen polystyrene, which encapsulates the dye molecules inside the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. It is shown that the polypyrrole coating is permeable with respect to both the dye and the solvent, allowing the transport of molecules between the polystyrene cores and the contacting solution. The polypyrrole adlayer can be used as a matrix for the incorporation of magnetic nanoparticles. Embedded particles provide magnetic functionality to the PPy/PS <span class="hlt">beads</span>. It is demonstrated that the pyrene-loaded <span class="hlt">beads</span> can be manipulated with an external magnetic field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24123479','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24123479"><span>Hollow polydimethylsiloxane <span class="hlt">beads</span> with a porous structure for cell encapsulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oh, Myeong-Jin; Ryu, Tae-Kyoung; Choi, S-W</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Based on a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion system, porous and hollow polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) <span class="hlt">beads</span> containing cells using a simple fluidic device with three flow channels are fabricated. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in the PDMS oil phase is served as a porogen for pore development. The feasibility of the porous PDMS <span class="hlt">beads</span> prepared with different PEG concentrations (10, 20, and 30 wt%) for cell encapsulation in terms of pore size, protein diffusion, and cell proliferation inside the PDMS <span class="hlt">beads</span> is evaluated. The PDMS <span class="hlt">beads</span> prepared with PEG 30 wt% are exhibited a highly porous structure and facilitated fast diffusion of protein from the core domain to the outer phase, eventually leading to enhanced cell proliferation. The results clearly indicate that hollow PDMS <span class="hlt">beads</span> with a porous structure could provide a favorable microenvironment for cell survival due to the large porous structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25063138','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25063138"><span>TiO₂ <span class="hlt">beads</span> and TiO₂-chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> for urease immobilization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ispirli Doğaç, Yasemin; Deveci, Ilyas; Teke, Mustafa; Mercimek, Bedrettin</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The aim of the present study is to synthesize TiO2 <span class="hlt">beads</span> for urease immobilization. Two different strategies were used to immobilize the urease on TiO2 <span class="hlt">beads</span>. In the first method (A), urease enzyme was immobilized onto TiO2 <span class="hlt">beads</span> by adsorption and then crosslinking. In the second method (B), TiO2 <span class="hlt">beads</span> were coated with chitosan-urease mixture. To determine optimum conditions of immobilization, different parameters were investigated. The parameters of optimization were initial enzyme concentration (0.5; 1; 1.5; 2mg/ml), alginate concentration (1; 2; 3%), glutaraldehyde concentration (1; 2; 3% v/v) and chitosan concentration (2; 3; 4 mg/ml). The optimum enzyme concentrations were determined as 1.5mg/ml for A and 1.0mg/ml for B. The other optimum conditions were found 2.0% (w/v) for alginate concentration (both A and B); 3.0mg/ml for chitosan concentration (B) and 2.0% (v/v) for glutaraldehyde concentration (A). The optimum temperature (20-60°C), optimum pH (3.0-10.0), kinetic parameters, thermal stability (4-70°C), pH stability (4.0-9.0), operational stability (0-230 min) and reusability (20 times) were investigated for characterization. The optimum temperatures were 30°C (A), 40°C (B) and 35°C (soluble). The temperature profiles of the immobilized ureases were spread over a large area. The optimum pH values for the soluble urease and immobilized urease prepared by using methods (A) and (B) were found to be 7.5, 7.0, 7.0, respectively. The thermal stabilities of immobilized enzyme sets were studied and they maintained 50% activity at 65°C. However, at this temperature free urease protected only 15% activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23488896','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23488896"><span>Immobilized OBOC combinatorial <span class="hlt">bead</span> array to facilitate multiplicative screening.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xiao, Wenwu; Bononi, Fernanda C; Townsend, Jared; Li, Yuanpei; Liu, Ruiwu; Lam, Kit S</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>One-<span class="hlt">bead</span>-one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial library screening has been broadly utilized for the last two decades to identify small molecules, peptides or peptidomimetics targeting variable screening probes such as cell surface receptors, bacteria, protein kinases, phosphatases, proteases etc. In previous screening methods, library <span class="hlt">beads</span> were suspended in solution and screened against one single probe. Only the positive <span class="hlt">beads</span> were tracked and isolated for additional screens and finally selected for chemical decoding. During this process, the remaining negative <span class="hlt">beads</span> were not tracked and discarded. Here we report a novel <span class="hlt">bead</span> immobilization method such that a <span class="hlt">bead</span> library array can be conveniently prepared and screened in its entirety, sequentially many times with a series of distinct probes. This method not only allows us to increase the screening efficiency but also permits us to determine the binding profile of each and every library <span class="hlt">bead</span> against a large number of target receptors. As proof of concept, we serially screened a random OBOC disulfide containing cyclic heptapeptide library with three water soluble dyes as model probes: malachite green, bromocresol purple and indigo carmine. This multiplicative screening approach resulted in a rapid determination of the binding profile of each and every <span class="hlt">bead</span> respective to each of the three dyes. <span class="hlt">Beads</span> that interacted with malachite green only, bromocresol purple only, or both indigo carmine and bromocresol purple were isolated, and their peptide sequences were determined with microsequencer. Ultimately, the novel OBOC multiplicative screening approach could play a key role in the enhancement of existing on-<span class="hlt">bead</span> assays such as whole cell binding, bacteria binding, protein binding, posttranslational modifications etc. with increased efficiency, capacity, and specificity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15556354','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15556354"><span>A direct comparison of the performance of ground, <span class="hlt">beaded</span> and silica-grafted MIPs in HPLC and turbulent flow chromatography applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fairhurst, Robert E; Chassaing, Christophe; Venn, Richard F; Mayes, Andrew G</p> <p>2004-12-15</p> <p>Spherical molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) specific to the beta-blocker propranolol have been synthesised using two different approaches and compared to traditional ground monolithic MIPs in HPLC and TFC applications. TFC is a LC technique used for rapid extraction of compounds directly from <span class="hlt">complex</span> matrices. It can be easily coupled to HPLC and MS for automation of an extraction/analysis procedure. Spherical MIP <span class="hlt">beads</span> were produced using a suspension polymerisation technique and silica/MIP composite <span class="hlt">beads</span> by grafting MIP to spherical silica particles using a surface-bound initiator species. Synthesis of both <span class="hlt">beaded</span> and silica-grafted MIPs was more practical than using the traditional grinding method and yields of spherical particles of the required size between 80 and 100% were routinely achieved. Under HPLC conditions, <span class="hlt">beaded</span> and ground MIP materials showed a degree of chiral separation for all of the nine beta-blockers tested. The <span class="hlt">beaded</span> MIP, however, showed much better flow properties and peak shape than the ground material. Silica-grafted MIP showed some separation in five of the drugs and a large improvement in peak shape and analysis times compared with both ground and <span class="hlt">beaded</span> MIPs. The materials prepared were also used in extraction columns for Turbulent Flow Chromatography (TFC). Although no imprinting effect was observed under typical TFC conditions, <span class="hlt">beaded</span> polymer materials showed promise for use as TFC extraction columns due to the good flow properties and clean extracts obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/950033','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/950033"><span>DWPF GLASS <span class="hlt">BEADS</span> AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Adamson, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B</p> <p>2008-11-24</p> <p>DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> and glass frit to determine how well the glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass <span class="hlt">bead</span> slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass <span class="hlt">beads</span>, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass <span class="hlt">beads</span> and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPCS..102...74G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPCS..102...74G"><span>Production of Eu-doped BaAl2O4 at low temperature via an alternative sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> method using PVA as <span class="hlt">complexing</span> agent</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gomes, Manassés A.; Andrade, Adriano B.; Rezende, Marcos V. dos S.; Valerio, Mário E. G.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Europium-doped barium aluminate (BaAl2O4:Eu) was successfully produced using an alternative PVA (Polyvinyl Alcohol) assisted sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> route at low temperature. To find the best conditions of calcination, DTA/TG (Differential Thermal Analysis/ Thermogravimetric Analysis) techniques were used. X-ray powder diffraction and Rietveld refinement were used to identify the crystalline phases, as well as to confirm the BaAl2O4 phase formation at 600 °C, a much lower temperature than previously reported in the literature. The crystallite size was estimated using the Scherrer's formalism showing that the prepared samples are in the nanometric scale. XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) measurements showed that only Eu3+ species are present in the matrix after calcinations. Optical characterization was performed by photoluminescence (PL) and radioluminescence (RL) spectra. PL studies showed exciton emissions and the characteristic Eu3+ spectrum. Samples irradiated by X-ray showed emissions associated to the exciton and Eu3+ and Eu2+ transitions. This study showed that calcination temperature greatly influenced the luminescent properties. The reproducibility of the samples was successfully tested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17990899','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17990899"><span>Preparation of calcium alginate microgel <span class="hlt">beads</span> in an electrodispersion reactor using an internal source of calcium carbonate nanoparticles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhao, Yinyan; Carvajal, M Teresa; Won, You-Yeon; Harris, Michael T</p> <p>2007-12-04</p> <p>An electrodispersion reactor has been used to prepare calcium alginate (Ca-alginate) microgel <span class="hlt">beads</span> in this study. In the electrodispersion reactor, pulsed electric fields are utilized to atomize aqueous mixtures of sodium alginate and CaCO3 nanoparticles (dispersed phase) from a nozzle into an immiscible, insulating second liquid (continuous phase) containing a soluble organic acid. This technique combines the features of the electrohydrodynamic force driven emulsion processes and externally triggered gelations in microreactors (the droplets) ultimately to yield soft <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The average particle size of the Ca-alginate <span class="hlt">gels</span> generated by this method changed from 412 +/- 90 to 10 +/- 3 microm as the applied peak voltage was increased. A diagram depicting structural information for the Ca-alginate was constructed as a function of the concentrations of sodium alginate and CaCO3 nanoparticles. From this diagram, a critical concentration of sodium alginate required for sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> transformation was observed. The characteristic highly porous structure of Ca-alginate particles made by this technique appears suitable for microencapsulation applications. Finally, time scale analysis was performed for the electrodispersion processes that include reactions in the microreactor droplets to provide guidelines for the future employment of this technique. This electrodispersion reactor can be used potentially in the formation of many reaction-based microencapsulation systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17087748','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17087748"><span><span class="hlt">Complexity</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gómez-Hernández, J Jaime</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>It is difficult to define <span class="hlt">complexity</span> in modeling. <span class="hlt">Complexity</span> is often associated with uncertainty since modeling uncertainty is an intrinsically difficult task. However, modeling uncertainty does not require, necessarily, <span class="hlt">complex</span> models, in the sense of a model requiring an unmanageable number of degrees of freedom to characterize the aquifer. The relationship between <span class="hlt">complexity</span>, uncertainty, heterogeneity, and stochastic modeling is not simple. Aquifer models should be able to quantify the uncertainty of their predictions, which can be done using stochastic models that produce heterogeneous realizations of aquifer parameters. This is the type of <span class="hlt">complexity</span> addressed in this article.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22615623','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22615623"><span>Formulation and In Vitro evaluation of pH sensitive oil entrapped polymeric blended gellan gum buoyant <span class="hlt">beads</span> of clarithromycin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tripathi, G; Singh, S</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A gastroretentive pH sensitive system has been a frontier approach to release the drug in controlled manner in stomach and duodenum. The aim of this study was to develop buoyant <span class="hlt">beads</span> of gellan based, wherein, the oil was entrapped, blended with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose or carbopol 934 in order to evaluate its potential for targeted sustained delivery of clarithromycin in the gastric region. Buoyant <span class="hlt">beads</span> of gellan was developed by inotropic gelation technique using calcium carbonate as gas forming agent and the drug polymer dispersion was emulsified with mineral oil. The oil was entrapped and blended with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose or carbopol 934. The developed <span class="hlt">beads</span> were evaluated in terms of diameter,% floating, encapsulation efficiency, In vitro drug release, In vivo gastric residence efficacy and clarithromycine concentration in the mucosa of the experimental animal model. The scanning electron microscope photograph indicated that the prepared <span class="hlt">beads</span> were spherical in shape and buoyancy, encapsulation efficiency and drug content obtained from all batches were satisfactory. Particle size and percentage buoyancy of the <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> increased by raising the concentration of calcium carbonate. The formulation exhibited sustained release profile and was best fitted in the Peppas model with n<0.45. Subsequent coating of microbeads exhibited zero-order sustained pattern of the drug release up to 8 hrs. Batch B(4) showed comparatively better residence and the drug concentration in the gastric mucosa of the treated animals. The result provides evidence that the prepared optimized formulation may be used effectively for pH sensitive gastric targeted antibiotic such as clarithromycin.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3304345','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3304345"><span>Formulation and In Vitro evaluation of pH sensitive oil entrapped polymeric blended gellan gum buoyant <span class="hlt">beads</span> of clarithromycin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tripathi, G.; Singh, S.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background and the purpose of the study A gastroretentive pH sensitive system has been a frontier approach to release the drug in controlled manner in stomach and duodenum. The aim of this study was to develop buoyant <span class="hlt">beads</span> of gellan based, wherein, the oil was entrapped, blended with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose or carbopol 934 in order to evaluate its potential for targeted sustained delivery of clarithromycin in the gastric region. Methods Buoyant <span class="hlt">beads</span> of gellan was developed by inotropic gelation technique using calcium carbonate as gas forming agent and the drug polymer dispersion was emulsified with mineral oil. The oil was entrapped and blended with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose or carbopol 934. The developed <span class="hlt">beads</span> were evaluated in terms of diameter,% floating, encapsulation efficiency, In vitro drug release, In vivo gastric residence efficacy and clarithromycine concentration in the mucosa of the experimental animal model. Results The scanning electron microscope photograph indicated that the prepared <span class="hlt">beads</span> were spherical in shape and buoyancy, encapsulation efficiency and drug content obtained from all batches were satisfactory. Particle size and percentage buoyancy of the <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> increased by raising the concentration of calcium carbonate. The formulation exhibited sustained release profile and was best fitted in the Peppas model with n<0.45. Subsequent coating of microbeads exhibited zero-order sustained pattern of the drug release up to 8 hrs. Batch B4 showed comparatively better residence and the drug concentration in the gastric mucosa of the treated animals. Conclusion The result provides evidence that the prepared optimized formulation may be used effectively for pH sensitive gastric targeted antibiotic such as clarithromycin. PMID:22615623</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title49-vol2-sec173-221.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title49-vol2-sec173-221.pdf"><span>49 CFR 173.221 - Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span>, expandable and Plastic molding compound.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>...-bulk shipments of Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span> (or granules), expandable evolving flammable vapor and Plastic... contents during normal conditions of transportation. (b) Bulk shipments of Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span> (or granules...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol2-sec173-221.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol2-sec173-221.pdf"><span>49 CFR 173.221 - Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span>, expandable and Plastic molding compound.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>...-bulk shipments of Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span> (or granules), expandable, evolving flammable vapor and Plastic... conditions of transportation. (b) Bulk shipments of Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span> (or granules), expandable, evolving...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title49-vol2-sec173-221.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title49-vol2-sec173-221.pdf"><span>49 CFR 173.221 - Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span>, expandable and Plastic molding compound.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>...-bulk shipments of Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span> (or granules), expandable evolving flammable vapor and Plastic... contents during normal conditions of transportation. (b) Bulk shipments of Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span> (or granules...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol2-sec173-221.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol2-sec173-221.pdf"><span>49 CFR 173.221 - Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span>, expandable and Plastic molding compound.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>...-bulk shipments of Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span> (or granules), expandable, evolving flammable vapor and Plastic... conditions of transportation. (b) Bulk shipments of Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span> (or granules), expandable, evolving...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title49-vol2-sec173-221.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title49-vol2-sec173-221.pdf"><span>49 CFR 173.221 - Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span>, expandable and Plastic molding compound.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>...-bulk shipments of Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span> (or granules), expandable, evolving flammable vapor and Plastic... conditions of transportation. (b) Bulk shipments of Polymeric <span class="hlt">beads</span> (or granules), expandable, evolving...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3943434','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3943434"><span>The Flö<span class="hlt">gel</span>-three-component reaction with dicarboxylic acids – an approach to bis(β-alkoxy-β-ketoenamides) for the synthesis of <span class="hlt">complex</span> pyridine and pyrimidine derivatives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bera, Mrinal K; Domínguez, Moisés; Hommes, Paul</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Summary An extension of the substrate scope of the Flö<span class="hlt">gel</span>-three-component reaction of lithiated alkoxyallenes, nitriles and carboxylic acids is presented. The use of dicarboxylic acids allowed the preparation of symmetrical bis(β-ketoenamides) from simple starting materials in moderate yields. Cyclocondensations of these enamides to 4-hydroxypyridine derivatives or to functionalized pyrimidines efficiently provided symmetrically and unsymmetrically substituted fairly <span class="hlt">complex</span> (hetero)aromatic compounds containing up to six conjugated aryl and hetaryl groups. In addition, subsequent functionalizations of the obtained heterocycles by palladium-catalyzed couplings or by oxidations are reported. We also describe the simple synthesis of a structurally interesting macrocyclic bispyrimidine derivative incorporating a 17-membered ring, whose configuration was elucidated by DFT calculations and by subsequent reactions. PMID:24605160</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11755396','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11755396"><span>A one-<span class="hlt">bead</span>, one-stock solution approach to chemical genetics: part 1.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Blackwell, H E; Pérez, L; Stavenger, R A; Tallarico, J A; Cope Eatough, E; Foley, M A; Schreiber, S L</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>In chemical genetics, small molecules instead of genetic mutations are used to modulate the functions of proteins rapidly and conditionally, thereby allowing many biological processes to be explored. This approach requires the identification of compounds that regulate pathways and bind to proteins with high specificity. Structurally <span class="hlt">complex</span> and diverse small molecules can be prepared using diversity-oriented synthesis, and the split-pool strategy allows their spatial segregation on individual polymer <span class="hlt">beads</span>, but typically in quantities that limit their usefulness. We report full details of the first phase of our platform development, including the synthesis of a high-capacity solid-phase <span class="hlt">bead</span>/linker system, the development of a reliable library encoding strategy, and the design of compound decoding methods both from macrobeads and stock solutions. This phase was validated by the analysis of an enantioselective, diversity-oriented synthesis resulting in an encoded 4320-member library of structurally <span class="hlt">complex</span> dihydropyrancarboxamides. An efficient and accessible approach to split-pool, diversity-oriented synthesis using high-capacity macrobeads as individual microreactors has been developed. Each macrobead contains sufficient compound to generate a stock solution amenable to many biological assays, and reliable library encoding allows for rapid compound structure elucidation post-synthesis. This 'one-<span class="hlt">bead</span>, one-stock solution' strategy is a central element of a technology platform aimed at advancing chemical genetics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23666692','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23666692"><span>Liquid <span class="hlt">bead</span> array technology in the detection of common translocations in acute and chronic leukemias.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shackelford, Rodney E; Jackson, Keith D; Hafez, Michael J; Gocke, Christopher D</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Hematologic malignancies often have specific chromosomal translocations that promote cancer initiation and progression. Translocation identification is often vital in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of malignancies. A variety of methods including metaphase cytogenetics, in situ hybridization, microarray techniques, Southern blotting, and many variations of PCR are used to identify translocations. While all these techniques have utility, many have drawbacks limiting their clinical usefulness: high cost, slow turnaround time, low density, large sample requirements, high <span class="hlt">complexity</span>, and difficult validation and standardization. Multiplexed RT-PCR combined with liquid <span class="hlt">bead</span> array detection overcomes many of these limitations, allowing simultaneous amplification and detection of multiple translocations within one patient sample. This system has high reliability, reproducibility, and flexibility; low cost and low <span class="hlt">complexity</span>; rapid turnaround time; and appropriate analyte density. Recently, Asuragen Inc. has developed a multiplexed RT-PCR liquid <span class="hlt">bead</span> array panel that simultaneously analyzes 12 fusion transcripts found in four major types of hematologic malignancies, allowing rapid and efficient diagnosis. In this chapter, we review liquid <span class="hlt">bead</span> array technology in relation to the specific hematologic translocations analyzed in the Signature LTx panel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19863487','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19863487"><span>Formulation of controlled release gellan gum macro <span class="hlt">beads</span> of amoxicillin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Babu, R Jayachandra; Sathigari, Sateesh; Kumar, M Thilek; Pandit, J K</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Gellan gum has been reported to have wide pharmaceutical applications such as tablet binder, disintegrant, gelling agent and as a controlled release polymer. Multiparticulate delivery systems spread out more uniformly in the gastrointestinal tract and reduce the local irritation. The purpose of this study is to explore possible applicability of gellan macro <span class="hlt">beads</span> as an oral controlled release system of a sparingly soluble drug, amoxicillin. Gellan gum <span class="hlt">beads</span> were prepared by ionotropic gelation with calcium ions. The effect of drug loading, stirring time, polymer concentration, electrolyte (CaCl2) concentration, curing time etc. influencing the preparation of the gellan gum macro <span class="hlt">beads</span> and the drug release from gellan gum <span class="hlt">beads</span> were investigated in this study. Optimal preparation conditions allowed very high incorporation efficiency for amoxicillin (91%) The release kinetics of amoxicillin from gellan <span class="hlt">beads</span> followed the diffusion model for an inert porous matrix in the order: 0.1 N HCl > phosphate buffer > distilled water. Change in curing time did not significantly affect the release rate constant, but drug concentration, polymer concentration and electrolyte concentration significantly affect the release rate of amoxicillin from the <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The gellan macro <span class="hlt">beads</span> may be suitable for gastro retentive controlled delivery of amoxicillin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMEP52B..08W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMEP52B..08W"><span>Ecohydraulics of Strings and <span class="hlt">Beads</span> in Bedrock Rivers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wohl, E.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Twenty years ago, Jack Stanford and others described rivers in bedrock canyons as resembling <span class="hlt">beads</span> on a string when viewed in planform. The <span class="hlt">beads</span> are relatively wide, low gradient river segments with floodplains, whereas the strings are the intervening steep, narrow river segments with minimal floodplain development. This pattern of longitudinal variations in channel and valley morphology along bedrock canyon rivers is very common, from small channels to major rivers such as the Colorado. Basic understanding of river ecosystems, as well as limited studies, indicates that the <span class="hlt">beads</span> are more retentive and biologically productive. Although both strings and <span class="hlt">beads</span> can provide habitat for diverse organisms, strings are more likely to serve as migration corridors, whereas <span class="hlt">beads</span> provide spawning and nursery habitat, facilitate lateral (channel-floodplain) and vertical (channel-hyporheic) exchanges and associated habitat diversity, and retain dissolved and particulate organic matter. Recognition of the different characteristics and functions of strings and <span class="hlt">beads</span> can be used to identify their spatial distribution along a river or within a river network and the hydraulically driven processes that sustain channel form, water quality, and biota within strings and <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Diverse modeling approaches can then be used to quantify the fluxes of water and sediment needed to maintain these hydraulically driven processes. This conceptual framework is illustrated using examples from mountain streams in the Southern Rockies and canyon rivers in the southwestern United States.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.8926E..40K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.8926E..40K"><span>Photonic hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> for controlled release of risedronate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khajuria, Deepak K.; Roy Mahapatra, D.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>pH-sensitive photonic composite hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> composed of sodium alginate and risedronate sodium (SA/RIS) was prepared crosslinked by Ca2+ owing to the ionic gelation of SA. The structure and surface morphology of the composite hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> were characterized by SEM. pH-sensitivity of these composite hydrogels <span class="hlt">beads</span> and the release behaviors of drug from them were investigated. The results showed that the composite hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> had good pH-sensitivity. The drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were 27.7% and 92% for RIS, respectively. The cumulative release ratios of RIS from the composite hydrogel <span class="hlt">beads</span> were 2.47% in pH 2.1 solution and 83 % in pH 6.8 solutions within 24 h, respectively. However, the cumulative release ratio of RIS in pH 7.4 solution reached 91% within 7 h. It is proposed that the novel photonic SA/RIS composite hydrogel <span class="hlt">bead</span> could possess the potential of an increased intestinal absorption and fewer adverse effects of RIS. The pH and salt response of photonic hydrogel <span class="hlt">bead</span>, as well as the encapsulation of macromolecules, are promising for applications in biomedicine and biotechnology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22334354','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22334354"><span>Array-based capture, distribution, counting and multiplexed assaying of <span class="hlt">beads</span> on a centrifugal microfluidic platform.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Burger, Robert; Reith, Patrick; Kijanka, Gregor; Akujobi, Victor; Abgrall, Patrick; Ducrée, Jens</p> <p>2012-04-07</p> <p>We present a novel centrifugal microfluidic platform for the highly efficient manipulation and analysis of particles for applications in <span class="hlt">bead</span>-based assays. The platform uses an array of geometrical V-cup barriers to trap particles using stopped-flow sedimentation under highly reproducible hydrodynamic conditions. The impact parameters governing the occupancy distribution and capture efficiency of the arrayed traps are investigated. The unique, nearly 100% capture efficiency paired with the capability to establish sharply peaked, single occupancy distributions enables a novel, digital readout mode for color-multiplexed, particle-based assays with low-<span class="hlt">complexity</span> instrumentation. The presented technology marks an essential step towards a versatile platform for the integration of <span class="hlt">bead</span>- and cell-based biological assays. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910019059','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910019059"><span>Test of superplastically formed corrugated aluminum compression specimens with <span class="hlt">beaded</span> webs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Davis, Randall C.; Royster, Dick M.; Bales, Thomas T.; James, William F.; Shinn, Joseph M., Jr.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Corrugated wall sections provide a highly efficient structure for carrying compressive loads in aircraft and spacecraft fuselages. The superplastic forming (SPF) process offers a means to produce <span class="hlt">complex</span> shells and panels with corrugated wall shapes. A study was made to investigate the feasibility of superplastically forming 7475-T6 aluminum sheet into a corrugated wall configuration and to demonstrate the structural integrity of the construction by testing. The corrugated configuration selected has <span class="hlt">beaded</span> web segments separating curved-cap segments. Eight test specimens were fabricated. Two specimens were simply a single sheet of aluminum superplastically formed to a <span class="hlt">beaded</span>-web, curved-cap corrugation configuration. Six specimens were single-sheet corrugations modified by adhesive bonding additional sheet material to selectively reinforce the curved-cap portion of the corrugation. The specimens were tested to failure by crippling in end compression at room temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRA..121.2431L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRA..121.2431L"><span>Sprite <span class="hlt">beads</span> and glows arising from the attachment instability in streamer channels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luque, A.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; McHarg, M. G.; Haaland, R. K.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">complex</span> dynamics of a sprite discharge are not limited to the propagation of streamers. After the passage of a streamer head, the ionized channel established in its wake develops intricate luminous patterns that evolve on timescales from 1 up to 100 ms. To investigate these patterns, conventionally called <span class="hlt">beads</span> and glows, we present high-speed recordings of their onset and decay; our main observation here is that in many cases distant points within a channel decay at the same rate despite considerable differences in the underlying air density. We then show that the properties of <span class="hlt">beads</span> and glows, including this synchronized decay, are explained by the tendency of electric current within a streamer channel to converge to an uniform value and by an attachment instability of electric discharges in air. However, we also discuss the uncertainty about the chemical reactions that affect the electron density during the sprite decay.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15850754','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15850754"><span>Cell wall lipids from Mycobacterium bovis BCG are inflammatory when inoculated within a <span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix: characterization of a new model of the granulomatous response to mycobacterial components.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rhoades, Elizabeth R; Geisel, Rachel E; Butcher, Barbara A; McDonough, Sean; Russell, David G</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>The chronic inflammatory response to Mycobacterium generates <span class="hlt">complex</span> granulomatous lesions that balance containment with destruction of infected tissues. To study the contributing factors from host and pathogen, we developed a model wherein defined mycobacterial components and leukocytes are delivered in a <span class="hlt">gel</span>, eliciting a localized response that can be retrieved and analysed. We validated the model by comparing responses to the cell wall lipids from Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) to reported activities in other models. BCG lipid-coated <span class="hlt">beads</span> and bone marrow-derived macrophages (input macrophages) were injected intraperitoneally into BALB/c mice. Input macrophages and recruited peritoneal exudate cells took up fluorescently tagged BCG lipids, and matrix-associated macrophages and neutrophils produced tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1alpha, and interleukin-6. Leukocyte numbers and cytokine levels were greater in BCG lipid-bearing matrices than matrices containing non-coated or phosphatidylglycerol-coated <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Leukocytes arrived in successive waves of neutrophils, macrophages and eosinophils, followed by NK and T cells (CD4(+), CD8(+), or gammadelta) at 7 days and B cells within 12 days. BCG lipids also predisposed matrices for adherence and vascularization, enhancing cellular recruitment. We submit that the matrix model presents pertinent features of the murine granulomatous response that will prove to be an adaptable method for study of this <span class="hlt">complex</span> response.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18969042','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18969042"><span>Renewable sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> carbon ceramic electrodes modified with a Ru-<span class="hlt">complex</span> for the amperometric detection of l-cysteine and glutathione.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salimi, Abdollah; Pourbeyram, Sima</p> <p>2003-05-28</p> <p>A renewable three-dimensional chemically modified carbon ceramic electrode containing Ru [(tpy)(bpy)Cl] PF(6) was constructed by sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> technique. It exhibits an excellent electro-catalytic activity for oxidation of l-cysteine and glutathione at pH range 2-8. Cyclic voltammetry was employed to characterize the electrochemical behavior of the chemically modified electrode. The electrocatalytic behavior is further exploited as a sensitive detection scheme for l-cysteine and glutathione by hydrodynamic amperometry. Optimum pH value for detection is 2 for both l-cysteine and glutathione. The catalytic rate constants for l-cysteine and glutathione were determined, which were about 2.1x10(3) and 2.5x10(3) M(-1)s(-1), respectively. Under the optimized condition the calibration curves are linear in the concentration range 5-685 and 5-700 muM for l-cysteine and glutathione determination, respectively. The detection limit (S/N=3) and sensitivity is 1 muM, 5 nA/muM for l-cysteine and 1 muM, 7.8 nA/muM for glutathione. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for the amperogram's currents with five injections of l-cysteine or glutathione at concentration range of linear calibration is <1.5%. The advantages of this amperometric detector are: high sensitivity, good catalytic effect, short response time (t<3 s), remarkable long-term stability, simplicity of preparation and reproducibility of surface fouling (RSD for six successive polishing is 3.31%). This sensor can be used as a chromatographic detector for analysis of l-cysteine and glutathione.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=291502','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=291502"><span>Application of <span class="hlt">gel-bead</span> technology for delivering Eimeria oocysts to day-old broilers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Current methods of preventing outbreaks of avian coccidiosis involve medication of feed with ionophore drugs or synthetic chemicals or by vaccination of chicks with low doses of Eimeria oocysts in ovo or by spray vaccination just after hatch. Our data indicates that the uniformity and efficiency of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27155234','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27155234"><span>N-doped mesoporous carbons supported palladium catalysts prepared from chitosan/silica/palladium <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zeng, Minfeng; Wang, Yudong; Liu, Qi; Yuan, Xia; Feng, Ruokun; Yang, Zhen; Qi, Chenze</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>In this study, a heterogeneous catalyst including palladium nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon (Pd@N-C) is synthesized from palladium salts as palladium precursor, colloidal silica as template, and chitosan as carbon source. N2 sorption isotherm results show that the prepared Pd@N-C had a high BET surface area (640m(2)g(-1)) with large porosity. The prepared Pd@N-C is high nitrogen-rich as characterized with element analysis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and Raman spectroscopy characterization of the catalyst shows that the palladium species with different chemical states are well dispersed on the nitrogen-containing mesoporous carbon. The Pd@N-C is high active and shows excellent stability as applied in Heck coupling reactions. This work supplies a successful method to prepare Pd heterogeneous catalysts with high performance from bulk biopolymer/Pd to high porous nitrogen-doped carbon supported palladium catalytic materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26657659','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26657659"><span>Enhancement of osteoblastic differentiation in alginate <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> with bioactive octacalcium phosphate particles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Endo, Kosei; Anada, Takahisa; Yamada, Masumi; Seki, Minoru; Sasaki, Keiichi; Suzuki, Osamu</p> <p>2015-12-14</p> <p>The present study investigated whether alginate (Alg) hydrogel microbeads have a role in maintaining mouse bone marrow stromal ST-2 cells and release the cells after being stimulated by synthetic octacalcium phosphate (OCP), which is a mineral crystal capable of stimulating osteoblastic differentiation during a conversion process to hydroxyapatite (HA). The ST-2 cell suspension in the alginate solution, which contained various concentrations of OCP granules with diameters less than 53 μm, was extruded drop-wise into a stirred gelation solution containing BaCl2 using an encapsulator with nitrogen gas stream. The Alg-microbeads (Alg/OCP · ST-2 microbeads) that were generated, which had a diameter of approximately 400 μm, were incubated for up to 14 d and then assessed for osteoblastic differentiation. Alg-microbeads with cells were also incubated to identify the possible conversion from OCP to HA. Osteoblast differentiation markers in ST-2 cells, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and collagen type I, were up-regulated in the presence of higher amounts of OCP. X-ray diffraction analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed that the OCP tended to convert to HA over time, suggesting that the OCP in Alg-microbeads interacts three-dimensionally with ST-2 cells and stimulates its osteoblastic differentiation. The release of ST-2 cells from the microbeads was also estimated. ST-2 cells were identified outside of the microbeads, although the cell number tended to decrease with increasing OCP. These results suggest that Alg/OCP microbeads could be used as a vehicle to activate osteoblastic cells and deliver them to sites where bone regeneration is needed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18515228','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18515228"><span>Formulation and evaluation of oil entrapped gastroretentive floating <span class="hlt">gel</span> <span class="hlt">beads</span> of loratadine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mishra, Shashi Kiran; Pathak, Kamla</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>A gastro retentive controlled release system of loratadine was formulated to increase the residence time in stomach and to modulate the release behaviour of the drug. Oil entrapped floating microbeads prepared by the emulsion gelation method were optimized by 23 factorial design and a polymer ratio of 2.5:1.5 (pectin/sodium alginate) by mass, 15% (m/V) of oil (mineral oil or castor oil) and 0.45 mol L(-1) calcium chloride solution as the optimized processing conditions for the desired buoyancy and physical stability. In vitro drug release in the fed state conditions demonstrated sustained release of loratadine for 8 h, which best fitted the Peppas model with n<0.45. The ethyl cellulose coating on microbeads optimized by 22 factorial design resulted in a controlled release formulation of loratadine that provided zero-order release for 8 h.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18969702','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18969702"><span>Exploiting the <span class="hlt">bead</span> injection concept for sequential determination of copper and mercury ions in river-water samples.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vidotti, Eliane C; Almeida, Vitor C; Oliveira, Cláudio C</p> <p>2004-11-15</p> <p>A procedure involving <span class="hlt">bead</span>-injection concept and sequential determination of copper and mercury ions in river-water samples is proposed. The method is based on the solid-phase extraction of both metal ions on the same <span class="hlt">beads</span> surface (Chelex 100 resin) and in their subsequent reaction with the colorimetric reagents (APDC and Dithizone for copper and mercury ions, respectively). For this task, a resin mini-column is established in the optical path by the selection, introduction and trapping of a defined volume of the Chelex-100 resin <span class="hlt">beads</span> suspension in the flow system. The passage of the sample solution through the resin mini-column promotes the sorption of Cu(II) ions and, making the APDC colorimetric reagent flows through the <span class="hlt">beads</span>, the formation of the coloured <span class="hlt">complex</span> on the solid phase surface occurs. The absorbance of the formed APDC-Cu <span class="hlt">complex</span> is then monitored at 436nm and the spent <span class="hlt">beads</span> are discarded. Packing another resin mini-column in the flow cell and repeating the concentration step it is possible to carried out the mercury determination by using Dithizone as reagent. The absorbance of the Dithizone-Hg <span class="hlt">complex</span> is monitored at 500nm. After each measurement, the spent <span class="hlt">beads</span> are wasted and a new portion of fresh one is trapped in the system, letting it ready for the next measurement. The <span class="hlt">bead</span> injection system is versatile and can be used to concentrate different sample volumes, which permits the determination of a wide range of copper and mercury ions concentrations. When the sample-selected volumes are 100 and 1000mul the analytical ranges were 5.0 up to 500.0mugl(-1) and 2.5 up to 30.0mugl(-1) for Cu(II) and Hg(II) ions, respectively. Under these conditions, the detection limit was estimated as 0.63 and 0.25mugl(-1) for copper and mercury ions determination. The system consumes 2mg of Chelex 100 resin <span class="hlt">beads</span>, 0.20mg of APDC or 1.25mg of Dithizone per determination and the traditional organic solvent extraction methodology, normally used in connection</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26632183','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26632183"><span>Pharmacokinetics and Antiinflammatory Effect of a Novel <span class="hlt">Gel</span> System Containing Ketoprofen Solid Nanoparticles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nagai, Noriaki; Iwamae, Aya; Tanimoto, Shion; Yoshioka, Chiaki; Ito, Yoshimasa</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We previously reported that dermal application using nanoparticles improves skin penetration. In this study, we prepared novel topical formulations containing ketoprofen (KET) solid nanoparticles (KETnano <span class="hlt">gel</span> ointment) and investigated the antiinflammatory effect of the KET nanoparticle formulations on rheumatoid arthritis using adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) rats. The KETnano <span class="hlt">gel</span> ointment was prepared using a <span class="hlt">bead</span> mill method and additives including methylcellulose and Carbopol 934; the mean particle size of the KET nanoparticles was 83 nm. In the in vitro skin penetration experiment, the penetration rate (Jc) and penetration coefficient through the skin (Kp) values of the KETnano <span class="hlt">gel</span> ointment were significantly higher than those of <span class="hlt">gel</span> ointment containing KET microparticles (KETmicro <span class="hlt">gel</span> ointment; mean particle size 7.7 µm). On the other hand, in the in vivo percutaneous absorption experiment, the apparent absorption rate constant (ka) and the areas under the KET concentration-time curve values in the skin of rats receiving the KETnano <span class="hlt">gel</span> ointment were significantly higher than those of rats receiving the KETmicro <span class="hlt">gel</span> ointment, and the amounts of KET in the skin tissues of rats receiving the KETnano <span class="hlt">gel</span> ointment were also significantly higher than those of rats receiving the KETmicro <span class="hlt">gel</span> ointment. In addition, the application of the KETnano <span class="hlt">gel</span> ointment attenuated the enhancement of paw edema of the hind feet of AA rats more than the application of the KETmicro <span class="hlt">gel</span> ointment. Our findings suggest that a topical drug delivery system using nanoparticles could lead to expansion in the therapeutic use of KET.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApPhL.100o3702W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApPhL.100o3702W"><span>Optical trapping force reduction and manipulation of nanoporous <span class="hlt">beads</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Tao; Jiang, Fan; Oehrlein, Stefan; Zeng, Erliang; Kershner, Ryan; Cerrina, Franco</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>We studied the interaction of infrared optical traps with controlled-pore glass (CPG) <span class="hlt">beads</span> in aqueous medium. The lateral optical trapping force and stiffness were experimentally found considerably smaller than those of their solid counterparts. The simulation using an average refractive index revealed significant losses of effective trapping efficiency, which quantitatively agreed well with experimentally fitted curves. This effect was ascribed to the reduced relative refractive index of medium-filled CPG <span class="hlt">beads</span> with respect to the medium. Combining optical trapping with mechanical confinements, we demonstrated a microfluidic platform allowing for the synthesis of multiple DNA oligonucleotide sequences on individual <span class="hlt">beads</span> of interest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10148510','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10148510"><span>K Basin sludge/resin <span class="hlt">bead</span> separation test report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Squier, D.M.</p> <p>1998-08-25</p> <p>The K Basin sludge is an accumulation of fuel element corrosion products, organic and inorganic ion exchange materials, canister gasket materials, iron and aluminum corrosion products, sand, dirt and minor amounts of other organic material. The sludge will be collected and treated for storage and eventual disposal. This process will remove the large solid materials by a 1/4 inch screen. The screened material will be subjected to nitric acid in a chemical treatment process. The organic ion exchange resin <span class="hlt">beads</span> produce undesirable chemical reactions with the nitric acid. The resin <span class="hlt">beads</span> must be removed from the bulk material and treated by another process. An effective <span class="hlt">bead</span> separation method must extract 95% of the resin <span class="hlt">bead</span> mass without entraining more than 5% of the other sludge component mass. The test plan I-INF-2729, ``Organic Ion Exchange Resin Separation Methods Evaluation,`` proposed the evaluation of air lift, hydro cyclone, agitated slurry and elutriation resin <span class="hlt">bead</span> separation methods. This follows the testing strategy outlined in section 4.1 of BNF-2574, ``Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process``. Engineering study BNF-3128, ``Separation of Organic Ion Exchange Resins from Sludge,`` Rev. 0, focused the evaluation tests on a method that removed the fine sludge particles by a sieve and then extracted the <span class="hlt">beads</span> by means of a elutriation column. Ninety-nine percent of the resin <span class="hlt">beads</span> are larger than 125 microns and 98.5 percent are 300 microns and larger. Particles smaller than 125 microns make up the largest portion of sludge in the K Basins. Eliminating a large part of the sludge`s non-<span class="hlt">bead</span> component will reduce the quantity that is lifted with the resin <span class="hlt">beads</span> in the elutriation column. Resin <span class="hlt">bead</span> particle size distribution measurements are given in Appendix A The Engineering Testing Laboratory conducted measurements of a elutriation column`s ability to extract resin <span class="hlt">beads</span> from a sieved, non-radioactive sludge</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860000686&hterms=sol+gel&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dsol%2Bgel','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860000686&hterms=sol+gel&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dsol%2Bgel"><span>Sol-<span class="hlt">Gel</span> Glasses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mukherjee, S. P.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Multicomponent homogeneous, ultrapure noncrystalline <span class="hlt">gels/gel</span> derived glasses are promising batch materials for the containerless glass melting experiments in microgravity. Hence, ultrapure, homogeneous <span class="hlt">gel</span> precursors could be used to: (1) investigate the effect of the container induced nucleation on the glass forming ability of marginally glass forming compositions; and (2) investigate the influence of gravity on the phase separation and coarsening behavior of <span class="hlt">gel</span> derived glasses in the liquid-liquid immiscibility zone of the nonsilicate systems having a high density phase. The structure and crystallization behavior of <span class="hlt">gels</span> in the SiO2-GeO2 as a function of <span class="hlt">gel</span> chemistry and thermal treatment were investigated. As are the chemical principles involved in the distribution of a second network former in silica <span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix being investigated. The procedures for synthesizing noncrystalline <span class="hlt">gels/gel</span>-monoliths in the SiO2-GeO2, GeO2-PbO systems were developed. Preliminary investigations on the levitation and thermal treatment of germania silicate <span class="hlt">gel</span>-monoliths in the Pressure Facility Acoustic Levitator were done.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28261954','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28261954"><span>Screening inhibitors of xanthine oxidase from natural products using enzyme immobilized magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Ting; Li, Dapeng; Yu, Boyang; Qi, Jin</p> <p>2017-03-06</p> <p>In this study, high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used to assess the results of bioactive compound screening from natural products using immobilized enzyme magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>. We compared three commercial magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> with modified amino, carboxy and N-hydroxysuccinimide groups, respectively. Amino magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> performed best for immobilization and were selected for further experiments. Xanthine oxidase was immobilized on amino magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> and applied to screen potential inhibitors in fresh Zingiber officinale Roscoe, extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and Pueraria lobata Ohwi. In total, 12 potential xanthine oxidase ligands were identified from fresh Zingiber root and Scutellaria root extracts, of which eight were characterized and the concentration required for 50% inhibition was determined. Preliminary structure-function relationships were discussed based on these results. A convenient and effective method was therefore developed for the identification of active compounds from <span class="hlt">complex</span> natural product mixtures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27845224','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27845224"><span>Immobilization of yeast inulinase on chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> for the hydrolysis of inulin in a batch system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Singh, R S; Singh, R P; Kennedy, J F</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>An extracellular inulinase was partially purified by ethanol precipitation and <span class="hlt">gel</span> exclusion chromatography from a cell free extract of Kluyveromyces marxianus. Partially purified inulinase exhibited 420 IU/mg specific activity and it was immobilized on chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span>. Activity yield of immobilized inulinase was optimized with glutaraldehyde concentration (1-5%), glutaraldehyde treatment time (30-240min), enzyme coupling-time (2-16h) and enzyme loading (5-30 IU) as functions. Under the optimized conditions maximum yield 65.5% of immobilized inulinase was obtained. Maximum hydrolysis of inulin 84.5% and 78.2% was observed at 125rpm after 4h by immobilized and free enzyme, respectively. A retention-time of 4h and 5h was found optimal for the hydrolysis of inulin under agitation (125rpm) by free and immobilized enzyme, respectively. The recycling of the developed immobilized biocatalyst was carried out after 5h of inulin hydrolysis in a batch system. The developed immobilized biocatalyst was successfully used for the hydrolysis of inulin for 14 batches. This is the first report on the immobilization of yeast inulinase on chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> for the hydrolysis of inulin in a batch system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23000718','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23000718"><span>Novel oxygen-releasing immobilized cell <span class="hlt">beads</span> for bioremediation of BTEX-contaminated water.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Chi-Wen; Wu, Chih-Hung; Tang, Chen-Ting; Chang, Shih-Hsien</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Novel oxygen-releasing <span class="hlt">bead</span> (ORB) and oxygen-releasing immobilized cell <span class="hlt">bead</span> (ORICB) were prepared. Their oxygen releasing characteristics and effect on degradation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX)-contaminated groundwater were evaluated in a column. ORB prepared by CaO(2)-encapsulated freezing had much better oxygen-releasing capacity (0.526 mg O(2) per ORB) than that by the mixing-freezing method. The encapsulated-ORB did not influence groundwater pH. Two BTEX degraders were utilized to prepare the ORICB. The ORICBs-column rapidly (hydraulic retention time: 0.872 day) degraded BTEX after a 2-5 day acclimation period. The BTEX removal increased as flow distances increased. At BTEX concentration of 120 mg L(-1), 67% of benzene and 81-90% of TEX were removed. The SEM shows that micropores existed in the ORBs and BTEX degraders were immobilized. The denaturing gradient <span class="hlt">gel</span> electrophoresis profiles indicate that BTEX degraders were distributed throughout the column. The BTEX concentration of 120 mg L(-1) markedly altered the structure of the indigenous microbial community. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24063905','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24063905"><span>Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of uranium biosorption by calcium alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bai, Jing; Fan, Fangli; Wu, Xiaolei; Tian, Wei; Zhao, Liang; Yin, Xiaojie; Fan, Fuyou; Li, Zhan; Tian, Longlong; Wang, Yang; Qin, Zhi; Guo, Junsheng</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Calcium alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span> are potential biosorbent for radionuclides removal as they contain carboxyl groups. However, until now limited information is available concerning the uptake behavior of uranium by this polymer <span class="hlt">gel</span>, especially when sorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics are concerned. In present work, batch experiments were carried out to study the equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of uranium sorption by calcium alginate <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The effects of initial solution pH, sorbent amount, initial uranium concentration and temperature on uranium sorption were also investigated. The determined optimal conditions were: initial solution pH of 3.0, added sorbent amount of 40 mg, and uranium sorption capacity increased with increasing initial uranium concentration and temperature. Equilibrium data obtained under different temperatures were fitted better with Langmuir model than Freundlich model, uranium sorption was dominated by a monolayer way. The kinetic data can be well depicted by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The activation energy derived from Arrhenius equation was 30.0 kJ/mol and the sorption process had a chemical nature. Thermodynamic constants such as ΔH(0), ΔS(0) and ΔG(0) were also evaluated, results of thermodynamic study showed that the sorption process was endothermic and spontaneous.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24182085','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24182085"><span>Exploring chemical reaction mechanisms through harmonic Fourier <span class="hlt">beads</span> path optimization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Khavrutskii, Ilja V; Smith, Jason B; Wallqvist, Anders</p> <p>2013-10-28</p> <p>Here, we apply the harmonic Fourier <span class="hlt">beads</span> (HFB) path optimization method to study chemical reactions involving covalent bond breaking and forming on quantum mechanical (QM) and hybrid QM∕molecular mechanical (QM∕MM) potential energy surfaces. To improve efficiency of the path optimization on such computationally demanding potentials, we combined HFB with conjugate gradient (CG) optimization. The combined CG-HFB method was used to study two biologically relevant reactions, namely, L- to D-alanine amino acid inversion and alcohol acylation by amides. The optimized paths revealed several unexpected reaction steps in the gas phase. For example, on the B3LYP∕6-31G(d,p) potential, we found that alanine inversion proceeded via previously unknown intermediates, 2-iminopropane-1,1-diol and 3-amino-3-methyloxiran-2-ol. The CG-HFB method accurately located transition states, aiding in the interpretation of <span class="hlt">complex</span> reaction mechanisms. Thus, on the B3LYP∕6-31G(d,p) potential, the gas phase activation barriers for the inversion and acylation reactions were 50.5 and 39.9 kcal∕mol, respectively. These barriers determine the spontaneous loss of amino acid chirality and cleavage of peptide bonds in proteins. We conclude that the combined CG-HFB method further advances QM and QM∕MM studies of reaction mechanisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011IJT....32.1973S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011IJT....32.1973S"><span>Thermophysical and Magnetic Properties of Carbon <span class="hlt">Beads</span> Containing Nickel Nanocrystallites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Skumiel, A.; Izydorzak, M.; Leonowicz, M.; Pomogailo, A. D.; Dzhardimalieva, G. I.</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Ferromagnetic and superparamagnetic nickel nanocrystallites, stabilized in a carbon matrix, were prepared by a three-step procedure including formation of a Ni acrylamide <span class="hlt">complex</span>, followed by frontal polymerization and pyrolysis of the polymer at various temperatures. It was found that the procedure applied enables fabrication of magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> containing metallic nanocrystallites embedded in a carbon matrix. The size of the crystallites, their morphology, volume fraction, and magnetic properties can be tailored by the pyrolysis temperature. The size of the crystallites affects their behavior in an external magnetic field, i.e., a heating process is the most effective for a sample pyrolyzed at 873 K. The revealed H n-type dependence of the temperature increase rate, (d T/d t) t=0, on the amplitude of the magnetic field indicates the presence of both superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic particles in all the samples studied since n > 2. For the superparamagnetic particles, the heating mechanism is associated with Néel relaxation. For the lower values of the magnetic field amplitude, H < H 0, the relaxation losses dominate whereas for the opposite case, H > H 0, the magnetic hysteresis is the main source of thermal energy losses. The composites containing magnetic Ni nanocrystallites entrapped in a carbon matrix can be potentially applied for hyperthermia treatment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JChPh.139p5104K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JChPh.139p5104K"><span>Exploring chemical reaction mechanisms through harmonic Fourier <span class="hlt">beads</span> path optimization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khavrutskii, Ilja V.; Smith, Jason B.; Wallqvist, Anders</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Here, we apply the harmonic Fourier <span class="hlt">beads</span> (HFB) path optimization method to study chemical reactions involving covalent bond breaking and forming on quantum mechanical (QM) and hybrid QM/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) potential energy surfaces. To improve efficiency of the path optimization on such computationally demanding potentials, we combined HFB with conjugate gradient (CG) optimization. The combined CG-HFB method was used to study two biologically relevant reactions, namely, L- to D-alanine amino acid inversion and alcohol acylation by amides. The optimized paths revealed several unexpected reaction steps in the gas phase. For example, on the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) potential, we found that alanine inversion proceeded via previously unknown intermediates, 2-iminopropane-1,1-diol and 3-amino-3-methyloxiran-2-ol. The CG-HFB method accurately located transition states, aiding in the interpretation of <span class="hlt">complex</span> reaction mechanisms. Thus, on the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) potential, the gas phase activation barriers for the inversion and acylation reactions were 50.5 and 39.9 kcal/mol, respectively. These barriers determine the spontaneous loss of amino acid chirality and cleavage of peptide bonds in proteins. We conclude that the combined CG-HFB method further advances QM and QM/MM studies of reaction mechanisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6484268','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6484268"><span>Sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brinker, C.J. ); Scherer, G.W. )</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Although the science and technology of sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> processing has experienced enormous growth in the last decade, few books have been available to help researchers cope with the flood of results published in various journals and conference proceedings. This book presents and understanding of sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> processing. Following the sol-<span class="hlt">gel</span> processing sequence from beginning to end, it includes discussions on the chemistry of hydrolysis and condensation of metalorganics and inorganic salts, the growth of polymeric or particulate species in sols, gelation, aging of <span class="hlt">gels</span>, drying, structure of <span class="hlt">gels</span>, and sintering. In addition, it compares the properties of <span class="hlt">gel</span>-derived and conventionally prepared ceramics, examines films in detail, and presents a variety of applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ct0090.photos.025004p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ct0090.photos.025004p/"><span>8. INTERIOR <span class="hlt">BEADED</span> WALL BOARDING SHOWING TRIAL MARKS FROM DIES ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>8. INTERIOR <span class="hlt">BEADED</span> WALL BOARDING SHOWING TRIAL MARKS FROM DIES MADE IN CARPENTER'S SHOP Ph: Jack E, Boucher - March 1961 - Joseph Carpenter Silversmith Shop, 71 East Town Street, Norwichtown, New London County, CT</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16832571','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16832571"><span>Chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> loaded with essential oils in cosmetic formulations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anchisi, C; Meloni, M C; Maccioni, A M</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this work is to evaluate the stability and release of chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> loaded with volatile molecules of Mentha piperita essential oil (E.O.) in a cosmetic formulation. The ability of the <span class="hlt">beads</span> to quickly release Mentha piperita E.O. during use of a cosmetic formulation such as a bath foam is also assessed. The chitosan <span class="hlt">beads</span> were produced with three different chitosan dispersions gelled with two different gelling solutions: (a) a 10% solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and (b) a 4% solution of sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). A few properties of six <span class="hlt">bead</span> samples loaded with Mentha piperita E.O. are assessed. The properties are morphology, size, swelling ability, encapsulation efficiency, stability in time, and fast release of Mentha piperita E.O. during the use phase of the cosmetic formulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhyB..435...21G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhyB..435...21G"><span>Guided self-assembly of magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> for biomedical applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gusenbauer, Markus; Nguyen, Ha; Reichel, Franz; Exl, Lukas; Bance, Simon; Fischbacher, Johann; Özelt, Harald; Kovacs, Alexander; Brandl, Martin; Schrefl, Thomas</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Micromagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> are widely used in biomedical applications for cell separation, drug delivery, and hyperthermia cancer treatment. Here we propose to use self-organized magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> structures which accumulate on fixed magnetic seeding points to isolate circulating tumor cells. The analysis of circulating tumor cells is an emerging tool for cancer biology research and clinical cancer management including the detection, diagnosis and monitoring of cancer. Microfluidic chips for isolating circulating tumor cells use either affinity, size or density capturing methods. We combine multiphysics simulation techniques to understand the microscopic behavior of magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> interacting with soft magnetic accumulation points used in lab-on-chip technologies. Our proposed chip technology offers the possibility to combine affinity and size capturing with special antibody-coated <span class="hlt">bead</span> arrangements using a magnetic gradient field created by Neodymium Iron Boron permanent magnets. The multiscale simulation environment combines magnetic field computation, fluid dynamics and discrete particle dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca2462.photos.316009p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca2462.photos.316009p/"><span>7. Detail, <span class="hlt">beaded</span> mortar joint, stepped wingwall coping at the ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>7. Detail, <span class="hlt">beaded</span> mortar joint, stepped wingwall coping at the east portal of Tunnel 18, 135mm lens with electronic flash fill. - Southern Pacific Railroad Natron Cutoff, Tunnel No. 18, Milepost 410, Dorris, Siskiyou County, CA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16423728','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16423728"><span>Removal of phthalate esters from aqueous solutions by chitosan <span class="hlt">bead</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Chih-Yu; Chung, Ying-Chien</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Removal of phthalate esters (PAEs) by chitosan <span class="hlt">bead</span> in aqueous solution was studied. The adsorption isotherms of PAEs by chitosan <span class="hlt">bead</span> were well described by Freundlich isotherm equations. Results of kinetic experiments indicated that diheptyl phthalate (DHpP) had the highest adsorption capacity (1.52 mg/g) among six PAEs in our research. PAE adsorption efficiency by chitosan <span class="hlt">bead</span> was examined in both batch and continuous systems, and DHpP attained 74.9% recovery efficiency from chitosan <span class="hlt">bead</span> by shaking with an equal volume mixture of methanol and water. The recovered chitosan <span class="hlt">bead</span> was reusable as an adsorbent. The influences of temperature, pH, Ca+2, and NaCl on PAE adsorption were also evaluated to determine performance in different water environments (e.g., groundwater, surface water, and sea water). The results showed that PAE adsorption decreased as temperature increased. From pH experiments it appeared that pH 8.0 was optimal for adsorption. The effect of Ca+2 showed that adsorption efficiency did not change by increasing the concentrations of Ca+2 until 400 mg/L. NaCl coexistence showed an insignificant effect on PAE adsorption. Furthermore, the chitosan <span class="hlt">bead</span> was also applied to treating the discharge of a plastics plant, and the treatment results resembled those of a laboratory continuous system. This is the first report to use chitosan <span class="hlt">bead</span> as an adsorbent to adsorb phthalate esters from aqueous solution. These results indicate that the application of chitosan <span class="hlt">bead</span> is feasible in the aqueous environments of Taiwan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvE..94b0501P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvE..94b0501P"><span><span class="hlt">Bead</span>-rod-spring models in random flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Plan, Emmanuel Lance Christopher Medillo, VI; Ali, Aamir; Vincenzi, Dario</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bead</span>-rod-spring models are the foundation of the kinetic theory of polymer solutions. We derive the diffusion equation for the probability density function of the configuration of a general <span class="hlt">bead</span>-rod-spring model in short-correlated Gaussian random flows. Under isotropic conditions, we solve this equation analytically for the elastic rhombus model introduced by Curtiss, Bird, and Hassager [Adv. Chem. Phys. 35, 31 (1976)].</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5102181','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5102181"><span>Couple <span class="hlt">Beads</span>: An integrated method of natural family planning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mulcaire-Jones, George; Fehring, Richard J.; Bradshaw, Megan; Brower, Karen; Lubega, Gonzaga; Lubega, Paskazia</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Various fertility indicators are used by natural family planning methods to identify the fertile and infertile phases of a woman's menstrual cycle: mucus observations, cycle-day probabilities, basal body temperature readings, and hormonal measures of LH and estrogen. Simplified NFP methods generally make use of a single fertility indicator such as cycle-day probabilities (Standard Days Method) or mucus observations (Billings Ovulation Method). The Couple <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Method integrates the two simplest fertility indicators, cycle-day probabilities and mucus observations, expanding its applicability to all women, regardless of cycle regularity and length. In determining cycle-day probabilities, the Couple <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Method relies on a new data set from ultrasound-derived determinants of gestational age that more directly define the day of conception and the fertile window. By using a visual-based system of inexpensive colored <span class="hlt">beads</span>, the Couple <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Method can be used by couples of all educational and income levels. Lay Summary: Natural family planning methods provide education in regard to the signs of a woman's body which indicate if she is possibly fertile or not. Two important signs are the day of her menstrual cycle and her observations of bleeding and cervical mucus or dryness. The Couple <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Method teaches a couple how to observe these signs and chart them with a system of colored <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The Couple <span class="hlt">Bead</span> Method can be used by women with regular or irregular cycles. The <span class="hlt">bead</span> sets are inexpensive and consist of a length of plastic cord, colored “pony beads” and safety pins. PMID:27833183</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24561265','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24561265"><span>Tetracycline nanoparticles loaded calcium sulfate composite <span class="hlt">beads</span> for periodontal management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sindhura Reddy, N; Sowmya, S; Bumgardner, Joel D; Chennazhi, K P; Biswas, Raja; Jayakumar, R</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to fabricate, characterize and evaluate in vitro, an injectable calcium sulfate bone cement <span class="hlt">beads</span> loaded with an antibiotic nanoformulation, capable of delivering antibiotic locally for the treatment of periodontal disease. Tetracycline nanoparticles (Tet NPs) were prepared using an ionic gelation method and characterized using DLS, SEM, and FTIR to determine size, morphology, stability and chemical interaction of the drug with the polymer. Further, calcium sulfate (CaSO4) control and CaSO4-Tet NP composite <span class="hlt">beads</span> were prepared and characterized using SEM, FTIR and XRD. The drug release pattern, material properties and antibacterial activity were evaluated. In addition, protein adsorption, cytocompatibility and alkaline phosphatase activity of the CaSO4-Tet NP composite <span class="hlt">beads</span> in comparison to the CaSO4 control were analyzed. Tet NPs showed a size range of 130±20nm and the entrapment efficiency calculated was 89%. The composite <span class="hlt">beads</span> showed sustained drug release pattern. Further the drug release data was fitted into various kinetic models wherein the Higuchi model showed higher correlation value (R(2)=0.9279) as compared to other kinetic models. The composite <span class="hlt">beads</span> showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The presence of Tet NPs in the composite <span class="hlt">bead</span> didn't alter its cytocompatibility. In addition, the composite <span class="hlt">beads</span> enhanced the ALP activity of hPDL cells. The antibacterial and cytocompatible CaSO4-Tet NP composite <span class="hlt">beads</span> could be beneficial in periodontal management to reduce the bacterial load at the infection site. Tet NPs would deliver antibiotic locally at the infection site and the calcium sulfate cement, would itself facilitate tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17010044','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17010044"><span>Application of paramagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> for purifying Bacillus anthracis protective antigen.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zarzecka, A; Bartoszcze, M</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>Paramagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> coated with Protein G and Tosylactivated-280 dynabeads have been used to purify Bacillus anthracis protective antigen from a liquid culture. The obtained protein was used in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test to detect B. anthracis protective antigen antibodies in human sera collected from immunized individuals. The purification method using paramagnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> is very effective. It is fast, easy and may be carried out practically in any laboratory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22903707','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22903707"><span>Plasma membrane isolation using immobilized concanavalin A magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Yu-Chen; Srajer Gajdosik, Martina; Josic, Djuro; Lin, Sue-Hwa</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Isolation of highly purified plasma membranes is the key step in constructing the plasma membrane proteome. Traditional plasma membrane isolation method takes advantage of the differential density of organelles. While differential centrifugation methods are sufficient to enrich for plasma membranes, the procedure is lengthy and results in low recovery of the membrane fraction. Importantly, there is significant contamination of the plasma membranes with other organelles. The traditional agarose affinity matrix is suitable for isolating proteins but has limitation in separating organelles due to the density of agarose. Immobilization of affinity ligands to magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> allows separation of affinity matrix from organelles through magnets and could be developed for the isolation of organelles. We have developed a simple method for isolating plasma membranes using lectin concanavalin A (ConA) magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>. ConA is immobilized onto magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> by binding biotinylated ConA to streptavidin magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>. The ConA magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> are used to bind glycosylated proteins present in the membranes. The bound membranes are solubilized from the magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span> with a detergent containing the competing sugar alpha methyl mannoside. In this study, we describe the procedure of isolating rat liver plasma membranes using sucrose density gradient centrifugation as described by Neville. We then further purify the membrane fraction by using ConA magnetic <span class="hlt">beads</span>. After this purification step, main liver plasma membrane proteins, especially the highly glycosylated ones and proteins containing transmembrane domains could be identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS. While not described here, the magnetic <span class="hlt">bead</span> method can also be used to isolate plasma membranes from cell lysates. This membrane purification method should expedite the cataloging of plasma membrane proteome.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5197267','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5197267"><span>Determination of fusion cycles for polystyrene <span class="hlt">bead</span> foam. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fossey, D.J.</p> <p>1982-06-01</p> <p>The fusion cycles required to encapsulate two electronic packages with 0.3 g/cm/sup 3/ polystyrene <span class="hlt">bead</span> foam (PSBF) were developed. The encapsulation process for one unit included the uniform dispersion of desiccant <span class="hlt">beads</span> in the PSBF. An epoxy coating was required to maintain the integrity of the PSBF surfaces in the cavity formed for a block of molded desiccant. A method to obtain adhesion of the PSBF to an aluminum substrate was developed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27714372','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27714372"><span>Electrokinetics of nanoparticle <span class="hlt">gel</span>-electrophoresis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hill, Reghan J</p> <p>2016-09-28</p> <p><span class="hlt">Gel</span>-electrophoresis has been demonstrated in recent decades to successfully sort a great variety of nanoparticles according to their size, charge, surface chemistry, and corona architecture. However, quantitative theoretical interpetations have been limited by the number and <span class="hlt">complexity</span> of factors that influence particle migration. Theoretical models have been fragmented and incomplete with respect to their counterparts for free-solution electrophoresis. This paper unifies electrokinetic models that address <span class="hlt">complex</span> nanoparticle corona architectures, corona and <span class="hlt">gel</span> charge regulation (e.g., by the local pH), multi-component electrolytes, and non-linear electrostatics and relaxation effects. By comprehensively addressing the electrokinetic aspects of the more general <span class="hlt">gel</span>-electrophoresis problem, in which short-ranged steric interactions are significant, a stage is set to better focus on the physicochemical and steric factors. In this manner, it is envisioned that noparticle <span class="hlt">gel</span>-electrophoresis may eventually be advanced from a nanoparticle-characterization tool to one that explicitly probes the short-ranged interactions of nanoparticles with soft networks, such as synthetic <span class="hlt">gels</span> and biological tissues. In this paper, calculations are undertaken that identify a generalized Hückel limit for nanoparticles in low-conductivity <span class="hlt">gels</span>, and a new Smoluchowski limit for polyelectrolyte-coated particles in high-conductivity <span class="hlt">gels</span> that is independent of the <span class="hlt">gel</span> permeability. Also of fundamental interest is a finite, albeit small, electrophoretic mobility for uncharged particles in charged <span class="hlt">gels</span>. Electrophoretic mobilities and drag coefficients (with electroviscous effects) for nanoparticles bearing non-uniform coronas show that relaxation effects are typically weak for the small nanoparticles (radius ≈3-10 nm) to which <span class="hlt">gel</span>-electrophoresis has customarily been applied, but are profound for the larger nanoparticles (radius ≳ 40 nm in low conductivity <span class="hlt">gels</span>) to which passivated <span class="hlt">gel</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4582012','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4582012"><span>Pulse Field <span class="hlt">Gel</span> Electrophoresis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sharma-Kuinkel, Batu K.; Rude, Thomas H.; Fowler, Vance G.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Pulse Field <span class="hlt">Gel</span> Electrophoresis (PFGE) is a powerful genotyping technique used for the separation of large DNA molecules (entire genomic DNA) after digesting it with unique restriction enzymes and applying to a <span class="hlt">gel</span> matrix under the elec