Science.gov

Sample records for complex material systems

  1. From precision polymers to complex materials and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Jean-François; Lehn, Jean-Marie; Meijer, E. W.; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof

    2016-05-01

    Complex chemical systems, such as living biological matter, are highly organized structures based on discrete molecules in constant dynamic interactions. These natural materials can evolve and adapt to their environment. By contrast, man-made materials exhibit simpler properties. In this Review, we highlight that most of the necessary elements for the development of more complex synthetic matter are available today. Using modern strategies, such as controlled radical polymerizations, supramolecular polymerizations or stepwise synthesis, polymers with precisely controlled molecular structures can be synthesized. Moreover, such tailored polymers can be folded or self-assembled into defined nanoscale morphologies. These self-organized macromolecular objects can be at thermal equilibrium or can be driven out of equilibrium. Recently, in the latter case, interesting dynamic materials have been developed. However, this is just a start, and more complex adaptive materials are anticipated.

  2. First-principles study of complex material systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lixin

    This thesis covers several topics concerning the study of complex materials systems by first-principles methods. It contains four chapters. A brief, introductory motivation of this work will be given in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2, I will give a short overview of the first-principles methods, including density-functional theory (DFT), planewave pseudopotential methods, and the Berry-phase theory of polarization in crystallines insulators. I then discuss in detail the locality and exponential decay properties of Wannier functions and of related quantities such as the density matrix, and their application in linear-scaling algorithms. In Chapter 3, I investigate the interaction of oxygen vacancies and 180° domain walls in tetragonal PbTiO3 using first-principles methods. Our calculations indicate that the oxygen vacancies have a lower formation energy in the domain wall than in the bulk, thereby confirming the tendency of these defects to migrate to, and pin, the domain walls. The pinning energies are reported for each of the three possible orientations of the original Ti--O--Ti bonds, and attempts to model the results with simple continuum models are discussed. CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) has attracted a lot of attention recently because it was found to have an enormous dielectric response over a very wide temperature range. In Chapter 4, I study the electronic and lattice structure, and the lattice dynamical properties, of this system. Our first-principles calculations together with experimental results point towards an extrinsic mechanism as the origin of the unusual dielectric response.

  3. Complex Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Valentino

    2014-04-17

    Valentino Cooper uses some of the world's most powerful computing to understand how materials work at subatomic levels, studying breakthroughs such as piezoelectrics, which convert mechanical stress to electrical energy.

  4. Complex Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Cooper, Valentino

    2016-07-12

    Valentino Cooper uses some of the world's most powerful computing to understand how materials work at subatomic levels, studying breakthroughs such as piezoelectrics, which convert mechanical stress to electrical energy.

  5. Thermal properties of composite materials: a complex systems approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo, J. L.; Bonilla, Beatriz; Reyes, J. J.; Dossetti, Victor

    We propose an effective media approximation to describe the thermal diffusivity of composite samples made of polyester resin and magnetite inclusions. By means of photoacoustic spectroscopy, the thermal diffusivity of the samples were experimentally measured. The volume fraction of the inclusions was systematically varied in order to study the changes in the effective thermal diffusivity of the composites. For some samples, a static magnetic field was applied during the polymerization process, resulting in anisotropic inclusion distributions. Our results show a significant difference in the thermal properties of the anisotropic samples, compared to the isotropic randomly distributed. We correlate some measures of the complexity of the inclusion structure with the observed thermal response through a multifractal analysis. In this way, we are able to describe, and at some extent predict, the behavior of the thermal diffusivity in terms of the lacunarity and other measures of the complexity of these samples Partial Financial Support by CONACyT México and VIEP-BUAP.

  6. Chitosan Based Polyelectrolyte Complexes as Potential Carrier Materials in Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hamman, Josias H.

    2010-01-01

    Chitosan has been the subject of interest for its use as a polymeric drug carrier material in dosage form design due to its appealing properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, low toxicity and relatively low production cost from abundant natural sources. However, one drawback of using this natural polysaccharide in modified release dosage forms for oral administration is its fast dissolution rate in the stomach. Since chitosan is positively charged at low pH values (below its pKa value), it spontaneously associates with negatively charged polyions in solution to form polyelectrolyte complexes. These chitosan based polyelectrolyte complexes exhibit favourable physicochemical properties with preservation of chitosan’s biocompatible characteristics. These complexes are therefore good candidate excipient materials for the design of different types of dosage forms. It is the aim of this review to describe complexation of chitosan with selected natural and synthetic polyanions and to indicate some of the factors that influence the formation and stability of these polyelectrolyte complexes. Furthermore, recent investigations into the use of these complexes as excipients in drug delivery systems such as nano- and microparticles, beads, fibers, sponges and matrix type tablets are briefly described. PMID:20479980

  7. Measuring the complex moduli of materials by using the double pendulum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casimir, J. B.; Vinh, T.

    2012-03-01

    A interesting double pendulum system permits evaluating complex moduli (Young and shear) without independent excitation and transducers. This instrument was described at France in 1934 by Le Rolland and Sorin in Etude d' une méthode utilisant le couplage entre deux systèmes oscillants pour la détermination de la résistance mécanique des constructions et la mesure des modules d' élasticité, scientific and technical publications of the Air Force Ministry, no. 47, 1934. This device is revisited and improved in order to make it applicable to measurements of viscoelastic materials.

  8. Complex Systems

    PubMed Central

    Goldberger, Ary L.

    2006-01-01

    Physiologic systems in health and disease display an extraordinary range of temporal behaviors and structural patterns that defy understanding based on linear constructs, reductionist strategies, and classical homeostasis. Application of concepts and computational tools derived from the contemporary study of complex systems, including nonlinear dynamics, fractals and “chaos theory,” is having an increasing impact on biology and medicine. This presentation provides a brief overview of an emerging area of biomedical research, including recent applications to cardiopulmonary medicine and chronic obstructive lung disease. PMID:16921107

  9. Materials and Fuels Complex Tour

    ScienceCinema

    Miley, Don

    2016-07-12

    The Materials and Fuels Complex at Idaho National Laboratory is home to several facilities used for the research and development of nuclear fuels. Stops include the Fuel Conditioning Facility, the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (post-irradiation examination), and the Space and Security Power System Facility, where radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) are assembled for deep space missions. You can learn more about INL research programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  10. Materials and Fuels Complex Tour

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, Don

    2011-01-01

    The Materials and Fuels Complex at Idaho National Laboratory is home to several facilities used for the research and development of nuclear fuels. Stops include the Fuel Conditioning Facility, the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (post-irradiation examination), and the Space and Security Power System Facility, where radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) are assembled for deep space missions. You can learn more about INL research programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  11. Efficient positioning of absorbing material in complex systems by using the Patch Transfer Function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totaro, N.; Guyader, J. L.

    2012-06-01

    Given the need to decrease energy consumption in the automobile industry, vehicle weight has become an important issue. Regarding acoustic comfort, the weight of noise reduction devices must be minimized inside vehicle compartments. Consequently, these devices, for example those using poro-elastic materials, must be designed carefully to maximize their influence on noise reduction. The present paper describes a method developed to obtain an efficient positioning of a given surface (or mass) of absorbing material characterized by its surface impedance. This technique is based on the Patch Transfer Function method used to couple complex vibro-acoustic sub-domains and which has been successfully applied in the European ViSPeR and Silence projects. First, a numerical analysis of the possibilities of this method is performed on a non-rectangular cavity with rigid walls after which an experimental validation of this numerical analysis is performed to evaluate the accuracy of the method under real conditions.

  12. Material behavior under complex loading

    SciTech Connect

    Breuer, H.J.; Raule, G.; Rodig, M.

    1984-09-01

    Studies of material behavior under complex loading form a bridge between standard material testing methods and the stress analysis calculations for reactor components at high temperatures. The aim of these studies is to determine the influence of typical load change sequences on material properties, to derive the equations required for stress analyses, to carry out tests under multiaxial conditions, and to investigate the structural deformation mechanisms of creep buckling and ratcheting. The present state of the investigations within the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor materials program is described, with emphasis on the experimental apparatus, the scope of the program, and the initial results obtained.

  13. Ultracold Molecules in Crystals of Light: A Highly Tunable System for Exploring Novel Materials, Quantum Dynamics, and Quantum Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Lincoln; Maeda, Kenji; Wall, Michael L.

    2015-03-01

    Ultracold molecules trapped in optical lattices present a new regime of physical chemistry and a new state of matter: complex dipolar matter. Such systems open up the prospect of tunable quantum complexity. We present models for the quantum many-body statics and dynamics of present experiments on polar bi-alkali dimer molecules. We are developing Hamiltonians and simulations for upcoming experiments on dimers beyond the alkali metals, including biologically and chemically important naturally occurring free radicals like the hydroxyl free radical (OH), as well as symmetric top polyatomic molecules like methyl fluoride (CH3F). These systems offer surprising opportunities in modeling and design of new materials. For example, symmetric top polyatomics can be used to study quantum molecular magnets and quantum liquid crystals. We use matrix-product-state (MPS) algorithms, supplemented by exact diagonalization, variational, perturbative, and other approaches. MPS algorithms not only produce experimentally measurable quantum phase diagrams but also explore the dynamical interplay between internal and external degrees of freedom inherent in complex dipolar matter. We maintain open source code (openTEBD and openMPS) available freely and used widely. Funded by NSF and AFOSR.

  14. Cultural Resource Investigation for the Materials and Fuels Complex Wastewater System Upgrade at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda R. Pace; Julie B raun Williams; Hollie Gilbert; Dino Lowrey; Julie Brizzee

    2010-05-01

    The Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) located in Bingham County at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho is considering several alternatives to upgrade wastewater systems to meet future needs at the facility. In April and May of 2010, the INL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, archaeological field surveys, and coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify cultural resources that may be adversely affected by the proposed construction and to provide recommendations to protect any resources listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. These investigations showed that one National Register-eligible archaeological site is located on the boundary of the area of potential effects for the wastewater upgrade. This report outlines protective measures to help ensure that this resource is not adversely affected by construction.

  15. Comparison of Different Upscaling Methods for Predicting Thermal Conductivity of Complex Heterogeneous Materials System: Application on Nuclear Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dongsheng; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2012-06-16

    To develop a strategy in thermal conductivity prediction of a complex heterogeneous materials system, loaded nuclear waste forms, the computational efficiency and accuracy of different upscaling methods have been evaluated. The effective thermal conductivity, obtained from microstructure information and local thermal conductivity of different components, is critical in predicting the life and performance of waste form during storage. Several methods, including the Taylor model, Sachs model, self-consistent model, and statistical upscaling method, were developed and implemented. Microstructure based finite element method (FEM) prediction results were used to as benchmark to determine the accuracy of the different upscaling methods. Micrographs from waste forms with varying waste loadings were used in the prediction of thermal conductivity in FEM and homogenization methods. Prediction results demonstrated that in term of efficiency, boundary models (e.g., Taylor model and Sachs model) are stronger than the self-consistent model, statistical upscaling method, and finite element method. However, when balancing computational efficiency and accuracy, statistical upscaling is a useful method in predicting effective thermal conductivity for nuclear waste forms.

  16. Ultrafast laser spectroscopy in complex solid state materials

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tianqi

    2014-12-01

    This thesis summarizes my work on applying the ultrafast laser spectroscopy to the complex solid state materials. It shows that the ultrafast laser pulse can coherently control the material properties in the femtosecond time scale. And the ultrafast laser spectroscopy can be employed as a dynamical method for revealing the fundamental physical problems in the complex material systems.

  17. Complexation of Optoelectronic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boreisho, A. S.; Il‧in, M. Yu.; Konyaev, M. A.; Mikhailenko, A. S.; Morozov, A. V.; Strakhov, S. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    Problems of increasing the efficiency and the functionality of complex optoelectronic systems for monitoring real atmospheric conditions and of their use are discussed. It is shown by the example of a meteorological complex comprising an infrared wind-sensing lidar and an X-range Doppler radar that the complexation of probing systems working in different electromagnetic-radiation ranges opens up new opportunities for determining the meteorological parameters of a turbulent atmosphere and investigating the interaction of radiation with it.

  18. Complex Materials by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Schwartzberg, Adam M; Olynick, Deirdre

    2015-10-14

    Complex materials are defined as nanostructured materials with combinations of structure and/or composition that lead to performance surpassing the sum of their individual components. There are many methods that can create complex materials; however, atomic layer deposition (ALD) is uniquely suited to control composition and structural parameters at the atomic level. The use of ALD for creating complex insulators, semiconductors, and conductors is discussed, along with its use in novel structural applications.

  19. COMPLEXITY IN ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The enormous complexity of ecosystems is generally obvious under even the most cursory examination. In the modern world, this complexity is further augmented by the linkage of ecosystems to economic and social systems through the human use of the environment for technological pu...

  20. Optical Complex Systems 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, Guillaume

    The Optical Complex Systems are more and more in the heart of various systems that industrial applications bring to everyday life. From environment up to spatial applications, OCS is also relevant in monitoring, transportation, robotics, life sciences, sub-marine, and even for agricultural purposes.

  1. Complexity in Dynamical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Cristopher David

    The study of chaos has shown us that deterministic systems can have a kind of unpredictability, based on a limited knowledge of their initial conditions; after a finite time, the motion appears essentially random. This observation has inspired a general interest in the subject of unpredictability, and more generally, complexity; how can we characterize how "complex" a dynamical system is?. In this thesis, we attempt to answer this question with a paradigm of complexity that comes from computer science, we extract sets of symbol sequences, or languages, from a dynamical system using standard methods of symbolic dynamics; we then ask what kinds of grammars or automata are needed a generate these languages. This places them in the Chomsky heirarchy, which in turn tells us something about how subtle and complex the dynamical system's behavior is. This gives us insight into the question of unpredictability, since these automata can also be thought of as computers attempting to predict the system. In the culmination of the thesis, we find a class of smooth, two-dimensional maps which are equivalent to the highest class in the Chomsky heirarchy, the turning machine; they are capable of universal computation. Therefore, these systems possess a kind of unpredictability qualitatively different from the usual "chaos": even if the initial conditions are known exactly, questions about the system's long-term dynamics are undecidable. No algorithm exists to answer them. Although this kind of unpredictability has been discussed in the context of distributed, many-degree-of -freedom systems (for instance, cellular automata) we believe this is the first example of such phenomena in a smooth, finite-degree-of-freedom system.

  2. Observability of complex systems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang-Yu; Slotine, Jean-Jacques; Barabási, Albert-László

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative description of a complex system is inherently limited by our ability to estimate the system’s internal state from experimentally accessible outputs. Although the simultaneous measurement of all internal variables, like all metabolite concentrations in a cell, offers a complete description of a system’s state, in practice experimental access is limited to only a subset of variables, or sensors. A system is called observable if we can reconstruct the system’s complete internal state from its outputs. Here, we adopt a graphical approach derived from the dynamical laws that govern a system to determine the sensors that are necessary to reconstruct the full internal state of a complex system. We apply this approach to biochemical reaction systems, finding that the identified sensors are not only necessary but also sufficient for observability. The developed approach can also identify the optimal sensors for target or partial observability, helping us reconstruct selected state variables from appropriately chosen outputs, a prerequisite for optimal biomarker design. Given the fundamental role observability plays in complex systems, these results offer avenues to systematically explore the dynamics of a wide range of natural, technological and socioeconomic systems. PMID:23359701

  3. Managing Complex Dynamical Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, John C.; Webster, Robert L.; Curry, Jeanie A.; Hammond, Kevin L.

    2011-01-01

    Management commonly engages in a variety of research designed to provide insight into the motivation and relationships of individuals, departments, organizations, etc. This paper demonstrates how the application of concepts associated with the analysis of complex systems applied to such data sets can yield enhanced insights for managerial action.

  4. Six Questions on Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, John F.; Sanayei, Ali

    2011-09-01

    This paper includes an interview with John F. Symons regarding some important questions in "complex systems" and "complexity". In addition, he has stated some important open problems concerning complex systems in his research area from a philosophical point of view.

  5. Visualizing complex systems

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, J.

    1994-12-01

    The complexity of modern power systems has necessitated an increasing degree of computer assistance to ensure efficient and dependable operation. But while the machines are able to process and deliver more data more quickly than ever, the sheer bulk of numerical detail can be overwhelming for an operator trying to make the best decisions in a timely manner. Visualization techniques that help people see patterns and deviations can enable operators to grasp the big picture more intuitively and get to the nub of a problem quickly. 8 figs.

  6. Forecasting in Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, J. B.; Holliday, J. R.; Graves, W. R.; Turcotte, D. L.; Donnellan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Complex nonlinear systems are typically characterized by many degrees of freedom, as well as interactions between the elements. Interesting examples can be found in the areas of earthquakes and finance. In these two systems, fat tails play an important role in the statistical dynamics. For earthquake systems, the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency is applicable, whereas for daily returns for the securities in the financial markets are known to be characterized by leptokurtotic statistics in which the tails are power law. Very large fluctuations are present in both systems. In earthquake systems, one has the example of great earthquakes such as the M9.1, March 11, 2011 Tohoku event. In financial systems, one has the example of the market crash of October 19, 1987. Both were largely unexpected events that severely impacted the earth and financial systems systemically. Other examples include the M9.3 Andaman earthquake of December 26, 2004, and the Great Recession which began with the fall of Lehman Brothers investment bank on September 12, 2013. Forecasting the occurrence of these damaging events has great societal importance. In recent years, national funding agencies in a variety of countries have emphasized the importance of societal relevance in research, and in particular, the goal of improved forecasting technology. Previous work has shown that both earthquakes and financial crashes can be described by a common Landau-Ginzburg-type free energy model. These metastable systems are characterized by fat tail statistics near the classical spinodal. Correlations in these systems can grow and recede, but do not imply causation, a common source of misunderstanding. In both systems, a common set of techniques can be used to compute the probabilities of future earthquakes or crashes. In this talk, we describe the basic phenomenology of these systems and emphasize their similarities and differences. We also consider the problem of forecast validation and verification

  7. Nanoscale science: Complex rules for soft systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glotzer, Sharon C.

    2003-11-01

    The nanometre scale is a brave new world for scientists - mixing materials at such small dimensions can cause all sorts of surprising effects. New studies of experimental systems on the nanoscale further our understanding of these complex phenomena.

  8. Marine Education Materials System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammisch, Sue; Gray, Kevin

    1980-01-01

    Described is a marine education materials clearinghouse, the Marine Education Materials System (MEMS). MEMS classifies marine education documents and reproduces them on microfiche for distribution. There are 25 distribution centers, each of which has a collection of documents and provides assistance on a request basis to teachers. (Author/DS)

  9. From cells to embryos: the application of femtosecond laser pulses for altering cellular material in complex biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohli, V.; Elezzabi, A. Y.

    2008-02-01

    We report the application of high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses as a novel tool for manipulating biological specimens. When femtosecond laser pulses were focused to a near diffraction-limited focal spot, cellular material within the laser focal volume was surgically ablated. Several dissection cuts were made in the membrane of live mammalian cells, and membrane surgery was accomplished without inducing cell collapse or disassociation. By altering how the laser pulses were applied, focal adhesions joining live epithelial cells were surgically removed, resulting in single cell isolation. To further examine the versatility of this reported tool, cells were transiently permeabilized for introducing foreign material into the cytoplasm of live mammalian cells. Localizing focused femtosecond laser pulses on the biological membrane resulted in the formation of transient pores, which were harnessed as a pathway for the delivery of exogenous material. Individual mammalian cells were permeabilized in the presence of a hyperosmotic cryoprotective disaccharide. Material delivery was confirmed by measuring the volumetric response of cells permeabilized in 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 M cryoprotective sugar. The survival of permeabilized cells in increasing osmolarity of sugar was assessed using a membrane integrity assay. Further demonstrating the novelty of this reported tool, laser surgery of an aquatic embryo, the zebrafish (Danio rerio), was also performed. Utilizing the transient pores that were formed in the embryonic cells of the zebrafish embryo, an exogenous fluorescent probe FITC, Streptavidin-conjugated quantum dots or plasmid DNA (sCMV) encoding EGFP was introduced into the developing embryonic cells. To determine if the laser induced any short- or long-term effects on development, laser-manipulated embryos were reared to 2 and 7 days post-fertilization and compared to control embryos at the same developmental stages. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy

  10. Flexible Material Systems Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, John K.; Shook, Lauren S.; Ware, Joanne S.; Welch, Joseph V.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental program has been undertaken to better characterize the stress-strain characteristics of flexible material systems to support a NASA ground test program for inflatable decelerator material technology. A goal of the current study is to investigate experimental methods for the characterization of coated woven material stiffness. This type of experimental mechanics data would eventually be used to define the material inputs of fluid-structure interaction simulation models. The test methodologies chosen for this stress-strain characterization are presented along with the experimental results.

  11. Laser material processing system

    DOEpatents

    Dantus, Marcos

    2015-04-28

    A laser material processing system and method are provided. A further aspect of the present invention employs a laser for micromachining. In another aspect of the present invention, the system uses a hollow waveguide. In another aspect of the present invention, a laser beam pulse is given broad bandwidth for workpiece modification.

  12. HIGH RESOLUTION PHOTOEMISSION STUDIES OF COMPLEX MATERIALS.

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON,P.D.; VALLA,T.; FEDOROV,A.; REISFELD,G.; HULBERT,S.L.

    1999-10-13

    Recent instrumentation developments in photoemission are providing new insights into the physics of complex materials. With increased energy and momentum resolution, it has become possible to examine in detail different contributions to the self-energy or inverse lifetime of the photohole created in the photoexcitation process. Employing momentum distribution and energy distribution curves, a detailed study of the optimally doped cuprate, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}}, shows that the material behaves like a non-Fermi liquid with no evidence for the quasi-particles characteristic of a Fermi liquid.

  13. Biologically inspired dynamic material systems.

    PubMed

    Studart, André R

    2015-03-01

    Numerous examples of material systems that dynamically interact with and adapt to the surrounding environment are found in nature, from hair-based mechanoreceptors in animals to self-shaping seed dispersal units in plants to remodeling bone in vertebrates. Inspired by such fascinating biological structures, a wide range of synthetic material systems have been created to replicate the design concepts of dynamic natural architectures. Examples of biological structures and their man-made counterparts are herein revisited to illustrate how dynamic and adaptive responses emerge from the intimate microscale combination of building blocks with intrinsic nanoscale properties. By using top-down photolithographic methods and bottom-up assembly approaches, biologically inspired dynamic material systems have been created 1) to sense liquid flow with hair-inspired microelectromechanical systems, 2) to autonomously change shape by utilizing plantlike heterogeneous architectures, 3) to homeostatically influence the surrounding environment through self-regulating adaptive surfaces, and 4) to spatially concentrate chemical species by using synthetic microcompartments. The ever-increasing complexity and remarkable functionalities of such synthetic systems offer an encouraging perspective to the rich set of dynamic and adaptive properties that can potentially be implemented in future man-made material systems.

  14. Managing complexity of aerospace systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaskar, Shashank

    Growing complexity of modern aerospace systems has exposed the limits of conventional systems engineering tools and challenged our ability to design them in a timely and cost effective manner. According to the US Government Accountability Office (GAO), in 2009 nearly half of the defense acquisition programs are expecting 25% or more increase in unit acquisition cost. Increase in technical complexity has been identified as one of the primary drivers behind cost-schedule overruns. Thus to assure the affordability of future aerospace systems, it is increasingly important to develop tools and capabilities for managing their complexity. We propose an approach for managing the complexity of aerospace systems to address this pertinent problem. To this end, we develop a measure that improves upon the state-of-the-art metrics and incorporates key aspects of system complexity. We address the problem of system decomposition by presenting an algorithm for module identification that generates modules to minimize integration complexity. We demonstrate the framework on diverse spacecraft and show the impact of design decisions on integration cost. The measure and the algorithm together help the designer track and manage complexity in different phases of system design. We next investigate how complexity can be used as a decision metric in the model-based design (MBD) paradigm. We propose a framework for complexity enabled design space exploration that introduces the idea of using complexity as a non-traditional design objective. We also incorporate complexity with the component based design paradigm (a sub-field of MBD) and demonstrate it on several case studies. The approach for managing complexity is a small but significant contribution to the vast field of complexity management. We envision our approach being used in concert with a suite of complexity metrics to provide an ability to measure and track complexity through different stages of design and development. This will not

  15. Complex Digital Visual Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    This article identifies possibilities for data visualization as art educational research practice. The author presents an analysis of the relationship between works of art and digital visual culture, employing aspects of network analysis drawn from the work of Barabási, Newman, and Watts (2006) and Castells (1994). Describing complex network…

  16. [Materializing interdisciplinary outpatient management of complex situations].

    PubMed

    Perone, Nicolas; Filliettaz, Séverine Schusselé; Budan, Frédéric; Schaller, Philippe; Balavoine, Jean-François; Waldvogel, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Patient management is becoming increasingly complex, particularly because of the growing prevalence ofchronic diseases and ageing populations. The Swiss health care system is fragmented and struggles to coordinate care provided by professionals from multiple disciplines or working for different institutions. Models to improve health care of complex situations are available that particularly advocate a coordinated team approach. This article presents an action-research designed to empower health professionals to manage complex situations in outpatient settings by means of this type of approach. Health professionals - good practice leaders in the medical and nursing fields in the Geneva Canton (Switzerland) - explored complex management situations, as well as facilitating components and obstacles. A team approach is essential to manage all of the patient's issues, to take the patient's priorities into account, and to work on a joint care plan. The legitimate role of each member of this team is highlighted, together with new roles for existing practices: informing and motivating the patient, highlighting and supporting care givers, coordination by nurses. The creation of such teams, and implementation of these roles involve new processes, which require financing of coordination as well as development of new methods of interdisciplinary management, particularly novel information technology tools.

  17. Bulk material handling system

    DOEpatents

    Kleysteuber, William K.; Mayercheck, William D.

    1979-01-01

    This disclosure relates to a bulk material handling system particularly adapted for underground mining and includes a monorail supported overhead and carrying a plurality of conveyors each having input and output end portions with the output end portion of a first of the conveyors positioned above an input end portion of a second of the conveyors, a device for imparting motion to the conveyors to move the material from the input end portions toward the output end portions thereof, a device for supporting at least one of the input and output end portions of the first and second conveyors from the monorail, and the supporting device including a plurality of trolleys rollingly supported by the monorail whereby the conveyors can be readily moved therealong.

  18. Spectroscopic Investigations of Amorphous Complex Dielectric Materials.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Muhammad

    1989-03-01

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. A discussion of general properties of three systems of dielectric films i.e. MoO_3 and the mixed oxide systems MoO_3/In _2O_3 and MoO_3/SiO is presented. Composition, film thickness, substrate deposition temperature and annealing, all have a substantial effect on the structure and various properties of the films. General properties of these three systems of dielectric films include analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, U.V/VIS and infra-red spectroscopy including the Fourier transform technique, electrical properties both D.C and A.C at both low and high fields, and electron paramagnetic resonance. A comprehensive comparison of all the results is carried out in a correlated manner and some new ideas are presented on an established semiconducting/dielectric material. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  19. Complex System Ensemble Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Carl A.

    A new measure for interaction network ensembles and their dynamics is presented: the ensemble transition matrix, T, the proportions of networks in an ensemble that support particular transitions. That presentation begins with generation of the ensemble and application of constraint perturbations to compute T, including estimating alternatives to accommodate cases where the problem size becomes computationally intractable. Then, T is used to predict ensemble dynamics properties in expected-value like calculations. Finally, analyses from the two complementary assumptions about T - that it represents uncertainty about a unique system or that it represents stochasticity around a unique constraint - are presented: entropy-based experiment selection and generalized potentials/heat dissipation of the system, respectively. Extension of these techniques to more general graph models is described, but not demonstrated. Future directions for research using T are proposed in the summary chapter. Throughout this work, the presentation of various calculations involving T are motivated by the Budding Yeast Cell Cycle example, with argument for the generality of the approaches presented by the results of their application to a database of pseudo-randomly generated dynamic constraints.

  20. Complex Permittivities of Candidate Radome Materials at W-band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cravey, Robin

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of w-band complex permittivity measurements performed in NASA Langley's Electromagnetics Research Branch. The test articles included in the permittivity study were flat panels of materials which are under consideration for use in a radome for the Passive Millimeter Wave Camera (PMMWC) flight experiment. This experiment is scheduled to fly on the Air Force's 'Speckled Trout' aircraft in late 1997. The radome design is very important because the PMMWC can tolerate only a small amount of electromagnetic loss through the radome. A free space measurement system was used to obtain complex reflection and transmission coefficients of the samples. The frequency of interest was 89 GHz, so measurements were performed over a range of 79 to 99 GHz. The transmission and reflection coefficients were used, along with the measured sample thickness, to calculate complex permittivity over the frequency range. The material samples measured in this study can be divided into four categories: skin materials, core materials, coating materials, and layered samples.

  1. The complexity of anatomical systems

    PubMed Central

    Grizzi, Fabio; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio

    2005-01-01

    Background The conception of anatomical entities as a hierarchy of infinitely graduated forms and the increase in the number of observed anatomical sub-entities and structural variables has generated a growing complexity, thus highlighting new properties of organised biological matter. Results (1) Complexity is so pervasive in the anatomical world that it has come to be considered as a primary characteristic of anatomical systems. (2) Anatomical entities, when viewed at microscopic as well as macroscopic level of observation, show a different degree of complexity. (3) Complexity can reside in the structure of the anatomical system (having many diverse parts with varying interactions or an intricate architecture) or in its behaviour. Often complexity in structure and behaviour go together. (4) Complex systems admit many descriptions (ways of looking at the system) each of which is only partially true. Each way of looking at a complex system requires its own description, its own mode of analysis and its own breaking down of the system in different parts; (5) Almost all the anatomical entities display hierarchical forms: their component structures at different spatial scales or their process at different time scales are related to each other. Conclusion The need to find a new way of observing and measuring anatomical entities, and objectively quantifying their different structural changes, prompted us to investigate the non-Euclidean geometries and the theories of complexity, and to apply their concepts to human anatomy. This attempt has led us to reflect upon the complex significance of the shape of an observed anatomical entity. Its changes have been defined in relation to variations in its status: from a normal (i.e. natural) to a pathological or altered state introducing the concepts of kinematics and dynamics of anatomical forms, speed of their changes, and that of scale of their observation. PMID:16029490

  2. Layered Atom Arrangements in Complex Materials

    SciTech Connect

    K.E. Sikafus; R.W.Grimes; S.M.Corish; A.R. Cleave; M.Tang; C.R.Stanek; B.P. Uberuaga; J.A.Valdez

    2005-04-15

    In this report, we develop an atom layer stacking model to describe systematically the crystal structures of complex materials. To illustrate the concepts, we consider a sequence of oxide compounds in which the metal cations progress in oxidation state from monovalent (M{sup 1+}) to tetravalent (M{sup 4+}). We use concepts relating to geometric subdivisions of a triangular atom net to describe the layered atom patterns in these compounds (concepts originally proposed by Shuichi Iida). We demonstrate that as a function of increasing oxidation state (from M{sup 1+} to M{sup 4+}), the layer stacking motifs used to generate each successive structure (specifically, motifs along a 3 symmetry axis), progress through the following sequence: MMO, MO, M{sub r}O, MO{sub r/s}O{sub u/v}, MOO (where M and O represent fully dense triangular atom nets and r/s and u/v are fractions used to describe partially filled triangular atom nets). We also develop complete crystallographic descriptions for the compounds in our oxidation sequence using trigonal space group R{bar 3}.

  3. Method and system for producing complex-shape objects

    DOEpatents

    Jeantette, Francisco P.; Keicher, David M.; Romero, Joseph A.; Schanwald, Lee P.

    2000-01-01

    A method and system are provided for producing complex, three-dimensional, net shape objects from a variety of powdered materials. The system includes unique components to ensure a uniform and continuous flow of powdered materials as well as to focus and locate the flow of powdered materials with respect to a laser beam which results in the melting of the powdered material. The system also includes a controller so that the flow of molten powdered materials can map out and form complex, three-dimensional, net-shape objects by layering the molten powdered material. Advantageously, such complex, three-dimensional net-shape objects can be produced having material densities varying from 90% of theoretical to fully dense, as well as a variety of controlled physical properties. Additionally, such complex, three-dimensional objects can be produced from two or more different materials so that the composition of the object can be transitioned from one material to another.

  4. Language Networks as Complex Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Max Kueiming; Ou, Sheue-Jen

    2008-01-01

    Starting in the late eighties, with a growing discontent with analytical methods in science and the growing power of computers, researchers began to study complex systems such as living organisms, evolution of genes, biological systems, brain neural networks, epidemics, ecology, economy, social networks, etc. In the early nineties, the research…

  5. Control principles of complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang-Yu; Barabási, Albert-László

    2016-07-01

    A reflection of our ultimate understanding of a complex system is our ability to control its behavior. Typically, control has multiple prerequisites: it requires an accurate map of the network that governs the interactions between the system's components, a quantitative description of the dynamical laws that govern the temporal behavior of each component, and an ability to influence the state and temporal behavior of a selected subset of the components. With deep roots in dynamical systems and control theory, notions of control and controllability have taken a new life recently in the study of complex networks, inspiring several fundamental questions: What are the control principles of complex systems? How do networks organize themselves to balance control with functionality? To address these questions here recent advances on the controllability and the control of complex networks are reviewed, exploring the intricate interplay between the network topology and dynamical laws. The pertinent mathematical results are matched with empirical findings and applications. Uncovering the control principles of complex systems can help us explore and ultimately understand the fundamental laws that govern their behavior.

  6. Active Printed Materials for Complex Self-Evolving Deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raviv, Dan; Zhao, Wei; McKnelly, Carrie; Papadopoulou, Athina; Kadambi, Achuta; Shi, Boxin; Hirsch, Shai; Dikovsky, Daniel; Zyracki, Michael; Olguin, Carlos; Raskar, Ramesh; Tibbits, Skylar

    2014-12-01

    We propose a new design of complex self-evolving structures that vary over time due to environmental interaction. In conventional 3D printing systems, materials are meant to be stable rather than active and fabricated models are designed and printed as static objects. Here, we introduce a novel approach for simulating and fabricating self-evolving structures that transform into a predetermined shape, changing property and function after fabrication. The new locally coordinated bending primitives combine into a single system, allowing for a global deformation which can stretch, fold and bend given environmental stimulus.

  7. Active printed materials for complex self-evolving deformations.

    PubMed

    Raviv, Dan; Zhao, Wei; McKnelly, Carrie; Papadopoulou, Athina; Kadambi, Achuta; Shi, Boxin; Hirsch, Shai; Dikovsky, Daniel; Zyracki, Michael; Olguin, Carlos; Raskar, Ramesh; Tibbits, Skylar

    2014-12-18

    We propose a new design of complex self-evolving structures that vary over time due to environmental interaction. In conventional 3D printing systems, materials are meant to be stable rather than active and fabricated models are designed and printed as static objects. Here, we introduce a novel approach for simulating and fabricating self-evolving structures that transform into a predetermined shape, changing property and function after fabrication. The new locally coordinated bending primitives combine into a single system, allowing for a global deformation which can stretch, fold and bend given environmental stimulus.

  8. 1998 Complex Systems Summer School

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-15

    For the past eleven years a group of institutes, centers, and universities throughout the country have sponsored a summer school in Santa Fe, New Mexico as part of an interdisciplinary effort to promote the understanding of complex systems. The goal of these summer schools is to provide graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and active research scientists with an introduction to the study of complex behavior in mathematical, physical, and living systems. The Center for Nonlinear Studies supported the eleventh in this series of highly successful schools in Santa Fe in June, 1998.

  9. Physical approach to complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwapień, Jarosław; Drożdż, Stanisław

    2012-06-01

    Typically, complex systems are natural or social systems which consist of a large number of nonlinearly interacting elements. These systems are open, they interchange information or mass with environment and constantly modify their internal structure and patterns of activity in the process of self-organization. As a result, they are flexible and easily adapt to variable external conditions. However, the most striking property of such systems is the existence of emergent phenomena which cannot be simply derived or predicted solely from the knowledge of the systems’ structure and the interactions among their individual elements. This property points to the holistic approaches which require giving parallel descriptions of the same system on different levels of its organization. There is strong evidence-consolidated also in the present review-that different, even apparently disparate complex systems can have astonishingly similar characteristics both in their structure and in their behaviour. One can thus expect the existence of some common, universal laws that govern their properties. Physics methodology proves helpful in addressing many of the related issues. In this review, we advocate some of the computational methods which in our opinion are especially fruitful in extracting information on selected-but at the same time most representative-complex systems like human brain, financial markets and natural language, from the time series representing the observables associated with these systems. The properties we focus on comprise the collective effects and their coexistence with noise, long-range interactions, the interplay between determinism and flexibility in evolution, scale invariance, criticality, multifractality and hierarchical structure. The methods described either originate from “hard” physics-like the random matrix theory-and then were transmitted to other fields of science via the field of complex systems research, or they originated elsewhere but

  10. Tailorable Dielectric Material with Complex Permittivity Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Elliott, Holly A (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor); Ghose, Sayata (Inventor); Watson, Kent A. (Inventor); Delozier, Donavon Mark (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A dielectric material includes a network of nanosubstrates, such as but not limited to nanotubes, nanosheets, or other nanomaterials or nanostructures, a polymer base material or matrix, and nanoparticles constructed at least partially of an elemental metal. The network has a predetermined nanosubstrate loading percentage by weight with respect to a total weight of the dielectric material, and a preferential or predetermined longitudinal alignment with respect to an orientation of an incident electrical field. A method of forming the dielectric material includes depositing the metal-based nanoparticles onto the nanosubstrates and subsequently mixing these with a polymer matrix. Once mixed, alignment can be achieved by melt extrusion or a similar mechanical shearing process. Alignment of the nanosubstrate may be in horizontal or vertical direction with respect to the orientation of an incident electrical field.

  11. BOOK REVIEW: Modeling Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreckenberg, M.

    2004-10-01

    This book by Nino Boccara presents a compilation of model systems commonly termed as `complex'. It starts with a definition of the systems under consideration and how to build up a model to describe the complex dynamics. The subsequent chapters are devoted to various categories of mean-field type models (differential and recurrence equations, chaos) and of agent-based models (cellular automata, networks and power-law distributions). Each chapter is supplemented by a number of exercises and their solutions. The table of contents looks a little arbitrary but the author took the most prominent model systems investigated over the years (and up until now there has been no unified theory covering the various aspects of complex dynamics). The model systems are explained by looking at a number of applications in various fields. The book is written as a textbook for interested students as well as serving as a compehensive reference for experts. It is an ideal source for topics to be presented in a lecture on dynamics of complex systems. This is the first book on this `wide' topic and I have long awaited such a book (in fact I planned to write it myself but this is much better than I could ever have written it!). Only section 6 on cellular automata is a little too limited to the author's point of view and one would have expected more about the famous Domany--Kinzel model (and more accurate citation!). In my opinion this is one of the best textbooks published during the last decade and even experts can learn a lot from it. Hopefully there will be an actualization after, say, five years since this field is growing so quickly. The price is too high for students but this, unfortunately, is the normal case today. Nevertheless I think it will be a great success!

  12. Electricity Market Complex Adaptive System

    2004-10-14

    EMCAS is a model developed for the simulation and analysis of electricity markets. As power markets are relatively new and still continue to evolve, there is a growing need for advanced modeling approaches that simulate the behavior of electricity markets over time and how market participants may act and react to the changing economic, financial, and regulatory environments in which they operate. A new and rather promising approach applied in the EMCAS software is tomore » model the electricity market as a complex adaptive system using an agent-based modeling and simulation scheme. With its unique combination of various novel approaches, the Agent Based Modeling System (ABMS) provides the ability to capture and investigate the complex interactions between the physical infrastructures (generation, transmission, and distribution) and the economic behavior of market participants that are a trademark of the newly emerging markets.« less

  13. MATERIALS WITH COMPLEX ELECTRONIC/ATOMIC STRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. PARKIN; L. CHEN; ET AL

    2000-09-01

    We explored both experimentally and theoretically the behavior of materials at stresses close to their theoretical strength. This involves the preparation of ultra fine scale structures by a variety of fabrication methods. In the past year work has concentrated on wire drawing of in situ composites such as Cu-Ag and Cu-Nb. Materials were also fabricated by melting alloys in glass and drawing them into filaments at high temperatures by a method known as Taylor wire technique. Cu-Ag microwires have been drawn by this technique to produce wires 10 {micro}m in diameter that consist of nanoscale grains of supersaturated solid solution. Organogels formed from novel organic gelators containing cholesterol tethered to squaraine dyes or trans-stilbene derivatives have been studied from several different perspectives. The two types of molecules are active toward several organic liquids, gelling in some cases at w/w percentages as low as 0.1. While relatively robust, acroscopically dry gels are formed in several cases, studies with a variety of probes indicate that much of the solvent may exist in domains that are essentially liquid-like in terms of their microenvironment. The gels have been imaged by atomic force microscopy and conventional and fluorescence microscopy, monitoring both the gelator fluorescence in the case of the stilbene-cholesterol gels and, the fluorescence of solutes dissolved in the solvent. Remarkably, our findings show that several of the gels are composed of similarly appearing fibrous structures visible at the nano-, micro-, and macroscale.

  14. Modeling Power Systems as Complex Adaptive Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Malard, Joel M.; Posse, Christian; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Lu, Ning; Katipamula, Srinivas; Mallow, J V.

    2004-12-30

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today's most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This report explores the state-of-the-art physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and deriving stable and robust control strategies for using them. We review and discuss applications of some analytic methods based on a thermodynamic metaphor, according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood. We apply these methods to the question of how power markets can be expected to behave under a variety of conditions.

  15. Mesoscopic hydrothermodynamics of complex-structured materials.

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos, Áurea R; Silva, A A P; Luzzi, Roberto; Casas-Vázquez, J; Jou, David

    2013-10-01

    Some experimental results in the study of disordered systems, polymeric fluids, solutions of micelles and surfactants, ionic-glass conductors, and others show a hydrodynamic behavior labeled "anomalous" with properties described by some kind of fractional power laws in place of the standard ones. This is a consequence of the fractal-like structure that is present in these systems of which we do not have a detailed description, thus impairing the application of the conventional ensemble formalism of statistical mechanics. In order to obtain a physical picture of the phenomenon for making predictions which may help with technological and industrial decisions, one may resort to different styles (so-called nonconventional) in statistical mechanics. In that way can be introduced a theory for handling such impaired situations, a nonconventional mesoscopic hydrothermodynamics (MHT). We illustrate the question presenting an application in a contracted description of such nonconventional MHT, consisting in the use of the Renyi approach to derive a set of coupled nonstandard evolution equations, one for the density, a nonconventional Maxwell-Cattaneo equation, which in a limiting case goes over a non-Fickian diffusion equation, and other for the velocity in fluids under forced flow. For illustration the theory is applied to the study of the hydrodynamic motion in several soft-matter systems under several conditions such as streaming flow appearing in electrophoretic techniques and flow generated by harmonic forces arising in optical traps. The equivalence with Lévy processes is discussed and comparison with experiment is done. PMID:24229119

  16. Complex Systems: Science for the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Shank, Charles V.; Awschalom, David; Bawendi, Moungi; Frechet, Jean; Murphy, Donald; Stupp, Sam; Wolynes, Peter

    1999-03-06

    The workshop was designed to help define new scientific directions related to complex systems in order to create new understanding about the nano world and complicated, multicomponent structures. Five emerging themes regarding complexity were covered: Collective Phenomena; Materials by Design; Functional Systems; Nature's Mastery; and New Tools.

  17. Materials challenges for nuclear systems

    DOE PAGES

    Allen, Todd; Busby, Jeremy; Meyer, Mitch; Petti, David

    2010-11-26

    The safe and economical operation of any nuclear power system relies to a great extent, on the success of the fuel and the materials of construction. During the lifetime of a nuclear power system which currently can be as long as 60 years, the materials are subject to high temperature, a corrosive environment, and damage from high-energy particles released during fission. The fuel which provides the power for the reactor has a much shorter life but is subject to the same types of harsh environments. This article reviews the environments in which fuels and materials from current and proposed nuclearmore » systems operate and then describes how the creation of the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility is allowing researchers from across the U.S. to test their ideas for improved fuels and materials.« less

  18. Materials challenges for nuclear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Todd; Busby, Jeremy; Meyer, Mitch; Petti, David

    2010-11-26

    The safe and economical operation of any nuclear power system relies to a great extent, on the success of the fuel and the materials of construction. During the lifetime of a nuclear power system which currently can be as long as 60 years, the materials are subject to high temperature, a corrosive environment, and damage from high-energy particles released during fission. The fuel which provides the power for the reactor has a much shorter life but is subject to the same types of harsh environments. This article reviews the environments in which fuels and materials from current and proposed nuclear systems operate and then describes how the creation of the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility is allowing researchers from across the U.S. to test their ideas for improved fuels and materials.

  19. Sustainability, Complexity and Learning: Insights from Complex Systems Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinosa, A.; Porter, T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore core contributions from two different approaches to complexity management in organisations aiming to improve their sustainability,: the Viable Systems Model (VSM), and the Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). It is proposed to perform this by summarising the main insights each approach offers to…

  20. Complex competitive systems and competitive thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Klimenko, A Y

    2013-01-13

    This publication reviews the framework of abstract competition, which is aimed at studying complex systems with competition in their generic form. Although the concept of abstract competition has been derived from a specific field--modelling of mixing in turbulent reacting flows--this concept is, generally, not attached to a specific phenomenon or application. Two classes of competition rules, transitive and intransitive, need to be distinguished. Transitive competitions are shown to be consistent (at least qualitatively) with thermodynamic principles, which allows for introduction of special competitive thermodynamics. Competitive systems can thus be characterized by thermodynamic quantities (such as competitive entropy and competitive potential), which determine that the predominant direction of evolution of the system is directed towards higher competitiveness. There is, however, an important difference: while conventional thermodynamics is constrained by its zeroth law and is fundamentally transitive, the transitivity of competitive thermodynamics depends on the transitivity of the competition rules. The analogy with conventional thermodynamics weakens as competitive systems become more intransitive, while strongly intransitive competitions can display types of behaviour associated with complexity: competitive cooperation and leaping cycles. Results of simulations demonstrating complex behaviour in abstract competitions are presented in the electronic supplementary material.

  1. Double Retort System for Materials Compatibility Testing

    SciTech Connect

    V. Munne; EV Carelli

    2006-02-23

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) there was a need to investigate compatibility between the various materials to be used throughout the SNPP. Of particular interest was the transport of interstitial impurities from the nickel-base superalloys, which were leading candidates for most of the piping and turbine components to the refractory metal alloys planned for use in the reactor core. This kind of contamination has the potential to affect the lifetime of the core materials. This letter provides technical information regarding the assembly and operation of a double retort materials compatibility testing system and initial experimental results. The use of a double retort system to test materials compatibility through the transfer of impurities from a source to a sink material is described here. The system has independent temperature control for both materials and is far less complex than closed loops. The system is described in detail and the results of three experiments are presented.

  2. Multilevel Complex Networks and Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldarelli, Guido

    2014-03-01

    Network theory has been a powerful tool to model isolated complex systems. However, the classical approach does not take into account the interactions often present among different systems. Hence, the scientific community is nowadays concentrating the efforts on the foundations of new mathematical tools for understanding what happens when multiple networks interact. The case of economic and financial networks represents a paramount example of multilevel networks. In the case of trade, trade among countries the different levels can be described by the different granularity of the trading relations. Indeed, we have now data from the scale of consumers to that of the country level. In the case of financial institutions, we have a variety of levels at the same scale. For example one bank can appear in the interbank networks, ownership network and cds networks in which the same institution can take place. In both cases the systemically important vertices need to be determined by different procedures of centrality definition and community detection. In this talk I will present some specific cases of study related to these topics and present the regularities found. Acknowledged support from EU FET Project ``Multiplex'' 317532.

  3. Automated Design of Complex Dynamic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hermans, Michiel; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Bienstman, Peter; Dambre, Joni

    2014-01-01

    Several fields of study are concerned with uniting the concept of computation with that of the design of physical systems. For example, a recent trend in robotics is to design robots in such a way that they require a minimal control effort. Another example is found in the domain of photonics, where recent efforts try to benefit directly from the complex nonlinear dynamics to achieve more efficient signal processing. The underlying goal of these and similar research efforts is to internalize a large part of the necessary computations within the physical system itself by exploiting its inherent non-linear dynamics. This, however, often requires the optimization of large numbers of system parameters, related to both the system's structure as well as its material properties. In addition, many of these parameters are subject to fabrication variability or to variations through time. In this paper we apply a machine learning algorithm to optimize physical dynamic systems. We show that such algorithms, which are normally applied on abstract computational entities, can be extended to the field of differential equations and used to optimize an associated set of parameters which determine their behavior. We show that machine learning training methodologies are highly useful in designing robust systems, and we provide a set of both simple and complex examples using models of physical dynamical systems. Interestingly, the derived optimization method is intimately related to direct collocation a method known in the field of optimal control. Our work suggests that the application domains of both machine learning and optimal control have a largely unexplored overlapping area which envelopes a novel design methodology of smart and highly complex physical systems. PMID:24497969

  4. Complexity and synchronization in stochastic chaotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son Dang, Thai; Palit, Sanjay Kumar; Mukherjee, Sayan; Hoang, Thang Manh; Banerjee, Santo

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the complexity of a hyperchaotic dynamical system perturbed by noise and various nonlinear speech and music signals. The complexity is measured by the weighted recurrence entropy of the hyperchaotic and stochastic systems. The synchronization phenomenon between two stochastic systems with complex coupling is also investigated. These criteria are tested on chaotic and perturbed systems by mean conditional recurrence and normalized synchronization error. Numerical results including surface plots, normalized synchronization errors, complexity variations etc show the effectiveness of the proposed analysis.

  5. Imaging systems and materials characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Murr, L.E.

    2009-05-15

    This paper provides a broad background for the historical development and modern applications of light optical metallography, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, field-ion microscopy and several forms of scanning probe microscopes. Numerous case examples illustrating especially synergistic applications of these imaging systems are provided to demonstrate materials characterization especially in the context of structure-property-performance issues which define materials science and engineering.

  6. Complexity in Strongly Correlated Electronic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dagotto, Elbio R

    2005-01-01

    A wide variety of experimental results and theoretical investigations in recent years have convincingly demonstrated that several transition metal oxides and other materials have dominant states that are not spatially homogeneous. This occurs in cases in which several physical interactions - spin, charge, lattice, and/or orbital - are simultaneously active. This phenomenon causes interesting effects, such as colossal magnetoresistance, and it also appears crucial to understand the high-temperature superconductors. The spontaneous emergence of electronic nanometer-scale structures in transition metal oxides, and the existence of many competing states, are properties often associated with complex matter where nonlinearities dominate, such as soft materials and biological systems. This electronic complexity could have potential consequences for applications of correlated electronic materials, because not only charge (semiconducting electronic), or charge and spin (spintronics) are of relevance, but in addition the lattice and orbital degrees of freedom are active, leading to giant responses to small perturbations. Moreover, several metallic and insulating phases compete, increasing the potential for novel behavior.

  7. Collaboration in Complex Medical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiao, Yan; Mankenzie, Colin F.

    1998-01-01

    Improving our understanding of collaborative work in complex environments has the potential for developing effective supporting technologies, personnel training paradigms, and design principles for multi-crew workplaces. USing a sophisticated audio-video-data acquisition system and a corresponding analysis system, the researchers at University of Maryland have been able to study in detail team performance during real trauma patient resuscitation. The first study reported here was on coordination mechanisms and on characteristics of coordination breakdowns. One of the key findings was that implicit communications were an important coordination mechanism (e.g. through the use of shared workspace and event space). The second study was on the sources of uncertainty during resuscitation. Although incoming trauma patients' status is inherently uncertain, the findings suggest that much of the uncertainty felt by care providers was related to communication and coordination. These two studies demonstrate the value of and need for creating a real-life laboratory for studying team performance with the use of comprehensive and integrated data acquisition and analysis tools.

  8. Millimeter wave complex dielectric permittivity and complex magnetic permeability measurements of absorbing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachov, Igor Ivanovich

    2000-09-01

    This dissertation presents new methods for characterization of materials in the millimeter wave range. Historically, this has been the most difficult part of the electromagnetic spectrum for accurate measurements of material properties. New instrumentation has now been developed for operation in this frequency band. The new techniques developed in the course of this work allowed precise measurement of dielectric properties as well as the separation of magnetic properties from dielectric in the millimeter wave range. A new quasi-optical spectrometer with a waveguide reference channel has been designed and built for the precision measurement of the real part of dielectric permittivity of medium and highly absorbing materials over an extended W-band frequency range (70-118 GHz). A new method of phase measurement with this unique unbalanced quasi-optical waveguide bridge spectrometer has been developed. The phase of the electromagnetic wave transmitted through the specimen can be measured accurately, leading to the determination of the real part of the complex dielectric permittivity of moderate and highly absorbing dielectric materials with high precision. A simple quasi-optical transmission configuration of the spectrometer, a single free space channel provides the transmittance data with a high resolution from which the spectra of the imaginary part of dielectric permittivity of materials are evaluated accurately. A backward wave oscillator (BWO) is used as the source of tunable coherent radiation for the spectrometer. The high output power of the BWO and the high sensitivity of the receiver system, which employs a specially constructed liquid helium cooled InSb detector, enable adequate sensitivity in transmission for highly absorbing materials. Systematic study of dielectric and magnetic properties of various materials has been performed with the quasi-optical free space method in the millimeter wave range from 34GHz to 117GHz for the first time. Specific results

  9. Interstellar material in the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    All the substance of the Earth and other terrestrial planets once existed in the form of interstellar grains and gas. A major aspect of solar system formation (and undoubtedly of star formation generally) is the complex series of processes that converted infalling interstellar grains into planets. A cryptic record of these processes is preserved in certain samples of planetary materials, such as chondritic meteorites, that were preserved in a relatively unchanged form since the beginning. It is to be expected that some of these primitive materials might contain or even consist of preserved presolar interstellar grains. The identification and study of such grains, the ancestors of our planetary system, is a matter of intense interest. Types of primitive material accessible or potentially accessible, and component of or relationship to presolar interstellar grains are discussed.

  10. Complex biological and bio-inspired systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ecke, Robert E

    2009-01-01

    The understanding and characterization ofthe fundamental processes of the function of biological systems underpins many of the important challenges facing American society, from the pathology of infectious disease and the efficacy ofvaccines, to the development of materials that mimic biological functionality and deliver exceptional and novel structural and dynamic properties. These problems are fundamentally complex, involving many interacting components and poorly understood bio-chemical kinetics. We use the basic science of statistical physics, kinetic theory, cellular bio-chemistry, soft-matter physics, and information science to develop cell level models and explore the use ofbiomimetic materials. This project seeks to determine how cell level processes, such as response to mechanical stresses, chemical constituents and related gradients, and other cell signaling mechanisms, integrate and combine to create a functioning organism. The research focuses on the basic physical processes that take place at different levels ofthe biological organism: the basic role of molecular and chemical interactions are investigated, the dynamics of the DNA-molecule and its phylogenetic role are examined and the regulatory networks of complex biochemical processes are modeled. These efforts may lead to early warning algorithms ofpathogen outbreaks, new bio-sensors to detect hazards from pathomic viruses to chemical contaminants. Other potential applications include the development of efficient bio-fuel alternative-energy processes and the exploration ofnovel materials for energy usages. Finally, we use the notion of 'coarse-graining,' which is a method for averaging over less important degrees of freedom to develop computational models to predict cell function and systems-level response to disease, chemical stress, or biological pathomic agents. This project supports Energy Security, Threat Reduction, and the missions of the DOE Office of Science through its efforts to accurately

  11. Reduction of Subjective and Objective System Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Occam's razor is often used in science to define the minimum criteria to establish a physical or philosophical idea or relationship. Albert Einstein is attributed the saying "everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler". These heuristic ideas are based on a belief that there is a minimum state or set of states for a given system or phenomena. In looking at system complexity, these heuristics point us to an idea that complexity can be reduced to a minimum. How then, do we approach a reduction in complexity? Complexity has been described as a subjective concept and an objective measure of a system. Subjective complexity is based on human cognitive comprehension of the functions and inter relationships of a system. Subjective complexity is defined by the ability to fully comprehend the system. Simplifying complexity, in a subjective sense, is thus gaining a deeper understanding of the system. As Apple's Jonathon Ive has stated," It's not just minimalism or the absence of clutter. It involves digging through the depth of complexity. To be truly simple, you have to go really deep". Simplicity is not the absence of complexity but a deeper understanding of complexity. Subjective complexity, based on this human comprehension, cannot then be discerned from the sociological concept of ignorance. The inability to comprehend a system can be either a lack of knowledge, an inability to understand the intricacies of a system, or both. Reduction in this sense is based purely on a cognitive ability to understand the system and no system then may be truly complex. From this view, education and experience seem to be the keys to reduction or eliminating complexity. Objective complexity, is the measure of the systems functions and interrelationships which exist independent of human comprehension. Jonathon Ive's statement does not say that complexity is removed, only that the complexity is understood. From this standpoint, reduction of complexity can be approached

  12. Harvesting bioenergy with rationally designed complex functional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Liangju

    A key challenge in renewable energy is to capture, convert and store solar power with earth-abundant materials and environmentally benign technologies. The goal of this thesis is to develop rationally designed complex functional materials for bio-renewable energy applications. On one hand, photoconversion membrane proteins (MPs) are nature's nanoengineering feats for renewable energy management. Harnessing their functions in synthetic systems could help understand, predict, and ultimately control matter and energy at the nanoscale. This is particularly enticing in the post-genome era as recombinant or cell-free expression of many MPs with high yields becomes possible. However, the labile nature of lipid bilayers renders them unsuitable for use in a broad range of engineered systems. A knowledge gap exists about how to design robust synthetic nanomembranes as lipid-bilayer-mimics to support MP functions and how to direct hierarchical MP reconstitution into those membranes to form 2-D or 3-D ordered proteomembrane arrays. Our studies on proteorhodopsin (PR) and bacterial reaction center (BRC), the two light-harvesting MPs, reveal that a charge-interaction-directed reconstitution (CIDR) mechanism induces spontaneous reconstitution of detergent-solubilized MPs into various amphiphilic block copolymer membranes, many of which have far superior stability than lipid bilayers. Our preliminary data also suggest MPs are not enslaved by the biological membranes they derive from; rather, the chemically nonspecific material properties of MP-supporting membranes may act as allosteric regulators. Versatile chemical designs are possible to modulate the conformational energetics of MPs, hence their transport performance in synthetic systems. On the other hand, microalgae are widely regarded as a sustainable feedstock for biofuel production. Microalgae-derived biofuels have not been commercialized yet because current technologies for microalgae dewatering add a huge cost to the

  13. Complex systems in metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Winkler, James D; Erickson, Keesha; Choudhury, Alaksh; Halweg-Edwards, Andrea L; Gill, Ryan T

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic engineers manipulate intricate biological networks to build efficient biological machines. The inherent complexity of this task, derived from the extensive and often unknown interconnectivity between and within these networks, often prevents researchers from achieving desired performance. Other fields have developed methods to tackle the issue of complexity for their unique subset of engineering problems, but to date, there has not been extensive and comprehensive examination of how metabolic engineers use existing tools to ameliorate this effect on their own research projects. In this review, we examine how complexity affects engineering at the protein, pathway, and genome levels within an organism, and the tools for handling these issues to achieve high-performing strain designs. Quantitative complexity metrics and their applications to metabolic engineering versus traditional engineering fields are also discussed. We conclude by predicting how metabolic engineering practices may advance in light of an explicit consideration of design complexity.

  14. The Testing Effect Is Alive and Well with Complex Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpicke, Jeffrey D.; Aue, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Van Gog and Sweller (2015) claim that there is no testing effect--no benefit of practicing retrieval--for complex materials. We show that this claim is incorrect on several grounds. First, Van Gog and Sweller's idea of "element interactivity" is not defined in a quantitative, measurable way. As a consequence, the idea is applied…

  15. Restricted Complexity Framework for Nonlinear Adaptive Control in Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Rube B.

    2004-02-01

    Control law adaptation that includes implicit or explicit adaptive state estimation, can be a fundamental underpinning for the success of intelligent control in complex systems, particularly during subsystem failures, where vital system states and parameters can be impractical or impossible to measure directly. A practical algorithm is proposed for adaptive state filtering and control in nonlinear dynamic systems when the state equations are unknown or are too complex to model analytically. The state equations and inverse plant model are approximated by using neural networks. A framework for a neural network based nonlinear dynamic inversion control law is proposed, as an extrapolation of prior developed restricted complexity methodology used to formulate the adaptive state filter. Examples of adaptive filter performance are presented for an SSME simulation with high pressure turbine failure to support extrapolations to adaptive control problems.

  16. Restricted Complexity Framework for Nonlinear Adaptive Control in Complex Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Rube B.

    2004-02-04

    Control law adaptation that includes implicit or explicit adaptive state estimation, can be a fundamental underpinning for the success of intelligent control in complex systems, particularly during subsystem failures, where vital system states and parameters can be impractical or impossible to measure directly. A practical algorithm is proposed for adaptive state filtering and control in nonlinear dynamic systems when the state equations are unknown or are too complex to model analytically. The state equations and inverse plant model are approximated by using neural networks. A framework for a neural network based nonlinear dynamic inversion control law is proposed, as an extrapolation of prior developed restricted complexity methodology used to formulate the adaptive state filter. Examples of adaptive filter performance are presented for an SSME simulation with high pressure turbine failure to support extrapolations to adaptive control problems.

  17. Nuclear Materials Characterization in the Materials and Fuels Complex Analytical Hot Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Rodriquez

    2009-03-01

    As energy prices skyrocket and interest in alternative, clean energy sources builds, interest in nuclear energy has increased. This increased interest in nuclear energy has been termed the “Nuclear Renaissance”. The performance of nuclear fuels, fuels and reactor materials and waste products are becoming a more important issue as the potential for designing new nuclear reactors is more immediate. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Analytical Laboratory Hot Cells (ALHC) are rising to the challenge of characterizing new reactor materials, byproducts and performance. The ALHC is a facility located near Idaho Falls, Idaho at the INL Site. It was built in 1958 as part of the former Argonne National Laboratory West Complex to support the operation of the second Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II). It is part of a larger analytical laboratory structure that includes wet chemistry, instrumentation and radiochemistry laboratories. The purpose of the ALHC is to perform analytical chemistry work on highly radioactive materials. The primary work in the ALHC has traditionally been dissolution of nuclear materials so that less radioactive subsamples (aliquots) could be transferred to other sections of the laboratory for analysis. Over the last 50 years though, the capabilities within the ALHC have also become independent of other laboratory sections in a number of ways. While dissolution, digestion and subdividing samples are still a vitally important role, the ALHC has stand alone capabilities in the area of immersion density, gamma scanning and combustion gas analysis. Recent use of the ALHC for immersion density shows that extremely fine and delicate operations can be performed with the master-slave manipulators by qualified operators. Twenty milligram samples were tested for immersion density to determine the expansion of uranium dioxide after irradiation in a nuclear reactor. The data collected confirmed modeling analysis with very

  18. Social networks as embedded complex adaptive systems.

    PubMed

    Benham-Hutchins, Marge; Clancy, Thomas R

    2010-09-01

    As systems evolve over time, their natural tendency is to become increasingly more complex. Studies in the field of complex systems have generated new perspectives on management in social organizations such as hospitals. Much of this research appears as a natural extension of the cross-disciplinary field of systems theory. This is the 15th in a series of articles applying complex systems science to the traditional management concepts of planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling. In this article, the authors discuss healthcare social networks as a hierarchy of embedded complex adaptive systems. The authors further examine the use of social network analysis tools as a means to understand complex communication patterns and reduce medical errors.

  19. Why Do Complex Systems Age?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vural, Dervis; Morrison, Gregory; Mahadevan, L.

    2012-02-01

    Aging can be defined as the increase in probability of death with time. The observation that organisms, colonies, ecosystems, as well as larger social structures age and die in very similar ways suggest that the reasons underlying aging does not depend sensitively on molecular or cellular details. In this work we argue that aging is an inevitable outcome of the neutral co-evolution of non-aging components which with time become increasingly interdependent. Starting from this hypothesis, we construct generic dependency networks and obtain mortality rate as a function of time, as well as mean life expectancy as a function of organism size, complexity and metabolic rate.

  20. Nervous System Complexity Baffles Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jeffrey L.

    1982-01-01

    New research findings about how nerve cells transmit signals are forcing researchers to overhaul their simplistic ideas about the nervous system. Topics highlighted include the multiple role of peptides in the nervous system, receptor molecules, and molecules that form ion channels within membranes. (Author/JN)

  1. On the Influence of Material Parameters in a Complex Material Model for Powder Compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staf, Hjalmar; Lindskog, Per; Andersson, Daniel C.; Larsson, Per-Lennart

    2016-10-01

    Parameters in a complex material model for powder compaction, based on a continuum mechanics approach, are evaluated using real insert geometries. The parameter sensitivity with respect to density and stress after compaction, pertinent to a wide range of geometries, is studied in order to investigate completeness and limitations of the material model. Finite element simulations with varied material parameters are used to build surrogate models for the sensitivity study. The conclusion from this analysis is that a simplification of the material model is relevant, especially for simple insert geometries. Parameters linked to anisotropy and the plastic strain evolution angle have a small impact on the final result.

  2. On the Influence of Material Parameters in a Complex Material Model for Powder Compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staf, Hjalmar; Lindskog, Per; Andersson, Daniel C.; Larsson, Per-Lennart

    2016-08-01

    Parameters in a complex material model for powder compaction, based on a continuum mechanics approach, are evaluated using real insert geometries. The parameter sensitivity with respect to density and stress after compaction, pertinent to a wide range of geometries, is studied in order to investigate completeness and limitations of the material model. Finite element simulations with varied material parameters are used to build surrogate models for the sensitivity study. The conclusion from this analysis is that a simplification of the material model is relevant, especially for simple insert geometries. Parameters linked to anisotropy and the plastic strain evolution angle have a small impact on the final result.

  3. Material removal mechanisms in abrasive vibration polishing of complex molds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinksmeier, E.; Riemer, O.; Schulte, H.

    2010-10-01

    Optical and medical industries are demanding a large variety of optical elements exhibiting complex geometries and multitude opto-functional areas in the range of a few millimeters [1]. Therefore, mold inserts made of steel or carbides must be finished by polishing for the replication of glass and plastic lenses [2]. For polishing theses complex components in the shape of localized cavities or grooves the application of rotating polishing pads is very limited. Established polishing processes are not applicable, so state of the art is a time consuming and therefore expensive polishing procedures by hand. An automated process with conventional polishing machines is impossible because of the complex mold insert geometry. The authors will present the development of a new abrasive polishing process for finishing these complex mold geometries to optical quality. The necessary relative velocity in the contact area between polishing pad and workpiece surface is exclusively realized by vibration motions which is an advantage over vibration assisted rotating polishing processes. The absence of rotation of the pad opens up the possibility to machine new types of surface geometries. The specific influence factors of vibration polishing were analyzed and will be presented. The determination of material removal behavior and polishing effect on planar steel samples has shown that the conventional abrasive polishing hypothesis of Preston is applicable to the novel vibration polishing process. No overlaid chemical material removal appears.

  4. Lunar materials processing system integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1992-01-01

    The theme of this paper is that governmental resources will not permit the simultaneous development of all viable lunar materials processing (LMP) candidates. Choices will inevitably be made, based on the results of system integration trade studies comparing candidates to each other for high-leverage applications. It is in the best long-term interest of the LMP community to lead the selection process itself, quickly and practically. The paper is in five parts. The first part explains what systems integration means and why the specialized field of LMP needs this activity now. The second part defines the integration context for LMP -- by outlining potential lunar base functions, their interrelationships and constraints. The third part establishes perspective for prioritizing the development of LMP methods, by estimating realistic scope, scale, and timing of lunar operations. The fourth part describes the use of one type of analytical tool for gaining understanding of system interactions: the input/output model. A simple example solved with linear algebra is used to illustrate. The fifth and closing part identifies specific steps needed to refine the current ability to study lunar base system integration. Research specialists have a crucial role to play now in providing the data upon which this refinement process must be based.

  5. Complex metal borohydrides: multifunctional materials for energy storage and conversion.

    PubMed

    Mohtadi, Rana; Remhof, Arndt; Jena, Puru

    2016-09-01

    With the limited supply of fossil fuels and their adverse effect on the climate and the environment, it has become a global priority to seek alternate sources of energy that are clean, abundant, and sustainable. While sources such as solar, wind, and hydrogen can meet the world's energy demand, considerable challenges remain to find materials that can store and/or convert energy efficiently. This topical review focuses on one such class of materials, namely, multi-functional complex metal borohydrides that not only have the ability to store sufficient amount of hydrogen to meet the needs of the transportation industry, but also can be used for a new generation of metal ion batteries and solar cells. We discuss the material challenges in all these areas and review the progress that has been made to address them, the issues that still need to be resolved and the outlook for the future. PMID:27384871

  6. Complex metal borohydrides: multifunctional materials for energy storage and conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohtadi, Rana; Remhof, Arndt; Jena, Puru

    2016-09-01

    With the limited supply of fossil fuels and their adverse effect on the climate and the environment, it has become a global priority to seek alternate sources of energy that are clean, abundant, and sustainable. While sources such as solar, wind, and hydrogen can meet the world’s energy demand, considerable challenges remain to find materials that can store and/or convert energy efficiently. This topical review focuses on one such class of materials, namely, multi-functional complex metal borohydrides that not only have the ability to store sufficient amount of hydrogen to meet the needs of the transportation industry, but also can be used for a new generation of metal ion batteries and solar cells. We discuss the material challenges in all these areas and review the progress that has been made to address them, the issues that still need to be resolved and the outlook for the future.

  7. Complex metal borohydrides: multifunctional materials for energy storage and conversion.

    PubMed

    Mohtadi, Rana; Remhof, Arndt; Jena, Puru

    2016-09-01

    With the limited supply of fossil fuels and their adverse effect on the climate and the environment, it has become a global priority to seek alternate sources of energy that are clean, abundant, and sustainable. While sources such as solar, wind, and hydrogen can meet the world's energy demand, considerable challenges remain to find materials that can store and/or convert energy efficiently. This topical review focuses on one such class of materials, namely, multi-functional complex metal borohydrides that not only have the ability to store sufficient amount of hydrogen to meet the needs of the transportation industry, but also can be used for a new generation of metal ion batteries and solar cells. We discuss the material challenges in all these areas and review the progress that has been made to address them, the issues that still need to be resolved and the outlook for the future.

  8. Monitoring Performance of Complex Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, W. F.

    1985-01-01

    33-page report describes use of computers in automatic on-line monitoring of Centaur rocket prior to launch. Computers analyze measurements and verify events and commands. System uses adaptive software so only real problems are detected and brought to attention of engineers. Software techniques transferable to such industrial uses as batch process control and production line automation.

  9. Simple molecules as complex systems.

    PubMed

    Furtenbacher, Tibor; Arendás, Péter; Mellau, Georg; Császár, Attila G

    2014-01-01

    For individual molecules quantum mechanics (QM) offers a simple, natural and elegant way to build large-scale complex networks: quantized energy levels are the nodes, allowed transitions among the levels are the links, and transition intensities supply the weights. QM networks are intrinsic properties of molecules and they are characterized experimentally via spectroscopy; thus, realizations of QM networks are called spectroscopic networks (SN). As demonstrated for the rovibrational states of H2(16)O, the molecule governing the greenhouse effect on earth through hundreds of millions of its spectroscopic transitions (links), both the measured and first-principles computed one-photon absorption SNs containing experimentally accessible transitions appear to have heavy-tailed degree distributions. The proposed novel view of high-resolution spectroscopy and the observed degree distributions have important implications: appearance of a core of highly interconnected hubs among the nodes, a generally disassortative connection preference, considerable robustness and error tolerance, and an "ultra-small-world" property. The network-theoretical view of spectroscopy offers a data reduction facility via a minimum-weight spanning tree approach, which can assist high-resolution spectroscopists to improve the efficiency of the assignment of their measured spectra.

  10. Simple molecules as complex systems

    PubMed Central

    Furtenbacher, Tibor; Árendás, Péter; Mellau, Georg; Császár, Attila G.

    2014-01-01

    For individual molecules quantum mechanics (QM) offers a simple, natural and elegant way to build large-scale complex networks: quantized energy levels are the nodes, allowed transitions among the levels are the links, and transition intensities supply the weights. QM networks are intrinsic properties of molecules and they are characterized experimentally via spectroscopy; thus, realizations of QM networks are called spectroscopic networks (SN). As demonstrated for the rovibrational states of H216O, the molecule governing the greenhouse effect on earth through hundreds of millions of its spectroscopic transitions (links), both the measured and first-principles computed one-photon absorption SNs containing experimentally accessible transitions appear to have heavy-tailed degree distributions. The proposed novel view of high-resolution spectroscopy and the observed degree distributions have important implications: appearance of a core of highly interconnected hubs among the nodes, a generally disassortative connection preference, considerable robustness and error tolerance, and an “ultra-small-world” property. The network-theoretical view of spectroscopy offers a data reduction facility via a minimum-weight spanning tree approach, which can assist high-resolution spectroscopists to improve the efficiency of the assignment of their measured spectra. PMID:24722221

  11. A complex systems approach to bibliometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringer, Michael J.

    Enabled by technological change, we are in the midst of a fundamental shift in how scientific information is produced and communicated. Electronic publishing, preprint archives, blogs, and wikis are emerging as possible viable alternatives to the current journal publishing and peer review system. However, these new technologies flood the environment with information, making it increasingly difficult to find the highest quality and most relevant papers. Additionally, accreditation and quality assessment of published material becomes nearly impossible for agencies interested in funding the research and development that is most likely to succeed. Recently, bibliometric tools have emerged as an effective means for the filtering, accreditation, and assessment of scholarly information. In this thesis, we approach bibliometrics from a complex systems perspective. A unique characteristic of the work presented in this thesis is that we perform empirical validation of bibliometric models using the most comprehensive bibliographic database available. Using these methods, we quantify the dynamics of citations to scientific journals, and investigate the relationship between social network position and research performance.

  12. Dynamics of complex multibody systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiehlen, W. O.

    The analysis of multibody-system (MBS) dynamics is discussed and demonstrated in a review of recent work. The early history of MBS studies is traced; the kinematic equations are derived for free, holonomic, and nonholonomic systems in both inertial and moving reference frames; the Newton-Euler equations are obtained by replacing the rigid bearings and supports by constraint forces and torques; equations of motion are found by means of D'Alembert's and Jourdain's principles; and generalized constraint forces and bearing and support clearances are considered. The computer derivation of equations of motion is demonstrated on a four-body moving-vehicle problem. The approach described is shown to use less computation time and memory space than techniques based on the Lagrange or Gibbs-Appell equations, while permitting the inclusion of contact and friction forces.

  13. Quantum mechanics in complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoehn, Ross Douglas

    This document should be considered in its separation; there are three distinct topics contained within and three distinct chapters within the body of works. In a similar fashion, this abstract should be considered in three parts. Firstly, we explored the existence of multiply-charged atomic ions by having developed a new set of dimensional scaling equations as well as a series of relativistic augmentations to the standard dimensional scaling procedure and to the self-consistent field calculations. Secondly, we propose a novel method of predicting drug efficacy in hopes to facilitate the discovery of new small molecule therapeutics by modeling the agonist-protein system as being similar to the process of Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy. Finally, we facilitate the instruction in basic quantum mechanical topics through the use of quantum games; this method of approach allows for the generation of exercises with the intent of conveying the fundamental concepts within a first year quantum mechanics classroom. Furthermore, no to be mentioned within the body of the text, yet presented in appendix form, certain works modeling the proliferation of cells types within the confines of man-made lattices for the purpose of facilitating artificial vascular transplants. In Chapter 2, we present a theoretical framework which describes multiply-charged atomic ions, their stability within super-intense laser fields, also lay corrections to the systems due to relativistic effects. Dimensional scaling calculations with relativistic corrections for systems: H, H-, H 2-, He, He-, He2-, He3- within super-intense laser fields were completed. Also completed were three-dimensional self consistent field calculations to verify the dimensionally scaled quantities. With the aforementioned methods the system's ability to stably bind 'additional' electrons through the development of multiple isolated regions of high potential energy leading to nodes of high electron density is shown

  14. Waste tank ventilation system waste material accumulations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vleet, R.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06

    This paper calculates the amount of material that accumulates in the ventilation systems of various Tank Waste Remediation System facilities and estimates the amount of material that could be released due to a rapid pressurization.

  15. Active impedance matching of complex structural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macmartin, Douglas G.; Miller, David W.; Hall, Steven R.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on active impedance matching of complex structural systems are presented. Topics covered include: traveling wave model; dereverberated mobility model; computation of dereverberated mobility; control problem: optimal impedance matching; H2 optimal solution; statistical energy analysis (SEA) solution; experimental transfer functions; interferometer actuator and sensor locations; active strut configurations; power dual variables; dereverberation of complex structure; dereverberated transfer function; compensators; and relative power flow.

  16. Prediction and characterization of complex systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mainieri, R.; Baer, M.; Brand, H.

    1996-10-01

    Complex systems are difficult to characterize and to simulate. By considering a series of explicit systems, through experiments and analysis, this project has shown that dynamical systems can be used to model complex systems. A complex dynamical system requires an exponential amount of computer work to simulate accurately. Direct methods are not practical and it is only by an hierarchical approach that one can gain control over the exponential behavior. This allows the development of efficient methods to study fluid flow and to simulate biological systems. There are two steps in the hierarchical approach. First, one must characterize the complex system as a collection of large domains or objects that have their own forms of interactions. This is done by considering coherent structures, such as solitons, spirals, and propagating fronts and determining their interactions. Second, one must be able to predict the properties of the resulting low-dimensional dynamical system.This is accomplished by an understanding of the topology of the orbits of the dynamical system. The coherent structure description was carried out in fluid and reaction diffusion systems. It was shown that very simple models from statistical mechanics could characterize a rotating Rayleigh-Benard system and that patters in reaction-diffusion systems are well described by soliton-like solutions. The studies of dynamical systems showed that simple characterizations of the phase space can be used to determine long time bounds. Also, that periodic orbit theory can be used to demonstrate that Monte Carlo simulations will converge to incorrect results.

  17. Quantum mechanics in complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoehn, Ross Douglas

    This document should be considered in its separation; there are three distinct topics contained within and three distinct chapters within the body of works. In a similar fashion, this abstract should be considered in three parts. Firstly, we explored the existence of multiply-charged atomic ions by having developed a new set of dimensional scaling equations as well as a series of relativistic augmentations to the standard dimensional scaling procedure and to the self-consistent field calculations. Secondly, we propose a novel method of predicting drug efficacy in hopes to facilitate the discovery of new small molecule therapeutics by modeling the agonist-protein system as being similar to the process of Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy. Finally, we facilitate the instruction in basic quantum mechanical topics through the use of quantum games; this method of approach allows for the generation of exercises with the intent of conveying the fundamental concepts within a first year quantum mechanics classroom. Furthermore, no to be mentioned within the body of the text, yet presented in appendix form, certain works modeling the proliferation of cells types within the confines of man-made lattices for the purpose of facilitating artificial vascular transplants. In Chapter 2, we present a theoretical framework which describes multiply-charged atomic ions, their stability within super-intense laser fields, also lay corrections to the systems due to relativistic effects. Dimensional scaling calculations with relativistic corrections for systems: H, H-, H 2-, He, He-, He2-, He3- within super-intense laser fields were completed. Also completed were three-dimensional self consistent field calculations to verify the dimensionally scaled quantities. With the aforementioned methods the system's ability to stably bind 'additional' electrons through the development of multiple isolated regions of high potential energy leading to nodes of high electron density is shown

  18. Topics in complex nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Linghang

    In the dissertation, I include two topics of my research in nonlinear dynamic systems. In the first topic, we use numerical optimization techniques to investigate the behavior of the success rates for two- and three-qubit entangling gates, first for perfect fidelity, and then extended to imperfect gates. We find that as the perfect fidelity condition is relaxed, the maximum attainable success rates increase in a predictable fashion depending on the size of the system, and we compare that rate of increase for several gates. Finally, we propose an experiment to test our imperfect LOQC gates using number-resolving photon detectors. We suggest a relatively simple physical apparatus capable of producing CZ gates with controllable fidelity less than 1 and success rates higher than the current theoretical maximum (S=2/27) for perfect fidelity. These experimental setups are within the reach of many experimental groups and would provide an interesting experiment in photonic quantum computing. In the second topic, we quantitatively study nonlinear effects on the evolution of surface gravity waves on the ocean, to explore systematically the effects of various input parameters on the probability of rogue wave formation. The fourth-order current-modified nonlinear Schrodinger equation (CNLS4) is employed to describe the wave evolution. First, we show that when the average wave steepness is small and nonlinear wave effects are subleading, the wave height distribution is well explained by a single "freak index" parameter, which describes the strength of (linear) wave scattering by random currents relative to the angular spread of the incoming random sea. When the average steepness is large, the wave height distribution takes a very similar functional form, but the key variables determining the probability distribution are the steepness, and the angular and frequency spread of the incoming waves. Then, we obtain quantitative predictions for the wave height distribution as a

  19. The Importance of Complex Electronic Structures in Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, David

    2015-03-01

    Thermoelectric performance as characterized by the figure of merit, ZT, is a counter-indicated property of matter, meaning that high ZT depends on a combination of transport properties that do not generally occur together. A particularly important conundrum in thermoelectrics is the requirements for simultaneously having high electrical conductivity and high thermopower. I will argue that the resolution of this conundrum is through complex band structures and discuss how these arise in various known and predicted high performance thermoelectric materials. This work was done in collaboration with David Parker, Mao-Hua Du, Xin Chen and Hongliang Shi. We are grateful for support from the Department of Energy, through the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, S3TEC Energy Frontier Research Center and the Materials. Done...processed 9069 records...10:49:50

  20. Methods of chemically converting first materials to second materials utilizing hybrid-plasma systems

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Grandy, Jon D.

    2002-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of chemically converting a first material to a second material. A first plasma and a second plasma are formed, and the first plasma is in fluid communication with the second plasma. The second plasma comprises activated hydrogen and oxygen, and is formed from a water vapor. A first material is flowed into the first plasma to at least partially ionize at least a portion of the first material. The at least partially ionized first material is flowed into the second plasma to react at least some components of the first material with at least one of the activated hydrogen and activated oxygen. Such converts at least some of the first material to a second material. In another aspect, the invention encompasses a method of forming a synthetic gas by flowing a hydrocarbon-containing material into a hybrid-plasma system. In yet another aspect, the invention encompasses a method of degrading a hydrocarbon-containing material by flowing such material into a hybrid-plasma system. In yet another aspect, the invention encompasses a method of releasing an inorganic component of a complex comprising the inorganic component and an other component, wherein the complex is flowed through a hybrid-plasma system.

  1. What Is a Complex Innovation System?

    PubMed Central

    Katz, J. Sylvan

    2016-01-01

    Innovation systems are sometimes referred to as complex systems, something that is intuitively understood but poorly defined. A complex system dynamically evolves in non-linear ways giving it unique properties that distinguish it from other systems. In particular, a common signature of complex systems is scale-invariant emergent properties. A scale-invariant property can be identified because it is solely described by a power law function, f(x) = kxα, where the exponent, α, is a measure of scale-invariance. The focus of this paper is to describe and illustrate that innovation systems have properties of a complex adaptive system. In particular scale-invariant emergent properties indicative of their complex nature that can be quantified and used to inform public policy. The global research system is an example of an innovation system. Peer-reviewed publications containing knowledge are a characteristic output. Citations or references to these articles are an indirect measure of the impact the knowledge has on the research community. Peer-reviewed papers indexed in Scopus and in the Web of Science were used as data sources to produce measures of sizes and impact. These measures are used to illustrate how scale-invariant properties can be identified and quantified. It is demonstrated that the distribution of impact has a reasonable likelihood of being scale-invariant with scaling exponents that tended toward a value of less than 3.0 with the passage of time and decreasing group sizes. Scale-invariant correlations are shown between the evolution of impact and size with time and between field impact and sizes at points in time. The recursive or self-similar nature of scale-invariance suggests that any smaller innovation system within the global research system is likely to be complex with scale-invariant properties too. PMID:27258040

  2. What Is a Complex Innovation System?

    PubMed

    Katz, J Sylvan

    2016-01-01

    Innovation systems are sometimes referred to as complex systems, something that is intuitively understood but poorly defined. A complex system dynamically evolves in non-linear ways giving it unique properties that distinguish it from other systems. In particular, a common signature of complex systems is scale-invariant emergent properties. A scale-invariant property can be identified because it is solely described by a power law function, f(x) = kxα, where the exponent, α, is a measure of scale-invariance. The focus of this paper is to describe and illustrate that innovation systems have properties of a complex adaptive system. In particular scale-invariant emergent properties indicative of their complex nature that can be quantified and used to inform public policy. The global research system is an example of an innovation system. Peer-reviewed publications containing knowledge are a characteristic output. Citations or references to these articles are an indirect measure of the impact the knowledge has on the research community. Peer-reviewed papers indexed in Scopus and in the Web of Science were used as data sources to produce measures of sizes and impact. These measures are used to illustrate how scale-invariant properties can be identified and quantified. It is demonstrated that the distribution of impact has a reasonable likelihood of being scale-invariant with scaling exponents that tended toward a value of less than 3.0 with the passage of time and decreasing group sizes. Scale-invariant correlations are shown between the evolution of impact and size with time and between field impact and sizes at points in time. The recursive or self-similar nature of scale-invariance suggests that any smaller innovation system within the global research system is likely to be complex with scale-invariant properties too.

  3. Developing Higher-Order Materials Knowledge Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fast, Anthony Nathan

    2011-12-01

    Advances in computational materials science and novel characterization techniques have allowed scientists to probe deeply into a diverse range of materials phenomena. These activities are producing enormous amounts of information regarding the roles of various hierarchical material features in the overall performance characteristics displayed by the material. Connecting the hierarchical information over disparate domains is at the crux of multiscale modeling. The inherent challenge of performing multiscale simulations is developing scale bridging relationships to couple material information between well separated length scales. Much progress has been made in the development of homogenization relationships which replace heterogeneous material features with effective homogenous descriptions. These relationships facilitate the flow of information from lower length scales to higher length scales. Meanwhile, most localization relationships that link the information from a from a higher length scale to a lower length scale are plagued by computationally intensive techniques which are not readily integrated into multiscale simulations. The challenge of executing fully coupled multiscale simulations is augmented by the need to incorporate the evolution of the material structure that may occur under conditions such as material processing. To address these challenges with multiscale simulation, a novel framework called the Materials Knowledge System (MKS) has been developed. This methodology efficiently extracts, stores, and recalls microstructure-property-processing localization relationships. This approach is built on the statistical continuum theories developed by Kroner that express the localization of the response field at the microscale using a series of highly complex convolution integrals, which have historically been evaluated analytically. The MKS approach dramatically improves the accuracy of these expressions by calibrating the convolution kernels in these

  4. Materials Selection for Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Cebon, David; Ashby, Mike

    2012-01-01

    A systematic design-oriented, five-step approach to material selection is described: 1) establishing design requirements, 2) material screening, 3) ranking, 4) researching specific candidates and 5) applying specific cultural constraints to the selection process. At the core of this approach is the definition performance indices (i.e., particular combinations of material properties that embody the performance of a given component) in conjunction with material property charts. These material selection charts, which plot one property against another, are introduced and shown to provide a powerful graphical environment wherein one can apply and analyze quantitative selection criteria, such as those captured in performance indices, and make trade-offs between conflicting objectives. Finding a material with a high value of these indices maximizes the performance of the component. Two specific examples pertaining to aerospace (engine blades and pressure vessels) are examined, both at room temperature and elevated temperature (where time-dependent effects are important) to demonstrate the methodology. The discussion then turns to engineered/hybrid materials and how these can be effectively tailored to fill in holes in the material property space, so as to enable innovation and increases in performance as compared to monolithic materials. Finally, a brief discussion is presented on managing the data needed for materials selection, including collection, analysis, deployment, and maintenance issues.

  5. Thermal Systems and Materials Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguirre, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    During my internship, I was involved in Boeing Thermal System/M&P, which handles maintenance and repairs of shuttle tiles, blankets, gap fillers, etc. One project I took part in was the revision of TPS-227, a repair process to tiles that entailed drilling out tile damage and using a cylindrical insert to fill the hole. The previous specification used minimal adhesive for application and when the adhesive cured, there would be several voids in the adhered material, causing an unsatisfactory bond. The testing compared several new methods and I analyzed the number of voids produced by each method to determine which one was most effective at eliminating void space. We revised the original process to apply a light adhesive coat to the top 25% of the borehole and a heavy coat to 100% of the insert. I was also responsible for maintaining the subnominal bond database, which records all unsatisfactory SIP (Strain Isolator Pad) bonds. I then archived each SIP physically for future referral data and statistics. In addition, I performed post-flight tile inspections for damages and wrote dispositions to have these tiles repaired. This also included writing a post-flight damage report for a section of Atlantis and creating summarized repair process guidelines for orbiter technicians.

  6. Computing the Seismic Attenuation in Complex Porous Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Yder Jean

    The present work analyzes seismic attenuation due to wave-induced flow in complex poroelastic materials containing an arbitrary amount of heterogeneity and fully or partially saturated with a mixture of fluids. In the first part, two distinct finite-difference (FDTD) numerical schemes for solving Biot's poroelastic set of equations are introduced. The first algorithm is designed to be used in the seismic band of frequencies; i.e., when the permeability of the medium doesn't depend on frequency. The second algorithm accounts for viscous boundary layers that appear in the pores at high frequencies (in this case, the permeability depends on frequency) and can be used across the entire band of frequencies. An innovative numerical method is presented in the second part allowing computation of seismic attenuation due to wave-induced flow for any poroelastic material. This method is applied to study the attenuation associated with different classes of materials saturated with a single fluid (water). For a material having a self-affine (fractal) distribution of elastic properties, it is demonstrated that frequency dependence in the attenuation is controlled by a single parameter that is directly related to the fractal dimension of the material. For anisotropic materials, a relation is established between the attenuation levels associated with waves propagating in different directions and the geometrical aspect ratio of the heterogeneities present within the material. The third part concerns the study of attenuation associated with materials having a homogeneous solid skeleton saturated with a mixture of immiscible fluids. The special case where the distribution of fluids is the result of an invasion-percolation process is treated in detail. Finally, the last part presents a novel experimental setup designed to measure fluctuations of the elastic properties in real rock samples. This device performs automated micro-indentation tests at the surface of rock samples and

  7. Inline evenflow material distributor for pneumatic material feed systems

    DOEpatents

    Thiry, Michael J.

    2007-02-20

    An apparatus for reducing clogs in a pneumatic material feed line, such as employed in abrasive waterjet machining systems, by providing an evenflow feed of material therethrough. The apparatus preferably includes a hollow housing defining a housing volume and having an inlet capable of connecting to an upstream portion of the pneumatic material feed line, an outlet capable of connecting to a downstream portion of the pneumatic material feed line, and an air vent located between the inlet and outlet for venting excess air pressure out from the housing volume. A diverter, i.e. an impingement object, is located at the inlet and in a path of incoming material from the upstream portion of the pneumatic material feed line, to break up clumps of ambient moisture-ridden material impinging on the diverter. And one or more filter screens is also preferably located in the housing volume to further break up clumps and provide filtering.

  8. System Complexity Reduction via Feature Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Houtao

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation transforms a set of system complexity reduction problems to feature selection problems. Three systems are considered: classification based on association rules, network structure learning, and time series classification. Furthermore, two variable importance measures are proposed to reduce the feature selection bias in tree…

  9. Vacuum Ultraviolet Photoionization of Complex Chemical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostko, Oleg; Bandyopadhyay, Biswajit; Ahmed, Musahid

    2016-05-01

    Tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation coupled to mass spectrometry is applied to the study of complex chemical systems. The identification of novel reactive intermediates and radicals is revealed in flame, pulsed photolysis, and pyrolysis reactors, leading to the elucidation of spectroscopy, reaction mechanisms, and kinetics. Mass-resolved threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence measurements provide unprecedented access to vibrationally resolved spectra of free radicals present in high-temperature reactors. Photoionization measurements in water clusters, nucleic acid base dimers, and their complexes with water provide signatures of proton transfer in hydrogen-bonded and π-stacked systems. Experimental and theoretical methods to track ion-molecule reactions and fragmentation pathways in intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen-bonded systems in sugars and alcohols are described. Photoionization of laser-ablated molecules, clusters, and their reaction products inform thermodynamics and spectroscopy that are relevant to astrochemistry and catalysis. New directions in coupling VUV radiation to interrogate complex chemical systems are discussed.

  10. Vacuum Ultraviolet Photoionization of Complex Chemical Systems.

    PubMed

    Kostko, Oleg; Bandyopadhyay, Biswajit; Ahmed, Musahid

    2016-05-27

    Tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation coupled to mass spectrometry is applied to the study of complex chemical systems. The identification of novel reactive intermediates and radicals is revealed in flame, pulsed photolysis, and pyrolysis reactors, leading to the elucidation of spectroscopy, reaction mechanisms, and kinetics. Mass-resolved threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence measurements provide unprecedented access to vibrationally resolved spectra of free radicals present in high-temperature reactors. Photoionization measurements in water clusters, nucleic acid base dimers, and their complexes with water provide signatures of proton transfer in hydrogen-bonded and π-stacked systems. Experimental and theoretical methods to track ion-molecule reactions and fragmentation pathways in intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen-bonded systems in sugars and alcohols are described. Photoionization of laser-ablated molecules, clusters, and their reaction products inform thermodynamics and spectroscopy that are relevant to astrochemistry and catalysis. New directions in coupling VUV radiation to interrogate complex chemical systems are discussed. PMID:26980311

  11. Vacuum Ultraviolet Photoionization of Complex Chemical Systems.

    PubMed

    Kostko, Oleg; Bandyopadhyay, Biswajit; Ahmed, Musahid

    2016-05-27

    Tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation coupled to mass spectrometry is applied to the study of complex chemical systems. The identification of novel reactive intermediates and radicals is revealed in flame, pulsed photolysis, and pyrolysis reactors, leading to the elucidation of spectroscopy, reaction mechanisms, and kinetics. Mass-resolved threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence measurements provide unprecedented access to vibrationally resolved spectra of free radicals present in high-temperature reactors. Photoionization measurements in water clusters, nucleic acid base dimers, and their complexes with water provide signatures of proton transfer in hydrogen-bonded and π-stacked systems. Experimental and theoretical methods to track ion-molecule reactions and fragmentation pathways in intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen-bonded systems in sugars and alcohols are described. Photoionization of laser-ablated molecules, clusters, and their reaction products inform thermodynamics and spectroscopy that are relevant to astrochemistry and catalysis. New directions in coupling VUV radiation to interrogate complex chemical systems are discussed.

  12. Design tools for complex dynamic security systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Rigdon, James Brian; Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Laguna, Glenn A.; Robinett, Rush D. III; Groom, Kenneth Neal; Wilson, David Gerald; Bickerstaff, Robert J.; Harrington, John J.

    2007-01-01

    The development of tools for complex dynamic security systems is not a straight forward engineering task but, rather, a scientific task where discovery of new scientific principles and math is necessary. For years, scientists have observed complex behavior but have had difficulty understanding it. Prominent examples include: insect colony organization, the stock market, molecular interactions, fractals, and emergent behavior. Engineering such systems will be an even greater challenge. This report explores four tools for engineered complex dynamic security systems: Partially Observable Markov Decision Process, Percolation Theory, Graph Theory, and Exergy/Entropy Theory. Additionally, enabling hardware technology for next generation security systems are described: a 100 node wireless sensor network, unmanned ground vehicle and unmanned aerial vehicle.

  13. Reentry systems: Material technology needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehret, Richard Michael

    1993-01-01

    The material technology needs are: (1) lightweight and durable rigid insulating and higher temperature flexible materials; and (2) inspection, repair, producibility, and maintainability of refractory composites. The direction of efforts are: (1) funding base is relatively small for future years; (2) to minimize returns, collaborative programs appear to be practical; and (3) SSD's approach is to implement NASA developed technology.

  14. Microstructure-based modelling of multiphase materials and complex structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Ewald; Wesenjak, Robert; Fillafer, Alexander; Meier, Felix; Krempaszky, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Micromechanical approaches are frequently employed to monitor local and global field quantities and their evolution under varying mechanical and/or thermal loading scenarios. In this contribution, an overview on important methods is given that are currently used to gain insight into the deformational and failure behaviour of multiphase materials and complex structures. First, techniques to represent material microstructures are reviewed. It is common to either digitise images of real microstructures or generate virtual 2D or 3D microstructures using automated procedures (e.g. Voronoï tessellation) for grain generation and colouring algorithms for phase assignment. While the former method allows to capture exactly all features of the microstructure at hand with respect to its morphological and topological features, the latter method opens up the possibility for parametric studies with respect to the influence of individual microstructure features on the local and global stress and strain response. Several applications of these approaches are presented, comprising low and high strain behaviour of multiphase steels, failure and fracture behaviour of multiphase materials and the evolution of surface roughening of the aluminium top metallisation of semiconductor devices.

  15. Particlelike wave packets in complex scattering systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérardin, Benoît; Laurent, Jérôme; Ambichl, Philipp; Prada, Claire; Rotter, Stefan; Aubry, Alexandre

    2016-07-01

    A wave packet undergoes a strong spatial and temporal dispersion while propagating through a complex medium. This wave scattering is often seen as a nightmare in wave physics whether it be for focusing, imaging, or communication purposes. Controlling wave propagation through complex systems is thus of fundamental interest in many areas, ranging from optics or acoustics to medical imaging or telecommunications. Here, we study the propagation of elastic waves in a cavity and a disordered waveguide by means of laser interferometry. From the direct experimental access to the time-delay matrix of these systems, we demonstrate the existence of particlelike wave packets that remain focused in time and space throughout their complex trajectory. Due to their limited dispersion, their selective excitation will be crucially relevant for all applications involving selective wave focusing and efficient information transfer through complex media.

  16. Systems and methods for treating material

    DOEpatents

    Scheele, Randall D; McNamara, Bruce K

    2014-10-21

    Systems for treating material are provided that can include a vessel defining a volume, at least one conduit coupled to the vessel and in fluid communication with the vessel, material within the vessel, and NF.sub.3 material within the conduit. Methods for fluorinating material are provided that can include exposing the material to NF.sub.3 to fluorinate at least a portion of the material. Methods for separating components of material are also provided that can include exposing the material to NF.sub.3 to at least partially fluorinate a portion of the material, and separating at least one fluorinated component of the fluorinated portion from the material. The materials exposed to the NF.sub.3 material can include but are not limited to one or more of U, Ru, Rh, Mo, Tc, Np, Pu, Sb, Ag, Am, Sn, Zr, Cs, Th, and/or Rb.

  17. Complexity and Stability in Biological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demongeot, Jacques; Demetrius, Lloyd A.

    2015-06-01

    The hypothesis that a positive correlation exists between the complexity of a biological system, as described by its connectance, and its stability, as measured by its ability to recover from disturbance, derives from the investigations of the physiologists, Bernard and Cannon, and the ecologist Elton. Studies based on the ergodic theory of dynamical systems and the theory of large deviations have furnished an analytic support for this hypothesis. Complexity in this context is described by the mathematical object evolutionary entropy, stability is characterized by the rate at which the system returns to its stable conditions (steady state or periodic attractor) after a random perturbation of its robustness. This article reviews the analytical basis of the entropy — robustness theorem — and invokes studies of genetic regulatory networks to provide empirical support for the correlation between complexity and stability. Earlier investigations based on numerical studies of random matrix models and the notion of local stability have led to the claim that complex ecosystems tend to be more dynamically fragile. This article elucidates the basis for this claim which is largely inconsistent with the empirical observations of Bernard, Cannon and Elton. Our analysis thus resolves a long standing controversy regarding the relation between complex biological systems and their capacity to recover from perturbations. The entropy-robustness principle is a mathematical proposition with implications for understanding the basis for the large variations in stability observed in biological systems having evolved under different environmental conditions.

  18. Data Mining and Complex Problems: Case Study in Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabelo, Luis; Marin, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Data mining is defined as the discovery of useful, possibly unexpected, patterns and relationships in data using statistical and non-statistical techniques in order to develop schemes for decision and policy making. Data mining can be used to discover the sources and causes of problems in complex systems. In addition, data mining can support simulation strategies by finding the different constants and parameters to be used in the development of simulation models. This paper introduces a framework for data mining and its application to complex problems. To further explain some of the concepts outlined in this paper, the potential application to the NASA Shuttle Reinforced Carbon-Carbon structures and genetic programming is used as an illustration.

  19. A new decision sciences for complex systems

    PubMed Central

    Lempert, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Models of complex systems can capture much useful information but can be difficult to apply to real-world decision-making because the type of information they contain is often inconsistent with that required for traditional decision analysis. New approaches, which use inductive reasoning over large ensembles of computational experiments, now make possible systematic comparison of alternative policy options using models of complex systems. This article describes Computer-Assisted Reasoning, an approach to decision-making under conditions of deep uncertainty that is ideally suited to applying complex systems to policy analysis. The article demonstrates the approach on the policy problem of global climate change, with a particular focus on the role of technology policies in a robust, adaptive strategy for greenhouse gas abatement. PMID:12011411

  20. Application of Complex Systems Research To Efforts of International Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Hans-Peter

    Fundamental research on complex systems has shown relevance to efforts of international development. This paper canvasses some practitioner friendly approaches to international development. Development is about interventions in a highly complex system, the society. Complex systems research tells us that development interventions should not be overly planned, rather the fundamental uncertainty of a changing social system requires a diversity of interventions, and rapid learning from development success and failure. Developing economies are functioning at a low level of effectiveness and resource use. Complex systems are change resistant, and intervention requires understanding the autocatalytic nature of a process of change. International development is about the stimulation of a society's innate autocatalytic / self-organizing processes through interventions that stimulate enough to overcome change resistance, but which do not overwhelm the system. Since the size of financial interventions may in some cases be a substantial fraction of the existing economic activity, disruption is a likely outcome. Crucially, one must avoid having the socio-economic activity organized around the intervention itself, since then an undesirable dependency of the economy on the intervention arises. Stimulation of the innate modes of activity results in the development of socio-economic organization around energy, material and financial flows. The primary generator of effectiveness is an appropriate network structure of interactions and relationships. This paper summarizes traditional development efforts and their outcomes as well as a plausible description of the process of complex systems motivated interventions. Examples are given of recent approaches which aim to appropriately stimulate international development.

  1. Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems (CASOS) engineering environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Detry, Richard Joseph; Linebarger, John Michael; Finley, Patrick D.; Maffitt, S. Louise; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Ames, Arlo Leroy

    2012-02-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex physical-socio-technical systems which we must understand to design a secure future for the nation. The Phoenix initiative implements CASoS Engineering principles combining the bottom up Complex Systems and Complex Adaptive Systems view with the top down Systems Engineering and System-of-Systems view. CASoS Engineering theory and practice must be conducted together to develop a discipline that is grounded in reality, extends our understanding of how CASoS behave and allows us to better control the outcomes. The pull of applications (real world problems) is critical to this effort, as is the articulation of a CASoS Engineering Framework that grounds an engineering approach in the theory of complex adaptive systems of systems. Successful application of the CASoS Engineering Framework requires modeling, simulation and analysis (MS and A) capabilities and the cultivation of a CASoS Engineering Community of Practice through knowledge sharing and facilitation. The CASoS Engineering Environment, itself a complex adaptive system of systems, constitutes the two platforms that provide these capabilities.

  2. Half-Heusler thermoelectrics: a complex class of materials.

    PubMed

    Bos, Jan-Willem G; Downie, Ruth A

    2014-10-29

    Half-Heusler thermoelectrics first attracted interest in the late-1990s and are currently undergoing a renaissance. This has been driven by improved synthesis, processing and characterisation methods, leading to increases in the thermoelectric figure of merit and the observation of novel phenomena such as carrier filtering in nanocomposite samples. The difficulty in extracting good thermoelectric performance is at first glance surprising given the relative simplicity of the ideal crystal structure with only site occupancies and lattice parameter as crystallographic variables. However, the observed thermoelectric properties are found to depend sensitively on sample processing. Recent work has shown that prepared ingots can contain a range of inhomogeneities, including interstitials, nano- and micron sized Heusler inclusions and multiple half-Heusler phases. For this reason, the prepared materials are far more complex than initially appreciated and this may offer opportunities to enhance the thermoelectric figure of merit.

  3. Stereoscopy for visual simulation of materials of complex appearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Graça, Fernando; Paljic, Alexis; Lafon-Pham, Dominique; Callet, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    The present work studies the role of stereoscopy on perceived surface aspect of computer generated complex materials. The objective is to investigate if, and how, the additional information conveyed by the binocular vision affects the observer judgment on the evaluation of flake density in an effect paint simulation. We have set up a heuristic flake model with a Voronoi: modelization of flakes. The model was implemented in our rendering engine using global illumination, ray tracing, with an off axis-frustum method for the calculation of stereo images. We conducted a user study based on a flake density discrimination task to determine perception thresholds (JNDs). Results show that stereoscopy slightly improves density perception. We propose an analysis methodology based on granulometry. This allows for a discussion of the results on the basis of scales of observation.

  4. Armor systems including coated core materials

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry S.; Lillo, Thomas M.; McHugh, Kevin M.

    2012-07-31

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  5. Armor systems including coated core materials

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry S; Lillo, Thomas M; McHugh, Kevin M

    2013-10-08

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  6. Toolsets Maintain Health of Complex Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    First featured in Spinoff 2001, Qualtech Systems Inc. (QSI), of Wethersfield, Connecticut, adapted its Testability, Engineering, and Maintenance System (TEAMS) toolset under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from Ames Research Center to strengthen NASA's systems health management approach for its large, complex, and interconnected systems. Today, six NASA field centers utilize the TEAMS toolset, including TEAMS-Designer, TEAMS-RT, TEAMATE, and TEAMS-RDS. TEAMS is also being used on industrial systems that generate power, carry data, refine chemicals, perform medical functions, and produce semiconductor wafers. QSI finds TEAMS can lower costs by decreasing problems requiring service by 30 to 50 percent.

  7. Trends in modeling Biomedical Complex Systems

    PubMed Central

    Milanesi, Luciano; Romano, Paolo; Castellani, Gastone; Remondini, Daniel; Liò, Petro

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we provide an introduction to the techniques for multi-scale complex biological systems, from the single bio-molecule to the cell, combining theoretical modeling, experiments, informatics tools and technologies suitable for biological and biomedical research, which are becoming increasingly multidisciplinary, multidimensional and information-driven. The most important concepts on mathematical modeling methodologies and statistical inference, bioinformatics and standards tools to investigate complex biomedical systems are discussed and the prominent literature useful to both the practitioner and the theoretician are presented. PMID:19828068

  8. The Physics of Complex Systems in Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar

    In relating the circumstances that led to the birth and development of the physics of complex systems in Cuba, it is difficult to avoid being anecdotal—particularly because of the difficult times during which this research started. Cuban eclecticism, whose spectrum extends from religious syncretism to world-class medicine, seems quite coherent with the field of complex systems, characterized by the synergy of diverse fields. Such a combination, however, in the beginning seemed to be quite removed from the physicists' standard research dogmas.

  9. Complexity in electronic negotiation support systems.

    PubMed

    Griessmair, Michele; Strunk, Guido; Vetschera, Rudolf; Koeszegi, Sabine T

    2011-10-01

    It is generally acknowledged that the medium influences the way we communicate and negotiation research directs considerable attention to the impact of different electronic communication modes on the negotiation process and outcomes. Complexity theories offer models and methods that allow the investigation of how pattern and temporal sequences unfold over time in negotiation interactions. By focusing on the dynamic and interactive quality of negotiations as well as the information, choice, and uncertainty contained in the negotiation process, the complexity perspective addresses several issues of central interest in classical negotiation research. In the present study we compare the complexity of the negotiation communication process among synchronous and asynchronous negotiations (IM vs. e-mail) as well as an electronic negotiation support system including a decision support system (DSS). For this purpose, transcripts of 145 negotiations have been coded and analyzed with the Shannon entropy and the grammar complexity. Our results show that negotiating asynchronically via e-mail as well as including a DSS significantly reduces the complexity of the negotiation process. Furthermore, a reduction of the complexity increases the probability of reaching an agreement.

  10. Mapping complex traits as a dynamic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lidan; Wu, Rongling

    2015-06-01

    Despite increasing emphasis on the genetic study of quantitative traits, we are still far from being able to chart a clear picture of their genetic architecture, given an inherent complexity involved in trait formation. A competing theory for studying such complex traits has emerged by viewing their phenotypic formation as a "system" in which a high-dimensional group of interconnected components act and interact across different levels of biological organization from molecules through cells to whole organisms. This system is initiated by a machinery of DNA sequences that regulate a cascade of biochemical pathways to synthesize endophenotypes and further assemble these endophenotypes toward the end-point phenotype in virtue of various developmental changes. This review focuses on a conceptual framework for genetic mapping of complex traits by which to delineate the underlying components, interactions and mechanisms that govern the system according to biological principles and understand how these components function synergistically under the control of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) to comprise a unified whole. This framework is built by a system of differential equations that quantifies how alterations of different components lead to the global change of trait development and function, and provides a quantitative and testable platform for assessing the multiscale interplay between QTLs and development. The method will enable geneticists to shed light on the genetic complexity of any biological system and predict, alter or engineer its physiological and pathological states.

  11. Energy Consumption Monitoring System for Large Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorge, André; Guerreiro, João; Pereira, Pedro; Martins, João; Gomes, Luís

    This paper describes the development of an open source system for monitoring and data acquisition of several energy analyzers. The developed system is based on a computer with Internet/Intranet connection by means of RS485 using Modbus RTU as communication protocol. The monitoring/metering system was developed for large building complexes and was validated in the Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia University campus. The system considers two distinct applications. The first one allows the user to verify, in real time, the energy consumption of any department in the complex, produce load diagrams, tables and print, email or save all available data. The second application keeps records of active/reactive energy consumption in order to verify the existence of some anomalous situation, and also monthly charge energy consumption to each corresponding department.

  12. Lasercom system architecture with reduced complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesh, James R. (Inventor); Chen, Chien-Chung (Inventor); Ansari, Homayoon (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Spatial acquisition and precision beam pointing functions are critical to spaceborne laser communication systems. In the present invention, a single high bandwidth CCD detector is used to perform both spatial acquisition and tracking functions. Compared to previous lasercom hardware design, the array tracking concept offers reduced system complexity by reducing the number of optical elements in the design. Specifically, the design requires only one detector and one beam steering mechanism. It also provides the means to optically close the point-ahead control loop. The technology required for high bandwidth array tracking was examined and shown to be consistent with current state of the art. The single detector design can lead to a significantly reduced system complexity and a lower system cost.

  13. Managing interoperability and complexity in health systems.

    PubMed

    Bouamrane, M-M; Tao, C; Sarkar, I N

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, we have witnessed substantial progress in the use of clinical informatics systems to support clinicians during episodes of care, manage specialised domain knowledge, perform complex clinical data analysis and improve the management of health organisations' resources. However, the vision of fully integrated health information eco-systems, which provide relevant information and useful knowledge at the point-of-care, remains elusive. This journal Focus Theme reviews some of the enduring challenges of interoperability and complexity in clinical informatics systems. Furthermore, a range of approaches are proposed in order to address, harness and resolve some of the many remaining issues towards a greater integration of health information systems and extraction of useful or new knowledge from heterogeneous electronic data repositories.

  14. Constructing minimal models for complex system dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzel, Baruch; Liu, Yang-Yu; Barabási, Albert-László

    2015-05-01

    One of the strengths of statistical physics is the ability to reduce macroscopic observations into microscopic models, offering a mechanistic description of a system's dynamics. This paradigm, rooted in Boltzmann's gas theory, has found applications from magnetic phenomena to subcellular processes and epidemic spreading. Yet, each of these advances were the result of decades of meticulous model building and validation, which are impossible to replicate in most complex biological, social or technological systems that lack accurate microscopic models. Here we develop a method to infer the microscopic dynamics of a complex system from observations of its response to external perturbations, allowing us to construct the most general class of nonlinear pairwise dynamics that are guaranteed to recover the observed behaviour. The result, which we test against both numerical and empirical data, is an effective dynamic model that can predict the system's behaviour and provide crucial insights into its inner workings.

  15. Resource Letter CS-1: Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, M. E. J.

    2011-08-01

    A complex system is a system composed of many interacting parts, often called agents, which displays collective behavior that does not follow trivially from the behaviors of the individual parts. Examples include condensed-matter systems, ecosystems, stock markets and economies, biological evolution, and indeed the whole of human society. Substantial progress has been made in the quantitative understanding of complex systems, particularly since the 1980s, using a combination of basic theory, much of it derived from physics, and computer simulation. The subject is a broad one, drawing on techniques and ideas from a wide range of areas. Here, I give a selection of introductory resources, ranging from classic papers to recent books and reviews.

  16. Promoting Transfer by Grounding Complex Systems Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstone, Robert L.; Wilensky, Uri

    2008-01-01

    Understanding scientific phenomena in terms of complex systems principles is both scientifically and pedagogically important. Situations from different disciplines of science are often governed by the same principle, and so promoting knowledge transfer across disciplines makes valuable cross-fertilization and scientific unification possible.…

  17. Engineering Education as a Complex System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattie, David K.; Kellam, Nadia N.; Schramski, John R.; Walther, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical basis for cultivating engineering education as a complex system that will prepare students to think critically and make decisions with regard to poorly understood, ill-structured issues. Integral to this theoretical basis is a solution space construct developed and presented as a benchmark for evaluating…

  18. Designing To Learn about Complex Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hmelo, Cindy E.; Holton, Douglas L.; Kolodner, Janet L.

    2000-01-01

    Indicates the presence of complex structural, behavioral, and functional relations to understanding. Reports on a design experiment in which 6th grade children learned about the human respiratory system by designing artificial lungs and building partial working models. Makes suggestions for successful learning from design activities. (Contains 44…

  19. Gaia as a complex adaptive system.

    PubMed

    Lenton, Timothy M; van Oijen, Marcel

    2002-05-29

    We define the Gaia system of life and its environment on Earth, review the status of the Gaia theory, introduce potentially relevant concepts from complexity theory, then try to apply them to Gaia. We consider whether Gaia is a complex adaptive system (CAS) in terms of its behaviour and suggest that the system is self-organizing but does not reside in a critical state. Gaia has supported abundant life for most of the last 3.8 Gyr. Large perturbations have occasionally suppressed life but the system has always recovered without losing the capacity for large-scale free energy capture and recycling of essential elements. To illustrate how complexity theory can help us understand the emergence of planetary-scale order, we present a simple cellular automata (CA) model of the imaginary planet Daisyworld. This exhibits emergent self-regulation as a consequence of feedback coupling between life and its environment. Local spatial interaction, which was absent from the original model, can destabilize the system by generating bifurcation regimes. Variation and natural selection tend to remove this instability. With mutation in the model system, it exhibits self-organizing adaptive behaviour in its response to forcing. We close by suggesting how artificial life ('Alife') techniques may enable more comprehensive feasibility tests of Gaia. PMID:12079529

  20. Gaia as a complex adaptive system.

    PubMed

    Lenton, Timothy M; van Oijen, Marcel

    2002-05-29

    We define the Gaia system of life and its environment on Earth, review the status of the Gaia theory, introduce potentially relevant concepts from complexity theory, then try to apply them to Gaia. We consider whether Gaia is a complex adaptive system (CAS) in terms of its behaviour and suggest that the system is self-organizing but does not reside in a critical state. Gaia has supported abundant life for most of the last 3.8 Gyr. Large perturbations have occasionally suppressed life but the system has always recovered without losing the capacity for large-scale free energy capture and recycling of essential elements. To illustrate how complexity theory can help us understand the emergence of planetary-scale order, we present a simple cellular automata (CA) model of the imaginary planet Daisyworld. This exhibits emergent self-regulation as a consequence of feedback coupling between life and its environment. Local spatial interaction, which was absent from the original model, can destabilize the system by generating bifurcation regimes. Variation and natural selection tend to remove this instability. With mutation in the model system, it exhibits self-organizing adaptive behaviour in its response to forcing. We close by suggesting how artificial life ('Alife') techniques may enable more comprehensive feasibility tests of Gaia.

  1. Gaia as a complex adaptive system.

    PubMed Central

    Lenton, Timothy M; van Oijen, Marcel

    2002-01-01

    We define the Gaia system of life and its environment on Earth, review the status of the Gaia theory, introduce potentially relevant concepts from complexity theory, then try to apply them to Gaia. We consider whether Gaia is a complex adaptive system (CAS) in terms of its behaviour and suggest that the system is self-organizing but does not reside in a critical state. Gaia has supported abundant life for most of the last 3.8 Gyr. Large perturbations have occasionally suppressed life but the system has always recovered without losing the capacity for large-scale free energy capture and recycling of essential elements. To illustrate how complexity theory can help us understand the emergence of planetary-scale order, we present a simple cellular automata (CA) model of the imaginary planet Daisyworld. This exhibits emergent self-regulation as a consequence of feedback coupling between life and its environment. Local spatial interaction, which was absent from the original model, can destabilize the system by generating bifurcation regimes. Variation and natural selection tend to remove this instability. With mutation in the model system, it exhibits self-organizing adaptive behaviour in its response to forcing. We close by suggesting how artificial life ('Alife') techniques may enable more comprehensive feasibility tests of Gaia. PMID:12079529

  2. Dependency visualization for complex system understanding

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, J.A.C.

    1994-09-01

    With the volume of software in production use dramatically increasing, the importance of software maintenance has become strikingly apparent. Techniques now sought and developed for reverse engineering and design extraction and recovery. At present, numerous commercial products and research tools exist which are capable of visualizing a variety of programming languages and software constructs. The list of new tools and services continues to grow rapidly. Although the scope of the existing commercial and academic product set is quite broad, these tools still share a common underlying problem. The ability of each tool to visually organize object representations is increasingly impaired as the number of components and component dependencies within systems increases. Regardless of how objects are defined, complex ``spaghetti`` networks result in nearly all large system cases. While this problem is immediately apparent in modem systems analysis involving large software implementations, it is not new. As will be discussed in Chapter 2, related problems involving the theory of graphs were identified long ago. This important theoretical foundation provides a useful vehicle for representing and analyzing complex system structures. While the utility of directed graph based concepts in software tool design has been demonstrated in literature, these tools still lack the capabilities necessary for large system comprehension. This foundation must therefore be expanded with new orgnizational and visualization constructs necessary to meet this challenge. This dissertation addresses this need by constructing a conceptual model and a set of methods for interactively exploring, organizing, and understanding the structure of complex software systems.

  3. Membrane Tethering Complexes in the Endosomal System

    PubMed Central

    Spang, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Vesicles that are generated by endocytic events at the plasma membrane are destined to early endosomes. A prerequisite for proper fusion is the tethering of two membrane entities. Tethering of vesicles to early endosomes is mediated by the class C core vacuole/endosome tethering (CORVET) complex, while fusion of late endosomes with lysosomes depends on the homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting (HOPS) complex. Recycling through the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and to the plasma membrane is facilitated by the Golgi associated retrograde protein (GARP) and endosome-associated recycling protein (EARP) complexes, respectively. However, there are other tethering functions in the endosomal system as there are multiple pathways through which proteins can be delivered from endosomes to either the TGN or the plasma membrane. Furthermore, proteins that may be part of novel tethering complexes have been recently identified. Thus, it is likely that more tethering factors exist. In this review, I will provide an overview of different tethering complexes of the endosomal system and discuss how they may provide specificity in membrane traffic. PMID:27243003

  4. Membrane Tethering Complexes in the Endosomal System.

    PubMed

    Spang, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Vesicles that are generated by endocytic events at the plasma membrane are destined to early endosomes. A prerequisite for proper fusion is the tethering of two membrane entities. Tethering of vesicles to early endosomes is mediated by the class C core vacuole/endosome tethering (CORVET) complex, while fusion of late endosomes with lysosomes depends on the homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting (HOPS) complex. Recycling through the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and to the plasma membrane is facilitated by the Golgi associated retrograde protein (GARP) and endosome-associated recycling protein (EARP) complexes, respectively. However, there are other tethering functions in the endosomal system as there are multiple pathways through which proteins can be delivered from endosomes to either the TGN or the plasma membrane. Furthermore, proteins that may be part of novel tethering complexes have been recently identified. Thus, it is likely that more tethering factors exist. In this review, I will provide an overview of different tethering complexes of the endosomal system and discuss how they may provide specificity in membrane traffic. PMID:27243003

  5. Material Instabilities in Particulate Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goddard, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    Following is a brief summary of a theoretical investigation of material (or constitutive) instability associated with shear induced particle migration in dense particulate suspensions or granular media. It is shown that one can obtain a fairly general linear-stability analysis, including the effects of shear-induced anisotropy in the base flow as well as Reynolds dilatancy. A criterion is presented here for simple shearing instability in the absence of inertia and dilatancy.

  6. Material permeance measurement system and method

    DOEpatents

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis; Renner, Michael John

    2012-05-08

    A system for measuring the permeance of a material. The permeability of the material may also be derived. The system provides a liquid or high concentration fluid bath on one side of a material test sample, and a gas flow across the opposing side of the material test sample. The mass flow rate of permeated fluid as a fraction of the combined mass flow rate of gas and permeated fluid is used to calculate the permeance of the material. The material test sample may be a sheet, a tube, or a solid shape. Operational test conditions may be varied, including concentration of the fluid, temperature of the fluid, strain profile of the material test sample, and differential pressure across the material test sample.

  7. Causes of catastrophic failure in complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, David A.

    2010-08-01

    Root causes of mission critical failures and major cost and schedule overruns in complex systems and programs are studied through the post-mortem analyses compiled for several examples, including the Hubble Space Telescope, the Challenger and Columbia Shuttle accidents, and the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. The roles of organizational complexity, cognitive biases in decision making, the display of quantitative data, and cost and schedule pressure are all considered. Recommendations for mitigating the risk of similar failures in future programs are also provided.

  8. A Multifaceted Mathematical Approach for Complex Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, F.; Anitescu, M.; Bell, J.; Brown, D.; Ferris, M.; Luskin, M.; Mehrotra, S.; Moser, B.; Pinar, A.; Tartakovsky, A.; Willcox, K.; Wright, S.; Zavala, V.

    2012-03-07

    Applied mathematics has an important role to play in developing the tools needed for the analysis, simulation, and optimization of complex problems. These efforts require the development of the mathematical foundations for scientific discovery, engineering design, and risk analysis based on a sound integrated approach for the understanding of complex systems. However, maximizing the impact of applied mathematics on these challenges requires a novel perspective on approaching the mathematical enterprise. Previous reports that have surveyed the DOE's research needs in applied mathematics have played a key role in defining research directions with the community. Although these reports have had significant impact, accurately assessing current research needs requires an evaluation of today's challenges against the backdrop of recent advances in applied mathematics and computing. To address these needs, the DOE Applied Mathematics Program sponsored a Workshop for Mathematics for the Analysis, Simulation and Optimization of Complex Systems on September 13-14, 2011. The workshop had approximately 50 participants from both the national labs and academia. The goal of the workshop was to identify new research areas in applied mathematics that will complement and enhance the existing DOE ASCR Applied Mathematics Program efforts that are needed to address problems associated with complex systems. This report describes recommendations from the workshop and subsequent analysis of the workshop findings by the organizing committee.

  9. Network representations of immune system complexity.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Naeha; Torabi-Parizi, Parizad; Gottschalk, Rachel A; Germain, Ronald N; Dutta, Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian immune system is a dynamic multiscale system composed of a hierarchically organized set of molecular, cellular, and organismal networks that act in concert to promote effective host defense. These networks range from those involving gene regulatory and protein-protein interactions underlying intracellular signaling pathways and single-cell responses to increasingly complex networks of in vivo cellular interaction, positioning, and migration that determine the overall immune response of an organism. Immunity is thus not the product of simple signaling events but rather nonlinear behaviors arising from dynamic, feedback-regulated interactions among many components. One of the major goals of systems immunology is to quantitatively measure these complex multiscale spatial and temporal interactions, permitting development of computational models that can be used to predict responses to perturbation. Recent technological advances permit collection of comprehensive datasets at multiple molecular and cellular levels, while advances in network biology support representation of the relationships of components at each level as physical or functional interaction networks. The latter facilitate effective visualization of patterns and recognition of emergent properties arising from the many interactions of genes, molecules, and cells of the immune system. We illustrate the power of integrating 'omics' and network modeling approaches for unbiased reconstruction of signaling and transcriptional networks with a focus on applications involving the innate immune system. We further discuss future possibilities for reconstruction of increasingly complex cellular- and organism-level networks and development of sophisticated computational tools for prediction of emergent immune behavior arising from the concerted action of these networks.

  10. Stability threshold approach for complex dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinshov, Vladimir V.; Nekorkin, Vladimir I.; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    A new measure to characterize the stability of complex dynamical systems against large perturbations is suggested, the stability threshold (ST). It quantifies the magnitude of the weakest perturbation capable of disrupting the system and switch it to an undesired dynamical regime. In the phase space, the ST corresponds to the ‘thinnest site’ of the attraction basin and therefore indicates the most ‘dangerous’ direction of perturbations. We introduce a computational algorithm for quantification of the ST and demonstrate that the suggested approach is effective and provides important insights. The generality of the obtained results defines their vast potential for application in such fields as engineering, neuroscience, power grids, Earth science and many others where the robustness of complex systems is studied.

  11. Systems genetics approaches to understand complex traits

    PubMed Central

    Civelek, Mete; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2014-01-01

    Systems genetics is an approach to understand the flow of biological information that underlies complex traits. It uses a range of experimental and statistical methods to quantitate and integrate intermediate phenotypes, such as transcript, protein or metabolite levels, in populations that vary for traits of interest. Systems genetics studies have provided the first global view of the molecular architecture of complex traits and are useful for the identification of genes, pathways and networks that underlie common human diseases. Given the urgent need to understand how the thousands of loci that have been identified in genome-wide association studies contribute to disease susceptibility, systems genetics is likely to become an increasingly important approach to understanding both biology and disease. PMID:24296534

  12. Material Design, Selection, and Manufacturing Methods for System Sustainment

    SciTech Connect

    David Sowder, Jim Lula, Curtis Marshall

    2010-02-18

    This paper describes a material selection and validation process proven to be successful for manufacturing high-reliability long-life product. The National Secure Manufacturing Center business unit of the Kansas City Plant (herein called KCP) designs and manufactures complex electrical and mechanical components used in extreme environments. The material manufacturing heritage is founded in the systems design to manufacturing practices that support the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA). Material Engineers at KCP work with the systems designers to recommend materials, develop test methods, perform analytical analysis of test data, define cradle to grave needs, present final selection and fielding. The KCP material engineers typically will maintain cost control by utilizing commercial products when possible, but have the resources and to develop and produce unique formulations as necessary. This approach is currently being used to mature technologies to manufacture materials with improved characteristics using nano-composite filler materials that will enhance system design and production. For some products the engineers plan and carry out science-based life-cycle material surveillance processes. Recent examples of the approach include refurbished manufacturing of the high voltage power supplies for cockpit displays in operational aircraft; dry film lubricant application to improve bearing life for guided munitions gyroscope gimbals, ceramic substrate design for electrical circuit manufacturing, and tailored polymeric materials for various systems. The following examples show evidence of KCP concurrent design-to-manufacturing techniques used to achieve system solutions that satisfy or exceed demanding requirements.

  13. Complex nanostructured materials from segmented copolymers prepared by ATRP.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, T; McCullough, R D; Matyjaszewski, K

    2003-01-01

    The development of new controlled/living radical polymerization processes, such as Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) and other techniques such as nitroxide mediated polymerization and degenerative transfer processes, including RAFT, opened the way to the use of radical polymerization for the synthesis of well-defined, complex functional nanostructures. The development of such nanostructures is primarily dependent on self-assembly of well-defined segmented copolymers. This article describes the fundamentals of ATRP, relevant to the synthesis of such systems. The self-assembly of block copolymers prepared by ATRP is illustrated by three examples. In the first, block copolymers of poly(butyl acrylate) with polyacrylonitrile phase separate, leading to spherical, cylindrical or lamellar morphologies, depending on the block copolymer composition. At a higher temperature, polyacrylonitrile block converts to nanostructured carbon clusters, whereas poly(butyl acrylate) block serves as a sacrificial block, aiding the development of designed nanostructures. In the second example, conductive nanoribbons of poly(n-hexylthiophene) surrounded by a matrix of organic polymers are formed from block copolymers prepared by ATRP. The third example describes an inorganic-organic hybrid system consisting of hard nanocolloidal silica particles (approximately 20 nm) grafted by ATRP with well-defined polystyrene-poly(benzyl acrylate) block copolymer chains (approximately 1000 chains per particle). Silica cores in this system are surrounded by a rigid polystyrene inner shell and softer polyacrylate outer shell. PMID:15011074

  14. [Complex systems variability analysis using approximate entropy].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Biological systems are highly complex systems, both spatially and temporally. They are rooted in an interdependent, redundant and pleiotropic interconnected dynamic network. The properties of a system are different from those of their parts, and they depend on the integrity of the whole. The systemic properties vanish when the system breaks down, while the properties of its components are maintained. The disease can be understood as a systemic functional alteration of the human body, which present with a varying severity, stability and durability. Biological systems are characterized by measurable complex rhythms, abnormal rhythms are associated with disease and may be involved in its pathogenesis, they are been termed "dynamic disease." Physicians have long time recognized that alterations of physiological rhythms are associated with disease. Measuring absolute values of clinical parameters yields highly significant, clinically useful information, however evaluating clinical parameters the variability provides additionally useful clinical information. The aim of this review was to study one of the most recent advances in the measurement and characterization of biological variability made possible by the development of mathematical models based on chaos theory and nonlinear dynamics, as approximate entropy, has provided us with greater ability to discern meaningful distinctions between biological signals from clinically distinct groups of patients.

  15. [Complex systems variability analysis using approximate entropy].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Biological systems are highly complex systems, both spatially and temporally. They are rooted in an interdependent, redundant and pleiotropic interconnected dynamic network. The properties of a system are different from those of their parts, and they depend on the integrity of the whole. The systemic properties vanish when the system breaks down, while the properties of its components are maintained. The disease can be understood as a systemic functional alteration of the human body, which present with a varying severity, stability and durability. Biological systems are characterized by measurable complex rhythms, abnormal rhythms are associated with disease and may be involved in its pathogenesis, they are been termed "dynamic disease." Physicians have long time recognized that alterations of physiological rhythms are associated with disease. Measuring absolute values of clinical parameters yields highly significant, clinically useful information, however evaluating clinical parameters the variability provides additionally useful clinical information. The aim of this review was to study one of the most recent advances in the measurement and characterization of biological variability made possible by the development of mathematical models based on chaos theory and nonlinear dynamics, as approximate entropy, has provided us with greater ability to discern meaningful distinctions between biological signals from clinically distinct groups of patients. PMID:21450141

  16. Thermal Conductivity of Complex Materials at High Temperatures and Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, J. M.; Xu, Y.; Harrell, M.; Shankland, T. J.

    2004-12-01

    Measurements of lattice thermal diffusivity have been obtained on (Mg0.9Fe0.1)2SiO4 olivine, its high-pressure polymorphs, and of (Mg0.9Fe0.1)SiO3 enstatite at conditions of temperature and pressure. We used two independent techniques: Impulsive Stimulated Light Scattering to 5 GPa and 1273 K and the Ångström method on cylindrical samples in a multianvil apparatus to 20 GPa and 1373 K. Lattice thermal conductivities were calculated from heat capacities and equations of state. Conductivities are consistent with previous results obtained at 1 atm. In olivines conductivity increases at each phase transition from olivine to spinel structures (corresponding to velocity discontinuities at depths of 410 and 520 km in the Earth). Of greatest significance is the fact that for each of these phases, lattice conductivity closely follows a T-1/2 dependence on temperature T, a prediction of Klemens (1960) for materials containing abundant lattice defects. If such a dependence applies to other silicates and complex crystals, there should be a useful way to estimate conductivities at high temperatures from room temperature measurements.

  17. Thermal Conductivity of Complex Materials at High Temperatures and Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, J. Michael; Xu, Yousheng; Harrell, Michael D.; Shankland, Thomas

    2004-03-01

    This paper presents measurements of lattice thermal diffusivity on (Mg_0.9Fe_0.1)_2SiO4 olivine, its high-pressure polymorphs, and of (Mg_0.9Fe_0.1)SiO3 enstatite at conditions of temperature and pressure. We used two independent techniques: impulsive stimulated light scattering to 5 GPa and 1273 K and the Ångström method on cylindrical samples in a multianvil apparatus to 20 GPa and 1373 K. Lattice thermal conductivities were calculated from heat capacities and equations of state. Conductivities are consistent with previous results obtained at 1 atm. In olivines conductivity increases at each phase transition from olivine to spinel structures (corresponding to velocity discontinuities at depths of 410 and 520 km in the Earth). Of greatest significance is the fact that for each of these phases, lattice conductivity closely follows a T-1/2 dependence on temperature T, a prediction of Klemens (1960) for materials containing abundant lattice defects. If such a dependence applies to other silicates and complex crystals, there should be a useful way to estimate conductivities at high temperatures from room temperature measurements.

  18. Thermal properties of composite materials with a complex fractal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes-Álvarez, F.; Reyes-Salgado, J. J.; Dossetti, V.; Carrillo, J. L.

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we report the thermal characterization of platelike composite samples made of polyester resin and magnetite inclusions. By means of photoacoustic spectroscopy and thermal relaxation, the thermal diffusivity, conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of the samples were experimentally measured. The volume fraction of the inclusions was systematically varied in order to study the changes in the effective thermal conductivity of the composites. For some samples, a static magnetic field was applied during the polymerization process, resulting in anisotropic inclusion distributions. Our results show a decrease in the thermal conductivity of some of the anisotropic samples, compared to the isotropic randomly distributed ones. Our analysis indicates that the development of elongated inclusion structures leads to the formation of magnetite and resin domains, causing this effect. We correlate the complexity of the inclusion structure with the observed thermal response through a multifractal and lacunarity analysis. All the experimental data are contrasted with the well known Maxwell-Garnett effective media approximation for composite materials.

  19. Meeting on flows of granular materials in complex geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Passman, S.L.; Fukushima, E.; Evans, R.E.

    1994-11-01

    The International Energy Agency Fossil Fuel Multiphase Flow Sciences Agreement has been in effect since 1986. The traditional mechanism for the effort has been information exchange, effected by the inclusion of scientists in annual Executive committee meetings, by exchange of reports and papers, and by visits of scientists to one another`s institutions. In a sequence of informal meetings and at the 1993 Executive committee meeting, held in Pittsburgh, US in March 1994, it was decided that more intensive interactions could be productive. A candidate for such interactions would be specific projects. Each of these would be initiated through a meeting of scientists in which feasibility of the particular project was decided, followed by relatively intense international co-operation in which the work would be done. This is a report of the first of these meetings. Official or unofficial representatives from Canada, italy, japan, mexico, the United Kingdom, and the US met in Albuquerque, New Mexico, US, to consider the subject Flows of Granular Materials in Complex Geometries. Representatives of several other countries expressed interest but were unable to attend this meeting. Sixteen lectures were given on aspects of this topic. It was decided that a co-operative effort was desirable and possible. The most likely candidate for the area of study would be flows in bins and hoppers. Each of the countries wishing to co-operate will pursue funding for its effort. This report contains extended abstracts of the sixteen presentations and a transcription of the final discussion.

  20. Multifractal Resilience Metrics for Complex Systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertzer, D. J.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Lovejoy, S.

    2011-12-01

    The term resilience has become extremely fashionable, especially for complex systems, whereas corresponding operational definitions have remained rather elusive (Carpenter et al. 2001). More precisely, the resilience assessment of man-made systems (from nuclear plants to cities) to geophysical extremes require mathematically defined resilience metrics based on some conceptual definition, e.g. the often cited definition of "ecological resilience" (Hollings 1973): "the capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change so as to still retain essentially the same function, structure, identity, and feedbacks". Surprisingly, whereas it was acknowledged by Folke et al. (2010) that "multiscale resilience is fundamental for understanding the interplay between persistence and change, adaptability and transformability", the relation between resilience and scaling has not been so much questioned, see however Peterson (2000). We argue that is rather indispensable to go well beyond the attractor approach (Pimm and Lawton 1977; Collings and Wollkind 1990;), as well as extensions (Martin et al., 2011) into the framework of the viability theory (Aubin 1991; Aubin et al. 2011). Indeed, both are rather limited to systems that are complex only in time. Scale symmetries are indeed indispensable to reduce the space-time complexity by defining scale independent observables, which are the singularities of the original, scale dependent fields. These singularities enable to define across-scale resilience, instead of resilience at a given scale.

  1. Complex permittivity measurements and mixing laws of ceramic materials and application to microwave processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershon, David Louis

    The complex permittivity of alumina composites was examined with respect to its dependence on the volume fraction of constituents, microstructure, processing temperature, and processing method. In addition, the effective permittivity of these composites was quantitatively modeled based on the permittivities, volume fractions, and microstructures of the constituents. The studies focused on the complex permittivity of alumina composites, which contained the lossy additives silicon carbide and copper oxide. Two composite systems were prepared by physically mixing alumina and one of the additives. A third composite system was produced by chemically precipitating copper oxide onto alumina. The two synthesis methods produced composites with different microstructures and complex permittivities. The imaginary part of the complex permittivity was generally larger in the chemically precipitated composites than in the physically mixed composites. The dependence of the complex permittivities of the composites on volume fraction and microstructure were compared with several algebraic mixing laws and with three dimensional, electrostatic numerical simulations. The algebraic mixing laws do not take into account for the dependence of the imaginary part of the complex permittivity on absorbed water and microstructure, which is affected by composite synthesis. By incorporating general physical characteristics of the composites, the electrostatic simulations were able to accurately predict their permittivity. Heating some selected alumina composites in conventional and microwave furnaces demonstrate several interesting results. The densification and dielectric proper-ties of the alumina/copper oxide composites varied due to processing temperature. The changes in these properties depended upon preparation method and not on heating method. The density and real part of the complex permittivity of alumina/silicon carbide also varied due to processing temperature and not on heating method

  2. Modernizing computerized nuclear material accounting systems

    SciTech Connect

    Erkkila, B.H.; Claborn, J.

    1995-09-01

    DOE Orders and draft orders for nuclear material control and accountability address a complete material control and accountability (MC and A) program for all DOE contractors processing, using, or storing nuclear materials. A critical element of an MC and A program is the accounting system used to track and record all inventories of nuclear material and movements of materials in those inventories. Most DOE facilities use computerized accounting systems to facilitate the task of accounting for all their inventory of nuclear materials. Many facilities still use a mixture of a manual paper system with a computerized system. Also, facilities may use multiple systems to support information needed for MC and A. For real-time accounting it is desirable to implement a single integrated data base management system for a variety of users. In addition to accountability needs, waste management, material management, and production operations must be supported. Information in these systems can also support criticality safety and other safety issues. Modern networked microcomputers provide extensive processing and reporting capabilities that single mainframe computer systems struggle with. This paper describes an approach being developed at Los Alamos to address these problems.

  3. Materials Requirements for Advanced Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Cook, Mary Beth; Clinton, R. G., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's mission to "reach the Moon and Mars" will be obtained only if research begins now to develop materials with expanded capabilities to reduce mass, cost and risk to the program. Current materials cannot function satisfactorily in the deep space environments and do not meet the requirements of long term space propulsion concepts for manned missions. Directed research is needed to better understand materials behavior for optimizing their processing. This research, generating a deeper understanding of material behavior, can lead to enhanced implementation of materials for future exploration vehicles. materials providing new approaches for manufacture and new options for In response to this need for more robust materials, NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) has established a strategic research initiative dedicated to materials development supporting NASA's space propulsion needs. The Advanced Materials for Exploration (AME) element directs basic and applied research to understand material behavior and develop improved materials allowing propulsion systems to operate beyond their current limitations. This paper will discuss the approach used to direct the path of strategic research for advanced materials to ensure that the research is indeed supportive of NASA's future missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond.

  4. Cluster size diversity, percolation, and complex systems.

    PubMed

    Tsang, I R; Tsang, I J

    1999-09-01

    Diversity of cluster size has been used as a measurement of complexity in several systems that generate a statistical distribution of clusters. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we present a statistical analysis of the cluster size diversity and the number of clusters generated on randomly occupied lattices for the Euclidean dimensions 1 to 6. A tuning effect for diversity of cluster size and critical probabilities associated with the maximum diversity and the maximum number of clusters are reported. The probability of maximum diversity is related to the percolation threshold and several scaling relations between the variables measured are reported. The statistics of cluster size diversity has important consequences in the statistical description of the Universe as a complex system. PMID:11970070

  5. Thermal performance of complex fenestration systems

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, S.C.; Elmahdy, A.H.

    1994-12-31

    The thermal performance (i.e., U-factor) of four complex fenestration systems is examined using computer simulation tools and guarded hot box testing. The systems include a flat glazed skylight, a domed or bubble skylight, a greenhouse window, and a curtain wall. The extra care required in performing simulation and testing of these complex products is described. There was good agreement (within 10%) between test and simulation for two of the four products. The agreement was slightly poorer (maximum difference of 16%) for the two high-heat-transfer products: the domed skylight and the greenhouse window. Possible causes for the larger discrepancy in these projecting window products are uncertainties in the inside and outside film coefficients and lower warm-side air temperatures because of stagnant airflow.

  6. Efficiently evaluate complex pressure relief systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.K.; Walker, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    This article will present the steps necessary to perform a comprehensive analysis of complex pressure relief systems. The goal is not to discuss detailed calculations for proper valve sizing and selection, but rather to analyze and verify existing system configurations. Sizing and selection have been covered in detail by the American Petroleum Institute (API) RP 520, API RP 521, various AIChE Design Institute for Emergency Relief Systems (DIERS) publications, and other sources. In their work with industry, the authors have noticed a tendency for some engineers to proceed with detailed calculations without first preparing an overall strategy and implementation plan to make sure that the calculations yield the desired results. They have seen detailed pressure relief system analyses costing hundreds of thousands of dollars which, for any number of reasons, are incorrect. The old adage GIGO (garbage in/garbage out) certainly applies to pressure relief system analysis. They will address the thought processes and actions necessary to correctly and efficiently evaluate complex pressure relief systems.

  7. Analysis of complex systems using neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, R.E. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1992-01-01

    The application of neural networks, alone or in conjunction with other advanced technologies (expert systems, fuzzy logic, and/or genetic algorithms), to some of the problems of complex engineering systems has the potential to enhance the safety, reliability, and operability of these systems. Typically, the measured variables from the systems are analog variables that must be sampled and normalized to expected peak values before they are introduced into neural networks. Often data must be processed to put it into a form more acceptable to the neural network (e.g., a fast Fourier transformation of the time-series data to produce a spectral plot of the data). Specific applications described include: (1) Diagnostics: State of the Plant (2) Hybrid System for Transient Identification, (3) Sensor Validation, (4) Plant-Wide Monitoring, (5) Monitoring of Performance and Efficiency, and (6) Analysis of Vibrations. Although specific examples described deal with nuclear power plants or their subsystems, the techniques described can be applied to a wide variety of complex engineering systems.

  8. Analysis of complex systems using neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, R.E. |

    1992-12-31

    The application of neural networks, alone or in conjunction with other advanced technologies (expert systems, fuzzy logic, and/or genetic algorithms), to some of the problems of complex engineering systems has the potential to enhance the safety, reliability, and operability of these systems. Typically, the measured variables from the systems are analog variables that must be sampled and normalized to expected peak values before they are introduced into neural networks. Often data must be processed to put it into a form more acceptable to the neural network (e.g., a fast Fourier transformation of the time-series data to produce a spectral plot of the data). Specific applications described include: (1) Diagnostics: State of the Plant (2) Hybrid System for Transient Identification, (3) Sensor Validation, (4) Plant-Wide Monitoring, (5) Monitoring of Performance and Efficiency, and (6) Analysis of Vibrations. Although specific examples described deal with nuclear power plants or their subsystems, the techniques described can be applied to a wide variety of complex engineering systems.

  9. Materials performance in advanced combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.

    1992-12-01

    A number of advanced technologies are being developed to convert coal into clean fuels for use as feedstock in chemical plants and for power generation. From the standpoint of component materials, the environments created by coal conversion and combustion in these technologies and their interactions with materials are of interest. The trend in the new or advanced systems is to improve thermal efficiency and reduce the environmental impact of the process effluents. This paper discusses several systems that are under development and identifies requirements for materials application in those systems. Available data on the performance of materials in several of the environments are used to examine the performance envelopes for materials for several of the systems and to identify needs for additional work in different areas.

  10. Synchronization in node of complex networks consist of complex chaotic system

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Qiang; Xie, Cheng-jun; Liu, Hong-jun; Li, Yan-hui

    2014-07-15

    A new synchronization method is investigated for node of complex networks consists of complex chaotic system. When complex networks realize synchronization, different component of complex state variable synchronize up to different scaling complex function by a designed complex feedback controller. This paper change synchronization scaling function from real field to complex field for synchronization in node of complex networks with complex chaotic system. Synchronization in constant delay and time-varying coupling delay complex networks are investigated, respectively. Numerical simulations are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Endogenous Biologically Inspired Art of Complex Systems.

    PubMed

    Ji, Haru; Wakefield, Graham

    2016-01-01

    Since 2007, Graham Wakefield and Haru Ji have looked to nature for inspiration as they have created a series of "artificial natures," or interactive visualizations of biologically inspired complex systems that can evoke nature-like aesthetic experiences within mixed-reality art installations. This article describes how they have applied visualization, sonification, and interaction design in their work with artificial ecosystems and organisms using specific examples from their exhibited installations.

  12. Elastocaloric cooling materials and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2015-03-01

    We are actively pursuing applications of thermoelastic (elastocaloric) cooling using shape memory alloys. Latent heat associated with martensitic transformation of shape memory alloys can be used to run cooling cycles with stress-inducing mechanical drives. The coefficient of performance of thermoelastic cooling materials can be as high as 11 with the directly measured DT of around 17 °C. Depending on the stress application mode, the number of cycles to fatigue can be as large as of the order of 105. Efforts to design and develop thermoelastic alloys with long fatigue life will be discussed. The current project at the University of Maryland is focused on development of building air-conditioners, and at Maryland Energy and Sensor Technologies, smaller scale commercial applications are being pursued. This work is carried out in collaboration with Jun Cui, Yiming Wu, Suxin Qian, Yunho Hwang, Jan Muehlbauer, and Reinhard Radermacher, and it is funded by the ARPA-E BEETIT program and the State of Maryland.

  13. Complex Engineered Systems: A New Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mina, Ali A.; Braha, Dan; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    Human history is often seen as an inexorable march towards greater complexity — in ideas, artifacts, social, political and economic systems, technology, and in the structure of life itself. While we do not have detailed knowledge of ancient times, it is reasonable to conclude that the average resident of New York City today faces a world of much greater complexity than the average denizen of Carthage or Tikal. A careful consideration of this change, however, suggests that most of it has occurred recently, and has been driven primarily by the emergence of technology as a force in human life. In the 4000 years separating the Indus Valley Civilization from 18th century Europe, human transportation evolved from the bullock cart to the hansom, and the methods of communication used by George Washington did not differ significantly from those used by Alexander or Rameses. The world has moved radically towards greater complexity in the last two centuries. We have moved from buggies and letter couriers to airplanes and the Internet — an increase in capacity, and through its diversity also in complexity, orders of magnitude greater than that accumulated through the rest of human history. In addition to creating iconic artifacts — the airplane, the car, the computer, the television, etc. — this change has had a profound effect on the scope of experience by creating massive, connected and multiultra- level systems — traffic networks, power grids, markets, multinational corporations — that defy analytical understanding and seem to have a life of their own. This is where complexity truly enters our lives.

  14. Circulation system complex networks and teleconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Zhi, Rong; Feng, Ai-Xia

    2011-07-01

    In terms of the characteristic topology parameters of climate complex networks, the spatial connection structural complexity of the circulation system and the influence of four teleconnection patterns are quantitatively described. Results of node degrees for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) mid-high latitude (30° N-90° N) circulation system (NHS) networks with and without the Arctic Oscillations (AO), the North Atlantic Oscillations (NAO) and the Pacific—North American pattern (PNA) demonstrate that the teleconnections greatly shorten the mean shortest path length of the networks, thus being advantageous to the rapid transfer of local fluctuation information over the network and to the stability of the NHS. The impact of the AO on the NHS connection structure is most important and the impact of the NAO is the next important. The PNA is a relatively independent teleconnection, and its role in the NHS is mainly manifested in the connection between the NHS and the tropical circulation system (TRS). As to the Southern Hemisphere mid-high latitude (30° S-90° S) circulation system (SHS), the impact of the Antarctic Arctic Oscillations (AAO) on the structural stability of the system is most important. In addition, there might be a stable correlation dipole (AACD) in the SHS, which also has important influence on the structure of the SHS networks.

  15. Complexity for Survival of Living Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    2009-01-01

    A logical connection between the survivability of living systems and the complexity of their behavior (equivalently, mental complexity) has been established. This connection is an important intermediate result of continuing research on mathematical models that could constitute a unified representation of the evolution of both living and non-living systems. Earlier results of this research were reported in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, the two most relevant being Characteristics of Dynamics of Intelligent Systems (NPO- 21037), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 12 (December 2002), page 48; and Self-Supervised Dynamical Systems (NPO- 30634) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 3 (March 2003), page 72. As used here, living systems is synonymous with active systems and intelligent systems. The quoted terms can signify artificial agents (e.g., suitably programmed computers) or natural biological systems ranging from single-cell organisms at one extreme to the whole of human society at the other extreme. One of the requirements that must be satisfied in mathematical modeling of living systems is reconciliation of evolution of life with the second law of thermodynamics. In the approach followed in this research, this reconciliation is effected by means of a model, inspired partly by quantum mechanics, in which the quantum potential is replaced with an information potential. The model captures the most fundamental property of life - the ability to evolve from disorder to order without any external interference. The model incorporates the equations of classical dynamics, including Newton s equations of motion and equations for random components caused by uncertainties in initial conditions and by Langevin forces. The equations of classical dynamics are coupled with corresponding Liouville or Fokker-Planck equations that describe the evolutions of probability densities that represent the uncertainties. The coupling is effected by fictitious information-based forces that are

  16. Diffusion NMR studies of macromolecular complex formation, crowding and confinement in soft materials.

    PubMed

    Barhoum, Suliman; Palit, Swomitra; Yethiraj, Anand

    2016-05-01

    Label-free methods to obtain hydrodynamic size from diffusion measurements are desirable in environments that contain multiple macromolecular species at a high total concentration: one example is the crowded cellular environment. In complex, multi-species macromolecular environments - in this article, we feature aqueous systems involving polymers, surfactants and proteins - the link between dynamics and size is harder to unpack due to macromolecular crowding and confinement. In this review, we demonstrate that the pulsed-field gradient NMR technique, with its spectral separation of different chemical components, is ideal for studying the dynamics of the entire system simultaneously and without labelling, in a wide range of systems. The simultaneous measurement of the dynamics of multiple components allows for internal consistency checks and enables quantitative statements about the link between macromolecular dynamics, size, complex formation and crowding in soft materials.

  17. Theoretical Studies on the Electronic Structures and Properties of Complex Ceramic Crystals and Novel Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ching, Wai-Yim

    2012-01-14

    This project is a continuation of a long program supported by the Office of Basic Energy Science in the Office of Science of DOE for many years. The final three-year continuation started on November 1, 2005 with additional 1 year extension to October 30, 2009. The project was then granted a two-year No Cost Extension which officially ended on October 30, 2011. This report covers the activities within this six year period with emphasis on the work completed within the last 3 years. A total of 44 papers with acknowledgement to this grant were published or submitted. The overall objectives of this project are as follows. These objectives have been evolved over the six year period: (1) To use the state-of-the-art computational methods to investigate the electronic structures of complex ceramics and other novel crystals. (2) To further investigate the defects, surfaces/interfaces and microstructures in complex materials using large scale modeling. (3) To extend the study on ceramic materials to more complex bioceramic crystals. (4) To initiate the study on soft condensed matters including water and biomolecules. (5) To focus on the spectroscopic studies of different materials especially on the ELNES and XANES spectral calculations and their applications related to experimental techniques. (6) To develop and refine computational methods to be effectively executed on DOE supercomputers. (7) To evaluate mechanical properties of different crystals and those containing defects and relate them to the fundamental electronic structures. (8) To promote and publicize the first-principles OLCAO method developed by the PI (under DOE support for many years) for applications to large complex material systems. (9) To train a new generation of graduate students and postdoctoral fellows in modern computational materials science and condensed matter physics. (10) To establish effective international and domestic collaborations with both experimentalists and theorists in materials

  18. Network representations of immune system complexity

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Naeha; Torabi-Parizi, Parizad; Gottschalk, Rachel A.; Germain, Ronald N.; Dutta, Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian immune system is a dynamic multi-scale system composed of a hierarchically organized set of molecular, cellular and organismal networks that act in concert to promote effective host defense. These networks range from those involving gene regulatory and protein-protein interactions underlying intracellular signaling pathways and single cell responses to increasingly complex networks of in vivo cellular interaction, positioning and migration that determine the overall immune response of an organism. Immunity is thus not the product of simple signaling events but rather non-linear behaviors arising from dynamic, feedback-regulated interactions among many components. One of the major goals of systems immunology is to quantitatively measure these complex multi-scale spatial and temporal interactions, permitting development of computational models that can be used to predict responses to perturbation. Recent technological advances permit collection of comprehensive datasets at multiple molecular and cellular levels while advances in network biology support representation of the relationships of components at each level as physical or functional interaction networks. The latter facilitate effective visualization of patterns and recognition of emergent properties arising from the many interactions of genes, molecules, and cells of the immune system. We illustrate the power of integrating ‘omics’ and network modeling approaches for unbiased reconstruction of signaling and transcriptional networks with a focus on applications involving the innate immune system. We further discuss future possibilities for reconstruction of increasingly complex cellular and organism-level networks and development of sophisticated computational tools for prediction of emergent immune behavior arising from the concerted action of these networks. PMID:25625853

  19. Network representations of immune system complexity.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Naeha; Torabi-Parizi, Parizad; Gottschalk, Rachel A; Germain, Ronald N; Dutta, Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian immune system is a dynamic multiscale system composed of a hierarchically organized set of molecular, cellular, and organismal networks that act in concert to promote effective host defense. These networks range from those involving gene regulatory and protein-protein interactions underlying intracellular signaling pathways and single-cell responses to increasingly complex networks of in vivo cellular interaction, positioning, and migration that determine the overall immune response of an organism. Immunity is thus not the product of simple signaling events but rather nonlinear behaviors arising from dynamic, feedback-regulated interactions among many components. One of the major goals of systems immunology is to quantitatively measure these complex multiscale spatial and temporal interactions, permitting development of computational models that can be used to predict responses to perturbation. Recent technological advances permit collection of comprehensive datasets at multiple molecular and cellular levels, while advances in network biology support representation of the relationships of components at each level as physical or functional interaction networks. The latter facilitate effective visualization of patterns and recognition of emergent properties arising from the many interactions of genes, molecules, and cells of the immune system. We illustrate the power of integrating 'omics' and network modeling approaches for unbiased reconstruction of signaling and transcriptional networks with a focus on applications involving the innate immune system. We further discuss future possibilities for reconstruction of increasingly complex cellular- and organism-level networks and development of sophisticated computational tools for prediction of emergent immune behavior arising from the concerted action of these networks. PMID:25625853

  20. Complexity VIII. Ontology of closure in complex systems: The C* hypothesis and the O° notation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Jerry LR

    1999-03-01

    Closure is a common characteristic of mathematical, natural and socio-cultural systems. Whether one is describing a graph, a molecule, a cell, a human, or a nation state, closure is implicitly understood. An objective of this paper is to continue a construction of a systematic framework for closure which is sufficient for future quantitative transdisciplinary investigations. A further objective is to extend the Birkhoff-von Neumann criterion for quantum systems to complex natural objects. The C* hypothesis is being constructed to be consistent with algebraic category theory (Ehresmann and Vanbremeersch, 1987, 1997, Chandler, 1990, 1991, Chandler, Ehresmann and Vanbremeersch, 1996). Five aspects of closure will be used to construct a framework for categories of complex systems: 1. Truth functions in mathematics and the natural sciences 2. Systematic descriptions in the mks and O° notations 3. Organizational structures in hierarchical scientific languages 4. Transitive organizational pathways in the causal structures of complex behaviors 5. Composing additive, multiplicative and exponential operations in complex systems Truth functions can be formal or objective or subjective, depending on the complexity of the system and on our capability to represent the fine structure of the system symbolically, observationally or descriptively. "Complete" material representations of the fine structure of a system may allow truth functions to be created over sets of one to one correspondences. Less complete descriptions can support less stringent truth functions based on coherence or subjective judgments. The role of human values in creating and perpetuating truth functions can be placed in context of the degree of fine structure in the system's description. The organization of complex systems are hypothesized to be categorizable into degrees relative to one another, thereby creating an ordering relationship. This ordering relationship is denoted by the symbols: O°1, O°2,O°3

  1. Complex Generalized Synchronization and Parameter Identification of Nonidentical Nonlinear Complex Systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shibing; Wang, Xingyuan; Han, Bo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, generalized synchronization (GS) is extended from real space to complex space, resulting in a new synchronization scheme, complex generalized synchronization (CGS). Based on Lyapunov stability theory, an adaptive controller and parameter update laws are designed to realize CGS and parameter identification of two nonidentical chaotic (hyperchaotic) complex systems with respect to a given complex map vector. This scheme is applied to synchronize a memristor-based hyperchaotic complexsystem and a memristor-based chaotic complex Lorenz system, a chaotic complex Chen system and a memristor-based chaotic complex Lorenz system, as well as a memristor-based hyperchaotic complexsystem and a chaotic complexsystem with fully unknown parameters. The corresponding numerical simulations illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed scheme. PMID:27014879

  2. Complex Generalized Synchronization and Parameter Identification of Nonidentical Nonlinear Complex Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shibing; Wang, Xingyuan; Han, Bo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, generalized synchronization (GS) is extended from real space to complex space, resulting in a new synchronization scheme, complex generalized synchronization (CGS). Based on Lyapunov stability theory, an adaptive controller and parameter update laws are designed to realize CGS and parameter identification of two nonidentical chaotic (hyperchaotic) complex systems with respect to a given complex map vector. This scheme is applied to synchronize a memristor-based hyperchaotic complexsystem and a memristor-based chaotic complex Lorenz system, a chaotic complex Chen system and a memristor-based chaotic complex Lorenz system, as well as a memristor-based hyperchaotic complexsystem and a chaotic complexsystem with fully unknown parameters. The corresponding numerical simulations illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed scheme. PMID:27014879

  3. Nuclear Materials Identification System Operational Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, L.G.

    2001-04-10

    This report describes the operation and setup of the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) with a {sup 252}Cf neutron source at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The components of the system are described with a description of the setup of the system along with an overview of the NMIS measurements for scanning, calibration, and confirmation of inventory items.

  4. Heat transport system, method and material

    DOEpatents

    Musinski, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A heat transport system, method and composite material in which a plurality of hollow spherical shells or microspheres having an outside diameter of less than or equal to 500 microns are encapsulated or embedded within a bulk material. Each shell has captured therein a volatile working fluid, such that each shell operates as a microsized heat pipe for conducting heat through the composite structure.

  5. Acoustic system for material transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Trinh, E. H.; Wang, T. G.; Elleman, D. D.; Jacobi, N. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An object within a chamber is acoustically moved by applying wavelengths of different modes to the chamber to move the object between pressure wells formed by the modes. In one system, the object is placed in one end of the chamber while a resonant mode, applied along the length of the chamber, produces a pressure well at the location. The frequency is then switched to a second mode that produces a pressure well at the center of the chamber, to draw the object. When the object reaches the second pressure well and is still traveling towards the second end of the chamber, the acoustic frequency is again shifted to a third mode (which may equal the first model) that has a pressure well in the second end portion of the chamber, to draw the object. A heat source may be located near the second end of the chamber to heat the sample, and after the sample is heated it can be cooled by moving it in a corresponding manner back to the first end of the chamber. The transducers for levitating and moving the object may be all located at the cool first end of the chamber.

  6. Representing the Complexity of Engineering Systems: A Multidisciplinary Perceptual Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motyka, Matt; Maier, Jonathan R. A.; Fadel, Georges M.

    The natural evolution of design leads to the creation of devices that are increasingly complex. From the invention of the wheel to the use of the wheel in the landing gear of a spacecraft, new technology often builds upon or further develops existing products. As devices become more complex, so does the process of designing them. In order to meet consumer demands, design requires the integration of technology from multiple disciplines. This can lead to the formation of intricate interdependencies between components and systems within the device. These interdependencies may include material, geometric, dynamic, pneumatic, vibration, acoustical, thermal, electrical, and chemical considerations. Because of their complex nature, the interdependencies within a device are not always apparent, and may easily be overlooked by inexperienced designers.

  7. Simulating Complex Window Systems using BSDF Data

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantoglou, Maria; Jonsson, Jacob; Lee, Eleanor

    2009-06-22

    Nowadays, virtual models are commonly used to evaluate the performance of conventional window systems. Complex fenestration systems can be difficult to simulate accurately not only because of their geometry but also because of their optical properties that scatter light in an unpredictable manner. Bi-directional Scattering Distribution Functions (BSDF) have recently been developed based on a mixture of measurements and modelling to characterize the optics of such systems. This paper describes the workflow needed to create then use these BSDF datasets in the Radiance lighting simulation software. Limited comparisons are made between visualizations produced using the standard ray-tracing method, the BSDF method, and that taken in a full-scale outdoor mockup.

  8. Modular interdependency in complex dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    Watson, Richard A; Pollack, Jordan B

    2005-01-01

    Herbert A. Simon's characterization of modularity in dynamical systems describes subsystems as having dynamics that are approximately independent of those of other subsystems (in the short term). This fits with the general intuition that modules must, by definition, be approximately independent. In the evolution of complex systems, such modularity may enable subsystems to be modified and adapted independently of other subsystems, whereas in a nonmodular system, modifications to one part of the system may result in deleterious side effects elsewhere in the system. But this notion of modularity and its effect on evolvability is not well quantified and is rather simplistic. In particular, modularity need not imply that intermodule dependences are weak or unimportant. In dynamical systems this is acknowledged by Simon's suggestion that, in the long term, the dynamical behaviors of subsystems do interact with one another, albeit in an "aggregate" manner--but this kind of intermodule interaction is omitted in models of modularity for evolvability. In this brief discussion we seek to unify notions of modularity in dynamical systems with notions of how modularity affects evolvability. This leads to a quantifiable measure of modularity and a different understanding of its effect on evolvability. PMID:16197673

  9. Addressing the Complexity of the Earth System

    SciTech Connect

    Nobre, Carlos; Brasseur, Guy P.; Shapiro, Melvyn; Lahsen, Myanna; Brunet, Gilbert; Busalacchi, Antonio; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Seitzinger, Sybil; Noone, Kevin; Ometto, Jean P.

    2010-10-01

    This paper highlights the role of the Earth-system biosphere and illustrates the complex: biosphere-atmosphere interactions in the Amazon Basin, changes in nitrogen cycling, ocean chemistry, and land use. It introduces three important requirements for accelerating the development and use of Earth system information. The first requirement is to develop Earth system analysis and prediction models that account for multi-scale physical, chemical and biological processes, including their interactions in the coupled atmosphere-ocean-land-ice system. The development of these models requires partnerships between academia, national research centers, and operational prediction facilities, and builds upon accomplishments in weather and climate predictions. They will highlight the regional aspects of global change, and include modules for water system, agriculture, forestry, energy, air quality, health, etc. The second requirement is to model the interactions between humans and the weather-climate-biogeochemical system. The third requirement is to introduce novel methodologies to account for societal drivers, impacts and feedbacks. This is a challenging endeavor requiring creative solutions and some compromising because human behavior cannot be fully represented within the framework of present-day physical prediction systems.

  10. Automated Diagnosis and Control of Complex Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurien, James; Plaunt, Christian; Cannon, Howard; Shirley, Mark; Taylor, Will; Nayak, P.; Hudson, Benoit; Bachmann, Andrew; Brownston, Lee; Hayden, Sandra; Wragg, Steve; Millar, William; Pepke, Shirley; Christa, Scott; Garcia, Ray

    2007-01-01

    Livingstone2 is a reusable, artificial intelligence (AI) software system designed to assist spacecraft, life support systems, chemical plants, or other complex systems by operating with minimal human supervision, even in the face of hardware failures or unexpected events. The software diagnoses the current state of the spacecraft or other system, and recommends commands or repair actions that will allow the system to continue operation. Livingstone2 is an enhancement of the Livingstone diagnosis system that was flight-tested onboard the Deep Space One spacecraft in 1999. This version tracks multiple diagnostic hypotheses, rather than just a single hypothesis as in the previous version. It is also able to revise diagnostic decisions made in the past when additional observations become available. In such cases, Livingstone might arrive at an incorrect hypothesis. Re-architecting and re-implementing the system in C++ has increased performance. Usability has been improved by creating a set of development tools that is closely integrated with the Livingstone2 engine. In addition to the core diagnosis engine, Livingstone2 includes a compiler that translates diagnostic models written in a Java-like language into Livingstone2's language, and a broad set of graphical tools for model development.

  11. Nonlinear Dynamics, Chaotic and Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Infeld, E.; Zelazny, R.; Galkowski, A.

    2011-04-01

    Part I. Dynamic Systems Bifurcation Theory and Chaos: 1. Chaos in random dynamical systems V. M. Gunldach; 2. Controlling chaos using embedded unstable periodic orbits: the problem of optimal periodic orbits B. R. Hunt and E. Ott; 3. Chaotic tracer dynamics in open hydrodynamical flows G. Karolyi, A. Pentek, T. Tel and Z. Toroczkai; 4. Homoclinic chaos L. P. Shilnikov; Part II. Spatially Extended Systems: 5. Hydrodynamics of relativistic probability flows I. Bialynicki-Birula; 6. Waves in ionic reaction-diffusion-migration systems P. Hasal, V. Nevoral, I. Schreiber, H. Sevcikova, D. Snita, and M. Marek; 7. Anomalous scaling in turbulence: a field theoretical approach V. Lvov and I. Procaccia; 8. Abelian sandpile cellular automata M. Markosova; 9. Transport in an incompletely chaotic magnetic field F. Spineanu; Part III. Dynamical Chaos Quantum Physics and Foundations Of Statistical Mechanics: 10. Non-equilibrium statistical mechanics and ergodic theory L. A. Bunimovich; 11. Pseudochaos in statistical physics B. Chirikov; 12. Foundations of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics J. P. Dougherty; 13. Thermomechanical particle simulations W. G. Hoover, H. A. Posch, C. H. Dellago, O. Kum, C. G. Hoover, A. J. De Groot and B. L. Holian; 14. Quantum dynamics on a Markov background and irreversibility B. Pavlov; 15. Time chaos and the laws of nature I. Prigogine and D. J. Driebe; 16. Evolutionary Q and cognitive systems: dynamic entropies and predictability of evolutionary processes W. Ebeling; 17. Spatiotemporal chaos information processing in neural networks H. Szu; 18. Phase transitions and learning in neural networks C. Van den Broeck; 19. Synthesis of chaos A. Vanecek and S. Celikovsky; 20. Computational complexity of continuous problems H. Wozniakowski; Part IV. Complex Systems As An Interface Between Natural Sciences and Environmental Social and Economic Sciences: 21. Stochastic differential geometry in finance studies V. G. Makhankov; Part V. Conference Banquet

  12. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  13. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  14. Complex system analysis using CI methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathi, Madjid; Hildebrand, Lars

    1999-03-01

    Modern technical tasks often need the use of complex system models. In many complex cases the model parameters can be gained using neural networks, but these systems allow only a one-way simulation from the input values to the learned output values. If evaluation in the other direction is needed, these model allow no direct evaluation. This task can be solved using evolutionary algorithms, which are part of the computational intelligence. The term computational intelligence covers three special fields of the artificial intelligence, fuzzy logic, artificial neural networks and evolutionary algorithms. We will focus only on the topic of evolutionary algorithms and fuzzy logic. Evolutionary algorithms covers the fields of genetic algorithms, evolution strategies and evolutionary programming. These methods can be used to optimize technical problems. Evolutionary algorithms have certain advantages, if these problems have no mathematical properties, like steadiness or the possibility to obtain the derivatives. Fuzzy logic systems normally lack these properties. The use of a combination of evolutionary algorithms and fuzzy logic allow an evaluation of the learned simulation models in the direction form output to the input values. An example can be given from the field of screw rotor design.

  15. Probabilistic Multi-Factor Interaction Model for Complex Material Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abumeri, Galib H.; Chamis, Christos C.

    2010-01-01

    Complex material behavior is represented by a single equation of product form to account for interaction among the various factors. The factors are selected by the physics of the problem and the environment that the model is to represent. For example, different factors will be required for each to represent temperature, moisture, erosion, corrosion, etc. It is important that the equation represent the physics of the behavior in its entirety accurately. The Multi-Factor Interaction Model (MFIM) is used to evaluate the divot weight (foam weight ejected) from the external launch tanks. The multi-factor has sufficient degrees of freedom to evaluate a large number of factors that may contribute to the divot ejection. It also accommodates all interactions by its product form. Each factor has an exponent that satisfies only two points - the initial and final points. The exponent describes a monotonic path from the initial condition to the final. The exponent values are selected so that the described path makes sense in the absence of experimental data. In the present investigation, the data used were obtained by testing simulated specimens in launching conditions. Results show that the MFIM is an effective method of describing the divot weight ejected under the conditions investigated. The problem lies in how to represent the divot weight with a single equation. A unique solution to this problem is a multi-factor equation of product form. Each factor is of the following form (1 xi/xf)ei, where xi is the initial value, usually at ambient conditions, xf the final value, and ei the exponent that makes the curve represented unimodal that meets the initial and final values. The exponents are either evaluated by test data or by technical judgment. A minor disadvantage may be the selection of exponents in the absence of any empirical data. This form has been used successfully in describing the foam ejected in simulated space environmental conditions. Seven factors were required

  16. Ion irradiation: its relevance to the evolution of complex organics in the outer solar system.

    PubMed

    Strazzulla, G

    1997-01-01

    Ion irradiation of carbon containing ices produces several effects among which the formation of complex molecules and even refractory organic materials whose spectral color and molecular complexity both depend on the amount of deposited energy. Here results from laboratory experiments are summarized. Their relevance for the formation and evolution of simple molecules and complex organic materials on planetary bodies in the external Solar System is outlined. PMID:11541336

  17. Ion irradiation: its relevance to the evolution of complex organics in the outer solar system.

    PubMed

    Strazzulla, G

    1997-01-01

    Ion irradiation of carbon containing ices produces several effects among which the formation of complex molecules and even refractory organic materials whose spectral color and molecular complexity both depend on the amount of deposited energy. Here results from laboratory experiments are summarized. Their relevance for the formation and evolution of simple molecules and complex organic materials on planetary bodies in the external Solar System is outlined.

  18. System for detecting special nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jandel, Marian; Rusev, Gencho Yordanov; Taddeucci, Terry Nicholas

    2015-07-14

    The present disclosure includes a radiological material detector having a convertor material that emits one or more photons in response to a capture of a neutron emitted by a radiological material; a photon detector arranged around the convertor material and that produces an electrical signal in response to a receipt of a photon; and a processor connected to the photon detector, the processor configured to determine the presence of a radiological material in response to a predetermined signature of the electrical signal produced at the photon detector. One or more detectors described herein can be integrated into a detection system that is suited for use in port monitoring, treaty compliance, and radiological material management activities.

  19. Systems metabolic engineering for chemicals and materials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Wook; Kim, Tae Yong; Jang, Yu-Sin; Choi, Sol; Lee, Sang Yup

    2011-08-01

    Metabolic engineering has contributed significantly to the enhanced production of various value-added and commodity chemicals and materials from renewable resources in the past two decades. Recently, metabolic engineering has been upgraded to the systems level (thus, systems metabolic engineering) by the integrated use of global technologies of systems biology, fine design capabilities of synthetic biology, and rational-random mutagenesis through evolutionary engineering. By systems metabolic engineering, production of natural and unnatural chemicals and materials can be better optimized in a multiplexed way on a genome scale, with reduced time and effort. Here, we review the recent trends in systems metabolic engineering for the production of chemicals and materials by presenting general strategies and showcasing representative examples.

  20. Economics and resourcing of complex healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Baghbanian, Abdolvahab; Torkfar, Ghazal

    2012-11-01

    With rapid increases in healthcare spending over recent years, health economic evaluation might be thought to be increasing in importance to decision-makers. Such evaluations are designed to inform the efficient management of healthcare resources. However, research into health policy decisions often report, at best, moderate use of economic evaluation information, especially at the local level of administration. Little attention seems to have been given to the question of why economic evaluations have been underused and why they may yield different results in different contexts. There are many barriers to applying economic evaluations in situations which combine complexity with uncertainty. These barriers call for innovative and creative responses to economic evaluation of healthcare interventions. One response is to view economic evaluations in the context of complex adaptive systems theory. Such theory offers a conceptual framework that takes into account contextual factors, multiple input and output, multiple perspectives and uncertainty involved in healthcare interventions. This article illustrates how complexity theory can enrich and broaden policy-makers' understanding of why economic evaluations have not always been as successful as health economists would have hoped. It argues for health economists to emphasise contextual knowledge and relativist understanding of decision contexts rather than seeking more technically sound evidence-based reviews including economic evaluations.

  1. Assessment Environment for Complex Systems Software Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    This Software Guide (SG) describes the software developed to test the Assessment Environment for Complex Systems (AECS) by the West Virginia High Technology Consortium (WVHTC) Foundation's Mission Systems Group (MSG) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). This software is referred to as the AECS Test Project throughout the remainder of this document. AECS provides a framework for developing, simulating, testing, and analyzing modern avionics systems within an Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) architecture. The purpose of the AECS Test Project is twofold. First, it provides a means to test the AECS hardware and system developed by MSG. Second, it provides an example project upon which future AECS research may be based. This Software Guide fully describes building, installing, and executing the AECS Test Project as well as its architecture and design. The design of the AECS hardware is described in the AECS Hardware Guide. Instructions on how to configure, build and use the AECS are described in the User's Guide. Sample AECS software, developed by the WVHTC Foundation, is presented in the AECS Software Guide. The AECS Hardware Guide, AECS User's Guide, and AECS Software Guide are authored by MSG. The requirements set forth for AECS are presented in the Statement of Work for the Assessment Environment for Complex Systems authored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC). The intended audience for this document includes software engineers, hardware engineers, project managers, and quality assurance personnel from WVHTC Foundation (the suppliers of the software), NASA (the customer), and future researchers (users of the software). Readers are assumed to have general knowledge in the field of real-time, embedded computer software development.

  2. Buried waste containment system materials. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.

    1997-10-01

    This report describes the results of a test program to validate the application of a latex-modified cement formulation for use with the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS) process during a proof of principle (POP) demonstration. The test program included three objectives. One objective was to validate the barrier material mix formulation to be used with the BWCS equipment. A basic mix formula for initial trials was supplied by the cement and latex vendors. The suitability of the material for BWCS application was verified by laboratory testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A second objective was to determine if the POP BWCS material emplacement process adversely affected the barrier material properties. This objective was met by measuring and comparing properties of material prepared in the INEEL Materials Testing Laboratory (MTL) with identical properties of material produced by the BWCS field tests. These measurements included hydraulic conductivity to determine if the material met the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for barriers used for hazardous waste sites, petrographic analysis to allow an assessment of barrier material separation and segregation during emplacement, and a set of mechanical property tests typical of concrete characterization. The third objective was to measure the hydraulic properties of barrier material containing a stop-start joint to determine if such a feature would meet the EPA requirements for hazardous waste site barriers.

  3. The Nuclear Material Focus Area Roadmapping Process Utilizing Environmental Management Complex-Wide Nuclear Material Disposition Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Sala, D. R.; Furhman, P.; Smith, J. D.

    2002-02-26

    This paper describes the process that the Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) has developed and utilizes in working with individual Department of Energy (DOE) sites to identify, address, and prioritize research and development efforts in the stabilization, disposition, and storage of nuclear materials. By associating site technology needs with nuclear disposition pathways and integrating those with site schedules, the NMFA is developing a complex wide roadmap for nuclear material technology development. This approach will leverage technology needs and opportunities at multiple sites and assist the NMFA in building a defensible research and development program to address the nuclear material technology needs across the complex.

  4. Innovative Design of Complex Engineering Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)

    2004-01-01

    The document contains the proceedings of the training workshop on Innovative Design of Complex Engineering Systems. The workshop was held at the Peninsula Higher Education Center, Hampton, Virginia, March 23 and 24, 2004. The workshop was jointly sponsored by Old Dominion University and NASA. Workshop attendees came from NASA, other government agencies, industry and universities. The objectives of the workshop were to a) provide broad overviews of the diverse activities related to innovative design of high-tech engineering systems; and b) identify training needs for future aerospace work force development in the design area. The format of the workshop included fifteen, half-hour overview-type presentations, a panel discussion on how to teach and train engineers in innovative design, and three exhibits by commercial vendors.

  5. Contrarian behavior in a complex adaptive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Y.; An, K. N.; Yang, G.; Huang, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Contrarian behavior is a kind of self-organization in complex adaptive systems (CASs). Here we report the existence of a transition point in a model resource-allocation CAS with contrarian behavior by using human experiments, computer simulations, and theoretical analysis. The resource ratio and system predictability serve as the tuning parameter and order parameter, respectively. The transition point helps to reveal the positive or negative role of contrarian behavior. This finding is in contrast to the common belief that contrarian behavior always has a positive role in resource allocation, say, stabilizing resource allocation by shrinking the redundancy or the lack of resources. It is further shown that resource allocation can be optimized at the transition point by adding an appropriate size of contrarians. This work is also expected to be of value to some other fields ranging from management and social science to ecology and evolution.

  6. Topological analysis of complexity in multiagent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abaid, Nicole; Bollt, Erik; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2012-04-01

    Social organisms at every level of evolutionary complexity live in groups, such as fish schools, locust swarms, and bird flocks. The complex exchange of multifaceted information across group members may result in a spectrum of salient spatiotemporal patterns characterizing collective behaviors. While instances of collective behavior in animal groups are readily identifiable by trained and untrained observers, a working definition to distinguish these patterns from raw data is not yet established. In this work, we define collective behavior as a manifestation of low-dimensional manifolds in the group motion and we quantify the complexity of such behaviors through the dimensionality of these structures. We demonstrate this definition using the ISOMAP algorithm, a data-driven machine learning algorithm for dimensionality reduction originally formulated in the context of image processing. We apply the ISOMAP algorithm to data from an interacting self-propelled particle model with additive noise, whose parameters are selected to exhibit different behavioral modalities, and from a video of a live fish school. Based on simulations of such model, we find that increasing noise in the system of particles corresponds to increasing the dimensionality of the structures underlying their motion. These low-dimensional structures are absent in simulations where particles do not interact. Applying the ISOMAP algorithm to fish school data, we identify similar low-dimensional structures, which may act as quantitative evidence for order inherent in collective behavior of animal groups. These results offer an unambiguous method for measuring order in data from large-scale biological systems and confirm the emergence of collective behavior in an applicable mathematical model, thus demonstrating that such models are capable of capturing phenomena observed in animal groups.

  7. Alarm system for a nuclear control complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1994-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  8. Electromagnetic driving units for complex microrobotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Frank; Ehrfeld, Wolfgang; Berg, Udo; Degen, Reinhard; Schmitz, Felix

    1998-10-01

    Electromagnetic actuators play an important role in macroscopic robotic systems. In combination with motion transformers, like reducing gear units, angular gears or spindle-screw drives, electromagnetic motors in large product lines ensure the rotational or linear motion of robot driving units and grippers while electromagnets drive valves or part conveyors. In this paper micro actuators and miniaturized motion transformers are introduced which allow a similar development in microrobotics. An electromagnetic motor and a planetary gear box, both with a diameter of 1.9 mm, are already commercially available from the cooperation partner of IMM, the company Dr. Fritz Faulhaber GmbH in Schonaich, Germany. In addition, a motor with a diameter of 2.4 mm is in development. The motors successfully drive an angular gear and a belt drive. A linear stage with a motion range of 7 mm and an overall size as small as 5 X 3.5 X 24 mm3 has been realized involving the motor, a stationary spur gear with zero backlash and a spindle-screw drive. By the use of these commercially available elements complex microrobots can be built up cost-efficiently and rapidly. Furthermore, a batch process has been developed to produce the coils of micro actuator arrays using lithographic techniques with SU-8 resin. In applying these components, the modular construction of complex microrobotic systems becomes feasible.

  9. Intrinsic Uncertainties in Modeling Complex Systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Curtis S; Bramson, Aaron L.; Ames, Arlo L.

    2014-09-01

    Models are built to understand and predict the behaviors of both natural and artificial systems. Because it is always necessary to abstract away aspects of any non-trivial system being modeled, we know models can potentially leave out important, even critical elements. This reality of the modeling enterprise forces us to consider the prospective impacts of those effects completely left out of a model - either intentionally or unconsidered. Insensitivity to new structure is an indication of diminishing returns. In this work, we represent a hypothetical unknown effect on a validated model as a finite perturba- tion whose amplitude is constrained within a control region. We find robustly that without further constraints, no meaningful bounds can be placed on the amplitude of a perturbation outside of the control region. Thus, forecasting into unsampled regions is a very risky proposition. We also present inherent difficulties with proper time discretization of models and representing in- herently discrete quantities. We point out potentially worrisome uncertainties, arising from math- ematical formulation alone, which modelers can inadvertently introduce into models of complex systems. Acknowledgements This work has been funded under early-career LDRD project #170979, entitled "Quantify- ing Confidence in Complex Systems Models Having Structural Uncertainties", which ran from 04/2013 to 09/2014. We wish to express our gratitude to the many researchers at Sandia who con- tributed ideas to this work, as well as feedback on the manuscript. In particular, we would like to mention George Barr, Alexander Outkin, Walt Beyeler, Eric Vugrin, and Laura Swiler for provid- ing invaluable advice and guidance through the course of the project. We would also like to thank Steven Kleban, Amanda Gonzales, Trevor Manzanares, and Sarah Burwell for their assistance in managing project tasks and resources.

  10. Installation of a materials management system.

    PubMed

    Graves, J; Siewert, B

    1990-04-01

    Installation in five months using existing staff--that's what it took Waukesha Memorial Hospital (WMH) to go from the first installation planning meeting to a fully operational system. This article explains the process WMH followed to install the HBO Materials Management system in five months using in-house staff.

  11. Library Sign Systems. Workshop Program Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgeway, Patricia M.

    These program materials from the Library Sign Systems Workshop include a news story on the workshop; notes in outline form for a speech presented by Joe Sonderman, president of a graphic designs firm; and an annotated bibliography on signs and sign systems. The news release summarizes a presentation by Dorothy Pollet and Peter Haskell, editors of…

  12. Computerized systems to provide materials selection advice

    SciTech Connect

    Krisher, A.S.

    1996-07-01

    The rapid advance of computer science has increased the ability to store and retrieve information. These new capabilities are beginning to be applied to the problem of providing sound advice to non-specialist engineers who make materials selection decisions. This paper presents an overview of the large scale systems which exist in finished or near finished form and are (or may soon be) available for use by the public. The paper focuses on systems which transfer knowledge taking into account the many qualifications which enter into the reasoning processes of materials/corrosion specialists. The paper discusses both the strengths and limitations of each system.

  13. Complex-wide representation of material packaged in 3013 containers

    SciTech Connect

    Narlesky, Joshua E.; Peppers, Larry G.; Friday, Gary P.

    2009-06-01

    The DOE sites packaging plutonium oxide materials packaged according to Department of Energy 3013 Standard (DOE-STD-3013) are responsible for ensuring that the materials are represented by one or more samples in the Materials Identification and Surveillance (MIS) program. The sites categorized most of the materials into process groups, and the remaining materials were characterized, based on the prompt gamma analysis results. The sites issued documents to identify the relationships between the materials packaged in 3013 containers and representative materials in the MIS program. These “Represented” documents were then reviewed and concurred with by the MIS Working Group. However, these documents were developed uniquely at each site and were issued before completion of sample characterization, small-scale experiments, and prompt gamma analysis, which provided more detailed information about the chemical impurities and the behavior of the material in storage. Therefore, based on the most recent data, relationships between the materials packaged in 3013 containers and representative materials in the MIS program been revised. With the prompt gamma analysis completed for Hanford, Rocky Flats, and Savannah River Site 3013 containers, MIS items have been assigned to the 3013 containers for which representation is based on the prompt gamma analysis results. With the revised relationships and the prompt gamma analysis results, a Master “Represented” table has been compiled to document the linkages between each 3013 container packaged to date and its representative MIS items. This table provides an important link between the Integrated Surveillance Program database, which contains information about each 3013 container to the MIS items database, which contains the characterization, prompt gamma data, and storage behavior data from shelf-life experiments for the representative MIS items.

  14. Nuclear Space Power Systems Materials Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Buckman, R.W. Jr.

    2004-02-04

    High specific energy is required for space nuclear power systems. This generally means high operating temperatures and the only alloy class of materials available for construction of such systems are the refractory metals niobium, tantalum, molybdenum and tungsten. The refractory metals in the past have been the construction materials selected for nuclear space power systems. The objective of this paper will be to review the past history and requirements for space nuclear power systems from the early 1960's through the SP-100 program. Also presented will be the past and present status of refractory metal alloy technology and what will be needed to support the next advanced nuclear space power system. The next generation of advanced nuclear space power systems can benefit from the review of this past experience. Because of a decline in the refractory metal industry in the United States, ready availability of specific refractory metal alloys is limited.

  15. Evaluation of Composite Materials for Use on Launch Complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finchum, A.; Welch, Peter J.

    1989-01-01

    Commercially available composite structural shapes were evaluated for use. These composites, fiberglass-reinforced polyester and vinylester resin materials are being used extensively in the fabrication and construction of low maintenance, corrosion resistant structures. The evaluation found that in many applications these composite materials can be successfully used at the space center. These composite materials should not be used where they will be exposed to the hot exhaust plume/cloud of the launch vehicle during the liftoff, and caution should be taken in their use in areas where electrostatic discharge and hypergolic propellant compatibility are primary concerns.

  16. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Titran, R.H.; Grobstein, T.L. . Lewis Research Center); Ellis, D.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Research on monolithic refractory metal alloys and on metal matrix composites is being conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, in support of advanced space power systems. The overall philosophy of the research is to develop and characterize new high-temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites (Gr/Cu) for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites (W/NB) for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  17. Systems and methods for predicting materials properties

    DOEpatents

    Ceder, Gerbrand; Fischer, Chris; Tibbetts, Kevin; Morgan, Dane; Curtarolo, Stefano

    2007-11-06

    Systems and methods for predicting features of materials of interest. Reference data are analyzed to deduce relationships between the input data sets and output data sets. Reference data includes measured values and/or computed values. The deduced relationships can be specified as equations, correspondences, and/or algorithmic processes that produce appropriate output data when suitable input data is used. In some instances, the output data set is a subset of the input data set, and computational results may be refined by optionally iterating the computational procedure. To deduce features of a new material of interest, a computed or measured input property of the material is provided to an equation, correspondence, or algorithmic procedure previously deduced, and an output is obtained. In some instances, the output is iteratively refined. In some instances, new features deduced for the material of interest are added to a database of input and output data for known materials.

  18. Optimal control of complex atomic quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Frank, S.; Bonneau, M.; Schmiedmayer, J.; Hild, S.; Gross, C.; Cheneau, M.; Bloch, I.; Pichler, T.; Negretti, A.; Calarco, T.; Montangero, S.

    2016-10-01

    Quantum technologies will ultimately require manipulating many-body quantum systems with high precision. Cold atom experiments represent a stepping stone in that direction: a high degree of control has been achieved on systems of increasing complexity. However, this control is still sub-optimal. In many scenarios, achieving a fast transformation is crucial to fight against decoherence and imperfection effects. Optimal control theory is believed to be the ideal candidate to bridge the gap between early stage proof-of-principle demonstrations and experimental protocols suitable for practical applications. Indeed, it can engineer protocols at the quantum speed limit – the fastest achievable timescale of the transformation. Here, we demonstrate such potential by computing theoretically and verifying experimentally the optimal transformations in two very different interacting systems: the coherent manipulation of motional states of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate and the crossing of a quantum phase transition in small systems of cold atoms in optical lattices. We also show that such processes are robust with respect to perturbations, including temperature and atom number fluctuations.

  19. Automatic restart of complex irrigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, H.D.; Alcock, R.; DeBoer, D.W.; Olson, D.I. . Dept. of Agricultural Engineering)

    1992-05-01

    Automatic restart of irrigation systems under load management has the potential to maximize pumping time during off-peak hours. Existing automation technology ranges from time delay relays to more sophisticated control using computers together with weather data to optimize irrigation practices. Centrifugal pumps and water hammer concerns prevent automatic restart of common but often complex irrigation systems in South Dakota. The irrigator must manually prime the pump and control water hammer during pipeline pressurization. Methods to prime centrifugal pumps and control water hammer facilitate automatic restart after load management is released. Seven priming methods and three water hammer control methods were investigated. A sump pump and small vacuum pump were used to test two automatic prime and restart systems in the laboratory. A variable frequency phase converter was also used to automatically control water hammer during pipeline pressurization. Economical methods to safely prime and restart centrifugal pumps were discussed. The water hammer control methods safely pressurize the pipeline but require a higher initial investment. The automatic restart systems can be used to safely restart centrifugal pumps and control water hammer after load management is released. Based upon laboratory research and a technical review of available restart components, a computer software program was developed. The program assists customers in evaluating various restart options for automatic restarting of electric irrigation pumps. For further information on the software program, contact the South Dakota State University, Department of Agricultural Engineering.

  20. Optimal control of complex atomic quantum systems

    PubMed Central

    van Frank, S.; Bonneau, M.; Schmiedmayer, J.; Hild, S.; Gross, C.; Cheneau, M.; Bloch, I.; Pichler, T.; Negretti, A.; Calarco, T.; Montangero, S.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum technologies will ultimately require manipulating many-body quantum systems with high precision. Cold atom experiments represent a stepping stone in that direction: a high degree of control has been achieved on systems of increasing complexity. However, this control is still sub-optimal. In many scenarios, achieving a fast transformation is crucial to fight against decoherence and imperfection effects. Optimal control theory is believed to be the ideal candidate to bridge the gap between early stage proof-of-principle demonstrations and experimental protocols suitable for practical applications. Indeed, it can engineer protocols at the quantum speed limit – the fastest achievable timescale of the transformation. Here, we demonstrate such potential by computing theoretically and verifying experimentally the optimal transformations in two very different interacting systems: the coherent manipulation of motional states of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate and the crossing of a quantum phase transition in small systems of cold atoms in optical lattices. We also show that such processes are robust with respect to perturbations, including temperature and atom number fluctuations. PMID:27725688

  1. Empirical and theoretical analysis of complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guannan

    This thesis is an interdisciplinary work under the heading of complexity science which focuses on an arguably common "hard" problem across physics, finance and biology [1], to quantify and mimic the macroscopic "emergent phenomenon" in large-scale systems consisting of many interacting "particles" governed by microscopic rules. In contrast to traditional statistical physics, we are interested in systems whose dynamics are subject to feedback, evolution, adaption, openness, etc. Global financial markets, like the stock market and currency market, are ideal candidate systems for such a complexity study: there exists a vast amount of accurate data, which is the aggregate output of many autonomous agents continuously competing with each other. We started by examining the ultrafast "mini flash crash (MFC)" events in the US stock market. An abrupt system-wide composition transition from a mixed human machine phase to a new all-machine phase is uncovered, and a novel theory developed to explain this observation. Then in the study of FX market, we found an unexpected variation in the synchronicity of price changes in different market subsections as a function of the overall trading activity. Several survival models have been tested in analyzing the distribution of waiting times to the next price change. In the region of long waiting-times, the distribution for each currency pair exhibits a power law with exponent in the vicinity of 3.5. By contrast, for short waiting times only, the market activity can be mimicked by the fluctuations emerging from a finite resource competition model containing multiple agents with limited rationality (so called El Farol Model). Switching to the biomedical domain, we present a minimal mathematical model built around a co-evolving resource network and cell population, yielding good agreement with primary tumors in mice experiment and with clinical metastasis data. In the quest to understand contagion phenomena in systems where social group

  2. Heat transport system, method and material

    DOEpatents

    Musinski, D.L.

    1987-04-28

    A heat transport system, method and composite material are disclosed in which a plurality of hollow spherical shells or microspheres having an outside diameter of less than or equal to 500 microns are encapsulated or embedded within a bulk material. Each shell has captured therein a volatile working fluid, such that each shell operates as a microsized heat pipe for conducting heat through the composite structure. 1 fig.

  3. Structural materials challenges for advanced reactor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yvon, P.; Carré, F.

    2009-03-01

    Key technologies for advanced nuclear systems encompass high temperature structural materials, fast neutron resistant core materials, and specific reactor and power conversion technologies (intermediate heat exchanger, turbo-machinery, high temperature electrolytic or thermo-chemical water splitting processes, etc.). The main requirements for the materials to be used in these reactor systems are dimensional stability under irradiation, whether under stress (irradiation creep or relaxation) or without stress (swelling, growth), an acceptable evolution under ageing of the mechanical properties (tensile strength, ductility, creep resistance, fracture toughness, resilience) and a good behavior in corrosive environments (reactor coolant or process fluid). Other criteria for the materials are their cost to fabricate and to assemble, and their composition could be optimized in order for instance to present low-activation (or rapid desactivation) features which facilitate maintenance and disposal. These requirements have to be met under normal operating conditions, as well as in incidental and accidental conditions. These challenging requirements imply that in most cases, the use of conventional nuclear materials is excluded, even after optimization and a new range of materials has to be developed and qualified for nuclear use. This paper gives a brief overview of various materials that are essential to establish advanced systems feasibility and performance for in pile and out of pile applications, such as ferritic/martensitic steels (9-12% Cr), nickel based alloys (Haynes 230, Inconel 617, etc.), oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic/martensitic steels, and ceramics (SiC, TiC, etc.). This article gives also an insight into the various natures of R&D needed on advanced materials, including fundamental research to investigate basic physical and chemical phenomena occurring in normal and accidental operating conditions, lab-scale tests to characterize candidate materials

  4. Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex Natural Phenomena Hazards Flood Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald Sehlke; Paul Wichlacz

    2010-12-01

    This report presents the results of flood hazards analyses performed for the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and the adjacent Transient Reactor Experiment and Test Facility (TREAT) located at Idaho National Laboratory. The requirements of these analyses are provided in the U.S. Department of Energy Order 420.1B and supporting Department of Energy (DOE) Natural Phenomenon Hazard standards. The flood hazards analyses were performed by Battelle Energy Alliance and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The analyses addressed the following: • Determination of the design basis flood (DBFL) • Evaluation of the DBFL versus the Critical Flood Elevations (CFEs) for critical existing structures, systems, and components (SSCs).

  5. Origin of Hofmeister Effects for Complex Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Rui; Yang, Gang; Tang, Ying; Liu, Xinmin; Li, Rui; Zhu, Hualing; Li, Hang

    2015-01-01

    Hofmeister effects have been recognized as important as Mendel’s work was to genetics while remain largely controversial, especially for the mechanistic aspects. Here we demonstrated that complex colloids in electrolyte solutions show resembling aggregation kinetics as model colloid, and then quantitatively evaluated the resulting Hofmeister effects. Mechanism for the aggregation of complex colloids has been proposed that is closely associated with the charges of their constituents; despite that, electrostatic interactions play a minor role while polarization effect is evidenced to be the driving force for the aggregation processes. Polarization effect is further ascribed to arouse the resulting Hofmeister effects, which is supported by the fine correlation of activation energies vs. polarizability data of different alkali ions and the calculations of dipole moments for minerals with different charges and adsorbed alkali ions. Because of neglecting polarization effect, the prevailing DLVO theory is not sufficient to describe Hofmeister effects that are ubiquitous in nature. We speculate that polarization effect should also be responsible for Hofmeister effects of other charged systems such as proteins and membranes. PMID:26200350

  6. Dielectric Relaxation of Water in Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Yuri; Puzenko, Alexander A.; Ishai, Paul Ben; Levy, Evgenya

    Whenever water interacts with another dipolar or charged entity, a broadening of the dielectric relaxation peak occurs. This broadening can often be described by the phenomenological Cole-Cole (CC) spectral function. A new approach (Puzenko AA, Ben Ishai P, and Feldman Y, Phys Rev Lett 105:037601, 2010) based on the fractal nature of the time set of the interaction of the relaxing water dipoles with its encompassing matrix has been recently presented showing a fundamental connection between the relaxation time, τ, the broadening parameter, α, and the Kirkwood-Fröhlich correlation function B. Parameters B, τ and α where chosen as the coordinates of a new 3D space. The evolution of the relaxation process due to the variation of external macroscopic parameters (temperature, pressure etc.) represents the trajectory in 3D space. This trajectory demonstrates the connection between the kinetic and structural properties of the water in complex system. It is also shown how the model describes the state of water in two porous silica glasses and in two different types of aqueous solutions: ionic, and non-ionic. The complex dielectric spectra of a series of solutions of sodium chloride and potassium chloride in water have been measured and have been carefully analyzed along with previously measured spectra for aqueous solutions of D-glucose and D-fructose.

  7. Fire and materials modeling for transportation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Skocypec, R.D.; Gritzo, L.A.; Moya, J.L.; Nicolette, V.F.; Tieszen, S.R.; Thomas, R.

    1994-10-01

    Fire is an important threat to the safety of transportation systems. Therefore, understanding the effects of fire (and its interaction with materials) on transportation systems is crucial to quantifying and mitigating the impact of fire on the safety of those systems. Research and development directed toward improving the fire safety of transportation systems must address a broad range of phenomena and technologies, including: crash dynamics, fuel dispersion, fire environment characterization, material characterization, and system/cargo thermal response modeling. In addition, if the goal of the work is an assessment and/or reduction of risk due to fires, probabilistic risk assessment technology is also required. The research currently underway at Sandia National Laboratories in each of these areas is summarized in this paper.

  8. The Status of the Testing Effect for Complex Materials: Still a Winner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    The target articles in the special issue address a timely and important question concerning whether practice tests enhance learning of complex materials. The consensus conclusion from these articles is that the testing effect does not obtain for complex materials. In this commentary, I discuss why this conclusion is not warranted either by the…

  9. Modeling complex systems in the geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-03-01

    Many geophysical phenomena can be described as complex systems, involving phenomena such as extreme or "wild" events that often do not follow the Gaussian distribution that would be expected if the events were simply random and uncorrelated. For instance, some geophysical phenomena like earthquakes show a much higher occurrence of relatively large values than would a Gaussian distribution and so are examples of the "Noah effect" (named by Benoit Mandelbrot for the exceptionally heavy rain in the biblical flood). Other geophysical phenomena are examples of the "Joseph effect," in which a state is especially persistent, such as a spell of multiple consecutive hot days (heat waves) or several dry summers in a row. The Joseph effect was named after the biblical story in which Joseph's dream of seven fat cows and seven thin ones predicted 7 years of plenty followed by 7 years of drought.

  10. Evolutionary resilience and complex lagoon systems.

    PubMed

    Davoudi, Simin; Zaucha, Jacek; Brooks, Elizabeth

    2016-10-01

    The present study applies an evolutionary resilience framework to complex socioecological systems in the coastal regions in Europe with a particular focus on lagoons. Despite their variations, lagoons share common challenges in achieving effective and sustainable ways of governing and managing economic, social, and environmental uncertainties. Our aim is to demonstrate that building resilience involves planning not only for recovery from shocks but also for cultivating preparedness and seeking potential transformative opportunities that emerge from change. The framework consists of 4 dimensions: persistence, adaptability, transformability, and preparedness. To illustrate how this 4-dimensional framework can be applied to the specific context of lagoons, we draw on examples of good and poor practices from the 10 lagoons studied as part of the ARCH project. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:711-718. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:27427389

  11. Evolutionary resilience and complex lagoon systems.

    PubMed

    Davoudi, Simin; Zaucha, Jacek; Brooks, Elizabeth

    2016-10-01

    The present study applies an evolutionary resilience framework to complex socioecological systems in the coastal regions in Europe with a particular focus on lagoons. Despite their variations, lagoons share common challenges in achieving effective and sustainable ways of governing and managing economic, social, and environmental uncertainties. Our aim is to demonstrate that building resilience involves planning not only for recovery from shocks but also for cultivating preparedness and seeking potential transformative opportunities that emerge from change. The framework consists of 4 dimensions: persistence, adaptability, transformability, and preparedness. To illustrate how this 4-dimensional framework can be applied to the specific context of lagoons, we draw on examples of good and poor practices from the 10 lagoons studied as part of the ARCH project. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:711-718. © 2016 SETAC.

  12. Using SysML to model complex systems for security.

    SciTech Connect

    Cano, Lester Arturo

    2010-08-01

    As security systems integrate more Information Technology the design of these systems has tended to become more complex. Some of the most difficult issues in designing Complex Security Systems (CSS) are: Capturing Requirements: Defining Hardware Interfaces: Defining Software Interfaces: Integrating Technologies: Radio Systems: Voice Over IP Systems: Situational Awareness Systems.

  13. [A medical consumable material management information system].

    PubMed

    Tang, Guoping; Hu, Liang

    2014-05-01

    Medical consumables material is essential supplies to carry out medical work, which has a wide range of varieties and a large amount of usage. How to manage it feasibly and efficiently that has been a topic of concern to everyone. This article discussed about how to design a medical consumable material management information system that has a set of standardized processes, bring together medical supplies administrator, suppliers and clinical departments. Advanced management mode, enterprise resource planning (ERP) applied to the whole system design process. PMID:25241525

  14. Biodeterioration of materials in water reclamation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Tim; Maki, James S.; Mitchell, Ralph

    1992-01-01

    The chemicals produced by the microbial processes involved in the 'biofilms' which form on the surfaces of manned spacecraft water reclamation systems encompass both metals and organic poisons; both are potential hazards to astronaut health and the growth of the plants envisioned for closed-cycle life support systems. Image analysis is here shown to be a very useful technique for the study of biofilm formation on candidate water-processor materials for Space Station Freedom. The biodeterioration of materials exposed to biofilms can be swiftly evaluated by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  15. Characterization of electrochemical systems and batteries: Materials and systems

    SciTech Connect

    McBreen, J.

    1992-12-01

    Materials are a pacing problem in battery development. The battery environment, particularly in rechargeable batteries, places great demands on materials. Characterization of battery materials is difficult because of their complex nature. In many cases meaningful characterization requires iii situ methods. Fortunately, several new electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques for in situ characterization studies have recently become available, and reports of new techniques have become more frequent. The opportunity now exists to utilize advanced instrumentation to define detailed features, participating chemical species and interfacial structure of battery materials with a precision heretofore not possible. This overview gives key references to these techniques and discusses the application of x-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of battery materials.

  16. Characterization of electrochemical systems and batteries: Materials and systems

    SciTech Connect

    McBreen, J.

    1992-01-01

    Materials are a pacing problem in battery development. The battery environment, particularly in rechargeable batteries, places great demands on materials. Characterization of battery materials is difficult because of their complex nature. In many cases meaningful characterization requires iii situ methods. Fortunately, several new electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques for in situ characterization studies have recently become available, and reports of new techniques have become more frequent. The opportunity now exists to utilize advanced instrumentation to define detailed features, participating chemical species and interfacial structure of battery materials with a precision heretofore not possible. This overview gives key references to these techniques and discusses the application of x-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of battery materials.

  17. Overview of DYMCAS, the Y-12 Material Control And Accountability System

    SciTech Connect

    Alspaugh, D. H.

    2001-07-01

    This paper gives an overview of DYMCAS, the material control and accountability information system for the Y-12 National Security Complex. A common misconception, even within the DOE community, understates the nature and complexity of material control and accountability (MC and A) systems, likening them to parcel delivery systems tracking packages at various locations or banking systems that account for money, down to the penny. A major point set forth in this paper is that MC and A systems such as DYMCAS can be and often are very complex. Given accountability reporting requirements and the critical and sensitive nature of the task, no MC and A system can be simple. The complexity of site-level accountability systems, however, varies dramatically depending on the amounts, kinds, and forms of nuclear materials and the kinds of processing performed at the site. Some accountability systems are tailored to unique and highly complex site-level materials and material processing and, consequently, are highly complex systems. Sites with less complexity require less complex accountability systems, and where processes and practices are the same or similar, sites on the mid-to-low end of the complexity scale can effectively utilize a standard accountability system. In addition to being complex, a unique feature of DYMCAS is its integration with the site production control and manufacturing system. This paper will review the advantages of such integration, as well as related challenges, and make the point that the effectiveness of complex MC and A systems can be significantly enhanced through appropriate systems integration.

  18. Innovation Study for Laser Cutting of Complex Geometries with Paper Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Happonen, A.; Stepanov, A.; Piili, H.; Salminen, A.

    Even though technology for laser cutting of paper materials has existed for over 30 years, it seems that results of applications of this technology and possibilities of laser cutting systems are not easily available. The aim of this study was to analyze the feasibility of the complex geometry laser cutting of paper materials and to analyze the innovation challenges and potential of current laser cutting technologies offer. This research studied the potential and possible challenges in applying CO2 laser cutting technology for cutting of paper materials in current supply chains trying to fulfil the changing needs of customer in respect of shape, fast response during rapid delivery cycle. The study is focused on examining and analyzing the different possibilities of laser cutting of paper material in application area of complex low volume geometry cutting. The goal of this case was to analyze the feasibility of the laser cutting from technical, quality and implementation points of view and to discuss availability of new business opportunities. It was noticed that there are new business models still available within laser technology applications in complex geometry cutting. Application of laser technology, in business-to-consume markets, in synergy with Internet service platforms can widen the customer base and offer new value streams for technology and service companies. Because of this, existing markets and competition has to be identified, and appropriate new and innovative business model needs to be developed. And to be competitive in the markets, models like these need to include the earning logic and the stages from production to delivery as discussed in the paper.

  19. Glass material oxidation and dissolution system: Converting miscellaneous fissile materials to glass

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Ferrada, J.J.

    1996-03-19

    The cold war and the development of nuclear energy have resulted in significant inventories of miscellaneous fissile materials (MFMs). MFMs include (1) plutonium scrap and residue, (2) miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel (SNF), (3) certain hot cell wastes, and (4) many one-of-a-kind materials. Major concerns associated with the long-term management of these materials include: safeguards and nonproliferation issues; health, environment, and safety concerns. waste management requirements; and high storage costs. These issues can be addressed by converting the MFMs to glass for secure, long-term storage or repository disposal; however, conventional glass-making processes require oxide-like feed materials. Converting MFMs to oxide-like materials with subsequent vitrification is a complex and expensive process. A new vitrification process has been invented, the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS), which directly converts metals, ceramics, and amorphous solids to glass; oxidizes organics with the residue converted to glass; and converts chlorides to borosilicate glass and a secondary sodium chloride (NaCl) stream. Laboratory work has demonstrated the conversion of cerium (a plutonium surrogate), uranium, Zircaloy, stainless steel, multiple oxides, and other materials to glass. However, significant work is required to develop GMODS further for applications at an industrial scale. If implemented, GMODS will provide a new approach to manage these materials.

  20. Adaptive generalized combination complex synchronization of uncertain real and complex nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shi-bing; Wang, Xing-yuan; Wang, Xiu-you; Zhou, Yu-fei

    2016-04-01

    With comprehensive consideration of generalized synchronization, combination synchronization and adaptive control, this paper investigates a novel adaptive generalized combination complex synchronization (AGCCS) scheme for different real and complex nonlinear systems with unknown parameters. On the basis of Lyapunov stability theory and adaptive control, an AGCCS controller and parameter update laws are derived to achieve synchronization and parameter identification of two real drive systems and a complex response system, as well as two complex drive systems and a real response system. Two simulation examples, namely, ACGCS for chaotic real Lorenz and Chen systems driving a hyperchaotic complexsystem, and hyperchaotic complex Lorenz and Chen systems driving a real chaotic Lü system, are presented to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  1. Double bi-material cantilever structures for complex surface plasmon modulation.

    PubMed

    Song, Eui-Young; Cho, Jaebum; Kim, Hwi; Choi, Woo Young; Lee, Byoungho

    2015-03-01

    A complex modulation structure of surface plasmon polaritons using double bi-material cantilevers is proposed. It is shown with numerical analysis that the thermally controlled mechanical actuation of double bi-material cantilevers can modulate the amplitude and phase of surface plasmon polaritons across a full complex modulation range independently and simultaneously. The complex modulation structures designed for visible wavelengths are presented and their multi-wavelength integration is discussed.

  2. Tuning ground states and excitations in complex electronic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, A.R.

    1996-09-01

    Modern electronic materials are characterized by a great variety of broken-symmetry ground states and excitations. Their control requires understanding and tuning underlying driving forces of spin-charge-lattice coupling, critical to macroscopic properties and applications. We report representative model calculations which demonstrate some of the richness of the phenomena and the challenges for successful microscopic modeling.

  3. Relationships Between Complex Core Level Spectra and Materials Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Nelin, Constance J.; Bagus, Paul S.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Chambers, Scott A.; Kuhlenbeck, Helmut; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2010-12-01

    The XPS of many oxides are quite complex and there may be several peaks of significant intensity for each subshell. These peaks arise from many-electron effects, which normally are treated with configuration interaction (CI) wavefunctions where static correlation effects are taken into account. It is common to use semiempirical methods to determine the matrix elements of the CI Hamiltonian and there are few rigorous CI calculations where parameters are not adjusted to fit experiment. In contrast, we present, in the present work, theoretical XPS spectra obtained with rigorous CI wavefunctions for CeO2 where the XPS are especially complex; several different core levels are studied. This study uses an embedded CeO8 cluster model to represent bulk CeO2 and the relativistic CI wavefunctions are determined using four-component spinors from Dirac-Fock calculations. In particular, we examine the importance of interatomic many-body effects where there is a transfer of electrons from occupied oxygen 2p orbitals into empty cation orbitals as it is common to ascribe the complex XPS to this effect. We also contrast the importance of many-body charge-transfer effects for the isoelectronic cations of Ce4+ and La3+. The long-range goal of this work is to relate the XPS features to the nature of the chemical bonding in CeO2 and we describe our progress toward this goal.

  4. Study of the Materials Microstructure using Topological Properties of Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Mikhail; Lelushkina, Kira

    2016-06-01

    A method for mapping a two-dimensional color image of the microstructure of the material to a complex network is proposed. Each image elements is assigned to node network. A weighted combination of distance metrics - the Euclidean distance and the Manhattan distance - defines whether there is or not an edge between corresponding nodes. The first metric is used to calculate the spatial distance between the picture elements (pixels), the second metric takes into account the contrast between the brightness of pixels in the gray scale. On the basis of the topological properties of the constructed network the edge pixels were detected that allows us to identify the border areas in the microstructure of materials. The proposed method can be used in automated systems of materialographic analysis.

  5. Understanding Complex Adaptive Systems by Playing Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Bilsen, Arthur; Bekebrede, Geertje; Mayer, Igor

    2010-01-01

    While educators teach their students about decision making in complex environments, managers have to deal with the complexity of large projects on a daily basis. To make better decisions it is assumed, that the latter would benefit from better understanding of complex phenomena, as do students as the professionals of the future. The goal of this…

  6. Procedures in complex systems: the airline cockpit.

    PubMed

    Degani, A; Wiener, E L

    1997-05-01

    In complex human-machine systems, successful operations depend on an elaborate set of procedures which are specified by the operational management of the organization. These procedures indicate to the human operator (in this case the pilot) the manner in which operational management intends to have various tasks done. The intent is to provide guidance to the pilots and to ensure a safe, logical, efficient, and predictable (standardized) means of carrying out the objectives of the job. However, procedures can become a hodge-podge. Inconsistent or illogical procedures may lead to noncompliance by operators. Based on a field study with three major airlines, the authors propose a model for procedure development called the "Four P's": philosophy, policies, procedures, and practices. Using this model as a framework, the authors discuss the intricate issue of designing flight-deck procedures, and propose a conceptual approach for designing any set of procedures. The various factors, both external and internal to the cockpit, that must be considered for procedure design are presented. In particular, the paper addresses the development of procedures for automated cockpits--a decade-long, and highly controversial issue in commercial aviation. Although this paper is based on airline operations, we assume that the principles discussed here are also applicable to other high-risk supervisory control systems, such as space flight, manufacturing process control, nuclear power production, and military operations. PMID:11541101

  7. Panpsychic organicism: Sewall Wright's philosophy for understanding complex genetic systems.

    PubMed

    Steffes, David M

    2007-01-01

    Sewall Wright first encountered the complex systems characteristic of gene combinations while a graduate student at Harvard's Bussey Institute from 1912 to 1915. In Mendelian breeding experiments, Wright observed a hierarchical dependence of the organism's phenotype on dynamic networks of genetic interaction and organization. An animal's physical traits, and thus its autonomy from surrounding environmental constraints, depended greatly on how genes behaved in certain combinations. Wright recognized that while genes are the material determinants of the animal phenotype, operating with great regularity, the special nature of genetic systems contributes to the animal phenotype a degree of spontaneity and novelty, creating unpredictable trait variations by virtue of gene interactions. As a result of his experimentation, as well as his keen interest in the philosophical literature of his day, Wright was inspired to see genetic systems as conscious, living organisms in their own right. Moreover, he decided that since genetic systems maintain ordered stability and cause unpredictable novelty in their organic wholes (the animal phenotype), it would be necessary for biologists to integrate techniques for studying causally ordered phenomena (experimental method) and chance phenomena (correlation method). From 1914 to 1921 Wright developed his "method of path coefficient" (or "path analysis"), a new procedure drawing from both laboratory experimentation and statistical correlation in order to analyze the relative influence of specific genetic interactions on phenotype variation. In this paper I aim to show how Wright's philosophy for understanding complex genetic systems (panpsychic organicism) logically motivated his 1914-1921 design of path analysis.

  8. Composite material systems for hydrogen management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pangborn, R. N.; Queeney, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    The task of managing hydrogen entry into elevated temperature structural materials employed in turbomachinery is a critical engineering area for propulsion systems employing hydrogen or decomposable hydrocarbons as fuel. Extant structural materials, such as the Inconel series, are embrittled by the ingress of hydrogen in service, leading to a loss of endurance and general deterioration of load-bearing dependability. Although the development of hydrogen-insensitive material systems is an obvious engineering option, to date insensitive systems cannot meet the time-temperature-loading service extremes encountered. A short-term approach that is both feasible and technologically sound is the development and employment of hydrogen barrier coatings. The present project is concerned with developing, analyzing, and physically testing laminate composite hydrogen barrier systems, employing Inconel 718 as the structural material to be protected. Barrier systems will include all metallic, metallic-to-ceramic, and, eventually, metallic/ceramic composites as the lamellae. Since space propulsion implies repetitive engine firings without earth-based inspection and repair, coating durability will be closely examined, and testing regimes will include repetitive thermal cycling to simulate damage accumulation. The target accomplishments include: generation of actual hydrogen permeation data for metallic, ceramic-metallic, and hybrid metallic/ceramic composition barrier systems, practically none of which is currently extant; definition of physical damage modes imported to barrier systems due to thermal cycling, both transient temperature profiles and steady-state thermal mismatch stress states being examined as sources of damage; and computational models that incorporate general laminate schemes as described above, including manufacturing realities such as porosity, and whatever defects are introduced through service and characterized during the experimental programs.

  9. Probing Interactions in Complex Molecular Systems through Ordered Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    De Yoreo, J J; Bartelt, M C; Orme, C A; Villacampa, A; Weeks, B L; Miller, A E

    2002-01-31

    Emerging from the machinery of epitaxial science and chemical synthesis, is a growing emphasis on development of self-organized systems of complex molecular species. The nature of self-organization in these systems spans the continuum from simple crystallization of large molecules such as dendrimers and proteins, to assembly into large organized networks of nanometer-scale structures such as quantum dots or nanoparticles. In truth, self-organization in complex molecular systems has always been a central feature of many scientific disciplines including fields as diverse as structural biology, polymer science and geochemistry. But over the past decade, changes in those fields have often been marked by the degree to which researchers are using molecular-scale approaches to understand the hierarchy of structures and processes driven by this ordered assembly. At the same time, physical scientists have begun to use their knowledge of simple atomic and molecular systems to fabricate synthetic self-organized systems. This increasing activity in the field of self-organization is testament to the success of the physical and chemical sciences in building a detailed understanding of crystallization and epitaxy in simple atomic and molecular systems, one that is soundly rooted in thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. One of the fundamental challenges of chemistry and materials science in the coming decades is to develop a similarly well-founded physical understanding of assembly processes in complex molecular systems. Over the past five years, we have successfully used in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the physical controls on single crystal epitaxy from solutions for a wide range of molecular species. More recently, we have combined this method with grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and kinetic Monte Carlo modeling in order to relate morphology to surface atomic structure and processes. The purpose of this proposal was to extend this approach to assemblies

  10. Rupture Synchronicity in Complex Fault Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, K. R.; Jordan, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    While most investigators would agree that the timing of large earthquakes within a fault system depends on stress-mediated interactions among its elements, much of the debate relevant to time-dependent forecasting has been centered on single-fault concepts, such as characteristic earthquake behavior. We propose to broaden this discussion by quantifying the multi-fault concept of rupture synchronicity. We consider a finite set of small, fault-spanning volumes {Vk} within a fault system of arbitrary (fractal) complexity. We let Ck be the catalog of length tmax comprising Nk discrete times {ti(k)} that mark when the kth volume participates in a rupture of magnitude > M. The main object of our analysis is the complete set of event time differences {τij(kk') = ti(k) - tj(k')}, which we take to be a random process with an expected density function ρkk'(t). When k = k', we call this function the auto-catalog density function (ACDF); when k ≠ k', we call it the cross-catalog density function (CCDF). The roles of the ACDF and CCDF in synchronicity theory are similar to those of autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions in time-series analysis. For a renewal process, the ACDF can be written in terms of convolutions of the interevent-time distribution, and many of its properties (e.g., large-t asymptote) can be derived analytically. The interesting information in the CCDF, like that in the ACDF, is concentrated near t = 0. If two catalogs are completely asynchronous, the CCDF collapses to an asymptote given by the harmonic mean of the ACDF asymptotes. Synchronicity can therefore be characterized by the variability of the CCDF about this asymptote. The brevity of instrumental catalogs makes the identification of synchronicity at large M difficult, but we will illustrate potentially interesting behaviors through the analysis of a million-year California catalog generated by the earthquake simulator, RSQSim (Deiterich & Richards-Dinger, 2010), which we sampled at a

  11. Passive sensor systems for nuclear material monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M.L.; Boatner, L.A.; Holcomb, D.E.; McElhaney, S.A.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Muhs, J.D.; Roberts, M.R.; Hill, N.W.

    1993-09-01

    Passive fiber optic sensor systems capable of confirming the presence of special nuclear materials in storage or process facilities are being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These sensors provide completely passive, remote measurement capability. No power supplies, amplifiers, or other active components that could degrade system reliability are required at the sensor location. ORNL, through its research programs in scintillator materials, has developed a variety of materials for use in alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and neutron-sensitive scintillator detectors. In addition to sensors for measuring radiation flux, new sensor materials have been developed which are capable of measuring weight, temperature, and source location. An example of a passive sensor for temperature measurement is the combination of a thermophosphor (e.g., rare-earth activated Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) with {sup 6}LiF (95% {sup 6}Li). This combination results in a new class of scintillators for thermal neutrons that absorb energy from the radiation particles and remit the energy as a light pulse, the decay rate of which, over a specified temperature range, is temperature dependent. Other passive sensors being developed include pressure-sensitive triboluminescent materials, weight-sensitive silicone rubber fibers, scintillating fibers, and other materials for gamma and neutron detection. The light from the scintillator materials of each sensor would be sent through optical fibers to a monitoring station, where the attribute quantity could be measured and compared with previously recorded emission levels. Confirmatory measurement applications of these technologies are being evaluated to reduce the effort, costs, and employee exposures associated with inventorying stockpiles of highly enriched uranium at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant.

  12. Etoile Project : Social Intelligent ICT-System for very large scale education in complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgine, P.; Johnson, J.

    2009-04-01

    The project will devise new theory and implement new ICT-based methods of delivering high-quality low-cost postgraduate education to many thousands of people in a scalable way, with the cost of each extra student being negligible (< a few Euros). The research will create an in vivo laboratory of one to ten thousand postgraduate students studying courses in complex systems. This community is chosen because it is large and interdisciplinary and there is a known requirement for courses for thousand of students across Europe. The project involves every aspect of course production and delivery. Within this the research focused on the creation of a Socially Intelligent Resource Mining system to gather large volumes of high quality educational resources from the internet; new methods to deconstruct these to produce a semantically tagged Learning Object Database; a Living Course Ecology to support the creation and maintenance of evolving course materials; systems to deliver courses; and a ‘socially intelligent assessment system'. The system will be tested on one to ten thousand postgraduate students in Europe working towards the Complex System Society's title of European PhD in Complex Systems. Étoile will have a very high impact both scientifically and socially by (i) the provision of new scalable ICT-based methods for providing very low cost scientific education, (ii) the creation of new mathematical and statistical theory for the multiscale dynamics of complex systems, (iii) the provision of a working example of adaptation and emergence in complex socio-technical systems, and (iv) making a major educational contribution to European complex systems science and its applications.

  13. Barium compatibility of insulator material systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, John M.; Zee, Ralph; Schuller, Michael

    1997-01-01

    The compatibility of insulator material systems in a barium environment was investigated. This work is part of an ongoing program to identify weaknesses in insulator/braze/refractory metal materials systems which provide electrical insulation in alkali-metal enhanced thermionic devices and other alkali-metal thermal-to-electric converters. Test articles consisting of alumina or sapphire insulators brazed to molybdenum via a nominal Cu-30% Ni braze, were exposed to barium vapor to ascertain possible reactions and/or failure mechanisms. The test matrix consisted of eight samples; 5 with a sapphire insulator, 3 with an alumina insulator. Each sample was exposed to a different combination of insulator/braze region temperature (1000 K or 1100 K) and partial pressure of barium (10-3 or 10-2 torr) for approximately 750 hours. Initial analysis indicated that the ceramic portions were free from corrosion and that the braze material was the weak link in the material system. Evidence of formation of a Cu-Ba intermetallic at the braze region was visible. Further analysis indicated that in some cases Al2O3 was being reduced by the Barium. The results of this research imply that use of Al2O3 based ceramics in a barium environment may be suspect to failures in the long term and that Cu-Ni brazes are not suitable for the barium environment.

  14. Development of new inorganic luminescent materials by organic-metal complex route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manavbasi, Alp

    The development of novel inorganic luminescent materials has provided important improvements in lighting, display, and other technologically-important optical devices. The optical characteristics of inorganic luminescent materials (phosphors) depend on their physicochemical characteristics, including the atomic structure, homogeneity in composition, microstructure, defects, and interfaces which are all controlled by thermodynamics and kinetics of synthesis from various raw materials. A large variety of technologically-important phosphors have been produced using conventional high-temperature solid-state methods. For the synthesis of functional ceramic materials with ionic dopants in a host lattice, (such as phosphors), synthesis using organic-metal complex methods and other wet chemistry routes have been found to be excellent techniques. These methods have inherent advantages such as good control of stoichiometry by molecular level of mixing, product homogeneity, simpler synthesis procedures, and use of relatively-low calcination temperatures. Supporting evidence for this claim is accomplished by a comparison of photoluminescence characteristics of a commercially available green phosphor, Zn2SiO4:Mn, with the same material system synthesized by organic-metal synthesis route. In this study, new inorganic luminescent materials were produced using rare-earth elements (Eu3+, Ce3+, Tb3+ ) and transition metals (Cu+, Pb2+) as dopants within the crystalline host lattices; SrZnO2, Ba2YAlO 5, M3Al2O6 (M=Ca,Sr,Ba). These novel phosphors were prepared using the organic-metal complex route. Polyvinyl alcohol, sucrose, and adipic acid were used as the organic component to prepare the ceramic precursors. Materials characterization of the synthesized precursor powders and calcined phosphor samples was performed usingX-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Photon-Correlation spectroscopy, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy techniques. In addition to the

  15. Ultralight Weight Optical Systems Using Nano-Layered Synthesized Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Natalie; Breckinridge, James

    2014-01-01

    Optical imaging is important for many NASA science missions. Even though complex optical systems have advanced, the optics, based on conventional glass and mirrors, require components that are thick, heavy and expensive. As the need for higher performance expands, glass and mirrors are fast approaching the point where they will be too large, heavy and costly for spacecraft, especially small satellite systems. NASA Langley Research Center is developing a wide range of novel nano-layered synthesized materials that enable the development and fabrication of ultralight weight optical device systems that enable many NASA missions to collect science data imagery using small satellites. In addition to significantly reducing weight, the nano-layered synthesized materials offer advantages in performance, size, and cost.

  16. Tutorial: Electroporation of cells in complex materials and tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rems, L.; Miklavčič, D.

    2016-05-01

    Electroporation is being successfully used in biology, medicine, food processing, and biotechnology, and in some environmental applications. Recent applications also include in addition to classical electroporation, where cells are exposed to micro- or milliseconds long pulses, exposures to extremely short nanosecond pulses, i.e., high-frequency electroporation. Electric pulses are applied to cells in different structural configurations ranging from suspended cells to cells in tissues. Understanding electroporation of cells in tissues and other complex environments is a key to its successful use and optimization in various applications. Thus, explanation will be provided theoretically/numerically with relation to experimental observations by scaling our understanding of electroporation from the molecular level of the cell membrane up to the tissue level.

  17. Luminescent and magnetic materials with a high content of Eu(3+)-EDTA complexes.

    PubMed

    Pires, G P; Costa, I F; Brito, H F; Faustino, W M; Teotonio, E E S

    2016-07-01

    Bifunctional optical magnetic materials with a high europium content have been prepared. Chelating groups were introduced on the Fe3O4 surface with organosilanes containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) derivatives, which were previously prepared via a reaction between EDTA-dianhydride and aminoalkoxysilane agents: 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propylamine (1N), N-[3(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ethylenediamine (2N) and N(1)-(3-trimethoxysilylpropyl)diethylenetriamine) (3N). The first coordination sphere of Ln-EDTA complexes present on the modified surfaces of Fe3O4 particles was completed by addition of β-diketonate ligands (tta: thenoyltrifluoroacetone, dbm: dibenzoylmethane, bzac: benzoylacetone and acac: acetylacetone) in order to improve their luminescence properties. The materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy as well as by zeta potential measurements and luminescence spectroscopy. The hybrid materials exhibited intense red emission, which can be assigned to the 4f-4f transitions of the Eu(3+) ion, indicating an efficient intramolecular ligand-to-metal energy transfer. The experimental intensity parameters (Ω2 and Ω4), lifetimes (τ), as well as radiative (Arad) and non-radiative (Anrad) decay rates of the Eu(3+) ion were determined and discussed. The strategies used to obtain these materials may contribute to the development of several bifunctional systems for practical applications. PMID:27301580

  18. Decoupling, complexity and importance in the design and analysis of complex transport systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamble, Robert Edward

    Complex transport systems are important in many industries. These systems are typically characterized by the transient evolution of mass, energy and momentum flows involving many different phenomena, which occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Gaining clear understanding of these complex transport systems can be a daunting task. The wide-ranging spatial and temporal scales can make analyses and testing uncertain, complicated and expensive. Extensive effort has been made in the nuclear industry to simplify understanding of nuclear power plants, which fall into the category of complex transport systems. In this work new tools to aid in the understanding of these systems are developed. Specifically tools that aid in the identification of system complexity and facilitate decoupling of the system into smaller subsystems for analyses and testing are developed and demonstrated using the ESBWR light water reactor as an example. Existing tools used to identify important processes in complex systems are extended to include the concepts of complexity and decoupling. Characteristic times, spatial orientation and phenomena magnitudes are used to identify when systems may have complex behavior and at what locations decoupling is appropriate. Complexity can lead to large uncertainties in modeling and difficulty in properly scaling test facilities, therefore the identification of sources of complexity, and if possible their avoidance, is important. Identifying appropriate decoupling boundaries provides justification for experimental and analytical studies of subsets of a complex system rather than the entire system. This leads to the ability to better satisfy difficult requirements for proper simulation in reduced scale experimental facilities and to model subsystem phenomena with lower uncertainty. Additionally, experimental studies of subregions of a complex system can be better-instrumented and done at full scale when appropriate within economic constraints

  19. Spectroscopy of Photovoltaic Materials: Charge-Transfer Complexes and Titanium Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Robert John

    The successful function of photovoltaic (PV) and photocatalytic (PC) systems centers primarily on the creation and photophysics of charge separated electron-hole pairs. The pathway leading to separate carriers varies by material; organic materials typically require multiple events to charge separate, whereas inorganic semiconductors can directly produce free carriers. In this study, time-resolved spectroscopy is used to provide insight into two such systems: 1) organic charge-transfer (CT) complexes, where electrons and holes are tightly bound to each other, and 2) Au-TiO2 core-shell nanostructures, where free carriers are directly generated. 1) CT complexes are structurally well defined systems consisting of donor molecules, characterized by having low ionization potentials, and acceptor molecules, characterized by having high electron affinities. Charge-transfer is the excitation of an electron from the HOMO of a donor material directly into the LUMO of the acceptor material, leading to an electron and hole separated across the donor:acceptor interface. The energy of the CT transition is often less than that of the bandgaps of donor and acceptor materials individually, sparking much interest if PV systems can utilize the CT band to generate free carriers from low energy photons. In this work we examine the complexes formed between acceptors tetracyanobenzene (TCNB) and tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) with several aromatic donors. We find excitation of the charge-transfer band of these systems leads to strongly bound electron-hole pairs that exclusively undergo recombination to the ground state. In the case of the TCNB complexes, our initial studies were flummoxed by the samples' generally low threshold for photo and mechanical damage. As our results conflicted with previous literature, a significant portion of this study was spent quantifying the photodegradation process. 2) Unlike the previous system, free carriers are directly photogenerated in TiO2, and the

  20. A complex permittivity and permeability measurement system for elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friederich, Paul

    1990-01-01

    The three goals of this research include: (1) to fully develop a method to measure the permittivity and permeability of special materials as a function of frequency in the range of 2.6 to 18 GHz, and of temperatures in the range of 25 to 1100 C; (2) to assist LeRC in setting up an in-house system for the measurement of high-temperature permittivity and permeability; and (3) to measure the complex permittivity and permeability of special materials as a function of frequency and temperature to demonstrate the capability of the method. The method chosen for characterizing the materials relies on perturbation of a resonant cavity with a small volume of sample material. Different field configurations in the cavity can be used to separate electric and magnetic effects. The cavity consists of a section of rectangular waveguide terminated at each end of a vertical slot iris. The center of one wall is a small hole through which the sample is introduced.

  1. A complex permittivity and permeability measurement system for elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friederich, Paul

    1990-01-01

    The three goals of this research include: (1) to fully develop a method to measure the permittivity and permeability of special materials as a function of frequency in the range of 2.6 to 18 GHz, and of temperature in the range of 25 to 1100 C; (2) to assist LeRC in setting up an in-house system for the measurement of high-temperature permittivity and permeability; and (3) to measure the complex permittivity and permeability of special materials as a function of frequency and temperature to demonstrate the capability of the method. The method chosen for characterizing the materials relies on perturbation of a resonant cavity with a small volume of sample material. Different field configurations in the cavity can be used to separate electric and magnetic effects. The cavity consists of a section of rectangular waveguide terminated at each end of a vertical slot iris. In the center of one wall is a small hole through which the sample is introduced.

  2. Management Strategies for Complex Adaptive Systems: Sensemaking, Learning, and Improvisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Reuben R., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Misspecification of the nature of organizations may be a major reason for difficulty in achieving performance improvement. Organizations are often viewed as machine-like, but complexity science suggests that organizations should be viewed as complex adaptive systems. I identify the characteristics of complex adaptive systems and give examples of…

  3. Analysis of Flood Hazards for the Materials and Fuels Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory Site

    SciTech Connect

    Skaggs, Richard; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Waichler, Scott R.; Kim, Taeyun; Ward, Duane L.

    2010-11-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a flood hazard analysis for the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) site located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site in southeastern Idaho. The general approach for the analysis was to determine the maximum water elevation levels associated with the design-basis flood (DBFL) and compare them to the floor elevations at critical building locations. Two DBFLs for the MFC site were developed using different precipitation inputs: probable maximum precipitation (PMP) and 10,000 year recurrence interval precipitation. Both precipitation inputs were used to drive a watershed runoff model for the surrounding upland basins and the MFC site. Outflows modeled with the Hydrologic Engineering Centers Hydrologic Modeling System were input to the Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System hydrodynamic flood routing model.

  4. Power laws and elastic nonlinearity in materials with complex microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalerandi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear ultrasonic methods have been widely used to characterize the microstructure of damaged solids and consolidated granular media. Besides distinguishing between materials exhibiting classical nonlinear behaviors from those exhibiting hysteresis, it could be of importance the discrimination between ultrasonic indications from different physical sources (scatterers). Elastic hysteresis could indeed be due to dislocations, grain boundaries, stick-slip at interfaces, etc. Analyzing data obtained on various concrete samples, we show that the power law behavior of the nonlinear indicator vs. the energy of excitation could be used to classify different microscopic features. In particular, the power law exponent ranges between 1 and 3, depending on the nature of nonlinearity. We also provide a theoretical interpretation of the collected data using models for clapping and hysteretic nonlinearities.

  5. Mechanical properties of thermal protection system materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, Robert Douglas; Bronowski, David R.; Lee, Moo Yul; Hofer, John H.

    2005-06-01

    An experimental study was conducted to measure the mechanical properties of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials used for the Space Shuttle. Three types of TPS materials (LI-900, LI-2200, and FRCI-12) were tested in 'in-plane' and 'out-of-plane' orientations. Four types of quasi-static mechanical tests (uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression, uniaxial strain, and shear) were performed under low (10{sup -4} to 10{sup -3}/s) and intermediate (1 to 10/s) strain rate conditions. In addition, split Hopkinson pressure bar tests were conducted to obtain the strength of the materials under a relatively higher strain rate ({approx}10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3}/s) condition. In general, TPS materials have higher strength and higher Young's modulus when tested in 'in-plane' than in 'through-the-thickness' orientation under compressive (unconfined and confined) and tensile stress conditions. In both stress conditions, the strength of the material increases as the strain rate increases. The rate of increase in LI-900 is relatively small compared to those for the other two TPS materials tested in this study. But, the Young's modulus appears to be insensitive to the different strain rates applied. The FRCI-12 material, designed to replace the heavier LI-2200, showed higher strengths under tensile and shear stress conditions. But, under a compressive stress condition, LI-2200 showed higher strength than FRCI-12. As far as the modulus is concerned, LI-2200 has higher Young's modulus both in compression and in tension. The shear modulus of FRCI-12 and LI-2200 fell in the same range.

  6. Polymer hybrid materials for planar optronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Körner, Martin; Prucker, Oswald; Rühe, Jürgen

    2015-09-01

    Planar optronic systems made entirely from polymeric functional materials on polymeric foils are interesting architectures for monitoring and sensing applications. Key components in this regard are polymer hybrid materials with adjustable optical properties. These materials can then be processed into optical components such as waveguides for example by using embossing techniques. However, the resulting microstructures have often low mechanical or thermal stability which quickly leads to a degradation of the microstructures accompanied often by a complete loss of function. A simple and versatile way to increase the thermal and mechanical stability of polymers is to connect the individual chains to a polymer network by using thermally or photochemically reactive groups. Upon excitation, these groups form reactive intermediates such as radicals or nitrenes which then crosslink with adjacent C-H-groups through a C,H insertion reaction (CHic = C,H insertion based crosslinking). To generate waveguide structures a PDMS stamp is filled with the waveguide core material e.g. poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), which is modified with a few mol% of the thermal crosslinker and hot embossed onto a foil substrate e.g. PMMA. In this one-step hot embossing process polymer ridge waveguides are formed and simultaneously the polymer becomes crosslinked. Due to the reaction across the boundary between waveguide and substrate it is also possible to combine initially incompatible polymers for the waveguide and the substrate foil. The thermomechanical properties of the obtained materials are studied.

  7. Stochastic Analysis and Design of Heterogeneous Microstructural Materials System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hongyi

    Advanced materials system refers to new materials that are comprised of multiple traditional constituents but complex microstructure morphologies, which lead to superior properties over the conventional materials. To accelerate the development of new advanced materials system, the objective of this dissertation is to develop a computational design framework and the associated techniques for design automation of microstructure materials systems, with an emphasis on addressing the uncertainties associated with the heterogeneity of microstructural materials. Five key research tasks are identified: design representation, design evaluation, design synthesis, material informatics and uncertainty quantification. Design representation of microstructure includes statistical characterization and stochastic reconstruction. This dissertation develops a new descriptor-based methodology, which characterizes 2D microstructures using descriptors of composition, dispersion and geometry. Statistics of 3D descriptors are predicted based on 2D information to enable 2D-to-3D reconstruction. An efficient sequential reconstruction algorithm is developed to reconstruct statistically equivalent random 3D digital microstructures. In design evaluation, a stochastic decomposition and reassembly strategy is developed to deal with the high computational costs and uncertainties induced by material heterogeneity. The properties of Representative Volume Elements (RVE) are predicted by stochastically reassembling SVE elements with stochastic properties into a coarse representation of the RVE. In design synthesis, a new descriptor-based design framework is developed, which integrates computational methods of microstructure characterization and reconstruction, sensitivity analysis, Design of Experiments (DOE), metamodeling and optimization the enable parametric optimization of the microstructure for achieving the desired material properties. Material informatics is studied to efficiently reduce the

  8. Multistage Spectral Relaxation Method for Solving the Hyperchaotic Complex Systems

    PubMed Central

    Saberi Nik, Hassan; Rebelo, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    We present a pseudospectral method application for solving the hyperchaotic complex systems. The proposed method, called the multistage spectral relaxation method (MSRM) is based on a technique of extending Gauss-Seidel type relaxation ideas to systems of nonlinear differential equations and using the Chebyshev pseudospectral methods to solve the resulting system on a sequence of multiple intervals. In this new application, the MSRM is used to solve famous hyperchaotic complex systems such as hyperchaotic complex Lorenz system and the complex permanent magnet synchronous motor. We compare this approach to the Runge-Kutta based ode45 solver to show that the MSRM gives accurate results. PMID:25386624

  9. Tethering Complexes in the Arabidopsis Endomembrane System

    PubMed Central

    Vukašinović, Nemanja; Žárský, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Targeting of endomembrane transport containers is of the utmost importance for proper land plant growth and development. Given the immobility of plant cells, localized membrane vesicle secretion and recycling are amongst the main processes guiding proper cell, tissue and whole plant morphogenesis. Cell wall biogenesis and modification are dependent on vectorial membrane traffic, not only during normal development, but also in stress responses and in plant defense against pathogens and/or symbiosis. It is surprising how little we know about these processes in plants, from small GTPase regulation to the tethering complexes that act as their effectors. Tethering factors are single proteins or protein complexes mediating first contact between the target membrane and arriving membrane vesicles. In this review we focus on the tethering complexes of the best-studied plant model—Arabidopsis thaliana. Genome-based predictions indicate the presence of all major tethering complexes in plants that are known from a hypothetical last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). The evolutionary multiplication of paralogs of plant tethering complex subunits has produced the massively expanded EXO70 family, indicating a subfunctionalization of the terminal exocytosis machinery in land plants. Interpretation of loss of function (LOF) mutant phenotypes has to consider that related, yet clearly functionally-specific complexes often share some common core subunits. It is therefore impossible to conclude with clarity which version of the complex is responsible for the phenotypic deviations observed. Experimental interest in the analysis of plant tethering complexes is growing and we hope to contribute with this review by attracting even more attention to this fascinating field of plant cell biology. PMID:27243010

  10. Tethering Complexes in the Arabidopsis Endomembrane System.

    PubMed

    Vukašinović, Nemanja; Žárský, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Targeting of endomembrane transport containers is of the utmost importance for proper land plant growth and development. Given the immobility of plant cells, localized membrane vesicle secretion and recycling are amongst the main processes guiding proper cell, tissue and whole plant morphogenesis. Cell wall biogenesis and modification are dependent on vectorial membrane traffic, not only during normal development, but also in stress responses and in plant defense against pathogens and/or symbiosis. It is surprising how little we know about these processes in plants, from small GTPase regulation to the tethering complexes that act as their effectors. Tethering factors are single proteins or protein complexes mediating first contact between the target membrane and arriving membrane vesicles. In this review we focus on the tethering complexes of the best-studied plant model-Arabidopsis thaliana. Genome-based predictions indicate the presence of all major tethering complexes in plants that are known from a hypothetical last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). The evolutionary multiplication of paralogs of plant tethering complex subunits has produced the massively expanded EXO70 family, indicating a subfunctionalization of the terminal exocytosis machinery in land plants. Interpretation of loss of function (LOF) mutant phenotypes has to consider that related, yet clearly functionally-specific complexes often share some common core subunits. It is therefore impossible to conclude with clarity which version of the complex is responsible for the phenotypic deviations observed. Experimental interest in the analysis of plant tethering complexes is growing and we hope to contribute with this review by attracting even more attention to this fascinating field of plant cell biology. PMID:27243010

  11. Optoelectronic inventory system for special nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Sieradzki, F.H.

    1994-01-01

    In support of the Department of Energy`s Dismantlement Program, the Optoelectronics Characterization and Sensor Development Department 2231 at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico has developed an in situ nonintrusive Optoelectronic Inventory System (OIS) that has the potential for application wherever periodic inventory of selected material is desired. Using a network of fiber-optic links, the OIS retrieves and stores inventory signatures from data storage devices (which are permanently attached to material storage containers) while inherently providing electromagnetic pulse immunity and electrical noise isolation. Photovoltaic cells (located within the storage facility) convert laser diode optic power from a laser driver to electrical energy. When powered and triggered, the data storage devices sequentially output their digital inventory signatures through light-emitting diode/photo diode data links for retrieval and storage in a mobile data acquisition system. An item`s exact location is determined through fiber-optic network and software design. The OIS provides an on-demand method for obtaining acceptable inventory reports while eliminating the need for human presence inside the material storage facility. By using modularization and prefabricated construction with mature technologies and components, an OIS installation with virtually unlimited capacity can be tailored to the customer`s requirements.

  12. Hydrogen storage material and process using graphite additive with metal-doped complex hydrides

    DOEpatents

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Ritter, James A.; Ebner, Armin D.; Wang, Jun; Holland, Charles E.

    2008-06-10

    A hydrogen storage material having improved hydrogen absorbtion and desorption kinetics is provided by adding graphite to a complex hydride such as a metal-doped alanate, i.e., NaAlH.sub.4. The incorporation of graphite into the complex hydride significantly enhances the rate of hydrogen absorbtion and desorption and lowers the desorption temperature needed to release stored hydrogen.

  13. Systems and methods for forming defects on graphitic materials and curing radiation-damaged graphitic materials

    DOEpatents

    Ryu, Sunmin; Brus, Louis E.; Steigerwald, Michael L.; Liu, Haitao

    2012-09-25

    Systems and methods are disclosed herein for forming defects on graphitic materials. The methods for forming defects include applying a radiation reactive material on a graphitic material, irradiating the applied radiation reactive material to produce a reactive species, and permitting the reactive species to react with the graphitic material to form defects. Additionally, disclosed are methods for removing defects on graphitic materials.

  14. Understanding Equilibrium: The Study of Complex Systems. Final Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Eleanor; And Others

    The Educational Technology Center (ETC) Complex Systems Project was initiated to explore ways of using computers to help students understand systems which have often proven too complex for most high school students to understand. Preliminary work concentrated on the cognitive processes involved in modeling simple systems. This paper describes an…

  15. Complex network synchronization of chaotic systems with delay coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Theesar, S. Jeeva Sathya Ratnavelu, K.

    2014-03-05

    The study of complex networks enables us to understand the collective behavior of the interconnected elements and provides vast real time applications from biology to laser dynamics. In this paper, synchronization of complex network of chaotic systems has been studied. Every identical node in the complex network is assumed to be in Lur’e system form. In particular, delayed coupling has been assumed along with identical sector bounded nonlinear systems which are interconnected over network topology.

  16. Analysis the complex interaction among flexible nanoparticles and materials surface in the mechanical polishing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xuesong; Gan, Yong X.

    2011-02-01

    Mechanical polishing (MP), being the important technique of realizing the surface planarization, has already been widely applied in the area of microelectronic manufacturing and computer manufacturing technology. The surface planarization in the MP is mainly realized by mechanical process which depended on the microdynamic behavior of nanoparticle. The complex multibody interaction among nanoparticles and materials surface is different from interaction in the macroscopic multibody system which makes the traditional classical materials machining theory cannot accurately uncover the mystery of the surface generation in the MP. Large-scale classical molecular dynamic (MD) simulation of interaction among nanoparticles and solid surface has been carried out to investigate the physical essence of surface planarization. The particles with small impact angle can generate more uniform global planarization surface but the materials removal rate is lower. The shear interaction between particle and substrate may induce large friction torque and lead to the rotation of particle. The translation plus rotation makes the nanoparticle behaved like micro-milling tool. The results show that the nanoparticles may aggregrate together and form larger cluster thus deteriorate surface the quality. This MD simulation results illuminate that the final planarized surface can only be acquired by synergic behavior of all particles using various means such as cutting, impacting, scratching, indentation and so on.

  17. Smart Optical Material Characterization System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Disclosed is a system and method for characterizing optical materials, using steps and equipment for generating a coherent laser light, filtering the light to remove high order spatial components, collecting the filtered light and forming a parallel light beam, splitting the parallel beam into a first direction and a second direction wherein the parallel beam travelling in the second direction travels toward the material sample so that the parallel beam passes through the sample, applying various physical quantities to the sample, reflecting the beam travelling in the first direction to produce a first reflected beam, reflecting the beam that passes through the sample to produce a second reflected beam that travels back through the sample, combining the second reflected beam after it travels back though the sample with the first reflected beam, sensing the light beam produced by combining the first and second reflected beams, and processing the sensed beam to determine sample characteristics and properties.

  18. Complexity Thinking in PE: Game-Centred Approaches, Games as Complex Adaptive Systems, and Ecological Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storey, Brian; Butler, Joy

    2013-01-01

    Background: This article draws on the literature relating to game-centred approaches (GCAs), such as Teaching Games for Understanding, and dynamical systems views of motor learning to demonstrate a convergence of ideas around games as complex adaptive learning systems. This convergence is organized under the title "complexity thinking"…

  19. Condensation and Evaporation of Solar System Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, A. M.; Richter, F. M.

    2003-12-01

    It is widely believed that the materials making up the solar system were derived from a nebular gas and dust cloud that went through an early high-temperature stage during which virtually all of the material was in the gas phase. At one time, it was thought that the entire inner solar nebula was hot, but it is now believed that most material was processed through regions where high temperatures were achieved. Certainly some material, such as presolar grains (cf., Mendybaev et al., 2002a), has never been exposed to high temperatures. As the system cooled, solids and perhaps liquids began to condense, but at some point the partially condensed materials became isolated from the remaining gas. Various lines of evidence support this view. At the largest scale, there is the observation that the Earth, Moon, Mars, and all chondritic meteorites except for the CI chondrites are depleted to varying degrees in the abundances of moderately volatile elements relative to bulk solar system composition. The CI chondrites reflect the bulk composition of the solar system for all but hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and the rare gases, the most volatile elements (see Chapter 1.03; Palme et al., 1988; McDonough and Sun, 1995; Humayun and Cassen, 2000). The depletions in moderately volatile elements are, to a significant degree, correlated with condensation temperature, suggesting progressive removal of gas as condensation proceeded ( Cassen, 1996). Additional observations that can be explained by partial condensation are that various particularly primitive components of meteorites (e.g., calcium-, aluminum-rich refractory inclusions, and certain metal grains) have mineralogy and/or details of their chemical composition that are remarkably similar to what is calculated for equilibrium condensates from a solar composition gas. For example, the calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in chondritic meteorites have compositions very similar to that calculated for the first 5% of total

  20. Development of a method for determining the relative manufacturing complexity of advanced engineering materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, Shardul Yogendra

    The immediate adaptation of newly developed materials--with unique and highly desirable properties--is hampered by several factors, including: (1) high material cost and limited availability, (2) lack of information on them, including prior experience in their design and manufacture, immature manufacturing processes and general uncertainty in their behavior patterns, (3) unique handling issues, such as excessive manual labor, high process temperatures, toxicity, disposal problems, limited working lives, and low damage tolerance Therefore, in spite of their significant benefits, potential users tend to shy away from the widespread use of new materials, instead preferring conventional and tested materials forms. This dissertation is on a methodology developed to compare manufacturing complexity of new materials with that of conventional ones. It entails development of a 5 level multi-attribute hierarchy of 18 factors and several processes that influence the manufacturing risk of new materials. A Manufacturing Complexity Factor (MCF) and a Delta Complexity Factor (DCF) are developed to compare new materials with older, traditional ones. The Analytic Hierarchy Process is used to judiciously assign weights to all factors and sub-factors. Materials are assigned "ranks" based on information available about their unique properties and requirements. From the rank and attribute priorities, values for MCF/DCF can be obtained. Since information available is often limited, the ranks assigned to materials are not highly accurate values. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is used to take away some of the uncertainty in the ranks of the newly developed materials and generate a more "robust" MCF/DCF value. Sensitivity of the method to varying inputs is examined. An attempt is made to compare this practical methodology with two popular approaches, one used for analyzing the complexity of composite materials and another that develops manufacturing complexity factors for given input

  1. Magnetic-field- and pressure-induced quantum phases in complex materials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjung; Barath, Harini; Chen, Xiaoqian; Joe, Young-Il; Fradkin, Eduardo; Abbamonte, Peter; Cooper, S Lance

    2010-03-12

    This Progress Report presents temperature-, magnetic-field-, and pressure-dependent Raman measurements of strongly correlated materials such as the charge-ordering manganese perovskites, the multiferroic material TbMnO(3), and the charge-density wave (CDW) materials 1T-TiSe(2) and Cu(x)TiSe(2). These studies illustrate the rich array of phases and properties that can be accessed with field and pressure tuning in these materials, and demonstrate the efficacy of using magnetic-field- and pressure-dependent scattering methods to elucidate the microscopic changes associated with highly tunable behavior in complex materials. PMID:20401939

  2. Evaluation of Alternative Refractory Materials for the Main Flame Deflectors at KSC Launch Complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Trejo, David; Rutkowsky, Justin

    2006-01-01

    The deterioration of the refractory materials used to protect the KSC launch complex steel base structures from the high temperatures during launches results in frequent and costly repairs and safety hazards. KSC-SPEC-P-0012, Specification for Refractory Concrete, is ineffective in qualifying refractory materials. This study of the specification and of alternative refractory materials recommends a complete revision of the specification and further investigation of materials that were found to withstand the environment of the Solid Rocket Booster main flame deflector better than the refractory materials in current use in terms of compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of rupture, shrinkage, and abrasion.

  3. Network quotients: Structural skeletons of complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yanghua; MacArthur, Ben D.; Wang, Hui; Xiong, Momiao; Wang, Wei

    2008-10-01

    A defining feature of many large empirical networks is their intrinsic complexity. However, many networks also contain a large degree of structural repetition. An immediate question then arises: can we characterize essential network complexity while excluding structural redundancy? In this article we utilize inherent network symmetry to collapse all redundant information from a network, resulting in a coarse graining which we show to carry the essential structural information of the “parent” network. In the context of algebraic combinatorics, this coarse-graining is known as the “quotient.” We systematically explore the theoretical properties of network quotients and summarize key statistics of a variety of “real-world” quotients with respect to those of their parent networks. In particular, we find that quotients can be substantially smaller than their parent networks yet typically preserve various key functional properties such as complexity (heterogeneity and hub vertices) and communication (diameter and mean geodesic distance), suggesting that quotients constitute the essential structural skeletons of their parent networks. We summarize with a discussion of potential uses of quotients in analysis of biological regulatory networks and ways in which using quotients can reduce the computational complexity of network algorithms.

  4. Genomics and the evolutionary origins of nervous system complexity.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Todd H; Rivera, Ajna S

    2008-12-01

    Advances in genomics are leading to increased understanding of the evolution of complexity, especially by beginning to bridge genotype and phenotype. Here, using examples from nervous system evolution, we define general patterns of increased complexity seen across levels of biological organization. We also explore specific evolutionary mechanisms that increase complexity, namely those that increase the number of biological units (parts) in a system. We provide specific neurobiological examples of increased complexity in genes, gene networks, cell types, and tissues/organs. These examples illustrate that while a variety of different mechanisms increase biological complexity, they can be understood in a generalized comparative framework. PMID:19152785

  5. Hazardous Materials Verification and Limited Characterization Report on Sodium and Caustic Residuals in Materials and Fuel Complex Facilities MFC-799/799A

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Mecham

    2010-08-01

    This report is a companion to the Facilities Condition and Hazard Assessment for Materials and Fuel Complex Sodium Processing Facilities MFC-799/799A and Nuclear Calibration Laboratory MFC-770C (referred to as the Facilities Condition and Hazards Assessment). This report specifically responds to the requirement of Section 9.2, Item 6, of the Facilities Condition and Hazards Assessment to provide an updated assessment and verification of the residual hazardous materials remaining in the Sodium Processing Facilities processing system. The hazardous materials of concern are sodium and sodium hydroxide (caustic). The information supplied in this report supports the end-point objectives identified in the Transition Plan for Multiple Facilities at the Materials and Fuels Complex, Advanced Test Reactor, Central Facilities Area, and Power Burst Facility, as well as the deactivation and decommissioning critical decision milestone 1, as specified in U.S. Department of Energy Guide 413.3-8, “Environmental Management Cleanup Projects.” Using a tailored approach and based on information obtained through a combination of process knowledge, emergency management hazardous assessment documentation, and visual inspection, this report provides sufficient detail regarding the quantity of hazardous materials for the purposes of facility transfer; it also provides that further characterization/verification of these materials is unnecessary.

  6. Hazardous materials information hotline using System 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Brower, J.E.; Fuchel, K.

    1984-04-30

    The Center for Assessment of Chemical and Physical Hazards (CACPH) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed a computer hotline service for the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors. This service provides access to health and safety information for over 800 chemicals and hazardous materials. The data base uses System 2000 on a CDC 6600 and provides information on the chemical name and its synonyms, 17 categories of health and safety information, composition of chemical mixtures, categories of chemicals, use and hazards, and physical, chemical and toxicity attributes. In order to make this information available to people unfamiliar with System 2000, a user-friendly interface was developed using a Fortran PLEX Program. 1 reference, 1 figure.

  7. Integration mockup and process material management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verble, Adas James, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Work to define and develop a full scale Space Station Freedom (SSF) mockup with the flexibility to evolve into future designs, to validate techniques for maintenance and logistics and verify human task allocations and support trade studies is described. This work began in early 1985 and ended in August, 1991. The mockups are presently being used at MSFC in Building 4755 as a technology and design testbed, as well as for public display. Micro Craft also began work on the Process Material Management System (PMMS) under this contract. The PMMS simulator was a sealed enclosure for testing to identify liquids, gaseous, particulate samples, and specimen including, urine, waste water, condensate, hazardous gases, surrogate gasses, liquids, and solids. The SSF would require many trade studies to validate techniques for maintenance and logistics and verify system task allocations; it was necessary to develop a full scale mockup which would be representative of current SSF design with the ease of changing those designs as the SSF design evolved and changed. The tasks defined for Micro Craft were to provide the personnel, services, tools, and materials for the SSF mockup which would consist of four modules, nodes, interior components, and part task mockups of MSFC responsible engineering systems. This included the Engineering Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) testbed. For the initial study, the mockups were low fidelity, soft mockups of graphics art bottle, and other low cost materials, which evolved into higher fidelity mockups as the R&D design evolved, by modifying or rebuilding, an important cost saving factor in the design process. We designed, fabricated, and maintained the full size mockup shells and support stands. The shells consisted of cylinders, end cones, rings, longerons, docking ports, crew airlocks, and windows. The ECLSS required a heavier cylinder to support the ECLSS systems test program. Details of this activity will be covered. Support stands were

  8. Integration mockup and process material management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verble, Adas James, Jr.

    1992-02-01

    Work to define and develop a full scale Space Station Freedom (SSF) mockup with the flexibility to evolve into future designs, to validate techniques for maintenance and logistics and verify human task allocations and support trade studies is described. This work began in early 1985 and ended in August, 1991. The mockups are presently being used at MSFC in Building 4755 as a technology and design testbed, as well as for public display. Micro Craft also began work on the Process Material Management System (PMMS) under this contract. The PMMS simulator was a sealed enclosure for testing to identify liquids, gaseous, particulate samples, and specimen including, urine, waste water, condensate, hazardous gases, surrogate gasses, liquids, and solids. The SSF would require many trade studies to validate techniques for maintenance and logistics and verify system task allocations; it was necessary to develop a full scale mockup which would be representative of current SSF design with the ease of changing those designs as the SSF design evolved and changed. The tasks defined for Micro Craft were to provide the personnel, services, tools, and materials for the SSF mockup which would consist of four modules, nodes, interior components, and part task mockups of MSFC responsible engineering systems. This included the Engineering Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) testbed. For the initial study, the mockups were low fidelity, soft mockups of graphics art bottle, and other low cost materials, which evolved into higher fidelity mockups as the R&D design evolved, by modifying or rebuilding, an important cost saving factor in the design process. We designed, fabricated, and maintained the full size mockup shells and support stands. The shells consisted of cylinders, end cones, rings, longerons, docking ports, crew airlocks, and windows. The ECLSS required a heavier cylinder to support the ECLSS systems test program. Details of this activity will be covered. Support stands were

  9. Statistical Features of Complex Systems ---Toward Establishing Sociological Physics---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Naoki; Kuninaka, Hiroto; Wakita, Jun-ichi; Matsushita, Mitsugu

    2011-07-01

    Complex systems have recently attracted much attention, both in natural sciences and in sociological sciences. Members constituting a complex system evolve through nonlinear interactions among each other. This means that in a complex system the multiplicative experience or, so to speak, the history of each member produces its present characteristics. If attention is paid to any statistical property in any complex system, the lognormal distribution is the most natural and appropriate among the standard or ``normal'' statistics to overview the whole system. In fact, the lognormality emerges rather conspicuously when we examine, as familiar and typical examples of statistical aspects in complex systems, the nursing-care period for the aged, populations of prefectures and municipalities, and our body height and weight. Many other examples are found in nature and society. On the basis of these observations, we discuss the possibility of sociological physics.

  10. Engineering orthogonality in supramolecular polymers: from simple scaffolds to complex materials.

    PubMed

    Elacqua, Elizabeth; Lye, Diane S; Weck, Marcus

    2014-08-19

    template polymerizations to enhance the control afforded by ROMP. Main-chain-functionalized alternating block polymers based upon SCS-Pd(II) pincer-pyridine motifs were achieved through the combined exploitation of bimetallic initiators and supramolecularly functionalized terminators. Our initial design principles led to the successful fabrication of both main-chain- and side-chain-functionalized poly(norbornenes) via ROMP. Utilizing all of these techniques in concert led to engineering orthogonality while achieving complexity through the installation of multiple supramolecular motifs within the side chain, main chain, or both in our polymer systems. The exploitation and modification of design principles based upon functional ROMP initiators and terminators has resulted in the first synthesis of main-chain heterotelechelic polymers that self-assemble into A/B/C supramolecular triblock polymers composed of orthogonal cyanuric acid-Hamilton wedge and SCS-Pd(II) pincer-pyridine motifs. Furthermore, supramolecular A/B/A triblock copolymers were realized through the amalgamation of functionalized monomers, ROMP initiators, and terminators. To date, this ROMP-fabricated system represents the only known method to afford polymer main chains and side chains studded with orthogonal motifs. We end by discussing the impetus to attain functional materials via orthogonal self-assembly. Collectively, our studies suggest that combining covalent and noncovalent bonds in a well-defined and precise manner is an essential design element to achieve complex architectures. The results discussed in this Account illustrate the finesse associated with engineering orthogonal interactions within supramolecular systems and are considered essential steps toward developing complex biomimetic materials with high precision and fidelity. PMID:24905869

  11. Composite materials for rail transit systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, O. Hayden, Jr.; Guerdal, Zafer; Herakovich, Carl T.

    1987-01-01

    The potential is explored for using composite materials in urban mass transit systems. The emphasis was to identify specific advantages of composite materials in order to determine their actual and potential usage for carbody and guideway structure applications. The literature was reviewed, contacts were made with major domestic system operators, designers, and builders, and an analysis was made of potential composite application to railcar construction. Composites were found to be in use throughout the transit industry, usually in secondary or auxiliary applications such as car interior and nonstructural exterior panels. More recently, considerable activity has been initiated in the area of using composites in the load bearing elements of civil engineering structures such as highway bridges. It is believed that new and improved manufacturing refinements in pultrusion and filament winding will permit the production of beam sections which can be used in guideway structures. The inherent corrosion resistance and low maintenance characteristics of composites should result in lowered maintenance costs over a prolonged life of the structure.

  12. Enhancing Teacher Utilization of Complex Instructional Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Ann; Daniel, Dan

    This paper describes a research and development effort by Jostens Learning Corporation that resulted in the Renaissance Information Management System (RIMS), an information-management user interface for an integrated learning system that is designed to overcome two major obstacles to the use of computer systems by classroom teachers--limited…

  13. Confluence and convergence: team effectiveness in complex systems.

    PubMed

    Porter-OʼGrady, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Complex adaptive systems require nursing leadership to rethink organizational work and the viability and effectiveness of teams. Much of emergent thinking about complexity and systems and organizations alter the understanding of the nature and function of teamwork and the configuration and leadership of team effort. Reflecting on basic concepts of complexity and their application to team formation, dynamics, and outcomes lays an important foundation for effectively guiding the strategic activity of systems through the focused tactical action of teams. Basic principles of complexity, their impact on teams, and the fundamental elements of team effectiveness are explored. PMID:25474670

  14. Confluence and convergence: team effectiveness in complex systems.

    PubMed

    Porter-OʼGrady, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Complex adaptive systems require nursing leadership to rethink organizational work and the viability and effectiveness of teams. Much of emergent thinking about complexity and systems and organizations alter the understanding of the nature and function of teamwork and the configuration and leadership of team effort. Reflecting on basic concepts of complexity and their application to team formation, dynamics, and outcomes lays an important foundation for effectively guiding the strategic activity of systems through the focused tactical action of teams. Basic principles of complexity, their impact on teams, and the fundamental elements of team effectiveness are explored.

  15. Advanced algorithms for radiographic material discrimination and inspection system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Andrew J.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Deinert, Mark R.

    2016-10-01

    X-ray and neutron radiography are powerful tools for non-invasively inspecting the interior of objects. However, current methods are limited in their ability to differentiate materials when multiple materials are present, especially within large and complex objects. Past work has demonstrated that the spectral shift that X-ray beams undergo in traversing an object can be used to detect and quantify nuclear materials. The technique uses a spectrally sensitive detector and an inverse algorithm that varies the composition of the object until the X-ray spectrum predicted by X-ray transport matches the one measured. Here we show that this approach can be adapted to multi-mode radiography, with energy integrating detectors, and that the Cramér-Rao lower bound can be used to choose an optimal set of inspection modes a priori. We consider multi-endpoint X-ray radiography alone, or in combination with neutron radiography using deuterium-deuterium (DD) or deuterium-tritium (DT) sources. We show that for an optimal mode choice, the algorithm can improve discrimination between high-Z materials, specifically between tungsten and plutonium, and estimate plutonium mass within a simulated nuclear material storage system to within 1%.

  16. Teaching Methodology of Flexible Pavement Materials and Pavement Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Yusuf; Najafi, Fazil

    2004-01-01

    Flexible pavement materials exhibit complex mechanical behavior, in the sense, that they not only show stress and temperature dependency but also are sensitive to moisture conditions. This complex behavior presents a great challenge to the faculty in bringing across the level of complexity and providing the concepts needed to understand them. The…

  17. Computational Materials: Modeling and Simulation of Nanostructured Materials and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.

    2003-01-01

    The paper provides details on the structure and implementation of the Computational Materials program at the NASA Langley Research Center. Examples are given that illustrate the suggested approaches to predicting the behavior and influencing the design of nanostructured materials such as high-performance polymers, composites, and nanotube-reinforced polymers. Primary simulation and measurement methods applicable to multi-scale modeling are outlined. Key challenges including verification and validation of models are highlighted and discussed within the context of NASA's broad mission objectives.

  18. Discovering independent parameters in complex dynamical systems

    PubMed Central

    Lainscsek, Claudia; Weyhenmeyer, Jonathan; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Letellier, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The transformation of a nonlinear dynamical system into a standard form by using one of its variables and its successive derivatives can be used to identify the relationships that may exist between the parameters of the original system such as the subset of the parameter space over which the dynamics is left invariant. We show how the size of the attractor or the time scale (the pseudo-period) can be varied without affecting the underlying dynamics. This is demonstrated for the Rössler and the Lorenz systems. We also consider the case when two Rössler systems are unidirectionally coupled and when a Lorenz system is driven by a Rössler system. In both cases, the dynamics of the coupled system is affected. PMID:25983399

  19. NASA Now: Materials Science: Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Video Gallery

    Metallurgical and materials engineers use science, technology and mathematics to study different types of materials. They analyze the materials to determine what they are made of and evaluate their...

  20. Complex, Dynamic Systems: A New Transdisciplinary Theme for Applied Linguistics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2012-01-01

    In this plenary address, I suggest that Complexity Theory has the potential to contribute a transdisciplinary theme to applied linguistics. Transdisciplinary themes supersede disciplines and spur new kinds of creative activity (Halliday 2001 [1990]). Investigating complex systems requires researchers to pay attention to system dynamics. Since…

  1. Designing Better Scaffolding in Teaching Complex Systems with Graphical Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Na

    2013-01-01

    Complex systems are an important topic in science education today, but they are usually difficult for secondary-level students to learn. Although graphic simulations have many advantages in teaching complex systems, scaffolding is a critical factor for effective learning. This dissertation study was conducted around two complementary research…

  2. Session: CSP Advanced Systems: Optical Materials (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.

    2008-04-01

    The Optical Materials project description is to characterize advanced reflector, perform accelerated and outdoor testing of commercial and experimental reflector materials, and provide industry support.

  3. Size and complexity in model financial systems.

    PubMed

    Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Kapadia, Sujit; May, Robert M

    2012-11-01

    The global financial crisis has precipitated an increasing appreciation of the need for a systemic perspective toward financial stability. For example: What role do large banks play in systemic risk? How should capital adequacy standards recognize this role? How is stability shaped by concentration and diversification in the financial system? We explore these questions using a deliberately simplified, dynamic model of a banking system that combines three different channels for direct transmission of contagion from one bank to another: liquidity hoarding, asset price contagion, and the propagation of defaults via counterparty credit risk. Importantly, we also introduce a mechanism for capturing how swings in "confidence" in the system may contribute to instability. Our results highlight that the importance of relatively large, well-connected banks in system stability scales more than proportionately with their size: the impact of their collapse arises not only from their connectivity, but also from their effect on confidence in the system. Imposing tougher capital requirements on larger banks than smaller ones can thus enhance the resilience of the system. Moreover, these effects are more pronounced in more concentrated systems, and continue to apply, even when allowing for potential diversification benefits that may be realized by larger banks. We discuss some tentative implications for policy, as well as conceptual analogies in ecosystem stability and in the control of infectious diseases.

  4. Size and complexity in model financial systems

    PubMed Central

    Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Kapadia, Sujit; May, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The global financial crisis has precipitated an increasing appreciation of the need for a systemic perspective toward financial stability. For example: What role do large banks play in systemic risk? How should capital adequacy standards recognize this role? How is stability shaped by concentration and diversification in the financial system? We explore these questions using a deliberately simplified, dynamic model of a banking system that combines three different channels for direct transmission of contagion from one bank to another: liquidity hoarding, asset price contagion, and the propagation of defaults via counterparty credit risk. Importantly, we also introduce a mechanism for capturing how swings in “confidence” in the system may contribute to instability. Our results highlight that the importance of relatively large, well-connected banks in system stability scales more than proportionately with their size: the impact of their collapse arises not only from their connectivity, but also from their effect on confidence in the system. Imposing tougher capital requirements on larger banks than smaller ones can thus enhance the resilience of the system. Moreover, these effects are more pronounced in more concentrated systems, and continue to apply, even when allowing for potential diversification benefits that may be realized by larger banks. We discuss some tentative implications for policy, as well as conceptual analogies in ecosystem stability and in the control of infectious diseases. PMID:23091020

  5. Evaluation in the Design of Complex Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Li-An; Schwen, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    We identify literature that argues the process of creating knowledge-based system is often imbalanced. In most knowledge-based systems, development is often technology-driven instead of requirement-driven. Therefore, we argue designers must recognize that evaluation is a critical link in the application of requirement-driven development models…

  6. Dispersion Modeling in Complex Urban Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Models are used to represent real systems in an understandable way. They take many forms. A conceptual model explains the way a system works. In environmental studies, for example, a conceptual model may delineate all the factors and parameters for determining how a particle move...

  7. Complex Communication System and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Won H.

    The basic question under examination is the underlying force that brings forth changes in cultural and social organizations. By employing general system theory and communication systemic analysis, the author concludes that communication, especially human communication, is the main vehicle of change. Human interchange, it is suggested, is constant…

  8. Description of a Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex for the Hanford Site`s radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Nyman, D.H.; Wolfe, B.A.; Hoertkorn, T.R.

    1993-05-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site has changed from defense nuclear materials production to that of waste management/disposal and environmental restoration. ne Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex (MPSC) is being designed to process discarded waste tank internal hardware contaminated with mixed wastes, failed melters from the vitrification plant, and other Hanford Site high-level solid waste. The MPSC also will provide interim storage of other radioactive materials (irradiated fuel, canisters of vitrified high-level waste [HLW], special nuclear material [SNM], and other designated radioactive materials).

  9. Mechanical assembly of complex, 3D mesostructures from releasable multilayers of advanced materials

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zheng; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Fei; Han, Mengdi; Ou, Dapeng; Liu, Yuhao; Lin, Qing; Guo, Xuelin; Fu, Haoran; Xie, Zhaoqian; Gao, Mingye; Huang, Yuming; Kim, JungHwan; Qiu, Yitao; Nan, Kewang; Kim, Jeonghyun; Gutruf, Philipp; Luo, Hongying; Zhao, An; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Huang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yihui; Rogers, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Capabilities for assembly of three-dimensional (3D) micro/nanostructures in advanced materials have important implications across a broad range of application areas, reaching nearly every class of microsystem technology. Approaches that rely on the controlled, compressive buckling of 2D precursors are promising because of their demonstrated compatibility with the most sophisticated planar technologies, where materials include inorganic semiconductors, polymers, metals, and various heterogeneous combinations, spanning length scales from submicrometer to centimeter dimensions. We introduce a set of fabrication techniques and design concepts that bypass certain constraints set by the underlying physics and geometrical properties of the assembly processes associated with the original versions of these methods. In particular, the use of releasable, multilayer 2D precursors provides access to complex 3D topologies, including dense architectures with nested layouts, controlled points of entanglement, and other previously unobtainable layouts. Furthermore, the simultaneous, coordinated assembly of additional structures can enhance the structural stability and drive the motion of extended features in these systems. The resulting 3D mesostructures, demonstrated in a diverse set of more than 40 different examples with feature sizes from micrometers to centimeters, offer unique possibilities in device design. A 3D spiral inductor for near-field communication represents an example where these ideas enable enhanced quality (Q) factors and broader working angles compared to those of conventional 2D counterparts. PMID:27679820

  10. Periodic reference tracking control approach for smart material actuators with complex hysteretic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhiyong; Hao, Lina; Song, Bo; Yang, Ruiguo; Cao, Ruimin; Cheng, Yu

    2016-10-01

    Micro/nano positioning technologies have been attractive for decades for their various applications in both industrial and scientific fields. The actuators employed in these technologies are typically smart material actuators, which possess inherent hysteresis that may cause systems behave unexpectedly. Periodic reference tracking capability is fundamental for apparatuses such as scanning probe microscope, which employs smart material actuators to generate periodic scanning motion. However, traditional controller such as PID method cannot guarantee accurate fast periodic scanning motion. To tackle this problem and to conduct practical implementation in digital devices, this paper proposes a novel control method named discrete extended unparallel Prandtl-Ishlinskii model based internal model (d-EUPI-IM) control approach. To tackle modeling uncertainties, the robust d-EUPI-IM control approach is investigated, and the associated sufficient stabilizing conditions are derived. The advantages of the proposed controller are: it is designed and represented in discrete form, thus practical for digital devices implementation; the extended unparallel Prandtl-Ishlinskii model can precisely represent forward/inverse complex hysteretic characteristics, thus can reduce modeling uncertainties and benefits controllers design; in addition, the internal model principle based control module can be utilized as a natural oscillator for tackling periodic references tracking problem. The proposed controller was verified through comparative experiments on a piezoelectric actuator platform, and convincing results have been achieved.

  11. Mechanical assembly of complex, 3D mesostructures from releasable multilayers of advanced materials

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zheng; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Fei; Han, Mengdi; Ou, Dapeng; Liu, Yuhao; Lin, Qing; Guo, Xuelin; Fu, Haoran; Xie, Zhaoqian; Gao, Mingye; Huang, Yuming; Kim, JungHwan; Qiu, Yitao; Nan, Kewang; Kim, Jeonghyun; Gutruf, Philipp; Luo, Hongying; Zhao, An; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Huang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yihui; Rogers, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Capabilities for assembly of three-dimensional (3D) micro/nanostructures in advanced materials have important implications across a broad range of application areas, reaching nearly every class of microsystem technology. Approaches that rely on the controlled, compressive buckling of 2D precursors are promising because of their demonstrated compatibility with the most sophisticated planar technologies, where materials include inorganic semiconductors, polymers, metals, and various heterogeneous combinations, spanning length scales from submicrometer to centimeter dimensions. We introduce a set of fabrication techniques and design concepts that bypass certain constraints set by the underlying physics and geometrical properties of the assembly processes associated with the original versions of these methods. In particular, the use of releasable, multilayer 2D precursors provides access to complex 3D topologies, including dense architectures with nested layouts, controlled points of entanglement, and other previously unobtainable layouts. Furthermore, the simultaneous, coordinated assembly of additional structures can enhance the structural stability and drive the motion of extended features in these systems. The resulting 3D mesostructures, demonstrated in a diverse set of more than 40 different examples with feature sizes from micrometers to centimeters, offer unique possibilities in device design. A 3D spiral inductor for near-field communication represents an example where these ideas enable enhanced quality (Q) factors and broader working angles compared to those of conventional 2D counterparts.

  12. CONFERENCE ANNOUNCEMENT: European Conference on Complex Systems 2009 European Conference on Complex Systems 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    The 2009 European Conference on Complex Systems will take place 21-25 September 2009 at the University of Warwick in the UK. Local Organising Committee Markus Kirkilionis (Warwick, Chair), Francois Kepes (Genopole, Programme Chair), Robert MacKay (Warwick), Robin Ball (Warwick), Jeff Johnson (Open University). International Steering Committee Markus Kirkilionis (Warwick; Chair 2008-10), Fatihcan Atay (Leipzig), Jürgen Jost (Leipzig), Scott Kirkpatrick (Jerusalem), David Lane (University of Modena and Reggio Emillia), Andreas Lorincz (Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Denise Pumain (Sorbonne), Felix Reed-Tsochas (Oxford), Eörs Szathmáry (Collegium Budapest, Hungary), Stephan Thurner (Wien), Paul Verschure (Barcelona), Alessandro Vespignani (Indiana, ISI), Riccardo Zecchina (Torino). Main tracks and Organisers Policy, Planning & Infrastructure: Jeff Johnson (Open University, Chair), Arnaud Banos (Strasbourg) Collective Human Behaviour and Society: Felix Reed-Tsochas (Oxford, Chair), Frances Griffiths (Warwick), Edmund Chattoe-Brown (Leicester) Interacting Populations and Environment: TBA Complexity and Computer Science: András Lörincz (Eötvös Loránd University), Paul Verschure (Zürich) From Molecules to Living Systems: Mark Chaplain (Dundee, Chair), Wolfgang Marwan (Magdeburg) Mathematics and Simulation: Holger Kantz (Dresden, Chair), Fatihcan Atay (Leipzig), Matteo Marsili (Trieste). Deadlines Paper submission: 31 March 2009 with decisions 15 May 2009. Paper submission deadline likely to be extended. See http://www.eccs09.info for more information. Meeting registration: early registration July 2009; last assured chance 1 Sept. Further information For contacts and the most up-to-date information visit http://www.eccs09.info.

  13. The Fallacy of Univariate Solutions to Complex Systems Problems.

    PubMed

    Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Rubin, Joshua B; Schlaggar, Bradley L

    2016-01-01

    Complex biological systems, by definition, are composed of multiple components that interact non-linearly. The human brain constitutes, arguably, the most complex biological system known. Yet most investigation of the brain and its function is carried out using assumptions appropriate for simple systems-univariate design and linear statistical approaches. This heuristic must change before we can hope to discover and test interventions to improve the lives of individuals with complex disorders of brain development and function. Indeed, a movement away from simplistic models of biological systems will benefit essentially all domains of biology and medicine. The present brief essay lays the foundation for this argument. PMID:27375425

  14. Material Outgassing, Identification and Deposition, MOLIDEP System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.; Montoya, Alex F.

    2002-01-01

    The outgassing tests are performed employing a modified vacuum operated Cahn analytical microbalance, identified as the MOLIDEP system. The test measures under high vacuum, the time varying Molecular mass loss of a material sample held at a chosen temperature; it Identifies the outgassing molecular components using an inline SRS 300 amu Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA) and employs a temperature controlled 10 MHz Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) to measure the condensable DEPosits. Both the QCM and the RGA intercept within the conductive passage the outgassing products being evacuated by a turbomolecular pump. The continuous measurements of the mass loss, the rate of loss, the sample temperature, the rate of temperature change, the QCM temperature and the QCM recorded condensable deposits or rate of deposits are saved to an Excel spreadsheet. A separate computer controls the RGA.

  15. Forewarning of Failure in Complex Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Hively, Lee M; Prowell, Stacy J; Schlicher, Bob G; Sheldon, Frederick T

    2011-01-01

    As the critical infrastructures of the United States have become more and more dependent on public and private networks, the potential for widespread national impact resulting from disruption or failure of these networks has also increased. Securing the nation s critical infrastructures requires protecting not only their physical systems but, just as important, the cyber portions of the systems on which they rely. A failure is inclusive of random events, design flaws, and instabilities caused by cyber (and/or physical) attack. One such domain is failure in critical equipment. A second is aging bridges. We discuss the workings of such a system in the context of the necessary sensors, command and control and data collection as well as the cyber security efforts that would support this system. Their application and the implications of this computing architecture are also discussed, with respect to our nation s aging infrastructure.

  16. Design ATE systems for complex assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napier, R. S.; Flammer, G. H.; Moser, S. A.

    1983-06-01

    The use of ATE systems in radio specification testing can reduce the test time by approximately 90 to 95 percent. What is more, the test station does not require a highly trained operator. Since the system controller has full power over all the measurements, human errors are not introduced into the readings. The controller is immune to any need to increase output by allowing marginal units to pass through the system. In addition, the software compensates for predictable, repeatable system errors, for example, cabling losses, which are an inherent part of the test setup. With no variation in test procedures from unit to unit, there is a constant repeatability factor. Preparing the software, however, usually entails considerable expense. It is pointed out that many of the problems associated with ATE system software can be avoided with the use of a software-intensive, or computer-intensive, system organization. Its goal is to minimize the user's need for software development, thereby saving time and money.

  17. Software Analyzes Complex Systems in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Expert system software programs, also known as knowledge-based systems, are computer programs that emulate the knowledge and analytical skills of one or more human experts, related to a specific subject. SHINE (Spacecraft Health Inference Engine) is one such program, a software inference engine (expert system) designed by NASA for the purpose of monitoring, analyzing, and diagnosing both real-time and non-real-time systems. It was developed to meet many of the Agency s demanding and rigorous artificial intelligence goals for current and future needs. NASA developed the sophisticated and reusable software based on the experience and requirements of its Jet Propulsion Laboratory s (JPL) Artificial Intelligence Research Group in developing expert systems for space flight operations specifically, the diagnosis of spacecraft health. It was designed to be efficient enough to operate in demanding real time and in limited hardware environments, and to be utilized by non-expert systems applications written in conventional programming languages. The technology is currently used in several ongoing NASA applications, including the Mars Exploration Rovers and the Spacecraft Health Automatic Reasoning Pilot (SHARP) program for the diagnosis of telecommunication anomalies during the Neptune Voyager Encounter. It is also finding applications outside of the Space Agency.

  18. Excellently guarded materials against UV and oxygen in the surfactant molecular complex crystal matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Haruyo; Iimura, Nahoko; Hirata, Hirotaka

    2000-07-01

    Crystalline surfactant molecular complexes (SCMs) generated between quaternary ammonium cationic surfactants such as CTAB and various additives disclose their excellent protective properties from UV light and oxygen to complex additive materials, which are occluded in the complex crystal matrix. The effects of UV and oxygen were followed by the absorption decay of additive chromophores in comparing that of naked additive specimens with that of those in the complexed state. From the decay profiles, the rate constants and the half-life times were estimated under the assumptions in which the photo and oxidation processes were dominated in accordance with the first-ordered reaction. The results afford us promising prospects in extending the shelf-life of every material, above all medicinal drug, with the consequence that these obtained values evidently demonstrate the remarkably suppressed rate and extremely elongated half-life times.

  19. Development of the RFID System for nuclear materials management.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.; Tsai, H.; Liu, Y. Y.

    2008-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) is one of today's most rapidly growing technologies in the automatic data collection industry. Although commercial applications are already widespread, the use of this technology for managing nuclear materials is only in its infancy. Employing an RFID system has the potential to offer an immense payback: enhanced safety and security, reduced need for manned surveillance, real-time access to status and event history data, and overall cost-effectiveness. The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Packaging and Transportation (EM-63), is developing an RFID system for nuclear materials management. The system consists of battery-powered RFID tags with onboard sensors and memories, a reader network, application software, a database server and web pages. The tags monitor and record critical parameters, including the status of seals, movement of objects, and environmental conditions of the nuclear material packages in real time. They also provide instant warnings or alarms when preset thresholds for the sensors are exceeded. The information collected by the readers is transmitted to a dedicated central database server that can be accessed by authorized users across the DOE complex via a secured network. The onboard memory of the tags allows the materials manifest and event history data to reside with the packages throughout their life cycles in storage, transportation, and disposal. Data security is currently based on Advanced Encryption Standard-256. The software provides easy-to-use graphical interfaces that allow access to all vital information once the security and privilege requirements are met. An innovative scheme has been developed for managing batteries in service for more than 10 years without needing to be changed. A miniature onboard dosimeter is being developed for applications that require radiation surveillance. A field

  20. Decision-making in healthcare as a complex adaptive system.

    PubMed

    Kuziemsky, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare transformation requires a change in how the business of healthcare is done. Traditional decision-making approaches based on stable and predictable systems are inappropriate in healthcare because of the complex nature of healthcare delivery. This article reviews challenges to using traditional decision-making approaches in healthcare and how insight from Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) could support healthcare management. The article also provides a system model to guide decision-making in healthcare as a CAS.

  1. Multiscale Computational Models of Complex Biological Systems

    PubMed Central

    Walpole, Joseph; Papin, Jason A.; Peirce, Shayn M.

    2014-01-01

    Integration of data across spatial, temporal, and functional scales is a primary focus of biomedical engineering efforts. The advent of powerful computing platforms, coupled with quantitative data from high-throughput experimental platforms, has allowed multiscale modeling to expand as a means to more comprehensively investigate biological phenomena in experimentally relevant ways. This review aims to highlight recently published multiscale models of biological systems while using their successes to propose the best practices for future model development. We demonstrate that coupling continuous and discrete systems best captures biological information across spatial scales by selecting modeling techniques that are suited to the task. Further, we suggest how to best leverage these multiscale models to gain insight into biological systems using quantitative, biomedical engineering methods to analyze data in non-intuitive ways. These topics are discussed with a focus on the future of the field, the current challenges encountered, and opportunities yet to be realized. PMID:23642247

  2. Hierarchical fiber bundle model to investigate the complex architectures of biological materials.

    PubMed

    Pugno, Nicola M; Bosia, Federico; Abdalrahman, Tamer

    2012-01-01

    The mechanics of fiber bundles has been widely studied in the literature, and fiber bundle models in particular have provided a wealth of useful analytical and numerical results for modeling ordinary materials. These models, however, are inadequate to treat bioinspired nanostructured materials, where hierarchy, multiscale, and complex properties play a decisive role in determining the overall mechanical characteristics. Here, we develop an ad hoc hierarchical theory designed to tackle these complex architectures, thus allowing the determination of the strength of macroscopic hierarchical materials from the properties of their constituents at the nanoscale. The roles of finite size, twisting angle, and friction are also included. Size effects on the statistical distribution of fiber strengths naturally emerge without invoking best-fit or unknown parameters. A comparison between the developed theory and various experimental results on synthetic and natural materials yields considerable agreement. PMID:22400587

  3. Tailoring Enterprise Systems Engineering Policy for Project Scale and Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Renee I.; Thomas, L. Dale

    2014-01-01

    Space systems are characterized by varying degrees of scale and complexity. Accordingly, cost-effective implementation of systems engineering also varies depending on scale and complexity. Recognizing that systems engineering and integration happen everywhere and at all levels of a given system and that the life cycle is an integrated process necessary to mature a design, the National Aeronautic and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a suite of customized implementation approaches based on project scale and complexity. While it may be argued that a top-level system engineering process is common to and indeed desirable across an enterprise for all space systems, implementation of that top-level process and the associated products developed as a result differ from system to system. The implementation approaches used for developing a scientific instrument necessarily differ from those used for a space station. .

  4. The Feed Materials Program of the Manhattan Project: A Foundational Component of the Nuclear Weapons Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2014-12-01

    The feed materials program of the Manhattan Project was responsible for procuring uranium-bearing ores and materials and processing them into forms suitable for use as source materials for the Project's uranium-enrichment factories and plutonium-producing reactors. This aspect of the Manhattan Project has tended to be overlooked in comparison with the Project's more dramatic accomplishments, but was absolutely vital to the success of those endeavors: without appropriate raw materials and the means to process them, nuclear weapons and much of the subsequent cold war would never have come to pass. Drawing from information available in Manhattan Engineer District Documents, this paper examines the sources and processing of uranium-bearing materials used in making the first nuclear weapons and how the feed materials program became a central foundational component of the postwar nuclear weapons complex.

  5. Robotic servicing system for space material experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamawaki, Toshihiko; Shimoji, Haruhiko; Abe, Toshio

    1994-01-01

    A containerless image furnace with an electrostatic positioning device has been developed as one of the material experiment facilities on the Japanese experimental module (JEM). It is characterized by heating/melting/cooling the sample whose position is kept without any contacts by actively controlled electrostatic force exerted between the sample and a set of electrodes. The experiment using the image furnace requires various servicing operations. We have been developing a robotic servicing system with an internal robot accommodated in the rack as an alternative to the crew. It aims to reduce the load on the crew by automating regular tasks and to increase the flexibility applicable to simple irregular tasks by introducing a remote teleoperation scheme. The present robot has poor capability to replace the crew. In order to compensate it, introducing of the concept of the robot friendliness and improving the controllability of the teleoperation by the ground operator aids are essential. In this paper, we identify the tasks to be performed by the robotic servicing system and discuss the way to compensate the capability of the robot. In addition we describe the evaluation tests using an experimental model.

  6. Programmable temperature control system for biological materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmo, V. J.; Harrison, R. G.; Rinfret, A. P.

    1982-01-01

    A system was constructed which allows programmable temperature-time control for a 5 cu cm sample volume of arbitrary biological material. The system also measures the parameters necessary for the determination of the sample volume specific heat and thermal conductivity as a function of temperature, and provides a detailed measurement of the temperature during phase change and a means of calculating the heat of the phase change. Steady-state and dynamic temperature control is obtained by supplying heat to the sample volume through resistive elements constructed as an integral part of the sample container. For cooling purposes, this container is totally immersed into a cold heat sink. Using a mixture of dry ice and alcohol at 79 C, the sample volume can be controlled from +40 to -60 C at rates from steady state to + or - 65 C/min. Steady-state temperature precision is better than 0.2 C, while the dynamic capability depends on the temperature rate of change as well as the mass of both the sample and the container.

  7. Second Language Learning of Complex Inflectional Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempe, Vera; Brooks, Patricia J.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored learning and generalization of parts of the Russian case-marking paradigm, an inflecting-fusional system in which affixes simultaneously mark several grammatical features (case, gender, number, animacy). In Experiment 1, adult English speakers (N = 43) were exposed to nouns with transparent gender marking in the nominative case…

  8. Ice Storage System for School Complex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Ross D.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a project at the Manatee Education Center in Naples, Florida, which won an ASHRAE award. Project involved the implementation of ice-storage technology in 19 schools. Compares the performance of ice-storage systems with traditional chiller designs in two other schools. Tables illustrate costs for the campuses. Addresses the maintenance…

  9. Materials System for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Uday B. Pal; Srikanth Gopalan

    2005-01-24

    AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted between 600-800 C on symmetrical cells that employed strontium-and-magnesium-doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte, La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} (LSGM). The objective of the study was to identify the materials system for fabrication and evaluation of intermediate temperature (600-800 C) solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The slurry-coated electrode materials had fine porosity to enhance catalytic activity. Cathode materials investigated include La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (LSM), LSCF (La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}O{sub 3}), a two-phase particulate composite consisting of LSM-doped-lanthanum gallate (LSGM), and LSCF-LSGM. The anode materials were Ni-Ce{sub 0.85}Gd{sub 0.15}O{sub 2} (Ni-GDC) and Ni-Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 2} (Ni-LDC) composites. Experiments conducted with the anode materials investigated the effect of having a barrier layer of GDC or LDC in between the LSGM electrolyte and the Ni-composite anode to prevent adverse reaction of the Ni with lanthanum in LSGM. For proper interpretation of the beneficial effects of the barrier layer, similar measurements were performed without the barrier layer. The ohmic and the polarization resistances of the system were obtained over time as a function of temperature (600-800 C), firing temperature, thickness, and the composition of the electrodes. The study revealed important details pertaining to the ohmic and the polarization resistances of the electrode as they relate to stability and the charge-transfer reactions that occur in such electrode structures.

  10. Studying protein complexes by the yeast two-hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Rajagopala, Seesandra V; Sikorski, Patricia; Caufield, J Harry; Tovchigrechko, Andrey; Uetz, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Protein complexes are typically analyzed by affinity purification and subsequent mass spectrometric analysis. However, in most cases the structure and topology of the complexes remains elusive from such studies. Here we investigate how the yeast two-hybrid system can be used to analyze direct interactions among proteins in a complex. First we tested all pairwise interactions among the seven proteins of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III as well as an uncharacterized complex that includes MntR and PerR. Four and seven interactions were identified in these two complexes, respectively. In addition, we review Y2H data for three other complexes of known structure which serve as "gold-standards", namely Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), the yeast proteasome, and bacteriophage lambda. Finally, we review an Y2H analysis of the human spliceosome which may serve as an example for a dynamic mega-complex.

  11. 14 CFR 23.1201 - Fire extinguishing systems materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....1201 Fire extinguishing systems materials. For all airplanes with engine(s) embedded in the fuselage or... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire extinguishing systems materials. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1201 Fire extinguishing systems materials. Link to an...

  12. Monte Carlo isotopic inventory analysis for complex nuclear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phruksarojanakun, Phiphat

    Monte Carlo Inventory Simulation Engine (MCise) is a newly developed method for calculating isotopic inventory of materials. It offers the promise of modeling materials with complex processes and irradiation histories, which pose challenges for current, deterministic tools, and has strong analogies to Monte Carlo (MC) neutral particle transport. The analog method, including considerations for simple, complex and loop flows, is fully developed. In addition, six variance reduction tools provide unique capabilities of MCise to improve statistical precision of MC simulations. Forced Reaction forces an atom to undergo a desired number of reactions in a given irradiation environment. Biased Reaction Branching primarily focuses on improving statistical results of the isotopes that are produced from rare reaction pathways. Biased Source Sampling aims at increasing frequencies of sampling rare initial isotopes as the starting particles. Reaction Path Splitting increases the population by splitting the atom at each reaction point, creating one new atom for each decay or transmutation product. Delta Tracking is recommended for high-frequency pulsing to reduce the computing time. Lastly, Weight Window is introduced as a strategy to decrease large deviations of weight due to the uses of variance reduction techniques. A figure of merit is necessary to compare the efficiency of different variance reduction techniques. A number of possibilities for figure of merit are explored, two of which are robust and subsequently used. One is based on the relative error of a known target isotope (1/R 2T) and the other on the overall detection limit corrected by the relative error (1/DkR 2T). An automated Adaptive Variance-reduction Adjustment (AVA) tool is developed to iteratively define parameters for some variance reduction techniques in a problem with a target isotope. Sample problems demonstrate that AVA improves both precision and accuracy of a target result in an efficient manner

  13. Engineering Complex Systems: Multiscale Analysis and Evolutionary Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    We describe an analytic approach, multiscale analysis, that can demonstrate the fundamental limitations of decomposition based engineering for the development of highly complex systems. The interdependence of components and communication between design teams limits any planning based process. Recognizing this limitation, we found that a new strategy for constructing many highly complex systems should be modeled after biological evolution, or market economies, where multiple design efforts compete in parallel for adoption through testing in actual use. Evolution is the only process that is known to create highly complex systems.

  14. The Fallacy of Univariate Solutions to Complex Systems Problems

    PubMed Central

    Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Rubin, Joshua B.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2016-01-01

    Complex biological systems, by definition, are composed of multiple components that interact non-linearly. The human brain constitutes, arguably, the most complex biological system known. Yet most investigation of the brain and its function is carried out using assumptions appropriate for simple systems—univariate design and linear statistical approaches. This heuristic must change before we can hope to discover and test interventions to improve the lives of individuals with complex disorders of brain development and function. Indeed, a movement away from simplistic models of biological systems will benefit essentially all domains of biology and medicine. The present brief essay lays the foundation for this argument. PMID:27375425

  15. Petascale Many Body Methods for Complex Correlated Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruschke, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Correlated systems constitute an important class of materials in modern condensed matter physics. Correlation among electrons are at the heart of all ordering phenomena and many intriguing novel aspects, such as quantum phase transitions or topological insulators, observed in a variety of compounds. Yet, theoretically describing these phenomena is still a formidable task, even if one restricts the models used to the smallest possible set of degrees of freedom. Here, modern computer architectures play an essential role, and the joint effort to devise efficient algorithms and implement them on state-of-the art hardware has become an extremely active field in condensed-matter research. To tackle this task single-handed is quite obviously not possible. The NSF-OISE funded PIRE collaboration ``Graduate Education and Research in Petascale Many Body Methods for Complex Correlated Systems'' is a successful initiative to bring together leading experts around the world to form a virtual international organization for addressing these emerging challenges and educate the next generation of computational condensed matter physicists. The collaboration includes research groups developing novel theoretical tools to reliably and systematically study correlated solids, experts in efficient computational algorithms needed to solve the emerging equations, and those able to use modern heterogeneous computer architectures to make then working tools for the growing community.

  16. Dissecting microbiological systems using materials science.

    PubMed

    Muralimohan, Abishek; Eun, Ye-Jin; Bhattacharyya, Basudeb; Weibel, Douglas B

    2009-03-01

    Materials science offers microbiologists a wide variety of organic and inorganic materials with chemical and physical properties that can be precisely controlled. These materials present new capabilities for isolating, manipulating and studying bacteria and other microorganisms and are poised to transform microbiology. This review summarizes three classes of materials that span a range of length scales (nano, micro and meso) and describes a variety of fundamental questions in microbiology that can be studied by leveraging their properties.

  17. Toward a space materials systems program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vontiesenhausen, G. F.

    1981-01-01

    A program implementation model is presented which covers the early stages of space material processing and manufacturing. The model includes descriptions of major program elements, development and experiment requirements in space materials processing and manufacturing, and an integration of the model into NASA's long range plans as well as its evolution from present Materials Processing in Space plans.

  18. Integrated Modeling of Complex Optomechanical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Torben; Enmark, Anita

    2011-09-01

    Mathematical modeling and performance simulation are playing an increasing role in large, high-technology projects. There are two reasons; first, projects are now larger than they were before, and the high cost calls for detailed performance prediction before construction. Second, in particular for space-related designs, it is often difficult to test systems under realistic conditions beforehand, and mathematical modeling is then needed to verify in advance that a system will work as planned. Computers have become much more powerful, permitting calculations that were not possible before. At the same time mathematical tools have been further developed and found acceptance in the community. Particular progress has been made in the fields of structural mechanics, optics and control engineering, where new methods have gained importance over the last few decades. Also, methods for combining optical, structural and control system models into global models have found widespread use. Such combined models are usually called integrated models and were the subject of this symposium. The objective was to bring together people working in the fields of groundbased optical telescopes, ground-based radio telescopes, and space telescopes. We succeeded in doing so and had 39 interesting presentations and many fruitful discussions during coffee and lunch breaks and social arrangements. We are grateful that so many top ranked specialists found their way to Kiruna and we believe that these proceedings will prove valuable during much future work.

  19. Materials System for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Uday B. Pal; Srikanth Gopalan

    2006-01-12

    The objective of this work was to obtain a stable materials system for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) capable of operating between 600-800 C with a power density greater than 0.2 W/cm{sup 2}. The solid electrolyte chosen for this system was La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}, (LSGM). To select the right electrode materials from a group of possible candidate materials, AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted between 600-800 C on symmetrical cells that employed the LSGM electrolyte. Based on the results of the investigation, LSGM electrolyte supported SOFCs were fabricated with La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}-La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} (LSCF-LSGM) composite cathode and Nickel-Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} (Ni-LDC) composite anode having a barrier layer of Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} (LDC) between the LSGM electrolyte and the Ni-LDC anode. Electrical performance and stability of these cells were determined and the electrode polarization behavior as a function of cell current was modeled between 600-800 C. The electrical performance of the anode-supported SOFC was simulated assuming an electrode polarization behavior identical to the LSGM-electrolyte-supported SOFC. The simulated electrical performance indicated that the selected material system would provide a stable cell capable of operating between 600-800 C with a power density between 0.2 to 1 W/cm{sup 2}.

  20. Vertical leadership in highly complex and unpredictable health systems.

    PubMed

    Till, Alex; Dutta, Nina; McKimm, Judy

    2016-08-01

    This article explores how the concept of vertical leadership development might help health organizations cope with and thrive within highly complex and unpredictable health systems, looking at concepts of VUCA (volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity) and RUPT (rapid, unpredictable, paradoxical and tangled).

  1. Classrooms as Complex Adaptive Systems: A Relational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Anne; Knox, John S.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we describe and model the language classroom as a complex adaptive system (see Logan & Schumann, 2005). We argue that linear, categorical descriptions of classroom processes and interactions do not sufficiently explain the complex nature of classrooms, and cannot account for how classroom change occurs (or does not occur), over…

  2. Research Methodology on Language Development from a Complex Systems Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane; Cameron, Lynne

    2008-01-01

    Changes to research methodology motivated by the adoption of a complexity theory perspective on language development are considered. The dynamic, nonlinear, and open nature of complex systems, together with their tendency toward self-organization and interaction across levels and timescales, requires changes in traditional views of the functions…

  3. Understanding Learner Agency as a Complex Dynamic System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to contribute to a fuller understanding of the nature of language learner agency by considering it as a complex dynamic system. The purpose of the study was to explore detailed situated data to examine to what extent it is feasible to view learner agency through the lens of complexity theory. Data were generated through a…

  4. Complex Synchronization Phenomena in Ecological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Lewi; Olinky, Ronen; Blasius, Bernd; Huppert, Amit; Cazelles, Bernard

    2002-07-01

    Ecological and biological systems provide us with many striking examples of synchronization phenomena. Here we discuss a number of intriguing cases and attempt to explain them taking advantage of a modelling framework. One main focus will concern synchronized ecological end epidemiological cycles which have Uniform Phase growth associated with their regular recurrence, and Chaotic Amplitudes - a feature we term UPCA. Examples come from different areas and include decadal cycles of small mammals, recurrent viral epidemics such as childhood infections (eg., measles), and seasonally driven phytoplankton blooms observed in lakes and the oceans. A more detailed theoretical analysis of seasonally synchronized chaotic population cycles is presented.

  5. On the hitchhiker Robot Operated Materials Processing System: Experiment data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Jenstrom, Del

    1995-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Discovery STS-64 mission carried the first American autonomous robot into space, the Robot Operated Materials Processing System (ROMPS). On this mission ROMPS was the only Hitchhiker experiment and had a unique opportunity to utilize all Hitchhiker space carrier capabilities. ROMPS conducted rapid thermal processing of the one hundred semiconductor material samples to study how micro gravity affects the resulting material properties. The experiment was designed, built and operated by a small GSFC team in cooperation with industry and university based principal investigators who provided the material samples and data interpretation. ROMPS' success presents some valuable lessons in such cooperation, as well as in the utilization of the Hitchhiker carrier for complex applications. The motivation of this paper is to share these lessons with the scientific community interested in attached payload experiments. ROMPS has a versatile and intelligent material processing control data system. This paper uses the ROMPS data system as the guiding thread to present the ROMPS mission experience. It presents an overview of the ROMPS experiment followed by considerations of the flight and ground data subsystems and their architecture, data products generation during mission operations, and post mission data utilization. It then presents the lessons learned from the development and operation of the ROMPS data system as well as those learned during post-flight data processing.

  6. Imparting the unique properties of DNA into complex material architectures and functions

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Phyllis F.; Noh, Hyunwoo; Lee, Ju Hun; Domaille, Dylan W.; Nakatsuka, Matthew A.; Goodwin, Andrew P.; Cha, Jennifer N.

    2014-01-01

    While the remarkable chemical and biological properties of DNA have been known for decades, these properties have only been imparted into materials with unprecedented function much more recently. The inimitable ability of DNA to form programmable, complex assemblies through stable, specific, and reversible molecular recognition has allowed the creation of new materials through DNA’s ability to control a material’s architecture and properties. In this review we discuss recent progress in how DNA has brought unmatched function to materials, focusing specifically on new advances in delivery agents, devices, and sensors. PMID:25525408

  7. Broad-band characterization of the complex permittivity and permeability of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Avalle, C.A.

    1994-11-01

    By employment of state-of-the-art Vector Network Analyzers, and other wide-band measurement equipment and techniques, the authors have the capability of measuring the complex permittivity and permeability of materials, for frequencies ranging from several tens of Kilohertz up to several Gigahertz. Measurement methods and equations for numerical determination are based on recommendations by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Types of materials which can be analyzed are dielectric or magnetic RF and radar absorbers; thin sheets, paints, coatings; castable resins; foams and low density materials; ceramics and ferrites; carbonized fabrics; and composites.

  8. Multigroup Complex Geometry Neutron Diffusion Code System.

    2002-12-18

    Version 01 SNAP-3D is based on SNAP2 and is a one- two- or three-dimensional multigroup diffusion code system. It is primarily intended for neutron diffusion calculations, but it can also carry out gamma-ray calculations if the diffusion approximation is accurate enough. It is suitable for fast and thermal reactor core calculations and for shield calculations. SNAP-3D can solve the multi-group neutron diffusion equations using finite difference methods in (x,y,z), (r,theta,z), (TRI,z), (HEX,z) or (spherical) coordinates.more » The one-dimensional slab and cylindrical geometries and the two-dimensional (x,y), (r,z), (r,theta), (HEX) and (TRI) are all treated as simple special cases of three-dimensional geometries. Numerous reflective and periodic symmetry options are available and may be used to reduce the number of mesh points necessary to represent the system. Extrapolation lengths can be specified at internal and external boundaries. The problem classes are: 1) eigenvalue search for critical k-effective, 2) eigenvalue search for critical buckling, 3) eigenvalue search for critical time-constant, 4) fixed source problems in which the sources are functions of regions, 5) fixed source problems in which the sources are provided, on disc, for every mesh point and group.« less

  9. Multigroup Complex Geometry Neutron Diffusion Code System.

    SciTech Connect

    MCCALLIEN, C. W.J.

    2002-12-18

    Version 01 SNAP-3D is based on SNAP2 and is a one- two- or three-dimensional multigroup diffusion code system. It is primarily intended for neutron diffusion calculations, but it can also carry out gamma-ray calculations if the diffusion approximation is accurate enough. It is suitable for fast and thermal reactor core calculations and for shield calculations. SNAP-3D can solve the multi-group neutron diffusion equations using finite difference methods in (x,y,z), (r,theta,z), (TRI,z), (HEX,z) or (spherical) coordinates. The one-dimensional slab and cylindrical geometries and the two-dimensional (x,y), (r,z), (r,theta), (HEX) and (TRI) are all treated as simple special cases of three-dimensional geometries. Numerous reflective and periodic symmetry options are available and may be used to reduce the number of mesh points necessary to represent the system. Extrapolation lengths can be specified at internal and external boundaries. The problem classes are: 1) eigenvalue search for critical k-effective, 2) eigenvalue search for critical buckling, 3) eigenvalue search for critical time-constant, 4) fixed source problems in which the sources are functions of regions, 5) fixed source problems in which the sources are provided, on disc, for every mesh point and group.

  10. Refractory Materials for Flame Deflector Protection System Corrosion Control: Coatings Systems Literature Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Coffman, Brekke E.; Coffman, Brekke E.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.; Whitten, Mary; Perisich, Steven; Trejo, David

    2009-01-01

    When space vehicles are launched, extreme heat, exhaust, and chemicals are produced and these form a very aggressive exposure environment at the launch complex. The facilities in the launch complex are exposed to this aggressive environment. The vehicle exhaust directly impacts the flame deflectors, making these systems very susceptible to high wear and potential failure. A project was formulated to develop or identify new materials or systems such that the wear and/or damage to the flame deflector system, as a result of the severe environmental exposure conditions during launches, can be mitigated. This report provides a survey of potential protective coatings for the refractory concrete lining on the steel base structure on the flame deflectors at Kennedy Space Center (KSC).

  11. Traditional Knowledge of Western Herbal Medicine and Complex Systems Science

    PubMed Central

    Niemeyer, Kathryn; Bell, Iris R.; Koithan, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Traditional knowledge of Western herbal medicine (WHM) supports experiential approaches to healing that have evolved over time. This is evident in the use of polyherb formulations comprised of crude plant parts, individually tailored to treat the cause of dysfunction and imbalance by addressing the whole person holistically. The challenge for WHM is to integrate science with traditional knowledge that is a foundation of the practice of WHM. The purpose of this paper is to provide a plausible theoretical hypothesis by applying complex systems science to WHM, illustrating how medicinal plants are complex, adaptive, environmentally interactive systems exhibiting synergy and nonlinear healing causality. This paper explores the conceptual congruence between medicinal plants and humans as complex systems coherently coupled through recurrent interaction. Complex systems science provides the theoretical tenets that explain traditional knowledge of medicinal plants while supporting clinical practice and expanding research and documentation of WHM. PMID:24058898

  12. Traditional Knowledge of Western Herbal Medicine and Complex Systems Science.

    PubMed

    Niemeyer, Kathryn; Bell, Iris R; Koithan, Mary

    2013-09-01

    Traditional knowledge of Western herbal medicine (WHM) supports experiential approaches to healing that have evolved over time. This is evident in the use of polyherb formulations comprised of crude plant parts, individually tailored to treat the cause of dysfunction and imbalance by addressing the whole person holistically. The challenge for WHM is to integrate science with traditional knowledge that is a foundation of the practice of WHM. The purpose of this paper is to provide a plausible theoretical hypothesis by applying complex systems science to WHM, illustrating how medicinal plants are complex, adaptive, environmentally interactive systems exhibiting synergy and nonlinear healing causality. This paper explores the conceptual congruence between medicinal plants and humans as complex systems coherently coupled through recurrent interaction. Complex systems science provides the theoretical tenets that explain traditional knowledge of medicinal plants while supporting clinical practice and expanding research and documentation of WHM.

  13. Structural visualization of complex software systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vemuri, V.; Smart, J.C. |

    1991-08-01

    The design outline of an automatic, computer-based Abstract Visualization Utility (A-Vu) is presented. Although A-Vu is a general purpose tool, emphasis here is on its ability to visualize structural aspects of software design. Starting from a system definition, an Ada program library, or a directed graph definition, A-Vu proceeds to develop a variety of ``nice`` linear graphs, revealing different visual representations of the design. Formally, given a linear graph G=(V,E), A-Vu searches for a configuration C such that a suitably defined ``energy`` function J(C) is minimized. The definition of the energy function includes software engineering considerations such as layering, modularity as well as aesthetic considerations like visual appeal, cognitive correctness, and so on. Simulated annealing techniques are applied to linear graph representations of software structures to obtain the ``minimum energy`` configurations.

  14. Structural visualization of complex software systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vemuri, V.; Smart, J.C. . Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA )

    1991-08-01

    The design outline of an automatic, computer-based Abstract Visualization Utility (A-Vu) is presented. Although A-Vu is a general purpose tool, emphasis here is on its ability to visualize structural aspects of software design. Starting from a system definition, an Ada program library, or a directed graph definition, A-Vu proceeds to develop a variety of nice'' linear graphs, revealing different visual representations of the design. Formally, given a linear graph G=(V,E), A-Vu searches for a configuration C such that a suitably defined energy'' function J(C) is minimized. The definition of the energy function includes software engineering considerations such as layering, modularity as well as aesthetic considerations like visual appeal, cognitive correctness, and so on. Simulated annealing techniques are applied to linear graph representations of software structures to obtain the minimum energy'' configurations.

  15. Investigating the effectiveness of economically sustainable carrier material complexes for marine oil remediation.

    PubMed

    Simons, Keryn L; Ansar, Alfiya; Kadali, Krishna; Bueti, Angelo; Adetutu, Eric M; Ball, Andrew S

    2012-12-01

    The application of bioremediation to marine oil spills is limited due to dilution of either nutrients or hydrocarbonoclastic organisms. This study investigated the effectiveness of three unique natural carrier materials (mussel shells, coir peat and mussel shell/agar complex) which allowed nutrients, hydrocarbonoclastic organisms and oil to be in contact, facilitating remediation. TPH analysis after 30 d showed that mussel shells exhibited the greatest capacity to degrade oil with a 55% reduction (123.3 mg l(-1) from 276 mg l(-1)) followed by mussel shell/agar complex (49%) and coir peat (36%). Both the mussel shells and mussel shell/agar complex carriers were significantly different to the control (P=0.008 and P=0.002, respectively). DGGE based cluster analysis of the seawater microbial community showed groupings based on time rather than carriers. This study demonstrated that inexpensive, accessible waste materials used as carriers of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria led to significant degradation of hydrocarbon contaminants in seawater.

  16. Correcting Aberrations in Complex Magnet Systems for Muon Cooling Channels

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Maloney, B. Erdelyi, A. Afanaciev, R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev, V.S. Morozov

    2011-03-01

    Designing and simulating complex magnet systems needed for cooling channels in both neutrino factories and muon colliders requires innovative techniques to correct for both chromatic and spherical aberrations. Optimizing complex systems, such as helical magnets for example, is also difficult but essential. By using COSY INFINITY, a differential algebra based code, the transfer and aberration maps can be examined to discover what critical terms have the greatest influence on these aberrations.

  17. A functional approach to geometry optimization of complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslen, P. E.

    A quadratically convergent procedure is presented for the geometry optimization of complex systems, such as biomolecules and molecular complexes. The costly evaluation of the exact Hessian is avoided by expanding the density functional to second order in both nuclear and electronic variables, and then searching for the minimum of the quadratic functional. The dependence of the functional on the choice of nuclear coordinate system is described, and illustrative geometry optimizations using Cartesian and internal coordinates are presented for Taxol™.

  18. High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel A. Mosher; Xia Tang; Ronald J. Brown; Sarah Arsenault; Salvatore Saitta; Bruce L. Laube; Robert H. Dold; Donald L. Anton

    2007-07-27

    This final report describes the motivations, activities and results of the hydrogen storage independent project "High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides" performed by the United Technologies Research Center under the Department of Energy Hydrogen Program, contract # DE-FC36-02AL67610. The objectives of the project were to identify and address the key systems technologies associated with applying complex hydride materials, particularly ones which differ from those for conventional metal hydride based storage. This involved the design, fabrication and testing of two prototype systems based on the hydrogen storage material NaAlH4. Safety testing, catalysis studies, heat exchanger optimization, reaction kinetics modeling, thermochemical finite element analysis, powder densification development and material neutralization were elements included in the effort.

  19. Estimation of complex Young's modulus of non-stiff materials using a modified Oberst beam technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yabin; Wells, Valana

    2008-09-01

    The paper presents a modified Oberst beam technique to evaluate the complex Young's modulus of non-stiff materials. Unconstrained layer theories and non-parametric complex modulus identification methods used for stiff materials form the basis for the method. The proposed approach has several advantages over the standard Oberst beam technique. In particular, the layer properties can be evaluated at any frequency, and the base beam need not be completely covered with the layer material. In addition, the proposed method does not require that the complex modulus vs. frequency curve for the base beam should have a flat area near analyzed resonance frequencies in order to yield accurate results. The experiments conducted on a styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) sample using a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) base beam produced good results. Uncertainty analysis shows that the measurement accuracy can be improved by increasing the modulus magnitude ratio between the layer material and the base beam material, or the thickness ratio between the layer and base beam.

  20. Crystallization of solid-state materials via decomplexation of soluble complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Doxsee, K.M.

    1998-10-01

    A variety of compounds which are at best sparingly soluble in aqueous media may be readily brought into solution through the formation of soluble coordination complexes. Modification of experimental conditions through, e.g., dilution or slow removal of the complexing agent, leads to supersaturation and, consequently, crystallization of the original solid-state phase. This technique of decomplexation crystallization, both of simple inorganic coordination complexes and of complexes with macrocyclic organic chelating agents, offers the opportunity both to effect the recrystallization of sparingly soluble species and to modify their crystal morphology. Similarly, precursors for solid-state materials may be solubilized in nonaqueous solvents through the formation of soluble complexes and then allowed to undergo reaction crystallization, allowing the examination of both solvent effects and chelation effects on the morphology and phase of the resulting solid-state materials. These effects are often dramatic, and such complexation-mediated crystallization approaches offer promise for the facile preparation of metastable phases from simple precursors under ambient conditions.

  1. Recording information on protein complexes in an information management system.

    PubMed

    Savitsky, Marc; Diprose, Jonathan M; Morris, Chris; Griffiths, Susanne L; Daniel, Edward; Lin, Bill; Daenke, Susan; Bishop, Benjamin; Siebold, Christian; Wilson, Keith S; Blake, Richard; Stuart, David I; Esnouf, Robert M

    2011-08-01

    The Protein Information Management System (PiMS) is a laboratory information management system (LIMS) designed for use with the production of proteins in a research environment. The software is distributed under the CCP4 licence, and so is available free of charge to academic laboratories. Like most LIMS, the underlying PiMS data model originally had no support for protein-protein complexes. To support the SPINE2-Complexes project the developers have extended PiMS to meet these requirements. The modifications to PiMS, described here, include data model changes, additional protocols, some user interface changes and functionality to detect when an experiment may have formed a complex. Example data are shown for the production of a crystal of a protein complex. Integration with SPINE2-Complexes Target Tracker application is also described. PMID:21605682

  2. Recording information on protein complexes in an information management system.

    PubMed

    Savitsky, Marc; Diprose, Jonathan M; Morris, Chris; Griffiths, Susanne L; Daniel, Edward; Lin, Bill; Daenke, Susan; Bishop, Benjamin; Siebold, Christian; Wilson, Keith S; Blake, Richard; Stuart, David I; Esnouf, Robert M

    2011-08-01

    The Protein Information Management System (PiMS) is a laboratory information management system (LIMS) designed for use with the production of proteins in a research environment. The software is distributed under the CCP4 licence, and so is available free of charge to academic laboratories. Like most LIMS, the underlying PiMS data model originally had no support for protein-protein complexes. To support the SPINE2-Complexes project the developers have extended PiMS to meet these requirements. The modifications to PiMS, described here, include data model changes, additional protocols, some user interface changes and functionality to detect when an experiment may have formed a complex. Example data are shown for the production of a crystal of a protein complex. Integration with SPINE2-Complexes Target Tracker application is also described.

  3. Recording information on protein complexes in an information management system

    PubMed Central

    Savitsky, Marc; Diprose, Jonathan M.; Morris, Chris; Griffiths, Susanne L.; Daniel, Edward; Lin, Bill; Daenke, Susan; Bishop, Benjamin; Siebold, Christian; Wilson, Keith S.; Blake, Richard; Stuart, David I.; Esnouf, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    The Protein Information Management System (PiMS) is a laboratory information management system (LIMS) designed for use with the production of proteins in a research environment. The software is distributed under the CCP4 licence, and so is available free of charge to academic laboratories. Like most LIMS, the underlying PiMS data model originally had no support for protein–protein complexes. To support the SPINE2-Complexes project the developers have extended PiMS to meet these requirements. The modifications to PiMS, described here, include data model changes, additional protocols, some user interface changes and functionality to detect when an experiment may have formed a complex. Example data are shown for the production of a crystal of a protein complex. Integration with SPINE2-Complexes Target Tracker application is also described. PMID:21605682

  4. Normalized mass mapping of Orbitrap data to define complex, polyglycerol-based raw material compositions.

    PubMed

    Strife, Robert J; Mangels, Michele L

    2010-06-15

    Kendrick Mass Mapping of complex sample compositions, via data derived by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICRMS) at 1,000,000 resolution, is becoming more common. The Orbitrap mass spectrometer (Fourier Transform Axially Harmonic Orbital Trapping) also uses FT methods and indirect detection, though operating at a maximum resolution of 100,000. We define the more general case of Normalized Mass Mapping to any repeating oligomer unit (e.g., C(3)H(6)O(2)) and apply it to Orbitrap-based mapping of a complex polyglycerol ester, 'green' raw material. Mass measurement errors showed sub-ppm precision and accuracy in many cases, parameters that are critical to obtaining well-defined maps. Map-derived, raw-material-characterization parameters such as iodine value are compared with wet-chemical results and show reasonable agreement for our purposes. The methodology appears applicable to raw material control and eliminates wet chemical methods.

  5. An ensemble approach to the evolution of complex systems.

    PubMed

    Arpağ, Göker; Erzan, Ayşe

    2014-04-01

    Adaptive systems frequently incorporate complex structures which can arise spontaneously and which may be nonadaptive in the evolutionary sense. We give examples from phase transition and fractal growth to develop the themes of cooperative phenomena and pattern formation. We discuss RNA interference and transcriptional gene regulation networks, where a major part of the topological properties can be accounted for by mere combinatorics. A discussion of ensemble approaches to biological systems and measures of complexity is presented, and a connection is established between complexity and fitness.

  6. An ensemble approach to the evolution of complex systems.

    PubMed

    Arpağ, Göker; Erzan, Ayşe

    2014-04-01

    Adaptive systems frequently incorporate complex structures which can arise spontaneously and which may be nonadaptive in the evolutionary sense. We give examples from phase transition and fractal growth to develop the themes of cooperative phenomena and pattern formation. We discuss RNA interference and transcriptional gene regulation networks, where a major part of the topological properties can be accounted for by mere combinatorics. A discussion of ensemble approaches to biological systems and measures of complexity is presented, and a connection is established between complexity and fitness. PMID:24736159

  7. Green photonics realized by optical complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanri, Hiroto; Sasaki, Wakao

    2013-12-01

    We have experimentally demonstrated a new smart grid model which can control DC electric power flow autonomously among individual homes, by using an optical self-organized node with optical non-linear characteristics, and these homes are assumed to be installed by distributed power supplies, and electric power storage devices, and also supposed to be supplied partly by the commercial electric power grid utilities. An electric power network is composed of nodes and devises called Power Gate Unit (PGU). The nodes have optical nonlinearity for self-organizing informations about surplus or shortage of electric power as to individual homes. The PGU is a distributing unit of actual electric power based on above informations of power surplus or shortage at each home. The PGU at each home is electrically connected to both the onsite power supplies and household load such as a solar panel, a DC motor, and a storage battery as well as the commercial electric power grid utilities. In this work, we composed our experimental self-organized DC power grid with above components and supposed the supplied maximum power from the commercial electric power grid utilities to be limited to 5V-0.5A. In this network, information about surplus or shortage of electric power will propagate through the nodes. In the experiments, surplus electric current 0.4A at a particular node was distributed toward a PGU of another node suffering from shortage of electric current. We also confirmed in the experiments and simulations that even when signal propagation path was disconnected accidentally the network could recover an optimized path. The present smart grid system we have attained may be applied by optical fiber link in the near future because our essential components controlling PGU, i.e. the nodes are electro-optical hybrid which are easily applicable to fiber optical link so as to control electric power transmission line.

  8. Learning from systems biology: An ``Omics'' approach to materials design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, Krishna

    2008-03-01

    An understanding of systems biology provides an excellent paradigm for the materials scientist. Ultimately one would like to take an “atoms-applications” approach to materials design. This paper describes how the concepts of genomics, proteomics, and other biological behavior which form the foundations of modern biology can be applied to materials design through materials informatics.

  9. Leadership and transitions: maintaining the science in complexity and complex systems.

    PubMed

    Sturmberg, Joachim P; Martin, Carmel M

    2012-02-01

    It is the 'moral compass', however subtle, that underpins leadership. Leadership, meaning showing the way, demands as much conviction as gentile diplomacy in the discourse with supporters and detractors. In particular, leadership defends the goal by safeguarding its principles from its detractors. The authors writing in the Forum on Complexity in Medicine and Healthcare since its inception are leaders in an intellectual transition to complex systems thinking in medicine and health. PMID:22221419

  10. Leadership and transitions: maintaining the science in complexity and complex systems.

    PubMed

    Sturmberg, Joachim P; Martin, Carmel M

    2012-02-01

    It is the 'moral compass', however subtle, that underpins leadership. Leadership, meaning showing the way, demands as much conviction as gentile diplomacy in the discourse with supporters and detractors. In particular, leadership defends the goal by safeguarding its principles from its detractors. The authors writing in the Forum on Complexity in Medicine and Healthcare since its inception are leaders in an intellectual transition to complex systems thinking in medicine and health.

  11. Bounds on the complex permittivity of polycrystalline materials by analytic continuation

    PubMed Central

    Gully, A.; Lin, J.; Cherkaev, E.; Golden, K. M.

    2015-01-01

    An analytic continuation method for obtaining rigorous bounds on the effective complex permittivity ε* of polycrystalline composite materials is developed. It is assumed that the composite consists of many identical anisotropic crystals, each with a unique orientation. The key step in obtaining the bounds involves deriving an integral representation for ε*, which separates parameter information from geometrical information. Forward bounds are then found using knowledge of the single crystal permittivity tensor and mean crystal orientation. Inverse bounds are also developed, which recover information about the mean crystal orientation from ε*. We apply the polycrystalline bounds to sea ice, a critical component of the climate system. Different ice types, which result from different growth conditions, have different crystal orientation and size statistics. These characteristics significantly influence the fluid transport properties of sea ice, which control many geophysical and biogeochemical processes important to the climate and polar ecosystems. Using a two-scale homogenization scheme, where the single crystal tensor is numerically computed, forward bounds for sea ice are obtained and are in excellent agreement with columnar sea ice data. Furthermore, the inverse bounds are also applied to sea ice, helping to lay the groundwork for determining ice type using remote sensing techniques. PMID:25663811

  12. Complex vibration ultrasonic welding systems with large area welding tips.

    PubMed

    Tsujino, Jiromaru; Sano, Tsutomu; Ogata, Hayato; Tanaka, Soichi; Harada, Yoshiki

    2002-05-01

    Vibration and welding characteristics of complex vibration ultrasonic welding systems of 27 and 40 kHz were studied. Complex vibration systems, which have elliptical to circular or rectangular to square locus, are effective for ultrasonic welding of various specimens including the same and different metal specimens, and for direct welding of semiconductor tips and packaging of various electronic devices without solder. The complex vibration systems consist of a one-dimensional longitudinal-torsional vibration converter with slitted part, a stepped horn and a longitudinal vibration transducer as a driving source. The complex vibration welding tips of 27 and 40 kHz have enough area of 6-8 mm square for various welding specimens. Aluminum plate specimens of 0.3-1.0 mm thickness were successfully joined with weld strengths almost equal to aluminum specimen strength, and independent to the specimen direction. Required vibration amplitude of 40 kHz is smaller than that of 27 kHz.

  13. Configuration complexity assessment of convergent supply chain systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modrak, Vladimir; Marton, David

    2014-07-01

    System designers usually generate alternative configurations of supply chains (SCs) by varying especially fixed assets to satisfy a desired production scope and rate. Such alternatives often vary in associated costs and other facets including degrees of complexity. Hence, a measure of configuration complexity can be a tool for comparison and decision-making. This paper presents three approaches to assessment of configuration complexity and their applications to designing convergent SC systems. Presented approaches are conceptually distinct ways of measuring structural complexity parameters based on different preconditions and circumstances of assembly systems which are typical representatives of convergent SCs. There are applied two similar approaches based on different preconditions that are related to demand shares. Third approach does not consider any special condition relating to character of final product demand. Subsequently, we propose a framework for modeling of assembly SC models, which are dividing to classes.

  14. Computerized nuclear material system at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Tischhauser, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    SNLA developed and implemented a nuclear material control and accountability system on an HP 3000 minicomputer. The Sandia Nuclear Materials Computer System (SNMCS) which became operative in January 1980 provides: control of shipments and receivals of nuclear material, control of internal transfers of nuclear material, automated inventory with a bar code system, control of inventory adjustments, automated reporting/transmitting to other contractors and operations offices, automated ledgers and journals for material weights and costs, and interface to the Albuquerque Operations Office (ALO) Automated 741 System.

  15. A 360-deg Digital Image Correlation system for materials testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genovese, K.; Cortese, L.; Rossi, M.; Amodio, D.

    2016-07-01

    The increasing research interest toward natural and advanced engineered materials demands new experimental protocols capable of retrieving highly dense sets of experimental data on the full-surface of samples under multiple loading conditions. Such information, in fact, would allow to capture the possible heterogeneity and anisotropy of the material by using up-to-date inverse characterization methods. Although the development of object-specific test protocols could represent the optimal choice to address this need, it is unquestionable that universal testing machines (UTM) remain the most widespread and versatile option to test materials and components in both academic and industrial contexts. A major limitation of performing standard material tests with UTM, however, consists in the scarce information obtainable with the commonly associated sensors since they provide only global (LVDTs, extensometers, 2D-video analyzers) or local (strain gages) measures of displacement and strain. This paper presents a 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system developed to perform highly accurate full-surface 360-deg measurements on either standard or custom-shaped samples under complex loading within universal testing machines. To this aim, a low cost and easy to setup video rig was specifically designed to overcome the practical limitations entailed with the integration of a multi-camera system within an already existing loading frame. In particular, the proposed system features a single SLR digital camera moved through multiple positions around the specimen by means of a large rotation stage. A proper calibration and data-processing procedure allows to automatically merge the experimental data obtained from the multiple views with an accuracy of 10-2 m m . The results of a full benchmarking of the metrological performances of the system are here reported and discussed together with illustrative examples of full-360-deg shape and deformation measurements on a Grade X65 steel

  16. Symmetric and Asymmetric Tendencies in Stable Complex Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tan, James P. L.

    2016-01-01

    A commonly used approach to study stability in a complex system is by analyzing the Jacobian matrix at an equilibrium point of a dynamical system. The equilibrium point is stable if all eigenvalues have negative real parts. Here, by obtaining eigenvalue bounds of the Jacobian, we show that stable complex systems will favor mutualistic and competitive relationships that are asymmetrical (non-reciprocative) and trophic relationships that are symmetrical (reciprocative). Additionally, we define a measure called the interdependence diversity that quantifies how distributed the dependencies are between the dynamical variables in the system. We find that increasing interdependence diversity has a destabilizing effect on the equilibrium point, and the effect is greater for trophic relationships than for mutualistic and competitive relationships. These predictions are consistent with empirical observations in ecology. More importantly, our findings suggest stabilization algorithms that can apply very generally to a variety of complex systems. PMID:27545722

  17. Universality of flux-fluctuation law in complex dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhao; Huang, Zi-Gang; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Yang, Lei; Xue, De-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has revealed a law governing flux fluctuation and the average flux in complex dynamical systems. We establish the universality of this flux-fluctuation law through the following steps: (i) We derive the law in a more general setting, showing that it depends on a single parameter characterizing the external driving; (ii) we conduct extensive numerical computations using distinct external driving, different network topologies, and multiple traffic routing strategies; and (iii) we analyze data from an actual vehicle traffic system in a major city in China to lend more credence to the universality of the flux-fluctuation law. Additional factors considered include flux fluctuation on links, window size effect, and hidden topological structures such as nodal degree correlation. Besides its fundamental importance in complex systems, the flux-fluctuation law can be used to infer certain intrinsic property of the system for potential applications such as control of complex systems for improved performance.

  18. Active control technique of fractional-order chaotic complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Gamal M.; Ahmed, Mansour E.; Abed-Elhameed, Tarek M.

    2016-06-01

    Several kinds of synchronization of fractional-order chaotic complex systems are challenging research topics of current interest since they appear in many applications in applied sciences. Our main goal in this paper is to introduce the definition of modified projective combination-combination synchronization (MPCCS) of some fractional-order chaotic complex systems. We show that our systems are chaotic by calculating their Lyapunov exponents. The fractional Lyapunov dimension of the chaotic solutions of these systems is computed. A scheme is introduced to calculate MPCCS of four different (or identical) chaotic complex systems using the active control technique. Special cases of this type, which are projective and anti C-C synchronization, are discussed. Some figures are plotted to show that MPCCS is achieved and its errors approach zero.

  19. Symmetric and Asymmetric Tendencies in Stable Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, James P. L.

    2016-08-01

    A commonly used approach to study stability in a complex system is by analyzing the Jacobian matrix at an equilibrium point of a dynamical system. The equilibrium point is stable if all eigenvalues have negative real parts. Here, by obtaining eigenvalue bounds of the Jacobian, we show that stable complex systems will favor mutualistic and competitive relationships that are asymmetrical (non-reciprocative) and trophic relationships that are symmetrical (reciprocative). Additionally, we define a measure called the interdependence diversity that quantifies how distributed the dependencies are between the dynamical variables in the system. We find that increasing interdependence diversity has a destabilizing effect on the equilibrium point, and the effect is greater for trophic relationships than for mutualistic and competitive relationships. These predictions are consistent with empirical observations in ecology. More importantly, our findings suggest stabilization algorithms that can apply very generally to a variety of complex systems.

  20. An ICAI architecture for troubleshooting in complex, dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fath, Janet L.; Mitchell, Christine M.; Govindaraj, T.

    1990-01-01

    Ahab, an intelligent computer-aided instruction (ICAI) program, illustrates an architecture for simulator-based ICAI programs to teach troubleshooting in complex, dynamic environments. The architecture posits three elements of a computerized instructor: the task model, the student model, and the instructional module. The task model is a prescriptive model of expert performance that uses symptomatic and topographic search strategies to provide students with directed problem-solving aids. The student model is a descriptive model of student performance in the context of the task model. This student model compares the student and task models, critiques student performance, and provides interactive performance feedback. The instructional module coordinates information presented by the instructional media, the task model, and the student model so that each student receives individualized instruction. Concept and metaconcept knowledge that supports these elements is contained in frames and production rules, respectively. The results of an experimental evaluation are discussed. They support the hypothesis that training with an adaptive online system built using the Ahab architecture produces better performance than training using simulator practice alone, at least with unfamiliar problems. It is not sufficient to develop an expert strategy and present it to students using offline materials. The training is most effective if it adapts to individual student needs.

  1. Cx-02 Program, workshop on modeling complex systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mossotti, Victor G.; Barragan, Jo Ann; Westergard, Todd D.

    2003-01-01

    This publication contains the abstracts and program for the workshop on complex systems that was held on November 19-21, 2002, in Reno, Nevada. Complex systems are ubiquitous within the realm of the earth sciences. Geological systems consist of a multiplicity of linked components with nested feedback loops; the dynamics of these systems are non-linear, iterative, multi-scale, and operate far from equilibrium. That notwithstanding, It appears that, with the exception of papers on seismic studies, geology and geophysics work has been disproportionally underrepresented at regional and national meetings on complex systems relative to papers in the life sciences. This is somewhat puzzling because geologists and geophysicists are, in many ways, preadapted to thinking of complex system mechanisms. Geologists and geophysicists think about processes involving large volumes of rock below the sunlit surface of Earth, the accumulated consequence of processes extending hundreds of millions of years in the past. Not only do geologists think in the abstract by virtue of the vast time spans, most of the evidence is out-of-sight. A primary goal of this workshop is to begin to bridge the gap between the Earth sciences and life sciences through demonstration of the universality of complex systems science, both philosophically and in model structures.

  2. Developing Students' Understanding of Complex Systems in the Geosciences (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Bice, D. M.; Pyle, E.; Slotta, J.

    2010-12-01

    Developing a systems perspective is a commonly cited goal for geosciences courses and programs. This perspective is a powerful tool for critical thinking, problem solving and integrative thinking across and beyond the sciences. In April 2010, a NSF funded ‘On the Cutting Edge’ workshop brought together 45 geoscience faculty, education and cognitive science researchers, and faculty from other STEM and social science disciplines that make use of a complex systems approach. The workshop participants focused on understanding the challenges inherent in developing an understanding of complex systems and the teaching strategies currently in use across the disciplines. These include using models and visualizations to allow students to experiment with complex systems, using projects and problems to give students experience with data and observations derived from a complex system, and using illustrated lectures and discussions and analogies to illuminate the salient aspects of complex systems. The workshop website contains a collection of teaching activities, instructional resources and courses that demonstrate these approaches. The workshop participants concluded that research leading to a clear articulation of what constitutes understanding complex system behavior is needed, as are instruments and performance measures that could be used to assess this understanding. Developing the ability to recognize complex systems and understand their behavior is a significant learning task that cannot be achieved in a single course. Rather it is a type of literacy that should be taught in a progression extending from elementary school to college and across the disciplines. Research defining this progression and its endpoints is needed. Full information about the workshop, its discussions, and resulting collections of courses, activities, references and ideas are available on the workshop website.

  3. Information and computer-aided system for structural materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekrashevitch, Ju. G.; Nizametdinov, Sh. U.; Polkovnikov, A. V.; Rumjantzev, V. P.; Surina, O. N.; Kalinin, G. M.; Sidorenkov, A. V.; Strebkov, Ju. S.

    1992-09-01

    An information and computer-aided system for structural materials data has been developed to provide data for the fusion and fission reactor system design. It is designed for designers, industrial engineers, and material science specialists and provides a friendly interface in an interactive mode. The database for structural materials contains the master files: chemical composition, physical, mechanical, corrosion, technological properties, regulatory and technical documentation. The system is implemented on a PC/AT running the PS/2 operating system.

  4. Measurement of the complex refractive index and complex dielectric permittivity of T.P.S. Space Shuttle tile materials at millimeter wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afsar, Mohammed Nurul; Chi, Hua; Li, Xiaohui

    1990-01-01

    Complex refractive index and dielectric permittivity studies of presently used Space Shuttle tile materials at millimeter wavelengths reveal these tiles to exhibit similar absorption characteristics to those of fused silica materials. This absorption is mainly related to the water content in the specimen. A strong birefringence is observed at least in one of these fibrous refractory composite materials.

  5. Complexity and Control: Towards a Rigorous Behavioral Theory of Complex Dynamical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G.; Reid, Darryn J.

    We introduce our motive for writing this book on complexity and control with a popular "complexity myth," which seems to be quite wide spread among chaos and complexity theory fashionistas: Low-dimensional systems usually exhibit complex behaviours (which we know fromMay's studies of the Logisticmap), while high-dimensional systems usually exhibit simple behaviours (which we know from synchronisation studies of the Kuramoto model)... We admit that this naive view on complex (e.g., human) systems versus simple (e.g., physical) systems might seem compelling to various technocratic managers and politicians; indeed, the idea makes for appealing sound-bites. However, it is enough to see both in the equations and computer simulations of pendula of various degree - (i) a single pendulum, (ii) a double pendulum, and (iii) a triple pendulum - that this popular myth is plain nonsense. The only thing that we can learn from it is what every tyrant already knows: by using force as a strong means of control, it is possible to effectively synchronise even hundreds of millions of people, at least for a while.

  6. Can interaction of materials with the dentin-pulp complex contribute to dentin regeneration?

    PubMed

    Ferracane, Jack L; Cooper, Paul R; Smith, Anthony J

    2010-02-01

    Understanding outcomes of the interaction between a dental material and tooth tissue is important in terms not only of biocompatibility but also of the potential for the material to modulate the response of the tissue. This interaction is influenced by many factors, including the chemistry of the material and any of its eluted components or degradation products, and the manner in which the tissue responds to these agents. Past studies of this interaction have primarily been aimed at identifying cytotoxic effects. More recently, investigations have focused on specific cellular responses, and in particular, on understanding how the materials themselves actually may contribute to regenerative processes in the tooth. Recent work has demonstrated the solubilization of proteins from dentin exposed to certain materials, such as calcium hydroxide, mineral trioxide aggregate, and acidic solutions that relate to those used in dentin bonding agents, with the subsequent modulation by these proteins of gene expression in odontoblast-like cells. This work suggests that dentin bridge formation under such materials may be stimulated through this process. Thus, there is much merit in examining both how new dental materials can be developed and how more traditional ones can be modified to preferentially stimulate regenerative processes when preferred. This review summarizes current knowledge about the potential beneficial effects derived from the interaction of dental materials with the dentin-pulp complex, as well as potential future developments in this exciting field.

  7. Electrochemically fabricated polypyrrole-cobalt-oxygen coordination complex as high-performance lithium-storage materials.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bingkun; Kong, Qingyu; Zhu, Ying; Mao, Ya; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Wan, Meixiang; Chen, Liquan

    2011-12-23

    Current lithium-ion battery (LIB) technologies are all based on inorganic electrode materials, though organic materials have been used as electrodes for years. Disadvantages such as limited thermal stability and low specific capacity hinder their applications. On the other hand, the transition metal oxides that provide high lithium-storage capacity by way of electrochemical conversion reaction suffer from poor cycling stability. Here we report a novel high-performance, organic, lithium-storage material, a polypyrrole-cobalt-oxygen (PPy-Co-O) coordination complex, with high lithium-storage capacity and excellent cycling stability. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure and Raman spectroscopy and other physical and electrochemical characterizations demonstrate that this coordination complex can be electrochemically fabricated by cycling PPy-coated Co(3)O(4) between 0.0 V and 3.0 V versus Li(+)/Li. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that each cobalt atom coordinates with two nitrogen atoms within the PPy-Co coordination layer and the layers are connected with oxygen atoms between them. Coordination weakens the C-H bonds on PPy and makes the complex a novel lithium-storage material with high capacity and high cycling stability.

  8. Solving complex-valued linear systems via equivalent real formulations

    SciTech Connect

    DAY,DAVID M.; HEROUX,MICHAEL A.

    2000-05-22

    Most algorithms used in preconditioned iterative methods are generally applicable to complex valued linear systems, with real valued linear systems simply being a special case. However, most iterative solver packages available today focus exclusively on real valued systems, or deal with complex valued systems as an afterthought. One obvious approach to addressing this problem is to recast the complex problem into one of a several equivalent real forms and then use a real valued solver to solve the related system. However, well-known theoretical results showing unfavorable spectral properties for the equivalent real forms have diminished enthusiasm for this approach. At the same time, experience has shown that there are situations where using an equivalent real form can be very effective. In this paper, the authors explore this approach, giving both theoretical and experimental evidence that an equivalent real form can be useful for a number of practical situations. Furthermore, they show that by making good use of some of the advance features of modem solver packages, they can easily generate equivalent real form preconditioners that are computationally efficient and mathematically identical to their complex counterparts. Using their techniques, they are able to solve very ill-conditioned complex valued linear systems for a variety of large scale applications. However, more importantly, they shed more light on the effectiveness of equivalent real forms and more clearly delineate how and when they should be used.

  9. Equivalent circuit with complex physical constants and equivalent-parameters-expressed dissipation factors of piezoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Wen, Yu-Mei; Li, Ping

    2006-06-01

    The equivalent circuit with complex physical constants for a piezoelectric ceramic in thickness mode is established. In the equivalent circuit, electric components (equivalent circuit parameters) are connected to real and imaginary parts of complex physical coefficients of piezoelectric materials. Based on definitions of dissipation factors, three of them (dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric dissipation factors) are represented by equivalent circuit parameters. Since the equivalent circuit parameters are detectable, the dissipation factors can be easily obtained. In the experiments, the temperature and the stress responses of the three dissipation factors are measured.

  10. Electrode materials and lithium battery systems

    DOEpatents

    Amine, Khalil; Belharouak, Ilias; Liu, Jun

    2011-06-28

    A material comprising a lithium titanate comprising a plurality of primary particles and secondary particles, wherein the average primary particle size is about 1 nm to about 500 nm and the average secondary particle size is about 1 .mu.m to about 4 .mu.m. In some embodiments the lithium titanate is carbon-coated. Also provided are methods of preparing lithium titanates, and devices using such materials.

  11. A duality framework for stochastic optimal control of complex systems

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we address the problem of minimizing the long-run expected average cost of a complex system consisting of interactive subsystems. We formulate a multiobjective optimization problem of the one-stage expected costs of the subsystems and provide a duality framework to prove that the control policy yielding the Pareto optimal solution minimizes the average cost criterion of the system. We provide the conditions of existence and a geometric interpretation of the solution. For practical situations having constraints consistent with those studied here, our results imply that the Pareto control policy may be of value when we seek to derive online the optimal control policy in complex systems.

  12. From globally coupled maps to complex-systems biology.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2015-09-01

    Studies of globally coupled maps, introduced as a network of chaotic dynamics, are briefly reviewed with an emphasis on novel concepts therein, which are universal in high-dimensional dynamical systems. They include clustering of synchronized oscillations, hierarchical clustering, chimera of synchronization and desynchronization, partition complexity, prevalence of Milnor attractors, chaotic itinerancy, and collective chaos. The degrees of freedom necessary for high dimensionality are proposed to equal the number in which the combinatorial exceeds the exponential. Future analysis of high-dimensional dynamical systems with regard to complex-systems biology is briefly discussed.

  13. From globally coupled maps to complex-systems biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2015-09-01

    Studies of globally coupled maps, introduced as a network of chaotic dynamics, are briefly reviewed with an emphasis on novel concepts therein, which are universal in high-dimensional dynamical systems. They include clustering of synchronized oscillations, hierarchical clustering, chimera of synchronization and desynchronization, partition complexity, prevalence of Milnor attractors, chaotic itinerancy, and collective chaos. The degrees of freedom necessary for high dimensionality are proposed to equal the number in which the combinatorial exceeds the exponential. Future analysis of high-dimensional dynamical systems with regard to complex-systems biology is briefly discussed.

  14. From globally coupled maps to complex-systems biology

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2015-09-15

    Studies of globally coupled maps, introduced as a network of chaotic dynamics, are briefly reviewed with an emphasis on novel concepts therein, which are universal in high-dimensional dynamical systems. They include clustering of synchronized oscillations, hierarchical clustering, chimera of synchronization and desynchronization, partition complexity, prevalence of Milnor attractors, chaotic itinerancy, and collective chaos. The degrees of freedom necessary for high dimensionality are proposed to equal the number in which the combinatorial exceeds the exponential. Future analysis of high-dimensional dynamical systems with regard to complex-systems biology is briefly discussed.

  15. A Multiobjective Optimization Framework for Stochastic Control of Complex Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas; Maroulas, Vasileios; Xiong, Professor Jie

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of minimizing the long-run expected average cost of a complex system consisting of subsystems that interact with each other and the environment. We treat the stochastic control problem as a multiobjective optimization problem of the one-stage expected costs of the subsystems, and we show that the control policy yielding the Pareto optimal solution is an optimal control policy that minimizes the average cost criterion for the entire system. For practical situations with constraints consistent to those we study here, our results imply that the Pareto control policy may be of value in deriving online an optimal control policy in complex systems.

  16. Complex Systems and Educational Change: Towards a New Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke, Jay L.; Sabelli, Nora H.

    2008-01-01

    How might we usefully apply concepts and procedures derived from the study of other complex dynamical systems to analyzing systemic change in education? In this article, we begin to define possible agendas for research toward developing systematic frameworks and shared terminology for such a project. We illustrate the plausibility of defining such…

  17. Integrability of Lotka-Volterra Planar Complex Cubic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukarić, Maša; Giné, Jaume

    In this paper, we study the Lotka-Volterra complex cubic systems. We obtain necessary conditions of integrability for these systems with some restriction on the parameters. The sufficiency is proved for all conditions, except one which remains open, using different methods.

  18. Can Models Capture the Complexity of the Systems Engineering Process?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boppana, Krishna; Chow, Sam; de Weck, Olivier L.; Lafon, Christian; Lekkakos, Spyridon D.; Lyneis, James; Rinaldi, Matthew; Wang, Zhiyong; Wheeler, Paul; Zborovskiy, Marat; Wojcik, Leonard A.

    Many large-scale, complex systems engineering (SE) programs have been problematic; a few examples are listed below (Bar-Yam, 2003 and Cullen, 2004), and many others have been late, well over budget, or have failed: Hilton/Marriott/American Airlines system for hotel reservations and flights; 1988-1992; 125 million; "scrapped"

  19. Complex Moving Parts: Assessment Systems and Electronic Portfolios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Martha J.; Robertson, Royce L.

    2013-01-01

    The largest college within an online university of over 50,000 students invested significant resources in translating a complex assessment system focused on continuous improvement and national accreditation into an effective and efficient electronic portfolio (ePortfolio). The team building the system needed a model to address problems met…

  20. Managing the Complexity of E-Learning Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trentin, Guglielmo

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of the use of information and communication technologies to support educational processes focuses on electronic learning systems and problems related to the management of the complexity of these systems. Presents electronic learning models and discusses the need for specific research about their organizational development. (Author/LRW)

  1. Controlling Magnetism of a Complex Metallic System Using Atomic Individualism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudryk, Y.; Paudyal, D.; Pecharsky, V. K.; Gschneidner, K. A., Jr.; Misra, S.; Miller, G. J.

    2010-08-01

    When the complexity of a metallic compound reaches a certain level, a specific location in the structure may be critically responsible for a given fundamental property of a material while other locations may not play as much of a role in determining such a property. The first-principles theory has pinpointed a critical location in the framework of a complex intermetallic compound—Gd5Ge4—that resulted in a controlled alteration of the magnetism of this compound using precise chemical tools.

  2. Bag-out material handling system

    DOEpatents

    Brak, Stephen B.; Milek, Henry F.

    1984-01-01

    A bagging device for transferring material from a first chamber through an pening in a wall to a second chamber includes an outer housing communicating with the opening and having proximal and distal ends relative to the wall. An inner housing having proximal and distal ends corresponding to those of the outer housing is mounted in a concentrically spaced, sealed manner with respect to the distal end of the outer housing. The inner and outer housings and mounting means therebetween define an annular chamber, closed at its distal end and open at its proximal end, in which a pliable tube is slidably positioned in sealed engagement with the housings. The pliable tube includes a sealed end positioned adjacent the proximal end of the inner housing so as to maintain isolation between the first and second chambers. Displacement of the material to be bagged from the first chamber along the inner housing so as to contact the sealed portion of the pliable bag allows the material to be positioned within the pliable bag in the second chamber. The bag is then sealed and severed between where the material is positioned therein and the wall in providing a sealed container for handling the material. The pliable tube when substantially depleted slides onto a narrow portion of the inner housing to allow a new pliable tube to be positioned over the old pliable tube. Remnants of the old pliable tube are then discharged into the new pliable tube with the bagging and removal of additional material.

  3. Bag-out material handling system

    DOEpatents

    Brak, Stephen B.

    1985-01-01

    A bagging device for transferring material from a first chamber through an opening in a wall to a second chamber includes an outer housing communicating with the opening and having proximal and distal ends relative to the wall. An inner housing having proximal and distal ends corresponding to those of the outer housing is mounted in a concentrically spaced, sealed manner with respect to the distal end of the outer housing. The inner and outer housings and mounting means therebetween define an annular chamber, closed at its distal end and open at its proximal end, in which a pliable tube is slidably positioned in sealed engagement with the housings. The pliable tube includes a sealed end positioned adjacent the proximal end of the inner housing so as to maintain isolation between the first and second chambers. Displacement of the material to be bagged from the first chamber along the inner housing so as to contact the sealed portion of the pliable bag allows the material to be positioned within the pliable bag in the second chamber. The bag is then sealed and severed between where the material is positioned therein and the wall in providing a sealed container for handling the material. The pliable tube when substantially depleted slides onto a narrow portion of the inner housing to allow a new pliable tube to be positioned over the old pliable tube. Remnants of the old pliable tube are then discharged into the new pliable tube with the bagging and removal of additional material.

  4. Dual-phase evolution in complex adaptive systems

    PubMed Central

    Paperin, Greg; Green, David G.; Sadedin, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the origins of complexity is a key challenge in many sciences. Although networks are known to underlie most systems, showing how they contribute to well-known phenomena remains an issue. Here, we show that recurrent phase transitions in network connectivity underlie emergent phenomena in many systems. We identify properties that are typical of systems in different connectivity phases, as well as characteristics commonly associated with the phase transitions. We synthesize these common features into a common framework, which we term dual-phase evolution (DPE). Using this framework, we review the literature from several disciplines to show that recurrent connectivity phase transitions underlie the complex properties of many biological, physical and human systems. We argue that the DPE framework helps to explain many complex phenomena, including perpetual novelty, modularity, scale-free networks and criticality. Our review concludes with a discussion of the way DPE relates to other frameworks, in particular, self-organized criticality and the adaptive cycle. PMID:21247947

  5. Complex Homology and the Evolution of Nervous Systems

    PubMed Central

    Liebeskind, Benjamin J.; Hillis, David M.; Zakon, Harold H.; Hofmann, Hans A.

    2016-01-01

    We examine the complex evolution of animal nervous systems and discuss the ramifications of this complexity for inferring the nature of early animals. Although reconstructing the origins of nervous systems remains a central challenge in biology, and the phenotypic complexity of early animals remains controversial, a compelling picture is emerging. We now know that the nervous system and other key animal innovations contain a large degree of homoplasy, at least on the molecular level. Conflicting hypotheses about early nervous system evolution are due primarily to differences in the interpretation of this homoplasy. We highlight the need for explicit discussion of assumptions and discuss the limitations of current approaches for inferring ancient phenotypic states. PMID:26746806

  6. Data driven uncertainty evaluation for complex engineered system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Boyuan; Huang, Shuangxi; Fan, Wenhui; Xiao, Tianyuan; Humann, James; Lai, Yuyang; Jin, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Complex engineered systems are often difficult to analyze and design due to the tangled interdependencies among their subsystems and components. Conventional design methods often need exact modeling or accurate structure decomposition, which limits their practical application. The rapid expansion of data makes utilizing data to guide and improve system design indispensable in practical engineering. In this paper, a data driven uncertainty evaluation approach is proposed to support the design of complex engineered systems. The core of the approach is a data-mining based uncertainty evaluation method that predicts the uncertainty level of a specific system design by means of analyzing association relations along different system attributes and synthesizing the information entropy of the covered attribute areas, and a quantitative measure of system uncertainty can be obtained accordingly. Monte Carlo simulation is introduced to get the uncertainty extrema, and the possible data distributions under different situations is discussed in detail. The uncertainty values can be normalized using the simulation results and the values can be used to evaluate different system designs. A prototype system is established, and two case studies have been carried out. The case of an inverted pendulum system validates the effectiveness of the proposed method, and the case of an oil sump design shows the practicability when two or more design plans need to be compared. This research can be used to evaluate the uncertainty of complex engineered systems completely relying on data, and is ideally suited for plan selection and performance analysis in system design.

  7. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique for the determination of the chemical composition of complex inorganic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łazarek, Łukasz; Antończak, Arkadiusz J.; Wójcik, Michał R.; Kozioł, Paweł E.; Stepak, Bogusz; Abramski, Krzysztof M.

    2014-08-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a fast, fully optical method, that needs little or no sample preparation. In this technique qualitative and quantitative analysis is based on comparison. The determination of composition is generally based on the construction of a calibration curve namely the LIBS signal versus the concentration of the analyte. Typically, to calibrate the system, certified reference materials with known elemental composition are used. Nevertheless, such samples due to differences in the overall composition with respect to the used complex inorganic materials can influence significantly on the accuracy. There are also some intermediate factors which can cause imprecision in measurements, such as optical absorption, surface structure, thermal conductivity etc. This paper presents the calibration procedure performed with especially prepared pellets from the tested materials, which composition was previously defined. We also proposed methods of post-processing which allowed for mitigation of the matrix effects and for a reliable and accurate analysis. This technique was implemented for determination of trace elements in industrial copper concentrates standardized by conventional atomic absorption spectroscopy with a flame atomizer. A series of copper flotation concentrate samples was analyzed for contents of three elements, that is silver, cobalt and vanadium. It has been shown that the described technique can be used to qualitative and quantitative analyses of complex inorganic materials, such as copper flotation concentrates.

  8. A Statistical Physics Characterization of the Complex Systems Dynamics: Quantifying Complexity from Spatio-Temporal Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koorehdavoudi, Hana; Bogdan, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Biological systems are frequently categorized as complex systems due to their capabilities of generating spatio-temporal structures from apparent random decisions. In spite of research on analyzing biological systems, we lack a quantifiable framework for measuring their complexity. To fill this gap, in this paper, we develop a new paradigm to study a collective group of N agents moving and interacting in a three-dimensional space. Our paradigm helps to identify the spatio-temporal states of the motion of the group and their associated transition probabilities. This framework enables the estimation of the free energy landscape corresponding to the identified states. Based on the energy landscape, we quantify missing information, emergence, self-organization and complexity for a collective motion. We show that the collective motion of the group of agents evolves to reach the most probable state with relatively lowest energy level and lowest missing information compared to other possible states. Our analysis demonstrates that the natural group of animals exhibit a higher degree of emergence, self-organization and complexity over time. Consequently, this algorithm can be integrated into new frameworks to engineer collective motions to achieve certain degrees of emergence, self-organization and complexity.

  9. A Statistical Physics Characterization of the Complex Systems Dynamics: Quantifying Complexity from Spatio-Temporal Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Koorehdavoudi, Hana; Bogdan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Biological systems are frequently categorized as complex systems due to their capabilities of generating spatio-temporal structures from apparent random decisions. In spite of research on analyzing biological systems, we lack a quantifiable framework for measuring their complexity. To fill this gap, in this paper, we develop a new paradigm to study a collective group of N agents moving and interacting in a three-dimensional space. Our paradigm helps to identify the spatio-temporal states of the motion of the group and their associated transition probabilities. This framework enables the estimation of the free energy landscape corresponding to the identified states. Based on the energy landscape, we quantify missing information, emergence, self-organization and complexity for a collective motion. We show that the collective motion of the group of agents evolves to reach the most probable state with relatively lowest energy level and lowest missing information compared to other possible states. Our analysis demonstrates that the natural group of animals exhibit a higher degree of emergence, self-organization and complexity over time. Consequently, this algorithm can be integrated into new frameworks to engineer collective motions to achieve certain degrees of emergence, self-organization and complexity. PMID:27297496

  10. Complex materials for molecular spintronics applications: cobalt bis(dioxolene) valence tautomers, from molecules to polymers.

    PubMed

    Calzolari, Arrigo; Chen, Yifeng; Lewis, Geoffrey F; Dougherty, Daniel B; Shultz, David; Nardelli, Marco Buongiorno

    2012-11-01

    Using first principles calculations, we predict a complex multifunctional behavior in cobalt bis(dioxolene) valence tautomeric compounds. Molecular spin-state switching is shown to dramatically alter electronic properties and corresponding transport properties. This spin state dependence has been demonstrated for technologically relevant coordination polymers of valence tautomers as well as for novel conjugated polymers with valence tautomeric functionalization. As a result, these materials are proposed as promising candidates for spintronic devices that can couple magnetic bistability with novel electrical and spin conduction properties. Our findings pave the way to the fundamental understanding and future design of active multifunctional organic materials for spintronics applications.

  11. Zirconia-based luminescent organic-inorganic hybrid materials with ternary europium (III) complexes bonded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing; Li, Zhiqiang; Xu, Yang; Wang, Yige

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a novel red-emitting organic-inorganic hybrid material with europium (III) lanthanide β-diketonate complexes linked to a zirconia was reported, which was realized by adduct formation with zirconia-tethered terpyridine moieties. Luminescence enhancement of the hybrid material has been observed compared with pure Eu(tta)3·2H2O. Transparent and strongly luminescent thin films based on PMMA were also prepared at room temperature, which are highly luminescent under UV-light irradiation and possess a promising prospect in the area of optics.

  12. Technology assessment of solar-energy systems. Materials resource and hazardous materials impacts of solar deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffman, Y. M.; Tahami, J. E.

    1982-04-01

    The materials-resource and hazardous-materials impacts were determined by examining the type and quantity of materials used in the manufacture, construction, installation, operation and maintenance of solar systems. The materials requirements were compared with US materials supply and demand data to determine if potential problems exist in terms of future availability of domestic supply and increased dependence on foreign sources of supply. Hazardous materials were evaluated in terms of public and occupational health hazards and explosive and fire hazards. It is concluded that: although large amounts of materials would be required, the US had sufficient industrial capacity to produce those materials; (2) postulated growth in solar technology deployment during the period 1995-2000 could cause some production shortfalls in the steel and copper industry; the U.S. could increase its import reliance for certain materials such as silver, iron ore, and copper; however, shifts to other materials such as aluminum and polyvinylchloride could alleviate some of these problems.

  13. 14 CFR 121.271 - Fire-extinguishing system materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire-extinguishing system materials. 121....271 Fire-extinguishing system materials. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each component of a fire-extinguishing system that is in a designated fire zone must be made of...

  14. Automated Derivation of Complex System Constraints from User Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muery, Kim; Foshee, Mark; Marsh, Angela

    2006-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) payload developers submit their payload science requirements for the development of on-board execution timelines. The ISS systems required to execute the payload science operations must be represented as constraints for the execution timeline. Payload developers use a software application, User Requirements Collection (URC), to submit their requirements by selecting a simplified representation of ISS system constraints. To fully represent the complex ISS systems, the constraints require a level of detail that is beyond the insight of the payload developer. To provide the complex representation of the ISS system constraints, HOSC operations personnel, specifically the Payload Activity Requirements Coordinators (PARC), manually translate the payload developers simplified constraints into detailed ISS system constraints used for scheduling the payload activities in the Consolidated Planning System (CPS). This paper describes the implementation for a software application, User Requirements Integration (URI), developed to automate the manual ISS constraint translation process.

  15. Novel measures based on the Kolmogorov complexity for use in complex system behavior studies and time series analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailović, Dragutin T.; Mimić, Gordan; Nikolić-Djorić, Emilija; Arsenić, Ilija

    2015-01-01

    We propose novel metrics based on the Kolmogorov complexity for use in complex system behavior studies and time series analysis. We consider the origins of the Kolmogorov complexity and discuss its physical meaning. To get better insights into the nature of complex systems and time series analysis we introduce three novel measures based on the Kolmogorov complexity: (i) the Kolmogorov complexity spectrum, (ii) the Kolmogorov complexity spectrum highest value and (iii) the overall Kolmogorov complexity. The characteristics of these measures have been tested using a generalized logistic equation. Finally, the proposed measures have been applied to different time series originating from: a model output (the biochemical substance exchange in a multi-cell system), four different geophysical phenomena (dynamics of: river flow, long term precipitation, indoor 222Rn concentration and UV radiation dose) and the economy (stock price dynamics). The results obtained offer deeper insights into the complexity of system dynamics and time series analysis with the proposed complexity measures.

  16. Benzodipyrrole-based Donor-Acceptor-type Boron Complexes as Tunable Near-infrared-Absorbing Materials.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tomoya; Furukawa, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Eiichi

    2016-07-20

    Benzodipyrrole-based donor-acceptor boron complexes were designed and synthesized as near-infrared-absorbing materials. The electron-rich organic framework combined with the Lewis acidic boron co-ordination enabled us to tune the LUMO energy level and the HOMO-LUMO gap (i.e.,the absorption wavelength) by changing the organic acceptor units, the number of boron atoms, and the substituents on the boron atoms.

  17. Complex dielectric constants for selected near-millimeter-wave materials at 245 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, J. M.; Jones, C. R.; Dave, H.

    1986-01-01

    A double-beam instrument developed in this laboratory has been used to measure the complex dielectric constant of selected materials at 245 GHz. It is reported here the results for crystalline quartz, fused silica (Spectrosil WF and Dynasil 4000), beryllia (iso-pressed), boron nitride (hot-pressed), and a nickel ferrite (Trans-Tech 2-111). Results are compared with the data obtained by other researchers.

  18. Stephen Jay Kline on systems, or physics, complex systems, and the gap between.

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Philip LaRoche

    2011-06-01

    At the end of his life, Stephen Jay Kline, longtime professor of mechanical engineering at Stanford University, completed a book on how to address complex systems. The title of the book is 'Conceptual Foundations of Multi-Disciplinary Thinking' (1995), but the topic of the book is systems. Kline first establishes certain limits that are characteristic of our conscious minds. Kline then establishes a complexity measure for systems and uses that complexity measure to develop a hierarchy of systems. Kline then argues that our minds, due to their characteristic limitations, are unable to model the complex systems in that hierarchy. Computers are of no help to us here. Our attempts at modeling these complex systems are based on the way we successfully model some simple systems, in particular, 'inert, naturally-occurring' objects and processes, such as what is the focus of physics. But complex systems overwhelm such attempts. As a result, the best we can do in working with these complex systems is to use a heuristic, what Kline calls the 'Guideline for Complex Systems.' Kline documents the problems that have developed due to 'oversimple' system models and from the inappropriate application of a system model from one domain to another. One prominent such problem is the Procrustean attempt to make the disciplines that deal with complex systems be 'physics-like.' Physics deals with simple systems, not complex ones, using Kline's complexity measure. The models that physics has developed are inappropriate for complex systems. Kline documents a number of the wasteful and dangerous fallacies of this type.

  19. Growth and characterisation of crystals of a new organic complex of thiourea with quinine sulphate dihydrate: an NLO material.

    PubMed

    Nair, Lekshmi P; Bijini, B R; Prasanna, S; Nair, C M K; Deepa, M; Babu, K Rajendra

    2014-01-01

    An organic complex of thiourea and quinine sulphate dihydrate (TQS) has been grown for the first time by gel method. The structure determination was done by the single crystal XRD technique. The crystal belongs to monoclinic system, P21 space group with cell dimensions a=6.228 (3) Å, b=20.4051 (4) Å, c=11.0600 (6) Å, β=101.9811(2)°. The crystal structure is stabilized by the hydrogen bonding. The functional groups present in the complex were analysed by the Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopic method. The stoichiometry of the complex was confirmed by the elemental analysis. Thermal properties of the complex were determined by TGA and DTA methods and the complex melts at 222.53°C. The optical transparency of the crystal was studied using UV-Visible absorption spectra. The optical band gap is found to be 2.5 eV. The SHG conversion efficiency of TQS was investigated using Kurtz and Perry method and found to be higher than that of the reference material, potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP).

  20. [Cellular immunotherapy: complexity of immune system and industrial development].

    PubMed

    Abastado, J-P

    2003-01-01

    Cell immunotherapy aims at treating patients by stimulating their own immune system using appropriate cells. This approach is one of the most promising therapeutic strategy against cancer. The use of cells, the mobilization of a system, the targeting of interactions between the immune system and the tumor constitute the hallmarks of complexity, an area of intense academic and industrial research during the past twenty years. The present article reviews some unique characteristics of the industrial development of these cell drugs.

  1. In-Situ Neutron Diffraction Studies of Complex Hydrogen Storage Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Yelon, William B.

    2013-05-13

    The thrust of this project was to investigate the structures of important materials with potential application to hydrogen storage, in an effort to meet the DOE goals for 2010 and 2015, namely 9% (wt) and 15% (wt) respectively. Unfortunately, no material has been found, despite the efforts of many laboratories, including our own, that achieves these goals in a reversible complex hydride such as ammonia borane (NH{sub 4}BH{sub 4}), and other ammonia based compounds, or with light hydrides such as LiBH{sub 4}, due either to their irreversibility or to the high decomposition temperatures and residual simple hydrides such as LiH from the decomposition of the last named compound. Nevertheless, several important technical goals have been accomplished that could be valuable to other DOE programs and would be available for collaborative research. These include the development of a high quality glove box with controlled (low) oxygen and water content, which we continue to employ for the synthesis of potential new materials (unfunded research) and the development of a high quality neutron diffraction furnace with controlled gas environment for studies of hydrogen uptake and loss as well as for studies with other gasses. This furnace was initially constructed with an alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) center tube to contain the sample and the flowing gas. The heaters are located in the vacuum space outside the tube and it was found that, for the low temperatures required for the study of hydrogen storage materials, the heat transfer was too poor to allow good control. At temperatures in excess of about 400C (and up to more than 1200C) the heat transfer and control are excellent. For the lower temperatures, however, the center tube was replaced by stainless steel and temperature control to 1C became possible. The paired heaters, above and below the neutron beam window allowed control of the temperature gradient to a similar precision. The high temperature capability of the furnace

  2. Microdisc gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate of organic material from rat otoconial complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. D.; Pote, K. G.; Rarey, K. E.; Verma, L. M.

    1981-01-01

    The gravity receptors of all vertebrates utilize a 'test mass' consisting of a complex arrangement of mineral and organic substance that lies over the sensory receptor areas. In most vertebrates, the mineral is a polymorph of calcium carbonate in the form of minute, single crystals called otoconia. An investigation is conducted to determine the number of proteins in otoconial complexes and their molecular weights. The investigation makes use of a microdisk gel electrophoresis method reported by Gainer (1971). The most important finding of the reported research is that analysis of the proteins of the organic material of the otoconial complexes is possible when sensitive microanalytical methods are employed. Further modification of the basic technique employed and the inclusion of other sensitive staining methods should mean that, in the future, protein separation by molecular weight will be possible in sample pools containing only two otoconial masses.

  3. Materials And Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS) LDEF materials data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Joan G.; Strickland, John W.; Davis, John M.

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Materials Data Base was developed by the LDEF Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG). The LDEF Materials Data Base is envisioned to eventually contain the wide variety and vast quantity of materials data generated from LDEF. The data is searchable by optical, thermal, and mechanical properties, exposure parameters (such as atomic oxygen flux) and author(s) or principal investigator(s). Tne LDEF Materials Data Base was incorporated into the Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS). MAPTIS is a collection of materials data which has been computerized and is available to engineers, designers, and researchers in the aerospace community involved in the design and development of spacecraft and related hardware. The LDEF Materials Data Base is described and step-by-step example searches using the data base are included. Information on how to become an authorized user of the system is included.

  4. Exploiting sparsity and equation-free architectures in complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, J. L.; Brunton, S. L.; Brunton, B. W.; Kutz, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    Complex systems exhibit dynamics that typically evolve on low-dimensional attractors and may have sparse representation in some optimal basis. Recently developed compressive sensing techniques exploit this sparsity for state reconstruction and/or categorical identification from limited measurements. We argue that data-driven dimensionality reduction methods integrate naturally with sparse sensing in the context of complex systems. This framework works equally well with a physical model or in an equation-free context, where data is available but the governing equations may be unknown. We demonstrate the advantages of combining these methods on three prototypical examples: classification of dynamical regimes, optimal sensor placement, and equation-free dynamic model reduction. These examples motivate the potentially transformative role that state-of-the-art data methods and machine learning can play in the analysis of complex systems.

  5. State analysis requirements database for engineering complex embedded systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Matthew B.; Rasmussen, Robert D.; Ingham, Michel D.

    2004-01-01

    It has become clear that spacecraft system complexity is reaching a threshold where customary methods of control are no longer affordable or sufficiently reliable. At the heart of this problem are the conventional approaches to systems and software engineering based on subsystem-level functional decomposition, which fail to scale in the tangled web of interactions typically encountered in complex spacecraft designs. Furthermore, there is a fundamental gap between the requirements on software specified by systems engineers and the implementation of these requirements by software engineers. Software engineers must perform the translation of requirements into software code, hoping to accurately capture the systems engineer's understanding of the system behavior, which is not always explicitly specified. This gap opens up the possibility for misinterpretation of the systems engineer's intent, potentially leading to software errors. This problem is addressed by a systems engineering tool called the State Analysis Database, which provides a tool for capturing system and software requirements in the form of explicit models. This paper describes how requirements for complex aerospace systems can be developed using the State Analysis Database.

  6. Complex systems dynamics in aging: new evidence, continuing questions.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alan A

    2016-02-01

    There have long been suggestions that aging is tightly linked to the complex dynamics of the physiological systems that maintain homeostasis, and in particular to dysregulation of regulatory networks of molecules. This review synthesizes recent work that is starting to provide evidence for the importance of such complex systems dynamics in aging. There is now clear evidence that physiological dysregulation--the gradual breakdown in the capacity of complex regulatory networks to maintain homeostasis--is an emergent property of these regulatory networks, and that it plays an important role in aging. It can be measured simply using small numbers of biomarkers. Additionally, there are indications of the importance during aging of emergent physiological processes, functional processes that cannot be easily understood through clear metabolic pathways, but can nonetheless be precisely quantified and studied. The overall role of such complex systems dynamics in aging remains an important open question, and to understand it future studies will need to distinguish and integrate related aspects of aging research, including multi-factorial theories of aging, systems biology, bioinformatics, network approaches, robustness, and loss of complexity.

  7. Study of thermal control systems for orbiting power systems. Materials experiment carrier thermal control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Four possible arrangements of the materials experiment carrier (MEC) and power system (PS) thermal control loops were defined which would provide one kW of heat rejection for each kW of power to the MEC payload. These arrangements were compared to the baseline reference concept which provides only 16 kW heat rejection to show the cost of obtaining symmetry in terms of dollars, weight, complexity, growth potential, ease of integration, technology and total launch weight. The results of these comparisons was that the concept which splits the PS thermal control loop into two systems, one to reject PS waste heat and one payload waste heat, appeared favorable. The fluid selection study resulted in recommendation of FC72 as the MEC heat transport fluid based on the thermal and physical characteristics. The coatings reviewed indicated anodized and alodine treated aluminum surfaces or silver teflon are the best choices for the MEC vehicle where durability is an important factor. For high temperature radiators silver teflon or zinc orthotitanate are recommended choices.

  8. Crystal Violet Lactone Salicylaldehyde Hydrazone Zn(II) Complex: a Reversible Photochromic Material both in Solution and in Solid Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Li, Yuanyuan; Tao, Jing; Liu, Lu; Wang, Lili; Hou, Hongwei; Tong, Aijun

    2015-01-01

    Crystal violet lactone (CVL) is a classic halochromic dye which has been widely used as chromogenic reagent in thermochromic and piezochromic systems. In this work, a very first example of CVL-based reversible photochromic compound was developed, which showed distinct color change upon UV-visible light irradiation both in solution and in solid matrix. Moreover, metal complex of CVL salicylaldehyde hydrozone was facilely synthesized, exhibiting reversible photochromic properties with good fatigue resistance. It was served as promising solid material for photo-patterning. PMID:26412101

  9. System tradeoffs in siting a solar photovoltaic material recovery infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Goe, Michele; Gaustad, Gabrielle; Tomaszewski, Brian

    2015-09-01

    The consumption and disposal of rare and hazardous metals contained in electronics and emerging technologies such as photovoltaics increases the material complexity of the municipal waste stream. Developing effective waste policies and material recovery systems is required to inhibit landfilling of valuable and finite resources. This work developed a siting and waste infrastructure configuration model to inform the management and recovery of end-of-life photovoltaics. This model solves the siting and waste location-allocation problem for a New York State case study by combining multi-criteria decision methods with spatial tools, however this methodology is generalizable to any geographic area. For the case study, the results indicate that PV installations are spatially statistically significant (i.e., clustered). At least 9 sites, which are co-located with landfills and current MRFs, were 'highly' suitable for siting according to our criteria. After combining criteria in an average weighted sum, 86% of the study area was deemed unsuitable for siting while less than 5% is characterized as highly suitable. This method implicitly prioritized social and environmental concerns and therefore, these concerns accounted for the majority of siting decisions. As we increased the priority of economic criteria, the likelihood of siting near ecologically sensitive areas such as coastline or socially vulnerable areas such as urban centers increased. The sensitivity of infrastructure configurations to land use and waste policy are analyzed. The location allocation model results suggest current tip fees are insufficient to avoid landfilling of photovoltaics. Scenarios where tip fees were increased showed model results where facilities decide to adopt limited recycling technologies that bypass compositionally complex materials; a result with strong implications for global PV installations as well as other waste streams. We suggest a multi-pronged approach that lowers technology cost

  10. System tradeoffs in siting a solar photovoltaic material recovery infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Goe, Michele; Gaustad, Gabrielle; Tomaszewski, Brian

    2015-09-01

    The consumption and disposal of rare and hazardous metals contained in electronics and emerging technologies such as photovoltaics increases the material complexity of the municipal waste stream. Developing effective waste policies and material recovery systems is required to inhibit landfilling of valuable and finite resources. This work developed a siting and waste infrastructure configuration model to inform the management and recovery of end-of-life photovoltaics. This model solves the siting and waste location-allocation problem for a New York State case study by combining multi-criteria decision methods with spatial tools, however this methodology is generalizable to any geographic area. For the case study, the results indicate that PV installations are spatially statistically significant (i.e., clustered). At least 9 sites, which are co-located with landfills and current MRFs, were 'highly' suitable for siting according to our criteria. After combining criteria in an average weighted sum, 86% of the study area was deemed unsuitable for siting while less than 5% is characterized as highly suitable. This method implicitly prioritized social and environmental concerns and therefore, these concerns accounted for the majority of siting decisions. As we increased the priority of economic criteria, the likelihood of siting near ecologically sensitive areas such as coastline or socially vulnerable areas such as urban centers increased. The sensitivity of infrastructure configurations to land use and waste policy are analyzed. The location allocation model results suggest current tip fees are insufficient to avoid landfilling of photovoltaics. Scenarios where tip fees were increased showed model results where facilities decide to adopt limited recycling technologies that bypass compositionally complex materials; a result with strong implications for global PV installations as well as other waste streams. We suggest a multi-pronged approach that lowers technology cost

  11. Materials of construction for advanced coal conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nangia, V.K.

    1982-01-01

    This book describes materials of construction, and materials problems for equipment used in advanced coal conversion systems. The need for cost effective industrial operation is always a prime concern, particularly in this age of energy consciousness. Industry is continually seeking improved materials for more efficient systems. The information presented here is intended to be of use in the design and planning of these systems. Coal conversion and utilization impose severe demands on construction materials because of high temperature, high pressure, corrosive/erosive, and other hostile environmental factors. Successful economic development of these processes can be achieved only to the extent that working materials can withstand increasingly more aggressive operating conditions. The book, which reviews present and past work on the behavior of materials in the environments of advanced coal conversion systems, is divided into three parts: atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, coal gasification and liquefaction, and advanced power systems.

  12. Emergent “quantum” theory in complex adaptive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minic, Djordje; Pajevic, Sinisa

    2016-03-01

    Motivated by the question of stability, in this paper we argue that an effective quantum-like theory can emerge in complex adaptive systems. In the concrete example of stochastic Lotka-Volterra dynamics, the relevant effective “Planck constant” associated with such emergent “quantum” theory has the dimensions of the square of the unit of time. Such an emergent quantum-like theory has inherently nonclassical stability as well as coherent properties that are not, in principle, endangered by thermal fluctuations and therefore might be of crucial importance in complex adaptive systems.

  13. Agent Technology, Complex Adaptive Systems, and Autonomic Systems: Their Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Rouff, Chistopher; Hincheny, Mike

    2004-01-01

    To reduce the cost of future spaceflight missions and to perform new science, NASA has been investigating autonomous ground and space flight systems. These goals of cost reduction have been further complicated by nanosatellites for future science data-gathering which will have large communications delays and at times be out of contact with ground control for extended periods of time. This paper describes two prototype agent-based systems, the Lights-out Ground Operations System (LOGOS) and the Agent Concept Testbed (ACT), and their autonomic properties that were developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to demonstrate autonomous operations of future space flight missions. The paper discusses the architecture of the two agent-based systems, operational scenarios of both, and the two systems autonomic properties.

  14. Balancing Management and Leadership in Complex Health Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kwamie, Aku

    2015-01-01

    Health systems, particularly those in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), need stronger management and leadership capacities. Management and leadership are not synonymous, yet should be considered together as there can be too much of one and not enough of the other. In complex adaptive health systems, the multiple interactions and relationships between people and elements of the system mean that management and leadership, so often treated as domains of the individual, are additionally systemic phenomena, emerging from these relational interactions. This brief commentary notes some significant implications for how we can support capacity strengthening interventions for complex management and leadership. These would necessarily move away from competency-based models focused on training for individuals, and would rather encompass longer-term initiatives explicitly focused on systemic goals of accountability, innovation, and learning. PMID:26673472

  15. Chemical-vapor deposition of complex oxides: materials and process development

    SciTech Connect

    Muenchausen, R.

    1996-11-01

    This is the final report of a six-month, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) part of the Advanced Materials Laboratory (AML). The demand for higher performance and lower cost in electronics is driving the need for advanced materials and consequent process integration. Ceramic thin-film technology is becoming more important in the manufacture of microelectronic devices, photovoltaics, optoelectronics, magneto-optics, sensors, microwave, and radio frequency communication devices, and high-Tc superconducting tapes. A flexible processing approach for potential large-scale manufacturing of novel electronic ceramic thin films is desirable. Current thin- film deposition technologies based on physical vapor-deposition techniques are limited in scale potential and have limited control of processing parameters. The lack of control over multiple process parameters inhibits the versatility and reproducibility of the physical vapor deposition processes applied to complex oxides. Chemical vapor deposition is emerging as a viable approach for large- scale manufacturing of electronic materials. Specifically, the ability to control more processing parameters with chemical vapor deposition than with other processing techniques provides the reliability and material property reproducibility required by manufacturing. This project sought to investigate the chemical vapor deposition of complex oxides.

  16. Screening tests for hazard classification of complex waste materials - Selection of methods

    SciTech Connect

    Weltens, R.; Vanermen, G.; Tirez, K.; Robbens, J.; Deprez, K.; Michiels, L.

    2012-12-15

    In this study we describe the development of an alternative methodology for hazard characterization of waste materials. Such an alternative methodology for hazard assessment of complex waste materials is urgently needed, because the lack of a validated instrument leads to arbitrary hazard classification of such complex waste materials. False classification can lead to human and environmental health risks and also has important financial consequences for the waste owner. The Hazardous Waste Directive (HWD) describes the methodology for hazard classification of waste materials. For mirror entries the HWD classification is based upon the hazardous properties (H1-15) of the waste which can be assessed from the hazardous properties of individual identified waste compounds or - if not all compounds are identified - from test results of hazard assessment tests performed on the waste material itself. For the latter the HWD recommends toxicity tests that were initially designed for risk assessment of chemicals in consumer products (pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, biocides, food, etc.). These tests (often using mammals) are not designed nor suitable for the hazard characterization of waste materials. With the present study we want to contribute to the development of an alternative and transparent test strategy for hazard assessment of complex wastes that is in line with the HWD principles for waste classification. It is necessary to cope with this important shortcoming in hazardous waste classification and to demonstrate that alternative methods are available that can be used for hazard assessment of waste materials. Next, by describing the pros and cons of the available methods, and by identifying the needs for additional or further development of test methods, we hope to stimulate research efforts and development in this direction. In this paper we describe promising techniques and argument on the test selection for the pilot study that we have performed on different types of

  17. Estimation of Complex Permittivity of Composite Multilayer Material at Microwave Frequency Using Waveguide Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, Manohar D.; Dudley, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    A simple method is presented to estimate the complex dielectric constants of individual layers of a multilayer composite material. Using the MatLab Optimization Tools simple MatLab scripts are written to search for electric properties of individual layers so as to match the measured and calculated S-parameters. A single layer composite material formed by using materials such as Bakelite, Nomex Felt, Fiber Glass, Woven Composite B and G, Nano Material #0, Cork, Garlock, of different thicknesses are tested using the present approach. Assuming the thicknesses of samples unknown, the present approach is shown to work well in estimating the dielectric constants and the thicknesses. A number of two layer composite materials formed by various combinations of above individual materials are tested using the present approach. However, the present approach could not provide estimate values close to their true values when the thicknesses of individual layers were assumed to be unknown. This is attributed to the difficulty in modelling the presence of airgaps between the layers while doing the measurement of S-parameters. A few examples of three layer composites are also presented.

  18. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Coordination Complexes as Tunable Optical Response Materials.

    PubMed

    Travis, Will; Knapp, Caroline E; Savory, Christopher N; Ganose, Alex M; Kafourou, Panagiota; Song, Xingchi; Sharif, Zainab; Cockcroft, Jeremy K; Scanlon, David O; Bronstein, Hugo; Palgrave, Robert G

    2016-04-01

    Novel lead and bismuth dipyrido complexes have been synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which shows their structures to be directed by highly oriented π-stacking of planar fully conjugated organic ligands. Optical band gaps are influenced by the identity of both the organic and inorganic component. Density functional theory calculations show optical excitation leads to exciton separation between inorganic and organic components. Using UV-vis, photoluminescence, and X-ray photoemission spectroscopies, we have determined the materials' frontier energy levels and show their suitability for photovoltaic device fabrication by use of electron- and hole-transport materials such as TiO2 and spiro-OMeTAD respectively. Such organic/inorganic hybrid materials promise greater electronic tunability than the inflexible methylammonium lead iodide structure through variation of both the metal and organic components.

  19. A comparative study of actinide complexation in three ligand systems with increasing complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanson, A.; Dahou, S.; Guillaumont, D.; Moisy, P.; Den Auwer, C.; Scheinost, A.; Hennig, C.; Vidaud, C.; Subra, G.; Solari, P. L.

    2009-11-01

    The complexation of thorium, neptunium and plutonium at oxidation state +IV with three ligands of increasing complexity has been investigated. These ligands are relevant for bio inorganic systems. The first ligand is the small nitrilotriacetic acid that often play the role of protecting ligands against hydrolysis. EXAFS results for the Th to Pu series have been correlated to quantum chemical calculations and show an homogeneous behavior of the actinide at oxidation state +IV. For larger ligands, steric effects may become significant and one can ask how the ligand may accommodate the large actinide cation coordination sphere. Model pentapeptides have been synthesized and tested as complexing agents. Comparison with NTA shows that the molecular arrangements are radically different. The third ligand system is transferrin, a diferric metalloptrotein that is well known to coordinate a large variety of cations from transition metals of f-elements. Metalloproteins bear primary, secondary and tertiary structures that all play a crucial role in bonding. At a given oxidation state (+IV), but for various atomic numbers (Th, Np, Pu) EXAFS data at the cation LIII edge exhibit significant coordination discrepancies that are related to a changes in protein geometry. In that sense, the metalloprotein may be viewed as a complex system.

  20. Managing Programmatic Risk for Complex Space System Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panetta, Peter V.; Hastings, Daniel; Brumfield, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Risk management strategies have become a recent important research topic to many aerospace organizations as they prepare to develop the revolutionary complex space systems of the future. Future multi-disciplinary complex space systems will make it absolutely essential for organizations to practice a rigorous, comprehensive risk management process, emphasizing thorough systems engineering principles to succeed. Project managers must possess strong leadership skills to direct high quality, cross-disciplinary teams for successfully developing revolutionary space systems that are ever increasing in complexity. Proactive efforts to reduce or eliminate risk throughout a project's lifecycle ideally must be practiced by all technical members in the organization. This paper discusses some of the risk management perspectives that were collected from senior managers and project managers of aerospace and aeronautical organizations by the use of interviews and surveys. Some of the programmatic risks which drive the success or failure of projects are revealed. Key findings lead to a number of insights for organizations to consider for proactively approaching the risks which face current and future complex space systems projects.

  1. Economic Decision Making: Application of the Theory of Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitt, Robert

    In this chapter the complex systems are discussed in the context of economic and business policy and decision making. It will be showed and motivated that social systems are typically chaotic, non-linear and/or non-equilibrium and therefore complex systems. It is discussed that the rapid change in global consumer behaviour is underway, that further increases the complexity in business and management. For policy making under complexity, following principles are offered: openness and international competition, tolerance and variety of ideas, self-reliability and low dependence on external help. The chapter contains four applications that build on the theoretical motivation of complexity in social systems. The first application demonstrates that small economies have good prospects to gain from the global processes underway, if they can demonstrate production flexibility, reliable business ethics and good risk management. The second application elaborates on and discusses the opportunities and challenges in decision making under complexity from macro and micro economic perspective. In this environment, the challenges for corporate management are being also permanently changed: the balance between short term noise and long term chaos whose attractor includes customers, shareholders and employees must be found. The emergence of chaos in economic relationships is demonstrated by a simple system of differential equations that relate the stakeholders described above. The chapter concludes with two financial applications: about debt and risk management. The non-equilibrium economic establishment leads to additional problems by using excessive borrowing; unexpected downturns in economy can more easily kill companies. Finally, the demand for quantitative improvements in risk management is postulated. Development of the financial markets has triggered non-linearity to spike in prices of various production articles such as agricultural and other commodities that has added market

  2. Advanced fiber/matrix material systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartness, J. Timothy

    1991-01-01

    Work completed in Phase 1 of the NASA Advanced Composite Technology program is discussed. Two towpreg forms (commingled yarns and fused powder towpregs) are being characterized under the program. These towpregs will be used to evaluate textile fabrication technologies for advanced aircraft composite structures. The unique characteristic of both of these material forms is that both fiber and matrix resin are handled in a single operation such as weaving, braiding, or fiber placement. The evaluation of both commingled and fused powder towpreg is described. Various polymer materials are considered for both subsonic and supersonic applications. Polymers initially being evaluated include thermoplastic polyimides such as Larc-TPI and New-TPI, thermoplastics such as PEEK and PEKEKK as well as some toughened crosslinked polyimides. Preliminary mechanical properties as well as tow handling are evaluated.

  3. Material Systems for Blast-Energy Dissipation

    SciTech Connect

    James Schondel; Henry S. Chu

    2010-10-01

    Lightweight panels have been designed to protect buildings and vehicles from blast pressures by activating energy dissipation mechanisms under the influence of blast loading. Panels were fabricated which featured a variety of granular materials and hydraulic dissipative deformation mechanisms and the test articles were subjected to full-scale blast loading. The force time-histories transmitted by each technology were measured by a novel method that utilized inexpensive custom-designed force sensors. The array of tests revealed that granular materials can effectively dissipate blast energy if they are employed in a way that they easily crush and rearrange. Similarly, hydraulic dissipation can effectively dissipate energy if the panel features a high fraction of porosity and the panel encasement features low compressive stiffness.

  4. Dynamic modelling of packaging material flow systems.

    PubMed

    Tsiliyannis, Christos A

    2005-04-01

    A dynamic model has been developed for reused and recycled packaging material flows. It allows a rigorous description of the flows and stocks during the transition to new targets imposed by legislation, product demand variations or even by variations in consumer discard behaviour. Given the annual reuse and recycle frequency and packaging lifetime, the model determines all packaging flows (e.g., consumption and reuse) and variables through which environmental policy is formulated, such as recycling, waste and reuse rates and it identifies the minimum number of variables to be surveyed for complete packaging flow monitoring. Simulation of the transition to the new flow conditions is given for flows of packaging materials in Greece, based on 1995--1998 field inventory and statistical data. PMID:15864957

  5. Molecular mechanistic origin of nanoscale contact, friction, and scratch in complex particulate systems.

    PubMed

    Jalilvand, Soroosh; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh

    2015-02-11

    Nanoscale contact mechanisms, such as friction, scratch, and wear, have a profound impact on physics of technologically important particulate systems. Determining the key underlying interparticle interactions that govern the properties of the particulate systems has been long an engineering challenge. Here, we focus on particulate calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) as a model system and use atomistic simulations to decode the interplay between crystallographic directions, structural defects, and atomic species on normal and frictional forces. By exhibiting high material inhomogeneity and low structural symmetry, C-S-H provides an excellent system to explore various contact-induced nanoscale deformation mechanisms in complex particulate systems. Our findings provide a deep fundamental understanding of the role of inherent material features, such as van der Waals versus Coulombic interactions and the role of atomic species, in controlling the nanoscale normal contact, friction, and scratch mechanisms, thereby providing de novo insight and strategies for intelligent modulation of the physics of the particulate systems. This work is the first report on atomic-scale investigation of the contact-induced nanoscale mechanisms in structurally complex C-S-H materials and can potentially open new opportunities for knowledge-based engineering of several other particulate systems such as ceramics, sands, and powders and self-assembly of colloidal systems in general.

  6. Refined scale-dependent permutation entropy to analyze systems complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shuen-De; Wu, Chiu-Wen; Humeau-Heurtier, Anne

    2016-05-01

    Multiscale entropy (MSE) has become a prevailing method to quantify the complexity of systems. Unfortunately, MSE has a temporal complexity in O(N2) , which is unrealistic for long time series. Moreover, MSE relies on the sample entropy computation which is length-dependent and which leads to large variance and possible undefined entropy values for short time series. Here, we propose and introduce a new multiscale complexity measure, the refined scale-dependent permutation entropy (RSDPE). Through the processing of different kinds of synthetic data and real signals, we show that RSDPE has a behavior close to the one of MSE. Furthermore, RSDPE has a temporal complexity in O(N) . Finally, RSDPE has the advantage of being much less length-dependent than MSE. From all this, we conclude that RSDPE over-performs MSE in terms of computational cost and computational accuracy.

  7. Non-metallocene organometallic complexes and related methods and systems

    DOEpatents

    Agapie, Theodor; Golisz, Suzanne Rose; Tofan, Daniel; Bercaw, John E.

    2010-12-07

    A non-metallocene organometallic complex comprising a tridentate ligand and a metal bonded to a tridentate ligand, wherein two substituted aryl groups in the tridentate ligand are connected to a cyclic group at the ortho position via semi-rigid ring-ring linkages, and selected so to provide the resulting non-metallocene organometallic complex with a C.sub.S geometry, a C.sub.1 geometry, a C.sub.2 geometry or a C.sub.2v geometry. Method for performing olefin polymerization with a non-metallocene organometallic complex as a catalyst, related catalytic systems, tridentate ligand and method for providing a non-metallocene organometallic complex.

  8. System and method for measuring permeability of materials

    DOEpatents

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis; Renner, Michael John

    2013-07-09

    Systems and methods are provided for measuring the permeance of a material. The permeability of the material may also be derived. Systems typically provide a liquid or high concentration fluid bath on one side of a material test sample, and a gas flow across the opposing side of the material test sample. The mass flow rate of permeated fluid as a fraction of the combined mass flow rate of gas and permeated fluid is used to calculate the permeance of the material. The material test sample may be a sheet, a tube, or a solid shape. Operational test conditions may be varied, including concentration of the fluid, temperature of the fluid, strain profile of the material test sample, and differential pressure across the material test sample.

  9. Understanding global health governance as a complex adaptive system.

    PubMed

    Hill, Peter S

    2011-01-01

    The transition from international to global health reflects the rapid growth in the numbers and nature of stakeholders in health, as well as the constant change embodied in the process of globalisation itself. This paper argues that global health governance shares the characteristics of complex adaptive systems, with its multiple and diverse players, and their polyvalent and constantly evolving relationships, and rich and dynamic interactions. The sheer quantum of initiatives, the multiple networks through which stakeholders (re)configure their influence, the range of contexts in which development for health is played out - all compound the complexity of this system. This paper maps out the characteristics of complex adaptive systems as they apply to global health governance, linking them to developments in the past two decades, and the multiple responses to these changes. Examining global health governance through the frame of complexity theory offers insight into the current dynamics of governance, and while providing a framework for making meaning of the whole, opens up ways of accessing this complexity through local points of engagement.

  10. Method for the thermal characterization, visualization, and integrity evaluation of conducting material samples or complex structures

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, Marcos G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for modeling a conducting material sample or structure (herein called a system) as at least two regions which comprise an electrical network of resistances, for measuring electric resistance between at least two selected pairs of external leads attached to the surface of the system, wherein at least one external lead is attached to the surface of each of the regions, and, using basic circuit theory, for translating measured resistances into temperatures or thermophysical properties in corresponding regions of the system.

  11. Material handling systems for the fluidized-bed combustion boiler at Rivesville, West Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branam, J. G.; Rosborough, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    The 300,000 lbs/hr steam capacity multicell fluidized-bed boiler (MFB) utilizes complex material handling systems. The material handling systems can be divided into the following areas: (1) coal preparation; transfer and delivery, (2) limestone handling system, (3) fly-ash removal and (4) bed material handling system. Each of the above systems are described in detail and some of the potential problem areas are discussed. A major potential problem that exists is the coal drying system. The coal dryer is designed to use 600 F preheated combustion air as drying medium and the dryer effluent is designed to enter a hot electrostatic precipitator (730 F) after passage through a cyclone. Other problem areas to be discussed include the steam generator coal and limestone feed system which may have operating difficulties with wet coal and/or coal fines.

  12. A 4-D dataset for validation of crystal growth in a complex three-phase material, ice cream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockett, P.; Karagadde, S.; Guo, E.; Bent, J.; Hazekamp, J.; Kingsley, M.; Vila-Comamala, J.; Lee, P. D.

    2015-06-01

    Four dimensional (4D, or 3D plus time) X-ray tomographic imaging of phase changes in materials is quickly becoming an accepted tool for quantifying the development of microstructures to both inform and validate models. However, most of the systems studied have been relatively simple binary compositions with only two phases. In this study we present a quantitative dataset of the phase evolution in a complex three-phase material, ice cream. The microstructure of ice cream is an important parameter in terms of sensorial perception, and therefore quantification and modelling of the evolution of the microstructure with time and temperature is key to understanding its fabrication and storage. The microstructure consists of three phases, air cells, ice crystals, and unfrozen matrix. We perform in situ synchrotron X-ray imaging of ice cream samples using in-line phase contrast tomography, housed within a purpose built cold-stage (-40 to +20oC) with finely controlled variation in specimen temperature. The size and distribution of ice crystals and air cells during programmed temperature cycling are determined using 3D quantification. The microstructural evolution of three-phase materials has many other important applications ranging from biological to structural and functional material, hence this dataset can act as a validation case for numerical investigations on faceted and non-faceted crystal growth in a range of materials.

  13. [The dimension of the paradigm of complexity in health systems].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo; Fernández-Ortega, Miguel Ángel; Ortiz-Montalvo, Armando; Olivares-Santos, Roberto Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This article presents elements to better understand health systems from the complety paradigm, innovative perspective that offers other ways in the conception of the scientific knowledge prevalent away from linear, characterized by the arise of emerging dissociative and behaviors, based on the intra and trans-disciplinarity concepts such knowledges explain and understand in a different way what happens in the health systems with a view to efficiency and effectiveness. The complexity paradigm means another way of conceptualizing the knowledge, is different from the prevalent epistemology, is still under construction does not separate, not isolated, is not reductionist, or fixed, does not solve the problems, but gives other bases to know them and study them, is a different strategy, a perspective that has basis in the systems theory, informatics and cybernetics beyond traditional knowledge, the positive logics, the newtonian physics and symmetric mathematics, in which everything is centered and balanced, joint the "soft sciences and hard sciences", it has present the Social Determinants of Health and organizational culture. Under the complexity paradigm the health systems are identified with the following concepts: entropy, neguentropy, the thermodynamic second law, attractors, chaos theory, fractals, selfmanagement and self-organization, emerging behaviors, percolation, uncertainty, networks and robusteness; such expressions open new possibilities to improve the management and better understanding of the health systems, giving rise to consider health systems as complex adaptive systems. PMID:25982615

  14. [The dimension of the paradigm of complexity in health systems].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo; Fernández-Ortega, Miguel Ángel; Ortiz-Montalvo, Armando; Olivares-Santos, Roberto Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This article presents elements to better understand health systems from the complety paradigm, innovative perspective that offers other ways in the conception of the scientific knowledge prevalent away from linear, characterized by the arise of emerging dissociative and behaviors, based on the intra and trans-disciplinarity concepts such knowledges explain and understand in a different way what happens in the health systems with a view to efficiency and effectiveness. The complexity paradigm means another way of conceptualizing the knowledge, is different from the prevalent epistemology, is still under construction does not separate, not isolated, is not reductionist, or fixed, does not solve the problems, but gives other bases to know them and study them, is a different strategy, a perspective that has basis in the systems theory, informatics and cybernetics beyond traditional knowledge, the positive logics, the newtonian physics and symmetric mathematics, in which everything is centered and balanced, joint the "soft sciences and hard sciences", it has present the Social Determinants of Health and organizational culture. Under the complexity paradigm the health systems are identified with the following concepts: entropy, neguentropy, the thermodynamic second law, attractors, chaos theory, fractals, selfmanagement and self-organization, emerging behaviors, percolation, uncertainty, networks and robusteness; such expressions open new possibilities to improve the management and better understanding of the health systems, giving rise to consider health systems as complex adaptive systems.

  15. Materials integration issues for high performance fusion power systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D. L.

    1998-01-14

    One of the primary requirements for the development of fusion as an energy source is the qualification of materials for the frost wall/blanket system that will provide high performance and exhibit favorable safety and environmental features. Both economic competitiveness and the environmental attractiveness of fusion will be strongly influenced by the materials constraints. A key aspect is the development of a compatible combination of materials for the various functions of structure, tritium breeding, coolant, neutron multiplication and other special requirements for a specific system. This paper presents an overview of key materials integration issues for high performance fusion power systems. Issues such as: chemical compatibility of structure and coolant, hydrogen/tritium interactions with the plasma facing/structure/breeder materials, thermomechanical constraints associated with coolant/structure, thermal-hydraulic requirements, and safety/environmental considerations from a systems viewpoint are presented. The major materials interactions for leading blanket concepts are discussed.

  16. The semiotics of control and modeling relations in complex systems.

    PubMed

    Joslyn, C

    2001-01-01

    We provide a conceptual analysis of ideas and principles from the systems theory discourse which underlie Pattee's semantic or semiotic closure, which is itself foundational for a school of theoretical biology derived from systems theory and cybernetics, and is now being related to biological semiotics and explicated in the relational biological school of Rashevsky and Rosen. Atomic control systems and models are described as the canonical forms of semiotic organization, sharing measurement relations, but differing topologically in that control systems are circularly and models linearly related to their environments. Computation in control systems is introduced, motivating hierarchical decomposition, hybrid modeling and control systems, and anticipatory or model-based control. The semiotic relations in complex control systems are described in terms of relational constraints, and rules and laws are distinguished as contingent and necessary functional entailments, respectively. Finally, selection as a meta-level of constraint is introduced as the necessary condition for semantic relations in control systems and models.

  17. Applications of fidelity measures to complex quantum systems.

    PubMed

    Wimberger, Sandro

    2016-06-13

    We revisit fidelity as a measure for the stability and the complexity of the quantum motion of single-and many-body systems. Within the context of cold atoms, we present an overview of applications of two fidelities, which we call static and dynamical fidelity, respectively. The static fidelity applies to quantum problems which can be diagonalized since it is defined via the eigenfunctions. In particular, we show that the static fidelity is a highly effective practical detector of avoided crossings characterizing the complexity of the systems and their evolutions. The dynamical fidelity is defined via the time-dependent wave functions. Focusing on the quantum kicked rotor system, we highlight a few practical applications of fidelity measurements in order to better understand the large variety of dynamical regimes of this paradigm of a low-dimensional system with mixed regular-chaotic phase space. PMID:27140967

  18. LaserCom System Architecture With Reduced Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesh, James R. (Inventor); Chen, Chien-Chung (Inventor); Ansari, Homa-Yoon (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Spatial acquisition and precision beam pointing functions are critical to spaceborne laser communication systems. In the present invention a single high bandwidth CCD detector is used to perform both spatial acquisition and tracking functions. Compared to previous lasercom hardware design, the array tracking concept offers reduced system complexity by reducing the number of optical elements in the design. Specifically, the design requires only one detector and one beam steering mechanism. It also provides means to optically close the point-ahead control loop. The technology required for high bandwidth array tracking was examined and shown to be consistent with current state of the art. The single detector design can lead to a significantly reduced system complexity and a lower system cost.

  19. 14 CFR 23.1201 - Fire extinguishing systems materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire extinguishing systems materials. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1201 Fire extinguishing systems materials. For all airplanes with engine(s) embedded in the fuselage or in pylons on the aft fuselage the following applies: (a)...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1201 - Fire extinguishing systems materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire extinguishing systems materials. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1201 Fire extinguishing systems materials. For all airplanes with engine(s) embedded in the fuselage or in pylons on the aft fuselage the following applies: (a)...

  1. E-Learning Activity-Based Material Recommendation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Feng-jung; Shih, Bai-jiun

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Computer based systems have great potential for delivering learning material. However, problems are encountered, such as: difficulty of Learning resource sharing, high redundancy of learning material, and deficiency of the course brief. In order to solve these problems, this paper aims to propose an automatic inquiring system for learning…

  2. Materials Challenges for Advanced Combustion and Gasification Fossil Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, S.; Rozzelle, P.; Morreale, B.; Alman, D.

    2011-04-01

    This special section of Metallurgical and Materials Transactions is devoted to materials challenges associated with coal based energy conversion systems. The purpose of this introductory article is to provide a brief outline to the challenges associated with advanced combustion and advanced gasification, which has the potential of providing clean, affordable electricity by improving process efficiency and implementing carbon capture and sequestration. Affordable materials that can meet the demanding performance requirements will be a key enabling technology for these systems.

  3. Potential structural material problems in a hydrogen energy system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, H. R.; Nelson, H. G.; Johnson, R. E.; Mcpherson, W. B.; Howard, F. S.; Swisher, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    Potential structural material problems that may be encountered in the three components of a hydrogen energy system - production, transmission/storage, and utilization - have been identified. Hydrogen embrittlement, corrosion, oxidation, and erosion may occur during the production of hydrogen. Hydrogen embrittlement is of major concern during both transmission and utilization of hydrogen. Specific materials research and development programs necessary to support a hydrogen energy system are described. An awareness of probable shortages of strategic materials has been maintained in these suggested programs.

  4. Complex-compound low-temperature TES system

    SciTech Connect

    Rockenfeller, U.

    1989-03-01

    Development of a complex-compound low-temperature TES system is described herein from basic chemical principles through current bench scale system development. Important application engineering issues and an economic outlook are addressed as well. The system described uses adsorption reactions between solid metal inorganic salts and ammonia refrigerant. It is the coordinative nature of these reactions that allows for storage of ammonia refrigerant within the solid salt crystals that function as a chemical compressor during on peak periods (substituting the mechanical compressor) and release ammonia during off peak periods while a mechanical vapor compression system provides the necessary reactor pressure and heat.

  5. Computer modeling of properties of complex molecular systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkova, E.Yu.; Khrenova, M.G.; Polyakov, I.V.

    2015-03-10

    Large molecular aggregates present important examples of strongly nonhomogeneous systems. We apply combined quantum mechanics / molecular mechanics approaches that assume treatment of a part of the system by quantum-based methods and the rest of the system with conventional force fields. Herein we illustrate these computational approaches by two different examples: (1) large-scale molecular systems mimicking natural photosynthetic centers, and (2) components of prospective solar cells containing titan dioxide and organic dye molecules. We demonstrate that modern computational tools are capable to predict structures and spectra of such complex molecular aggregates.

  6. Martin Marietta Energy Systems Material Safety Data Sheet Program

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, L.B.; Gray, L.M.

    1993-03-29

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems) Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Program was established in 1985 to provide health and safety information to Energy Systems employees and to meet OSHA`s Hazard Communication Material Safety Data Sheet requirements. In 1992, the system was modified and incorporated into Energy Systems Hazardous Materials Information System (HMIS)-MSDS Module to assist in the support of the hazardous material inventory requirements. (See Context Diagram, Exhibit A.) The MSDS Module runs under Computer Associates data base (CADB) software on a VAX computer. The system contains approximately 20,000 MSDSs with over 1,000 new, duplicate, and revised sheets being processed each month. The system monitors, tracks and controls the acquisition and processing of MSDSs to ensure a sheet is obtained andmade available for all hazardous materials. The system supplies Energy Systems employees and visitors real-time access to MSDS information. The system supports two types of data sheets: a long form for highly hazardous and/or utilized materials (MSDS) and a more economical short form, Material Safety Reference Sheet (MSRS) that is used in conjunction with the vendor supplied MSDS to meet regulatory requirements. All hazardous materials are evaluated and assigned fire, health, and reactivity ratings, along with other straight-forward criteria. All vendor supplied MSDSs are technically reviewed and researched for accuracy. The MSDS data base is multi-functional and easy to operate. This allows the system to meet the needs of many analogous programs and activities within Energy Systems including Carcinogen Control, Reproductive Hazard Control, Hazardous Material Management, Waste Minimization, Emergency Response, SARA Reporting, Hazard Communications, and Safety.

  7. Martin Marietta Energy Systems Material Safety Data Sheet Program

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, L.B.; Gray, L.M.

    1993-03-29

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems) Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Program was established in 1985 to provide health and safety information to Energy Systems employees and to meet OSHA's Hazard Communication Material Safety Data Sheet requirements. In 1992, the system was modified and incorporated into Energy Systems Hazardous Materials Information System (HMIS)-MSDS Module to assist in the support of the hazardous material inventory requirements. (See Context Diagram, Exhibit A.) The MSDS Module runs under Computer Associates data base (CADB) software on a VAX computer. The system contains approximately 20,000 MSDSs with over 1,000 new, duplicate, and revised sheets being processed each month. The system monitors, tracks and controls the acquisition and processing of MSDSs to ensure a sheet is obtained andmade available for all hazardous materials. The system supplies Energy Systems employees and visitors real-time access to MSDS information. The system supports two types of data sheets: a long form for highly hazardous and/or utilized materials (MSDS) and a more economical short form, Material Safety Reference Sheet (MSRS) that is used in conjunction with the vendor supplied MSDS to meet regulatory requirements. All hazardous materials are evaluated and assigned fire, health, and reactivity ratings, along with other straight-forward criteria. All vendor supplied MSDSs are technically reviewed and researched for accuracy. The MSDS data base is multi-functional and easy to operate. This allows the system to meet the needs of many analogous programs and activities within Energy Systems including Carcinogen Control, Reproductive Hazard Control, Hazardous Material Management, Waste Minimization, Emergency Response, SARA Reporting, Hazard Communications, and Safety.

  8. Mathematical approaches for complexity/predictivity trade-offs in complex system models : LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsby, Michael E.; Mayo, Jackson R.; Bhattacharyya, Arnab; Armstrong, Robert C.; Vanderveen, Keith

    2008-09-01

    The goal of this research was to examine foundational methods, both computational and theoretical, that can improve the veracity of entity-based complex system models and increase confidence in their predictions for emergent behavior. The strategy was to seek insight and guidance from simplified yet realistic models, such as cellular automata and Boolean networks, whose properties can be generalized to production entity-based simulations. We have explored the usefulness of renormalization-group methods for finding reduced models of such idealized complex systems. We have prototyped representative models that are both tractable and relevant to Sandia mission applications, and quantified the effect of computational renormalization on the predictive accuracy of these models, finding good predictivity from renormalized versions of cellular automata and Boolean networks. Furthermore, we have theoretically analyzed the robustness properties of certain Boolean networks, relevant for characterizing organic behavior, and obtained precise mathematical constraints on systems that are robust to failures. In combination, our results provide important guidance for more rigorous construction of entity-based models, which currently are often devised in an ad-hoc manner. Our results can also help in designing complex systems with the goal of predictable behavior, e.g., for cybersecurity.

  9. Integrated Assessment Systems for Chemical Warfare Material

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; G. L. Thinnes; K. D. Watts; R. J. McMorland

    1999-05-27

    The US Army must respond to a variety of situations involving suspect discovered, recovered, stored, and buried chemical warfare materiel (CWM). In some cases, the identity of the fill materiel and the status of the fusing and firing train cannot be visually determined due to aging of the container, or because the item is contained in an over-pack. In these cases, non-intrusive assessments are required to provide information to allow safe handling, storage, and disposal of the materiel. This paper will provide an overview of the integrated mobile and facility-based CWM assessment system prototypes that have been, and are being developed, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the US Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Project. In addition, this paper will discuss advanced sensors being developed to enhance the capability of the existing and future assessment systems. The Phase I Mobile Munitions Assessment System (MMAS) is currently being used by the Army's Technical Escort Unit (TEU) at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. This system includes equipment for non-intrusively identifying the munitions fill materiel and for assessing the condition and stability of the fuzes, firing trains, and other potential safety hazards. The system provides a self-contained, integrated command post including an on-board computer system, communications equipment, video and photographic equipment, weather monitoring equipment, and miscellaneous safety-related equipment. The Phase II MMAS is currently being tested and qualified for use by the INEEL and the US Army. The Phase II system contains several new assessment systems that significantly enhance the ability to assess CWM. A facility-based munitions assessment system prototype is being developed for the assessment of CWM stored in igloos at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas. This system is currently in the design and fabrication stages. Numerous CWM advanced sensors are being developed and tested, and

  10. Risk-return relationship in a complex adaptive system.

    PubMed

    Song, Kunyu; An, Kenan; Yang, Guang; Huang, Jiping

    2012-01-01

    For survival and development, autonomous agents in complex adaptive systems involving the human society must compete against or collaborate with others for sharing limited resources or wealth, by using different methods. One method is to invest, in order to obtain payoffs with risk. It is a common belief that investments with a positive risk-return relationship (namely, high risk high return and vice versa) are dominant over those with a negative risk-return relationship (i.e., high risk low return and vice versa) in the human society; the belief has a notable impact on daily investing activities of investors. Here we investigate the risk-return relationship in a model complex adaptive system, in order to study the effect of both market efficiency and closeness that exist in the human society and play an important role in helping to establish traditional finance/economics theories. We conduct a series of computer-aided human experiments, and also perform agent-based simulations and theoretical analysis to confirm the experimental observations and reveal the underlying mechanism. We report that investments with a negative risk-return relationship have dominance over those with a positive risk-return relationship instead in such a complex adaptive systems. We formulate the dynamical process for the system's evolution, which helps to discover the different role of identical and heterogeneous preferences. This work might be valuable not only to complexity science, but also to finance and economics, to management and social science, and to physics. PMID:22479416

  11. Risk-return relationship in a complex adaptive system.

    PubMed

    Song, Kunyu; An, Kenan; Yang, Guang; Huang, Jiping

    2012-01-01

    For survival and development, autonomous agents in complex adaptive systems involving the human society must compete against or collaborate with others for sharing limited resources or wealth, by using different methods. One method is to invest, in order to obtain payoffs with risk. It is a common belief that investments with a positive risk-return relationship (namely, high risk high return and vice versa) are dominant over those with a negative risk-return relationship (i.e., high risk low return and vice versa) in the human society; the belief has a notable impact on daily investing activities of investors. Here we investigate the risk-return relationship in a model complex adaptive system, in order to study the effect of both market efficiency and closeness that exist in the human society and play an important role in helping to establish traditional finance/economics theories. We conduct a series of computer-aided human experiments, and also perform agent-based simulations and theoretical analysis to confirm the experimental observations and reveal the underlying mechanism. We report that investments with a negative risk-return relationship have dominance over those with a positive risk-return relationship instead in such a complex adaptive systems. We formulate the dynamical process for the system's evolution, which helps to discover the different role of identical and heterogeneous preferences. This work might be valuable not only to complexity science, but also to finance and economics, to management and social science, and to physics.

  12. Complex Adaptive Systems as Metaphors for Organizational Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmberg, Klara

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of complex adaptive systems (CAS) from the perspective of managing organizations, to describe and explore the management principles in a case study of an organization with unconventional ways of management and to present a tentative model for managing organizations as CAS--system…

  13. Complex Teacher Evaluation Systems Can Produce Negative Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine teacher perceptions of the impact on instructional practice when using a complex, standards-based performance evaluation system. The study used expectancy theory to investigate teacher expectancy (did they believe they could enhance their practice to the identified program standards?), instrumentality…

  14. EVALUATING DISCONTINUITIES IN COMPLEX SYSTEMS: TOWARD QUANTITATIVE MEASURE OF RESILIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The textural discontinuity hypothesis (TDH) is based on the observation that animal body mass distributions exhibit discontinuities that may reflect the texture of the landscape available for exploitation. This idea has been extended to other complex systems, hinting that the ide...

  15. Mining Students' Inquiry Actions for Understanding of Complex Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Sharona T.; Wilensky, Uri

    2011-01-01

    This study lies at an intersection between advancing educational data mining methods for detecting students' knowledge-in-action and the broader question of how conceptual and mathematical forms of knowing interact in exploring complex chemical systems. More specifically, it investigates students' inquiry actions in three computer-based models of…

  16. Architectural Analysis of Complex Evolving Systems of Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindvall, Mikael; Stratton, William C.; Sibol, Deane E.; Ray, Arnab; Ackemann, Chris; Yonkwa, Lyly; Ganesan, Dharma

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this collaborative project between FC-MD, APL, and GSFC and supported by NASA IV&V Software Assurance Research Program (SARP), was to develop a tool, Dynamic SAVE, or Dyn-SAVE for short, for analyzing architectures of systems of systems. The project team was comprised of the principal investigator (PI) from FC-MD and four other FC-MD scientists (part time) and several FC-MD students (full time), as well as, two APL software architects (part time), and one NASA POC (part time). The PI and FC-MD scientists together with APL architects were responsible for requirements analysis, and for applying and evaluating the Dyn-SAVE tool and method. The PI and a group of FC-MD scientists were responsible for improving the method and conducting outreach activities, while another group of FC-MD scientists were responsible for development and improvement of the tool. Oversight and reporting was conducted by the PI and NASA POC. The project team produced many results including several prototypes of the Dyn-SAVE tool and method, several case studies documenting how the tool and method was applied to APL s software systems, and several published papers in highly respected conferences and journals. Dyn-SAVE as developed and enhanced throughout this research period, is a software tool intended for software developers and architects, software integration testers, and persons who need to analyze software systems from the point of view of how it communicates with other systems. Using the tool, the user specifies the planned communication behavior of the system modeled as a sequence diagram. The user then captures and imports the actual communication behavior of the system, which is then converted and visualized as a sequence diagram by Dyn-SAVE. After mapping the planned to the actual and specifying parameter and timing constraints, Dyn-SAVE detects and highlights deviations between the planned and the actual behavior. Requirements based on the need to analyze two inter-system

  17. Structural evolution of polyelectrolyte-complex-core micelles and ordered-phase bulk materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirrell, Matthew; Krogstad, Daniel; Kramer, Edward

    2015-03-01

    The kinetics of formation and structural evolution of novel polyelectrolyte complex materials formed by the assembly of water-soluble di- and tri-block copolymers, with one neutral block and one block either cationic or anionic, have been investigated. The mechanism and speed of the assembly process, and the organization of these domains, were probed using dynamic mechanical spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). SAXS revealed that the equilibrium morphologies of both the di-block copolymer and the tri-block copolymer materials were generally qualitatively the same with some apparent quantitative differences in phase boundaries, possibly attributable to lack of full equilibration. Slow kinetics and difficulties in reaching equilibrium phase structures, especially in tri-block materials, is a principal message of this article. Detailed analysis of the SAXS data revealed that the tri-block copolymer materials formed ordered phases via a nucleation and growth pathway and that the addition of small amounts (~20%) of corresponding di-block copolymers increased the rate of structure formation and enhanced several key physical properties. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science Program in Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  18. A formulation of metamodel implementation processes for complex systems design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daberkow, Debora Daniela

    Complex systems design poses an interesting as well as demanding information management problem for system level integration and design. The high interconnectivity of disciplines combined with the specific knowledge and expertise in each of these calls for a system level view that is broad, as in spanning across all disciplines, while at the same time detailed enough to do the disciplinary knowledge justice. The treatment of this requires highly evolved information management and decision approaches, which result in design methodologies that can handle this high degree of complexity. The solution is to create models within the design process, which predict meaningful metrics representative of the various disciplinary analyses that can be quickly evaluated and thus serve in system level decision making and optimization. Such models approximate the physics-based analysis codes used in each of the disciplines and are called metamodels since effectively, they model the (physics-based) models on which the disciplinary analysis codes are based. The thesis formulates a new metamodel implementation process to be used in complex systems design, utilizing a Gaussian Process prediction method. It is based on a Bayesian probability and inference approach and as such returns a variance prediction along with the most likely value, thus giving an estimate also for the confidence in the prediction. Within this thesis, the applicability and appropriateness at the theoretical as well as practical level are investigated, and proof-of-concept implementations at the disciplinary and system levels are provided.

  19. Hierarchical Model for the Analysis of Scattering Data of Complex Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyedele, Akinola; Mcnutt, Nicholas W.; Rios, Orlando; Keffer, David J.

    2016-06-01

    Interpreting the results of scattering data for complex materials with a hierarchical structure in which at least one phase is amorphous presents a significant challenge. Often the interpretation relies on the use of large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, in which a structure is hypothesized and from which a radial distribution function (RDF) can be extracted and directly compared against an experimental RDF. This computationally intensive approach presents a bottleneck in the efficient characterization of the atomic structure of new materials. Here, we propose and demonstrate an approach for a hierarchical decomposition of the RDF in which MD simulations are replaced by a combination of tractable models and theory at the atomic scale and the mesoscale, which when combined yield the RDF. We apply the procedure to a carbon composite, in which graphitic nanocrystallites are distributed in an amorphous domain. We compare the model with the RDF from both MD simulation and neutron scattering data. This procedure is applicable for understanding the fundamental processing-structure-property relationships in complex magnetic materials.

  20. Hierarchical Model for the Analysis of Scattering Data of Complex Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Oyedele, Akinola; Mcnutt, Nicholas W.; Rios, Orlando; Keffer, David J.

    2016-05-16

    Interpreting the results of scattering data for complex materials with a hierarchical structure in which at least one phase is amorphous presents a significant challenge. Often the interpretation relies on the use of large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, in which a structure is hypothesized and from which a radial distribution function (RDF) can be extracted and directly compared against an experimental RDF. This computationally intensive approach presents a bottleneck in the efficient characterization of the atomic structure of new materials. Here, we propose and demonstrate an approach for a hierarchical decomposition of the RDF in which MD simulations are replacedmore » by a combination of tractable models and theory at the atomic scale and the mesoscale, which when combined yield the RDF. We apply the procedure to a carbon composite, in which graphitic nanocrystallites are distributed in an amorphous domain. We compare the model with the RDF from both MD simulation and neutron scattering data. Ultimately, this procedure is applicable for understanding the fundamental processing-structure-property relationships in complex magnetic materials.« less

  1. Nano- and microstructuration of supramolecular materials driven by H-bonded uracil.2,6-diamidopyridine complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marangoni, Tomas; Bonifazi, Davide

    2013-09-01

    In the last few decades, multiple H-bonded arrays have been shown to be versatile tools to prepare functional supramolecular materials. Supramolecular complexes formed by uracil (Ur) and 2,6-diamidopyridine (DAP) developed by Lehn are the first examples of multiple H-bonded systems governing the formation of supramolecular polymers in solution. Although a large variety of complementary multiple H-bonded complexes has been prepared, the use of the heteromolecular Ur.DAP complex still remains very promising due to its ease of preparation and its intermediate association strength that ensures a dynamical character to the self-assembly and self-organisation processes. In this feature article, we report a detailed account on the results that our group has obtained in this field by designing and engineering a novel library of shape persistent molecular modules able to transfer their geometrical information to the final supramolecular architectures through the formation of Ur.DAP complexes both at the nanoscopic and microscopic levels.

  2. In-situ materials processing systems and bioregenerative life support systems interrelationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mignon, George V.; Frye, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The synergy and linkages between bioregenerative life support systems and the materials produced by in-situ materials processing systems was investigated. Such systems produce a broad spectrum of byproducts such as oxygen, hydrogen, processed soil material, ceramics, refractory, and other materials. Some of these materials may be utilized by bioregenerative systems either directly or with minor modifications. The main focus of this project was to investigate how these materials can be utilized to assist a bioregenerative life support system. Clearly the need to provide a sustainable bioregenerative life support system for long term human habitation of space is significant.

  3. Statistical tools for prognostics and health management of complex systems

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, David H; Huzurbazar, Aparna V; Anderson - Cook, Christine M

    2010-01-01

    Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) is increasingly important for understanding and managing today's complex systems. These systems are typically mission- or safety-critical, expensive to replace, and operate in environments where reliability and cost-effectiveness are a priority. We present background on PHM and a suite of applicable statistical tools and methods. Our primary focus is on predicting future states of the system (e.g., the probability of being operational at a future time, or the expected remaining system life) using heterogeneous data from a variety of sources. We discuss component reliability models incorporating physical understanding, condition measurements from sensors, and environmental covariates; system reliability models that allow prediction of system failure time distributions from component failure models; and the use of Bayesian techniques to incorporate expert judgments into component and system models.

  4. DOE A9024 Final Report Functional and Nanoscale Materials Systems: Frontier Programs of Science at the Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Jennifer A.

    2009-03-24

    The scientific programs of the FSMRL supported under the DOE A9024 Grant consisted of four interdisciplinary research clusters, as described. The clusters were led by Professors Tai Chiang (Physics), Jeffrey Moore (Chemistry), Paul Goldbart (Physics), and Steven Granick (Materials Science and Engineering). The completed work followed a dominant theme--Nanoscale Materials Systems--and emphasized studies of complex phenomena involving surfaces, interfaces, complex materials, dynamics, energetics, and structures and their transformations. A summary of our key accomplishments is provided for each cluster.

  5. Detection of hidden structures for arbitrary scales in complex physical systems

    PubMed Central

    Ronhovde, P.; Chakrabarty, S.; Hu, D.; Sahu, M.; Sahu, K. K.; Kelton, K. F.; Mauro, N. A.; Nussinov, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Recent decades have experienced the discovery of numerous complex materials. At the root of the complexity underlying many of these materials lies a large number of contending atomic- and largerscale configurations. In order to obtain a more detailed understanding of such systems, we need tools that enable the detection of pertinent structures on all spatial and temporal scales. Towards this end, we suggest a new method that applies to both static and dynamic systems which invokes ideas from network analysis and information theory. Our approach efficiently identifies basic unit cells, topological defects, and candidate natural structures. The method is particularly useful where a clear definition of order is lacking, and the identified features may constitute a natural point of departure for further analysis. PMID:22461970

  6. Application of surface complexation models to anion adsorption by natural materials.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Sabine

    2014-10-01

    Various chemical models of ion adsorption are presented and discussed. Chemical models, such as surface complexation models, provide a molecular description of anion adsorption reactions using an equilibrium approach. Two such models, the constant capacitance model and the triple layer model, are described in the present study. Characteristics common to all the surface complexation models are equilibrium constant expressions, mass and charge balances, and surface activity coefficient electrostatic potential terms. Methods for determining parameter values for surface site density, capacitances, and surface complexation constants also are discussed. Spectroscopic experimental methods of establishing ion adsorption mechanisms include vibrational spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, electron spin resonance spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray reflectivity. Experimental determinations of point of zero charge shifts and ionic strength dependence of adsorption results and molecular modeling calculations also can be used to deduce adsorption mechanisms. Applications of the surface complexation models to heterogeneous natural materials, such as soils, using the component additivity and the generalized composite approaches are described. Emphasis is on the generalized composite approach for predicting anion adsorption by soils. Continuing research is needed to develop consistent and realistic protocols for describing ion adsorption reactions on soil minerals and soils. The availability of standardized model parameter databases for use in chemical speciation-transport models is critical. PMID:24619924

  7. Cognitive robotic system for learning of complex visual stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potapov, A. S.; Rozhkov, A. S.

    2013-05-01

    The problem of learning of complex visual stimuli in cognitive robotics is considered. These stimuli should be selected on the base of rules supporting arbitrary comparisons of stimulus features with features of other salient objects (context). New perceptual knowledge representation based on the predicate logic is implemented to express such rules. Computable predicates are provided by low-level vision system. The rules are constructed using genetic algorithms on the base of a set of examples obtained by a robot during consequent trials. Dependence between the number of necessary trials and rule complexity is studied.

  8. Complex systems and the technology of variability analysis

    PubMed Central

    Seely, Andrew JE; Macklem, Peter T

    2004-01-01

    Characteristic patterns of variation over time, namely rhythms, represent a defining feature of complex systems, one that is synonymous with life. Despite the intrinsic dynamic, interdependent and nonlinear relationships of their parts, complex biological systems exhibit robust systemic stability. Applied to critical care, it is the systemic properties of the host response to a physiological insult that manifest as health or illness and determine outcome in our patients. Variability analysis provides a novel technology with which to evaluate the overall properties of a complex system. This review highlights the means by which we scientifically measure variation, including analyses of overall variation (time domain analysis, frequency distribution, spectral power), frequency contribution (spectral analysis), scale invariant (fractal) behaviour (detrended fluctuation and power law analysis) and regularity (approximate and multiscale entropy). Each technique is presented with a definition, interpretation, clinical application, advantages, limitations and summary of its calculation. The ubiquitous association between altered variability and illness is highlighted, followed by an analysis of how variability analysis may significantly improve prognostication of severity of illness and guide therapeutic intervention in critically ill patients. PMID:15566580

  9. Looking the World from Inside:. Intrinsic Geometry of Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boi, L.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we shall address some meeting points between geometry and biology, in order to show that geometrical things and transformations take part intrinsically in the living systems. We focus on some features of macromolecular structures like DNA-proteins complexes. All things we speak about take place in the 3-dimensional space of a living cell and particularly in its nucleus, which of course interacts in many ways and at different levels with the whole cell, its cytoplasm and the organelles. Ideally, we think we should rather consider, instead of a 3-dimensional space, a configuration space characterized by all its phase spaces, since a living being is a very complex dynamical system, but this would be a too difficult, impossible task. This is of course a very partial view, an oversimplification, of what really happen in our organisms. Nevertheless, We believe that in biology we are today facing the following problem: how small or local changes in a living system do affect the global behaviour and response of the whole organisms? We search for an answer by arguing that mostly overall features of living systems are emergent properties of organization and regulation defined at the macroscopic level of their morphology and physiological behaviours, and also by showing that in complex living systems self-organization ensures robustness without loss of plasticity, in the sense that perturbations in the interactions properties of its single parts generally do not have damaging consequences on the living form as a whole.

  10. Complex systems and the technology of variability analysis.

    PubMed

    Seely, Andrew J E; Macklem, Peter T

    2004-12-01

    Characteristic patterns of variation over time, namely rhythms, represent a defining feature of complex systems, one that is synonymous with life. Despite the intrinsic dynamic, interdependent and nonlinear relationships of their parts, complex biological systems exhibit robust systemic stability. Applied to critical care, it is the systemic properties of the host response to a physiological insult that manifest as health or illness and determine outcome in our patients. Variability analysis provides a novel technology with which to evaluate the overall properties of a complex system. This review highlights the means by which we scientifically measure variation, including analyses of overall variation (time domain analysis, frequency distribution, spectral power), frequency contribution (spectral analysis), scale invariant (fractal) behaviour (detrended fluctuation and power law analysis) and regularity (approximate and multiscale entropy). Each technique is presented with a definition, interpretation, clinical application, advantages, limitations and summary of its calculation. The ubiquitous association between altered variability and illness is highlighted, followed by an analysis of how variability analysis may significantly improve prognostication of severity of illness and guide therapeutic intervention in critically ill patients. PMID:15566580

  11. Topics in Complexity: From Physical to Life Science Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charry, Pedro David Manrique

    Complexity seeks to unwrap the mechanisms responsible for collective phenomena across the physical, biological, chemical, economic and social sciences. This thesis investigates real-world complex dynamical systems ranging from the quantum/natural domain to the social domain. The following novel understandings are developed concerning these systems' out-of-equilibrium and nonlinear behavior. Standard quantum techniques show divergent outcomes when a quantum system comprising more than one subunit is far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Abnormal photon inter-arrival times help fulfill the metabolic needs of a terrestrial photosynthetic bacterium. Spatial correlations within incident light can act as a driving mechanism for an organism's adaptation toward more ordered structures. The group dynamics of non-identical objects, whose assembly rules depend on mutual heterogeneity, yield rich transition dynamics between isolation and cohesion, with the cohesion regime reproducing a particular universal pattern commonly found in many real-world systems. Analyses of covert networks reveal collective gender superiority in the connectivity that provides benefits for system robustness and survival. Nodal migration in a network generates complex contagion profiles that lie beyond traditional approaches and yet resemble many modern-day outbreaks.

  12. Formal Requirements-Based Programming for Complex Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James L.; Hinchey, Michael G.; Rouff, Christopher A.; Gracanin, Denis

    2005-01-01

    Computer science as a field has not yet produced a general method to mechanically transform complex computer system requirements into a provably equivalent implementation. Such a method would be one major step towards dealing with complexity in computing, yet it remains the elusive holy grail of system development. Currently available tools and methods that start with a formal model of a system and mechanically produce a provably equivalent implementation are valuable but not sufficient. The gap that such tools and methods leave unfilled is that the formal models cannot be proven to be equivalent to the system requirements as originated by the customer For the classes of complex systems whose behavior can be described as a finite (but significant) set of scenarios, we offer a method for mechanically transforming requirements (expressed in restricted natural language, or appropriate graphical notations) into a provably equivalent formal model that can be used as the basis for code generation and other transformations. While other techniques are available, this method is unique in offering full mathematical tractability while using notations and techniques that are well known and well trusted. We illustrate the application of the method to an example procedure from the Hubble Robotic Servicing Mission currently under study and preliminary formulation at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

  13. A duality framework for stochastic optimal control of complex systems

    DOE PAGES

    Malikopoulos, Andreas A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we address the problem of minimizing the long-run expected average cost of a complex system consisting of interactive subsystems. We formulate a multiobjective optimization problem of the one-stage expected costs of the subsystems and provide a duality framework to prove that the control policy yielding the Pareto optimal solution minimizes the average cost criterion of the system. We provide the conditions of existence and a geometric interpretation of the solution. For practical situations having constraints consistent with those studied here, our results imply that the Pareto control policy may be of value when we seek to derivemore » online the optimal control policy in complex systems.« less

  14. Quantum-information processing in disordered and complex quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Ahufinger, Veronica; Briegel, Hans J.; Sanpera, Anna; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2006-12-15

    We study quantum information processing in complex disordered many body systems that can be implemented by using lattices of ultracold atomic gases and trapped ions. We demonstrate, first in the short range case, the generation of entanglement and the local realization of quantum gates in a disordered magnetic model describing a quantum spin glass. We show that in this case it is possible to achieve fidelities of quantum gates higher than in the classical case. Complex systems with long range interactions, such as ions chains or dipolar atomic gases, can be used to model neural network Hamiltonians. For such systems, where both long range interactions and disorder appear, it is possible to generate long range bipartite entanglement. We provide an efficient analytical method to calculate the time evolution of a given initial state, which in turn allows us to calculate its quantum correlations.

  15. Structural limits for evolutive capacities in complex molecular systems.

    PubMed

    Bergareche, A M; Ostolaza, J F

    1990-01-01

    The possibilities of evolution for a system with and without a code of translation from nucleic acids into proteins are evaluated. Our interest is mainly centred on the enzymatic RNA case since this molecule has, at the same time, reproductive and functional properties. After scanning the evolutive capacities of the enzymatic RNAs, including the possibility to play the role of "synthetase" which would match nucleic acids with amino acids as a transition step towards a code, we will try to show that due to their own functional limitative factors, the matching system (code) is necessary. This would be the only way to transform the formal complexity--complexity which has not entered into action before the translation process--into functional information to drive the instructive self-reproductive process. Once this stage is reached, the system could evolve without a limit.

  16. Systems Engineering Metrics: Organizational Complexity and Product Quality Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mog, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    Innovative organizational complexity and product quality models applicable to performance metrics for NASA-MSFC's Systems Analysis and Integration Laboratory (SAIL) missions and objectives are presented. An intensive research effort focuses on the synergistic combination of stochastic process modeling, nodal and spatial decomposition techniques, organizational and computational complexity, systems science and metrics, chaos, and proprietary statistical tools for accelerated risk assessment. This is followed by the development of a preliminary model, which is uniquely applicable and robust for quantitative purposes. Exercise of the preliminary model using a generic system hierarchy and the AXAF-I architectural hierarchy is provided. The Kendall test for positive dependence provides an initial verification and validation of the model. Finally, the research and development of the innovation is revisited, prior to peer review. This research and development effort results in near-term, measurable SAIL organizational and product quality methodologies, enhanced organizational risk assessment and evolutionary modeling results, and 91 improved statistical quantification of SAIL productivity interests.

  17. Computer models of complex multiloop branched pipeline systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudinov, I. V.; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Eremin, A. V.; Branfileva, A. N.

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes the principal theoretical concepts of the method used for constructing computer models of complex multiloop branched pipeline networks, and this method is based on the theory of graphs and two Kirchhoff's laws applied to electrical circuits. The models make it possible to calculate velocities, flow rates, and pressures of a fluid medium in any section of pipeline networks, when the latter are considered as single hydraulic systems. On the basis of multivariant calculations the reasons for existing problems can be identified, the least costly methods of their elimination can be proposed, and recommendations for planning the modernization of pipeline systems and construction of their new sections can be made. The results obtained can be applied to complex pipeline systems intended for various purposes (water pipelines, petroleum pipelines, etc.). The operability of the model has been verified on an example of designing a unified computer model of the heat network for centralized heat supply of the city of Samara.

  18. Intensity approximation of random fluctuation in complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulmetyev, R. M.; Gafarov, F. M.; Yulmetyeva, D. G.; Emeljanova, N. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Markov and non-Markov processes in complex systems are examined with the help of dynamical information Shannon entropy method. Here we consider the essential role of two mutually independent channels of entropy involving creation of correlation and annihilation of correlation. The developed method has been used to analyze the intensity fluctuation of the complex systems of various nature: in psychology (to analyze numerical and pattern short-time human memory, to study the effect of stress on the parameters of the dynamical taping-test) and in cardiology (to analyze the random dynamics of RR-intervals in human ECG's and to diagnose various diseases of human cardiovascular systems). The received results show that the application of intensity approximation allows to improve essentially the diagnostics of parameters in the evolution of human dynamic states.

  19. Control of complex dynamics and chaos in distributed parameter systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarti, S.; Marek, M.; Ray, W.H.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses a methodology for controlling complex dynamics and chaos in distributed parameter systems. The reaction-diffusion system with Brusselator kinetics, where the torus-doubling or quasi-periodic (two characteristic incommensurate frequencies) route to chaos exists in a defined range of parameter values, is used as an example. Poincare maps are used for characterization of quasi-periodic and chaotic attractors. The dominant modes or topos, which are inherent properties of the system, are identified by means of the Singular Value Decomposition. Tested modal feedback control schemas based on identified dominant spatial modes confirm the possibility of stabilization of simple quasi-periodic trajectories in the complex quasi-periodic or chaotic spatiotemporal patterns.

  20. A Complex Systems Model Approach to Quantified Mineral Resource Appraisal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gettings, M.E.; Bultman, M.W.; Fisher, F.S.

    2004-01-01

    For federal and state land management agencies, mineral resource appraisal has evolved from value-based to outcome-based procedures wherein the consequences of resource development are compared with those of other management options. Complex systems modeling is proposed as a general framework in which to build models that can evaluate outcomes. Three frequently used methods of mineral resource appraisal (subjective probabilistic estimates, weights of evidence modeling, and fuzzy logic modeling) are discussed to obtain insight into methods of incorporating complexity into mineral resource appraisal models. Fuzzy logic and weights of evidence are most easily utilized in complex systems models. A fundamental product of new appraisals is the production of reusable, accessible databases and methodologies so that appraisals can easily be repeated with new or refined data. The data are representations of complex systems and must be so regarded if all of their information content is to be utilized. The proposed generalized model framework is applicable to mineral assessment and other geoscience problems. We begin with a (fuzzy) cognitive map using (+1,0,-1) values for the links and evaluate the map for various scenarios to obtain a ranking of the importance of various links. Fieldwork and modeling studies identify important links and help identify unanticipated links. Next, the links are given membership functions in accordance with the data. Finally, processes are associated with the links; ideally, the controlling physical and chemical events and equations are found for each link. After calibration and testing, this complex systems model is used for predictions under various scenarios.