Science.gov

Sample records for complex object processing

  1. Reducing the complexity of the software design process with object-oriented design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuler, M. P.

    1991-01-01

    Designing software is a complex process. How object-oriented design (OOD), coupled with formalized documentation and tailored object diagraming techniques, can reduce the complexity of the software design process is described and illustrated. The described OOD methodology uses a hierarchical decomposition approach in which parent objects are decomposed into layers of lower level child objects. A method of tracking the assignment of requirements to design components is also included. Increases in the reusability, portability, and maintainability of the resulting products are also discussed. This method was built on a combination of existing technology, teaching experience, consulting experience, and feedback from design method users. The discussed concepts are applicable to hierarchal OOD processes in general. Emphasis is placed on improving the design process by documenting the details of the procedures involved and incorporating improvements into those procedures as they are developed.

  2. The Human Medial Temporal Lobe Processes Online Representations of Complex Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barense, Morgan D.; Gaffan, David; Graham, Kim S.

    2007-01-01

    There has been considerable debate as to whether structures in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) support both memory and perception, in particular whether the perirhinal cortex may be involved in the perceptual discrimination of complex objects with a large number of overlapping features. Similar experiments testing the discrimination of blended…

  3. A flexible object-based software framework for modeling complex systems with interacting natural and societal processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, J. H.

    2000-06-15

    The Dynamic Information Architecture System (DIAS) is a flexible, extensible, object-based framework for developing and maintaining complex multidisciplinary simulations. The DIAS infrastructure makes it feasible to build and manipulate complex simulation scenarios in which many thousands of objects can interact via dozens to hundreds of concurrent dynamic processes. The flexibility and extensibility of the DIAS software infrastructure stem mainly from (1) the abstraction of object behaviors, (2) the encapsulation and formalization of model functionality, and (3) the mutability of domain object contents. DIAS simulation objects are inherently capable of highly flexible and heterogeneous spatial realizations. Geospatial graphical representation of DIAS simulation objects is addressed via the GeoViewer, an object-based GIS toolkit application developed at ANL. DIAS simulation capabilities have been extended by inclusion of societal process models generated by the Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions (FACET), another object-based framework developed at Argonne National Laboratory. By using FACET models to implement societal behaviors of individuals and organizations within larger DIAS-based natural systems simulations, it has become possible to conveniently address a broad range of issues involving interaction and feedback among natural and societal processes. Example DIAS application areas discussed in this paper include a dynamic virtual oceanic environment, detailed simulation of clinical, physiological, and logistical aspects of health care delivery, and studies of agricultural sustainability of urban centers under environmental stress in ancient Mesopotamia.

  4. Modelling and prediction of complex non-linear processes by using Pareto multi-objective genetic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali, A.; Khaleghi, E.; Gholaminezhad, I.; Nariman-zadeh, N.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a new multi-objective genetic programming (GP) with a diversity preserving mechanism and a real number alteration operator is presented and successfully used for Pareto optimal modelling of some complex non-linear systems using some input-output data. In this study, two different input-output data-sets of a non-linear mathematical model and of an explosive cutting process are considered separately in three-objective optimisation processes. The pertinent conflicting objective functions that have been considered for such Pareto optimisations are namely, training error (TE), prediction error (PE), and the length of tree (complexity of the network) (TL) of the GP models. Such three-objective optimisation implementations leads to some non-dominated choices of GP-type models for both cases representing the trade-offs among those objective functions. Therefore, optimal Pareto fronts of such GP models exhibit the trade-off among the corresponding conflicting objectives and, thus, provide different non-dominated optimal choices of GP-type models. Moreover, the results show that no significant optimality in TE and PE may occur when the TL of the corresponding GP model exceeds some values.

  5. Object-processing neural efficiency differentiates object from spatial visualizers.

    PubMed

    Motes, Michael A; Malach, Rafael; Kozhevnikov, Maria

    2008-11-19

    The visual system processes object properties and spatial properties in distinct subsystems, and we hypothesized that this distinction might extend to individual differences in visual processing. We conducted a functional MRI study investigating the neural underpinnings of individual differences in object versus spatial visual processing. Nine participants of high object-processing ability ('object' visualizers) and eight participants of high spatial-processing ability ('spatial' visualizers) were scanned, while they performed an object-processing task. Object visualizers showed lower bilateral neural activity in lateral occipital complex and lower right-lateralized neural activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The data indicate that high object-processing ability is associated with more efficient use of visual-object resources, resulting in less neural activity in the object-processing pathway.

  6. Graspable Objects Shape Number Processing

    PubMed Central

    Ranzini, Mariagrazia; Lugli, Luisa; Anelli, Filomena; Carbone, Rossella; Nicoletti, Roberto; Borghi, Anna M.

    2011-01-01

    The field of numerical cognition represents an interesting case for action-based theories of cognition, since number is a special kind of abstract concept. Several studies have shown that within the parietal lobes adjacent neural regions code numerical magnitude and grasping-related information. This anatomical proximity between brain areas involved in number and sensorimotor processes may account for interactions between numerical magnitude and action. In particular, recent studies have demonstrated a causal role of action perception on numerical magnitude processing. If objects are represented in terms of actions (affordances), the causal role of action on number processing should extend to the case of objects affordances. This study investigates the relationship between numbers and objects affordances in two experiments, without (Experiment 1) or with (Experiment 2) the requirement of an action (i.e., participants were asked to hold an object in their hands during the task). The task consisted in repeating aloud the odd or even digit within a pair depending on the type of the preceding or following object. Order of presentation (object–number vs. number–object), Object type (graspable vs. ungraspable), Object size (small vs. large), and Numerical magnitude (small vs. large) were manipulated for each experiment. Experiment 1 showed a facilitation – in terms of quicker responses – for graspable over ungraspable objects preceded by numbers, and an effect of numerical magnitude after the presentation of graspable objects. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the action execution enhanced overall the sensitivity to numerical magnitude, and that at the same time it interfered with the effects of objects affordances on number processing. Overall, these findings demonstrate that numbers and graspable objects are strongly interrelated, supporting the view that abstract concepts may be grounded in the motor experience. PMID:22164141

  7. Recurrent Processing during Object Recognition

    PubMed Central

    O’Reilly, Randall C.; Wyatte, Dean; Herd, Seth; Mingus, Brian; Jilk, David J.

    2013-01-01

    How does the brain learn to recognize objects visually, and perform this difficult feat robustly in the face of many sources of ambiguity and variability? We present a computational model based on the biology of the relevant visual pathways that learns to reliably recognize 100 different object categories in the face of naturally occurring variability in location, rotation, size, and lighting. The model exhibits robustness to highly ambiguous, partially occluded inputs. Both the unified, biologically plausible learning mechanism and the robustness to occlusion derive from the role that recurrent connectivity and recurrent processing mechanisms play in the model. Furthermore, this interaction of recurrent connectivity and learning predicts that high-level visual representations should be shaped by error signals from nearby, associated brain areas over the course of visual learning. Consistent with this prediction, we show how semantic knowledge about object categories changes the nature of their learned visual representations, as well as how this representational shift supports the mapping between perceptual and conceptual knowledge. Altogether, these findings support the potential importance of ongoing recurrent processing throughout the brain’s visual system and suggest ways in which object recognition can be understood in terms of interactions within and between processes over time. PMID:23554596

  8. Reduction of Subjective and Objective System Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Occam's razor is often used in science to define the minimum criteria to establish a physical or philosophical idea or relationship. Albert Einstein is attributed the saying "everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler". These heuristic ideas are based on a belief that there is a minimum state or set of states for a given system or phenomena. In looking at system complexity, these heuristics point us to an idea that complexity can be reduced to a minimum. How then, do we approach a reduction in complexity? Complexity has been described as a subjective concept and an objective measure of a system. Subjective complexity is based on human cognitive comprehension of the functions and inter relationships of a system. Subjective complexity is defined by the ability to fully comprehend the system. Simplifying complexity, in a subjective sense, is thus gaining a deeper understanding of the system. As Apple's Jonathon Ive has stated," It's not just minimalism or the absence of clutter. It involves digging through the depth of complexity. To be truly simple, you have to go really deep". Simplicity is not the absence of complexity but a deeper understanding of complexity. Subjective complexity, based on this human comprehension, cannot then be discerned from the sociological concept of ignorance. The inability to comprehend a system can be either a lack of knowledge, an inability to understand the intricacies of a system, or both. Reduction in this sense is based purely on a cognitive ability to understand the system and no system then may be truly complex. From this view, education and experience seem to be the keys to reduction or eliminating complexity. Objective complexity, is the measure of the systems functions and interrelationships which exist independent of human comprehension. Jonathon Ive's statement does not say that complexity is removed, only that the complexity is understood. From this standpoint, reduction of complexity can be approached

  9. Modeling Electromagnetic Scattering From Complex Inhomogeneous Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, Manohar; Reddy, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    This software innovation is designed to develop a mathematical formulation to estimate the electromagnetic scattering characteristics of complex, inhomogeneous objects using the finite-element-method (FEM) and method-of-moments (MoM) concepts, as well as to develop a FORTRAN code called FEMOM3DS (Finite Element Method and Method of Moments for 3-Dimensional Scattering), which will implement the steps that are described in the mathematical formulation. Very complex objects can be easily modeled, and the operator of the code is not required to know the details of electromagnetic theory to study electromagnetic scattering.

  10. Neurite Tracing With Object Process.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sreetama; Ooi, Wei Tsang; Racoceanu, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we present a pipeline for automatic analysis of neuronal morphology: from detection, modeling to digital reconstruction. First, we present an automatic, unsupervised object detection framework using stochastic marked point process. It extracts connected neuronal networks by fitting special configuration of marked objects to the centreline of the neurite branches in the image volume giving us position, local width and orientation information. Semantic modeling of neuronal morphology in terms of critical nodes like bifurcations and terminals, generates various geometric and morphology descriptors such as branching index, branching angles, total neurite length, internodal lengths for statistical inference on characteristic neuronal features. From the detected branches we reconstruct neuronal tree morphology using robust and efficient numerical fast marching methods. We capture a mathematical model abstracting out the relevant position, shape and connectivity information about neuronal branches from the microscopy data into connected minimum spanning trees. Such digital reconstruction is represented in standard SWC format, prevalent for archiving, sharing, and further analysis in the neuroimaging community. Our proposed pipeline outperforms state of the art methods in tracing accuracy and minimizes the subjective variability in reconstruction, inherent to semi-automatic methods. PMID:26742129

  11. Processing of Extrafoveal Objects During Multiple-Object Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jane L.; Meyer, Antje S.

    2005-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors investigated the extent to which objects that are about to be named are processed prior to fixation. Participants named pairs or triplets of objects. One of the objects, initially seen extrafoveally (the interloper), was replaced by a different object (the target) during the saccade toward it. The interloper-target…

  12. Segmentation of moving object in complex environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Yang; Wang, Jingru; Zhang, Qiheng

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents a new automatic image segmentation method for segmenting moving object in complex environment by combining the motion information with edge information. We propose an adaptive optical flow method based on the Horn-Schunck algorithm to estimate the optical flow field. Our method puts different smoothness constraints on different directions and optical flow constraint is used according to the gradient magnitude. Canny edge detector can obtain the most edge information but miss some pixels. In order to restore these missing pixels the edge has a growing based on the continuity of optical flow field. Next, by remaining the block that has the longest edge could delete the noise in the background, and then the last segmentation result is obtained. The experimental result demonstrates that this method can segment the moving object in complex environment precisely.

  13. SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE FOR DESIGNING PROCESSES WITH MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of multiple objectives is very important in designing environmentally benign processes. It requires a systematic procedure for solving multiobjective decision-making problems, due to the complex nature of the problems, the need for complex assessments, and complicated ...

  14. Processing of extrafoveal objects during multiple-object naming.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Jane L; Meyer, Antje S

    2005-05-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors investigated the extent to which objects that are about to be named are processed prior to fixation. Participants named pairs or triplets of objects. One of the objects, initially seen extrafoveally (the interloper), was replaced by a different object (the target) during the saccade toward it. The interloper-target pairs were identical or unrelated objects or visually and conceptually unrelated objects with homophonous names (e.g., animal- baseball bat). The mean latencies and gaze durations for the targets were shorter in the identity and homophone conditions than in the unrelated condition. This was true when participants viewed a fixation mark until the interloper appeared and when they fixated on another object and prepared to name it while viewing the interloper. These results imply that objects that are about to be named may undergo far-reaching processing, including access to their names, prior to fixation.

  15. Learning objects and training complex machines.

    PubMed

    Martins, Edgard

    2012-01-01

    There are situations in the operation of complex machinery which is significant pressure. In need of capturing, interpreting and processing information from instruments, often in seconds. This occurs in the middle where it operates the pilot and the aircraft will be established a set of operations that will culminate with a maneuver, consisting of a substantial and binding set of procedures performed for this driver. This has little time to evaluate and act, supported by aircraft instruments and external environmental signals captured by the senses, which will stimulate conditioned actions that, if executed without due accuracy, is reflected in a deadly mistake. These situations cause a state of tension and unpredictability, especially when there is bad weather and / or no visibility and bad wind conditions occur and are not supportive or even shrinkage, or even partial or total ability to operate the airplane happen..

  16. A SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE FOR DESIGNING PROCESSES WITH MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation and analysis of multiple objectives are very important in designing environmentally benign processes. They require a systematic procedure for solving multi-objective decision-making problems due to the complex nature of the problems and the need for complex assessment....

  17. Emotion and Object Processing in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Henri; Gagne, Marie-Helene; Hess, Ursula; Pourcher, Emmanuelle

    2010-01-01

    The neuropsychological literature on the processing of emotions in Parkinson's disease (PD) reveals conflicting evidence about the role of the basal ganglia in the recognition of facial emotions. Hence, the present study had two objectives. One was to determine the extent to which the visual processing of emotions and objects differs in PD. The…

  18. Remembering complex objects in visual working memory: do capacity limits restrict objects or features?

    PubMed

    Hardman, Kyle O; Cowan, Nelson

    2015-03-01

    Visual working memory stores stimuli from our environment as representations that can be accessed by high-level control processes. This study addresses a longstanding debate in the literature about whether storage limits in visual working memory include a limit to the complexity of discrete items. We examined the issue with a number of change-detection experiments that used complex stimuli that possessed multiple features per stimulus item. We manipulated the number of relevant features of the stimulus objects in order to vary feature load. In all of our experiments, we found that increased feature load led to a reduction in change-detection accuracy. However, we found that feature load alone could not account for the results but that a consideration of the number of relevant objects was also required. This study supports capacity limits for both feature and object storage in visual working memory. PMID:25089739

  19. Corporate objectives and the planning process.

    PubMed

    White, S

    1990-02-01

    The embodiment of corporate objectives in a workable planning process enables all employees to develop an identity larger than themselves. This results in a more cohesive body and makes it easier to implement the organization's strategy and mission. The senior executives at University Hospital have a long history with the organization and therefore know it well. Whether the new process makes planning more coordinated and comprehensive will be measured by both the subjective and the objective assessment of these executives.

  20. Dissociating verbal and nonverbal audiovisual object processing.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Julia; Price, Cathy J

    2009-02-01

    This fMRI study investigates how audiovisual integration differs for verbal stimuli that can be matched at a phonological level and nonverbal stimuli that can be matched at a semantic level. Subjects were presented simultaneously with one visual and one auditory stimulus and were instructed to decide whether these stimuli referred to the same object or not. Verbal stimuli were simultaneously presented spoken and written object names, and nonverbal stimuli were photographs of objects simultaneously presented with naturally occurring object sounds. Stimulus differences were controlled by including two further conditions that paired photographs of objects with spoken words and object sounds with written words. Verbal matching, relative to all other conditions, increased activation in a region of the left superior temporal sulcus that has previously been associated with phonological processing. Nonverbal matching, relative to all other conditions, increased activation in a right fusiform region that has previously been associated with structural and conceptual object processing. Thus, we demonstrate how brain activation for audiovisual integration depends on the verbal content of the stimuli, even when stimulus and task processing differences are controlled.

  1. Optoelectronic complex for separation of moving small size mineral objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Gorbunova, Elena V.; Korotaev, Valery V.; Pavlenko, Nikita A.

    2014-05-01

    For today the mineral resources of our planet, especially mineral raw deposits are depleted continuously. Therefore the traditional technologies of extraction and enrichment of mineral raw materials are often unable to provide the profitability of development of mentioned mineral deposits. Thus, the mining industry needs in improving of the existing systems for mineral raw materials separation. The well-known optical sorting method is the most promising in terms of improving of structure and characteristics of devices that realize this method. There are a lot of types of color sorters, but they have a number of shortcomings relating to both schemes of lighting and registration of mineral objects as well as used algorithms of images processing. Often color sorters are unable to divide low-contrast small size mineral objects. This problem can be solved by using of optoelectronic complex for separation of moving small size mineral objects developed by the employees of the chair of optical-electronic devices and systems of University ITMO in Russia. The paper presents the description of structure organization and operating principles of proposed experimental model of optoelectronic complex for separation of moving small size mineral objects.

  2. Development of Three-Dimensional Completion of Complex Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soska, Kasey C.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) object completion, the ability to perceive the backs of objects seen from a single viewpoint, emerges at around 6 months of age. Yet, only relatively simple 3D objects have been used in assessing its development. This study examined infants' 3D object completion when presented with more complex stimuli. Infants…

  3. Optical apparatus for laser scattering by objects having complex shapes

    DOEpatents

    Ellingson, William A.; Visher, Robert J.

    2006-11-14

    Apparatus for observing and measuring in realtime surface and subsurface characteristics of objects having complex shapes includes an optical fiber bundle having first and second opposed ends. The first end includes a linear array of fibers, where the ends of adjacent fibers are in contact and are aligned perpendicular to the surface of the object being studied. The second ends of some of the fibers are in the form of a polished ferrule forming a multi-fiber optical waveguide for receiving laser light. The second ends of the remaining fibers are formed into a linear array suitable for direct connection to a detector, such as a linear CMOS-based optical detector. The output data is analyzed using digital signal processing for the detection of anomalies such as cracks, voids, inclusions and other defects.

  4. Neural prediction of complex accelerations for object interception.

    PubMed

    de Rugy, Aymar; Marinovic, Welber; Wallis, Guy

    2012-02-01

    To intercept or avoid moving objects successfully, we must compensate for the sensorimotor delays associated with visual processing and motor movement. Although straightforward in the case of constant velocity motion, it is unclear how humans compensate for accelerations, as our visual system is relatively poor at detecting changes in velocity. Work on free-falling objects suggests that we are able to predict the effects of gravity, but this represents the most simple, limiting case in which acceleration is constant and motion linear. Here, we show that an internal model also predicts the effects of complex, varying accelerations when they result from lawful interactions with the environment. Participants timed their responses with the arrival of a ball rolling within a tube of various shapes. The pattern of errors indicates that participants were able to compensate for most of the effects of the ball acceleration (∼85%) within a relatively short practice (∼300 trials). Errors on catch trials in which the ball velocity was unexpectedly maintained constant further confirmed that participants were expecting the effect of acceleration induced by the shape of the tube. A similar effect was obtained when the visual scene was projected upside down, indicating that the mechanism of this prediction is flexible and not confined to ecologically valid interactions. These findings demonstrate that the brain is able to predict motion on the basis of prior experience of complex interactions between an object and its environment. PMID:22090456

  5. Neural prediction of complex accelerations for object interception.

    PubMed

    de Rugy, Aymar; Marinovic, Welber; Wallis, Guy

    2012-02-01

    To intercept or avoid moving objects successfully, we must compensate for the sensorimotor delays associated with visual processing and motor movement. Although straightforward in the case of constant velocity motion, it is unclear how humans compensate for accelerations, as our visual system is relatively poor at detecting changes in velocity. Work on free-falling objects suggests that we are able to predict the effects of gravity, but this represents the most simple, limiting case in which acceleration is constant and motion linear. Here, we show that an internal model also predicts the effects of complex, varying accelerations when they result from lawful interactions with the environment. Participants timed their responses with the arrival of a ball rolling within a tube of various shapes. The pattern of errors indicates that participants were able to compensate for most of the effects of the ball acceleration (∼85%) within a relatively short practice (∼300 trials). Errors on catch trials in which the ball velocity was unexpectedly maintained constant further confirmed that participants were expecting the effect of acceleration induced by the shape of the tube. A similar effect was obtained when the visual scene was projected upside down, indicating that the mechanism of this prediction is flexible and not confined to ecologically valid interactions. These findings demonstrate that the brain is able to predict motion on the basis of prior experience of complex interactions between an object and its environment.

  6. Phase-retrieval ghost imaging of complex-valued objects

    SciTech Connect

    Gong Wenlin; Han Shensheng

    2010-08-15

    An imaging approach, based on ghost imaging, is reported to recover a pure-phase object or a complex-valued object. Our analytical results, which are backed up by numerical simulations, demonstrate that both the complex-valued object and its amplitude-dependent part can be separately and nonlocally reconstructed using this approach. Both effects influencing the quality of reconstructed images and methods to further improve the imaging quality are also discussed.

  7. [Electrophysiological bases of semantic processing of objects].

    PubMed

    Kahlaoui, Karima; Baccino, Thierry; Joanette, Yves; Magnié, Marie-Noële

    2007-02-01

    How pictures and words are stored and processed in the human brain constitute a long-standing question in cognitive psychology. Behavioral studies have yielded a large amount of data addressing this issue. Generally speaking, these data show that there are some interactions between the semantic processing of pictures and words. However, behavioral methods can provide only limited insight into certain findings. Fortunately, Event-Related Potential (ERP) provides on-line cues about the temporal nature of cognitive processes and contributes to the exploration of their neural substrates. ERPs have been used in order to better understand semantic processing of words and pictures. The main objective of this article is to offer an overview of the electrophysiologic bases of semantic processing of words and pictures. Studies presented in this article showed that the processing of words is associated with an N 400 component, whereas pictures elicited both N 300 and N 400 components. Topographical analysis of the N 400 distribution over the scalp is compatible with the idea that both image-mediated concrete words and pictures access an amodal semantic system. However, given the distinctive N 300 patterns, observed only during picture processing, it appears that picture and word processing rely upon distinct neuronal networks, even if they end up activating more or less similar semantic representations. PMID:17291430

  8. Color Image Processing and Object Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimek, Robert B.; Wright, Ted W.; Sielken, Robert S.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes a personal computer based system for automatic and semiautomatic tracking of objects on film or video tape, developed to meet the needs of the Microgravity Combustion and Fluids Science Research Programs at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The system consists of individual hardware components working under computer control to achieve a high degree of automation. The most important hardware components include 16-mm and 35-mm film transports, a high resolution digital camera mounted on a x-y-z micro-positioning stage, an S-VHS tapedeck, an Hi8 tapedeck, video laserdisk, and a framegrabber. All of the image input devices are remotely controlled by a computer. Software was developed to integrate the overall operation of the system including device frame incrementation, grabbing of image frames, image processing of the object's neighborhood, locating the position of the object being tracked, and storing the coordinates in a file. This process is performed repeatedly until the last frame is reached. Several different tracking methods are supported. To illustrate the process, two representative applications of the system are described. These applications represent typical uses of the system and include tracking the propagation of a flame front and tracking the movement of a liquid-gas interface with extremely poor visibility.

  9. Method and system for producing complex-shape objects

    DOEpatents

    Jeantette, Francisco P.; Keicher, David M.; Romero, Joseph A.; Schanwald, Lee P.

    2000-01-01

    A method and system are provided for producing complex, three-dimensional, net shape objects from a variety of powdered materials. The system includes unique components to ensure a uniform and continuous flow of powdered materials as well as to focus and locate the flow of powdered materials with respect to a laser beam which results in the melting of the powdered material. The system also includes a controller so that the flow of molten powdered materials can map out and form complex, three-dimensional, net-shape objects by layering the molten powdered material. Advantageously, such complex, three-dimensional net-shape objects can be produced having material densities varying from 90% of theoretical to fully dense, as well as a variety of controlled physical properties. Additionally, such complex, three-dimensional objects can be produced from two or more different materials so that the composition of the object can be transitioned from one material to another.

  10. A signal and image processing object-based system using CLOS. [Common LISP Object System (CLOS)

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-Yee; Sherwood, R.J.; Clark, G.A.; Lawver, B.S.

    1991-09-01

    This paper presents a LISP based system for signal and image processing. Using an object based approach the system integrates signal and image processing algorithms, supervised and unsupervised neural network algorithms, and mild-level computer vision capabilities, into a cohesive framework. This framework is suitable for prototyping complex algorithms dealing with multiple classes of data. The system, known as VISION, is currently used as a prototyping environment for wide range of scientific applications internal to LLNL. This paper highlights some of the capabilities of VISION, and how they were implemented using the Common LISP Object System, CLOS. 13 refs.

  11. Stereo vision tracking of multiple objects in complex indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Marrón-Romera, Marta; García, Juan C; Sotelo, Miguel A; Pizarro, Daniel; Mazo, Manuel; Cañas, José M; Losada, Cristina; Marcos, Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel system capable of solving the problem of tracking multiple targets in a crowded, complex and dynamic indoor environment, like those typical of mobile robot applications. The proposed solution is based on a stereo vision set in the acquisition step and a probabilistic algorithm in the obstacles position estimation process. The system obtains 3D position and speed information related to each object in the robot's environment; then it achieves a classification between building elements (ceiling, walls, columns and so on) and the rest of items in robot surroundings. All objects in robot surroundings, both dynamic and static, are considered to be obstacles but the structure of the environment itself. A combination of a Bayesian algorithm and a deterministic clustering process is used in order to obtain a multimodal representation of speed and position of detected obstacles. Performance of the final system has been tested against state of the art proposals; test results validate the authors' proposal. The designed algorithms and procedures provide a solution to those applications where similar multimodal data structures are found.

  12. Objects and categories: feature statistics and object processing in the ventral stream.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Lorraine K; Chiu, Shannon; Zhuang, Jie; Randall, Billi; Devereux, Barry J; Wright, Paul; Clarke, Alex; Taylor, Kirsten I

    2013-10-01

    Recognizing an object involves more than just visual analyses; its meaning must also be decoded. Extensive research has shown that processing the visual properties of objects relies on a hierarchically organized stream in ventral occipitotemporal cortex, with increasingly more complex visual features being coded from posterior to anterior sites culminating in the perirhinal cortex (PRC) in the anteromedial temporal lobe (aMTL). The neurobiological principles of the conceptual analysis of objects remain more controversial. Much research has focused on two neural regions-the fusiform gyrus and aMTL, both of which show semantic category differences, but of different types. fMRI studies show category differentiation in the fusiform gyrus, based on clusters of semantically similar objects, whereas category-specific deficits, specifically for living things, are associated with damage to the aMTL. These category-specific deficits for living things have been attributed to problems in differentiating between highly similar objects, a process that involves the PRC. To determine whether the PRC and the fusiform gyri contribute to different aspects of an object's meaning, with differentiation between confusable objects in the PRC and categorization based on object similarity in the fusiform, we carried out an fMRI study of object processing based on a feature-based model that characterizes the degree of semantic similarity and difference between objects and object categories. Participants saw 388 objects for which feature statistic information was available and named the objects at the basic level while undergoing fMRI scanning. After controlling for the effects of visual information, we found that feature statistics that capture similarity between objects formed category clusters in fusiform gyri, such that objects with many shared features (typical of living things) were associated with activity in the lateral fusiform gyri whereas objects with fewer shared features (typical

  13. Color image processing and object tracking workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimek, Robert B.; Paulick, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    A system is described for automatic and semiautomatic tracking of objects on film or video tape which was developed to meet the needs of the microgravity combustion and fluid science experiments at NASA Lewis. The system consists of individual hardware parts working under computer control to achieve a high degree of automation. The most important hardware parts include 16 mm film projector, a lens system, a video camera, an S-VHS tapedeck, a frame grabber, and some storage and output devices. Both the projector and tapedeck have a computer interface enabling remote control. Tracking software was developed to control the overall operation. In the automatic mode, the main tracking program controls the projector or the tapedeck frame incrementation, grabs a frame, processes it, locates the edge of the objects being tracked, and stores the coordinates in a file. This process is performed repeatedly until the last frame is reached. Three representative applications are described. These applications represent typical uses and include tracking the propagation of a flame front, tracking the movement of a liquid-gas interface with extremely poor visibility, and characterizing a diffusion flame according to color and shape.

  14. Topicality and Complexity in the Acquisition of Norwegian Object Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderssen, Merete; Bentzen, Kristine; Rodina, Yulia

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the acquisition of object shift in Norwegian child language. We show that object shift is complex derivationally, distributionally, and referentially, and propose a new analysis in terms of IP-internal topicalization. The results of an elicited production study with 27 monolingual Norwegian-speaking children (ages…

  15. Process Architecture for Managing Digital Object Identifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanchoo, L.; James, N.; Stolte, E.

    2014-12-01

    In 2010, NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project implemented a process for registering Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) for data products distributed by Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). For the first 3 years, ESDIS evolved the process involving the data provider community in the development of processes for creating and assigning DOIs, and guidelines for the landing page. To accomplish this, ESDIS established two DOI User Working Groups: one for reviewing the DOI process whose recommendations were submitted to ESDIS in February 2014; and the other recently tasked to review and further develop DOI landing page guidelines for ESDIS approval by end of 2014. ESDIS has recently upgraded the DOI system from a manually-driven system to one that largely automates the DOI process. The new automated feature include: a) reviewing the DOI metadata, b) assigning of opaque DOI name if data provider chooses, and c) reserving, registering, and updating the DOIs. The flexibility of reserving the DOI allows data providers to embed and test the DOI in the data product metadata before formally registering with EZID. The DOI update process allows the changing of any DOI metadata except the DOI name unless the name has not been registered. Currently, ESDIS has processed a total of 557 DOIs of which 379 DOIs are registered with EZID and 178 are reserved with ESDIS. The DOI incorporates several metadata elements that effectively identify the data product and the source of availability. Of these elements, the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) attribute has the very important function of identifying the landing page which describes the data product. ESDIS in consultation with data providers in the Earth Science community is currently developing landing page guidelines that specify the key data product descriptive elements to be included on each data product's landing page. This poster will describe in detail the unique automated process and

  16. Using Multi-Objective Genetic Programming to Synthesize Stochastic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Brian; Imada, Janine

    Genetic programming is used to automatically construct stochastic processes written in the stochastic π-calculus. Grammar-guided genetic programming constrains search to useful process algebra structures. The time-series behaviour of a target process is denoted with a suitable selection of statistical feature tests. Feature tests can permit complex process behaviours to be effectively evaluated. However, they must be selected with care, in order to accurately characterize the desired process behaviour. Multi-objective evaluation is shown to be appropriate for this application, since it permits heterogeneous statistical feature tests to reside as independent objectives. Multiple undominated solutions can be saved and evaluated after a run, for determination of those that are most appropriate. Since there can be a vast number of candidate solutions, however, strategies for filtering and analyzing this set are required.

  17. Environmental Aspects, Objectives and Targets Identification Process

    SciTech Connect

    R. Green

    2002-07-29

    The purpose of this report is to document the environmental aspects and associated environmental impacts of the Bechtel SAIC Company (BSC) scope of work, evaluate the significance of those environmental aspects based on established criteria, and establish environmental objectives and targets for specific environmental aspects. This report is intended to be used by environmental staff in the evaluation of BSC work packages during the annual risk-based planning process. This report shall be fully reviewed and revised annually during the annual work planning process to reflect changes in BSC operations, facilities, and scope of work. Planned BSC work will be evaluated to determine if the work is covered by a previously defined activity, product or service (see Table 2); if work activities require redefinition or addition of a new activity; and if the significant evaluation for each environment aspect is still valid based on scope of planned work. New workscope initiated during the fiscal year through the Baseline Change Proposal process (i.e., not as part of the annual work plan) also will be reviewed for new environmental aspects and determination of whether the new workscope would change the significance rating of any environmental aspect. If a new environmental aspect is identified in a new work activity, product, or service but the aspect is not determined to be significant (see Section 4), then this report can be changed through an interim change notice (ICN). This report can be changed five times through an ICN before a full revision is required. However, if new workscope causes an environmental aspect to be graded as significant using the evaluation process in Section 4, this report shall be revised though a full review and revision.

  18. Visual Short-Term Memory Capacity for Simple and Complex Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luria, Roy; Sessa, Paola; Gotler, Alex; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Dell'Acqua, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Does the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) depend on the complexity of the objects represented in memory? Although some previous findings indicated lower capacity for more complex stimuli, other results suggest that complexity effects arise during retrieval (due to errors in the comparison process with what is in memory) that is not…

  19. Complex object correspondence construction in two-dimensional animation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun; Liu, Dongquan; Tao, Dacheng; Seah, Hock Soon

    2011-11-01

    Correspondence construction of objects in key frames is the precondition for inbetweening and coloring in 2-D computer-assisted animation production. Since each frame of an animation consists of multiple layers, objects are complex in terms of shape and structure. Therefore, existing shape-matching algorithms specifically designed for simple structures such as a single closed contour cannot perform well on objects constructed by multiple contours with an open shape. This paper introduces a semisupervised patch alignment framework for complex object correspondence construction. In particular, the new framework constructs local patches for each point on an object and aligns these patches in a new feature space, in which correspondences between objects can be detected by the subsequent clustering. For local patch construction, pairwise constraints, which indicate the corresponding points (must link) or unfitting points (cannot link), are introduced by users to improve the performance of correspondence construction. This kind of input is convenient for animation software users via user-friendly interfaces. A dozen of experimental results on our cartoon data set that is built on industrial production suggest the effectiveness of the proposed framework for constructing correspondences of complex objects. As an extension of our framework, additional shape retrieval experiments on MPEG-7 data set show that its performance is comparable with that of a prominent algorithm published in T-PAMI 2009.

  20. Complex molecule formation around massive young stellar objects.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Karin I; Fayolle, Edith C; Reiter, John B; Cyganowski, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Interstellar complex organic molecules were first identified in the hot inner regions of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs), but have more recently been found in many colder sources, indicating that complex molecules can form at a range of temperatures. However, individually these observations provide limited constraints on how complex molecules form, and whether the same formation pathways dominate in cold, warm and hot environments. To address these questions, we use spatially resolved observations from the Submillimeter Array of three MYSOs together with mostly unresolved literature data to explore how molecular ratios depend on environmental parameters, especially temperature. Towards the three MYSOs, we find multiple complex organic emission peaks characterized by different molecular compositions and temperatures. In particular, CH3CCH and CH3CN seem to always trace a lukewarm (T = 60 K) and a hot (T > 100 K) complex chemistry, respectively. These spatial trends are consistent with abundance-temperature correlations of four representative complex organics--CH3CCH, CH3CN, CH3OCH3 and CH3CHO--in a large sample of complex molecule hosts mined from the literature. Together, these results indicate a general chemical evolution with temperature, i.e. that new complex molecule formation pathways are activated as a MYSO heats up. This is qualitatively consistent with model predictions. Furthermore, these results suggest that ratios of complex molecules may be developed into a powerful probe of the evolutionary stage of a MYSO, and may provide information about its formation history. PMID:25302375

  1. Complex molecule formation around massive young stellar objects.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Karin I; Fayolle, Edith C; Reiter, John B; Cyganowski, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Interstellar complex organic molecules were first identified in the hot inner regions of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs), but have more recently been found in many colder sources, indicating that complex molecules can form at a range of temperatures. However, individually these observations provide limited constraints on how complex molecules form, and whether the same formation pathways dominate in cold, warm and hot environments. To address these questions, we use spatially resolved observations from the Submillimeter Array of three MYSOs together with mostly unresolved literature data to explore how molecular ratios depend on environmental parameters, especially temperature. Towards the three MYSOs, we find multiple complex organic emission peaks characterized by different molecular compositions and temperatures. In particular, CH3CCH and CH3CN seem to always trace a lukewarm (T = 60 K) and a hot (T > 100 K) complex chemistry, respectively. These spatial trends are consistent with abundance-temperature correlations of four representative complex organics--CH3CCH, CH3CN, CH3OCH3 and CH3CHO--in a large sample of complex molecule hosts mined from the literature. Together, these results indicate a general chemical evolution with temperature, i.e. that new complex molecule formation pathways are activated as a MYSO heats up. This is qualitatively consistent with model predictions. Furthermore, these results suggest that ratios of complex molecules may be developed into a powerful probe of the evolutionary stage of a MYSO, and may provide information about its formation history.

  2. Phase contrast radiography. II. Imaging of complex objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arhatari, Benedicta D.; Nugent, Keith A.; Peele, Andrew G.; Thornton, John

    2005-11-01

    An image model for phase contrast in projection radiography of complex objects is presented and tested experimentally. The model includes the wavelength distribution of the radiation. The model is used to optimize the contrast of a radiograph of a piece of aluminium containing a fine crack.

  3. Exploration of complex visual feature spaces for object perception

    PubMed Central

    Leeds, Daniel D.; Pyles, John A.; Tarr, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The mid- and high-level visual properties supporting object perception in the ventral visual pathway are poorly understood. In the absence of well-specified theory, many groups have adopted a data-driven approach in which they progressively interrogate neural units to establish each unit's selectivity. Such methods are challenging in that they require search through a wide space of feature models and stimuli using a limited number of samples. To more rapidly identify higher-level features underlying human cortical object perception, we implemented a novel functional magnetic resonance imaging method in which visual stimuli are selected in real-time based on BOLD responses to recently shown stimuli. This work was inspired by earlier primate physiology work, in which neural selectivity for mid-level features in IT was characterized using a simple parametric approach (Hung et al., 2012). To extend such work to human neuroimaging, we used natural and synthetic object stimuli embedded in feature spaces constructed on the basis of the complex visual properties of the objects themselves. During fMRI scanning, we employed a real-time search method to control continuous stimulus selection within each image space. This search was designed to maximize neural responses across a pre-determined 1 cm3 brain region within ventral cortex. To assess the value of this method for understanding object encoding, we examined both the behavior of the method itself and the complex visual properties the method identified as reliably activating selected brain regions. We observed: (1) Regions selective for both holistic and component object features and for a variety of surface properties; (2) Object stimulus pairs near one another in feature space that produce responses at the opposite extremes of the measured activity range. Together, these results suggest that real-time fMRI methods may yield more widely informative measures of selectivity within the broad classes of visual features

  4. A Survey of Complex Object Technologies for Digital Libraries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Argue, Brad; Efron, Miles; Denn, Sheila; Pattuelli, Maria Cristina

    2001-01-01

    Many early web-based digital libraries (DLs) had implicit assumptions reflected in their architecture that the unit of focus in the DL (frequently "reports" or "e-prints") would only be manifested in a single, or at most a few, common file formats such as PDF or PostScript. DLs have now matured to the point where their contents are commonly no longer simple files. Complex objects in DLs have emerged from in response to various requirements, including: simple aggregation of formats and supporting files, bundling additional information to aid digital preservation, creating opaque digital objects for e-commerce applications, and the incorporation of dynamic services with the traditional data files. We examine a representative (but not necessarily exhaustive) number of current and recent historical web-based complex object technologies and projects that are applicable to DLs: Aurora, Buckets, ComMentor, Cryptolopes, Digibox, Document Management Alliance, FEDORA, Kahn-Wilensky Framework Digital Objects, Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standard, Multivalent Documents, Open eBooks, VERS Encapsulated Objects, and the Warwick Framework.

  5. Epidemic processes in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Castellano, Claudio; Van Mieghem, Piet; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    In recent years the research community has accumulated overwhelming evidence for the emergence of complex and heterogeneous connectivity patterns in a wide range of biological and sociotechnical systems. The complex properties of real-world networks have a profound impact on the behavior of equilibrium and nonequilibrium phenomena occurring in various systems, and the study of epidemic spreading is central to our understanding of the unfolding of dynamical processes in complex networks. The theoretical analysis of epidemic spreading in heterogeneous networks requires the development of novel analytical frameworks, and it has produced results of conceptual and practical relevance. A coherent and comprehensive review of the vast research activity concerning epidemic processes is presented, detailing the successful theoretical approaches as well as making their limits and assumptions clear. Physicists, mathematicians, epidemiologists, computer, and social scientists share a common interest in studying epidemic spreading and rely on similar models for the description of the diffusion of pathogens, knowledge, and innovation. For this reason, while focusing on the main results and the paradigmatic models in infectious disease modeling, the major results concerning generalized social contagion processes are also presented. Finally, the research activity at the forefront in the study of epidemic spreading in coevolving, coupled, and time-varying networks is reported.

  6. Parallel Processing of Objects in a Naming Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Antje S.; Ouellet, Marc; Hacker, Christine

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated whether speakers who named several objects processed them sequentially or in parallel. Speakers named object triplets, arranged in a triangle, in the order left, right, and bottom object. The left object was easy or difficult to identify and name. During the saccade from the left to the right object, the right object shown…

  7. Processible Polyaniline Copolymers and Complexes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yun-Hsin

    1995-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) is an intractable polymer due to the difficulty of melt processing or dissolving it in common solvents. The purpose of the present investigation was to prepare a new class of conducting polyanilines with better solubility both in base and dope forms by (1) adding external salt to break aggregated chains, (2) introducing ring substituted units onto the backbone without disturbing the coplanar structure, and (3) complexing with polymeric dopants to form a soluble polymer complex. Aggregation of PANI chains in dilute solution was investigated in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) by light scattering, gel permeation chromatography, and viscosity measurements. The aggregation of chains resulted in a negative second virial coefficient in light scattering measurement, a bimodal molecular weight distribution in gel permeation chromatography, and concave reduced viscosity curves. The aggregates can be broken by adding external salt, which resulting in a higher reduced viscosity. The driving force for aggregation is assumed to be a combination of hydrogen bonding between the imine and amine groups, and the rigidity of backbone. The aggregation was modeled to occur via side-on packing of PANI chains. The ring substituted PANI copolymers, poly(aniline -co-phenetidine) were synthesized by chemical oxidation copolymerization using ammonium persulfate as an oxidant. The degree of copolymerization declined with an increasing feed of o-phenetidine in the reaction mixture. The o-phenetidine had a higher reactivity than aniline in copolymerization resulting in a higher content of o-phenetidine in copolymers. The resulting copolymers can be readily dissolved in NMP up to 20% (w/w), and other common solvents, and solutions possess a longer gelation time. The highly soluble copolymer with 20 mole % o-phenetidine in the backbone has same order of conductivity as the unsubstituted PANI after it is doped by HCl. Complexation of PANI and polymeric dopant, poly

  8. A Digital Preservation Ingest Parsing Agent for Complex Data Objects

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, Don F.

    2006-01-05

    Digital preservation systems are being researched and studied in academia and government-funded efforts all over the world. However, the actual release of a proven production system is still yet to happen. Some efforts have broken ground and present great potential, but major roadblocks still exist. One such obstacle is the complex data object, similar to what is produced by the DOE2000 Electronic Laboratory Notebook (ELN). This research effort will focus on determining a methodology for extracting a complex data object from the ELN, and transforming that into a standard digital preservation ingest file. This standard file type will be based on the Library of Congress Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standard (METS) . A METS file serves as a Submission Information Package (SIP) as defined by the Open Archive Information System (OAIS). In addition to the content information, a complete set of Preservation Description Information (PDI) for the content conformation needs to be collected as well in order to create an Archival Information Package (AIP) which will be used for preservation.

  9. Using Perspective to Model Complex Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, R.L.; Bisset, K.R.

    1999-04-04

    The notion of perspective, when supported in an object-based knowledge representation, can facilitate better abstractions of reality for modeling and simulation. The object modeling of complex physical and chemical processes is made more difficult in part due to the poor abstractions of state and phase changes available in these models. The notion of perspective can be used to create different views to represent the different states of matter in a process. These techniques can lead to a more understandable model. Additionally, the ability to record the progress of a process from start to finish is problematic. It is desirable to have a historic record of the entire process, not just the end result of the process. A historic record should facilitate backtracking and re-start of a process at different points in time. The same representation structures and techniques can be used to create a sequence of process markers to represent a historic record. By using perspective, the sequence of markers can have multiple and varying views tailored for a particular user's context of interest.

  10. 33 CFR 279.6 - Overview of objective setting process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overview of objective setting..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE RESOURCE USE: ESTABLISHMENT OF OBJECTIVES § 279.6 Overview of objective setting process... three main sets of data. Figure 1 presents an overview of this process. EC31OC91.024...

  11. Teacher Trainees as Learning Object Designers: Problems and Issues in Learning Object Development Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guler, Cetin; Altun, Arif

    2010-01-01

    Learning objects (LOs) can be defined as resources that are reusable, digital with the aim of fulfilling learning objectives (or expectations). Educators, both at the individual and institutional levels, are cautioned about the fact that LOs are to be processed through a proper development process. Who should be involved in the LO development…

  12. How the gaze of others influences object processing.

    PubMed

    Becchio, Cristina; Bertone, Cesare; Castiello, Umberto

    2008-07-01

    An aspect of gaze processing, which so far has been given little attention, is the influence that intentional gaze processing can have on object processing. Converging evidence from behavioural neuroscience and developmental psychology strongly suggests that objects falling under the gaze of others acquire properties that they would not display if not looked at. Specifically, observing another person gazing at an object enriches that object of motor, affective and status properties that go beyond its chemical or physical structure. A conceptual analysis of available evidence leads to the conclusion that gaze has the potency to transfer to the object the intentionality of the person looking at it.

  13. Objective high Resolution Analysis over Complex Terrain with VERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, D.; Steinacker, R.; Steiner, A.

    2012-04-01

    VERA (Vienna Enhanced Resolution Analysis) is a model independent, high resolution objective analysis of meteorological fields over complex terrain. This system consists of a special developed quality control procedure and a combination of an interpolation and a downscaling technique. Whereas the so called VERA-QC is presented at this conference in the contribution titled "VERA-QC, an approved Data Quality Control based on Self-Consistency" by Andrea Steiner, this presentation will focus on the method and the characteristics of the VERA interpolation scheme which enables one to compute grid point values of a meteorological field based on irregularly distributed observations and topography related aprior knowledge. Over a complex topography meteorological fields are not smooth in general. The roughness which is induced by the topography can be explained physically. The knowledge about this behavior is used to define the so called Fingerprints (e.g. a thermal Fingerprint reproducing heating or cooling over mountainous terrain or a dynamical Fingerprint reproducing positive pressure perturbation on the windward side of a ridge) under idealized conditions. If the VERA algorithm recognizes patterns of one or more Fingerprints at a few observation points, the corresponding patterns are used to downscale the meteorological information in a greater surrounding. This technique allows to achieve an analysis with a resolution much higher than the one of the observational network. The interpolation of irregularly distributed stations to a regular grid (in space and time) is based on a variational principle applied to first and second order spatial and temporal derivatives. Mathematically, this can be formulated as a cost function that is equivalent to the penalty function of a thin plate smoothing spline. After the analysis field has been divided into the Fingerprint components and the unexplained part respectively, the requirement of a smooth distribution is applied to the

  14. Parallel processing of objects in a naming task.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Antje S; Ouellet, Marc; Häcker, Christine

    2008-07-01

    The authors investigated whether speakers who named several objects processed them sequentially or in parallel. Speakers named object triplets, arranged in a triangle, in the order left, right, and bottom object. The left object was easy or difficult to identify and name. During the saccade from the left to the right object, the right object shown at trial onset (the interloper) was replaced by a new object (the target), which the speakers named. Interloper and target were identical or unrelated objects, or they were conceptually unrelated objects with the same name (e.g., bat [animal] and [baseball] bat). The mean duration of the gazes to the target was shorter when interloper and target were identical or had the same name than when they were unrelated. The facilitatory effects of identical and homophonous interlopers were significantly larger when the left object was easy to process than when it was difficult to process. This interaction demonstrates that the speakers processed the left and right objects in parallel.

  15. Detecting moving objects under a moving camera in complex environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Genyuan; Yu, Qin; Yang, Sisi; Zhou, Hong

    2015-03-01

    Robust detection of moving objects in image sequences is an essential part of many vision applications. However, it is not easily achievable with a moving camera since the camera and moving objects motions are mixed together. In this paper we propose a method to detect moving objects under a moving camera. The camera ego-motion is compensated by the corresponding feature sets. The difference image between two consecutive images that ego-motion is compensated is transformed into a binary image using k-means algorithm. According to the clustering results, the region of interest where moving objects are likely to exist is searched by the projection approach. Then local threshold and contour filling methods are applied to detect the accurate moving objects. Experimental results on real image sequences demonstrate that our method can get intact moving objects in the case of a moving camera efficiently.

  16. Spontaneous Object Recognition Memory in Aged Rats: Complexity versus Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamiz, Fernando; Gallo, Milagros

    2012-01-01

    Previous work on the effect of aging on spontaneous object recognition (SOR) memory tasks in rats has yielded controversial results. Although the results at long-retention intervals are consistent, conflicting results have been reported at shorter delays. We have assessed the potential relevance of the type of object used in the performance of…

  17. Nonrational Processes and Ethical Complexities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogerson, Mark D.; Gottlieb, Michael C.; Handelsman, Mitchell M.; Knapp, Samuel; Younggren, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Responds to the comments by Pomerantz and Sisti and Baum-Baicker on the current authors' original article, "Nonrational processes in ethical decision making". Pomerantz (2012) further explicated one interpersonal and contextual factor--the perceived characteristics of the recipient of any act. He cited evidence that these characteristics affect…

  18. Auditory processing--speech, space and auditory objects.

    PubMed

    Scott, Sophie K

    2005-04-01

    There have been recent developments in our understanding of the auditory neuroscience of non-human primates that, to a certain extent, can be integrated with findings from human functional neuroimaging studies. This framework can be used to consider the cortical basis of complex sound processing in humans, including implications for speech perception, spatial auditory processing and auditory scene segregation. PMID:15831402

  19. Object silhouettes and surface directions through stereo matching image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Akira; Kumagai, Hideo

    2015-09-01

    We have studied the object silhouettes and surface direction through the stereo matching image processing to recognize the position, size and surface direction of the object. For this study we construct the pixel number change distribution of the HSI color component level, the binary component level image by the standard deviation threshold, the 4 directional pixels connectivity filter, the surface elements correspondence by the stereo matching and the projection rule relation. We note that the HSI color component level change tendency of the object image near the focus position is more stable than the HSI color component level change tendency of the object image over the unfocused range. We use the HSI color component level images near the fine focused position to extract the object silhouette. We extract the object silhouette properly. We find the surface direction of the object by the pixel numbers of the correspondence surface areas and the projection cosine rule after the stereo matching image processing by the characteristic areas and the synthesized colors. The epipolar geometry is used in this study because a pair of imager is arranged on the same epipolar plane. The surface direction detection results in the proper angle calculation. The construction of the object silhouettes and the surface direction detection of the object are realized.

  20. Causality and complexity: the myth of objectivity in science.

    PubMed

    Mikulecky, Donald C

    2007-10-01

    Two distinctly different worldviews dominate today's thinking in science and in the world of ideas outside of science. Using the approach advocated by Robert M. Hutchins, it is possible to see a pattern of interaction between ideas in science and in other spheres such as philosophy, religion, and politics. Instead of compartmentalizing these intellectual activities, it is worthwhile to look for common threads of mutual influence. Robert Rosen has created an approach to scientific epistemology that might seem radical to some. However, it has characteristics that resemble ideas in other fields, in particular in the writings of George Lakoff, Leo Strauss, and George Soros. Historically, the atmosphere at the University of Chicago during Hutchins' presidency gave rise to Rashevsky's relational biology, which Rosen carried forward. Strauss was writing his political philosophy there at the same time. One idea is paramount in all this, and it is Lakoff who gives us the most insight into how the worldviews differ using this idea. The central difference has to do with causality, the fundamental concept that we use to build a worldview. Causal entailment has two distinct forms in Lakoff 's analysis: direct causality and complex causality. Rosen's writings on complexity create a picture of complex causality that is extremely useful in its detail, grounding in the ideas of Aristotle. Strauss asks for a return to the ancients to put philosophy back on track. Lakoff sees the weaknesses in Western philosophy in a similar way, and Rosen provides tools for dealing with the problem. This introduction to the relationships between the thinking of these authors is meant to stimulate further discourse on the role of complex causal entailment in all areas of thought, and how it brings them together in a holistic worldview. The worldview built on complex causality is clearly distinct from that built around simple, direct causality. One important difference is that the impoverished causal

  1. A novel multi-view object recognition in complex background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yongxin; Yu, Huapeng; Xu, Zhiyong; Fu, Chengyu; Gao, Chunming

    2015-02-01

    Recognizing objects from arbitrary aspects is always a highly challenging problem in computer vision, and most existing algorithms mainly focus on a specific viewpoint research. Hence, in this paper we present a novel recognizing framework based on hierarchical representation, part-based method and learning in order to recognize objects from different viewpoints. The learning evaluates the model's mistakes and feeds it back the detector to avid the same mistakes in the future. The principal idea is to extract intrinsic viewpoint invariant features from the unseen poses of object, and then to take advantage of these shared appearance features to support recognition combining with the improved multiple view model. Compared with other recognition models, the proposed approach can efficiently tackle multi-view problem and promote the recognition versatility of our system. For an quantitative valuation The novel algorithm has been tested on several benchmark datasets such as Caltech 101 and PASCAL VOC 2010. The experimental results validate that our approach can recognize objects more precisely and the performance outperforms others single view recognition methods.

  2. Constructing Mental Representations of Complex Three-Dimensional Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aust, Ronald

    This exploratory study investigated whether there are differences between males and females in the strategies used to construct mental representations from three-dimensional objects in a dimensional travel display. A Silicon Graphics IRIS computer was used to create the travel displays and mathematical models were created for each of the objects…

  3. Research on recognition methods of aphid objects in complex backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui-Yan; Zhang, Ji-Hong

    2009-07-01

    In order to improve the recognition accuracy among the kinds of aphids in the complex backgrounds, the recognition method among kinds of aphids based on Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DT-CWT) and Support Vector Machine (Libsvm) is proposed. Firstly the image is pretreated; secondly the aphid images' texture feature of three crops are extracted by DT-CWT in order to get the training parameters of training model; finally the training model could recognize aphids among the three kinds of crops. By contrasting to Gabor wavelet transform and the traditional extracting texture's methods based on Gray-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM), the experiment result shows that the method has a certain practicality and feasibility and provides basic for aphids' recognition between the identification among same kind aphid.

  4. Multi-Objective Optimization for Alumina Laser Sintering Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayed, E. M.; Elmesalamy, A. S.; Sobih, M.; Elshaer, Y.

    2016-09-01

    Selective laser sintering processes has become one of the most popular additive manufacturing processes due to its flexibility in creation of complex components. This process has many interacting parameters, which have a significant influence on the process output. In this work, high purity alumina is sintered through a pulsed Nd:YAG laser sintering process. The aim of this work is to understand the effect of relevant sintering process parameters (laser power and laser scanning speed) on the quality of the sintered layer (layer surface roughness, layer thickness and vector/line width, and density). Design of experiments and statistical modeling techniques are employed to optimize the process control factors and to establish a relationship between these factors and output responses. Model results have been verified through experimental work and show reasonable prediction of process responses within the limits of sintering parameters.

  5. A case of complex regional pain syndrome with agnosia for object orientation.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Gail; Cohen, Helen; Goebel, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    This systematic investigation of the neurocognitive correlates of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in a single case also reports agnosia for object orientation in the context of persistent CRPS. We report a patient (JW) with severe long-standing CRPS who had no difficulty identifying and naming line drawings of objects presented in 1 of 4 cardinal orientations. In contrast, he was extremely poor at reorienting these objects into the correct upright orientation and in judging whether an object was upright or not. Moreover, JW made orientation errors when copying drawings of objects, and he also showed features of mirror reversal in writing single words and reading single letters. The findings are discussed in relation to accounts of visual processing. Agnosia for object orientation is the term for impaired knowledge of an object's orientation despite good recognition and naming of the same misoriented object. This defect has previously only been reported in patients with major structural brain lesions. The neuroanatomical correlates are discussed. The patient had no structural brain lesion, raising the possibility that nonstructural reorganisation of cortical networks may be responsible for his deficits. Other patients with CRPS may have related neurocognitive defects.

  6. Overture: Object-Oriented Tools for Application with Complex Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.; Henshaw, B.; Quinlan, D.

    1999-05-31

    The Overture framework is an object-oriented environment for solving partial differential equations in two and three space dimensions. It is a collection of C++ libraries that enables the use of finite difference and finite volume methods at a level that hides the details of the associated data structures. Overture can be used to solve problems in complicated, moving geometries using the method of overlapping grids. It has support for grid generation, difference operators, boundary conditions, data-base access and graphics. Short sample code segments are presented to show the power of this approach.

  7. Incorporating manufacturability constraints into the design process of heterogeneous objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuna; Blouin, Vincent Y.; Fadel, Georges M.

    2004-11-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) technology, such as Laser Engineering Net Shaping (LENSTM), can be used to fabricate heterogeneous objects with gradient variations in material composition. These objects are generally characterized by enhanced functional performance. Past research on the design of such objects has focused on representation, modeling, and functional performance. However, the inherent constraints in RP processes, such as system capability and processing time, lead to heterogeneous objects that may not meet the designer's original intent. To overcome this situation, the research presented in this paper focuses on the identification and implementation of manufacturing constraints into the design process. A node-based finite element modeling technique is used for the representation and analysis and the multicriteria design problem corresponds to finding the nodal material compositions that minimize structural weight and maximize thermal performance. The optimizer used in this research is a real-valued Evolutionary Strategies (ES), which is well suited for this type of multi-modal problem. Two limitations of the LENS manufacturing process, which have an impact on the design process, are identified and implemented. One of them is related to the manufacturing time, which is considered as an additional criterion to be minimized in the design problem for a preselected tool path. A brake disc rotor made of two materials, aluminum for lightweight and steel for superior thermal characteristics, is used to illustrate the tradeoff between manufacturability and functionality.

  8. Neurophysiological evidence for two processing times for visual object identification.

    PubMed

    Schendan, Haline E; Kutas, Marta

    2002-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded to fragmented pictures of objects that were named correctly or were not to investigate the time course of visual object identification. The first ERP difference distinguishing identified from unidentified pictures estimates the upper limit of the time by which human brain regions have begun to activate long-term memory (LTM) representations specifying the identity of a visual object. Data from 15 young adults indicate that this time varies with the extent to which object parts are recoverable from the visual input, being approximately 200 ms earlier with recoverable than unrecoverable parts. Successful identification is evident by approximately 300 ms when object parts and overall structural configuration are readily recoverable but not until approximately 550 ms when object parts are difficult or impossible to recover (i.e. too poorly specified by the available contours to be recovered). In both cases, successful identification is associated with greater relative positivity. However, unidentified recoverable pictures are associated with an enhanced frontal negativity (N350), linked to object matching operations, not seen for non-recoverable pictures. Taken together, these results implicate two distinct processing sequences in the successful identification of visual objects.

  9. Omega: An Object-Oriented Image/Symbol Processing Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlotto, Mark J.; Fong, Jennifer B.

    1989-01-01

    A Common Lisp software system to support integrated image and symbolic processing applications is described. The system, termed Omega is implemented on a Symbolics Lisp Machine and is organized into modules to facilitate the development of user applications and for software transportability. An object-oriented programming language similar to Symbolics Zetalisp/Flavors is implemented in Common Lisp and is used for creating symbolic objects known as tokens. Tokens are used to represent images, significant areas in images, and regions that define the spatial extent of the significant areas. The extent of point, line, and areal features is represented by polygons, label maps, boundary points, row- and column-oriented run-length encoded rasters, and bounding rectangles. Macros provide a common means for image processing functions and spatial operators to access spatial representations. The implementation of image processing, segmentation, and symbolic processing functions within Omega are described.

  10. Invariant visual object recognition and shape processing in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zoccolan, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Invariant visual object recognition is the ability to recognize visual objects despite the vastly different images that each object can project onto the retina during natural vision, depending on its position and size within the visual field, its orientation relative to the viewer, etc. Achieving invariant recognition represents such a formidable computational challenge that is often assumed to be a unique hallmark of primate vision. Historically, this has limited the invasive investigation of its neuronal underpinnings to monkey studies, in spite of the narrow range of experimental approaches that these animal models allow. Meanwhile, rodents have been largely neglected as models of object vision, because of the widespread belief that they are incapable of advanced visual processing. However, the powerful array of experimental tools that have been developed to dissect neuronal circuits in rodents has made these species very attractive to vision scientists too, promoting a new tide of studies that have started to systematically explore visual functions in rats and mice. Rats, in particular, have been the subjects of several behavioral studies, aimed at assessing how advanced object recognition and shape processing is in this species. Here, I review these recent investigations, as well as earlier studies of rat pattern vision, to provide an historical overview and a critical summary of the status of the knowledge about rat object vision. The picture emerging from this survey is very encouraging with regard to the possibility of using rats as complementary models to monkeys in the study of higher-level vision. PMID:25561421

  11. Modeling of the formation of complex molecules in protostellar objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochina, O. V.; Wiebe, D. S.; Kalenskii, S. V.; Vasyunin, A. I.

    2013-11-01

    The results of molecular composition modeling are presented for the well studied low-mass star-forming region TMC-1 and the massive star-forming region DR21(OH), which is poorly studied from a chemical point of view. The column densities of dozens of molecules, ranging from simple diatomic to complex organic molecules, are reproduced to within an order of magnitude using a one-dimensional model for the physical and chemical structure of these regions. The chemical ages of the regions are approximately 105 years in both cases. The main desorption mechanisms that are usually included in chemical models (photodesorption, thermal desorption, and cosmic-ray-induced desorption) do not provide sufficient gasphase abundances of molecules that are synthesized in surface reactions; however, this shortcoming can be removed by introducing small amount of reactive desorption into the model. It is possible to reproduce the properties of the TMC-1 chemical composition in a standard model, without requiring additional assumptions about an anomalous C/O ratio or the recent accretion of matter enriched with atomic carbon, as has been proposed by some researchers.

  12. Lateralization of Object-Shape Information in Semantic Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwaan, Rolf A.; Yaxley, Richard H.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine whether perceptual information, specifically the shape of objects, is activated during semantic processing. Subjects judged whether a target word was related to a prime word. Prime-target pairs that were not associated, but whose referents had similar shapes (e.g. LADDER-RAILROAD) yielded longer ''no''…

  13. A Subjective and Objective Process for Athletic Training Student Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Jeremy R.; McLoda, Todd A.; Stanek, Justin M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Admission decisions are made annually concerning whom to accept into athletic training programs. Objective: To present an approach used to make admissions decisions at an undergraduate athletic training program and to corroborate this information by comparing each aspect to nursing program admission processes. Background: Annually,…

  14. Simple, Affordable and Sustainable Borehole Observatories for Complex Monitoring Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf, A.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Davis, E.; Saffer, D.; Wheat, G.; LaBonte, A.; Meldrum, R.; Heesemann, M.; Villinger, H.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Renken, J.; Bergenthal, M.; Wefer, G.

    2012-04-01

    Around 20 years ago, the scientific community started to use borehole observatories, so-called CORKs or Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kits, which are installed inside submarine boreholes, and which allow the re-establishment and monitoring of in situ conditions. From the first CORKs which allowed only rudimentary fluid pressure and temperature measurements, the instruments evolved to multi-functional and multi-level subseafloor laboratories, including, for example, long-term fluid sampling devices, in situ microbiological experiments or strainmeter. Nonetheless, most boreholes are still left uninstrumented, which is a major loss for the scientific community. In-stallation of CORKs usually requires a drillship and subsequent ROV assignments for data download and instru-ment maintenance, which is a major logistic and financial effort. Moreover, the increasing complexity of the CORK systems increased not only the expenses but led also to longer installation times and a higher sensitivity of the in-struments to environmental constraints. Here, we present three types of Mini-CORKs, which evolved back to more simple systems yet providing a wide range of possible in situ measurements. As a regional example the Nankai Trough is chosen, where repeated subduction thrust earthquakes with M8+ occurred. The area has been investigated by several drilling campaigns of the DSDP, ODP and IODP, where boreholes were already instrumented by different CORKs. Unfortunately, some of the more complex systems showed incomplete functionality, and moreover, the increased ship time forced IODP to rely on third party funds for the observatories. Consequently, the need for more affordable CORKs arose, which may be satisfied by the systems presented here. The first type, the so-called SmartPlug, provides two pressure transducers and four temperature sensors, and monitors a hydrostatic reference section and an isolated zone of interest. It was already installed at the Nankai Trough accretionary

  15. Design and Use of a Learning Object for Finding Complex Polynomial Roots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benitez, Julio; Gimenez, Marcos H.; Hueso, Jose L.; Martinez, Eulalia; Riera, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Complex numbers are essential in many fields of engineering, but students often fail to have a natural insight of them. We present a learning object for the study of complex polynomials that graphically shows that any complex polynomials has a root and, furthermore, is useful to find the approximate roots of a complex polynomial. Moreover, we…

  16. Electrophysiological Advances on Multiple Object Processing in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Mazza, Veronica; Brignani, Debora

    2016-01-01

    EEG research conducted in the past 5 years on multiple object processing has begun to define how the aging brain tracks the numerosity of the objects presented in the visual field for different goals. We review the recent EEG findings in healthy older individuals (age range: 65–75 years approximately) on perceptual, attentional and memory mechanisms-reflected in the N1, N2pc and contralateral delayed activity (CDA) components of the EEG, respectively-during the execution of a variety of cognitive tasks requiring simultaneous processing of multiple elements. The findings point to multiple loci of neural changes in multi-object analysis, and suggest the involvement of early perceptual mechanisms, attentive individuation and working memory (WM) operations in the neural and cognitive modification due to aging. However, the findings do not simply reflect early impairments with a cascade effect over subsequent stages of stimulus processing, but in fact highlight interesting dissociations between the effects occurring at the various stages of stimulus processing. Finally, the results on older adults indicate the occurrence of neural overactivation in association to good levels of performance in easy perceptual contexts, thus providing some hints on the existence of compensatory phenomena that are associated with the functioning of early perceptual mechanisms. PMID:26973520

  17. Electrophysiological Advances on Multiple Object Processing in Aging.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Veronica; Brignani, Debora

    2016-01-01

    EEG research conducted in the past 5 years on multiple object processing has begun to define how the aging brain tracks the numerosity of the objects presented in the visual field for different goals. We review the recent EEG findings in healthy older individuals (age range: 65-75 years approximately) on perceptual, attentional and memory mechanisms-reflected in the N1, N2pc and contralateral delayed activity (CDA) components of the EEG, respectively-during the execution of a variety of cognitive tasks requiring simultaneous processing of multiple elements. The findings point to multiple loci of neural changes in multi-object analysis, and suggest the involvement of early perceptual mechanisms, attentive individuation and working memory (WM) operations in the neural and cognitive modification due to aging. However, the findings do not simply reflect early impairments with a cascade effect over subsequent stages of stimulus processing, but in fact highlight interesting dissociations between the effects occurring at the various stages of stimulus processing. Finally, the results on older adults indicate the occurrence of neural overactivation in association to good levels of performance in easy perceptual contexts, thus providing some hints on the existence of compensatory phenomena that are associated with the functioning of early perceptual mechanisms. PMID:26973520

  18. SEPARATION PROCESS USING COMPLEXING AND ADSORPTION

    DOEpatents

    Spedding, J.H.; Ayers, J.A.

    1958-06-01

    An adsorption process is described for separating plutonium from a solution of neutron-irradiated uranium containing ions of a compound of plutonium and other cations. The method consists of forming a chelate complex compound with plutoniunn ions in the solution by adding a derivative of 8- hydroxyquinoline, which derivative contains a sulfonic acid group, and adsorbing the remaining cations from the solution on a cation exchange resin, while the complexed plutonium remains in the solution.

  19. Process for coating an object with silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Harry (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A process for coating a carbon or graphite object with silicon carbide by contacting it with silicon liquid and vapor over various lengths of contact time. In the process, a stream of silicon-containing precursor material in gaseous phase below the decomposition temperature of said gas and a co-reactant, carrier or diluent gas such as hydrogen is passed through a hole within a high emissivity, thin, insulating septum into a reaction chamber above the melting point of silicon. The thin septum has one face below the decomposition temperature of the gas and an opposite face exposed to the reaction chamber. The precursor gas is decomposed directly to silicon in the reaction chamber. A stream of any decomposition gas and any unreacted precursor gas from said reaction chamber is removed. The object within the reaction chamber is then contacted with silicon, and recovered after it has been coated with silicon carbide.

  20. OSIRIS Multi-Object Spectroscopy: Mask Design Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Velarde, G.; García-Alvarez, D.; Cabrerra-Lavers, A.

    2016-10-01

    The OSIRIS (Optical System for Imaging and Low-Intermediate Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy) instrument at the 10.4 m GTC has offered a multi-object spectroscopic mode since March 2014. In this paper we describe the detailed process of designing a MOS mask for OSIRIS by using the Mask Designer Tool, and give some numbers on the accuracy of the mask manufacture achievable at the telescope for its scientific use.

  1. ERPs Differentially Reflect Automatic and Deliberate Processing of the Functional Manipulability of Objects.

    PubMed

    Madan, Christopher R; Chen, Yvonne Y; Singhal, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the functional properties of an object can interact with perceptual, cognitive, and motor processes. Previously we have found that a between-subjects manipulation of judgment instructions resulted in different manipulability-related memory biases in an incidental memory test. To better understand this effect we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) while participants made judgments about images of objects that were either high or low in functional manipulability (e.g., hammer vs. ladder). Using a between-subjects design, participants judged whether they had seen the object recently (Personal Experience), or could manipulate the object using their hand (Functionality). We focused on the P300 and slow-wave event-related potentials (ERPs) as reflections of attentional allocation. In both groups, we observed higher P300 and slow wave amplitudes for high-manipulability objects at electrodes Pz and C3. As P300 is thought to reflect bottom-up attentional processes, this may suggest that the processing of high-manipulability objects recruited more attentional resources. Additionally, the P300 effect was greater in the Functionality group. A more complex pattern was observed at electrode C3 during slow wave: processing the high-manipulability objects in the Functionality instruction evoked a more positive slow wave than in the other three conditions, likely related to motor simulation processes. These data provide neural evidence that effects of manipulability on stimulus processing are further mediated by automatic vs. deliberate motor-related processing. PMID:27536224

  2. ERPs Differentially Reflect Automatic and Deliberate Processing of the Functional Manipulability of Objects

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Christopher R.; Chen, Yvonne Y.; Singhal, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the functional properties of an object can interact with perceptual, cognitive, and motor processes. Previously we have found that a between-subjects manipulation of judgment instructions resulted in different manipulability-related memory biases in an incidental memory test. To better understand this effect we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) while participants made judgments about images of objects that were either high or low in functional manipulability (e.g., hammer vs. ladder). Using a between-subjects design, participants judged whether they had seen the object recently (Personal Experience), or could manipulate the object using their hand (Functionality). We focused on the P300 and slow-wave event-related potentials (ERPs) as reflections of attentional allocation. In both groups, we observed higher P300 and slow wave amplitudes for high-manipulability objects at electrodes Pz and C3. As P300 is thought to reflect bottom-up attentional processes, this may suggest that the processing of high-manipulability objects recruited more attentional resources. Additionally, the P300 effect was greater in the Functionality group. A more complex pattern was observed at electrode C3 during slow wave: processing the high-manipulability objects in the Functionality instruction evoked a more positive slow wave than in the other three conditions, likely related to motor simulation processes. These data provide neural evidence that effects of manipulability on stimulus processing are further mediated by automatic vs. deliberate motor-related processing. PMID:27536224

  3. The Pan-STARRS Moving Object Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denneau, Larry; Jedicke, Robert; Grav, Tommy; Granvik, Mikael; Kubica, Jeremy; Milani, Andrea; Vereš, Peter; Wainscoat, Richard; Chang, Daniel; Pierfederici, Francesco; Kaiser, N.; Chambers, K. C.; Heasley, J. N.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Price, P. A.; Myers, Jonathan; Kleyna, Jan; Hsieh, Henry; Farnocchia, Davide; Waters, Chris; Sweeney, W. H.; Green, Denver; Bolin, Bryce; Burgett, W. S.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, John L.; Hodapp, K. W.; Chastel, Serge; Chesley, Steve; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Holman, Matthew; Spahr, Tim; Tholen, David; Williams, Gareth V.; Abe, Shinsuke; Armstrong, J. D.; Bressi, Terry H.; Holmes, Robert; Lister, Tim; McMillan, Robert S.; Micheli, Marco; Ryan, Eileen V.; Ryan, William H.; Scotti, James V.

    2013-04-01

    We describe the Pan-STARRS Moving Object Processing System (MOPS), a modern software package that produces automatic asteroid discoveries and identifications from catalogs of transient detections from next-generation astronomical survey telescopes. MOPS achieves >99.5% efficiency in producing orbits from a synthetic but realistic population of asteroids whose measurements were simulated for a Pan-STARRS4-class telescope. Additionally, using a nonphysical grid population, we demonstrate that MOPS can detect populations of currently unknown objects such as interstellar asteroids. MOPS has been adapted successfully to the prototype Pan-STARRS1 telescope despite differences in expected false detection rates, fill-factor loss, and relatively sparse observing cadence compared to a hypothetical Pan-STARRS4 telescope and survey. MOPS remains highly efficient at detecting objects but drops to 80% efficiency at producing orbits. This loss is primarily due to configurable MOPS processing limits that are not yet tuned for the Pan-STARRS1 mission. The core MOPS software package is the product of more than 15 person-years of software development and incorporates countless additional years of effort in third-party software to perform lower-level functions such as spatial searching or orbit determination. We describe the high-level design of MOPS and essential subcomponents, the suitability of MOPS for other survey programs, and suggest a road map for future MOPS development.

  4. Social ecological complexity and resilience processes.

    PubMed

    Ungar, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A social ecological model of resilience avoids the reductionism of simple explanations of the complex and multisystemic processes associated with well-being in contexts of adversity. There is evidence that when stressors are abnormally high, environmental factors account for more of an individual's resilience than do individual traits or cognitions. In this commentary, a social ecological model of resilience is discussed.

  5. Thematic Roles, Markedness Alignment and Processing Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yoonhyoung; Kwon, Youan; Gordon, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments used eye-tracking during reading to investigate the role of the consistency of the relative markedness alignment of noun phrases (NPs) in the processing of complex sentences in Korean. To do so, the animacy of the first NP was varied in both experiments to manipulate the relative markedness of NPs. In addition, case markings of the…

  6. The Process of Solving Complex Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Andreas; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    This article is about Complex Problem Solving (CPS), its history in a variety of research domains (e.g., human problem solving, expertise, decision making, and intelligence), a formal definition and a process theory of CPS applicable to the interdisciplinary field. CPS is portrayed as (a) knowledge acquisition and (b) knowledge application…

  7. Lipase Processing of Complex Lipid Antigens.

    PubMed

    Sander, Peter; Becker, Katja; Molin, Michael Dal

    2016-09-22

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis synthesizes a wide variety of complex lipids that can serve as antigens in immune recognition of the bacterium. In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Gilleron et al. (2016) identify key enzymes essential for lipid antigen processing, which is required for CD1b-restricted T cell activation. PMID:27662250

  8. Transient perceptual neglect: visual working memory load affects conscious object processing.

    PubMed

    Emrich, Stephen M; Burianová, Hana; Ferber, Susanne

    2011-10-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) is a capacity-limited cognitive resource that plays an important role in complex cognitive behaviors. Recent studies indicate that regions subserving VWM may play a role in the perception and recognition of visual objects, suggesting that conscious object perception may depend on the same cognitive and neural architecture that supports the maintenance of visual object information. In the present study, we examined this question by testing object processing under a concurrent VWM load. Under a high VWM load, recognition was impaired for objects presented in the left visual field, in particular when two objects were presented simultaneously. Multivariate fMRI revealed that two independent but partially overlapping networks of brain regions contribute to object recognition. The first network consisted of regions involved in VWM encoding and maintenance. Importantly, these regions were also sensitive to object load. The second network comprised regions of the ventral temporal lobes traditionally associated with object recognition. Importantly, activation in both networks predicted object recognition performance. These results indicate that information processing in regions that mediate VWM may be critical to conscious visual perception. Moreover, the observation of a hemifield asymmetry in object recognition performance has important theoretical and clinical significance for the study of visual neglect.

  9. Accelerated space object tracking via graphic processing unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Bin; Liu, Kui; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Chen, Genshe

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a hybrid Monte Carlo Gauss mixture Kalman filter is proposed for the continuous orbit estimation problem. Specifically, the graphic processing unit (GPU) aided Monte Carlo method is used to propagate the uncertainty of the estimation when the observation is not available and the Gauss mixture Kalman filter is used to update the estimation when the observation sequences are available. A typical space object tracking problem using the ground radar is used to test the performance of the proposed algorithm. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with the popular cubature Kalman filter (CKF). The simulation results show that the ordinary CKF diverges in 5 observation periods. In contrast, the proposed hybrid Monte Carlo Gauss mixture Kalman filter achieves satisfactory performance in all observation periods. In addition, by using the GPU, the computational time is over 100 times less than that using the conventional central processing unit (CPU).

  10. Intentional control of visual processing benefits from referential objects.

    PubMed

    Murchison, Nicole M; Proctor, Robert W

    2016-08-01

    Arguments have been made that enhanced visual processing occurs in the area of the palms of the hands due to greater density of bimodal neurons. An alternative is that the hands serve as reference objects relative to which attentional resources are allocated. Two experiments were conducted to determine whether the palms are unique in speeding responses in an Eriksen flanker-type task compared with other parts of the hands and objects used as barriers. In Experiment 1, the hands were crossed and positioned so that the palms faced outward toward letters located in the outer positions. Trial blocks differed in whether the centrally located letter or outer letters were designated as the target for responding. Results yielded reductions in flanker interference much as obtained when the palms face inward. This reduction occurred regardless of whether the center or outer positions of the letters were designated as the target. Experiment 2 replicated these results using as reference objects wooden blocks that mimicked the hands' physical contours, positioned with a curve-edge facing outwards. The results lend support to the referential coding account of the reduction of flanker interference. PMID:26704924

  11. Optimal graph search based image segmentation for objects with complex topologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Chen, Danny Z.; Wu, Xiaodong; Sonka, Milan

    2009-02-01

    Segmenting objects with complicated topologies in 3D images is a challenging problem in medical image processing, especially for objects with multiple interrelated surfaces. In this paper, we extend a graph search based technique to simultaneously identifying multiple interrelated surfaces for objects that have complex topologies (e.g., with tree-like structures) in 3D. We first perform a pre-segmentation on the input image to obtain basic information of the objects' topologies. Based on the initial pre-segmentation, the original image is resampled along judiciously determined directions to produce a set of vectors of voxels (called voxel columns). The resampling process utilizes medial axes to ensure that voxel columns of appropriate lengths are used to capture the sought object surfaces. Then a geometric graph is constructed whose edges connect voxels in the resampled voxel columns and enforce the smoothness constraint and separation constraint on the sought surfaces. Validation of our algorithm was performed on the segmentation of airway trees and lung vascular trees in human in-vivo CT scans. Cost functions with directional information are applied to distinguish the airway inner wall and outer wall. We succeed in extracting the outer airway wall and optimizing the location of the inner wall in all cases, while the vascular trees are optimized as well. Comparing with the pre-segmentation results, our approach captures the wall surfaces more accurately, especially across bifurcations. The statistical evaluation on a double wall phantom derived from in-vivo CT images yields highly accurate results of the wall thickness measurement on the whole tree (with mean unsigned error 0.16 +/- 0.16mm).

  12. Perception and conception: temporal lobe activity during complex discriminations of familiar and novel faces and objects.

    PubMed

    Barense, Morgan D; Henson, Richard N A; Graham, Kim S

    2011-10-01

    Recent studies indicate that medial-temporal lobe (MTL) damage, either from focal lesions or neurodegenerative disease (e.g., semantic dementia), impairs perception as well as long-term declarative memory. Notably, however, these two patient groups show different performance for meaningful versus unfamiliar stimuli. In amnesics with nonprogressive MTL lesions, the use of meaningful stimuli, compared with unfamiliar items, boosted discrimination performance. In semantic dementia, a condition characterized by progressive deterioration of conceptual knowledge in the context of anterolateral temporal lobe damage, performance for meaningful stimuli was equivalent to that for unfamiliar items. To further investigate these findings, we scanned healthy volunteers while they performed odd-one-out discriminations involving familiar (i.e., meaningful/famous) and unfamiliar (i.e., novel) objects and faces and a baseline task of size oddity. Outside the scanner, volunteers' recognition memory was assessed. We found above baseline activity in the perirhinal cortex and hippocampus for all object and face discriminations and above baseline activity in the temporal pole for all face discriminations. The comparison of meaningful, relative to novel, faces and objects, revealed increased activity in the perirhinal cortex and hippocampus. In the temporal pole, we also found activity related to meaningfulness for faces but not for objects. Importantly, these meaningfulness effects were evident even for discriminations that were not subsequently well remembered, suggesting that the difference between meaningful and novel stimuli reflects perceptual or conceptual processes rather than solely incidental encoding into long-term memory. The results provide further evidence that the MTL is recruited during complex perceptual discrimination and additionally suggest that these structures are recruited in semantic processing of objects and faces.

  13. A signal and image processing object-based system using CLOS

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-Yee; Sherwood, R.J.; Clark, G.A.; Lawver, B.S.

    1991-09-01

    This paper presents a LISP based system for signal and image processing. Using an object based approach the system integrates signal and image processing algorithms, supervised and unsupervised neural network algorithms, and mild-level computer vision capabilities, into a cohesive framework. This framework is suitable for prototyping complex algorithms dealing with multiple classes of data. The system, known as VISION, is currently used as a prototyping environment for wide range of scientific applications internal to LLNL. This paper highlights some of the capabilities of VISION, and how they were implemented using the Common LISP Object System, CLOS. 13 refs.

  14. Age-related impairment in a complex object discrimination task that engages perirhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Ryan, L; Cardoza, J A; Barense, M D; Kawa, K H; Wallentin-Flores, J; Arnold, W T; Alexander, G E

    2012-10-01

    Previous lesion studies have shown compromised complex object discrimination in rats, monkeys, and human patients with damage to the perirhinal cortical region (PRC) of the medial temporal lobe. These findings support the notion that the PRC is involved in object discrimination when pairs of objects have a high degree of overlapping features but not when object discrimination can be resolved on the basis of a single feature (e.g., size or color). Recent studies have demonstrated age-related functional changes to the PRC in animals (rats and monkeys) resulting in impaired complex object discrimination and object recognition. To date, no studies have compared younger and older humans using paradigms previously shown to engage the PRC. To investigate the influence of age on complex object discrimination in humans, the present study used an object matching paradigm for blob-like objects that have previously been shown to recruit the PRC. Difficulty was manipulated by varying the number of overlapping features between objects. Functional MRI data was acquired to determine the involvement of the PRC in the two groups during complex object discrimination. Results indicated that while young and older adults performed similarly on the easy version of the task, most older adults were impaired relative to young participants when the number of overlapping features increased. fMRI results suggest that older adults do not engage bilateral anterior PRC to the same extent as young adults. Specifically, complex object matching performance in older adults was predicted by the degree to which they engage left anterior PRC. These results provide evidence for human age-related changes in PRC function that impact complex object discrimination.

  15. Tracker: Image-Processing and Object-Tracking System Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimek, Robert B.; Wright, Theodore W.

    1999-01-01

    Tracker is an object-tracking and image-processing program designed and developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to help with the analysis of images generated by microgravity combustion and fluid physics experiments. Experiments are often recorded on film or videotape for analysis later. Tracker automates the process of examining each frame of the recorded experiment, performing image-processing operations to bring out the desired detail, and recording the positions of the objects of interest. It can load sequences of images from disk files or acquire images (via a frame grabber) from film transports, videotape, laser disks, or a live camera. Tracker controls the image source to automatically advance to the next frame. It can employ a large array of image-processing operations to enhance the detail of the acquired images and can analyze an arbitrarily large number of objects simultaneously. Several different tracking algorithms are available, including conventional threshold and correlation-based techniques, and more esoteric procedures such as "snake" tracking and automated recognition of character data in the image. The Tracker software was written to be operated by researchers, thus every attempt was made to make the software as user friendly and self-explanatory as possible. Tracker is used by most of the microgravity combustion and fluid physics experiments performed by Lewis, and by visiting researchers. This includes experiments performed on the space shuttles, Mir, sounding rockets, zero-g research airplanes, drop towers, and ground-based laboratories. This software automates the analysis of the flame or liquid s physical parameters such as position, velocity, acceleration, size, shape, intensity characteristics, color, and centroid, as well as a number of other measurements. It can perform these operations on multiple objects simultaneously. Another key feature of Tracker is that it performs optical character recognition (OCR). This feature is useful in

  16. A flexible object-oriented software framework for developing complex multimedia simulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Sydelko, P. J.; Dolph, J. E.; Christiansen, J. H.

    2002-05-03

    Decision makers involved in brownfields redevelopment and long-term stewardship must consider environmental conditions, future-use potential, site ownership, area infrastructure, funding resources, cost recovery, regulations, risk and liability management, community relations, and expected return on investment in a comprehensive and integrated fashion to achieve desired results. Successful brownfields redevelopment requires the ability to assess the impacts of redevelopment options on multiple interrelated aspects of the ecosystem, both natural and societal. Computer-based tools, such as simulation models, databases, and geographical information systems (GISs) can be used to address brownfields planning and project execution. The transparent integration of these tools into a comprehensive and dynamic decision support system would greatly enhance the brownfields assessment process. Such a system needs to be able to adapt to shifting and expanding analytical requirements and contexts. The Dynamic Information Architecture System (DIAS) is a flexible, extensible, object-oriented framework for developing and maintaining complex multidisciplinary simulations of a wide variety of application domains. The modeling domain of a specific DIAS-based simulation is determined by (1) software objects that represent the real-world entities that comprise the problem space (atmosphere, watershed, human), and (2) simulation models and other data processing applications that express the dynamic behaviors of the domain entities. Models and applications used to express dynamic behaviors can be either internal or external to DIAS, including existing legacy models written in various languages (FORTRAN, C, etc.). The flexible design framework of DIAS makes the objects adjustable to the context of the problem without a great deal of recoding. The DIAS Spatial Data Set facility allows parameters to vary spatially depending on the simulation context according to any of a number of 1-D, 2-D

  17. The highs and lows of object impossibility: effects of spatial frequency on holistic processing of impossible objects.

    PubMed

    Freud, Erez; Avidan, Galia; Ganel, Tzvi

    2015-02-01

    Holistic processing, the decoding of a stimulus as a unified whole, is a basic characteristic of object perception. Recent research using Garner's speeded classification task has shown that this processing style is utilized even for impossible objects that contain an inherent spatial ambiguity. In particular, similar Garner interference effects were found for possible and impossible objects, indicating similar holistic processing styles for the two object categories. In the present study, we further investigated the perceptual mechanisms that mediate such holistic representation of impossible objects. We relied on the notion that, whereas information embedded in the high-spatial-frequency (HSF) content supports fine-detailed processing of object features, the information conveyed by low spatial frequencies (LSF) is more crucial for the emergence of a holistic shape representation. To test the effects of image frequency on the holistic processing of impossible objects, participants performed the Garner speeded classification task on images of possible and impossible cubes filtered for their LSF and HSF information. For images containing only LSF, similar interference effects were observed for possible and impossible objects, indicating that the two object categories were processed in a holistic manner. In contrast, for the HSF images, Garner interference was obtained only for possible, but not for impossible objects. Importantly, we provided evidence to show that this effect could not be attributed to a lack of sensitivity to object possibility in the LSF images. Particularly, even for full-spectrum images, Garner interference was still observed for both possible and impossible objects. Additionally, performance in an object classification task revealed high sensitivity to object possibility, even for LSF images. Taken together, these findings suggest that the visual system can tolerate the spatial ambiguity typical to impossible objects by relying on information

  18. On the existence of near-Earth-object meteoroid complexes producing meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodriguez, J.; Madiedo, J.; Williams, I.

    2014-07-01

    It is generally thought that meteorites are formed as a result of collisions within the main belt of asteroids [1]. They are delivered onto Earth-crossing orbits because of the effects of orbital resonances, primarily with Jupiter. About 15 meteorites are known where their passage through the atmosphere was observed and recorded, allowing the parameters of the pre-encounter orbit to be derived [2]. The cosmic-ray-exposure ages (CREAs) are suggesting that most meteorites have been exposed to cosmic rays for tens of millions of years (Myrs) [3], re-enforcing the belief that the process of modifying the orbit from being near-circular in the main belt to highly elliptical as an Earth-crossing orbit was a gradual process like the effects of resonance. However, there is growing evidence that some meteorite could originate directly from the near-Earth-object (NEO) population. A good example of this is the recent discovery of rare primitive groups in the Antarctic, an example being Elephant Moraine (EET) 96026: a C4/5 carbonaceous chondrite with a measured cosmic ray exposure age of only 0.28 Ma [4]. Here, we focus on recent dynamic links that have been established between meteorite-dropping bolides and NEOs that support the idea of short-life meteoroid streams that can generate meteoroids on Earth. The fact that such streams can exist allows rocky material from potentially-hazardous asteroids (PHA) to be sampled and investigated in the laboratory. The existence of meteoroid streams capable of producing meteorites has been proposed following the determination of accurate meteoroid orbits of fireballs obtained by the Canadian Meteorite Observation and Recovery Project (MORP) [5]. Some asteroids in the Earth's vicinity are undergoing both dynamical and collisional evolution on very short timescales [6]. Many of these objects are crumbly bodies that originated from the collisions between main-belt asteroids during their life-time. An obvious method of forming these complexes

  19. Supercritical separation process for complex organic mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Chum, Helena L.; Filardo, Giuseppe

    1990-01-01

    A process is disclosed for separating low molecular weight components from complex aqueous organic mixtures. The process includes preparing a separation solution of supercritical carbon dioxide with an effective amount of an entrainer to modify the solvation power of the supercritical carbon dioxide and extract preselected low molecular weight components. The separation solution is maintained at a temperature of at least about 70.degree. C. and a pressure of at least about 1,500 psi. The separation solution is then contacted with the organic mixtures while maintaining the temperature and pressure as above until the mixtures and solution reach equilibrium to extract the preselected low molecular weight components from the organic mixtures. Finally, the entrainer/extracted components portion of the equilibrium mixture is isolated from the separation solution.

  20. Supercritical separation process for complex organic mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Chum, H.L.; Filardo, G.

    1990-10-23

    A process is disclosed for separating low molecular weight components from complex aqueous organic mixtures. The process includes preparing a separation solution of supercritical carbon dioxide with an effective amount of an entrainer to modify the solvation power of the supercritical carbon dioxide and extract preselected low molecular weight components. The separation solution is maintained at a temperature of at least about 70 C and a pressure of at least about 1,500 psi. The separation solution is then contacted with the organic mixtures while maintaining the temperature and pressure as above until the mixtures and solution reach equilibrium to extract the preselected low molecular weight components from the organic mixtures. Finally, the entrainer/extracted components portion of the equilibrium mixture is isolated from the separation solution. 1 fig.

  1. Software Process Assurance for Complex Electronics (SPACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plastow, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Complex Electronics (CE) are now programmed to perform tasks that were previously handled in software, such as communication protocols. Many of the methods used to develop software bare a close resemblance to CE development. For instance, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) can have over a million logic gates while system-on-chip (SOC) devices can combine a microprocessor, input and output channels, and sometimes an FPGA for programmability. With this increased intricacy, the possibility of software-like bugs such as incorrect design, logic, and unexpected interactions within the logic is great. Since CE devices are obscuring the hardware/software boundary, we propose that mature software methodologies may be utilized with slight modifications in the development of these devices. Software Process Assurance for Complex Electronics (SPACE) is a research project that looks at using standardized S/W Assurance/Engineering practices to provide an assurance framework for development activities. Tools such as checklists, best practices and techniques can be used to detect missing requirements and bugs earlier in the development cycle creating a development process for CE that will be more easily maintained, consistent and configurable based on the device used.

  2. Software Process Assurance for Complex Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plastow, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Complex Electronics (CE) now perform tasks that were previously handled in software, such as communication protocols. Many methods used to develop software bare a close resemblance to CE development. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) can have over a million logic gates while system-on-chip (SOC) devices can combine a microprocessor, input and output channels, and sometimes an FPGA for programmability. With this increased intricacy, the possibility of software-like bugs such as incorrect design, logic, and unexpected interactions within the logic is great. With CE devices obscuring the hardware/software boundary, we propose that mature software methodologies may be utilized with slight modifications in the development of these devices. Software Process Assurance for Complex Electronics (SPACE) is a research project that used standardized S/W Assurance/Engineering practices to provide an assurance framework for development activities. Tools such as checklists, best practices and techniques were used to detect missing requirements and bugs earlier in the development cycle creating a development process for CE that was more easily maintained, consistent and configurable based on the device used.

  3. A Comparison of Two Objective Measures of Binaural Processing

    PubMed Central

    Undurraga, Jaime A.; Marquardt, Torsten; McAlpine, David

    2015-01-01

    There has been continued interest in clinical objective measures of binaural processing. One commonly proposed measure is the binaural interaction component (BIC), which is obtained typically by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABRs)—the BIC reflects the difference between the binaural ABR and the sum of the monaural ABRs (i.e., binaural − (left + right)). We have recently developed an alternative, direct measure of sensitivity to interaural time differences, namely, a following response to modulations in interaural phase difference (the interaural phase modulation following response; IPM-FR). To obtain this measure, an ongoing diotically amplitude-modulated signal is presented, and the interaural phase difference of the carrier is switched periodically at minima in the modulation cycle. Such periodic modulations to interaural phase difference can evoke a steady state following response. BIC and IPM-FR measurements were compared from 10 normal-hearing subjects using a 16-channel electroencephalographic system. Both ABRs and IPM-FRs were observed most clearly from similar electrode locations—differential recordings taken from electrodes near the ear (e.g., mastoid) in reference to a vertex electrode (Cz). Although all subjects displayed clear ABRs, the BIC was not reliably observed. In contrast, the IPM-FR typically elicited a robust and significant response. In addition, the IPM-FR measure required a considerably shorter recording session. As the IPM-FR magnitude varied with interaural phase difference modulation depth, it could potentially serve as a correlate of perceptual salience. Overall, the IPM-FR appears a more suitable clinical measure than the BIC. PMID:26721925

  4. Using near-infrared spectroscopy to assess neural activation during object processing in infants.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Teresa; Bortfeld, Heather; Woods, Rebecca; Wruck, Eric; Boas, David A

    2005-01-01

    The capacity to represent the world in terms of numerically distinct objects (i.e., object individuation) is a milestone in early cognitive development and forms the foundation for more complex thought and behavior. Over the past 10 to 15 yr, infant researchers have expended a great deal of effort to identify the origins and development of this capacity. In contrast, relatively little is known about the neural mechanisms that underlie the ability to individuate objects, in large part because there are a limited number of noninvasive techniques available to measure brain functioning in human infants. Recent research suggests that near-IR spectroscopy (NIRS), an optical imaging technique that uses relative changes in total hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation as an indicator of neural activation, may be a viable procedure for assessing the relation between object processing and brain function in human infants. We examine the extent to which increased neural activation, as measured by NIRS, could be observed in two neural areas known to be involved in object processing, the primary visual cortex and the inferior temporal cortex, during an object processing task. Infants aged 6.5 months are presented with a visual event in which two featurally distinct objects emerge successively to opposite sides of an occluder and neuroimaging data are collected. As predicted, increased neural activation is observed in both the primary visual and inferior cortex during the visual event, suggesting that these neural areas support object processing in the young infant. The outcome has important implications for research in cognitive development, developmental neuroscience, and optical imaging. PMID:15847576

  5. Interpolation Processes in Object Perception: Reply to Anderson (2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellman, Philip J.; Garrigan, Patrick; Shipley, Thomas F.; Keane, Brian P.

    2007-01-01

    P. J. Kellman, P. Garrigan, & T. F. Shipley presented a theory of 3-D interpolation in object perception. Along with results from many researchers, this work supports an emerging picture of how the visual system connects separate visible fragments to form objects. In his commentary, B. L. Anderson challenges parts of that view, especially the idea…

  6. Faster than the speed of rejection: Object identification processes during visual search for multiple targets

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, Hayward J.; Walenchok, Stephen C.; Houpt, Joseph W.; Hout, Michael C.; Goldinger, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    When engaged in a visual search for two targets, participants are slower and less accurate in their responses, relative to their performance when searching for singular targets. Previous work on this “dual-target cost” has primarily focused on the breakdown of attention guidance when looking for two items. Here, we investigated how object identification processes are affected by dual-target search. Our goal was to chart the speed at which distractors could be rejected, in order to assess whether dual-target search impairs object identification. To do so, we examined the capacity coefficient, which measures the speed at which decisions can be made, and provides a baseline of parallel performance against which to compare. We found that participants could search at or above this baseline, suggesting that dual-target search does not impair object identification abilities. We also found substantial differences in performance when participants were asked to search for simple versus complex images. Somewhat paradoxically, participants were able to reject complex images more rapidly than simple images. We suggest that this reflects the greater number of features that can be used to identify complex images, a finding that has important consequences for understanding object identification in visual search more generally. PMID:25938253

  7. No Evidence for a Fixed Object Limit in Working Memory: Spatial Ensemble Representations Inflate Estimates of Working Memory Capacity for Complex Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Timothy F.; Alvarez, George A.

    2015-01-01

    A central question for models of visual working memory is whether the number of objects people can remember depends on object complexity. Some influential "slot" models of working memory capacity suggest that people always represent 3-4 objects and that only the fidelity with which these objects are represented is affected by object…

  8. Mapping stochastic processes onto complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirazi, A. H.; Reza Jafari, G.; Davoudi, J.; Peinke, J.; Reza Rahimi Tabar, M.; Sahimi, Muhammad

    2009-07-01

    We introduce a method by which stochastic processes are mapped onto complex networks. As examples, we construct the networks for such time series as those for free-jet and low-temperature helium turbulence, the German stock market index (the DAX), and white noise. The networks are further studied by contrasting their geometrical properties, such as the mean length, diameter, clustering, and average number of connections per node. By comparing the network properties of the original time series investigated with those for the shuffled and surrogate series, we are able to quantify the effect of the long-range correlations and the fatness of the probability distribution functions of the series on the networks constructed. Most importantly, we demonstrate that the time series can be reconstructed with high precision by means of a simple random walk on their corresponding networks.

  9. Aridity and decomposition processes in complex landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossola, Alessandro; Nyman, Petter

    2015-04-01

    Decomposition of organic matter is a key biogeochemical process contributing to nutrient cycles, carbon fluxes and soil development. The activity of decomposers depends on microclimate, with temperature and rainfall being major drivers. In complex terrain the fine-scale variation in microclimate (and hence water availability) as a result of slope orientation is caused by differences in incoming radiation and surface temperature. Aridity, measured as the long-term balance between net radiation and rainfall, is a metric that can be used to represent variations in water availability within the landscape. Since aridity metrics can be obtained at fine spatial scales, they could theoretically be used to investigate how decomposition processes vary across complex landscapes. In this study, four research sites were selected in tall open sclerophyll forest along a aridity gradient (Budyko dryness index ranging from 1.56 -2.22) where microclimate, litter moisture and soil moisture were monitored continuously for one year. Litter bags were packed to estimate decomposition rates (k) using leaves of a tree species not present in the study area (Eucalyptus globulus) in order to avoid home-field advantage effects. Litter mass loss was measured to assess the activity of macro-decomposers (6mm litter bag mesh size), meso-decomposers (1 mm mesh), microbes above-ground (0.2 mm mesh) and microbes below-ground (2 cm depth, 0.2 mm mesh). Four replicates for each set of bags were installed at each site and bags were collected at 1, 2, 4, 7 and 12 months since installation. We first tested whether differences in microclimate due to slope orientation have significant effects on decomposition processes. Then the dryness index was related to decomposition rates to evaluate if small-scale variation in decomposition can be predicted using readily available information on rainfall and radiation. Decomposition rates (k), calculated fitting single pool negative exponential models, generally

  10. Visual control of action directed toward two-dimensional objects relies on holistic processing of object shape.

    PubMed

    Freud, Erez; Ganel, Tzvi

    2015-10-01

    Visual perception relies on holistic processing of object shape. In contrast to perception, previous studies demonstrated that vision-for-action operates in a fundamentally different manner based on an analytical representation of objects. This notion was mainly supported by the absence of Garner interference for visually guided actions, compared to robust interference effects for perceptual estimations of the same objects. This study examines the nature of the representations that subserve visually guided actions toward two-dimensional (2D) stimuli. Based on recent results suggesting that actions directed toward 2D objects are mediated by different underlying processes compared to normal actions, we predicted that visually guided actions toward 2D stimuli would rely on perceptually driven holistic representations of object shape. To test this idea, we asked participants to grasp 2D rectangular objects presented on a computer monitor along their width while the values of the irrelevant dimension of length were either kept constant (baseline condition) or varied between trials (filtering condition). Worse performance in the filtering blocks is labeled Garner interference, which indicates holistic processing of object shape. Unlike in previous studies that used real objects, the results showed that grasping toward 2D objects produced a significant Garner interference effect, with more variable within-subject performance in the filtering compared to the baseline blocks. This finding suggests that visually guided actions directed toward 2D targets are mediated by different computations compared to visually guided actions directed toward real objects.

  11. View specificity in object processing: evidence from picture matching.

    PubMed

    Lawson, R; Humphreys, G W

    1996-04-01

    Four experiments investigated the types of representations mediating sequential visual matching of objects depicted at different depth rotations. Matching performance was affected by the similarity between depicted views of the objects. Effects of view similarity were not influenced by the presence of a meaningless mask in the interstimulus interval (ISI), but they were reduced by long ISIs and by familiarity with the stimuli. It is suggested that with longer ISIs or increased stimulus familiarity, a number of object representations are activated that, although abstracted from some image characteristics, remain view specific. Under these conditions, matching is less reliant on representations closely tied to the view of the initial stimulus presented. The results are consistent with both the derivation and the long-term representation of view-specific rather than view-invariant descriptions of objects. PMID:8934852

  12. The perception of odor objects in everyday life: a review on the processing of odor mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Thomas-Danguin, Thierry; Sinding, Charlotte; Romagny, Sébastien; El Mountassir, Fouzia; Atanasova, Boriana; Le Berre, Elodie; Le Bon, Anne-Marie; Coureaud, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Smelling monomolecular odors hardly ever occurs in everyday life, and the daily functioning of the sense of smell relies primarily on the processing of complex mixtures of volatiles that are present in the environment (e.g., emanating from food or conspecifics). Such processing allows for the instantaneous recognition and categorization of smells and also for the discrimination of odors among others to extract relevant information and to adapt efficiently in different contexts. The neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning this highly efficient analysis of complex mixtures of odorants is beginning to be unraveled and support the idea that olfaction, as vision and audition, relies on odor-objects encoding. This configural processing of odor mixtures, which is empirically subject to important applications in our societies (e.g., the art of perfumers, flavorists, and wine makers), has been scientifically studied only during the last decades. This processing depends on many individual factors, among which are the developmental stage, lifestyle, physiological and mood state, and cognitive skills; this processing also presents striking similarities between species. The present review gathers the recent findings, as observed in animals, healthy subjects, and/or individuals with affective disorders, supporting the perception of complex odor stimuli as odor objects. It also discusses peripheral to central processing, and cognitive and behavioral significance. Finally, this review highlights that the study of odor mixtures is an original window allowing for the investigation of daily olfaction and emphasizes the need for knowledge about the underlying biological processes, which appear to be crucial for our representation and adaptation to the chemical environment. PMID:24917831

  13. The perception of odor objects in everyday life: a review on the processing of odor mixtures.

    PubMed

    Thomas-Danguin, Thierry; Sinding, Charlotte; Romagny, Sébastien; El Mountassir, Fouzia; Atanasova, Boriana; Le Berre, Elodie; Le Bon, Anne-Marie; Coureaud, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Smelling monomolecular odors hardly ever occurs in everyday life, and the daily functioning of the sense of smell relies primarily on the processing of complex mixtures of volatiles that are present in the environment (e.g., emanating from food or conspecifics). Such processing allows for the instantaneous recognition and categorization of smells and also for the discrimination of odors among others to extract relevant information and to adapt efficiently in different contexts. The neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning this highly efficient analysis of complex mixtures of odorants is beginning to be unraveled and support the idea that olfaction, as vision and audition, relies on odor-objects encoding. This configural processing of odor mixtures, which is empirically subject to important applications in our societies (e.g., the art of perfumers, flavorists, and wine makers), has been scientifically studied only during the last decades. This processing depends on many individual factors, among which are the developmental stage, lifestyle, physiological and mood state, and cognitive skills; this processing also presents striking similarities between species. The present review gathers the recent findings, as observed in animals, healthy subjects, and/or individuals with affective disorders, supporting the perception of complex odor stimuli as odor objects. It also discusses peripheral to central processing, and cognitive and behavioral significance. Finally, this review highlights that the study of odor mixtures is an original window allowing for the investigation of daily olfaction and emphasizes the need for knowledge about the underlying biological processes, which appear to be crucial for our representation and adaptation to the chemical environment. PMID:24917831

  14. Improvement of the F-Perceptory Approach Through Management of Fuzzy Complex Geographic Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalfi, B.; de Runz, C.; Faiz, S.; Akdag, H.

    2015-08-01

    In the real world, data is imperfect and in various ways such as imprecision, vagueness, uncertainty, ambiguity and inconsistency. For geographic data, the fuzzy aspect is mainly manifested in time, space and the function of objects and is due to a lack of precision. Therefore, the researchers in the domain emphasize the importance of modeling data structures in GIS but also their lack of adaptation to fuzzy data. The F-Perceptory approachh manages the modeling of imperfect geographic information with UML. This management is essential to maintain faithfulness to reality and to better guide the user in his decision-making. However, this approach does not manage fuzzy complex geographic objects. The latter presents a multiple object with similar or different geographic shapes. So, in this paper, we propose to improve the F-Perceptory approach by proposing to handle fuzzy complex geographic objects modeling. In a second step, we propose its transformation to the UML modeling.

  15. Auditory scene analysis and sonified visual images. Does consonance negatively impact on object formation when using complex sonified stimuli?

    PubMed Central

    Brown, David J.; Simpson, Andrew J. R.; Proulx, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    A critical task for the brain is the sensory representation and identification of perceptual objects in the world. When the visual sense is impaired, hearing and touch must take primary roles and in recent times compensatory techniques have been developed that employ the tactile or auditory system as a substitute for the visual system. Visual-to-auditory sonifications provide a complex, feature-based auditory representation that must be decoded and integrated into an object-based representation by the listener. However, we don’t yet know what role the auditory system plays in the object integration stage and whether the principles of auditory scene analysis apply. Here we used coarse sonified images in a two-tone discrimination task to test whether auditory feature-based representations of visual objects would be confounded when their features conflicted with the principles of auditory consonance. We found that listeners (N = 36) performed worse in an object recognition task when the auditory feature-based representation was harmonically consonant. We also found that this conflict was not negated with the provision of congruent audio–visual information. The findings suggest that early auditory processes of harmonic grouping dominate the object formation process and that the complexity of the signal, and additional sensory information have limited effect on this. PMID:26528202

  16. Model estimation and identification of manual controller objectives in complex tracking tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, D. K.; Yuan, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    A methodology is presented for estimating the parameters in an optimal control structural model of the manual controller from experimental data on complex, multiinput/multioutput tracking tasks. Special attention is devoted to estimating the appropriate objective function for the task, as this is considered key in understanding the objectives and strategy of the manual controller. The technique is applied to data from single input/single output as well as multi input/multi outpuut experiments, and results discussed.

  17. Foreign object ingestion in complex suicide: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cascini, Fidelia; Longo, Francesca; Polacco, Matteo; Scafetta, Ilaria

    2012-06-10

    Foreign body ingestion frequently occurs accidentally in the paediatric population as well as intentionally in prisoners to achieve hospitalisation, but is relatively uncommon in forensic cases and extremely rare as a method of inducing death in complex suicide. The reasons for this infrequency are many, not least the slowness of action and the lack of effectiveness in terms of lethality, regardless of the object used. In this article, we show an unplanned complex suicide carried out by ingestion of four plastic knives before hanging. Other complex suicides involving foreign body ingestion reported in the forensic literature are reviewed. PMID:22169165

  18. Distinct Visual Processing of Real Objects and Pictures of Those Objects in 7- to 9-month-old Infants

    PubMed Central

    Gerhard, Theresa M.; Culham, Jody C.; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined 7- and 9-month-old infants’ visual habituation to real objects and pictures of the same objects and their preferences between real and pictorial versions of the same objects following habituation. Different hypotheses would predict that infants may habituate faster to pictures than real objects (based on proposed theoretical links between behavioral habituation in infants and neuroimaging adaptation in adults) or to real objects vs. pictures (based on past infant electrophysiology data). Sixty-one 7-month-old infants and fifty-nine 9-month-old infants were habituated to either a real object or a picture of the same object and afterward preference tested with the habituation object paired with either the novel real object or its picture counterpart. Infants of both age groups showed basic information-processing advantages for real objects. Specifically, during the initial presentations, 9-month-old infants looked longer at stimuli in both formats than the 7-month olds but more importantly both age groups looked longer at real objects than pictures, though with repeated presentations, they habituated faster for real objects such that at the end of habituation, they looked equally at both types of stimuli. Surprisingly, even after habituation, infants preferred to look at the real objects, regardless of whether they had habituated to photos or real objects. Our findings suggest that from as early as 7-months of age, infants show strong preferences for real objects, perhaps because real objects are visually richer and/or enable the potential for genuine interactions. PMID:27378962

  19. Plastic modifications induced by object recognition memory processing

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Julia Rosauro; Cammarota, Martín; Gruart, Agnès; Izquierdo, Iván; Delgado-García, José María

    2010-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) phenomenon is widely accepted as a cellular model of memory consolidation. Object recognition (OR) is a particularly useful way of studying declarative memory in rodents because it makes use of their innate preference for novel over familiar objects. In this study, mice had electrodes implanted in the hippocampal Schaffer collaterals–pyramidal CA1 pathway and were trained for OR. Field EPSPs evoked at the CA3-CA1 synapse were recorded at the moment of training and at different times thereafter. LTP-like synaptic enhancement was found 6 h posttraining. A testing session was conducted 24 h after training, in the presence of one familiar and one novel object. Hippocampal synaptic facilitation was observed during exploration of familiar and novel objects. A short depotentiation period was observed early after the test and was followed by a later phase of synaptic efficacy enhancement. Here, we show that OR memory consolidation is accompanied by transient potentiation in the hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses, while reconsolidation of this memory requires a short-lasting phase of depotentiation that could account for its well described vulnerability. The late synaptic enhancement phase, on the other hand, would be a consequence of memory restabilization. PMID:20133798

  20. Plastic modifications induced by object recognition memory processing.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Julia Rosauro; Cammarota, Martín; Gruart, Agnès; Izquierdo, Iván; Delgado-García, José María

    2010-02-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) phenomenon is widely accepted as a cellular model of memory consolidation. Object recognition (OR) is a particularly useful way of studying declarative memory in rodents because it makes use of their innate preference for novel over familiar objects. In this study, mice had electrodes implanted in the hippocampal Schaffer collaterals-pyramidal CA1 pathway and were trained for OR. Field EPSPs evoked at the CA3-CA1 synapse were recorded at the moment of training and at different times thereafter. LTP-like synaptic enhancement was found 6 h posttraining. A testing session was conducted 24 h after training, in the presence of one familiar and one novel object. Hippocampal synaptic facilitation was observed during exploration of familiar and novel objects. A short depotentiation period was observed early after the test and was followed by a later phase of synaptic efficacy enhancement. Here, we show that OR memory consolidation is accompanied by transient potentiation in the hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses, while reconsolidation of this memory requires a short-lasting phase of depotentiation that could account for its well described vulnerability. The late synaptic enhancement phase, on the other hand, would be a consequence of memory restabilization.

  1. Effect of tDCS on task relevant and irrelevant perceptual learning of complex objects.

    PubMed

    Van Meel, Chayenne; Daniels, Nicky; de Beeck, Hans Op; Baeck, Annelies

    2016-01-01

    During perceptual learning the visual representations in the brain are altered, but these changes' causal role has not yet been fully characterized. We used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to investigate the role of higher visual regions in lateral occipital cortex (LO) in perceptual learning with complex objects. We also investigated whether object learning is dependent on the relevance of the objects for the learning task. Participants were trained in two tasks: object recognition using a backward masking paradigm and an orientation judgment task. During both tasks, an object with a red line on top of it were presented in each trial. The crucial difference between both tasks was the relevance of the object: the object was relevant for the object recognition task, but not for the orientation judgment task. During training, half of the participants received anodal tDCS stimulation targeted at the lateral occipital cortex (LO). Afterwards, participants were tested on how well they recognized the trained objects, the irrelevant objects presented during the orientation judgment task and a set of completely new objects. Participants stimulated with tDCS during training showed larger improvements of performance compared to participants in the sham condition. No learning effect was found for the objects presented during the orientation judgment task. To conclude, this study suggests a causal role of LO in relevant object learning, but given the rather low spatial resolution of tDCS, more research on the specificity of this effect is needed. Further, mere exposure is not sufficient to train object recognition in our paradigm. PMID:27096945

  2. Effect of tDCS on task relevant and irrelevant perceptual learning of complex objects.

    PubMed

    Van Meel, Chayenne; Daniels, Nicky; de Beeck, Hans Op; Baeck, Annelies

    2016-01-01

    During perceptual learning the visual representations in the brain are altered, but these changes' causal role has not yet been fully characterized. We used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to investigate the role of higher visual regions in lateral occipital cortex (LO) in perceptual learning with complex objects. We also investigated whether object learning is dependent on the relevance of the objects for the learning task. Participants were trained in two tasks: object recognition using a backward masking paradigm and an orientation judgment task. During both tasks, an object with a red line on top of it were presented in each trial. The crucial difference between both tasks was the relevance of the object: the object was relevant for the object recognition task, but not for the orientation judgment task. During training, half of the participants received anodal tDCS stimulation targeted at the lateral occipital cortex (LO). Afterwards, participants were tested on how well they recognized the trained objects, the irrelevant objects presented during the orientation judgment task and a set of completely new objects. Participants stimulated with tDCS during training showed larger improvements of performance compared to participants in the sham condition. No learning effect was found for the objects presented during the orientation judgment task. To conclude, this study suggests a causal role of LO in relevant object learning, but given the rather low spatial resolution of tDCS, more research on the specificity of this effect is needed. Further, mere exposure is not sufficient to train object recognition in our paradigm.

  3. Examining Complexity across Domains: Relating Subjective and Objective Measures of Affective Environmental Scenes, Paintings and Music

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Manuela M.; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Subjective complexity has been found to be related to hedonic measures of preference, pleasantness and beauty, but there is no consensus about the nature of this relationship in the visual and musical domains. Moreover, the affective content of stimuli has been largely neglected so far in the study of complexity but is crucial in many everyday contexts and in aesthetic experiences. We thus propose a cross-domain approach that acknowledges the multidimensional nature of complexity and that uses a wide range of objective complexity measures combined with subjective ratings. In four experiments, we employed pictures of affective environmental scenes, representational paintings, and Romantic solo and chamber music excerpts. Stimuli were pre-selected to vary in emotional content (pleasantness and arousal) and complexity (low versus high number of elements). For each set of stimuli, in a between-subjects design, ratings of familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal were obtained for a presentation time of 25 s from 152 participants. In line with Berlyne’s collative-motivation model, statistical analyses controlling for familiarity revealed a positive relationship between subjective complexity and arousal, and the highest correlations were observed for musical stimuli. Evidence for a mediating role of arousal in the complexity-pleasantness relationship was demonstrated in all experiments, but was only significant for females with regard to music. The direction and strength of the linear relationship between complexity and pleasantness depended on the stimulus type and gender. For environmental scenes, the root mean square contrast measures and measures of compressed file size correlated best with subjective complexity, whereas only edge detection based on phase congruency yielded equivalent results for representational paintings. Measures of compressed file size and event density also showed positive correlations with complexity and arousal in music, which is

  4. Examining complexity across domains: relating subjective and objective measures of affective environmental scenes, paintings and music.

    PubMed

    Marin, Manuela M; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Subjective complexity has been found to be related to hedonic measures of preference, pleasantness and beauty, but there is no consensus about the nature of this relationship in the visual and musical domains. Moreover, the affective content of stimuli has been largely neglected so far in the study of complexity but is crucial in many everyday contexts and in aesthetic experiences. We thus propose a cross-domain approach that acknowledges the multidimensional nature of complexity and that uses a wide range of objective complexity measures combined with subjective ratings. In four experiments, we employed pictures of affective environmental scenes, representational paintings, and Romantic solo and chamber music excerpts. Stimuli were pre-selected to vary in emotional content (pleasantness and arousal) and complexity (low versus high number of elements). For each set of stimuli, in a between-subjects design, ratings of familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal were obtained for a presentation time of 25 s from 152 participants. In line with Berlyne's collative-motivation model, statistical analyses controlling for familiarity revealed a positive relationship between subjective complexity and arousal, and the highest correlations were observed for musical stimuli. Evidence for a mediating role of arousal in the complexity-pleasantness relationship was demonstrated in all experiments, but was only significant for females with regard to music. The direction and strength of the linear relationship between complexity and pleasantness depended on the stimulus type and gender. For environmental scenes, the root mean square contrast measures and measures of compressed file size correlated best with subjective complexity, whereas only edge detection based on phase congruency yielded equivalent results for representational paintings. Measures of compressed file size and event density also showed positive correlations with complexity and arousal in music, which is

  5. Examining complexity across domains: relating subjective and objective measures of affective environmental scenes, paintings and music.

    PubMed

    Marin, Manuela M; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Subjective complexity has been found to be related to hedonic measures of preference, pleasantness and beauty, but there is no consensus about the nature of this relationship in the visual and musical domains. Moreover, the affective content of stimuli has been largely neglected so far in the study of complexity but is crucial in many everyday contexts and in aesthetic experiences. We thus propose a cross-domain approach that acknowledges the multidimensional nature of complexity and that uses a wide range of objective complexity measures combined with subjective ratings. In four experiments, we employed pictures of affective environmental scenes, representational paintings, and Romantic solo and chamber music excerpts. Stimuli were pre-selected to vary in emotional content (pleasantness and arousal) and complexity (low versus high number of elements). For each set of stimuli, in a between-subjects design, ratings of familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal were obtained for a presentation time of 25 s from 152 participants. In line with Berlyne's collative-motivation model, statistical analyses controlling for familiarity revealed a positive relationship between subjective complexity and arousal, and the highest correlations were observed for musical stimuli. Evidence for a mediating role of arousal in the complexity-pleasantness relationship was demonstrated in all experiments, but was only significant for females with regard to music. The direction and strength of the linear relationship between complexity and pleasantness depended on the stimulus type and gender. For environmental scenes, the root mean square contrast measures and measures of compressed file size correlated best with subjective complexity, whereas only edge detection based on phase congruency yielded equivalent results for representational paintings. Measures of compressed file size and event density also showed positive correlations with complexity and arousal in music, which is

  6. Objects and processes: Two notions for understanding biological information.

    PubMed

    Mercado-Reyes, Agustín; Padilla-Longoria, Pablo; Arroyo-Santos, Alfonso

    2015-09-01

    In spite of being ubiquitous in life sciences, the concept of information is harshly criticized. Uses of the concept other than those derived from Shannon׳s theory are denounced as metaphoric. We perform a computational experiment to explore whether Shannon׳s information is adequate to describe the uses of said concept in commonplace scientific practice. Our results show that semantic sequences do not have unique complexity values different from the value of meaningless sequences. This result suggests that quantitative theoretical frameworks do not account fully for the complex phenomenon that the term "information" refers to. We propose a restructuring of the concept into two related, but independent notions, and conclude that a complete theory of biological information must account completely not only for both notions, but also for the relationship between them.

  7. Objects and processes: Two notions for understanding biological information.

    PubMed

    Mercado-Reyes, Agustín; Padilla-Longoria, Pablo; Arroyo-Santos, Alfonso

    2015-09-01

    In spite of being ubiquitous in life sciences, the concept of information is harshly criticized. Uses of the concept other than those derived from Shannon׳s theory are denounced as metaphoric. We perform a computational experiment to explore whether Shannon׳s information is adequate to describe the uses of said concept in commonplace scientific practice. Our results show that semantic sequences do not have unique complexity values different from the value of meaningless sequences. This result suggests that quantitative theoretical frameworks do not account fully for the complex phenomenon that the term "information" refers to. We propose a restructuring of the concept into two related, but independent notions, and conclude that a complete theory of biological information must account completely not only for both notions, but also for the relationship between them. PMID:26026831

  8. A Pedagogical Approach to the Design of Learning Objects for Complex Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busetti, Emanuela; Dettori, Giuliana; Forcheri, Paola; Ierardi, Maria Grazia

    2007-01-01

    In this article we describe an approach to the design of learning objects (LOs) suitable to support learning in complex domains. We briefly discuss, from an educational point of view, the methodological choices underlying the design of LOs to be used as didactical materials in a distributed Web-based environment, presently under development,…

  9. The Perception of Concurrent Sound Objects in Harmonic Complexes Impairs Gap Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Ada W. S.; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Vachon, Francois; Alain, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of the concept of auditory scene analysis, there has been a paucity of work focusing on the theoretical explanation of how attention is allocated within a complex auditory scene. Here we examined signal detection in situations that promote either the fusion of tonal elements into a single sound object or the segregation of a…

  10. Learning Objects: A User-Centered Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branon, Rovy F., III

    2011-01-01

    Design research systematically creates or improves processes, products, and programs through an iterative progression connecting practice and theory (Reinking, 2008; van den Akker, 2006). Developing a new instructional systems design (ISD) processes through design research is necessary when new technologies emerge that challenge existing practices…

  11. Computational issues in complex water-energy optimization problems: Time scales, parameterizations, objectives and algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstratiadis, Andreas; Tsoukalas, Ioannis; Kossieris, Panayiotis; Karavokiros, George; Christofides, Antonis; Siskos, Alexandros; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2015-04-01

    Modelling of large-scale hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) is a challenging task, for which several open computational issues exist. HRES comprise typical components of hydrosystems (reservoirs, boreholes, conveyance networks, hydropower stations, pumps, water demand nodes, etc.), which are dynamically linked with renewables (e.g., wind turbines, solar parks) and energy demand nodes. In such systems, apart from the well-known shortcomings of water resources modelling (nonlinear dynamics, unknown future inflows, large number of variables and constraints, conflicting criteria, etc.), additional complexities and uncertainties arise due to the introduction of energy components and associated fluxes. A major difficulty is the need for coupling two different temporal scales, given that in hydrosystem modeling, monthly simulation steps are typically adopted, yet for a faithful representation of the energy balance (i.e. energy production vs. demand) a much finer resolution (e.g. hourly) is required. Another drawback is the increase of control variables, constraints and objectives, due to the simultaneous modelling of the two parallel fluxes (i.e. water and energy) and their interactions. Finally, since the driving hydrometeorological processes of the integrated system are inherently uncertain, it is often essential to use synthetically generated input time series of large length, in order to assess the system performance in terms of reliability and risk, with satisfactory accuracy. To address these issues, we propose an effective and efficient modeling framework, key objectives of which are: (a) the substantial reduction of control variables, through parsimonious yet consistent parameterizations; (b) the substantial decrease of computational burden of simulation, by linearizing the combined water and energy allocation problem of each individual time step, and solve each local sub-problem through very fast linear network programming algorithms, and (c) the substantial

  12. Distinct brain activity in processing negative pictures of animals and objects - the role of human contexts.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhijun; Zhao, Yanbing; Tan, Tengteng; Chen, Gang; Ning, Xueling; Zhan, Lexia; Yang, Jiongjiong

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the amygdala is important in processing not only animate entities but also social information. It remains to be determined to what extent the factors of category and social context interact to modulate the activities of the amygdala and cortical regions. In this study, pictures depicting animals and inanimate objects in negative and neutral levels were presented. The contexts of the pictures differed in whether they included human/human parts. The factors of valence, arousal, familiarity and complexity of pictures were controlled across categories. The results showed that the amygdala activity was modulated by category and contextual information. Under the nonhuman context condition, the amygdala responded more to animals than objects for both negative and neutral pictures. In contrast, under the human context condition, the amygdala showed stronger activity for negative objects than animals. In addition to cortical regions related to object action, functional and effective connectivity analyses showed that the anterior prefrontal cortex interacted more with the amygdala for negative objects (vs. animals) in the human context condition, by a top-down modulation of the anterior prefrontal cortex to the amygdala. These results highlighted the effects of category and human contexts on modulating brain activity in emotional processing.

  13. Recording of incoherent-object hologram as complex spatial coherence function using Sagnac radial shearing interferometer and a Pockels cell.

    PubMed

    Naik, Dinesh N; Pedrini, Giancarlo; Osten, Wolfgang

    2013-02-25

    The ideas of incoherent holography were conceived after the invention of coherent-light holography and their concepts seems indirectly related to it. In this work, we adopt an approach based on statistical optics to describe the process of recording of an incoherent-object hologram as a complex spatial coherence function. A Sagnac radial shearing interferometer is used for the correlation of optical fields and a Pockels cell is used to phase shift the interfering fields with the objective to quantify and to retrieve the spatial coherence function.

  14. Application of Complex Fluids in Lignocellulose Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo Lugo, Carlos A.

    Complex fluids such as emulsions, microemulsions and foams, have been used for different applications due to the multiplicity of properties they possess. In the present work, such fluids are introduced as effective media for processing lignocellulosic biomass. A demonstration of the generic benefits of complex fluids is presented to enhance biomass impregnation, to facilitate pretreatment for fiber deconstruction and to make compatible cellulose fibrils with hydrophobic polymers during composite manufacture. An improved impregnation of woody biomass was accomplished by application of water-continuous microemulsions. Microemulsions with high water content, > 85%, were formulated and wood samples were impregnated by wicking and capillary flooding at atmospheric pressure and temperature. Formulations were designed to effectively impregnate different wood species during shorter times and to a larger extent compared to the single components of the microemulsions (water, oil or surfactant solutions). The viscosity of the microemulsions and their interactions with cell wall constituents in fibers were critical to define the extent of impregnation and solubilization. The relation between composition and formulation variables and the extent of microemulsion penetration in different woody substrates was studied. Formulation variables such as salinity content of the aqueous phase and type of surfactant were elucidated. Likewise, composition variables such as the water-to-oil ratio and surfactant concentration were investigated. These variables affected the characteristics of the microemulsion and determined their effectiveness in wood treatment. Also, the interactions between the surfactant and the substrate had an important contribution in defining microemulsion penetration in the capillary structure of wood. Microemulsions as an alternative pretreatment for the manufacture of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) was also studied. Microemulsions were applied to pretreat lignin

  15. Background complexity affects response of a looming-sensitive neuron to object motion.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana C; McMillan, Glyn A; Santos, Cristina P; Gray, John R

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of studies show how stimulus complexity affects the responses of looming-sensitive neurons across multiple animal taxa. Locusts contain a well-described, descending motion-sensitive pathway that is preferentially looming sensitive. However, the lobula giant movement detector/descending contralateral movement detector (LGMD/DCMD) pathway responds to more than simple objects approaching at constant, predictable trajectories. In this study, we presented Locusta migratoria with a series of complex three-dimensional visual stimuli presented while simultaneously recording DCMD activity extracellularly. In addition to a frontal looming stimulus, we used a combination of compound trajectories (nonlooming transitioning to looming) presented at different velocities and onto a simple, scattered, or progressive flow field background. Regardless of stimulus background, DCMD responses to looming were characteristic and related to previously described effects of azimuthal approach angle and velocity of object expansion. However, increasing background complexity caused reduced firing rates, delayed peaks, shorter rise phases, and longer fall phases. DCMD responded to transitions to looming with a characteristic drop in a firing rate that was relatively invariant across most stimulus combinations and occurred regardless of stimulus background. Spike numbers were higher in the presence of the scattered background and reduced in the flow field background. We show that DCMD response time to a transition depends on unique expansion parameters of the moving stimulus irrespective of background complexity. Our results show how background complexity shapes DCMD responses to looming stimuli, which is explained within a behavioral context.

  16. Method and system for nanoscale plasma processing of objects

    DOEpatents

    Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.; Hua, Xuefeng; Stolz, Christian

    2008-12-30

    A plasma processing system includes a source of plasma, a substrate and a shutter positioned in close proximity to the substrate. The substrate/shutter relative disposition is changed for precise control of substrate/plasma interaction. This way, the substrate interacts only with a fully established, stable plasma for short times required for nanoscale processing of materials. The shutter includes an opening of a predetermined width, and preferably is patterned to form an array of slits with dimensions that are smaller than the Debye screening length. This enables control of the substrate/plasma interaction time while avoiding the ion bombardment of the substrate in an undesirable fashion. The relative disposition between the shutter and the substrate can be made either by moving the shutter or by moving the substrate.

  17. An analysis of packaging formats for complex digtal objects: review of principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekaert, Jeroen L.; Hochstenbach, Patrick; De Kooning, Emiel; Van de Walle, Rik

    2003-11-01

    During recent years, the number of organizations making digital information available has massively increased. This evolution encouraged the development of standards for packaging and encoding digital representations of complex objects (such as a digital music albums or digitized books and photograph albums). The primary goal of this article is to offer a method to compare these packaging standards and best practices tailored to the needs of the digital library community and the rising digital preservation programs. The contribution of this paper is the definition of an integrated reference model, based on both the OAIS framework and some additional significant properties that affect the quality, usability, encoding and behavior of the digital objects.

  18. Complex Network Clustering by a Multi-objective Evolutionary Algorithm Based on Decomposition and Membrane Structure

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Ying; Zhang, Songming; Ding, Ningxiang; Zeng, Xiangxiang; Zhang, Xingyi

    2016-01-01

    The field of complex network clustering is gaining considerable attention in recent years. In this study, a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on membranes is proposed to solve the network clustering problem. Population are divided into different membrane structures on average. The evolutionary algorithm is carried out in the membrane structures. The population are eliminated by the vector of membranes. In the proposed method, two evaluation objectives termed as Kernel J-means and Ratio Cut are to be minimized. Extensive experimental studies comparison with state-of-the-art algorithms proves that the proposed algorithm is effective and promising. PMID:27670156

  19. Fast laser systems for measuring the geometry of complex-shaped objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiulin, Ravil M.; Galiulin, Rishat M.; Bakirov, J. M.; Vorontsov, A. V.; Ponomarenko, I. V.

    1999-01-01

    The technical characteristics, advantages and applications of an automated optoelectronic measuring system designed by 'Optel' company, State Aviation University of Ufa, are presented in this paper. The measuring apparatus can be applied for industrial development and research, for example, in rapid prototyping, and for obtaining geometrical parameters in medicine and criminalistics. It essentially is a non-contact and rapid scanning system, allowing measurements of complex shaped objects like metal and plastic workpieces or parts of human body.

  20. IFR fuel cycle process equipment design environment and objectives

    SciTech Connect

    Rigg, R.H.

    1993-03-01

    Argonne National laboratory (ANL) is refurbishing the hot cell facility originally constructed with the EBR-II reactor. When refurbishment is complete, the facility win demonstrate the complete fuel cycle for current generation high burnup metallic fuel elements. These are sodium bonded, stainless steel clad fuel pins of U-Zr or U-Pu-Zr composition typical of the fuel type proposed for a future Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) design. To the extent possible, the process equipment is being built at full commercial scale, and the facility is being modified to incorporate current DOE facility design requirements and modem remote maintenance principles. The current regulatory and safety environment has affected the design of the fuel fabrication equipment, most of which will be described in greater detail in subsequent papers in this session.

  1. IFR fuel cycle process equipment design environment and objectives

    SciTech Connect

    Rigg, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    Argonne National laboratory (ANL) is refurbishing the hot cell facility originally constructed with the EBR-II reactor. When refurbishment is complete, the facility win demonstrate the complete fuel cycle for current generation high burnup metallic fuel elements. These are sodium bonded, stainless steel clad fuel pins of U-Zr or U-Pu-Zr composition typical of the fuel type proposed for a future Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) design. To the extent possible, the process equipment is being built at full commercial scale, and the facility is being modified to incorporate current DOE facility design requirements and modem remote maintenance principles. The current regulatory and safety environment has affected the design of the fuel fabrication equipment, most of which will be described in greater detail in subsequent papers in this session.

  2. Framework for dynamic background modeling and shadow suppression for moving object segmentation in complex wavelet domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushwaha, Alok Kumar Singh; Srivastava, Rajeev

    2015-09-01

    Moving object segmentation using change detection in wavelet domain under continuous variations of lighting condition is a challenging problem in video surveillance systems. There are several methods proposed in the literature for change detection in wavelet domain for moving object segmentation having static backgrounds, but it has not been addressed effectively for dynamic background changes. The methods proposed in the literature suffer from various problems, such as ghostlike appearance, object shadows, and noise. To deal with these issues, a framework for dynamic background modeling and shadow suppression under rapidly changing illumination conditions for moving object segmentation in complex wavelet domain is proposed. The proposed method consists of eight steps applied on given video frames, which include wavelet decomposition of frame using complex wavelet transform; use of change detection on detail coefficients (LH, HL, and HH), use of improved Gaussian mixture-based dynamic background modeling on approximate coefficient (LL subband); cast shadow suppression; use of soft thresholding for noise removal; strong edge detection; inverse wavelet transformation for reconstruction; and finally using closing morphology operator. A comparative analysis of the proposed method is presented both qualitatively and quantitatively with other standard methods available in the literature for six datasets in terms of various performance measures. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.

  3. Intercalation processes of copper complexes in DNA

    PubMed Central

    Galindo-Murillo, Rodrigo; García-Ramos, Juan Carlos; Ruiz-Azuara, Lena; Cheatham, Thomas E.; Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The family of anticancer complexes that include the transition metal copper known as Casiopeínas® shows promising results. Two of these complexes are currently in clinical trials. The interaction of these compounds with DNA has been observed experimentally and several hypotheses regarding the mechanism of action have been developed, and these include the generation of reactive oxygen species, phosphate hydrolysis and/or base-pair intercalation. To advance in the understanding on how these ligands interact with DNA, we present a molecular dynamics study of 21 Casiopeínas with a DNA dodecamer using 10 μs of simulation time for each compound. All the complexes were manually inserted into the minor groove as the starting point of the simulations. The binding energy of each complex and the observed representative type of interaction between the ligand and the DNA is reported. With this extended sampling time, we found that four of the compounds spontaneously flipped open a base pair and moved inside the resulting cavity and four compounds formed stacking interactions with the terminal base pairs. The complexes that formed the intercalation pocket led to more stable interactions. PMID:25958394

  4. The Lateral Occipital Complex shows no net response to object familiarity.

    PubMed

    Margalit, Eshed; Shah, Manan P; Tjan, Bosco S; Biederman, Irving; Keller, Brenton; Brenner, Rorry

    2016-09-01

    In 1995, Malach et al. discovered an area whose fMRI BOLD response was greater when viewing intact, familiar objects than when viewing their scrambled versions (resembling texture). Since then hundreds of studies have explored this late visual region termed the Lateral Occipital Complex (LOC), which is now known to be critical for shape perception (James, Culham, Humphrey, Milner, & Goodale, 2003). Malach et al. (1995) discounted a role of familiarity by showing that "abstract" Henry Moore sculptures, unfamiliar to the subjects, also activated this region. This characterization of LOC as a region that responds to shape independently of familiarity has been accepted but never tested with control of the same low-level features. We assessed LOC's response to objects that had identical parts in two different arrangements, one familiar and the other novel. Malach was correct: There is no net effect of familiarity in LOC. However, a multivoxel correlation analysis showed that LOC does distinguish familiar from novel objects. PMID:27599373

  5. Decontamination processes for low level radioactive waste metal objects

    SciTech Connect

    Longnecker, E.F.; Ichikawa, Sekigo; Kanamori, Osamu

    1996-12-31

    Disposal and safe storage of contaminated nuclear waste is a problem of international scope. Although the greatest volume of such waste is concentrated in the USA and former Soviet Union, Western Europe and Japan have contaminated nuclear waste requiring attention. Japan`s radioactive nuclear waste is principally generated at nuclear power plants since it has no nuclear weapons production. However, their waste reduction, storage and disposal problems may be comparable to that of the USA on an inhabited area basis when consideration is given to population density where Japan`s population, half that of the USA, lives in an area slightly smaller than that of California`s. If everyone`s backyard was in California, the USA might have insoluble radioactive waste reduction, storage and disposal problems. Viewing Japan`s contaminated nuclear waste as a national problem requiring solutions, as well as an economic opportunity, Morikawa began research and development for decontaminating low level radioactive nuclear waste seven years ago. As engineers and manufacturers of special machinery for many years Morikawa brings special electro/mechanical/pneumatic Skills and knowledge to solving these unique problems. Genden Engineering Services and Construction Company (GESC), an affiliate of Japan Atomic Power Company, recently joined with Morikawa in this R&D effort to decontaminate low level radioactive nuclear waste (LLW) and to substantially reduce the volume of such nuclear waste requiring long term storage. This paper will present equipment with both mechanical and chemical processes developed over these several years by Morikawa and most recently in cooperation with GESC.

  6. Complex organic molecules in organic-poor massive young stellar objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayolle, Edith C.; Öberg, Karin I.; Garrod, Robin T.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Bisschop, Suzanne E.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) with hot cores are classic sources of complex organic molecules. The origins of these molecules in such sources, as well as the small- and large-scale differentiation between nitrogen- and oxygen-bearing complex species, are poorly understood. Aims: We aim to use complex molecule abundances toward a chemically less explored class of MYSOs with weak hot organic emission lines to constrain the impact of hot molecular cores and initial ice conditions on the chemical composition toward MYSOs. Methods: We use the IRAM 30 m and the Submillimeter Array to search for complex organic molecules over 8-16 GHz in the 1 mm atmospheric window toward three MYSOs with known ice abundances, but without luminous molecular hot cores. Results: Complex molecules are detected toward all three sources at comparable abundances with respect to CH3OH to classical hot core sources. The relative importance of CH3CHO, CH3CCH, CH3OCH3, CH3CN, and HNCO differ between the organic-poor MYSOs and hot cores, however. Furthermore, the N-bearing molecules are generally concentrated toward the source centers, while most O- and C-bearing molecules are present both in the center and in the colder envelope. Gas-phase HNCO/CH3OH ratios are tentatively correlated with the ratios of NH3 ice over CH3OH ice in the same lines of sight, which is consistent with new gas-grain model predictions. Conclusions: Hot cores are not required to form complex organic molecules, and source temperature and initial ice composition both seem to affect complex organic distributions toward MYSOs. To quantify the relative impact of temperature and initial conditions requires, however, a larger spatially resolved survey of MYSOs with ice detections.

  7. Using fMR-Adaptation to Track Complex Object Representations in Perirhinal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Rachael D.; Chesney, Samantha; Cohen, Neal J.; Gonsalves, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Brain regions in medial temporal lobe have seen a shift in emphasis in their role in long-term declarative memory to an appreciation of their role in cognitive domains beyond declarative memory, such as implicit memory, working memory, and perception. Recent theoretical accounts emphasize the function of perirhinal cortex in terms of its role in the ventral visual stream. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance adaptation (fMRa) to show that brain structures in the visual processing stream can bind item features prior to the involvement of hippocampal binding mechanisms. Evidence for perceptual binding was assessed by comparing BOLD responses between fused objects and variants of the same object as different, non-fused forms (e.g. physically separate objects). Adaptation of the neural response to fused, but not non-fused, objects was in left fusiform cortex and left perirhinal cortex, indicating the involvement of these regions in the perceptual binding of item representations. PMID:23997832

  8. Meshing complex macro-scale objects into self-assembling bricks

    PubMed Central

    Hacohen, Adar; Hanniel, Iddo; Nikulshin, Yasha; Wolfus, Shuki; Abu-Horowitz, Almogit; Bachelet, Ido

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembly provides an information-economical route to the fabrication of objects at virtually all scales. However, there is no known algorithm to program self-assembly in macro-scale, solid, complex 3D objects. Here such an algorithm is described, which is inspired by the molecular assembly of DNA, and based on bricks designed by tetrahedral meshing of arbitrary objects. Assembly rules are encoded by topographic cues imprinted on brick faces while attraction between bricks is provided by embedded magnets. The bricks can then be mixed in a container and agitated, leading to properly assembled objects at high yields and zero errors. The system and its assembly dynamics were characterized by video and audio analysis, enabling the precise time- and space-resolved characterization of its performance and accuracy. Improved designs inspired by our system could lead to successful implementation of self-assembly at the macro-scale, allowing rapid, on-demand fabrication of objects without the need for assembly lines. PMID:26226488

  9. Meshing complex macro-scale objects into self-assembling bricks.

    PubMed

    Hacohen, Adar; Hanniel, Iddo; Nikulshin, Yasha; Wolfus, Shuki; Abu-Horowitz, Almogit; Bachelet, Ido

    2015-07-30

    Self-assembly provides an information-economical route to the fabrication of objects at virtually all scales. However, there is no known algorithm to program self-assembly in macro-scale, solid, complex 3D objects. Here such an algorithm is described, which is inspired by the molecular assembly of DNA, and based on bricks designed by tetrahedral meshing of arbitrary objects. Assembly rules are encoded by topographic cues imprinted on brick faces while attraction between bricks is provided by embedded magnets. The bricks can then be mixed in a container and agitated, leading to properly assembled objects at high yields and zero errors. The system and its assembly dynamics were characterized by video and audio analysis, enabling the precise time- and space-resolved characterization of its performance and accuracy. Improved designs inspired by our system could lead to successful implementation of self-assembly at the macro-scale, allowing rapid, on-demand fabrication of objects without the need for assembly lines.

  10. Meshing complex macro-scale objects into self-assembling bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacohen, Adar; Hanniel, Iddo; Nikulshin, Yasha; Wolfus, Shuki; Abu-Horowitz, Almogit; Bachelet, Ido

    2015-07-01

    Self-assembly provides an information-economical route to the fabrication of objects at virtually all scales. However, there is no known algorithm to program self-assembly in macro-scale, solid, complex 3D objects. Here such an algorithm is described, which is inspired by the molecular assembly of DNA, and based on bricks designed by tetrahedral meshing of arbitrary objects. Assembly rules are encoded by topographic cues imprinted on brick faces while attraction between bricks is provided by embedded magnets. The bricks can then be mixed in a container and agitated, leading to properly assembled objects at high yields and zero errors. The system and its assembly dynamics were characterized by video and audio analysis, enabling the precise time- and space-resolved characterization of its performance and accuracy. Improved designs inspired by our system could lead to successful implementation of self-assembly at the macro-scale, allowing rapid, on-demand fabrication of objects without the need for assembly lines.

  11. Multi-frequency color-marked fringe projection profilometry for fast 3D shape measurement of complex objects.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chao; Jia, Shuhai; Dong, Jun; Bao, Qingchen; Yang, Jia; Lian, Qin; Li, Dichen

    2015-09-21

    We propose a novel multi-frequency color-marked fringe projection profilometry approach to measure the 3D shape of objects with depth discontinuities. A digital micromirror device projector is used to project a color map consisting of a series of different-frequency color-marked fringe patterns onto the target object. We use a chromaticity curve to calculate the color change caused by the height of the object. The related algorithm to measure the height is also described in this paper. To improve the measurement accuracy, a chromaticity curve correction method is presented. This correction method greatly reduces the influence of color fluctuations and measurement error on the chromaticity curve and the calculation of the object height. The simulation and experimental results validate the utility of our method. Our method avoids the conventional phase shifting and unwrapping process, as well as the independent calculation of the object height required by existing techniques. Thus, it can be used to measure complex and dynamic objects with depth discontinuities. These advantages are particularly promising for industrial applications. PMID:26406621

  12. Applications of the COG multiparticle Monte Carlo transport code to simulated imaging of complex objects

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, R M; Hall, J M

    1999-06-01

    COG is a major multiparticle simulation code in the LLNL Monte Carlo radiation transport toolkit. It was designed to solve deep-penetration radiation shielding problems in arbitrarily complex 3D geometries, involving coupled transport of photons, neutrons, and electrons. COG was written to provide as much accuracy as the underlying cross-sections will allow, and has a number of variance-reduction features to speed computations. Recently COG has been applied to the simulation of high- resolution radiographs of complex objects and the evaluation of contraband detection schemes. In this paper we will give a brief description of the capabilities of the COG transport code and show several examples of neutron and gamma-ray imaging simulations. Keywords: Monte Carlo, radiation transport, simulated radiography, nonintrusive inspection, neutron imaging.

  13. The open source, object- and process oriented simulation system OpenGeoSys - concepts, development, community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, S.; Li, D.; Beyer, C.; Wang, W.; Bilke, L.; Graupner, B.

    2011-12-01

    Many geoscientific problems, such as underground waste disposal, nuclear waste disposal, CO2 sequestration, geothermal energy, etc., require for prediction of ongoing processes as well as risk and safety assessment a numerical simulation system. The governing processes are thermal heat transfer (T), hydraulic flow in multi-phase systems (H), mechanical deformation (M) and geochemical reactions (C), which interact in a complex way (THMC). The development of suitable simulation systems requires a large amount of effort for code development, verification and applications. OpenGeoSys (OGS) is an open source scientific initiative for the simulation of these THMC processes in porous media. A flexible numerical framework based on the Finite Element Method is provided and applied to the governing process equations. Due to the object- and process-oriented character of the code, functionality enhancement and code coupling with external simulators can be performed reasonably effectively. This structure also allows for a distributed development, with developers at different locations contributing to the common code. The code is platform independent, accessible via internet for development and application, and checked by an automated benchmarking system regularly.

  14. Complex banded structures in directional solidification processes.

    PubMed

    Korzhenevskii, A L; Rozas, R E; Horbach, J

    2016-01-27

    A combination of theory and numerical simulation is used to investigate impurity superstructures that form in rapid directional solidification (RDS) processes in the presence of a temperature gradient and a pulling velocity with an oscillatory component. Based on a capillary wave model, we show that the RDS processes are associated with a rich morphology of banded structures, including frequency locking and the transition to chaos.

  15. Complex banded structures in directional solidification processes.

    PubMed

    Korzhenevskii, A L; Rozas, R E; Horbach, J

    2016-01-27

    A combination of theory and numerical simulation is used to investigate impurity superstructures that form in rapid directional solidification (RDS) processes in the presence of a temperature gradient and a pulling velocity with an oscillatory component. Based on a capillary wave model, we show that the RDS processes are associated with a rich morphology of banded structures, including frequency locking and the transition to chaos. PMID:26704726

  16. Complexity analysis of dual-channel game model with different managers' business objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ting; Ma, Junhai

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers dual-channel game model with bounded rationality, using the theory of bifurcations of dynamical system. The business objectives of retailers are assumed to be different, which is closer to reality than previous studies. We study the local stable region of Nash equilibrium point and find that business objectives can expand the stable region and play an important role in price strategy. One interesting finding is that a fiercer competition tends to stabilize the Nash equilibrium. Simulation shows the complex behavior of two dimensional dynamic system, we find period doubling bifurcation and chaos phenomenon. We measure performances of the model in different period by using the index of average profit. The results show that unstable behavior in economic system is often an unfavorable outcome. So this paper discusses the application of adaptive adjustment mechanism when the model exhibits chaotic behavior and then allows the retailers to eliminate the negative effects.

  17. Verbal Labels Modulate Perceptual Object Processing in 1-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gliga, Teodora; Volein, Agnes; Csibra, Gergely

    2010-01-01

    Whether verbal labels help infants visually process and categorize objects is a contentious issue. Using electroencephalography, we investigated whether possessing familiar or novel labels for objects directly enhances 1-year-old children's neural processes underlying the perception of those objects. We found enhanced gamma-band (20-60 Hz)…

  18. Central control of grasp: manipulation of objects with complex and simple dynamics.

    PubMed

    Milner, Theodore E; Franklin, David W; Imamizu, Hiroshi; Kawato, Mistuo

    2007-06-01

    We performed whole-brain fMRI to explore the neural mechanisms that contribute to the ability to manipulate an object with complex dynamics. Subjects grasped a weighted flexible ruler and balanced it in an unstable equilibrium position as an archetype of grasping an object with complex dynamics. This was contrasted with squeezing a soft foam ball as an archetype of grasping an object with simple dynamics. We hypothesized that changes in activity in primary motor cortex (MI) would be similar under the two conditions, since muscle activation was matched, which was confirmed. We hypothesized further that the cerebellum would be selectively activated when manipulating the flexible ruler because the ability to make the adjustments necessary to balance the ruler would require an internal dynamics model, represented in the cerebellum. As predicted, the ipsilateral cerebellum was strongly activated when balancing the weighted ruler whereas only moderate activation was found when squeezing the foam ball. We also found evidence for selective activation of areas, previously implicated in tactile object recognition, when holding the flexible ruler. We speculate that these areas, which include secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), Brodmann area 40 and insula, integrate tactile and proprioceptive information in the context of controlling the orientation of the flexible ruler and provide appropriate feedback to MI. We speculate that the failure to find activation of these areas when squeezing the ball was due to the fact that tactile stimulation was entirely self-produced, resulting in the attenuation of cortical sensory activity (Blakemore, S.-J., Wolpert, D.M., Frith, C.D., 1998. Central cancellation of self-produced tickle sensation. Nat. Neurosci. 1, 635-640, Blakemore, S.-J., Frith, C.D., Wolpert, D.M., 2001. The cerebellum is involved in predicting the sensory consequences of action. NeuroReport 12, 1879-1884). PMID:17451973

  19. Sensory Processing Relates to Attachment to Childhood Comfort Objects of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalpidou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The author tested the hypothesis that attachment to comfort objects is based on the sensory processing characteristics of the individual. Fifty-two undergraduate students with and without a childhood comfort object reported sensory responses and performed a tactile threshold task. Those with a comfort object described their object and rated their…

  20. Separate channels for processing form, texture, and color: evidence from FMRI adaptation and visual object agnosia.

    PubMed

    Cavina-Pratesi, C; Kentridge, R W; Heywood, C A; Milner, A D

    2010-10-01

    Previous neuroimaging research suggests that although object shape is analyzed in the lateral occipital cortex, surface properties of objects, such as color and texture, are dealt with in more medial areas, close to the collateral sulcus (CoS). The present study sought to determine whether there is a single medial region concerned with surface properties in general or whether instead there are multiple foci independently extracting different surface properties. We used stimuli varying in their shape, texture, or color, and tested healthy participants and 2 object-agnosic patients, in both a discrimination task and a functional MR adaptation paradigm. We found a double dissociation between medial and lateral occipitotemporal cortices in processing surface (texture or color) versus geometric (shape) properties, respectively. In Experiment 2, we found that the medial occipitotemporal cortex houses separate foci for color (within anterior CoS and lingual gyrus) and texture (caudally within posterior CoS). In addition, we found that areas selective for shape, texture, and color individually were quite distinct from those that respond to all of these features together (shape and texture and color). These latter areas appear to correspond to those associated with the perception of complex stimuli such as faces and places.

  1. Strategising as a Complex Responsive Leadership Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groot, Nol; Homan, Thijs H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper, based on a narrative of one of the authors, explores management reality where a chosen strategy developed into a different direction than expected. The authors offer an insight in a manager's daily struggle, where power, gossip and conflict can influence the strategising process. The plans and strategic ambitions chosen at the outset…

  2. Simulation and fitting of complex reaction network TPR: The key is the objective function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savara, Aditya

    2016-11-01

    A method has been developed for finding improved fits during simulation and fitting of data from complex reaction network temperature programmed reactions (CRN-TPR). It was found that simulation and fitting of CRN-TPR presents additional challenges relative to simulation and fitting of simpler TPR systems. The method used here can enable checking the plausibility of proposed chemical mechanisms and kinetic models. The most important finding was that when choosing an objective function, use of an objective function that is based on integrated production provides more utility in finding improved fits when compared to an objective function based on the rate of production. The response surface produced by using the integrated production is monotonic, suppresses effects from experimental noise, requires fewer points to capture the response behavior, and can be simulated numerically with smaller errors. For CRN-TPR, there is increased importance (relative to simple reaction network TPR) in resolving of peaks prior to fitting, as well as from weighting of experimental data points. Using an implicit ordinary differential equation solver was found to be inadequate for simulating CRN-TPR. The method employed here was capable of attaining improved fits in simulation and fitting of CRN-TPR when starting with a postulated mechanism and physically realistic initial guesses for the kinetic parameters.

  3. Simulation and fitting of complex reaction network TPR: The key is the objective function

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Savara, Aditya Ashi

    2016-07-07

    In this research, a method has been developed for finding improved fits during simulation and fitting of data from complex reaction network temperature programmed reactions (CRN-TPR). It was found that simulation and fitting of CRN-TPR presents additional challenges relative to simulation and fitting of simpler TPR systems. The method used here can enable checking the plausibility of proposed chemical mechanisms and kinetic models. The most important finding was that when choosing an objective function, use of an objective function that is based on integrated production provides more utility in finding improved fits when compared to an objective function based onmore » the rate of production. The response surface produced by using the integrated production is monotonic, suppresses effects from experimental noise, requires fewer points to capture the response behavior, and can be simulated numerically with smaller errors. For CRN-TPR, there is increased importance (relative to simple reaction network TPR) in resolving of peaks prior to fitting, as well as from weighting of experimental data points. Using an implicit ordinary differential equation solver was found to be inadequate for simulating CRN-TPR. Lastly, the method employed here was capable of attaining improved fits in simulation and fitting of CRN-TPR when starting with a postulated mechanism and physically realistic initial guesses for the kinetic parameters.« less

  4. The Lateral Occipital Complex shows no net response to object familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Margalit, Eshed; Shah, Manan P.; Tjan, Bosco S.; Biederman, Irving; Keller, Brenton; Brenner, Rorry

    2016-01-01

    In 1995, Malach et al. discovered an area whose fMRI BOLD response was greater when viewing intact, familiar objects than when viewing their scrambled versions (resembling texture). Since then hundreds of studies have explored this late visual region termed the Lateral Occipital Complex (LOC), which is now known to be critical for shape perception (James, Culham, Humphrey, Milner, & Goodale, 2003). Malach et al. (1995) discounted a role of familiarity by showing that “abstract” Henry Moore sculptures, unfamiliar to the subjects, also activated this region. This characterization of LOC as a region that responds to shape independently of familiarity has been accepted but never tested with control of the same low-level features. We assessed LOC's response to objects that had identical parts in two different arrangements, one familiar and the other novel. Malach was correct: There is no net effect of familiarity in LOC. However, a multivoxel correlation analysis showed that LOC does distinguish familiar from novel objects. PMID:27599373

  5. Processing Motion Signals in Complex Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verghese, Preeti

    2000-01-01

    Motion information is critical for human locomotion and scene segmentation. Currently we have excellent neurophysiological models that are able to predict human detection and discrimination of local signals. Local motion signals are insufficient by themselves to guide human locomotion and to provide information about depth, object boundaries and surface structure. My research is aimed at understanding the mechanisms underlying the combination of motion signals across space and time. A target moving on an extended trajectory amidst noise dots in Brownian motion is much more detectable than the sum of signals generated by independent motion energy units responding to the trajectory segments. This result suggests that facilitation occurs between motion units tuned to similar directions, lying along the trajectory path. We investigated whether the interaction between local motion units along the motion direction is mediated by contrast. One possibility is that contrast-driven signals from motion units early in the trajectory sequence are added to signals in subsequent units. If this were the case, then units later in the sequence would have a larger signal than those earlier in the sequence. To test this possibility, we compared contrast discrimination thresholds for the first and third patches of a triplet of sequentially presented Gabor patches, aligned along the motion direction. According to this simple additive model, contrast increment thresholds for the third patch should be higher than thresholds for the first patch.The lack of a measurable effect on contrast thresholds for these various manipulations suggests that the pooling of signals along a trajectory is not mediated by contrast-driven signals. Instead, these results are consistent with models that propose that the facilitation of trajectory signals is achieved by a second-level network that chooses the strongest local motion signals and combines them if they occur in a spatio-temporal sequence consistent

  6. Complexity of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signal Processing

    PubMed Central

    Volinsky, Natalia; Kholodenko, Boris N.

    2013-01-01

    Our knowledge of molecular mechanisms of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling advances with ever-increasing pace. Yet our understanding of how the spatiotemporal dynamics of RTK signaling control specific cellular outcomes has lagged behind. Systems-centered experimental and computational approaches can help reveal how overlapping networks of signal transducers downstream of RTKs orchestrate specific cell-fate decisions. We discuss how RTK network regulatory structures, which involve the immediate posttranslational and delayed transcriptional controls by multiple feed forward and feedback loops together with pathway cross talk, adapt cells to the combinatorial variety of external cues and conditions. This intricate network circuitry endows cells with emerging capabilities for RTK signal processing and decoding. We illustrate how mathematical modeling facilitates our understanding of RTK network behaviors by unraveling specific systems properties, including bistability, oscillations, excitable responses, and generation of intricate landscapes of signaling activities. PMID:23906711

  7. FACET: an object-oriented software framework for modeling complex social behavior patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Dolph, J. E.; Christiansen, J. H.; Sydelko, P. J.

    2000-06-30

    The Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions (FACET) is a flexible, object-oriented architecture for implementing models of dynamic behavior of multiple individuals, or agents, in a simulation. These agents can be human (individuals or organizations) or animal and may exhibit any type of organized social behavior that can be logically articulated. FACET was developed by Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL) Decision and Information Sciences Division (DIS) out of the need to integrate societal processes into natural system simulations. The FACET architecture includes generic software components that provide the agents with various mechanisms for interaction, such as step sequencing and logic, resource management, conflict resolution, and preemptive event handling. FACET components provide a rich environment within which patterns of behavior can be captured in a highly expressive manner. Interactions among agents in FACET are represented by Course of Action (COA) object-based models. Each COA contains a directed graph of individual actions, which represents any known pattern of social behavior. The agents' behavior in a FACET COA, in turn, influences the natural landscape objects in a simulation (i.e., vegetation, soil, and habitat) by updating their states. The modular design of the FACET architecture provides the flexibility to create multiple and varied simulation scenarios by changing social behavior patterns, without disrupting the natural process models. This paper describes the FACET architecture and presents several examples of FACET models that have been developed to assess the effects of anthropogenic influences on the dynamics of the natural environment.

  8. Electromagnetic Scattering by a Morphologically Complex Object: Fundamental Concepts and Common Misconceptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mischenko, Michael I.; Travis, Larry D.; Cairns, Brian; Tishkovets, Victor P.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Rosenbush, Vera K.; Kiselev, Nikolai N.

    2011-01-01

    Following Keller(Proc Symp Appl Math 1962;13:227:46), we classify all theoretical treatments of electromagnetic scattering by a morphologically complex object into first- principle (or "honest" in Keller s terminology) and phenomenological (or "dishonest") categories. This helps us identify, analyze, and dispel several profound misconceptions widespread in the discipline of electromagnetic scattering by solitary particles and discrete random media. Our goal is not to call for a complete renunciation of phenomenological approaches but rather to encourage a critical and careful evaluation of their actual origin, virtues, and limitations. In other words, we do not intend to deter creative thinking in terms of phenomenological short-cuts, but we do want to raise awareness when we stray (often for practical reasons) from the fundamentals. The main results and conclusions are illustrated by numerically-exact data based on direct numerical solutions of the macroscopic Maxwell equations.

  9. Experimental Evaluation of Processing Time for the Synchronization of XML-Based Business Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameling, Michael; Wolf, Bernhard; Springer, Thomas; Schill, Alexander

    Business objects (BOs) are data containers for complex data structures used in business applications such as Supply Chain Management and Customer Relationship Management. Due to the replication of application logic, multiple copies of BOs are created which have to be synchronized and updated. This is a complex and time consuming task because BOs rigorously vary in their structure according to the distribution, number and size of elements. Since BOs are internally represented as XML documents, the parsing of XML is one major cost factor which has to be considered for minimizing the processing time during synchronization. The prediction of the parsing time for BOs is an significant property for the selection of an efficient synchronization mechanism. In this paper, we present a method to evaluate the influence of the structure of BOs on their parsing time. The results of our experimental evaluation incorporating four different XML parsers examine the dependencies between the distribution of elements and the parsing time. Finally, a general cost model will be validated and simplified according to the results of the experimental setup.

  10. Early lateralization and orientation tuning for face, word, and object processing in the visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Rossion, Bruno; Joyce, Carrie A; Cottrell, Garrison W; Tarr, Michael J

    2003-11-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies of the human brain have shown that object categories can be reliably distinguished as early as 130-170 ms on the surface of occipito-temporal cortex, peaking at the level of the N170 component. Consistent with this finding, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies suggest major functional distinctions within the human object recognition system, particularly in hemispheric advantage, between the processing of words (left), faces (right), and objects (bilateral). Given these observations, our aim was to (1) characterize the differential response properties of the N170 to pictures of faces, objects, and words across hemispheres; and (2) test whether an effect of inversion for highly familiar and monooriented nonface stimuli such as printed words can be observed at the level of the N170. Scalp EEG (53 channels) was recorded in 15 subjects performing an orientation decision task with pictures of faces, words, and cars presented upright or inverted. All three categories elicited at the same latency a robust N170 component associated with a positive counterpart at centro-frontal sites (vertex-positive potential, VPP). While there were minor amplitude differences at the level of the occipital medial P1 between linguistic and nonlinguistic categories, scalp topographies and source analyses indicated strong hemispheric and orientation effects starting at the level of the N170, which was right lateralized for faces, smaller and bilateral for cars, and as large for printed words in the left hemisphere as for faces. The entire N170/VPP complex was accounted for by two dipolar sources located in the lateral inferior occipital cortex/posterior fusiform gyrus. These two locations were roughly equivalent across conditions but differed in strength and lateralization. Inversion delayed the N170 (and VPP) response for all categories, with an increasing delay for cars, words, and faces, respectively, as suggested by source modeling analysis

  11. Effects of Local and Global Context on Processing Sentences with Subject and Object Relative Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Fang; Mo, Lun; Louwerse, Max M.

    2013-01-01

    An eye tracking study investigated the effects of local and global discourse context on the processing of subject and object relative clauses, whereby the contexts favored either a subject relative clause interpretation or an object relative clause interpretation. The fixation data replicated previous studies showing that object relative clause…

  12. Functional Dissociations within the Ventral Object Processing Pathway: Cognitive Modules or a Hierarchical Continuum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowell, Rosemary A.; Bussey, Timothy J.; Saksida, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the organization and function of the ventral object processing pathway. The prevailing theoretical approach in this field holds that the ventral object processing stream has a modular organization, in which visual perception is carried out in posterior regions and visual memory is carried out, independently, in the anterior temporal…

  13. A Case for Inhibition: Visual Attention Suppresses the Processing of Irrelevant Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuhr, Peter; Frings, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the ability to inhibit the processing of an irrelevant visual object while processing a relevant one. Participants were presented with 2 overlapping shapes (e.g., circle and square) in different colors. The task was to name the color of the relevant object designated by shape. Congruent or incongruent color words…

  14. Unraveling the complexity of mitochondrial complex I assembly: A dynamic process.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Caballero, Laura; Guerrero-Castillo, Sergio; Nijtmans, Leo

    2016-07-01

    Mammalian complex I is composed of 44 different subunits and its assembly requires at least 13 specific assembly factors. Proper function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme is of crucial importance for cell survival due to its major participation in energy production and cell signaling. Complex I assembly depends on the coordination of several crucial processes that need to be tightly interconnected and orchestrated by a number of assembly factors. The understanding of complex I assembly evolved from simple sequential concept to the more sophisticated modular assembly model describing a convoluted process. According to this model, the different modules assemble independently and associate afterwards with each other to form the final enzyme. In this review, we aim to unravel the complexity of complex I assembly and provide the latest insights in this fundamental and fascinating process. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  15. Understanding the Complexity of Social Issues through Process Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mara, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    Attempts to capture the process of understanding and questioning deforestation through process drama (in which students and teacher work both in and out of role to explore a problem, situation, or theme). Notes that moving topics such as the destruction of a rainforest into process drama introduces complexity into social issues. Considers how…

  16. Infants' object location and identity processing in spatial scenes: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    van Hoogmoed, Anne H; van den Brink, Danielle; Janzen, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Background Fast detection and identification of objects in an environment is important for using objects as landmarks during navigation. While adults rapidly process objects within an environment and use landmarks during navigation, infants do not routinely use distal landmarks below the age of 18 months. In the current event-related potential (ERP) study we adopted an oddball paradigm to examine whether infants are capable of processing objects in environments, which is a prerequisite for using objects as landmarks. Methods We measured the electrophysiological correlates and time courses related to the processing of changes in object location, object identity, and a switch of two objects. Results Twelve-month-old infants showed an Nc (negative central) effect reflecting increased attention likely caused by initial change detection within 300 msec for all three manipulations. In addition, they showed conscious processing of an object change and a location change as evidenced by a positive slow wave (PSW). Conclusion This study is the first to show that infants are capable of rapidly detecting changes in single objects when these are presented in an environment, but lack conscious detection of a switch. These results indicate that 12-month-old infants as yet lack the ability to rapidly bind the identity and location of multiple objects within an environment. PMID:24363975

  17. Dynamic information processing states revealed through neurocognitive models of object semantics

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Recognising objects relies on highly dynamic, interactive brain networks to process multiple aspects of object information. To fully understand how different forms of information about objects are represented and processed in the brain requires a neurocognitive account of visual object recognition that combines a detailed cognitive model of semantic knowledge with a neurobiological model of visual object processing. Here we ask how specific cognitive factors are instantiated in our mental processes and how they dynamically evolve over time. We suggest that coarse semantic information, based on generic shared semantic knowledge, is rapidly extracted from visual inputs and is sufficient to drive rapid category decisions. Subsequent recurrent neural activity between the anterior temporal lobe and posterior fusiform supports the formation of object-specific semantic representations – a conjunctive process primarily driven by the perirhinal cortex. These object-specific representations require the integration of shared and distinguishing object properties and support the unique recognition of objects. We conclude that a valuable way of understanding the cognitive activity of the brain is though testing the relationship between specific cognitive measures and dynamic neural activity. This kind of approach allows us to move towards uncovering the information processing states of the brain and how they evolve over time. PMID:25745632

  18. Complexity, Methodology and Method: Crafting a Critical Process of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhadeff-Jones, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper defines a theoretical framework aiming to support the actions and reflections of researchers looking for a "method" in order to critically conceive the complexity of a scientific process of research. First, it starts with a brief overview of the core assumptions framing Morin's "paradigm of complexity" and Le…

  19. A robust and representative lower bound on object processing speed in humans.

    PubMed

    Bieniek, Magdalena M; Bennett, Patrick J; Sekuler, Allison B; Rousselet, Guillaume A

    2016-07-01

    How early does the brain decode object categories? Addressing this question is critical to constrain the type of neuronal architecture supporting object categorization. In this context, much effort has been devoted to estimating face processing speed. With onsets estimated from 50 to 150 ms, the timing of the first face-sensitive responses in humans remains controversial. This controversy is due partially to the susceptibility of dynamic brain measurements to filtering distortions and analysis issues. Here, using distributions of single-trial event-related potentials (ERPs), causal filtering, statistical analyses at all electrodes and time points, and effective correction for multiple comparisons, we present evidence that the earliest categorical differences start around 90 ms following stimulus presentation. These results were obtained from a representative group of 120 participants, aged 18-81, who categorized images of faces and noise textures. The results were reliable across testing days, as determined by test-retest assessment in 74 of the participants. Furthermore, a control experiment showed similar ERP onsets for contrasts involving images of houses or white noise. Face onsets did not change with age, suggesting that face sensitivity occurs within 100 ms across the adult lifespan. Finally, the simplicity of the face-texture contrast, and the dominant midline distribution of the effects, suggest the face responses were evoked by relatively simple image properties and are not face specific. Our results provide a new lower benchmark for the earliest neuronal responses to complex objects in the human visual system. PMID:26469359

  20. Holistic processing of impossible objects: evidence from Garner's speeded-classification task.

    PubMed

    Freud, Erez; Avidan, Galia; Ganel, Tzvi

    2013-12-18

    Holistic processing, the decoding of the global structure of a stimulus while the local parts are not explicitly represented, is a basic characteristic of object perception. The current study was aimed to test whether such a representation could be created even for objects that violate fundamental principles of spatial organization, namely impossible objects. Previous studies argued that these objects cannot be represented holistically in long-term memory because they lack coherent 3D structure. Here, we utilized Garner's speeded classification task to test whether the perception of possible and impossible objects is mediated by similar holistic processing mechanisms. To this end, participants were asked to make speeded classifications of one object dimension while an irrelevant dimension was kept constant (baseline condition) or when this dimension varied (filtering condition). It is well accepted that ignoring the irrelevant dimension is impossible when holistic perception is mandatory, thus the extent of Garner interference in performance between the baseline and filtering conditions serves as an index of holistic processing. Critically, in Experiment 1, similar levels of Garner interference were found for possible and impossible objects implying holistic perception of both object types. Experiment 2 extended these results and demonstrated that even when depth information was explicitly processed, participants were still unable to process one dimension (width/depth) while ignoring the irrelevant dimension (depth/width, respectively). The results of Experiment 3 replicated the basic pattern found in Experiments 1 and 2 using a novel set of object exemplars. In Experiment 4, we used possible and impossible versions of the Penrose triangles in which information about impossibility is embedded in the internal elements of the objects which participant were explicitly asked to judge. As in Experiments 1-3, similar Garner interference was found for possible and

  1. Organization of the Euclid Data Processing: Dealing with Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasian, F.; Dabin, C.; Sauvage, M.; Mansutti, O.; Vuerli, C.; Gregorio, A.

    2015-09-01

    The data processing development and operations for the Euclid mission (part of the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Plan) is distributed within a Consortium composed of 14 countries and 1300+ persons: this imposes a high degree of complexity to the design and implementation of the data processing facilities. The focus of this paper is on the efforts to define an organisational structure capable of handling in manageable terms such a complexity.

  2. Minimal model for complex dynamics in cellular processes.

    PubMed

    Suguna, C; Chowdhury, K K; Sinha, S

    1999-11-01

    Cellular functions are controlled and coordinated by the complex circuitry of biochemical pathways regulated by genetic and metabolic feedback processes. This paper aims to show, with the help of a minimal model of a regulated biochemical pathway, that the common nonlinearities and control structures present in biomolecular interactions are capable of eliciting a variety of functional dynamics, such as homeostasis, periodic, complex, and chaotic oscillations, including transients, that are observed in various cellular processes.

  3. The processing architectures of whole-object features: A logical-rules approach.

    PubMed

    Moneer, Sarah; Wang, Tony; Little, Daniel R

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we examine whether dimensions comprising the entirety of an object (e.g., size and saturation) are processed independently or pooled into a single whole-object representation. These whole-object features, while notionally separable, sometimes show empirical effects consistent with integrality. A recently proposed theoretical distinction between integral and separable dimensions that emphasizes the time course of information processing, can be used to differentiate whether whole-object features are processed independently, either in serial or in parallel, or pooled into a single coactive process (see, e.g., Little, Nosofsky, Donkin, & Denton, 2013). The current research examines this theoretical distinction in the processing of 3 sets of whole-object-featured stimuli that vary on any pair of the dimensions of saturation, size, and orientation. We found that a mixture of serial and parallel architectures underlies the processing of whole-object features. These results indicate that whole-object features are processed independently. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. A multi-objective optimization framework to model 3D river and landscape evolution processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzi, Simone; Castelletti, Andrea; Cominola, Andrea; Mason, Emanuele; Paik, Kyungrock

    2013-04-01

    Water and sediment interactions shape hillslopes, regulate soil erosion and sedimentation, and organize river networks. Landscape evolution and river organization occur at various spatial and temporal scale and the understanding and modelling of them is highly complex. The idea of a least action principle governing river networks evolution has been proposed many times as a simpler approach among the ones existing in the literature. These theories assume that river networks, as observed in nature, self-organize and act on soil transportation in order to satisfy a particular "optimality" criterion. Accordingly, river and landscape weathering can be simulated by solving an optimization problem, where the choice of the criterion to be optimized becomes the initial assumption. The comparison between natural river networks and optimized ones verifies the correctness of this initial assumption. Yet, various criteria have been proposed in literature and there is no consensus on which is better able to explain river network features observed in nature like network branching and river bed profile: each one is able to reproduce some river features through simplified modelling of the natural processes, but it fails to characterize the whole complexity (3D and its dynamic) of the natural processes. Some of the criteria formulated in the literature partly conflict: the reason is that their formulation rely on mathematical and theoretical simplifications of the natural system that are suitable for specific spatial and temporal scale but fails to represent the whole processes characterizing landscape evolution. In an attempt to address some of these scientific questions, we tested the suitability of using a multi-objective optimization framework to describe river and landscape evolution in a 3D spatial domain. A synthetic landscape is used to this purpose. Multiple, alternative river network evolutions, corresponding to as many tradeoffs between the different and partly

  5. Fore-wake excitations from moving charged objects in a complex plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Sanat Kumar; Sen, Abhijit

    2016-10-01

    A charged object moving at a supersonic speed in a plasma creates the familiar Mach cone structure in its wake but can also give rise to nonlinear wave excitations ahead of it. Using molecular dynamic simulations, we explore such fore-wake excitations in a strongly coupled dusty plasma and demonstrate the existence of precursor solitonic pulses and dispersive shock waves in that region. The excitation conditions as well as the propagation characteristics of such pulses are delineated as a function of the projectile velocity, the plasma density, the Coulomb coupling parameter, and the amount of charge on the projectile. Our simulation results provide a kinetic basis for earlier fluid model calculations and also give insights into the dynamical processes responsible for such excitations that can aid in future experimental and application oriented studies.

  6. Optimization of multi-objective integrated process planning and scheduling problem using a priority based optimization algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausaf, Muhammad Farhan; Gao, Liang; Li, Xinyu

    2015-12-01

    For increasing the overall performance of modern manufacturing systems, effective integration of process planning and scheduling functions has been an important area of consideration among researchers. Owing to the complexity of handling process planning and scheduling simultaneously, most of the research work has been limited to solving the integrated process planning and scheduling (IPPS) problem for a single objective function. As there are many conflicting objectives when dealing with process planning and scheduling, real world problems cannot be fully captured considering only a single objective for optimization. Therefore considering multi-objective IPPS (MOIPPS) problem is inevitable. Unfortunately, only a handful of research papers are available on solving MOIPPS problem. In this paper, an optimization algorithm for solving MOIPPS problem is presented. The proposed algorithm uses a set of dispatching rules coupled with priority assignment to optimize the IPPS problem for various objectives like makespan, total machine load, total tardiness, etc. A fixed sized external archive coupled with a crowding distance mechanism is used to store and maintain the non-dominated solutions. To compare the results with other algorithms, a C-matric based method has been used. Instances from four recent papers have been solved to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed method is an efficient approach for solving the MOIPPS problem.

  7. The Effects of Syntactic Complexity on Processing Sentences in Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Rebecca; Ruigendijk, Esther

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of stationary (non-fluctuating) noise on processing and understanding of sentences, which vary in their syntactic complexity (with the factors canonicity, embedding, ambiguity). It presents data from two RT-studies with 44 participants testing processing of German sentences in silence and in noise. Results show a…

  8. The Complexity of Developmental Predictions from Dual Process Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanovich, Keith E.; West, Richard F.; Toplak, Maggie E.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing developmental predictions from dual-process theories is more complex than is commonly realized. Overly simplified predictions drawn from such models may lead to premature rejection of the dual process approach as one of many tools for understanding cognitive development. Misleading predictions can be avoided by paying attention to several…

  9. Beyond Faces and Expertise: Facelike Holistic Processing of Nonface Objects in the Absence of Expertise.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2016-02-01

    Holistic processing-the tendency to perceive objects as indecomposable wholes-has long been viewed as a process specific to faces or objects of expertise. Although current theories differ in what causes holistic processing, they share a fundamental constraint for its generalization: Nonface objects cannot elicit facelike holistic processing in the absence of expertise. Contrary to this prevailing view, here we show that line patterns with salient Gestalt information (i.e., connectedness, closure, and continuity between parts) can be processed as holistically as faces without any training. Moreover, weakening the saliency of Gestalt information in these patterns reduced holistic processing of them, which indicates that Gestalt information plays a crucial role in holistic processing. Therefore, holistic processing can be achieved not only via a top-down route based on expertise, but also via a bottom-up route relying merely on object-based information. The finding that facelike holistic processing can extend beyond the domains of faces and objects of expertise poses a challenge to current dominant theories.

  10. Top-down modulation of visual processing and knowledge after 250 ms supports object constancy of category decisions

    PubMed Central

    Schendan, Haline E.; Ganis, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    People categorize objects more slowly when visual input is highly impoverished instead of optimal. While bottom-up models may explain a decision with optimal input, perceptual hypothesis testing (PHT) theories implicate top-down processes with impoverished input. Brain mechanisms and the time course of PHT are largely unknown. This event-related potential study used a neuroimaging paradigm that implicated prefrontal cortex in top-down modulation of occipitotemporal cortex. Subjects categorized more impoverished and less impoverished real and pseudo objects. PHT theories predict larger impoverishment effects for real than pseudo objects because top-down processes modulate knowledge only for real objects, but different PHT variants predict different timing. Consistent with parietal-prefrontal PHT variants, around 250 ms, the earliest impoverished real object interaction started on an N3 complex, which reflects interactive cortical activity for object cognition. N3 impoverishment effects localized to both prefrontal and occipitotemporal cortex for real objects only. The N3 also showed knowledge effects by 230 ms that localized to occipitotemporal cortex. Later effects reflected (a) word meaning in temporal cortex during the N400, (b) internal evaluation of prior decision and memory processes and secondary higher-order memory involving anterotemporal parts of a default mode network during posterior positivity (P600), and (c) response related activity in posterior cingulate during an anterior slow wave (SW) after 700 ms. Finally, response activity in supplementary motor area during a posterior SW after 900 ms showed impoverishment effects that correlated with RTs. Convergent evidence from studies of vision, memory, and mental imagery which reflects purely top-down inputs, indicates that the N3 reflects the critical top-down processes of PHT. A hybrid multiple-state interactive, PHT and decision theory best explains the visual constancy of object cognition. PMID:26441701

  11. Mirror-Image Confusions: Implications for Representation and Processing of Object Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Emma; McCloskey, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Perceiving the orientation of objects is important for interacting with the world, yet little is known about the mental representation or processing of object orientation information. The tendency of humans and other species to confuse mirror images provides a potential clue. However, the appropriate characterization of this phenomenon is not…

  12. Synchronizing visual and language processing: an effect of object name length on eye movements.

    PubMed

    Zelinsky, G J; Murphy, G L

    2000-03-01

    Are visual and verbal processing systems functionally independent? Two experiments (one using line drawings of common objects, the other using faces) explored the relationship between the number of syllables in an object's name (one or three) and the visual inspection of that object. The tasks were short-term recognition and visual search. Results indicated more fixations and longer gaze durations on objects having three-syllable names when the task encouraged a verbal encoding of the objects (i.e., recognition). No effects of syllable length on eye movements were found when implicit naming demands were minimal (i.e., visual search). These findings suggest that implicitly naming a pictorial object constrains the oculomotor inspection of that object, and that the visual and verbal encoding of an object are synchronized so that the faster process must wait for the slower to be completed before gaze shifts to another object. Both findings imply a tight coupling between visual and linguistic processing, and highlight the utility of an oculomotor methodology to understand this coupling.

  13. Space-time finite-element objects: Efficiently modeling physically complex flows

    SciTech Connect

    Dilts, G.A.

    1996-03-28

    Accurate modeling of high-explosive systems requires detailed consideration of many different physical properties and processes: These diverse processes generally occur in localized regions of the problem. Thus the very partial differential equations used to mathematically model the problem change from one region of space and time to another. The numerical algorithms generally used to solve these equations are frequently conceived in terms of data values for physical field variables u{sup i} defined at a number of spatial points indexed by multi-integer subscripts x{sub J}, resulting in a number of discrete state variables u{sup i}{sub J}. Instead of using as the fundamental object a physical field, which naturally maps to an array, the authors imagine a small piece of space modeled for a small amount of time, a space-time ``element``. Within it, various physical processes occur at various times. Self-contained, it gives account of what happens within its borders. It cooperates with a set of neighbors that organize into meshes, which organize into problems. The authors achieve in the software model a decoupling between the where and the how and the what, lack of which historically has been the source of a great deal of the software overhead of modelling continuum systems, and which is a necessary consequence of writing down u{sup i}{sub J}. An efficient implementation of this idea requires a reformulation of the discretization and solution of systems of conservation laws, and careful class design. A working prototype for systems in one space dimension using Mathematica and C++ is provided.

  14. Stimulus size mediates Gestalt processes in object perception - evidence from simultanagnosia.

    PubMed

    Rennig, Johannes; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2016-08-01

    Simultanagnosia caused by posterior temporo-parietal brain damage is characterized through an inability to recognize a global Gestalt from an arrangement of single objects while perception of single objects appears widely intact. We asked whether recognition of single objects in simultanagnosia is still intact if objects are really large, i.e. if they exceed the size of a usual computer screen. Single objects were presented in three different sizes: 'regular', 'medium', and 'large'. Simultanagnosia patients demonstrated a decrease of recognition performance with increasing object size; recognition of 'large' objects was significantly impaired while perception of 'regular' sized objects was unaffected. The results argue against the traditional view of preserved recognition of single objects in simultanagnosia. They provide evidence for a more general perceptual impairment that emerges irrespective of presenting single or multiple objects, but whenever the visual system has to assemble information over larger spatial distances or other demanding viewing conditions. It appears that perception of large single objects requires intact abilities of dorsal Gestalt processing, in addition to regular functions of ventral object recognition.

  15. A Conceptual Schema of the Programming Process in the Complex Adult Education Organization with Special Emphasis on Its Sociological Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Edgar J.; And Others

    Objectives of this paper were to define the concept of programing, to discuss programing in a complex adult education organization, and to point out aspects of programing of a sociological nature. Programing is a decision-making process. In a complex adult education organization, the process can be divided into eight phases: formulating the…

  16. Discourse accessibility constraints in children’s processing of object relative clauses

    PubMed Central

    Haendler, Yair; Kliegl, Reinhold; Adani, Flavia

    2015-01-01

    Children’s poor performance on object relative clauses has been explained in terms of intervention locality. This approach predicts that object relatives with a full DP head and an embedded pronominal subject are easier than object relatives in which both the head noun and the embedded subject are full DPs. This prediction is shared by other accounts formulated to explain processing mechanisms. We conducted a visual-world study designed to test the off-line comprehension and on-line processing of object relatives in German-speaking 5-year-olds. Children were tested on three types of object relatives, all having a full DP head noun and differing with respect to the type of nominal phrase that appeared in the embedded subject position: another full DP, a 1st- or a 3rd-person pronoun. Grammatical skills and memory capacity were also assessed in order to see whether and how they affect children’s performance. Most accurately processed were object relatives with 1st-person pronoun, independently of children’s language and memory skills. Performance on object relatives with two full DPs was overall more accurate than on object relatives with 3rd-person pronoun. In the former condition, children with stronger grammatical skills accurately processed the structure and their memory abilities determined how fast they were; in the latter condition, children only processed accurately the structure if they were strong both in their grammatical skills and in their memory capacity. The results are discussed in the light of accounts that predict different pronoun effects like the ones we find, which depend on the referential properties of the pronouns. We then discuss which role language and memory abilities might have in processing object relatives with various embedded nominal phrases. PMID:26157410

  17. Rethinking infant knowledge: toward an adaptive process account of successes and failures in object permanence tasks.

    PubMed

    Munakata, Y; McClelland, J L; Johnson, M H; Siegler, R S

    1997-10-01

    Infants seem sensitive to hidden objects in habituation tasks at 3.5 months but fail to retrieve hidden objects until 8 months. The authors first consider principle-based accounts of these successes and failures, in which early successes imply knowledge of principles and failures are attributed to ancillary deficits. One account is that infants younger than 8 months have the object permanence principle but lack means-ends abilities. To test this, 7-month-olds were trained on means-ends behaviors and were tested on retrieval of visible and occluded toys. Means-ends demands were the same, yet infants made more toy-guided retrievals in the visible case. The authors offer an adaptive process account in which knowledge is graded and embedded in specific behavioral processes. Simulation models that learn gradually to represent occluded objects show how this approach can account for success and failure in object permanence tasks without assuming principles and ancillary deficits.

  18. Visual Short-Term Memory for Complex Objects in 6- and 8-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Mee-Kyoung; Luck, Steven J.; Oakes, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Infants' visual short-term memory (VSTM) for simple objects undergoes dramatic development: Six-month-old infants can store in VSTM information about only a simple object presented in isolation, whereas 8-month-old infants can store information about simple objects presented in multiple-item arrays. This study extended this work to examine…

  19. Possible Overlapping Time Frames of Acquisition and Consolidation Phases in Object Memory Processes: A Pharmacological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkerman, Sven; Blokland, Arjan; Prickaerts, Jos

    2016-01-01

    In previous studies, we have shown that acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE-Is) are able to improve object memory by enhancing acquisition processes. On the other hand, only PDE-Is improve consolidation processes. Here we show that the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil also improves memory performance when…

  20. Inversion effects reveal dissociations in facial expression of emotion, gender, and object processing

    PubMed Central

    Pallett, Pamela M.; Meng, Ming

    2015-01-01

    To distinguish between high-level visual processing mechanisms, the degree to which holistic processing is involved in facial identity, facial expression, and object perception is often examined through measuring inversion effects. However, participants may be biased by different experimental paradigms to use more or less holistic processing. Here we take a novel psychophysical approach to directly compare human face and object processing in the same experiment, with face processing broken into two categories: variant properties and invariant properties as they were tested using facial expressions of emotion and gender, respectively. Specifically, participants completed two different perceptual discrimination tasks. One involved making judgments of stimulus similarity and the other tested the ability to detect differences between stimuli. Each task was completed for both upright and inverted stimuli. Results show significant inversion effects for the detection of differences in facial expressions of emotion and gender, but not for objects. More interestingly, participants exhibited a selective inversion deficit when making similarity judgments between different facial expressions of emotion, but not for gender or objects. These results suggest a three-way dissociation between facial expression of emotion, gender, and object processing. PMID:26283983

  1. The five elements process: designing optimal landscapes to meet bird conservation objectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Will, T.C.; Ruth, J.M.; Rosenberg, K.V.; Krueper, D.; Hahn, D.; Fitzgerald, J.; Dettmers, R.; Beardmore, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    In February 2004 at Port Aransas, Texas, Partners in Flight (PIF) and representatives from the other NABCI bird initiative met to discuss the process of stepping down PIF continental population objectives (Rich et al. 2004) to regional and local scales. Participants also discussed rolling up local population estimates and targets to assess the feasibility of the landscape changes necessary to meet continental objectives. Since the process of stepping-down/rolling-up population objectives shifts focus from identifying priority species to formulating quantitative estimates of how much habitat was needed, where, and by when the Port Aransas group called the stepping-down/rolling-up process a??stepping forward.a?? Participants agreed that stepping forward objectives was the beginning of an inevitably iterative dialog necessary to evaluate the assumptions of PIF population estimates and objectives as well as the methods used to monitor local implementation. To facilitate the translation of continental population objectives into biologically sound, measurable regional and local population-based habitat targets the Port Aransas group recommended a process no commonly referred to as the Five Elements Processa?|

  2. Neural Androgen Receptor Deletion Impairs the Temporal Processing of Objects and Hippocampal CA1-Dependent Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Picot, Marie; Billard, Jean-Marie; Dombret, Carlos; Albac, Christelle; Karameh, Nida; Daumas, Stéphanie; Hardin-Pouzet, Hélène; Mhaouty-Kodja, Sakina

    2016-01-01

    We studied the role of testosterone, mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), in modulating temporal order memory for visual objects. For this purpose, we used male mice lacking AR specifically in the nervous system. Control and mutant males were gonadectomized at adulthood and supplemented with equivalent amounts of testosterone in order to normalize their hormonal levels. We found that neural AR deletion selectively impaired the processing of temporal information for visual objects, without affecting classical object recognition or anxiety-like behavior and circulating corticosterone levels, which remained similar to those in control males. Thus, mutant males were unable to discriminate between the most recently seen object and previously seen objects, whereas their control littermates showed more interest in exploring previously seen objects. Because the hippocampal CA1 area has been associated with temporal memory for visual objects, we investigated whether neural AR deletion altered the functionality of this region. Electrophysiological analysis showed that neural AR deletion affected basal glutamate synaptic transmission and decreased the magnitude of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation and high-frequency stimulation-induced long-term potentiation. The impairment of NMDAR function was not due to changes in protein levels of receptor. These results provide the first evidence for the modulation of temporal processing of information for visual objects by androgens, via AR activation, possibly through regulation of NMDAR signaling in the CA1 area in male mice.

  3. Brain dynamics of upstream perceptual processes leading to visual object recognition: a high density ERP topographic mapping study.

    PubMed

    Schettino, Antonio; Loeys, Tom; Delplanque, Sylvain; Pourtois, Gilles

    2011-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that visual object recognition is a proactive process through which perceptual evidence accumulates over time before a decision can be made about the object. However, the exact electrophysiological correlates and time-course of this complex process remain unclear. In addition, the potential influence of emotion on this process has not been investigated yet. We recorded high density EEG in healthy adult participants performing a novel perceptual recognition task. For each trial, an initial blurred visual scene was first shown, before the actual content of the stimulus was gradually revealed by progressively adding diagnostic high spatial frequency information. Participants were asked to stop this stimulus sequence as soon as they could correctly perform an animacy judgment task. Behavioral results showed that participants reliably gathered perceptual evidence before recognition. Furthermore, prolonged exploration times were observed for pleasant, relative to either neutral or unpleasant scenes. ERP results showed distinct effects starting at 280 ms post-stimulus onset in distant brain regions during stimulus processing, mainly characterized by: (i) a monotonic accumulation of evidence, involving regions of the posterior cingulate cortex/parahippocampal gyrus, and (ii) true categorical recognition effects in medial frontal regions, including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. These findings provide evidence for the early involvement, following stimulus onset, of non-overlapping brain networks during proactive processes eventually leading to visual object recognition.

  4. Brain dynamics of upstream perceptual processes leading to visual object recognition: a high density ERP topographic mapping study.

    PubMed

    Schettino, Antonio; Loeys, Tom; Delplanque, Sylvain; Pourtois, Gilles

    2011-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that visual object recognition is a proactive process through which perceptual evidence accumulates over time before a decision can be made about the object. However, the exact electrophysiological correlates and time-course of this complex process remain unclear. In addition, the potential influence of emotion on this process has not been investigated yet. We recorded high density EEG in healthy adult participants performing a novel perceptual recognition task. For each trial, an initial blurred visual scene was first shown, before the actual content of the stimulus was gradually revealed by progressively adding diagnostic high spatial frequency information. Participants were asked to stop this stimulus sequence as soon as they could correctly perform an animacy judgment task. Behavioral results showed that participants reliably gathered perceptual evidence before recognition. Furthermore, prolonged exploration times were observed for pleasant, relative to either neutral or unpleasant scenes. ERP results showed distinct effects starting at 280 ms post-stimulus onset in distant brain regions during stimulus processing, mainly characterized by: (i) a monotonic accumulation of evidence, involving regions of the posterior cingulate cortex/parahippocampal gyrus, and (ii) true categorical recognition effects in medial frontal regions, including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. These findings provide evidence for the early involvement, following stimulus onset, of non-overlapping brain networks during proactive processes eventually leading to visual object recognition. PMID:21237274

  5. Do aqueous ternary complexes influence the TALSPEAK process?

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, C. j.; Liu, G.; Jensen, M. P.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2010-01-01

    The aqueous speciation of trivalent lanthanide and actinide cations in solutions containing DTPA (diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N',N'-pentaacetic acid) and lactic acid were studied under conditions representative of the TALSPEAK process. Spectrophotometric titrations, fluorescence spectroscopy, and thermometric titrations were used to search for indications of ternary metal-DTPA-lactate complexes. The addition of lactate anions to metal-DTPA complexes was undetectable by any of these techniques, even at free lactate concentrations of 0.75 M. Although lactic acid is necessary for the optimal performance of the TALSPEAK process, we find that the fractions of aqueous ternary Ln3+/An3+-DTPA-lactate complexes are far too low to account for the observed acid dependence of TALSPEAK metal extraction.

  6. Assessing processes in uncertain, complex physical phenomena and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, J. M.; Kerscher, W. J. III; Smith, R. E.

    2002-01-01

    PREDICT (Performance and Reliability Evaluation with Diverse Information Combination and Tracking) is a set of structured quantitative approaches for the evaluation of system performance based on multiple information sources. The methodology integrates diverse types and sources of information, and their associated uncertainties, to develop full distributions for performance metrics, such as reliability. The successful application of PREDICT has involved system performance assessment in automotive product development, aging nuclear weapons, and fatigued turbine jet engines. In each of these applications, complex physical, mechanical and materials processes affect performance, safety and reliability assessments. Processes also include the physical actions taken during manufacturing, quality control, inspections, assembly, etc. and the steps involved in product design, development and certification. In this paper, we will examine the various types of processes involved in the decision making leading to production in an automotive system reliability example. Analysis of these processes includes not only understanding their impact on performance and reliability, but also the uncertainties associated with them. The automotive example demonstrates some of the tools used in tackling the complex problem of understanding processes. While some tools and methods exist for understanding processes (man made and natural) and the uncertainties associated with them, many of the complex issues discussed are open for continued research efforts.

  7. Cueing Complex Animations: Does Direction of Attention Foster Learning Processes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Richard; Boucheix, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    The time course of learners' processing of a complex animation was studied using a dynamic diagram of a piano mechanism. Over successive repetitions of the material, two forms of cueing (standard colour cueing and anti-cueing) were administered either before or during the animated segment of the presentation. An uncued group and two other control…

  8. MTR AND ETR COMPLEXES. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY TOWARD CHEMICAL PROCESSING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR AND ETR COMPLEXES. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY TOWARD CHEMICAL PROCESSING PLANT. MTR AND ITS ATTACHMENTS IN FOREGROUND. ETR BEYOND TO RIGHT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4100. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. Modeling Cognitive Strategies during Complex Task Performing Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazman, Sacide Guzin; Altun, Arif

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine individuals' computer based complex task performing processes and strategies in order to determine the reasons of failure by cognitive task analysis method and cued retrospective think aloud with eye movement data. Study group was five senior students from Computer Education and Instructional Technologies…

  10. Multi-cue object detection and tracking for security in complex environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahsan, Unaiza; Sattar, Sohail Abdul; Noor, Humera; Zafar, Munzir

    2012-05-01

    Efficient moving object tracking requires near flawless detection results to establish correct correspondences between frames. This is especially true in the defense sector where accuracy and speed are critical factors of success. However, problems such as camera motion, lighting and weather changes, texture variation and inter-object occlusions result in misdetections or false positive detections which in turn, lead to broken tracks. In this paper, we propose to use background subtraction and an optimized version of Horn & Schunk's optical flow algorithm in order to boost detection response. We use the frame differencing method, followed by morphological operations to show that it works in many scenarios and the optimized optical flow technique serves to complement the detector results. The Horn & Schunk's method yields color-coded motion vectors for each frame pixel. To segment the moving regions in the frame, we apply color thresholding to distinguish the blobs. Next, we extract appearance-based features from the detected object and establish the correspondences between objects' features, in our case, the object's centroid. We have used the Euclidean distance measure to compute the minimum distances between the centroids. The centroids are matched by using Hungarian algorithm, thus obtaining point correspondences. The Hungarian algorithm's output matrix dictates the objects' associations with each other. We have tested the algorithm to detect people in corridor, mall and field sequences and our early results with an accuracy of 86.4% indicate that this system has the ability to detect and track objects in video sequences robustly.

  11. [Complex automatic data processing in multi-profile hospitals].

    PubMed

    Dovzhenko, Iu M; Panov, G D

    1990-01-01

    The computerization of data processing in multi-disciplinary hospitals is the key factor in raising the quality of medical care provided to the population, intensifying the work of the personnel, improving the curative and diagnostic process and the use of resources. Even a small experience in complex computerization at the Botkin Hospital indicates that due to the use of the automated system the quality of data processing in being improved, a high level of patients' examination is being provided, a speedy training of young specialists is being achieved, conditions are being created for continuing education of physicians through the analysis of their own activity. At big hospitals a complex solution of administrative and curative diagnostic tasks on the basis of general hospital network of display connection and general hospital data bank is the most prospective form of computerization.

  12. P3b, consciousness, and complex unconscious processing.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Brian H; Snodgrass, Michael; Shevrin, Howard; Kushwaha, Ramesh

    2015-12-01

    How can perceptual consciousness be indexed in humans? Recent work with ERPs suggests that P3b, a relatively late component, may be a neural correlate of consciousness (NCC). This proposal dovetails with currently prevailing cognitive theory regarding the nature of conscious versus unconscious processes, which holds that the latter are simple and very brief, whereas consciousness is ostensibly required for more durable, complex cognitive processing. Using a P3b oddball paradigm, we instead show that P3b and even later, related slow wave activity occur under rigorously subliminal conditions. Additional principal component analysis (PCA) further differentiated the presence of both P3a and P3b components, demonstrating that the latter indeed occurred subliminally. Collectively, our results suggest that complex, sustained cognitive processing can occur unconsciously and that P3b is not an NCC after all.

  13. Applying Ausmelt processing to complex copper smelter dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swayn, Gavin P.; Robilliard, Ken R.; Floyd, John M.

    1993-08-01

    Ausmelt technology opens up new opportunities for the economic processing of complex copper smelter dusts. Not only can the technology separate more of the unwanted elements to produce a clean blister copper for refining, but it can also allow production of fume and precious metal products that can be readily upgraded to produce high-grade, valuable products. Developments in the processing of copper-bismuth-gold flue dusts left over after the smelting of bismuth-bearing concentrates in flash furnaces are described, including pilot-plant trials and process and equipment development. Design considerations and capital and operating costs for the proposed plant are discussed.

  14. Fractional Fourier transform pre-processing for neural networks and its application to object recognition.

    PubMed

    Barshan, Billur; Ayrulu, Birsel

    2002-01-01

    This study investigates fractional Fourier transform pre-processing of input signals to neural networks. The fractional Fourier transform is a generalization of the ordinary Fourier transform with an order parameter a. Judicious choice of this parameter can lead to overall improvement of the neural network performance. As an illustrative example, we consider recognition and position estimation of different types of objects based on their sonar returns. Raw amplitude and time-of-flight patterns acquired from a real sonar system are processed, demonstrating reduced error in both recognition and position estimation of objects.

  15. Neuronal encoding of object and distance information: a model simulation study on naturalistic optic flow processing

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Patrick; Egelhaaf, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We developed a model of the input circuitry of the FD1 cell, an identified motion-sensitive interneuron in the blowfly's visual system. The model circuit successfully reproduces the FD1 cell's most conspicuous property: its larger responses to objects than to spatially extended patterns. The model circuit also mimics the time-dependent responses of FD1 to dynamically complex naturalistic stimuli, shaped by the blowfly's saccadic flight and gaze strategy: the FD1 responses are enhanced when, as a consequence of self-motion, a nearby object crosses the receptive field during intersaccadic intervals. Moreover, the model predicts that these object-induced responses are superimposed by pronounced pattern-dependent fluctuations during movements on virtual test flights in a three-dimensional environment with systematic modifications of the environmental patterns. Hence, the FD1 cell is predicted to detect not unambiguously objects defined by the spatial layout of the environment, but to be also sensitive to objects distinguished by textural features. These ambiguous detection abilities suggest an encoding of information about objects—irrespective of the features by which the objects are defined—by a population of cells, with the FD1 cell presumably playing a prominent role in such an ensemble. PMID:22461769

  16. Unconscious Processing of Negative Animals and Objects: Role of the Amygdala Revealed by fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zhiyong; Li, Han; Chen, Gang; Yang, JiongJiong

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that emotional stimuli can be processed through the amygdala without conscious awareness. The amygdala is also involved in processing animate and social information. However, it is unclear whether different categories of pictures (e.g., animals, objects) elicit different activity in the amygdale and other regions without conscious awareness. The objective of this study was to explore whether the factors of category, emotion and picture context modulate brain activation for unconscious processing. Pictures denoting different nonhuman animals and objects in negative and neutral emotional valences were presented using a sandwich-masking paradigm. Half of them were presented with human-related information in the contexts, and half were not. Our results showed significant interaction among category, emotion and context in the amygdala and subcortical regions. Specifically, negative animals elicited stronger activation in these regions than negative objects, especially with human contexts. In addition, there were different correlation patterns between the amygdala and cortical regions according to whether they included human context. There were limited activations in cortical category-related networks. These results suggest that the amygdala and subcortical regions dominantly process negative animals, and contextual information modulates their activities, making threatening stimuli that are most relevant to human survival preferentially processed without conscious awareness. PMID:27092067

  17. Intermediary objects in the workspace design process: means of experience transfer in the offshore sector.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Carolina; Silva, Gislaine; Broberg, Ole; Duarte, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the use of intermediary objects in the workspace design process of offshore accommodations module. The integration of ergonomics in the design process can lead to better work conditions, more effectiveness in the work process and less health and safety issues. Moreover, it is more efficient in terms of cost if ergonomics is considered from the initial phases of the project, as the potential costs of the redesign, the possible losses and the down-time in the operation of the platform would be more increased. The goal, then, is to discuss the integration of ergonomics and users involvement in the design process of accommodations modules, focusing on the transfer of information from reference situations by the use of intermediary objects during the process. In this paper we will present two tools developed to be used as intermediary object(s) aiming at transferring the experience from the use to the design in the specific field of offshore accommodations module.

  18. Complex density of a suspension in an oscillatiory wave process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotovskii, V. S.; Orlov, A. I.; Lunina, S. V.; Pil'shchikova, E. A.

    2014-03-01

    The effective viscous inertia properties exhibited by suspensions in the presence of oscillatory wave processes are considered. A cell model of a concentrated suspension is used to derive the dependence for the complex density, whose real and imaginary parts characterize the effective inertia and the bulk viscous resistance to oscillatory motion, respectively. From hydrodynamic models of low-frequency and high-frequency translatory oscillations of spherical inclusions in the host liquid, estimates are obtained for the internal dynamic parameters of the suspension, namely, the apparent mass factor and the inclusion relaxation time, which specify the general formulas for the complex density.

  19. Do discrimination tasks discourage multi-dimensional stimulus processing? Evidence from a cross-modal object discrimination in rats.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Kathryn J

    2007-11-01

    Neurobiologists are becoming increasingly interested in how complex cognitive representations are formed by the integration of sensory stimuli. To this end, discrimination tasks are frequently used to assess perceptual and cognitive processes in animals, because they are easy to administer and score, and the ability of an animal to make a particular discrimination establishes beyond doubt that the necessary perceptual/cognitive processes are present. It does not, however, follow that absence of discrimination means the animal cannot make a particular perceptual judgement; it may simply mean that the animal did not manage to discover the relevant discriminative stimulus when trying to learn the task. Here, it is shown that rats did not learn a cross-modal object discrimination (requiring association of each object's visual appearance with its odour) when trained on the complete task from the beginning. However, they could eventually make the discrimination when trained on the component parts step by step, showing that they were able to do the necessary cross-modal integration in the right circumstances. This finding adds to growing evidence that discrimination tasks tend to encourage feature-based discrimination, perhaps by engaging automatic, habit-based brain systems. Thus, they may not be the best way to assess the formation of multi-dimensional stimulus representations of the kind needed in more complex cognitive processes such as declarative memory. Instead, more natural tasks such as spontaneous exploration may be preferable.

  20. A cultural side effect: learning to read interferes with identity processing of familiar objects

    PubMed Central

    Kolinsky, Régine; Fernandes, Tânia

    2014-01-01

    Based on the neuronal recycling hypothesis (Dehaene and Cohen, 2007), we examined whether reading acquisition has a cost for the recognition of non-linguistic visual materials. More specifically, we checked whether the ability to discriminate between mirror images, which develops through literacy acquisition, interferes with object identity judgments, and whether interference strength varies as a function of the nature of the non-linguistic material. To these aims we presented illiterate, late literate (who learned to read at adult age), and early literate adults with an orientation-independent, identity-based same-different comparison task in which they had to respond “same” to both physically identical and mirrored or plane-rotated images of pictures of familiar objects (Experiment 1) or of geometric shapes (Experiment 2). Interference from irrelevant orientation variations was stronger with plane rotations than with mirror images, and stronger with geometric shapes than with objects. Illiterates were the only participants almost immune to mirror variations, but only for familiar objects. Thus, the process of unlearning mirror-image generalization, necessary to acquire literacy in the Latin alphabet, has a cost for a basic function of the visual ventral object recognition stream, i.e., identification of familiar objects. This demonstrates that neural recycling is not just an adaptation to multi-use but a process of at least partial exaptation. PMID:25400605

  1. Temporal properties of dynamic processes on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turalska, Malgorzata A.

    Many social, biological and technological systems can be viewed as complex networks with a large number of interacting components. However despite recent advancements in network theory, a satisfactory description of dynamic processes arising in such cooperative systems is a subject of ongoing research. In this dissertation the emergence of dynamical complexity in networks of interacting stochastic oscillators is investigated. In particular I demonstrate that networks of two and three state stochastic oscillators present a second-order phase transition with respect to the strength of coupling between individual units. I show that at the critical point fluctuations of the global order parameter are characterized by an inverse-power law distribution and I assess their renewal properties. Additionally, I study the effect that different types of perturbation have on dynamical properties of the model. I discuss the relevance of those observations for the transmission of information between complex systems.

  2. Memory for Complex Visual Objects but Not for Allocentric Locations during the First Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupierrix, Eve; Hillairet de Boisferon, Anne; Barbeau, Emmanuel; Pascalis, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Although human infants demonstrate early competence to retain visual information, memory capacities during infancy remain largely undocumented. In three experiments, we used a Visual Paired Comparison (VPC) task to examine abilities to encode identity (Experiment 1) and spatial properties (Experiments 2a and 2b) of unfamiliar complex visual…

  3. [Method of receiving differential images of objects autofluorescence in the process of photobleaching].

    PubMed

    Klimov, A A; Klimov, D A

    2012-01-01

    The microscope with a high sensitive video camera and laser illumination was used to study autofluorescence changes of different structures in the photo bleached region with a different speed. The work with images using the ImageJ program is described in application how to receive differential images of objects autofluorescence in the process of photobleaching. PMID:23136785

  4. Action and Object Processing in Aphasia: From Nouns and Verbs to the Effect of Manipulability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arevalo, A.; Perani, D.; Cappa, S. F.; Butler, A.; Bates, E.; Dronkers, N.

    2007-01-01

    The processing of words and pictures representing actions and objects was tested in 21 aphasic patients and 20 healthy controls across three word production tasks: picture-naming (PN), single word reading (WR) and word repetition (WRP). Analysis (1) targeted task and lexical category (noun-verb), revealing worse performance on PN and verb items…

  5. Frequency Affects Object Relative Clause Processing: Some Evidence in Favor of Usage-Based Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reali, Florencia

    2014-01-01

    The processing difficulty of nested grammatical structure has been explained by different psycholinguistic theories. Here I provide corpus and behavioral evidence in favor of usage-based models, focusing on the case of object relative clauses in Spanish as a first language. A corpus analysis of spoken Spanish reveals that, as in English, the…

  6. An Objective Approach to Faculty Promotion and Tenure by the Analytical Hierarchy Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saaty, Thomas L.; Ramanujam, Vasudevan

    1983-01-01

    A faculty evaluation system that classified performance factors within a hierarchy and weights each, producing a final composite set for each faculty member, is explained and illustrated. The process is recommended for more objective and consistent decision-making about faculty tenure. (MSE)

  7. An ERP Study of the Processing of Subject and Object Relative Clauses in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Mieko; Garnsey, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    Using reading times and event-related brain potentials (ERPs), we investigated the processing of Japanese subject and object relative clauses (SRs/ORs). Previous research on English relative clauses shows that ORs take longer to read (King & Just, 1991) and elicit anterior negativity between fillers and gaps (King & Kutas, 1995), which is…

  8. The Processing of Subject-Object Ambiguities in Native and Near-Native Mexican Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jegerski, Jill

    2012-01-01

    This self-paced reading study first tested the prediction that the garden path effect previously observed during the processing of subject-object ambiguities in native English would not obtain in a null subject language like Spanish. The investigation then further explored whether the effect would be evident among near-native readers of Spanish…

  9. Effects of Information Processing Objectives on Judgments of Deception following Perjury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deTurck, Mark A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines mock jurors processing testimony under impression-set and memory-set conditions to determine under which condition they rate a witness to be more deceptive. Finds that under impression-set objectives subjects formed stronger judgments of the witness's deceptiveness, while the pattern was reversed under memory-set conditions. (MS)

  10. Analyzing Preschoolers' Overgeneralizations of Object Labeling in the Process of Mother-Tongue Acquisition in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabadayi, Abdulkadir

    2006-01-01

    Language, as is known, is acquired under certain conditions: rapid and sequential brain maturation and cognitive development, the need to exchange information and to control others' actions, and an exposure to appropriate speech input. This research aims at analyzing preschoolers' overgeneralizations of the object labeling process in different…

  11. The Benefits of Sensorimotor Knowledge: Body-Object Interaction Facilitates Semantic Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siakaluk, Paul D.; Pexman, Penny M.; Sears, Christopher R.; Wilson, Kim; Locheed, Keri; Owen, William J.

    2008-01-01

    This article examined the effects of body-object interaction (BOI) on semantic processing. BOI measures perceptions of the ease with which a human body can physically interact with a word's referent. In Experiment 1, BOI effects were examined in 2 semantic categorization tasks (SCT) in which participants decided if words are easily imageable.…

  12. Energetic Processing of Interstellar Ices: A Route to Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Marla H.; Hudson, Reggie L.

    2009-01-01

    More than 140 gas-phase molecules have been detected in the interstellar (IS) medium or in circumstellar environments including inorganics, organics, ions, and radicals. The significant abundance of large, complex organic molecules, and families of isomers in these regions makes the origin and formation history of these species the subject of debate. Observationally determined condensed-phase species are H2O, CO, CO2, NH3 and CH30H, with CH4, HCOOH, OCS, OCN-, H2CO and NH4(+) present at trace levels. These ices can undergo energetic processing with cosmic rays or far-UV photons to form larger complex organics with abundance levels that make them undetectable in icy mantles. Once warmed, however, it is likely that these complex species would enter the gas-phase where they might be detected by Herschel or Alma. Understanding the role of radiation chemistry and thermal processing of ices and identifying new products are the goals of our laboratory research. In the Cosmic lee Laboratory at NASA Goddard Space Plight Center, we can study both the photo-and radiation chemistries of ices from 8 -- 300 K. Using dear- and mid-IR spectroscopy we can follow the destruction of primary molecules and the formation of radicals and secondary products as a function of energetic processing. During warming we can monitor the trapping of species and the results of any thermal chemistry. An overview of recent and past work will focus on complex secondary radiation products from small condensed-phase IS species. Likely reactions include dimerization, isomerization, H-addition and H-elimination. Another focus of our work is the development of reaction schemes for the formation of complex molecules and the use of such schemes to predict new molecules awaiting detection by Herschel and Alma.

  13. Cortical plasticity for visuospatial processing and object recognition in deaf and hearing signers.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Jill; Koo, Daniel S; Crain, Kelly L; Eden, Guinevere F

    2012-03-01

    Experience-dependent plasticity in deaf participants has been shown in a variety of studies focused on either the dorsal or ventral aspects of the visual system, but both systems have never been investigated in concert. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated functional plasticity for spatial processing (a dorsal visual pathway function) and for object processing (a ventral visual pathway function) concurrently, in the context of differing sensory (auditory deprivation) and language (use of a signed language) experience. During scanning, deaf native users of American Sign Language (ASL), hearing native ASL users, and hearing participants without ASL experience attended to either the spatial arrangement of frames containing objects or the identity of the objects themselves. These two tasks revealed the expected dorsal/ventral dichotomy for spatial versus object processing in all groups. In addition, the object identity matching task contained both face and house stimuli, allowing us to examine category-selectivity in the ventral pathway in all three participant groups. When contrasting the groups we found that deaf signers differed from the two hearing groups in dorsal pathway parietal regions involved in spatial cognition, suggesting sensory experience-driven plasticity. Group differences in the object processing system indicated that responses in the face-selective right lateral fusiform gyrus and anterior superior temporal cortex were sensitive to a combination of altered sensory and language experience, whereas responses in the amygdala were more closely tied to sensory experience. By selectively engaging the dorsal and ventral visual pathways within participants in groups with different sensory and language experiences, we have demonstrated that these experiences affect the function of both of these systems, and that certain changes are more closely tied to sensory experience, while others are driven by the combination of sensory and

  14. Digital Image Processing: Effects Of Metz Filters And Matched Filters On Detection Of Simple Radiographic Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Heang-Ping; Doi, Kunio; Metz, Charles E.

    1984-06-01

    We studied the effect of image processing with Metz filters and matched filters on the detection of simulated low-contrast square objects superimposed on radiographic mottle. The signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of original and processed images were calculated based on the perceived statistical decision theory model by taking into account the internal noise of a human observer's eye-brain system. Threshold contrasts for objects of various sizes were predicted by assuming a threshold SNR of 3.8 which was determined previously for a 50% correct detection in 18 alternative forced-choice experiments. The relative performance of various image processing techniques was also evaluated experimentally with a contrast-detail diagram method. The simulated images were generated by a high-quality digital image processing and simulation system. The digitized images were Fourier-trans-formed, filtered, inversely Fourier-transformed, and/or contrast-enhanced to produce the processed images. The contrast-detail curves of the original or processed images were obtained by averaging the results of four image samples and twelve observers. Both the theoretical prediction and the C-D experiment demonstrated an improvement in detectabilities of the simple test objects over those of the original images. However, the observers seemed to under-read the filtered images in the sense that the improvement in obser-ver performance was slightly less than the prediction. This is probably caused by the changes in appearance of the object and the noise texture in the filtered images. The usefulness and limitations of the Metz filters and matched filters in comparison with other image processing techniques are discussed.

  15. Complexity as aging non-Poisson renewal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Simone

    The search for a satisfactory model for complexity, meant as an intermediate condition between total order and total disorder, is still subject of debate in the scientific community. In this dissertation the emergence of non-Poisson renewal processes in several complex systems is investigated. After reviewing the basics of renewal theory, another popular approach to complexity, called modulation, is introduced. I show how these two different approaches, given a suitable choice of the parameter involved, can generate the same macroscopic outcome, namely an inverse power law distribution density of events occurrence. To solve this ambiguity, a numerical instrument, based on the theoretical analysis of the aging properties of renewal systems, is introduced. The application of this method, called renewal aging experiment, allows us to distinguish if a time series has been generated by a renewal or a modulation process. This method of analysis is then applied to several physical systems, from blinking quantum dots, to the human brain activity, to seismic fluctuations. Theoretical conclusions about the underlying nature of the considered complex systems are drawn.

  16. Ferric and cobaltous hydroacid complexes for forward osmosis (FO) processes.

    PubMed

    Ge, Qingchun; Fu, Fengjiang; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2014-07-01

    Cupric and ferric hydroacid complexes have proven their advantages as draw solutes in forward osmosis in terms of high water fluxes, negligible reverse solute fluxes and easy recovery (Ge and Chung, 2013. Hydroacid complexes: A new class of draw solutes to promote forward osmosis (FO) processes. Chemical Communications 49, 8471-8473.). In this study, cobaltous hydroacid complexes were explored as draw solutes and compared with the ferric hydroacid complex to study the factors influencing their FO performance. The solutions of the cobaltous complexes produce high osmotic pressures due to the presence of abundant hydrophilic groups. These solutes are able to dissociate and form a multi-charged anion and Na(+) cations in water. In addition, these complexes have expanded structures which lead to negligible reverse solute fluxes and provide relatively easy approaches in regeneration. These characteristics make the newly synthesized cobaltous complexes appropriate as draw solutes. The FO performance of the cobaltous and ferric-citric acid (Fe-CA) complexes were evaluated respectively through cellulose acetate membranes, thin-film composite membranes fabricated on polyethersulfone supports (referred as TFC-PES), and polybenzimidazole and PES dual-layer (referred as PBI/PES) hollow fiber membranes. Under the conditions of DI water as the feed and facing the support layer of TFC-PES FO membranes (PRO mode), draw solutions at 2.0 M produced relatively high water fluxes of 39-48 LMH (L m(-2) hr(-1)) with negligible reverse solute fluxes. A water flux of 17.4 LMH was achieved when model seawater of 3.5 wt.% NaCl replaced DI water as the feed and 2.0 M Fe-CA as the draw solution under the same conditions. The performance of these hydroacid complexes surpasses those of the synthetic draw solutes developed in recent years. This observation, along with the relatively easy regeneration, makes these complexes very promising as a novel class of draw solutes.

  17. Ferric and cobaltous hydroacid complexes for forward osmosis (FO) processes.

    PubMed

    Ge, Qingchun; Fu, Fengjiang; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2014-07-01

    Cupric and ferric hydroacid complexes have proven their advantages as draw solutes in forward osmosis in terms of high water fluxes, negligible reverse solute fluxes and easy recovery (Ge and Chung, 2013. Hydroacid complexes: A new class of draw solutes to promote forward osmosis (FO) processes. Chemical Communications 49, 8471-8473.). In this study, cobaltous hydroacid complexes were explored as draw solutes and compared with the ferric hydroacid complex to study the factors influencing their FO performance. The solutions of the cobaltous complexes produce high osmotic pressures due to the presence of abundant hydrophilic groups. These solutes are able to dissociate and form a multi-charged anion and Na(+) cations in water. In addition, these complexes have expanded structures which lead to negligible reverse solute fluxes and provide relatively easy approaches in regeneration. These characteristics make the newly synthesized cobaltous complexes appropriate as draw solutes. The FO performance of the cobaltous and ferric-citric acid (Fe-CA) complexes were evaluated respectively through cellulose acetate membranes, thin-film composite membranes fabricated on polyethersulfone supports (referred as TFC-PES), and polybenzimidazole and PES dual-layer (referred as PBI/PES) hollow fiber membranes. Under the conditions of DI water as the feed and facing the support layer of TFC-PES FO membranes (PRO mode), draw solutions at 2.0 M produced relatively high water fluxes of 39-48 LMH (L m(-2) hr(-1)) with negligible reverse solute fluxes. A water flux of 17.4 LMH was achieved when model seawater of 3.5 wt.% NaCl replaced DI water as the feed and 2.0 M Fe-CA as the draw solution under the same conditions. The performance of these hydroacid complexes surpasses those of the synthetic draw solutes developed in recent years. This observation, along with the relatively easy regeneration, makes these complexes very promising as a novel class of draw solutes. PMID:24768702

  18. A formulation of metamodel implementation processes for complex systems design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daberkow, Debora Daniela

    Complex systems design poses an interesting as well as demanding information management problem for system level integration and design. The high interconnectivity of disciplines combined with the specific knowledge and expertise in each of these calls for a system level view that is broad, as in spanning across all disciplines, while at the same time detailed enough to do the disciplinary knowledge justice. The treatment of this requires highly evolved information management and decision approaches, which result in design methodologies that can handle this high degree of complexity. The solution is to create models within the design process, which predict meaningful metrics representative of the various disciplinary analyses that can be quickly evaluated and thus serve in system level decision making and optimization. Such models approximate the physics-based analysis codes used in each of the disciplines and are called metamodels since effectively, they model the (physics-based) models on which the disciplinary analysis codes are based. The thesis formulates a new metamodel implementation process to be used in complex systems design, utilizing a Gaussian Process prediction method. It is based on a Bayesian probability and inference approach and as such returns a variance prediction along with the most likely value, thus giving an estimate also for the confidence in the prediction. Within this thesis, the applicability and appropriateness at the theoretical as well as practical level are investigated, and proof-of-concept implementations at the disciplinary and system levels are provided.

  19. A split-optimization approach for obtaining multiple solutions in single-objective process parameter optimization.

    PubMed

    Rajora, Manik; Zou, Pan; Yang, Yao Guang; Fan, Zhi Wen; Chen, Hung Yi; Wu, Wen Chieh; Li, Beizhi; Liang, Steven Y

    2016-01-01

    It can be observed from the experimental data of different processes that different process parameter combinations can lead to the same performance indicators, but during the optimization of process parameters, using current techniques, only one of these combinations can be found when a given objective function is specified. The combination of process parameters obtained after optimization may not always be applicable in actual production or may lead to undesired experimental conditions. In this paper, a split-optimization approach is proposed for obtaining multiple solutions in a single-objective process parameter optimization problem. This is accomplished by splitting the original search space into smaller sub-search spaces and using GA in each sub-search space to optimize the process parameters. Two different methods, i.e., cluster centers and hill and valley splitting strategy, were used to split the original search space, and their efficiency was measured against a method in which the original search space is split into equal smaller sub-search spaces. The proposed approach was used to obtain multiple optimal process parameter combinations for electrochemical micro-machining. The result obtained from the case study showed that the cluster centers and hill and valley splitting strategies were more efficient in splitting the original search space than the method in which the original search space is divided into smaller equal sub-search spaces.

  20. A split-optimization approach for obtaining multiple solutions in single-objective process parameter optimization.

    PubMed

    Rajora, Manik; Zou, Pan; Yang, Yao Guang; Fan, Zhi Wen; Chen, Hung Yi; Wu, Wen Chieh; Li, Beizhi; Liang, Steven Y

    2016-01-01

    It can be observed from the experimental data of different processes that different process parameter combinations can lead to the same performance indicators, but during the optimization of process parameters, using current techniques, only one of these combinations can be found when a given objective function is specified. The combination of process parameters obtained after optimization may not always be applicable in actual production or may lead to undesired experimental conditions. In this paper, a split-optimization approach is proposed for obtaining multiple solutions in a single-objective process parameter optimization problem. This is accomplished by splitting the original search space into smaller sub-search spaces and using GA in each sub-search space to optimize the process parameters. Two different methods, i.e., cluster centers and hill and valley splitting strategy, were used to split the original search space, and their efficiency was measured against a method in which the original search space is split into equal smaller sub-search spaces. The proposed approach was used to obtain multiple optimal process parameter combinations for electrochemical micro-machining. The result obtained from the case study showed that the cluster centers and hill and valley splitting strategies were more efficient in splitting the original search space than the method in which the original search space is divided into smaller equal sub-search spaces. PMID:27625978

  1. PAL: An Object Oriented Data Access Layer for Herschel Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Guest, S.; Huang, M.; Balm, P.; Siddiqui, H.; Bakker, J.; Segovia, J. C.; Saiz, J.; Edwards, K.

    2012-09-01

    The Herschel Ground Segment Product Access Layer (PAL), an object oriented software package that provides a consistent means for accessing Herschel Space Observatory data products, isolates the complexity of underlying storage systems and makes it possible for scientific data analysis scripts to be reused in different environments and over a long period of time as software and hardware evolve. The pluggable design of the PAL makes it easier for users to handle new underlying storage systems and to optimize performance according to different system characteristics.

  2. Multifeatural shape processing in rats engaged in invariant visual object recognition.

    PubMed

    Alemi-Neissi, Alireza; Rosselli, Federica Bianca; Zoccolan, Davide

    2013-04-01

    The ability to recognize objects despite substantial variation in their appearance (e.g., because of position or size changes) represents such a formidable computational feat that it is widely assumed to be unique to primates. Such an assumption has restricted the investigation of its neuronal underpinnings to primate studies, which allow only a limited range of experimental approaches. In recent years, the increasingly powerful array of optical and molecular tools that has become available in rodents has spurred a renewed interest for rodent models of visual functions. However, evidence of primate-like visual object processing in rodents is still very limited and controversial. Here we show that rats are capable of an advanced recognition strategy, which relies on extracting the most informative object features across the variety of viewing conditions the animals may face. Rat visual strategy was uncovered by applying an image masking method that revealed the features used by the animals to discriminate two objects across a range of sizes, positions, in-depth, and in-plane rotations. Noticeably, rat recognition relied on a combination of multiple features that were mostly preserved across the transformations the objects underwent, and largely overlapped with the features that a simulated ideal observer deemed optimal to accomplish the discrimination task. These results indicate that rats are able to process and efficiently use shape information, in a way that is largely tolerant to variation in object appearance. This suggests that their visual system may serve as a powerful model to study the neuronal substrates of object recognition.

  3. Stochastic Process Underlying Emergent Recognition of Visual Objects Hidden in Degraded Images

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Tsutomu; Hamada, Takashi; Shimokawa, Tetsuya; Tanifuji, Manabu; Yanagida, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    When a degraded two-tone image such as a “Mooney” image is seen for the first time, it is unrecognizable in the initial seconds. The recognition of such an image is facilitated by giving prior information on the object, which is known as top-down facilitation and has been intensively studied. Even in the absence of any prior information, however, we experience sudden perception of the emergence of a salient object after continued observation of the image, whose processes remain poorly understood. This emergent recognition is characterized by a comparatively long reaction time ranging from seconds to tens of seconds. In this study, to explore this time-consuming process of emergent recognition, we investigated the properties of the reaction times for recognition of degraded images of various objects. The results show that the time-consuming component of the reaction times follows a specific exponential function related to levels of image degradation and subject's capability. Because generally an exponential time is required for multiple stochastic events to co-occur, we constructed a descriptive mathematical model inspired by the neurophysiological idea of combination coding of visual objects. Our model assumed that the coincidence of stochastic events complement the information loss of a degraded image leading to the recognition of its hidden object, which could successfully explain the experimental results. Furthermore, to see whether the present results are specific to the task of emergent recognition, we also conducted a comparison experiment with the task of perceptual decision making of degraded images, which is well known to be modeled by the stochastic diffusion process. The results indicate that the exponential dependence on the level of image degradation is specific to emergent recognition. The present study suggests that emergent recognition is caused by the underlying stochastic process which is based on the coincidence of multiple stochastic events

  4. Using object-based analysis to derive surface complexity information for improved filtering of airborne laser scanning data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Menglong; Blaschke, Thomas; Tang, Hongzhao; Xiao, Chenchao; Sun, Xian; Zhang, Daobing; Fu, Kun

    2016-03-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is a technique used to obtain Digital Surface Models (DSM) and Digital Terrain Models (DTM) efficiently, and filtering is the key procedure used to derive DTM from point clouds. Generating seed points is an initial step for most filtering algorithms, whereas existing algorithms usually define a regular window size to generate seed points. This may lead to an inadequate density of seed points, and further introduce error type I, especially in steep terrain and forested areas. In this study, we propose the use of objectbased analysis to derive surface complexity information from ALS datasets, which can then be used to improve seed point generation.We assume that an area is complex if it is composed of many small objects, with no buildings within the area. Using these assumptions, we propose and implement a new segmentation algorithm based on a grid index, which we call the Edge and Slope Restricted Region Growing (ESRGG) algorithm. Surface complexity information is obtained by statistical analysis of the number of objects derived by segmentation in each area. Then, for complex areas, a smaller window size is defined to generate seed points. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm could greatly improve the filtering results in complex areas, especially in steep terrain and forested areas.

  5. Development of Tool Representations in the Dorsal and Ventral Visual Object Processing Pathways.

    PubMed

    Kersey, Alyssa J; Clark, Tyia S; Lussier, Courtney A; Mahon, Bradford Z; Cantlon, Jessica F

    2016-07-01

    Tools represent a special class of objects, because they are processed across both the dorsal and ventral visual object processing pathways. Three core regions are known to be involved in tool processing: the left posterior middle temporal gyrus, the medial fusiform gyrus (bilaterally), and the left inferior parietal lobule. A critical and relatively unexplored issue concerns whether, in development, tool preferences emerge at the same time and to a similar degree across all regions of the tool-processing network. To test this issue, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure the neural amplitude, peak location, and the dispersion of tool-related neural responses in the youngest sample of children tested to date in this domain (ages 4-8 years). We show that children recruit overlapping regions of the adult tool-processing network and also exhibit similar patterns of co-activation across the network to adults. The amplitude and co-activation data show that the core components of the tool-processing network are established by age 4. Our findings on the distributions of peak location and dispersion of activation indicate that the tool network undergoes refinement between ages 4 and 8 years. PMID:26108614

  6. Spectral transformation in the SOFI complex for processing photographic images on the ES computer, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debabov, A. S.; Usikov, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    A description is given of three programs catalogued in the form of object modules in the library of a system for processing photographic images computer. PFT is the subprogram of the multi-dimensional BPF of real-valued information, in the operative computer memory. INRECO is a subprogram-interface between the real and complex formats for representing two-dimensional spectra and images. FFT2 is a subprogram for calculating the correlation functions of the image using the previous subprograms.

  7. Object-Based Integration of Photogrammetric and LiDAR Data for Automated Generation of Complex Polyhedral Building Models

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Changjae; Habib, Ayman

    2009-01-01

    This research is concerned with a methodology for automated generation of polyhedral building models for complex structures, whose rooftops are bounded by straight lines. The process starts by utilizing LiDAR data for building hypothesis generation and derivation of individual planar patches constituting building rooftops. Initial boundaries of these patches are then refined through the integration of LiDAR and photogrammetric data and hierarchical processing of the planar patches. Building models for complex structures are finally produced using the refined boundaries. The performance of the developed methodology is evaluated through qualitative and quantitative analysis of the generated building models from real data. PMID:22346722

  8. Image processing techniques for detection of buried objects with infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerón-Correa, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This document describes the principles of infrared thermography and its application to humanitarian demining in the world as well as the factors influencing its application in a country like Colombia which suffers badly the problem posed by antipersonnel mines. The main factors that affect the images taken by different sensors are: day time, mine size and material, installation angle, object's burial depth, moisture, emissivity, wind, rain, as well as other objects in the proximity shadowing the images. Infrared image processing methods and results of tests done in different sites of the country such as Cartagena, Bogota, and Tolemaida are also shown. Finally, a method for the detection of the presence of a buried object is presented with its successful results.

  9. Information processing using a single dynamical node as complex system

    PubMed Central

    Appeltant, L.; Soriano, M.C.; Van der Sande, G.; Danckaert, J.; Massar, S.; Dambre, J.; Schrauwen, B.; Mirasso, C.R.; Fischer, I.

    2011-01-01

    Novel methods for information processing are highly desired in our information-driven society. Inspired by the brain's ability to process information, the recently introduced paradigm known as 'reservoir computing' shows that complex networks can efficiently perform computation. Here we introduce a novel architecture that reduces the usually required large number of elements to a single nonlinear node with delayed feedback. Through an electronic implementation, we experimentally and numerically demonstrate excellent performance in a speech recognition benchmark. Complementary numerical studies also show excellent performance for a time series prediction benchmark. These results prove that delay-dynamical systems, even in their simplest manifestation, can perform efficient information processing. This finding paves the way to feasible and resource-efficient technological implementations of reservoir computing. PMID:21915110

  10. Simple algorithm for computing the communication complexity of quantum communication processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A.; Montina, A.; Wolf, S.

    2016-04-01

    A two-party quantum communication process with classical inputs and outcomes can be simulated by replacing the quantum channel with a classical one. The minimal amount of classical communication required to reproduce the statistics of the quantum process is called its communication complexity. In the case of many instances simulated in parallel, the minimal communication cost per instance is called the asymptotic communication complexity. Previously, we reduced the computation of the asymptotic communication complexity to a convex minimization problem. In most cases, the objective function does not have an explicit analytic form, as the function is defined as the maximum over an infinite set of convex functions. Therefore, the overall problem takes the form of a minimax problem and cannot directly be solved by standard optimization methods. In this paper, we introduce a simple algorithm to compute the asymptotic communication complexity. For some special cases with an analytic objective function one can employ available convex-optimization libraries. In the tested cases our method turned out to be notably faster. Finally, using our method we obtain 1.238 bits as a lower bound on the asymptotic communication complexity of a noiseless quantum channel with the capacity of 1 qubit. This improves the previous bound of 1.208 bits.

  11. Morphological image processing for locating minelike objects from side-scan sonar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartzman, Gordon L.; Kooiman, William C.

    1999-08-01

    A morphological image-processing algorithm was developed to facilitate the rapid identification of bottom minelike objects in side scan sonar acoustic backscatter images. Because large numbers of images are being processed, the emphasis is on rapid computation. The algorithm achieves computational efficiency by dividing the image into bins of a pre-chosen size and performing a binary opening operation for each bin with a 2 X 2 structuring element on each bin having sufficient pixels within the threshold range. Thresholding can be either above a high backscatter level to highlight bright proud objects or below a low backscatter level to highlight low backscatter shade-like objects. The morphological operating highlights continuous pixels within the threshold range without distortion and eliminates objects smaller than the structuring element. A connected component algorithm was used to locate all identified contiguous pixels and to tabulate their centroids and sizes. The identified objects were then screened as possible targets by checking the proximity of bright and dark objects within some threshold radius and chosen direction of each other. The chosen targets were either graphed or archived. Algorithm performance was evaluated by comparison with other target identification algorithms and was found to be compatible. An advanced interactive mode allows using different structuring elements and different morphological operations for possible improvement of the batch mode algorithm. The algorithm, while potentially effective for target identification, is primarily useful for false target identification. By operating on standard survey images the algorithm can isolate areas of potential false target proliferation. Spatial statistical methods, based on k- nearest neighbor distributions and hierarchical and k-means clustering were used to delineate regions of high false target density within the survey area.

  12. Analysis of scattering from complex dielectric objects using the generalized method of moments.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Dault, Dan; Nair, Naveen; Shanker, Balasubramaniam

    2014-11-01

    Integral equation-based analysis of scattering from dielectric objects has been a topic of research for many decades. Different integral equation formulations, discretization methods, and comparative data of their relative advantages have been well studied. Traditional discretization methods typically rely on a tight coupling between the underlying geometry discretization and the approximation function space that is defined on this discretization. As a result, it is difficult to stitch together different approximation spaces or nonconformal domains or match basis sets to local physics. Furthermore, the basis sets most commonly used in discretizing dielectric boundary integral operators impose limits on the variety of integral equation formulations that can be employed. We recently published a methodology [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A28, 328 (2011)10.1364/JOSAA.28.000328JOAOD61084-7529] that overcomes several of these bottlenecks. In the present paper, we introduce several extensions to these concepts for dielectric scattering problems. Specifically, we present a method that (i) uses mixed higher order local geometric descriptions and (ii) mixes multiple basis sets defined on this geometry, including higher order polynomials and classical Rao-Wilton-Glisson functions. Furthermore, we provide a unified description of different integral equation formulations that can be used for the analysis of scattering from dielectric objects, and show that the present approach admits a larger range of formulations than existing methods. A number of results demonstrating the efficiency of the method (in terms of accuracy and capability) together with applicability to different formulations are presented.

  13. Mapping the complex kinematics of LL objects in the Orion nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henney, William J.; García-Díaz, Ma. T.; O'Dell, C. R.; Rubin, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    LL Orionis-type objects (LL objects) are hyperbolic bowshocks visible around young stars in the outer Orion nebula, many of which are also associated with curved, highly collimated jets. The bowshocks are clearly due to the supersonic interaction between an outflow from the young star and an environmental flow from the core of the nebula, but the exact nature of these flows has not yet been established. We present the first high-resolution optical spectra of two of these objects, LL 1 and LL 2, together with their associated Herbig-Haro (HH) jets, HH 888 and HH 505. We combine multiple long-slit echelle spectra in the Hα 6563 Å and [N ii] 6584 Å lines to produce velocity maps of the two objects at a resolution of 4text{arcsec} × 2text{arcsec} × 11 {km s^{-1}}. The gas motions within both stellar bowshocks are of rather low velocity (10-20 km s-1), but there are important differences between the two objects. LL 1 shows a high degree of symmetry, whereas LL 2 has very asymmetric kinematics that seem to follow velocity gradients in the surrounding nebula. We also measure the line-of-sight velocity for multiple knots in the HH 888 and HH 505 jets, and combine our spectroscopy with new and existing proper-motion measurements to reconstruct the three-dimensional kinematics of the jets. The knot motions in both jets are very similar: both flows are inclined at 40° to 60° from the plane of the sky, with exclusively redshifted knots to the north and exclusively blueshifted knots to the south. In both cases, one also sees a deceleration along the length of the jets, from >200 km s-1 close to the respective stars down to <100 km s-1 farther out. The marked contrasts that we find between the kinematics of the jets and the kinematics of the stellar bowshocks are evidence that the two phenomena are not causally related. Regular patterns in the dynamic ages of the HH 505 knots imply periodic ejections on three different time-scales: 50, 12 and 4 yr. We use line ratios and

  14. Quantum-information processing in disordered and complex quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Ahufinger, Veronica; Briegel, Hans J.; Sanpera, Anna; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2006-12-15

    We study quantum information processing in complex disordered many body systems that can be implemented by using lattices of ultracold atomic gases and trapped ions. We demonstrate, first in the short range case, the generation of entanglement and the local realization of quantum gates in a disordered magnetic model describing a quantum spin glass. We show that in this case it is possible to achieve fidelities of quantum gates higher than in the classical case. Complex systems with long range interactions, such as ions chains or dipolar atomic gases, can be used to model neural network Hamiltonians. For such systems, where both long range interactions and disorder appear, it is possible to generate long range bipartite entanglement. We provide an efficient analytical method to calculate the time evolution of a given initial state, which in turn allows us to calculate its quantum correlations.

  15. Prediction processes during multiple object tracking (MOT): involvement of dorsal and ventral premotor cortices

    PubMed Central

    Atmaca, Silke; Stadler, Waltraud; Keitel, Anne; Ott, Derek V M; Lepsien, Jöran; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Background The multiple object tracking (MOT) paradigm is a cognitive task that requires parallel tracking of several identical, moving objects following nongoal-directed, arbitrary motion trajectories. Aims The current study aimed to investigate the employment of prediction processes during MOT. As an indicator for the involvement of prediction processes, we targeted the human premotor cortex (PM). The PM has been repeatedly implicated to serve the internal modeling of future actions and action effects, as well as purely perceptual events, by means of predictive feedforward functions. Materials and methods Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), BOLD activations recorded during MOT were contrasted with those recorded during the execution of a cognitive control task that used an identical stimulus display and demanded similar attentional load. A particular effort was made to identify and exclude previously found activation in the PM-adjacent frontal eye fields (FEF). Results We replicated prior results, revealing occipitotemporal, parietal, and frontal areas to be engaged in MOT. Discussion The activation in frontal areas is interpreted to originate from dorsal and ventral premotor cortices. The results are discussed in light of our assumption that MOT engages prediction processes. Conclusion We propose that our results provide first clues that MOT does not only involve visuospatial perception and attention processes, but prediction processes as well. PMID:24363971

  16. Breastfeeding interventions in Kansas: a qualitative process evaluation of program goals and objectives.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Lisette T; Wetta, Ruth

    2014-10-01

    Across the state of Kansas, eighteen public health departments received funding through the 2011 Breastfeeding Grant Initiative to start a breastfeeding intervention. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the progress toward program goals and objectives. This study was a process evaluation. Qualitative data were collected from recipient health departments at two time-points during the program year. Structured, open-ended questions were asked through telephone interviews. This study examined: (1) progress toward program goals and objectives, (2) problems encountered during implementation, and (3) evaluation measures employed to assess program impact. All health departments reported making significant progress toward program goals and objectives and reported successful collaboration with other healthcare providers. The use of breast pumps, educational classes, and professional training of staff were reported as providing the best outcome in the promotion of breastfeeding. The majority of respondents did not measure program impact. From a public health perspective, it is important that infants receive breast milk for the first six months of life. It appears that goals and objectives set a priori guided health departments with the administration of their breastfeeding program. Results may be used to enhance and sustain delivery of breastfeeding support programs in Kansas communities.

  17. A Representational Similarity Analysis of the Dynamics of Object Processing Using Single-Trial EEG Classification

    PubMed Central

    Kaneshiro, Blair; Perreau Guimaraes, Marcos; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Norcia, Anthony M.

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of object categories is effortlessly accomplished in everyday life, yet its neural underpinnings remain not fully understood. In this electroencephalography (EEG) study, we used single-trial classification to perform a Representational Similarity Analysis (RSA) of categorical representation of objects in human visual cortex. Brain responses were recorded while participants viewed a set of 72 photographs of objects with a planned category structure. The Representational Dissimilarity Matrix (RDM) used for RSA was derived from confusions of a linear classifier operating on single EEG trials. In contrast to past studies, which used pairwise correlation or classification to derive the RDM, we used confusion matrices from multi-class classifications, which provided novel self-similarity measures that were used to derive the overall size of the representational space. We additionally performed classifications on subsets of the brain response in order to identify spatial and temporal EEG components that best discriminated object categories and exemplars. Results from category-level classifications revealed that brain responses to images of human faces formed the most distinct category, while responses to images from the two inanimate categories formed a single category cluster. Exemplar-level classifications produced a broadly similar category structure, as well as sub-clusters corresponding to natural language categories. Spatiotemporal components of the brain response that differentiated exemplars within a category were found to differ from those implicated in differentiating between categories. Our results show that a classification approach can be successfully applied to single-trial scalp-recorded EEG to recover fine-grained object category structure, as well as to identify interpretable spatiotemporal components underlying object processing. Finally, object category can be decoded from purely temporal information recorded at single electrodes. PMID

  18. A Representational Similarity Analysis of the Dynamics of Object Processing Using Single-Trial EEG Classification.

    PubMed

    Kaneshiro, Blair; Perreau Guimaraes, Marcos; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Norcia, Anthony M; Suppes, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of object categories is effortlessly accomplished in everyday life, yet its neural underpinnings remain not fully understood. In this electroencephalography (EEG) study, we used single-trial classification to perform a Representational Similarity Analysis (RSA) of categorical representation of objects in human visual cortex. Brain responses were recorded while participants viewed a set of 72 photographs of objects with a planned category structure. The Representational Dissimilarity Matrix (RDM) used for RSA was derived from confusions of a linear classifier operating on single EEG trials. In contrast to past studies, which used pairwise correlation or classification to derive the RDM, we used confusion matrices from multi-class classifications, which provided novel self-similarity measures that were used to derive the overall size of the representational space. We additionally performed classifications on subsets of the brain response in order to identify spatial and temporal EEG components that best discriminated object categories and exemplars. Results from category-level classifications revealed that brain responses to images of human faces formed the most distinct category, while responses to images from the two inanimate categories formed a single category cluster. Exemplar-level classifications produced a broadly similar category structure, as well as sub-clusters corresponding to natural language categories. Spatiotemporal components of the brain response that differentiated exemplars within a category were found to differ from those implicated in differentiating between categories. Our results show that a classification approach can be successfully applied to single-trial scalp-recorded EEG to recover fine-grained object category structure, as well as to identify interpretable spatiotemporal components underlying object processing. Finally, object category can be decoded from purely temporal information recorded at single electrodes. PMID

  19. Radiation Products in Processed Ices Relevant to Edgeworth-Kuiper-Belt Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, M. H.; Hudson, R. L.; Ferrante, R. F.

    2003-06-01

    Near the inner edge of the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt (EKB) are Pluto and Charon, which are known to have N2- and H2O-dominated surface ices, respectively. Such non-polar and polar ices, and perhaps mixtures of them, also may be present on other trans-Neptunian objects. Pluto, Charon, and all EKB objects reside in a weak, but constant UV-photon and energetic ion radiation environment that drives chemical reactions in their surface ices. Effects of photon and ion processing include changes in ice composition, volatility, spectra, and albedo, and these have been studied in a number of laboratories. This paper focuses on ice processing by ion irradiation and is aimed at understanding the volatiles, ions, and residues that may exist on outer solar system objects. We summarize radiation chemical products of N2-rich and H2O-rich ices containing CO or CH4, including possible volatiles such as alcohols, acids, and bases. Less-volatile products that could accumulate on EKB objects are observed to form in the laboratory from acid-base reactions, reactions promoted by warming, or reactions due to radiation processing of a relatively pure ice (e.g., CO --> C3O2). New IR spectra are reported for the 1-5 mu;m region, along with band strengths for the stronger features of carbon suboxide, carbonic acid, the ammonium and cyanate ions, polyoxymethylene, and ethylene glycol. These six materials are possible contributors to EKB surfaces, and will be of interest to observers and future missions.

  20. On the design and implementation of a parallel, object-oriented, image processing toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, C; Baldwin, C; Fodor, I; Tang, N A

    2000-06-22

    Advanced in technology have enabled us to collect data from observations, experiments, and simulations at an ever increasing pace. As these data sets approach the terabyte and petabyte range, scientists are increasingly using semi-automated techniques from data mining and pattern recognition to find useful information in the data. In order for data mining to be successful, the raw data must first be processed into a form suitable for the detection of patterns. When the data is in the form of images, this can involve a substantial amount of processing on very large data sets. To help make this task more efficient, they are designing and implementing an object-oriented image processing toolkit that specifically targets massively-parallel, distributed-memory architectures. They first show that it is possible to use object-oriented technology to effectively address the diverse needs of image applications. Next, they describe how we abstract out the similarities in image processing algorithms to enable re-use in the software. They will also discuss the difficulties encountered in parallelizing image algorithms on massively parallel machines as well as the bottlenecks to high performance. They will demonstrate the work using images from an astronomical data set, and illustrate how techniques such as filters and denoising through the thresholding of wavelet coefficients can be applied when a large image is distributed across several processors.

  1. An exploration of student midwives' experiences of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination assessment process.

    PubMed

    Barry, Maebh; Noonan, Maria; Bradshaw, Carmel; Murphy-Tighe, Sylvia

    2012-08-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative descriptive study that explored student midwives' experiences of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination assessment process for obstetric emergencies within a university setting. The development of fundamental clinical skills is an important component in preparing students to meet the responsibilities of a midwife. There is an international concern that the transfer of midwifery education into universities may impact on the development of midwifery clinical skills. Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) have the potential to promote integration and consolidation of skills prior to clinical placement. Twenty six students (n=36) from two midwifery programmes (BSc and Higher Diploma) participated in four focus groups and Burnard's (2006) framework was used for data analysis. Three main themes emerged following analysis: preparation for the OSCE assessment, the OSCE process and learning through simulating practice. Preparation for the OSCE's which included lectures, demonstrations, and practice of OSCE's facilitated by lecturers and by the students themselves, was considered central to the process. Learning via OSCEs was perceived to be more effective in comparison to other forms of assessment and prepared students for clinical practice. Positive aspects of the process and areas for improvement were identified. Using OSCE's increased the depth of learning for the students with the steps taken in preparation for the OSCE's proving to be a valuable learning tool. This study adds to the evidence on the use of OSCE's in midwifery education. PMID:21999901

  2. Simulation and Processing Seismic Data in Complex Geological Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forestieri da Gama Rodrigues, S.; Moreira Lupinacci, W.; Martins de Assis, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic simulations in complex geological models are interesting to verify some limitations of seismic data. In this project, different geological models were designed to analyze some difficulties encountered in the interpretation of seismic data. Another idea is these data become available for LENEP/UENF students to test new tools to assist in seismic data processing. The geological models were created considering some characteristics found in oil exploration. We simulated geological medium with volcanic intrusions, salt domes, fault, pinch out and layers more distante from surface (Kanao, 2012). We used the software Tesseral Pro to simulate the seismic acquisitions. The acquisition geometries simulated were of the type common offset, end-on and split-spread. (Figure 1) Data acquired with constant offset require less processing routines. The processing flow used with tools available in Seismic Unix package (for more details, see Pennington et al., 2005) was geometric spreading correction, deconvolution, attenuation correction and post-stack depth migration. In processing of the data acquired with end-on and split-spread geometries, we included velocity analysis and NMO correction routines. Although we analyze synthetic data and carefully applied each processing routine, we can observe some limitations of the seismic reflection in imaging thin layers, great surface depth layers, layers with low impedance contrast and faults.

  3. Process evaluation for complex interventions in primary care: understanding trials using the normalization process model

    PubMed Central

    May, Carl R; Mair, Frances S; Dowrick, Christopher F; Finch, Tracy L

    2007-01-01

    Background The Normalization Process Model is a conceptual tool intended to assist in understanding the factors that affect implementation processes in clinical trials and other evaluations of complex interventions. It focuses on the ways that the implementation of complex interventions is shaped by problems of workability and integration. Method In this paper the model is applied to two different complex trials: (i) the delivery of problem solving therapies for psychosocial distress, and (ii) the delivery of nurse-led clinics for heart failure treatment in primary care. Results Application of the model shows how process evaluations need to focus on more than the immediate contexts in which trial outcomes are generated. Problems relating to intervention workability and integration also need to be understood. The model may be used effectively to explain the implementation process in trials of complex interventions. Conclusion The model invites evaluators to attend equally to considering how a complex intervention interacts with existing patterns of service organization, professional practice, and professional-patient interaction. The justification for this may be found in the abundance of reports of clinical effectiveness for interventions that have little hope of being implemented in real healthcare settings. PMID:17650326

  4. Industrial processing of complex fluids: Formulation and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Scovel, J.C.; Bleasdale, S.; Forest, G.M.; Bechtel, S.

    1997-08-01

    The production of many important commercial materials involves the evolution of a complex fluid through a cooling phase into a hardened product. Textile fibers, high-strength fibers(KEVLAR, VECTRAN), plastics, chopped-fiber compounds, and fiber optical cable are such materials. Industry desires to replace experiments with on-line, real time models of these processes. Solutions to the problems are not just a matter of technology transfer, but require a fundamental description and simulation of the processes. Goals of the project are to develop models that can be used to optimize macroscopic properties of the solid product, to identify sources of undesirable defects, and to seek boundary-temperature and flow-and-material controls to optimize desired properties.

  5. Temperature and heat flux datasets of a complex object in a fire plume for the validation of fire and thermal response codes.

    SciTech Connect

    Jernigan, Dann A.; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2010-09-01

    It is necessary to improve understanding and develop temporally- and spatially-resolved integral scale validation data of the heat flux incident to a complex object in addition to measuring the thermal response of said object located within the fire plume for the validation of the SIERRA/FUEGO/SYRINX fire and SIERRA/CALORE codes. To meet this objective, a complex calorimeter with sufficient instrumentation to allow validation of the coupling between FUEGO/SYRINX/CALORE has been designed, fabricated, and tested in the Fire Laboratory for Accreditation of Models and Experiments (FLAME) facility. Validation experiments are specifically designed for direct comparison with the computational predictions. Making meaningful comparison between the computational and experimental results requires careful characterization and control of the experimental features or parameters used as inputs into the computational model. Validation experiments must be designed to capture the essential physical phenomena, including all relevant initial and boundary conditions. This report presents the data validation steps and processes, the results of the penlight radiant heat experiments (for the purpose of validating the CALORE heat transfer modeling of the complex calorimeter), and the results of the fire tests in FLAME.

  6. Complexity of line-seru conversion for different scheduling rules and two improved exact algorithms for the multi-objective optimization.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Wang, Sihan; Tang, Jiafu; Kaku, Ikou; Sun, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Productivity can be greatly improved by converting the traditional assembly line to a seru system, especially in the business environment with short product life cycles, uncertain product types and fluctuating production volumes. Line-seru conversion includes two decision processes, i.e., seru formation and seru load. For simplicity, however, previous studies focus on the seru formation with a given scheduling rule in seru load. We select ten scheduling rules usually used in seru load to investigate the influence of different scheduling rules on the performance of line-seru conversion. Moreover, we clarify the complexities of line-seru conversion for ten different scheduling rules from the theoretical perspective. In addition, multi-objective decisions are often used in line-seru conversion. To obtain Pareto-optimal solutions of multi-objective line-seru conversion, we develop two improved exact algorithms based on reducing time complexity and space complexity respectively. Compared with the enumeration based on non-dominated sorting to solve multi-objective problem, the two improved exact algorithms saves computation time greatly. Several numerical simulation experiments are performed to show the performance improvement brought by the two proposed exact algorithms. PMID:27390649

  7. Collaborative multicue fusion using the cross-diffusion process for salient object detection.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin-Gang; Gao, Changxin; Tian, Jinwen

    2016-03-01

    Salient object detection is very useful in a large variety of image and vision-related applications. A recent trend in salient object detection is to explore novel top-down visual cues and combine them with bottom-up saliency to improve the performance. However, a basic and important problem, i.e., how to effectively fuse multiple visual cues, has rarely been addressed in previous works. To this end, the paper presents a multicue fusion method using the cross-diffusion process (CDP) for salient object detection. The CDP algorithm is deployed to combine the affinity matrices constructed over individual visual cue channels, which is then embedded into a saliency propagation framework to accomplish salient object detection. Different from other multicue fusion strategies, our proposed approach allows for collaborative fusion, that is, the individual visual cues to be fused are able to interact and exchange information with each other during the fusion procedure, which can possibly correct the noise or corruption included in the individual visual cue channels, leading to more robust and effective fusion results. Intensive experiments on publicly available datasets demonstrate the effectiveness and superior performance of our proposed method. PMID:26974910

  8. Collaborative multicue fusion using the cross-diffusion process for salient object detection.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin-Gang; Gao, Changxin; Tian, Jinwen

    2016-03-01

    Salient object detection is very useful in a large variety of image and vision-related applications. A recent trend in salient object detection is to explore novel top-down visual cues and combine them with bottom-up saliency to improve the performance. However, a basic and important problem, i.e., how to effectively fuse multiple visual cues, has rarely been addressed in previous works. To this end, the paper presents a multicue fusion method using the cross-diffusion process (CDP) for salient object detection. The CDP algorithm is deployed to combine the affinity matrices constructed over individual visual cue channels, which is then embedded into a saliency propagation framework to accomplish salient object detection. Different from other multicue fusion strategies, our proposed approach allows for collaborative fusion, that is, the individual visual cues to be fused are able to interact and exchange information with each other during the fusion procedure, which can possibly correct the noise or corruption included in the individual visual cue channels, leading to more robust and effective fusion results. Intensive experiments on publicly available datasets demonstrate the effectiveness and superior performance of our proposed method.

  9. Late development of metric part-relational processing in object recognition.

    PubMed

    Jüttner, Martin; Petters, Dean; Wakui, Elley; Davidoff, Jules

    2014-08-01

    Four experiments with unfamiliar objects examined the remarkably late consolidation of part-relational relative to part-based object recognition (Jüttner, Wakui, Petters, Kaur, & Davidoff, 2013). Our results indicate a particularly protracted developmental trajectory for the processing of metric part relations. Schoolchildren aged 7 to 14 years and adults were tested in 3-Alternative-Forced-Choice tasks to judge the correct appearance of upright and inverted newly learned multipart objects that had been manipulated in terms of individual parts or part relations. Experiment 1 showed that even the youngest tested children were close to adult levels of performance for recognizing categorical changes of individual parts and relative part position. By contrast, Experiment 2 demonstrated that performance for detecting metric changes of relative part position was distinctly reduced in young children compared with recognizing metric changes of individual parts, and did not approach the latter until 11 to 12 years. A similar developmental dissociation was observed in Experiment 3, which contrasted the detection of metric relative-size changes and metric part changes. Experiment 4 showed that manipulations of metric size that were perceived as part (rather than part-relational) changes eliminated this dissociation. Implications for theories of object recognition and similarities to the development of face perception are discussed.

  10. Scale-invariance in brightness illusions implicates object-level visual processing.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Erica; Shapiro, Arthur; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2014-01-29

    Brightness illusions demonstrate that an object's perceived brightness depends on its visual context, leading to theoretical explanations ranging from simple lateral inhibition to those based on the influence of knowledge of and experience with the world. We measure the relative brightness of mid-luminance test disks embedded in gray-scale images, and show that rankings of test disk brightness are independent of viewing distance, implying that the rankings depend on the physical object size, not the size of disks subtended on the retina. A single filter that removes low spatial frequency content, adjusted to the diameters of the test disks, can account for the relative brightness of the disks. We note that the removal of low spatial frequency content is a principle common to many different approaches to brightness/lightness phenomena; furthermore, object-size representations--as opposed to retinal-size representations--inherently remove low spatial frequency content, therefore, any process that creates object representations should also produce brightness illusions.

  11. Indicator system for a process plant control complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  12. The comparative effect of subjective and objective after-action reviews on team performance on a complex task.

    PubMed

    Villado, Anton J; Arthur, Winfred

    2013-05-01

    The after-action review (AAR; also known as the after-event review or debriefing) is an approach to training based on a review of trainees' performance on recently completed tasks or performance events. Used by the military for decades, nonmilitary organizations' use of AARs has increased dramatically in recent years. Despite the prevalence of AARs, empirical research investigating their effectiveness has been limited. This study sought to investigate the comparative effectiveness of objective AARs (reviews based on an objective recording and playback of trainees' recent performance) and subjective AARs (reviews based on a subjective, memory-based recall of trainees' recent performance). One hundred eighty-eight individuals, participating in 47 4-person teams, were assigned to 1 of 3 AAR conditions and practiced and tested on a cognitively complex performance task. Although there were no significant differences between objective and subjective AAR teams across the 5 training outcomes, AAR teams had higher levels of team performance, team efficacy, openness of communication, and cohesion than did non-AAR teams but no differences in their levels of team declarative knowledge. Our results suggest that AARs are effective at enhancing training outcomes. Furthermore, AARs may not be dependent on objective reviews and therefore may be a viable training intervention when objective reviews are not feasible or possible.

  13. Full-matrix capture with phased shift migration for flaw detection in layered objects with complex geometry.

    PubMed

    Lukomski, Tomasz

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces a method for an ultrasonic imaging with a phased array based on a wave migration algorithm. The method allows for imaging layered objects with lateral velocity variations such as objects with a complex geometry or layers that are not perpendicular to the array's axis. The full-matrix capture ensures that there is enough information to reconstruct an image even when the wave indication angle is large. The method is implemented in a omega-k domain. The proposed algorithm is first tested in a single simulation of a concave object with side drilled holes under the concave surface. For evaluating the algorithm's performance three experiments are presented: one with a tilted object (surface not perpendicular with respect to the array axis) with side drilled holes and two experiments of an object with concave surface and two artificial defects under it. The results presented in the paper verify that the proposed method reconstructs images from the data gathered with the phased array.

  14. Imaging-based optical caliper for objects in hot manufacturing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Howard

    2013-04-03

    OG Technologies, Inc. (OGT), in conjunction with its industrial and academic partners, proposes to develop an Imaging-Based Optical Caliper (hereafter referred to as OC) for Objects in Hot Manufacturing Processes. The goal is to develop and demonstrate the OC with the synergy of OGT's current technological pool and other innovations to provide a light weight, robust, safe and accurate portable dimensional measurement device for hot objects with integrated wireless communication capacity to enable real time process control. The technical areas of interest in this project are the combination of advanced imaging, Sensor Fusion, and process control. OGT believes that the synergistic interactions between its current set of technologies and other innovations could deliver products that are viable and have high impact in the hot manufacture processes, such as steel making, steel rolling, open die forging, and glass industries, resulting in a new energy efficient control paradigm in the operations through improved yield, prolonged tool life and improved quality. In-line dimension measurement and control is of interest to the steel makers, yet current industry focus is on the final product dimension only instead of whole process due to the limit of man power, system cost and operator safety concerns. As sensor technologies advances, the industry started to see the need to enforce better dimensional control throughout the process, but lack the proper tools to do so. OGT along with its industrial partners represent the indigenous effort of technological development to serve the US steel industry. The immediate market that can use and get benefited from the proposed OC is the Steel Industry. The deployment of the OC has the potential to provide benefits in reduction of energy waste, CO2 emission, waste water amount, toxic waste, and so forth. The potential market after further expended function includes Hot Forging and Freight Industries. The OC prototypes were fabricated, and

  15. Aeolian Processes of the Pismo-Oceano Dune Complex, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrineau, C. P.; Tchakerian, V.; Houser, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Pismo Dunes are located approximately 250 km northwest of Los Angeles and consist of 90 km2 of transverse, parabolic and paleodunes. The Pismo Dunes are one of the largest dune complexes on the west coast and are the largest remaining south of San Francisco Bay, but despite their size, relatively few process morphology studies have focused on their form and history. Specifically, the dune field includes 12 km2 of actively migrating transverse dune ridges advancing onshore in three distinct phases separated by small depressions easily indentified using a LiDAR-generated elevation model. An early field investigation by Tchakerian (1983) revealed a uniform increase in slip face heights and crestline wavelengths inland with no apparent change in grain size. Measurement of recent aerial imagery shows variable migration rates throughout the dunes and wavelengths between 30 and 100 m closest to the beach, in the second ridge between 50 and 140 m, and from 70 to 250 m furthest inland. During El Niño and La Niña periods, westerly winds advance onshore nearly perpendicular to the crestlines, fueling episodic migration of the dune field. It is hypothesized that particularly strong ENSO periods may have led to the development of distinct dune phases with separating depressions and the development of defects along the dune crest. Defects associated with the wakes of incipient vegetation and inter-dune depressions are conspicuous and widespread, though localized and variable through time and space. Aerial imagery taken in September 1994 shows a wider, more even distribution of defects across the dune field than currently visible. The signal is, however, complicated by the closure of the dune field to oversand vehicles in 1982. The closure of much of the complex to vehicular traffic in 1982 may play a role, as Tchakerian's crestline wavelength measurements were far smaller than those obtained for this study while maintaining a likewise increase between phases. At a decadal

  16. Extension of RCC Topological Relations for 3d Complex Objects Components Extracted from 3d LIDAR Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Xu-Feng; Abolfazl Mostafavia, Mir; Wang, Chen

    2016-06-01

    Topological relations are fundamental for qualitative description, querying and analysis of a 3D scene. Although topological relations for 2D objects have been extensively studied and implemented in GIS applications, their direct extension to 3D is very challenging and they cannot be directly applied to represent relations between components of complex 3D objects represented by 3D B-Rep models in R3. Herein we present an extended Region Connection Calculus (RCC) model to express and formalize topological relations between planar regions for creating 3D model represented by Boundary Representation model in R3. We proposed a new dimension extended 9-Intersection model to represent the basic relations among components of a complex object, including disjoint, meet and intersect. The last element in 3*3 matrix records the details of connection through the common parts of two regions and the intersecting line of two planes. Additionally, this model can deal with the case of planar regions with holes. Finally, the geometric information is transformed into a list of strings consisting of topological relations between two planar regions and detailed connection information. The experiments show that the proposed approach helps to identify topological relations of planar segments of point cloud automatically.

  17. Objectively identifying landmark use and predicting flight trajectories of the homing pigeon using Gaussian processes.

    PubMed

    Mann, Richard; Freeman, Robin; Osborne, Michael; Garnett, Roman; Armstrong, Chris; Meade, Jessica; Biro, Dora; Guilford, Tim; Roberts, Stephen

    2011-02-01

    Pigeons home along idiosyncratic habitual routes from familiar locations. It has been suggested that memorized visual landmarks underpin this route learning. However, the inability to experimentally alter the landscape on large scales has hindered the discovery of the particular features to which birds attend. Here, we present a method for objectively classifying the most informative regions of animal paths. We apply this method to flight trajectories from homing pigeons to identify probable locations of salient visual landmarks. We construct and apply a Gaussian process model of flight trajectory generation for pigeons trained to home from specific release sites. The model shows increasing predictive power as the birds become familiar with the sites, mirroring the animal's learning process. We subsequently find that the most informative elements of the flight trajectories coincide with landscape features that have previously been suggested as important components of the homing task.

  18. Complex Leaching Process of Scheelite in Hydrochloric and Phosphoric Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liang; Xue, Jilai; Liu, Kang; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Zengjie

    2016-06-01

    The complex leaching process of synthetic scheelite and scheelite concentrate in hydrochloric and phosphoric solutions has been investigated for improving process efficiency. A higher leaching rate, compared with the classic acid leaching process, can be obtained through the synergy of HCl and H3PO4 with appropriate W/P mole ratio, temperature, and acid concentration. For synthetic scheelite, the optimum leaching conditions were W/P mole ratio 7:1, temperature 50°C, HCl 0.72 mol/L, and stirring speed 600 rpm; for scheelite concentrate, W/P mole ratio 7:1, temperature 80°C, HCl 2.16 mol/L, and stirring speed 1000 rpm. The leaching rates under the optimized conditions can reach up to 98% or even higher. FTIR spectra analysis confirmed that the leachate composition remained as H3[PW12O40] in the range of varying W/P mole ratios, so the PO4 3- in acidic solution and phosphorus content in the leaching product could be better controlled. The function 1 - (1 - X)1/3 against leaching time was applied to fit the experimental data, and the apparent activation energy, E a, was calculated as 60.65 kJ/mol. The results would be valuable for effectively using scheelite as a raw material resource for sustainable tungsten production.

  19. Immune complex processing in C1q-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Nash, J T; Taylor, P R; Botto, M; Norsworthy, P J; Davies, K A; Walport, M J

    2001-02-01

    Complement and Fcgamma receptors are known to mediate the processing of immune complexes (IC), and abnormalities in these mechanisms may predispose to the development of lupus. We explored the processing of IC in mice deficient in complement component C1q. 125I-labelled IC comprising Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)/human anti-HBsAg (HBsAg/Ab) were injected intravenously and the sites of IC clearance determined by direct counting of organ uptake at various time points. The liver and spleen were the main sites of IC uptake in all mice. The splenic uptake of IC was significantly reduced in the C1q-deficient mice compared with the control mice. C1q-deficient mice also exhibited an initial accelerated hepatic uptake of IC similar to that seen in human subjects with hypocomplementaemia. The hepatic localization of IC at later time points was similar in both groups of mice. These data in mice are consistent with previous observations in humans that confirm that the classical pathway of complement plays an important role in the appropriate processing of IC in vivo.

  20. Complex Leaching Process of Scheelite in Hydrochloric and Phosphoric Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liang; Xue, Jilai; Liu, Kang; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Zengjie

    2016-09-01

    The complex leaching process of synthetic scheelite and scheelite concentrate in hydrochloric and phosphoric solutions has been investigated for improving process efficiency. A higher leaching rate, compared with the classic acid leaching process, can be obtained through the synergy of HCl and H3PO4 with appropriate W/P mole ratio, temperature, and acid concentration. For synthetic scheelite, the optimum leaching conditions were W/P mole ratio 7:1, temperature 50°C, HCl 0.72 mol/L, and stirring speed 600 rpm; for scheelite concentrate, W/P mole ratio 7:1, temperature 80°C, HCl 2.16 mol/L, and stirring speed 1000 rpm. The leaching rates under the optimized conditions can reach up to 98% or even higher. FTIR spectra analysis confirmed that the leachate composition remained as H3[PW12O40] in the range of varying W/P mole ratios, so the PO4 3- in acidic solution and phosphorus content in the leaching product could be better controlled. The function 1 - (1 - X)1/3 against leaching time was applied to fit the experimental data, and the apparent activation energy, E a, was calculated as 60.65 kJ/mol. The results would be valuable for effectively using scheelite as a raw material resource for sustainable tungsten production.

  1. Processing of complex auditory patterns in musicians and nonmusicians.

    PubMed

    Boh, Bastiaan; Herholz, Sibylle C; Lappe, Claudia; Pantev, Christo

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the capacity of the memory store underlying the mismatch negativity (MMN) response in musicians and nonmusicians for complex tone patterns. While previous studies have focused either on the kind of information that can be encoded or on the decay of the memory trace over time, we studied capacity in terms of the length of tone sequences, i.e., the number of individual tones that can be fully encoded and maintained. By means of magnetoencephalography (MEG) we recorded MMN responses to deviant tones that could occur at any position of standard tone patterns composed of four, six or eight tones during passive, distracted listening. Whereas there was a reliable MMN response to deviant tones in the four-tone pattern in both musicians and nonmusicians, only some individuals showed MMN responses to the longer patterns. This finding of a reliable capacity of the short-term auditory store underlying the MMN response is in line with estimates of a three to five item capacity of the short-term memory trace from behavioural studies, although pitch and contour complexity covaried with sequence length, which might have led to an understatement of the reported capacity. Whereas there was a tendency for an enhancement of the pattern MMN in musicians compared to nonmusicians, a strong advantage for musicians could be shown in an accompanying behavioural task of detecting the deviants while attending to the stimuli for all pattern lengths, indicating that long-term musical training differentially affects the memory capacity of auditory short-term memory for complex tone patterns with and without attention. Also, a left-hemispheric lateralization of MMN responses in the six-tone pattern suggests that additional networks that help structuring the patterns in the temporal domain might be recruited for demanding auditory processing in the pitch domain. PMID:21750713

  2. Road-safety education: spatial decentering and subjective or objective picture processing.

    PubMed

    Guercin, F

    2007-10-01

    The current study examined children's ability to analyse pictures of a risky situation, both in relation to the characteristics of the pictures and in relation to the centering/decentering process of cognitive development. Sixty children aged 6, 9 or 11 years were given an objective or subjective version of a story about a risky situation involving road crossing and were asked to reconstruct it by putting six pictures in chronological order. The type of picture series, objective or subjective, had a different effect on the children's understanding and performance, according to the age. The older children were better at ordering the pictures, but on the subjective version only. The picture-version effect on planning time decreased with age; only the younger children took more time to start touching the pictures. On one hand, it is concluded that for the youngest children, objective representations are essential to analysing pictures showing a risk, whereas the oldest children will profit more from a subjective view. On the other hand, subjective representations, which give a more realistic view, provide an excellent tool for testing children's abilities. Subjective representations can be used to detect potentially risky behaviour in virtual situations (static pictures, or multimedia tools), since it permits one to predict at-risk behaviour in the street and to assess the effectiveness of remedial measures.

  3. Microfluidic-SANS: flow processing of complex fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Carlos G.; Watanabe, Takaichi; Martel, Anne; Porcar, Lionel; Cabral, João T.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and engineering the flow-response of complex and non-Newtonian fluids at a molecular level is a key challenge for their practical utilisation. Here we demonstrate the coupling of microfluidics with small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Microdevices with high neutron transmission (up to 98%), low scattering background (), broad solvent compatibility and high pressure tolerance (~3-15 bar) are rapidly prototyped via frontal photo polymerisation. Scattering from single microchannels of widths down to 60 μm, with beam footprint of 500 μm diameter, was successfully obtained in the scattering vector range 0.01-0.3 Å-1, corresponding to real space dimensions of . We demonstrate our approach by investigating the molecular re-orientation and alignment underpinning the flow response of two model complex fluids, namely cetyl trimethylammonium chloride/pentanol/D2O and sodium lauryl sulfate/octanol/brine lamellar systems. Finally, we assess the applicability and outlook of microfluidic-SANS for high-throughput and flow processing studies, with emphasis of soft matter.

  4. Microfluidic-SANS: flow processing of complex fluids

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Carlos G.; Watanabe, Takaichi; Martel, Anne; Porcar, Lionel; Cabral, João T.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and engineering the flow-response of complex and non-Newtonian fluids at a molecular level is a key challenge for their practical utilisation. Here we demonstrate the coupling of microfluidics with small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Microdevices with high neutron transmission (up to 98%), low scattering background (), broad solvent compatibility and high pressure tolerance (≈3–15 bar) are rapidly prototyped via frontal photo polymerisation. Scattering from single microchannels of widths down to 60 μm, with beam footprint of 500 μm diameter, was successfully obtained in the scattering vector range 0.01–0.3 Å−1, corresponding to real space dimensions of . We demonstrate our approach by investigating the molecular re-orientation and alignment underpinning the flow response of two model complex fluids, namely cetyl trimethylammonium chloride/pentanol/D2O and sodium lauryl sulfate/octanol/brine lamellar systems. Finally, we assess the applicability and outlook of microfluidic-SANS for high-throughput and flow processing studies, with emphasis of soft matter. PMID:25578326

  5. Distributed parameter approach to the dynamics of complex biological processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.T.; Wang, F.Y.; Newell, R.B.

    1999-10-01

    Modeling and simulation of a complex biological process for the removal of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from municipal wastewater are addressed. The model developed in this work employs a distributed-parameter approach to describe the behavior of components within three different bioreaction zones and the behavior of sludge in the anaerobic zone and soluble phosphate in the aerobic zone in two experiments. Good results are achieved despite the apparent plant-model mismatch, such as uncertainties with the behavior of phosphorus-accumulating organisms. Validation of the proposed secondary-settler model shows that it is superior to two state-of-the-art models in terms of the sum of the square relative errors.

  6. Bio-objects and the media: the role of communication in bio-objectification processes

    PubMed Central

    Maeseele, Pieter; Allgaier, Joachim; Martinelli, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The representation of biological innovations in and through communication and media practices is vital for understanding the nature of “bio-objects” and the process we call “bio-objectification.” This paper discusses two ideal-typical analytical approaches based on different underlying communication models, ie, the traditional (science- and media-centered) and media sociological (a multi-layered process involving various social actors in defining the meanings of scientific and technological developments) approach. In this analysis, the latter is not only found to be the most promising approach for understanding the circulation, (re)production, and (re)configuration of meanings of bio-objects, but also to interpret the relationship between media and science. On the basis of a few selected examples, this paper highlights how media function as a primary arena for the (re)production and (re)configuration of scientific and biomedical information with regards to bio-objects in the public sphere in general, and toward decision-makers, interest groups, and the public in specific. PMID:23771763

  7. The application of multi-objective optimization method for activated sludge process: a review.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hongliang; Chen, Wenliang; Lu, Xiwu

    2016-01-01

    The activated sludge process (ASP) is the most generally applied biological wastewater treatment approach. Depending on the design and specific application, activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) can achieve biological nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) removal, besides the removal of organic carbon substances. However, the effluent N and P limits are getting tighter because of increased emphasis on environmental protection, and the needs for energy conservation as well as the operational reliability. Therefore, the balance between treatment performance and cost becomes a critical issue for the operations of WWTPs, which necessitates a multi-objective optimization (MOO). Recent studies in this field have shown promise in utilizing MOO to address the multiple conflicting criteria (i.e. effluent quality, operation cost, operation stability), including studying the ASP models that are primarily responsible for the process, and developing the method of MOO in the wastewater treatment process, which facilitates better optimization of process performance. Based on a better understanding of the application of MOO for ASP, a comprehensive review is conducted to offer a clear vision of the advances, and potential areas for future research are also proposed in the field. PMID:26819377

  8. The Aerosol Modeling Testbed: A community tool to objectively evaluate aerosol process modules

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, William I.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Easter, Richard C.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Grell, Georg; Barth, Mary

    2011-03-02

    This study describes a new modeling paradigm that significantly advances how the third activity is conducted while also fully exploiting data and findings from the first two activities. The Aerosol Modeling Testbed (AMT) is a computational framework for the atmospheric sciences community that streamlines the process of testing and evaluating aerosol process modules over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The AMT consists of a fully-coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model, and a suite of tools to evaluate the performance of aerosol process modules via comparison with a wide range of field measurements. The philosophy of the AMT is to systematically and objectively evaluate aerosol process modules over local to regional spatial scales that are compatible with most field campaigns measurement strategies. The performance of new treatments can then be quantified and compared to existing treatments before they are incorporated into regional and global climate models. Since the AMT is a community tool, it also provides a means of enhancing collaboration and coordination among aerosol modelers.

  9. Men and women exhibit a differential bias for processing movement versus objects.

    PubMed

    McGivern, Robert F; Adams, Brian; Handa, Robert J; Pineda, Jaime A

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in many spatial and verbal tasks appear to reflect an inherent low-level processing bias for movement in males and objects in females. We explored this potential movement/object bias in men and women using a computer task that measured targeting performance and/or color recognition. The targeting task showed a ball moving vertically towards a horizontal line. Before reaching the line, the ball disappeared behind a masking screen, requiring the participant to imagine the movement vector and identify the intersection point. For the color recognition task, the ball briefly changed color before disappearing beneath the mask and participants were required only to identify the color shade. Results showed that targeting accuracy for slow and fast moving balls was significantly better in males compared to females. No sex difference was observed for color shade recognition. We also studied a third, dual attention task comprised of the first two, where the moving ball briefly changed color randomly just before passing beneath the masking screen. When the ball changed color, participants were required only to identify the color shade. If the ball didn't change color, participants estimated the intersection point. Participants in this dual attention condition were first tested with the targeting and color tasks alone and showed results that were similar to the previous groups tested on a single task. However, under the dual attention condition, male accuracy in targeting, as well as color shade recognition, declined significantly compared to their performance when the tasks were tested alone. No significant changes were found in female performance. Finally, reaction times for targeting and color choices in both sexes correlated highly with ball speed, but not accuracy. Overall, these results provide evidence of a sex-related bias in processing objects versus movement, which may reflect sex differences in bottom up versus top-down analytical strategies.

  10. Men and Women Exhibit a Differential Bias for Processing Movement versus Objects

    PubMed Central

    McGivern, Robert F.; Adams, Brian; Handa, Robert J.; Pineda, Jaime A.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in many spatial and verbal tasks appear to reflect an inherent low-level processing bias for movement in males and objects in females. We explored this potential movement/object bias in men and women using a computer task that measured targeting performance and/or color recognition. The targeting task showed a ball moving vertically towards a horizontal line. Before reaching the line, the ball disappeared behind a masking screen, requiring the participant to imagine the movement vector and identify the intersection point. For the color recognition task, the ball briefly changed color before disappearing beneath the mask and participants were required only to identify the color shade. Results showed that targeting accuracy for slow and fast moving balls was significantly better in males compared to females. No sex difference was observed for color shade recognition. We also studied a third, dual attention task comprised of the first two, where the moving ball briefly changed color randomly just before passing beneath the masking screen. When the ball changed color, participants were required only to identify the color shade. If the ball didn't change color, participants estimated the intersection point. Participants in this dual attention condition were first tested with the targeting and color tasks alone and showed results that were similar to the previous groups tested on a single task. However, under the dual attention condition, male accuracy in targeting, as well as color shade recognition, declined significantly compared to their performance when the tasks were tested alone. No significant changes were found in female performance. Finally, reaction times for targeting and color choices in both sexes correlated highly with ball speed, but not accuracy. Overall, these results provide evidence of a sex-related bias in processing objects versus movement, which may reflect sex differences in bottom up versus top-down analytical strategies. PMID

  11. FACET: A simulation software framework for modeling complex societal processes and interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, J. H.

    2000-06-02

    FACET, the Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions, was developed at Argonne National Laboratory to address the need for a simulation software architecture in the style of an agent-based approach, but with sufficient robustness, expressiveness, and flexibility to be able to deal with the levels of complexity seen in real-world social situations. FACET is an object-oriented software framework for building models of complex, cooperative behaviors of agents. It can be used to implement simulation models of societal processes such as the complex interplay of participating individuals and organizations engaged in multiple concurrent transactions in pursuit of their various goals. These transactions can be patterned on, for example, clinical guidelines and procedures, business practices, government and corporate policies, etc. FACET can also address other complex behaviors such as biological life cycles or manufacturing processes. To date, for example, FACET has been applied to such areas as land management, health care delivery, avian social behavior, and interactions between natural and social processes in ancient Mesopotamia.

  12. Complexity and Dynamic Heterogeneity of the Process of Cancer Metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Ann

    2010-03-01

    Cancer metastasis -- the spread of cancer from a primary tumor to distant parts of the body -- is responsible for most cancer deaths. If cancer is detected early, before it has spread, it can often be treated with local therapies like surgery and radiation. If cancer is detected after it has already spread, it is much harder to treat successfully. Cancer cells may be distributed to many organs, may be present as tiny micrometastases that are hard to detect, and cancer cells can be in a dormant state that may be resistant to treatment that is directed against actively dividing cells. A better understanding of the process of metastasis thus is needed in order to improve survival from cancer. Cancer is not a static disease, but one that can undergo stepwise evolution and progression from early, treatable cancer to aggressive cancer that is harder to treat. Furthermore, cancers are made up of many cells, and there is considerable heterogeneity among the cells in a tumor. Thus, cancer is ``plastic,'' with heterogeneity among cancer cells and changes over time. Understanding this ``dynamic heterogeneity'' has proven to be difficult. Input from physical sciences disciplines may help to shed light on this complex aspect of cancer biology. Here the process of cancer metastasis will be discussed, and experimental models for imaging the process described. The concept of ``dynamic heterogeneity'' of the metastatic process will be discussed, and some of the questions that need to be addressed for better understanding of metastasis will be outlined. An evolving dialogue between cancer biologists and physical scientists may lead to new ways of studying and understanding this lethal aspect of cancer.

  13. Process for the reconstruction of three-dimensional images of an area of interest of an object comprising the combination of measurements over the entire object with measurements of an area of interest of said object, and appropriate installation

    DOEpatents

    Azevedo, Stephen; Grangeat, Pierre; Rizo, Philippe

    1995-01-01

    Process and installation making it possible to reconstitute precise images of an area of interest (2) of an object (1) by reducing the errors produced by the contribution of the compliment of the object. A first series of measurements is carried out, where a conical beam (10) only takes in the area of interest of the object (2) and this is followed by a second series of measurements in which the beam takes in the entire object. A combination of the measurements of the two series is carried out in order to make them compatible and obtain a more accurate image of the area of interest (2).

  14. Visual object processing as a function of stimulus energy, retinal eccentricity and Gestalt configuration: a high-density electrical mapping study.

    PubMed

    Snyder, A C; Shpaner, M; Molholm, S; Foxe, J J

    2012-09-27

    To reveal the fundamental processes underlying the different stages of visual object perception, most studies have manipulated relatively complex images, such as photographs, line drawings of natural objects, or perceptual illusions. Here, rather than starting from complex images and working backward to infer simpler processes, we investigated how the visual system parses and integrates information contained in stimuli of the most basic variety. Simple scatterings of a few points of light were manipulated in terms of their numerosity, spatial extent, and organization, and high-density electrophysiological recordings were made from healthy adults engaged in an unrelated task. We reasoned that this approach permitted an uncontaminated view of the spatio-temporal dynamics of the related neural processes. We were guided in our predictions by the "frame-and-fill" model for object perception, whereby fast inputs to the dorsal stream of the visual "where" system first frame the spatial extent of visual objects, which are subsequently "filled-in" by the slower activation of the ventral stream of the visual "what" system. Our findings were consistent with this view, showing a rapidly-onsetting effect of spatial extent in dorsal stream sources, and later-onsetting effects due to dot number and symmetry, which were deemed to be more closely tied to the details of object identity, from ventral stream sources. This collection of observations provides an important baseline from which to understand the spatio-temporal properties of basic visual object perception, and from which to test dysfunction of this system in clinical populations.

  15. Differential modulation of visual object processing in dorsal and ventral stream by stimulus visibility.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Karin; Sterzer, Philipp; Kathmann, Norbert; Hesselmann, Guido

    2016-10-01

    As a functional organization principle in cortical visual information processing, the influential 'two visual systems' hypothesis proposes a division of labor between a dorsal "vision-for-action" and a ventral "vision-for-perception" stream. A core assumption of this model is that the two visual streams are differentially involved in visual awareness: ventral stream processing is closely linked to awareness while dorsal stream processing is not. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study with human observers, we directly probed the stimulus-related information encoded in fMRI response patterns in both visual streams as a function of stimulus visibility. We parametrically modulated the visibility of face and tool stimuli by varying the contrasts of the masks in a continuous flash suppression (CFS) paradigm. We found that visibility - operationalized by objective and subjective measures - decreased proportionally with increasing log CFS mask contrast. Neuronally, this relationship was closely matched by ventral visual areas, showing a linear decrease of stimulus-related information with increasing mask contrast. Stimulus-related information in dorsal areas also showed a dependency on mask contrast, but the decrease rather followed a step function instead of a linear function. Together, our results suggest that both the ventral and the dorsal visual stream are linked to visual awareness, but neural activity in ventral areas more closely reflects graded differences in awareness compared to dorsal areas.

  16. Attempts to Automate the Process of Generation of Orthoimages of Objects of Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markiewicz, J. S.; Podlasiak, P.; Zawieska, D.

    2015-02-01

    At present, digital documentation recorded in the form of raster or vector files is the obligatory way of inventorying historical objects. The orthoimage is a cartometric form of photographic presentation of information in the two-dimensional reference system. The paper will discuss the issue of automation of the orthoimage generation basing on the TLS data and digital images. At present attempts are made to apply modern technologies not only for the needs of surveys, but also during the data processing. This paper will present attempts aiming at utilisation of appropriate algorithms and the author's application for automatic generation of the projection plane, for the needs of acquisition of intensity orthoimages from the TLS data. Such planes are defined manually in the majority of popular TLS data processing applications. A separate issue related to the RGB image generation is the orientation of digital images in relation to scans. It is important, in particular in such cases when scans and photographs are not taken simultaneously. This paper will present experiments concerning the utilisation of the SIFT algorithm for automatic matching of intensity orthoimages of the intensity and digital (RGB) photographs. Satisfactory results of the process of automation, as well as in relation to the quality of resulting orthoimages have been obtained.

  17. Image processing of standard grading scales for objective assessment of contact lens wear complications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Cabre, Elisabet; Millan, Maria S.; Abril, Hector C.; Otxoa, E.

    2004-10-01

    Ocular complications in contact lens wearers are usually graded by specialists using visual inspection and comparing with established standards. The standard grading scales consist of either a set of illustrations or photographs ordered from a normal situation to a severe complication. In this work, an objective assessment of contact lens wear complications is intended by applying different image processing techniques to two standard grading scales (Efron and CCLRU grading scales). In particular, conjunctival hyperemia and papillary conjunctivitis are considered. Given a set of standard illustrations or pictures for each considered ocular disorder, image preprocessing is needed to compare equivalent areas. Histogram analysis allows segmenting vessel and background pixel populations, which are used to determine the most relevant features in the measurement of contact lens effects. Features such as color, total area of vessels and vessel length are used to evaluate bulbar and lid redness. The procedure to obtain an automatic grading method by digital image analysis of standard grading scales is described.

  18. Seeing through Walls at the Nanoscale: Microwave Microscopy of Enclosed Objects and Processes in Liquids.

    PubMed

    Tselev, Alexander; Velmurugan, Jeyavel; Ievlev, Anton V; Kalinin, Sergei V; Kolmakov, Andrei

    2016-03-22

    Noninvasive in situ nanoscale imaging in liquid environments is a current imperative in the analysis of delicate biomedical objects and electrochemical processes at reactive liquid-solid interfaces. Microwaves of a few gigahertz frequencies offer photons with energies of ≈10 μeV, which can affect neither electronic states nor chemical bonds in condensed matter. Here, we describe an implementation of scanning near-field microwave microscopy for imaging in liquids using ultrathin molecular impermeable membranes separating scanning probes from samples enclosed in environmental cells. We imaged a model electroplating reaction as well as individual live cells. Through a side-by-side comparison of the microwave imaging with scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrate the advantage of microwaves for artifact-free imaging. PMID:26866377

  19. Seeing through walls at the nanoscale: Microwave microscopy of enclosed objects and processes in liquids

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Velmurugan, Jeyavel; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Kolmakov, Andrei; Tselev, Alexander; Ievlev, Anton V.

    2016-02-11

    Here, noninvasive in situ nanoscale imaging in liquid environments is a current imperative in the analysis of delicate biomedical objects and electrochemical processes at reactive liquid–solid interfaces. Microwaves of a few gigahertz frequencies offer photons with energies of ≈10 μeV, which can affect neither electronic states nor chemical bonds in condensed matter. Here, we describe an implementation of scanning near-field microwave microscopy for imaging in liquids using ultrathin molecular impermeable membranes separating scanning probes from samples enclosed in environmental cells. We imaged a model electroplating reaction as well as individual live cells. Through a side-by-side comparison of the microwave imagingmore » with scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrate the advantage of microwaves for artifact-free imaging.« less

  20. Forming impressions of people versus inanimate objects: social-cognitive processing in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jason P; Neil Macrae, C; Banaji, Mahzarin R

    2005-05-15

    Recent neuroimaging research has linked the task of forming a "person impression" to a distinct pattern of neural activation that includes dorsal regions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Although this result suggests the distinctiveness of social cognition - the processes that support inferences about the psychological aspects of other people - it remains unclear whether mPFC contributions to this impression formation task were person specific or if they would extend to other stimulus targets. To address this unresolved issue, participants in the current study underwent fMRI scanning while performing impression formation or a control task for two types of target: other people and inanimate objects. Specifically, participants were asked to use experimentally-provided information either to form an impression of a person or an object or to intentionally encode the sequence in which the information was presented. Results demonstrated that activation in an extensive region of dorsal mPFC was greater for impression formation of other people than for all other trial types, suggesting that this region specifically indexes the social-cognitive aspects of impression formation (i.e., understanding the psychological characteristics of another mental agent). These findings underscore the extent to which social cognition relies on distinct neural mechanisms. PMID:15862225

  1. Forming impressions of people versus inanimate objects: social-cognitive processing in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jason P; Neil Macrae, C; Banaji, Mahzarin R

    2005-05-15

    Recent neuroimaging research has linked the task of forming a "person impression" to a distinct pattern of neural activation that includes dorsal regions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Although this result suggests the distinctiveness of social cognition - the processes that support inferences about the psychological aspects of other people - it remains unclear whether mPFC contributions to this impression formation task were person specific or if they would extend to other stimulus targets. To address this unresolved issue, participants in the current study underwent fMRI scanning while performing impression formation or a control task for two types of target: other people and inanimate objects. Specifically, participants were asked to use experimentally-provided information either to form an impression of a person or an object or to intentionally encode the sequence in which the information was presented. Results demonstrated that activation in an extensive region of dorsal mPFC was greater for impression formation of other people than for all other trial types, suggesting that this region specifically indexes the social-cognitive aspects of impression formation (i.e., understanding the psychological characteristics of another mental agent). These findings underscore the extent to which social cognition relies on distinct neural mechanisms.

  2. Action and object processing in aphasia: from nouns and verbs to the effect of manipulability.

    PubMed

    Arévalo, A; Perani, D; Cappa, S F; Butler, A; Bates, E; Dronkers, N

    2007-01-01

    The processing of words and pictures representing actions and objects was tested in 21 aphasic patients and 20 healthy controls across three word production tasks: picture-naming (PN), single word reading (WR) and word repetition (WRP). Analysis 1 targeted task and lexical category (noun-verb), revealing worse performance on PN and verb items for both patients and control participants. For Analysis 2 we used data collected in a concurrent gesture norming study to re-categorize the noun-verb items along hand imagery parameters (i.e., objects that can/cannot be manipulated and actions which do/do not involve fine hand movements). Here, patients displayed relative difficulty with the 'manipulable' items, while controls displayed the opposite pattern. Therefore, whereas the noun-verb distinction resulted simply in lower verb accuracy across groups, the 'manipulability' distinction revealed a 'double-dissociation' between patients and control participants. These results carry implications for theories of embodiment, lexico-semantic dissociations, and the organization of meaning in the brain. PMID:16949143

  3. Biological processing of dinuclear ruthenium complexes in eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Heimann, Kirsten; Dinh, Xuyen Thi; Keene, F Richard; Collins, J Grant

    2016-10-20

    The biological processing - mechanism of cellular uptake, effects on the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial membranes, intracellular sites of localisation and induction of reactive oxygen species - of two dinuclear polypyridylruthenium(ii) complexes has been examined in three eukaryotic cells lines. Flow cytometry was used to determine the uptake of [{Ru(phen)2}2{μ-bb12}](4+) (Rubb12) and [Ru(phen)2(μ-bb7)Ru(tpy)Cl](3+) {Rubb7-Cl, where phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, tpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine and bbn = bis[4(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)]-1,n-alkane} in baby hamster kidney (BHK), human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) and liver carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines. The results demonstrated that the major uptake mechanism for Rubb12 and Rubb7-Cl was active transport, although with a significant contribution from carrier-assisted diffusion for Rubb12 and passive diffusion for Rubb7-Cl. Flow cytometry coupled with Annexin V/TO-PRO-3 double-staining was used to compare cell death by membrane damage or apoptosis. Rubb12 induced significant direct membrane damage, particularly with HepG2 cells, while Rubb7-Cl caused considerably less membrane damage but induced greater levels of apoptosis. Confocal microscopy, coupled with JC-1 assays, demonstrated that Rubb12 depolarises the mitochondrial membrane, whereas Rubb7-Cl had a much smaller affect. Cellular localisation experiments indicated that Rubb12 did not accumulate in the mitochondria, whereas significant mitochondrial accumulation was observed for Rubb7-Cl. The effect of Rubb12 and Rubb7-Cl on intracellular superoxide dismutase activity showed that the ruthenium complexes could induce cell death via a reactive oxygen species-mediated pathway. The results of this study demonstrate that Rubb12 predominantly kills eukaryotic cells by damaging the cytoplasmic membrane. As this dinuclear ruthenium complex has been previously shown to exhibit greater toxicity towards bacteria than eukaryotic cells, the results of the present study suggest that

  4. Biological processing of dinuclear ruthenium complexes in eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Heimann, Kirsten; Dinh, Xuyen Thi; Keene, F Richard; Collins, J Grant

    2016-10-20

    The biological processing - mechanism of cellular uptake, effects on the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial membranes, intracellular sites of localisation and induction of reactive oxygen species - of two dinuclear polypyridylruthenium(ii) complexes has been examined in three eukaryotic cells lines. Flow cytometry was used to determine the uptake of [{Ru(phen)2}2{μ-bb12}](4+) (Rubb12) and [Ru(phen)2(μ-bb7)Ru(tpy)Cl](3+) {Rubb7-Cl, where phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, tpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine and bbn = bis[4(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)]-1,n-alkane} in baby hamster kidney (BHK), human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) and liver carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines. The results demonstrated that the major uptake mechanism for Rubb12 and Rubb7-Cl was active transport, although with a significant contribution from carrier-assisted diffusion for Rubb12 and passive diffusion for Rubb7-Cl. Flow cytometry coupled with Annexin V/TO-PRO-3 double-staining was used to compare cell death by membrane damage or apoptosis. Rubb12 induced significant direct membrane damage, particularly with HepG2 cells, while Rubb7-Cl caused considerably less membrane damage but induced greater levels of apoptosis. Confocal microscopy, coupled with JC-1 assays, demonstrated that Rubb12 depolarises the mitochondrial membrane, whereas Rubb7-Cl had a much smaller affect. Cellular localisation experiments indicated that Rubb12 did not accumulate in the mitochondria, whereas significant mitochondrial accumulation was observed for Rubb7-Cl. The effect of Rubb12 and Rubb7-Cl on intracellular superoxide dismutase activity showed that the ruthenium complexes could induce cell death via a reactive oxygen species-mediated pathway. The results of this study demonstrate that Rubb12 predominantly kills eukaryotic cells by damaging the cytoplasmic membrane. As this dinuclear ruthenium complex has been previously shown to exhibit greater toxicity towards bacteria than eukaryotic cells, the results of the present study suggest that

  5. Social stereotypes and information-processing strategies: the impact of task complexity.

    PubMed

    Bodenhausen, G V; Lichtenstein, M

    1987-05-01

    Subjects read information about a defendant in a criminal trial with initial instructions to judge either his guilt (guilt judgment objective) or his aggressiveness (trait judgment objective). The defendant was either Hispanic or ethnically nondescript. After considering the evidence, subjects made both guilt and aggressiveness judgments (regardless of which type of judgment they were instructed to make at the time they read the information) and then recalled as much of the information they read as they could. Results favored the hypothesis that when subjects face a complex judgmental situation, they use stereotypes (when available and relevant) as a way of simplifying the judgment. Specifically, they use the stereotype as a central theme around which they organize presented evidence that is consistent with it, and they neglect inconsistent information. Subjects with a (complex) guilt judgment objective judged the defendant to be relatively more guilty and aggressive and recalled more negative information about him if he was Hispanic than if he was ethnically nondescript. In contrast, subjects with a (simple) trait judgment objective did not perceive either the guilt or aggressiveness of the two defendants to be appreciably different, and did not display any significant bias in their recall of the evidence. These and other results are discussed in terms of the information-processing strategies subjects are likely to use when they expect to make different types of judgments.

  6. Minimum specific cost control of technological processes realized in a living objects-containing microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Amelkin, Alexander A; Blagoveschenskaya, Margarita M; Lobanov, Yury V; Amelkin, Anatoly K

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to work out an approach for the development of software and the choice of hardware structures when designing subsystems for automatic control of technological processes realized in living objects containing limited space (microenvironment). The subsystems for automatic control of the microenvironment (SACME) under development use the Devices for Air Prophylactic Treatment, Aeroionization, and Purification (DAPTAP) as execution units for increasing the level of safety and quality of agricultural raw material and foodstuffs, for reducing the losses of agricultural produce during storage and cultivation, as well as for intensifying the processes of activation of agricultural produce and industrial microorganisms. A set of interconnected SACMEs works within the framework of a general microenvironmental system (MES). In this research, the population of baker's yeast is chosen as a basic object of control under the industrial fed-batch cultivation in a bubbling bioreactor. This project is an example of a minimum cost automation approach. The microenvironment optimal control problem for baker's yeast cultivation is reduced from a profit maximum to the maximization of overall yield by the reason that the material flow-oriented specific cost correlates closely with the reciprocal value of the overall yield. Implementation of the project partially solves a local sustainability problem and supports a balance of microeconomical, microecological and microsocial systems within a technological subsystem realized in a microenvironment maintaining an optimal value of economical criterion (e.g. minimum material, flow-oriented specific cost) and ensuring: (a) economical growth (profit increase, raw material saving); (b) high security, safety and quality of agricultural raw material during storage process and of food produce during a technological process; elimination of the contact of gaseous harmful substances with a subproduct during various

  7. Incorporating Deeply Uncertain Factors into the Many Objective Search Process: Improving Adaptation to Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzyk, J. R.; Watson, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Deep uncertainty refers to situations in which decision makers or stakeholders do not know, or cannot fully agree upon, the full suite of risk factors within a planning problem. This phenomenon is especially important when considering scenarios of future environmental change, since there exist multiple trajectories of environmental forcings (e.g., streamflow timing and magnitude) and socioeconomic factors (e.g., population growth). This presentation first briefly reviews robust optimization and scenario approaches that have been proposed to plan for systems under deep uncertainty. One recently introduced framework is Many Objective Robust Decision Making (MORDM). MORDM combines two techniques: evolutionary algorithm search is used to generate planning alternatives, and robust decision making methods are used to sample performance over a large range of plausible factors and, subsequently, choose a robust solution. Within MORDM, Pareto approximate tradeoff sets of solutions are used to balance objectives and examine alternatives. However, MORDM does not currently incorporate the deeply uncertain scenario information into the search process itself. In this presentation, we suggest several avenues for doing so, that are focused on modifying the suite of uncertain data that is selected within the search process. Visualizations that compare tradeoff sets across different sets of assumptions can be used to guide decision makers' learning and, ultimately, their selection of several candidate solutions for further planning. For example, the baseline assumptions about probability distributions can be compared to optimization results under severe events to determine adaptive management strategies. A case study of water planning in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) in Texas is used to demonstrate the approach. Our LRGV results compare baseline optimization with new solution sets that examine optimal management strategies under scenarios characterized by lower than average

  8. Head and Eye Movements Affect Object Processing in 4-Month-Old Infants More than an Artificial Orientation Cue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Sebastian; Michel, Christine; Pauen, Sabina; Hoehl, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of attention-guiding stimuli on 4-month-old infants' object processing. In the human head condition, infants saw a person turning her head and eye gaze towards or away from objects. When presented with the objects again, infants showed increased attention in terms of longer looking time measured by eye…

  9. Recovery from Object Substitution Masking Induced by Transient Suppression of Visual Motion Processing: A Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirose, Nobuyuki; Kihara, Ken; Mima, Tatsuya; Ueki, Yoshino; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2007-01-01

    Object substitution masking is a form of visual backward masking in which a briefly presented target is rendered invisible by a lingering mask that is too sparse to produce lower image-level interference. Recent studies suggested the importance of an updating process in a higher object-level representation, which should rely on the processing of…

  10. Development of a hazardous air pollutants monitoring program using the Data Quality Objectives process.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Michael J; Nelson, Tim M; Palmer, Glenn R

    2004-05-01

    To effectively reduce the environmental compliance costs associated with meeting hazardous air pollutant emission requirements, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Data Quality Objective (DQO) process has been proposed as a suitable framework for establishing a defensible monitoring program. Through the use of a hazardous materials pilot study, the variability in the composite vapor pressure for regulated handwipe cleaning solvents was established. These results served as inputs to the DQO process, which identified that for facility decision-makers to claim with a 99% confidence level that the facility is in compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), a minimum of 12 handwipe cleaning solvent compliance samples (taken at random every 6 months) must have a composite vapor pressure equal to or below the regulatory limit of 45 mmHg at 20 degrees C. Implementation of the DQO-based compliance-sampling plan eliminates the need for an affected facility to sample all regulated handwipe cleaning solvents while still maintaining a reasonably high level of confidence in the compliance status of its regulated sources. The approach described for designing a defensible compliance sampling plan can be extended to other aspects of the aerospace NESHAP rule, including compliance sampling for surface coating, chemical depainting, and hazardous waste disposal. PMID:15149048

  11. A Multi-Objective Compounded Local Mobile Cloud Architecture Using Priority Queues to Process Multiple Jobs.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaohui; Sun, Bingyi; Cui, Jiaxu; Xu, Gaochao

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the greatly increased use of mobile devices, the disadvantages of portable devices have gradually begun to emerge. To solve these problems, the use of mobile cloud computing assisted by cloud data centers has been proposed. However, cloud data centers are always very far from the mobile requesters. In this paper, we propose an improved multi-objective local mobile cloud model: Compounded Local Mobile Cloud Architecture with Dynamic Priority Queues (LMCpri). This new architecture could briefly store jobs that arrive simultaneously at the cloudlet in different priority positions according to the result of auction processing, and then execute partitioning tasks on capable helpers. In the Scheduling Module, NSGA-II is employed as the scheduling algorithm to shorten processing time and decrease requester cost relative to PSO and sequential scheduling. The simulation results show that the number of iteration times that is defined to 30 is the best choice of the system. In addition, comparing with LMCque, LMCpri is able to effectively accommodate a requester who would like his job to be executed in advance and shorten execution time. Finally, we make a comparing experiment between LMCpri and cloud assisting architecture, and the results reveal that LMCpri presents a better performance advantage than cloud assisting architecture. PMID:27419854

  12. A Multi-Objective Compounded Local Mobile Cloud Architecture Using Priority Queues to Process Multiple Jobs.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaohui; Sun, Bingyi; Cui, Jiaxu; Xu, Gaochao

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the greatly increased use of mobile devices, the disadvantages of portable devices have gradually begun to emerge. To solve these problems, the use of mobile cloud computing assisted by cloud data centers has been proposed. However, cloud data centers are always very far from the mobile requesters. In this paper, we propose an improved multi-objective local mobile cloud model: Compounded Local Mobile Cloud Architecture with Dynamic Priority Queues (LMCpri). This new architecture could briefly store jobs that arrive simultaneously at the cloudlet in different priority positions according to the result of auction processing, and then execute partitioning tasks on capable helpers. In the Scheduling Module, NSGA-II is employed as the scheduling algorithm to shorten processing time and decrease requester cost relative to PSO and sequential scheduling. The simulation results show that the number of iteration times that is defined to 30 is the best choice of the system. In addition, comparing with LMCque, LMCpri is able to effectively accommodate a requester who would like his job to be executed in advance and shorten execution time. Finally, we make a comparing experiment between LMCpri and cloud assisting architecture, and the results reveal that LMCpri presents a better performance advantage than cloud assisting architecture.

  13. A Multi-Objective Compounded Local Mobile Cloud Architecture Using Priority Queues to Process Multiple Jobs

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaohui; Sun, Bingyi; Cui, Jiaxu; Xu, Gaochao

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the greatly increased use of mobile devices, the disadvantages of portable devices have gradually begun to emerge. To solve these problems, the use of mobile cloud computing assisted by cloud data centers has been proposed. However, cloud data centers are always very far from the mobile requesters. In this paper, we propose an improved multi-objective local mobile cloud model: Compounded Local Mobile Cloud Architecture with Dynamic Priority Queues (LMCpri). This new architecture could briefly store jobs that arrive simultaneously at the cloudlet in different priority positions according to the result of auction processing, and then execute partitioning tasks on capable helpers. In the Scheduling Module, NSGA-II is employed as the scheduling algorithm to shorten processing time and decrease requester cost relative to PSO and sequential scheduling. The simulation results show that the number of iteration times that is defined to 30 is the best choice of the system. In addition, comparing with LMCque, LMCpri is able to effectively accommodate a requester who would like his job to be executed in advance and shorten execution time. Finally, we make a comparing experiment between LMCpri and cloud assisting architecture, and the results reveal that LMCpri presents a better performance advantage than cloud assisting architecture. PMID:27419854

  14. A learning process of water cycle as complex system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertzer, D.; Deroubaix, J. F.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Tassin, B.; Thevenot, D.

    2009-04-01

    Water cycle is a very good example of a complex geosystem which has many societal impacts and drivers. A permanent and ubiquitous question is how to increase public awareness and understanding of its extreme behaviours, as well as of the related uncertainties. For instance, CEREVE is highly solicited to help the general public, particularly the youth, and the local politicians to get better acquainted with the new water culture in general and with flood risks in particular, in the nearby county Val-de-Marne. Since 2001, May is the month of the "Festival de l'Oh"(which sounds like "Festival de l'Eau", i.e. the water festival co-organized by the county council and city of Paris. "Oh » at the same time partly displays the chemical composition of water and is an exclamation for atonishment). This festival starts with the Scientific Days of Environment that involve researchers and students of the county, as well as collaborators of all around the world. This conference is open to the public who can be informed from the latest research developments, in particular with the help of some general synthesis and panel discussions. On the other hand, (young) researchers can present their own works to a large public. This conference is followed by a Professional Forum where students, heads of water public services or private operators can meet. In the framework of the water festival preparation, there are several water forums for the secondary schools. All along the year, there are regular pedagogical activities for secondary schools, in particular in the framework of Water Houses scattered across the county. We will discuss the importance to better evaluate the effective impact of these pedagogical events on the public awareness and understanding, and to make the learning process more adaptive and interactive, as well as to better address the underlying fundamental problems, e.g. the present limitations of current modelling and data processing.

  15. Computational Complexity of Subspace Detectors and Matched Field Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D B

    2010-12-01

    Subspace detectors implement a correlation type calculation on a continuous (network or array) data stream [Harris, 2006]. The difference between subspace detectors and correlators is that the former projects the data in a sliding observation window onto a basis of template waveforms that may have a dimension (d) greater than one, and the latter projects the data onto a single waveform template. A standard correlation detector can be considered to be a degenerate (d=1) form of a subspace detector. Figure 1 below shows a block diagram for the standard formulation of a subspace detector. The detector consists of multiple multichannel correlators operating on a continuous data stream. The correlation operations are performed with FFTs in an overlap-add approach that allows the stream to be processed in uniform, consecutive, contiguous blocks. Figure 1 is slightly misleading for a calculation of computational complexity, as it is possible, when treating all channels with the same weighting (as shown in the figure), to perform the indicated summations in the multichannel correlators before the inverse FFTs and to get by with a single inverse FFT and overlap add calculation per multichannel correlator. In what follows, we make this simplification.

  16. When complex is easy on the mind: Internal repetition of visual information in complex objects is a source of perceptual fluency.

    PubMed

    Joye, Yannick; Steg, Linda; Ünal, Ayça Berfu; Pals, Roos

    2016-01-01

    Across 3 studies, we investigated whether visual complexity deriving from internally repeating visual information over many scale levels is a source of perceptual fluency. Such continuous repetition of visual information is formalized in fractal geometry and is a key-property of natural structures. In the first 2 studies, we exposed participants to 3-dimensional high-fractal versus low-fractal stimuli, respectively characterized by a relatively high versus low degree of internal repetition of visual information. Participants evaluated high-fractal stimuli as more complex and fascinating than their low-fractal counterparts. We assessed ease of processing by asking participants to solve effortful puzzles during and after exposure to high-fractal versus low-fractal stimuli. Across both studies, we found that puzzles presented during and after seeing high-fractal stimuli were perceived as the easiest ones to solve and were solved more accurately and faster than puzzles associated with the low-fractal stimuli. In Study 3, we ran the Dot Probe Procedure to rule out that the findings from Study 1 and Study 2 reflected differences in attentional bias between the high-fractal and low-fractal stimuli, rather than perceptual fluency. Overall, our findings confirm that complexity deriving from internal repetition of visual information can be easy on the mind. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26322692

  17. Cochlear Implant: the complexity involved in the decision making process by the family1

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Sheila de Souza; Bevilacqua, Maria Cecília; Ferreira, Noeli Marchioro Liston Andrade; Dupas, Giselle

    2014-01-01

    Objective to understand the meanings the family attributes to the phases of the decision-making process on a cochlear implant for their child. Method qualitative research, using Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory as the theoretical and methodological frameworks, respectively. Data collection instrument: semistructured interview. Nine families participated in the study (32 participants). Results knowledge deficit, difficulties to contextualize benefits and risks and fear are some factors that make this process difficult. Experiences deriving from interactions with health professionals, other cochlear implant users and their relatives strengthen decision making in favor of the implant. Conclusion deciding on whether or not to have the implant involves a complex process, in which the family needs to weigh gains and losses, experience feelings of accountability and guilt, besides overcoming the risk aversion. Hence, this demands cautious preparation and knowledge from the professionals involved in this intervention. PMID:25029052

  18. Atypical Brain Activation during Simple & Complex Levels of Processing in Adult ADHD: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, T. Sigi; Bookheimer, Susan; McGough, James J.; Phillips, Joseph M.; McCracken, James T.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Executive dysfunction in ADHD is well supported. However, recent studies suggest that more fundamental impairments may be contributing. We assessed brain function in adults with ADHD during simple and complex forms of processing. Method: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging with forward and backward digit spans to investigate…

  19. A Large-Particle Monte Carlo Code for Simulating Non-Linear High-Energy Processes Near Compact Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Boris E.; Svensson, Roland; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Sikora, Marek

    1995-01-01

    High-energy radiation processes in compact cosmic objects are often expected to have a strongly non-linear behavior. Such behavior is shown, for example, by electron-positron pair cascades and the time evolution of relativistic proton distributions in dense radiation fields. Three independent techniques have been developed to simulate these non-linear problems: the kinetic equation approach; the phase-space density (PSD) Monte Carlo method; and the large-particle (LP) Monte Carlo method. In this paper, we present the latest version of the LP method and compare it with the other methods. The efficiency of the method in treating geometrically complex problems is illustrated by showing results of simulations of 1D, 2D and 3D systems. The method is shown to be powerful enough to treat non-spherical geometries, including such effects as bulk motion of the background plasma, reflection of radiation from cold matter, and anisotropic distributions of radiating particles. It can therefore be applied to simulate high-energy processes in such astrophysical systems as accretion discs with coronae, relativistic jets, pulsar magnetospheres and gamma-ray bursts.

  20. Effects of Animacy and Noun-Phrase Relatedness on the Processing of Complex Sentences

    PubMed Central

    Lowder, Matthew W.; Gordon, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that syntactically complex object-extracted relative clauses are easier to process when the head noun phrase (NP1) is inanimate and the embedded noun phrase (NP2) is animate compared to the reverse animacy configuration, with differences in processing difficulty beginning as early as NP2 (e.g., The article that the senator… versus The senator that the article…). Two eye-tracking-while-reading experiments were conducted to better understand the source of this effect. Experiment 1 showed that having an inanimate NP1 facilitated processing even when NP2 was held constant. Experiment 2 manipulated both animacy of NP1 and the degree of semantic relatedness between the critical NPs. When NP1 and NP2 were paired arbitrarily, the early animacy effect emerged at NP2. When NP1 and NP2 were semantically related, this effect disappeared, with effects of NP1 animacy emerging in later processing stages for both the Related and Arbitrary conditions. The results indicate that differences in the animacy of NP1 influence early processing of complex sentences only when the critical NPs share no meaningful relationship. PMID:24452417

  1. NCWin - A Component Object Model (COM) for processing and visualizing NetCDF data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, J.; Chen, J.M.; Price, D.T.; Liu, S.

    2005-01-01

    NetCDF (Network Common Data Form) is a data sharing protocol and library that is commonly used in large-scale atmospheric and environmental data archiving and modeling. The NetCDF tool described here, named NCWin and coded with Borland C+ + Builder, was built as a standard executable as well as a COM (component object model) for the Microsoft Windows environment. COM is a powerful technology that enhances the reuse of applications (as components). Environmental model developers from different modeling environments, such as Python, JAVA, VISUAL FORTRAN, VISUAL BASIC, VISUAL C+ +, and DELPHI, can reuse NCWin in their models to read, write and visualize NetCDF data. Some Windows applications, such as ArcGIS and Microsoft PowerPoint, can also call NCWin within the application. NCWin has three major components: 1) The data conversion part is designed to convert binary raw data to and from NetCDF data. It can process six data types (unsigned char, signed char, short, int, float, double) and three spatial data formats (BIP, BIL, BSQ); 2) The visualization part is designed for displaying grid map series (playing forward or backward) with simple map legend, and displaying temporal trend curves for data on individual map pixels; and 3) The modeling interface is designed for environmental model development by which a set of integrated NetCDF functions is provided for processing NetCDF data. To demonstrate that the NCWin can easily extend the functions of some current GIS software and the Office applications, examples of calling NCWin within ArcGIS and MS PowerPoint for showing NetCDF map animations are given. ?? The British Cartographic Society 2005.

  2. Complex organic matter in space: about the chemical composition of carriers of the Unidentified Infrared Bands (UIBs) and protoplanetary emission spectra recorded from certain astrophysical objects.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Franco; Keheyan, Yeghis; Heymann, Dieter

    2004-02-01

    In this communication we present the basic concept that the pure PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) can be considered only the ideal carriers of the UIBs (Unidentified Infrared Bands), the emission spectra coming from a large variety of astronomical objects. Instead we have proposed that the carriers of UIBs and of protoplanetary nebulae (PPNe) emission spectra are much more complex molecular mixtures possessing also complex chemical structures comparable to certain petroleum fractions obtained from the petroleum refining processes. The demonstration of our proposal is based on the comparison between the emission spectra recorded from the protoplanetary nebulae (PPNe) IRAS 22272+ 5435 and the infrared absorption spectra of certain 'heavy' petroleum fractions. It is shown that the best match with the reference spectrum is achieved by highly aromatic petroleum fractions. It is shown that the selected petroleum fractions used in the present study are able to match the band pattern of anthracite coal. Coal has been proposed previously as a model for the PPNe and UIBs but presents some drawbacks which could be overcome by adopting the petroleum fractions as model for PPNe and UIBs in place of coal. A brief discussion on the formation of the petroleum-like fractions in PPNe objects is included. PMID:14979641

  3. Complex organic matter in space: about the chemical composition of carriers of the Unidentified Infrared Bands (UIBs) and protoplanetary emission spectra recorded from certain astrophysical objects.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Franco; Keheyan, Yeghis; Heymann, Dieter

    2004-02-01

    In this communication we present the basic concept that the pure PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) can be considered only the ideal carriers of the UIBs (Unidentified Infrared Bands), the emission spectra coming from a large variety of astronomical objects. Instead we have proposed that the carriers of UIBs and of protoplanetary nebulae (PPNe) emission spectra are much more complex molecular mixtures possessing also complex chemical structures comparable to certain petroleum fractions obtained from the petroleum refining processes. The demonstration of our proposal is based on the comparison between the emission spectra recorded from the protoplanetary nebulae (PPNe) IRAS 22272+ 5435 and the infrared absorption spectra of certain 'heavy' petroleum fractions. It is shown that the best match with the reference spectrum is achieved by highly aromatic petroleum fractions. It is shown that the selected petroleum fractions used in the present study are able to match the band pattern of anthracite coal. Coal has been proposed previously as a model for the PPNe and UIBs but presents some drawbacks which could be overcome by adopting the petroleum fractions as model for PPNe and UIBs in place of coal. A brief discussion on the formation of the petroleum-like fractions in PPNe objects is included.

  4. Mass Accretion Processes in Young Stellar Objects: Role of Intense Flaring Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Salvatore; Reale, Fabio; Peres, Giovanni; Mignone, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    According to the magnetospheric accretion scenario, young low-mass stars are surrounded by circumstellar disks which they interact with through accretion of mass. The accretion builds up the star to its final mass and is also believed to power the mass outflows, which may in turn have a signicant role in removing the excess angular momentum from the star-disk system. Although the process of mass accretion is a critical aspect of star formation, some of its mechanisms are still to be fully understood. On the other hand, strong flaring activity is a common feature of young stellar objects (YSOs). In the Sun, such events give rise to perturbations of the interplanetary medium. Similar but more energetic phenomena occur in YSOs and may influence the circumstellar environment. In fact, a recent study has shown that an intense flaring activity close to the disk may strongly perturb the stability of circumstellar disks, thus inducing mass accretion episodes (Orlando et al. 2011). Here we review the main results obtained in the field and the future perspectives.

  5. Object Management Group object transaction service based on an X/Open and International Organization for Standardization open systems interconnection transaction processing kernel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, J.; Sédillot, S.; Traverson, B.

    1997-09-01

    This paper addresses federation of a transactional object standard - Object Management Group (OMG) object transaction service (OTS) - with the X/Open distributed transaction processing (DTP) model and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) open systems interconnection (OSI) transaction processing (TP) communication protocol. The two-phase commit propagation rules within a distributed transaction tree are similar in the X/Open, ISO and OMG models. Building an OTS on an OSI TP protocol machine is possible because the two specifications are somewhat complementary. OTS defines a set of external interfaces without specific internal protocol machine, while OSI TP specifies an internal protocol machine without any application programming interface. Given these observations, and having already implemented an X/Open two-phase commit transaction toolkit based on an OSI TP protocol machine, we analyse the feasibility of using this implementation as a transaction service provider for OMG interfaces. Based on the favourable result of this feasibility study, we are implementing an OTS compliant system, which, by initiating the extensibility and openness strengths of OSI TP, is able to provide interoperability between X/Open DTP and OMG OTS models.

  6. Head and eye movements affect object processing in 4-month-old infants more than an artificial orientation cue.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Sebastian; Michel, Christine; Pauen, Sabina; Hoehl, Stefanie

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of attention-guiding stimuli on 4-month-old infants' object processing. In the human head condition, infants saw a person turning her head and eye gaze towards or away from objects. When presented with the objects again, infants showed increased attention in terms of longer looking time measured by eye tracking and an increased Nc amplitude measured by event-related potentials (ERP) for the previously uncued objects versus the cued objects. This suggests that the uncued objects were previously processed less effectively and appeared more novel to the infants. In a second condition, a car instead of a human head turned towards or away from objects. Eye-tracking results did not reveal any significant difference in infants' looking time. ERPs indicated only a marginally significant effect in late slow-wave activity associated with memory encoding for the uncued objects. We conclude that human head orientation and gaze direction affect infants' object-directed attention, whereas movement and orientation of a car have only limited influence on infants' object processing. PMID:23659892

  7. Web mapping system for complex processing and visualization of environmental geospatial datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Alexander; Gordov, Evgeny; Okladnikov, Igor

    2016-04-01

    Environmental geospatial datasets (meteorological observations, modeling and reanalysis results, etc.) are used in numerous research applications. Due to a number of objective reasons such as inherent heterogeneity of environmental datasets, big dataset volume, complexity of data models used, syntactic and semantic differences that complicate creation and use of unified terminology, the development of environmental geodata access, processing and visualization services as well as client applications turns out to be quite a sophisticated task. According to general INSPIRE requirements to data visualization geoportal web applications have to provide such standard functionality as data overview, image navigation, scrolling, scaling and graphical overlay, displaying map legends and corresponding metadata information. It should be noted that modern web mapping systems as integrated geoportal applications are developed based on the SOA and might be considered as complexes of interconnected software tools for working with geospatial data. In the report a complex web mapping system including GIS web client and corresponding OGC services for working with geospatial (NetCDF, PostGIS) dataset archive is presented. There are three basic tiers of the GIS web client in it: 1. Tier of geospatial metadata retrieved from central MySQL repository and represented in JSON format 2. Tier of JavaScript objects implementing methods handling: --- NetCDF metadata --- Task XML object for configuring user calculations, input and output formats --- OGC WMS/WFS cartographical services 3. Graphical user interface (GUI) tier representing JavaScript objects realizing web application business logic Metadata tier consists of a number of JSON objects containing technical information describing geospatial datasets (such as spatio-temporal resolution, meteorological parameters, valid processing methods, etc). The middleware tier of JavaScript objects implementing methods for handling geospatial

  8. Nonthermal processes around collapsed objects: High energy gamma ray sources in the radio sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, David J.; Ruderman, Malvin; Applegate, James H.; Becker, Robert H.

    1993-01-01

    In our proposal responding to the initial Guest Observer NRA for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, 'Nonthermal Processes Around Collapsed Objects: High Energy Gamma Ray Sources in the Radio Sky', we stated that 'At high energies - the identity of the principal Galactic source population remains unknown' although the 'one certain source of high energy emission is young radio pulsars'. These two statements remain true, although at this writing, eighteen months after the beginning of the Compton allsky survey, much of the gamma-ray data required to greatly extend our knowledge of the Galaxy's high energy emission has been collected. The thrust of the program supported by our grant was to collect and analyze a complementary set of data on the Milky Way at radio wavelengths in order to help identify the dominant Pop 1 component of the Galaxy's gamma ray sources, and to pursue theoretical investigations on the origins and emission mechanisms of young pulsars, the one component of this population identified to date. We summarize here our accomplishments under the grant. In Section 2, we describe our VLA surveys of the Galactic Plane along with the current status of the radio source catalogs derived therefrom; unfortunately, owing to the TDRSS antenna problem and subsequent extension of the Sky Survey, we were not able to carry out a comparison with the EGRET data directly, although everything is now in place to do so as soon as it becomes available. In Section 2, we summarize our progress on the theoretical side, including the substantial completion of a dissertation on pulsar origins and work on the high energy emission mechanisms of isolated pulsars. We list the personnel supported by the grant in section 4 and provide a complete bibliography of publications supported in whole or in part by the grant in the final section.

  9. Tank 241-C-106 sampling data requirements developed through the data quality objectives (DQO) process

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, O.S.; Bell, K.E.; Anderson, C.M.; Peffers, M.S.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Scott, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    The rate of heat generation for tank 241-C-106 at the Hanford Site is estimated at more then 100,000 Btu/h. The heat is generated primarily from the radioactive decay of {sup 90}Sr waste that was inadvertently transferred into the tank in the late 1960s. If proper tank cooling is not maintained for this tank, heat-induced structural damage to the tank`s concrete shell could result in the release of nuclear waste to the environment. Because of high-heat concerns in January 1991, tank 241-C-106 was designated as a Watch List tank and deemed as a Priority 1 safety issue. Waste Tank Safety Program (WTSP) is responsible for the resolution of this safety issue. Although forced cooling is effective for short term, the long-term resolution for tank cooling is waste retrieval. Single-shell Tank Retrieval Project (Retrieval) is responsible for the safe retrieval and transfer of radioactive waste from tank 241-C-106 to a selected double-shell tank. This data quality objective (DQO) study is an effort to determine engineering and design data needs for WTSP and assist Retrieval in designing contingency action retrieval systems. The 7-step DQO process is a tool developed by the Environmental Protection Agency with a goal of identifying needs and reducing costs. This report discusses the results of two DQO efforts for WTSP and Retrieval. The key data needs to support WTSP are thermal conductivity, permeability, and heat load profile. For the Retrieval support, there are nine and three data needs identified, respectively, for retrieval engineering system design and HVAC system design. The updated schedule to drill two core samples using rotary mode is set for March 1994. The analysis of the sample is expected to be completed by September 1994.

  10. Safe operations of unmanned systems for reconnaissance in complex environments Army technology objective (SOURCE ATO): a year later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kott, N. Joseph, III; Mottern, Edward; Keys van Lierop, Tracy; Gray, Jeremy P.

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines the testbed autonomy system, software technologies developed or enhanced, and an overview of the Enhanced Experiment during the second year of the SOURCE ATO. Over the past year, the Safe Operations of Unmanned systems for Reconnaissance in Complex Environments (SOURCE) program continued to make enhancements to LADAR and image based Perception, Intelligence, Control and Tactical Behavior technologies. These are required for autonomous collaborative unmanned systems. The hardware and software technologies are installed on a TARDEC developed testbed, the Autonomous Platform Demonstrator (APD). Ultimately, soldiers will be utilized to conduct safe operation testing scenarios in cluttered dynamic environments using Autonomous Navigation System (ANS) perception and processing hardware as well as software. Soldier testing will take place during October 2012 at Camp Lejeune MOUT facility in North Carolina.

  11. Object Clitics and Their Omission in Child L2 French: The Contributions of Processing Limitations and L1 Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruter, Theres; Crago, Martha

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the widely documented difficulty with object clitics in the acquisition of French. The study investigates the effects of L1 transfer and processing limitations on the production and comprehension of object clitics in child L2 learners of French with different L1 backgrounds (Chinese, Spanish). The Spanish-speaking learners…

  12. Object Knowledge, Personal Knowledge, and Processes of Equilibration in Adult Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labouvie-Vief, Gisela; Lawrence, Renee

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the logical discontinuity between object and personal knowledge. Proposes an extension of Piaget's subject-object equilibrium to a dialogic situation between an ego and an alter. Suggests that this structural model provides a scheme by which differences in adulthood between adaptive and maladaptive cognitive change can be clarified.…

  13. The ground side of an object: perceived as shapeless yet processed for semantics.

    PubMed

    Sanguinetti, Joseph L; Allen, John J B; Peterson, Mary A

    2014-01-01

    Traditional theories of perception posit that only objects access semantics; abutting, patently shapeless grounds do not. Surprisingly, this assumption has been untested until now. In two experiments, participants classified silhouettes as depicting meaningful real-world or meaningless novel objects while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. The borders of half of the novel objects suggested portions of meaningful objects on the ground side. Participants were unaware of these meaningful objects because grounds are perceived as shapeless. In Experiment 1, in which silhouettes were presented twice, N400 ERP repetition effects indicated that semantics were accessed for novel silhouettes that suggested meaningful objects in the ground and for silhouettes that depicted real-world objects, but not for novel silhouettes that did not suggest meaningful objects in the ground. In Experiment 2, repetition was manipulated via matching prime words. This experiment replicated the effect observed in Experiment 1. These experiments provide the first neurophysiological evidence that semantic access can occur for the apparently shapeless ground side of a border.

  14. The ground side of an object: perceived as shapeless yet processed for semantics.

    PubMed

    Sanguinetti, Joseph L; Allen, John J B; Peterson, Mary A

    2014-01-01

    Traditional theories of perception posit that only objects access semantics; abutting, patently shapeless grounds do not. Surprisingly, this assumption has been untested until now. In two experiments, participants classified silhouettes as depicting meaningful real-world or meaningless novel objects while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. The borders of half of the novel objects suggested portions of meaningful objects on the ground side. Participants were unaware of these meaningful objects because grounds are perceived as shapeless. In Experiment 1, in which silhouettes were presented twice, N400 ERP repetition effects indicated that semantics were accessed for novel silhouettes that suggested meaningful objects in the ground and for silhouettes that depicted real-world objects, but not for novel silhouettes that did not suggest meaningful objects in the ground. In Experiment 2, repetition was manipulated via matching prime words. This experiment replicated the effect observed in Experiment 1. These experiments provide the first neurophysiological evidence that semantic access can occur for the apparently shapeless ground side of a border. PMID:24220627

  15. Object Clitic Omission in Child Spanish: Evaluating Representational and Processing Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mateu, Victoria Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the widely documented difficulty children have with object clitics in the acquisition of Romance languages. It reports on two experiments: a production task and a comprehension task. Results from the elicitation task confirm that object omission occurs at nonnegligible rates in 2- and 3-year-olds. Findings from the…

  16. Object Manipulation and Motion Perception: Evidence of an Influence of Action Planning on Visual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindemann, Oliver; Bekkering, Harold

    2009-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors investigated the bidirectional coupling of perception and action in the context of object manipulations and motion perception. Participants prepared to grasp an X-shaped object along one of its 2 diagonals and to rotate it in a clockwise or a counterclockwise direction. Action execution had to be delayed until the…

  17. [Model studies on the transport processes of anticancer platinum complexes].

    PubMed

    Nagy, Z; Fábián, I; Sóvágó, I

    2000-01-01

    Potentiometric, calorimetric, NMR and stopped-flow kinetic studies were performed on the palladium(II) complexes of thioether and/or nitrogen donor ligands. The ternary systems always contained a tridentate ligand (dien, dipic, terpy and dianions of dipeptides, GlyGly, GlyAla and GlyMet) and a monodentate thioether (AcMet). The stability constants of thioether complexes were obtained by indirect potentiometric measurements using uridine as a competitive ligand. The thermodynamic parameters revealed that selectivity of palladium(II) for thioether binding can be significantly influenced by the other donor atoms around the metal ion. [Pd(terpy)]2+, [Pd(dipic)]2+ and [Pd(GlyMet)] had the lowest affinity for thioether binding and it was explained by steric and electronic effects. Ternary complexes of nitrogen donors have higher thermodynamic stability constants than that of the thioether complexes, but rate constants of the substitution reactions revealed that the formation of thioether complexes is the faster reaction. As a consequence, the thermodynamic equilibrium state of a multicomponent system is characterized by the coordination of N-donors, which are formed via the existence of thioether bonded intermediates. PMID:11379028

  18. LISP based simulation generators for modeling complex space processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, Fan T.; Schroer, Bernard J.; Dwan, Wen-Shing

    1987-01-01

    The development of a simulation assistant for modeling discrete event processes is presented. Included are an overview of the system, a description of the simulation generators, and a sample process generated using the simulation assistant.

  19. Using Multi-objective Optimization to Identify Dynamical Network Biomarkers as Early-warning Signals of Complex Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Vafaee, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers have gained immense scientific interest and clinical value in the practice of medicine. With unprecedented advances in high-throughput technologies, research interest in identifying novel and customized disease biomarkers for early detection, diagnosis, or drug responses is rapidly growing. Biomarkers can be identified in different levels of molecular biomarkers, networks biomarkers and dynamical network biomarkers (DNBs). The latter is a recently developed concept which relies on the idea that a cell is a complex system whose behavior is emerged from interplay of various molecules, and this network of molecules dynamically changes over time. A DNB can serve as an early-warning signal of disease progression, or as a leading network that drives the system into the disease state, and thus unravels mechanisms of disease initiation and progression. It is therefore of great importance to identify DNBs efficiently and reliably. In this work, the problem of DNB identification is defined as a multi-objective optimization problem, and a framework to identify DNBs out of time-course high-throughput data is proposed. Temporal gene expression data of a lung injury with carbonyl chloride inhalation exposure has been used as a case study, and the functional role of the discovered biomarker in the pathogenesis of lung injury has been thoroughly analyzed. PMID:26906975

  20. Impaired Visual Object Processing Across an Occipital- Frontal-Hippocampal Brain Network in Schizophrenia: An integrated neuroimaging study

    PubMed Central

    Sehatpour, Pejman; Dias, Elisa C.; Butler, Pamela D.; Revheim, Nadine; Guilfoyle, David N.; Foxe, John J.; Javitt, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Perceptual closure refers to the ability to identify objects with partial information. Deficits in schizophrenia are indexed by impaired generation of the closure-related negativity (NCL) from ventral stream visual cortex (lateral occipital complex, LOC), as part of a network of brain regions that also includes dorsal stream visual regions, prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus. This study evaluates network-level interactions during perceptual closure in schizophrenia using parallel ERP, fMRI and neuropsychological assessment. Methods ERP were obtained from 24 patients and 20 healthy volunteers in response to fragmented (closeable) and control scrambled (noncloseable) line drawings. fMRI were obtained from 11 patients and 12 controls. Patterns of between group differences for predefined ERP components and fMRI regions of interest were determined using both analysis of variance and structural equation modeling. Global neuropsychological performance was assessed using elements of the WAIS-III, WMS-III and MATRICS batteries. Results Patients showed impaired visual P1 generation, reflecting dorsal stream dysfunction, along with impaired generation of NCL components over PFC and LOC. In fMRI, patients showed impaired activation of dorsal and ventral visual regions, PFC and hippocampus. Impaired activation of dorsal stream visual regions contributed significantly to impaired PFC activation. Impaired PFC activation contributed significantly to impaired activation of hippocampus and LOC. Impaired LOC and hippocampal activation contributed significantly to deficits on WAIS-III Perceptual Organization Index (POI) and other tests of impaired perceptual processing in schizophrenia. Conclusion Schizophrenia is associated with severe activation deficits across a distributed network of sensory and higher order cognitive regions. Deficit in early visual processing within the dorsal visual stream contributes significantly to impaired frontal activation which, in turn

  1. Defining desired genetic gains for rainbow trout breeding objective using analytic hierarchy process.

    PubMed

    Sae-Lim, P; Komen, H; Kause, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Barfoot, A J; Martin, K E; Parsons, J E

    2012-06-01

    Distributing animals from a single breeding program to a global market may not satisfy all producers, as they may differ in market objectives and farming environments. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to estimate preferences, which can be aggregated to consensus preference values using weighted goal programming (WGP). The aim of this study was to use an AHP-WGP based approach to derive desired genetic gains for rainbow trout breeding and to study whether breeding trait preferences vary depending on commercial products and farming environments. Two questionnaires were sent out. Questionnaire-A (Q-A) was distributed to 178 farmers from 5 continents and used to collect information on commercial products and farming environments. In this questionnaire, farmers were asked to rank the 6 most important traits for genetic improvement from a list of 13 traits. Questionnaire B (Q-B) was sent to all farmers who responded to Q-A (53 in total). For Q-B, preferences of the 6 traits were obtained using pairwise comparison. Preference intensity was given to quantify (in % of a trait mean; G%) the degree to which 1 trait is preferred over the other. Individual preferences, social preferences, and consensus preferences (Con-P) were estimated using AHP and WGP. Desired gains were constructed by multiplying Con-P by G%. The analysis revealed that the 6 most important traits were thermal growth coefficient (TGC), survival (Surv), feed conversion ratio (FCR), condition factor (CF), fillet percentage (FIL%), and late maturation (LMat). Ranking of traits based on average Con-P values were Surv (0.271), FCR (0.246), TGC (0.246), LMat (0.090), FIL% (0.081), and CF (0.067). Corresponding desired genetic gains (in % of trait mean) were 1.63, 1.87, 1.67, 1.29, 0.06, and 0.33%, respectively. The results from Con-P values show that trait preferences may vary for different types of commercial production or farming environments. This study demonstrated that combination of AHP and WGP can

  2. Can Models Capture the Complexity of the Systems Engineering Process?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boppana, Krishna; Chow, Sam; de Weck, Olivier L.; Lafon, Christian; Lekkakos, Spyridon D.; Lyneis, James; Rinaldi, Matthew; Wang, Zhiyong; Wheeler, Paul; Zborovskiy, Marat; Wojcik, Leonard A.

    Many large-scale, complex systems engineering (SE) programs have been problematic; a few examples are listed below (Bar-Yam, 2003 and Cullen, 2004), and many others have been late, well over budget, or have failed: Hilton/Marriott/American Airlines system for hotel reservations and flights; 1988-1992; 125 million; "scrapped"

  3. Phenylketonuria and Complex Spatial Visualization: An Analysis of Information Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Robert L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The study of the ability of 16 early treated phenylketonuric (PKU) patients (ages 6-23 years) to solve complex spatial problems suggested that choice of problem-solving strategy, attention span, and accuracy of mental representation may be affected in PKU patients, despite efforts to maintain well-controlled phenylalanine concentrations in the…

  4. Activation of response force by self-splitting objects: where are the limits of feedforward Gestalt processing?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Filipp; Weber, Andreas; Schmidt, Thomas

    2014-08-21

    Most objects can be recognized easily even when they are partly occluded. This also holds when several overlapping objects share the same surface features (self-splitting objects) which is an illustration of the grouping principle of Good Gestalt. We employed outline and filled contour stimuli in a primed flanker task to test whether the processing of self-splitting objects is in accordance with a simple feedforward model. We obtained priming effects in response time and response force for both types of stimuli, even when increasing the number of occluders up to three. The results for outline contours were in full accordance with a feedforward account. This was not the case for the results for filled contours (i.e., for self-splitting objects), especially under conditions of strong occlusion. We conclude that the implementation of the Good Gestalt principle is fast but still based on recurrent processing.

  5. On numerical model of time-dependent processes in three-dimensional porous heat-releasing objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutsenko, Nickolay A.

    2016-10-01

    The gas flows in the gravity field through porous objects with heat-releasing sources are investigated when the self-regulation of the flow rate of the gas passing through the porous object takes place. Such objects can appear after various natural or man-made disasters (like the exploded unit of the Chernobyl NPP). The mathematical model and the original numerical method, based on a combination of explicit and implicit finite difference schemes, are developed for investigating the time-dependent processes in 3D porous energy-releasing objects. The advantage of the numerical model is its ability to describe unsteady processes under both natural convection and forced filtration. The gas cooling of 3D porous objects with different distribution of heat sources is studied using computational experiment.

  6. Process of preparing molybdenum complexes, the complexes so-produced and lubricants containing same

    SciTech Connect

    Devries, L.; King, J.M.

    1981-04-21

    Antioxidant additives for lubricating oil are prepared by combining water, an acidic molybdenum compound, a basic nitrogen compound complex and a sulfur source to form a sulfur- and molybdenum-containing composition.

  7. Numerical simulation of overbank processes in topographically complex floodplain environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, A. P.; Mitchell, C. A.

    2003-03-01

    This article presents results from an investigation of the hydraulic characteristics of overbank flows on topographically-complex natural river floodplains. A two-dimensional hydraulic model that solves the depth-averaged shallow water form of the Navier-Stokes equations is used to simulate an overbank flow event within a multiple channel reach of the River Culm, Devon, UK. Parameterization of channel and floodplain roughness by the model is evaluated using monitored records of main channel water level and point measurements of floodplain flow depth and unit discharge. Modelled inundation extents and sequences are assessed using maps of actual inundation patterns obtained using a Global Positioning System, observational evidence and ground photographs. Simulation results suggest a two-phase model of flooding at the site, which seems likely to be representative of natural floodplains in general. Comparison of these results with previous research demonstrates the complexity of overbank flows on natural river floodplains and highlights the limitations of laboratory flumes as an analogue for these environments. Despite this complexity, frequency distributions of simulated depth, velocity and unit discharge data closely follow a simple gamma distribution model, and are described by a shape parameter () that exhibits clear systematic trends with changing discharge and floodplain roughness. Such statistical approaches have the potential to provide the basis for computationally efficient flood routing and overbank sedimentation models.

  8. Integrating complex business processes for knowledge-driven clinical decision support systems.

    PubMed

    Kamaleswaran, Rishikesan; McGregor, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents in detail the component of the Complex Business Process for Stream Processing framework that is responsible for integrating complex business processes to enable knowledge-driven Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) recommendations. CDSSs aid the clinician in supporting the care of patients by providing accurate data analysis and evidence-based recommendations. However, the incorporation of a dynamic knowledge-management system that supports the definition and enactment of complex business processes and real-time data streams has not been researched. In this paper we discuss the process web service as an innovative method of providing contextual information to a real-time data stream processing CDSS. PMID:23366138

  9. Integrating complex business processes for knowledge-driven clinical decision support systems.

    PubMed

    Kamaleswaran, Rishikesan; McGregor, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents in detail the component of the Complex Business Process for Stream Processing framework that is responsible for integrating complex business processes to enable knowledge-driven Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) recommendations. CDSSs aid the clinician in supporting the care of patients by providing accurate data analysis and evidence-based recommendations. However, the incorporation of a dynamic knowledge-management system that supports the definition and enactment of complex business processes and real-time data streams has not been researched. In this paper we discuss the process web service as an innovative method of providing contextual information to a real-time data stream processing CDSS.

  10. Orbit Processing and Analysis of a GEO Class of High Area-to-Mass Debris Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelecy, Tom; Payne, Tim; Thurston, Robin; Stansbery, Gene

    2007-01-01

    A population of recently discovered deep space objects is thought to be debris having origins from sources in the geosynchronous orbit (GEO) belt. Observations have been presented indicating that these objects have area-to-mass ratios (AMR's) of anywhere from 1's to 10's of m(exp 2)/kg, and thus would explain the observed migration of eccentricity (0.1-0.6) and inclination that distinguishes their orbital characteristics. The solar radiation perturbations on orbital period, inclination and eccentricity over a 20 year period for AMR's of 0.01, 1, 10 and 20 m(exp 2)/kg, are shown in the figures. There is a heightened interest in the international community due to the large number and small size of these objects, as they pose a hazard to active satellites operating in the vicinity of the GEO belt.

  11. Segmentation of complex objects with non-spherical topologies from volumetric medical images using 3D livewire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Kelvin; Hamarneh, Ghassan; Abugharbieh, Rafeef

    2007-03-01

    Segmentation of 3D data is one of the most challenging tasks in medical image analysis. While reliable automatic methods are typically preferred, their success is often hindered by poor image quality and significant variations in anatomy. Recent years have thus seen an increasing interest in the development of semi-automated segmentation methods that combine computational tools with intuitive, minimal user interaction. In an earlier work, we introduced a highly-automated technique for medical image segmentation, where a 3D extension of the traditional 2D Livewire was proposed. In this paper, we present an enhanced and more powerful 3D Livewire-based segmentation approach with new features designed to primarily enable the handling of complex object topologies that are common in biological structures. The point ordering algorithm we proposed earlier, which automatically pairs up seedpoints in 3D, is improved in this work such that multiple sets of points are allowed to simultaneously exist. Point sets can now be automatically merged and split to accommodate for the presence of concavities, protrusions, and non-spherical topologies. The robustness of the method is further improved by extending the 'turtle algorithm', presented earlier, by using a turtle-path pruning step. Tests on both synthetic and real medical images demonstrate the efficiency, reproducibility, accuracy, and robustness of the proposed approach. Among the examples illustrated is the segmentation of the left and right ventricles from a T1-weighted MRI scan, where an average task time reduction of 84.7% was achieved when compared to a user performing 2D Livewire segmentation on every slice.

  12. Electrochemical process and production of novel complex hydrides

    DOEpatents

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2013-06-25

    A process of using an electrochemical cell to generate aluminum hydride (AlH.sub.3) is provided. The electrolytic cell uses a polar solvent to solubilize NaAlH.sub.4. The resulting electrochemical process results in the formation of AlH.sub.3. The AlH.sub.3 can be recovered and used as a source of hydrogen for the automotive industry. The resulting spent aluminum can be regenerated into NaAlH.sub.4 as part of a closed loop process of AlH.sub.3 generation.

  13. Electrophysiological evidence for separation between human face and non-face object processing only in the right hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Niina, Megumi; Okamura, Jun-ya; Wang, Gang

    2015-10-01

    Scalp event-related potential (ERP) studies have demonstrated larger N170 amplitudes when subjects view faces compared to items from object categories. Extensive attempts have been made to clarify face selectivity and hemispheric dominance for face processing. The purpose of this study was to investigate hemispheric differences in N170s activated by human faces and non-face objects, as well as the extent of overlap of their sources. ERP was recorded from 20 subjects while they viewed human face and non-face images. N170s obtained during the presentation of human faces appeared earlier and with larger amplitude than for other category images. Further source analysis with a two-dipole model revealed that the locations of face and object processing largely overlapped in the left hemisphere. Conversely, the source for face processing in the right hemisphere located more anterior than the source for object processing. The results suggest that the neuronal circuits for face and object processing are largely shared in the left hemisphere, with more distinct circuits in the right hemisphere.

  14. Transitional Objects in Adult Life: A Process of Continuous Relatedness to the Outside World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Mark A.

    The practice of psychological intervention often relied on the ability of the therapist to understand how clients maintain a sense of relatedness to their world. Despite the many discontinuities of self-identity that affect the lives of clients, the success of therapy depends on clients' abilities to connect with human and nonhuman objects in…

  15. Comparison of Raman spectroscopy vs. high performance liquid chromatography for quality control of complex therapeutic objects: model of elastomeric portable pumps filled with a fluorouracil solution.

    PubMed

    Bourget, Philippe; Amin, Alexandre; Vidal, Fabrice; Merlette, Christophe; Lagarce, Frédéric

    2014-03-01

    This study compares the performance of a reference method of HPLC to Raman spectroscopy (RS) for the analytical quality control (AQC) of complex therapeutic objects. We assessed a model consisting of a widely used anticancer drug, i.e., 5-fluorouracil, which was compounded in a complex medical device, i.e., an elastomeric portable infusion pump. In view of the main objective, the two methods provided excellent results for the analytical validation key criteria, i.e., trueness, precision and accuracy, ranging from 7.5 to 50mg/mL and in either isotonic sodium or 5% dextrose. The Spearman and Kendall correlation tests (p-value<1×10(-15)) and the statistical studies performed on the graphs confirm a strong correlation in the results between RS and the standard HPLC under the experimental conditions. The selection of a spectral interval between 700 and 1400cm(-1) for both the characterization and quantification by RS was the result of a gradual process optimization, combining matrix and packaging responses. In this new application, we demonstrate at least eight benefits of RS: (a) operator safety, (b) elimination of disposables, (c) elimination of analysis waste, which contributes to the protection of the environment, (d) a fast analytical response of less than 2min, (e) the ability to identify the solubilizing phase, (f) reduction of the risk of errors because no intrusion or dilution are needed, (g) negligible maintenance costs and (h) a reduction in the budget dedicated to technician training. Overall, we indicate the potential of non-intrusive AQC performed by RS, especially when the analysis is not possible using the usual techniques, and the technique's high potential as a contributor to the safety of medication.

  16. Comparison of Raman spectroscopy vs. high performance liquid chromatography for quality control of complex therapeutic objects: model of elastomeric portable pumps filled with a fluorouracil solution.

    PubMed

    Bourget, Philippe; Amin, Alexandre; Vidal, Fabrice; Merlette, Christophe; Lagarce, Frédéric

    2014-03-01

    This study compares the performance of a reference method of HPLC to Raman spectroscopy (RS) for the analytical quality control (AQC) of complex therapeutic objects. We assessed a model consisting of a widely used anticancer drug, i.e., 5-fluorouracil, which was compounded in a complex medical device, i.e., an elastomeric portable infusion pump. In view of the main objective, the two methods provided excellent results for the analytical validation key criteria, i.e., trueness, precision and accuracy, ranging from 7.5 to 50mg/mL and in either isotonic sodium or 5% dextrose. The Spearman and Kendall correlation tests (p-value<1×10(-15)) and the statistical studies performed on the graphs confirm a strong correlation in the results between RS and the standard HPLC under the experimental conditions. The selection of a spectral interval between 700 and 1400cm(-1) for both the characterization and quantification by RS was the result of a gradual process optimization, combining matrix and packaging responses. In this new application, we demonstrate at least eight benefits of RS: (a) operator safety, (b) elimination of disposables, (c) elimination of analysis waste, which contributes to the protection of the environment, (d) a fast analytical response of less than 2min, (e) the ability to identify the solubilizing phase, (f) reduction of the risk of errors because no intrusion or dilution are needed, (g) negligible maintenance costs and (h) a reduction in the budget dedicated to technician training. Overall, we indicate the potential of non-intrusive AQC performed by RS, especially when the analysis is not possible using the usual techniques, and the technique's high potential as a contributor to the safety of medication. PMID:24463044

  17. Three-dimensional techniques for capturing and building virtual models of complex objects for use in scientific and industrial applications, data archiving, and the entertainment industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Arthur; Chapman, Ralph E.; Wilcox, Brian

    2003-05-01

    The past 10 years have seen remarkable improvements in the capture of 3-dimesional data. Both scanning speeds and accuracy have increased by a magnitude. Software and increasingly more powerful computers allow larger data bases and faster post processing. CT, laser and optical scanners are finding increased use in the medical, manufacturing, scientific and entertainment industries. CT (Computerized Tomography) is generally used to capture internal as well as external surfaces. Medical (hospital) scanners are the most common and can be of service in industrial applications. But true industrial scanners service a much wider range of sizes and materials. Laser and optical scanners are line-of-sight, and are available in portable and permanent CMM mounting arrangements. Scanners are available to capture a wide range of objects; from entire buildings to fingernail sized parts. Solid objects requiring multiple scans, must register each scan to another for part completion. The collected data is exported as a "point cloud." The data can be used to digitally inspect complex parts, surface them for tooling and reverse engineering, or export surfaces to animation software.

  18. Evidence for global processing of complex visual displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munson, Robert C.; Horst, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    'Polar graphic' displays, in which changes in system status are represented by distortions in the form of a geometric figure, were presented to subjects, and reaction time (RT) to discriminate system status was recorded. Of interest was the extent to which reaction time showed evidence of global processing of these displays as the number of nodes and difficulty of discrimination were varied. When discrimination of system status was easy, RT showed no increase with increasing number of nodes, providing evidence of global processing. When discrimination was difficult, systematic differences in RT as a function of the number of nodes suggested the invocation of other (local) processes, although the data were not consistent with a node-by-node search process.

  19. Spatial Attention Effects during Conscious and Nonconscious Processing of Visual Features and Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Evelina; Breitmeyer, Bruno G.; Jacob, Jane; Broyles, Elizabeth C.

    2013-01-01

    Flanker congruency effects were measured in a masked flanker task to assess the properties of spatial attention during conscious and nonconscious processing of form, color, and conjunctions of these features. We found that (1) consciously and nonconsciously processed colored shape distractors (i.e., flankers) produce flanker congruency effects;…

  20. The Role of Representational Status and Item Complexity in Parent-Child Conversations about Pictures and Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Waxman, Sandra R.; Kleinberg, Felicia

    2008-01-01

    Mother-child conversations about pictures systematically differ from mother-child conversations about objects: Pictures are more likely than objects to elicit talk about kinds, whereas objects are more likely than pictures to elicit talk about individuals. The purpose of the current study is to examine whether this difference between pictures and…

  1. Possibilities of using cmm program complex for modeling gas dynamic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Michael N.

    2003-10-01

    In this report we describe the similarity criterions real objects and models, the possibilities of numerical modeling of gas dynamic processes in the CMM complex of programs developed by us. To describe the volume combustion chamber we use the analytical model of the second range surfaces with the limitations. The algorithm of the modeling program is based on the numerical solution of the full system of nonlinear unsteady equations of dynamics viscid, burning, heat-conducting gas, on the conditions of having diffusion and chemical reactions in two- or three-diemnsional target setting. We look over the building and modification of 2D- and 3D-models of different ranges of complication taking in consideration chemical reactions or not. We compare the results of modeling with the theoretical calculation results and with the experimental data. We also look over the variants to use the results of modeling and the directions of further CMM developemnt.

  2. MOEPGA: A novel method to detect protein complexes in yeast protein-protein interaction networks based on MultiObjective Evolutionary Programming Genetic Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Cao, Buwen; Luo, Jiawei; Liang, Cheng; Wang, Shulin; Song, Dan

    2015-10-01

    The identification of protein complexes in protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks has greatly advanced our understanding of biological organisms. Existing computational methods to detect protein complexes are usually based on specific network topological properties of PPI networks. However, due to the inherent complexity of the network structures, the identification of protein complexes may not be fully addressed by using single network topological property. In this study, we propose a novel MultiObjective Evolutionary Programming Genetic Algorithm (MOEPGA) which integrates multiple network topological features to detect biologically meaningful protein complexes. Our approach first systematically analyzes the multiobjective problem in terms of identifying protein complexes from PPI networks, and then constructs the objective function of the iterative algorithm based on three common topological properties of protein complexes from the benchmark dataset, finally we describe our algorithm, which mainly consists of three steps, population initialization, subgraph mutation and subgraph selection operation. To show the utility of our method, we compared MOEPGA with several state-of-the-art algorithms on two yeast PPI datasets. The experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method can not only find more protein complexes but also achieve higher accuracy in terms of fscore. Moreover, our approach can cover a certain number of proteins in the input PPI network in terms of the normalized clustering score. Taken together, our method can serve as a powerful framework to detect protein complexes in yeast PPI networks, thereby facilitating the identification of the underlying biological functions.

  3. Anticancer Activity of Metal Complexes: Involvement of Redox Processes

    PubMed Central

    Jungwirth, Ute; Kowol, Christian R.; Keppler, Bernhard K.; Hartinger, Christian G.; Berger, Walter; Heffeter, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Cells require tight regulation of the intracellular redox balance and consequently of reactive oxygen species for proper redox signaling and maintenance of metal (e.g., of iron and copper) homeostasis. In several diseases, including cancer, this balance is disturbed. Therefore, anticancer drugs targeting the redox systems, for example, glutathione and thioredoxin, have entered focus of interest. Anticancer metal complexes (platinum, gold, arsenic, ruthenium, rhodium, copper, vanadium, cobalt, manganese, gadolinium, and molybdenum) have been shown to strongly interact with or even disturb cellular redox homeostasis. In this context, especially the hypothesis of “activation by reduction” as well as the “hard and soft acids and bases” theory with respect to coordination of metal ions to cellular ligands represent important concepts to understand the molecular modes of action of anticancer metal drugs. The aim of this review is to highlight specific interactions of metal-based anticancer drugs with the cellular redox homeostasis and to explain this behavior by considering chemical properties of the respective anticancer metal complexes currently either in (pre)clinical development or in daily clinical routine in oncology. PMID:21275772

  4. Dynamic Complexity Study of Nuclear Reactor and Process Heat Application Integration

    SciTech Connect

    J'Tia Patrice Taylor; David E. Shropshire

    2009-09-01

    Abstract This paper describes the key obstacles and challenges facing the integration of nuclear reactors with process heat applications as they relate to dynamic issues. The paper also presents capabilities of current modeling and analysis tools available to investigate these issues. A pragmatic approach to an analysis is developed with the ultimate objective of improving the viability of nuclear energy as a heat source for process industries. The extension of nuclear energy to process heat industries would improve energy security and aid in reduction of carbon emissions by reducing demands for foreign derived fossil fuels. The paper begins with an overview of nuclear reactors and process application for potential use in an integrated system. Reactors are evaluated against specific characteristics that determine their compatibility with process applications such as heat outlet temperature. The reactor system categories include light water, heavy water, small to medium, near term high-temperature, and far term high temperature reactors. Low temperature process systems include desalination, district heating, and tar sands and shale oil recovery. High temperature processes that support hydrogen production include steam reforming, steam cracking, hydrogen production by electrolysis, and far-term applications such as the sulfur iodine chemical process and high-temperature electrolysis. A simple static matching between complementary systems is performed; however, to gain a true appreciation for system integration complexity, time dependent dynamic analysis is required. The paper identifies critical issues arising from dynamic complexity associated with integration of systems. Operational issues include scheduling conflicts and resource allocation for heat and electricity. Additionally, economic and safety considerations that could impact the successful integration of these systems are considered. Economic issues include the cost differential arising due to an integrated

  5. Complex life forms may arise from electrical processes.

    PubMed

    Elson, Edward C

    2010-06-24

    There is still not an appealing and testable model to explain how single-celled organisms, usually following fusion of male and female gametes, proceed to grow and evolve into multi-cellular, complexly differentiated systems, a particular species following virtually an invariant and unique growth pattern. An intrinsic electrical oscillator, resembling the cardiac pacemaker, may explain the process. Highly auto-correlated, it could live independently of ordinary thermodynamic processes which mandate increasing disorder, and could coordinate growth and differentiation of organ anlage.

  6. Complex life forms may arise from electrical processes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    There is still not an appealing and testable model to explain how single-celled organisms, usually following fusion of male and female gametes, proceed to grow and evolve into multi-cellular, complexly differentiated systems, a particular species following virtually an invariant and unique growth pattern. An intrinsic electrical oscillator, resembling the cardiac pacemaker, may explain the process. Highly auto-correlated, it could live independently of ordinary thermodynamic processes which mandate increasing disorder, and could coordinate growth and differentiation of organ anlage. PMID:20576122

  7. Intersection of participation and environmental factors: a complex interactive process.

    PubMed

    Noreau, Luc; Boschen, Kathryn

    2010-09-01

    The objective was to review contemporary and historical rehabilitation-focused literature on conceptualizations of the environment, broadly defined, and environmental measures. Data sources included historical nonempirical American-based literature from 1935 to the present and descriptive and empirical rehabilitation articles worldwide, retrieved from computerized databases predominantly from past 10 years depicting a participation-environment association. Literature selection required relevance to 3 combined topics: physical disability rehabilitation, participation/community integration, and impact of environmental barriers and facilitators. The ultimate focus was on spinal cord injury for recent literature and measures reviewed. Data extraction was based on author-assessed relevance to both participation and environmental considerations. Nonempirical literature from last three quarters of a century suggests an environmental impact on participation, focusing on "person-environment fit." Recent empirical evidence supports environmental contributions to participation, but the magnitude of the contribution is low. Despite the obvious theoretic impact of the environment, scientific demonstration of environmental contribution to participation restriction or facilitation has yet to be achieved. Participation-environment interaction could be illustrated better by (1) taking into account critical elements in environmental measures (eg, comprehensiveness of approach to environment, scales describing spectrum of environmental influence, subjective vs objective perspectives), (2) addressing the concept of participation in a dimension-specific approach, and (3) avoiding environmental features in construction of participation measures.

  8. PROCESS DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENT: A MULTI-OBJECTIVE FRAMEWORK UNDER UNCERTAINTY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Designing chemical processes for environment requires consideration of several indexes of environmental impact including ozone depletion and global warming potentials, human and aquatic toxicity, and photochemical oxidation, and acid rain potentials. Current methodologies like t...

  9. Structure of Block Copolymer Hydrogel Formed by Complex Coacervate Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Soohyung; Ortony, Julia; Krogstad, Daniel; Spruell, Jason; Lynd, Nathaniel; Han, Songi; Kramer, Edward

    2012-02-01

    Complex coacervation occurs when oppositely charged polyelectrolytes associate in solution, forming dense micron-sized droplets. Hydrogels with coacervate block domains were formed by mixing two ABA and A'BA' triblock copolymer solutions in water where the A and A' blocks are oppositely charged. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) was used to investigate the structure of hydrogels formed by ABA triblock copolymers (A block: poly(allyl glycidyl ether) functionalized with guanidinium (A) or sulfonate (A'), B block: poly(ethylene oxide)). By using an appropriate fitting model, structural information such as coacervate core block radius and water volume fraction w can be extracted from SANS data. The results reveal that w in the coacervate core block was significantly higher than in conventional triblock copolymer hydrogels where microphase separation is driven by the hydrophobicity of the core-forming blocks.

  10. Aircraft stress sequence development: A complex engineering process made simple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, K. H.; Butts, D. G.; Sparks, W. A.

    1994-01-01

    Development of stress sequences for critical aircraft structure requires flight measured usage data, known aircraft loads, and established relationships between aircraft flight loads and structural stresses. Resulting cycle-by-cycle stress sequences can be directly usable for crack growth analysis and coupon spectra tests. Often, an expert in loads and spectra development manipulates the usage data into a typical sequence of representative flight conditions for which loads and stresses are calculated. For a fighter/trainer type aircraft, this effort is repeated many times for each of the fatigue critical locations (FCL) resulting in expenditure of numerous engineering hours. The Aircraft Stress Sequence Computer Program (ACSTRSEQ), developed by Southwest Research Institute under contract to San Antonio Air Logistics Center, presents a unique approach for making complex technical computations in a simple, easy to use method. The program is written in Microsoft Visual Basic for the Microsoft Windows environment.

  11. Tool compensation using statistical process control on complex milling operations

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, J.M.

    1994-03-01

    In today`s competitive manufacturing environment, many companies increasingly rely on numerical control (NC) mills to produce products at a reasonable cost. Typically, this is done by producing as many features as possible at each machining operation to minimize the total number of shop hours invested per part. Consequently, the number of cutting tools involved in one operation can become quite large since NC mills have the capacity to use in excess of 100 cutting tools. As the number of cutting tools increases, the difficulty of applying optimum tool compensation grows exponentially, quickly overwhelming machine operators and engineers. A systematic method of managing tool compensation is required. The name statistical process control (SPC) suggests a technique in which statistics are used to stabilize and control a machining operation. Feedback and control theory, the study of the stabilization of electronic and mechanical systems, states that control can be established by way of a feedback network. If these concepts were combined, SPC would stabilize and control manufacturing operations through the incorporation of statistically processed feedback. In its simplest application, SPC has been used as a tool to analyze inspection data. In its most mature application, SPC can be the link that applies process feedback. The approach involves: (1) identifying the significant process variables adjusted by the operator; (2) developing mathematical relationships that convert strategic part measurements into variable adjustments; and (3) implementing SPC charts that record required adjustment to each variable.

  12. Complex Dynamics in Academics' Developmental Processes in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trautwein, Caroline; Nückles, Matthias; Merkt, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Improving teaching in higher education is a concern for universities worldwide. This study explored academics' developmental processes in teaching using episodic interviews and teaching portfolios. Eight academics in the context of teaching development reported changes in their teaching and change triggers. Thematic analyses revealed seven areas…

  13. Alkyl rearrangement processes in organozirconium complexes. Observation of internal alkyl complexes during hydrozirconation

    SciTech Connect

    Chirik, P.J.; Day, M.W.; Labinger, J.A.; Bercaw, J.E.

    1999-11-10

    Isotopically labeled alkyl zirconocene complexes of the form (CpR{sub n}){sub 2}Zr(CH{sub 2}CDR{sub 2}{prime})(X) (CpR{sub n} = alkyl-substituted cyclopentadienyl; R{prime} = H, alkyl group; X = H, D, Me) undergo isomerization of the alkyl ligand as well as exchange with free olefin in solution under ambient conditions. Increasing the substitution on the Cp ring results in slower isomerization reactions, but these steric effects are small. In contrast, changing X has a very large effect on the rate of isomerization. Pure {sigma}-bonding ligands such as methyl and hydride promote rapid isomerization, whereas {pi}-donor ligands inhibit {beta}-H elimination and hence alkyl isomerization. For ({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2}Zr(R)(Cl), internal alkyl complexes have been observed for the first time. The rate of isomerization depends on the length of the alkyl group: longer alkyl chains (heptyl, hexyl) isomerize faster than shorter chains (butyl). The transient intermediate species have been identified by a combination of isotopic labeling and {sup 1}H, {sup 2}H, and {sup 13}C NMR experiments. The solid-state structure of the zirconocene cyclopentyl chloride complex, Cp{sub 2}Zr(cyclo-C{sub 5}H{sub 9})(Cl), has been determined by X-ray diffraction.

  14. The Complexities of Complex Memory Span: Storage and Processing Deficits in Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, Lisa M. D.; Gathercole, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the verbal and visuospatial processing and storage skills of children with SLI and typically developing children. Fourteen school-age children with SLI, and two groups of typically developing children matched either for age or language abilities, completed measures of processing speed and storage capacity, and a set of…

  15. [Estimation of efficiency of complex-method intestinal therapy using Nitella flexilis test-object for acute intestinal obstruction of various etiology].

    PubMed

    Berishvili, K L; Rummo, O O; Kirkovskiĭ, V V; Tret'iak, S I; Korotkov, S V

    2005-12-01

    The aim of our investigation was to define the presence of correlation between toxicity of intestinal contents and clinical and laboratory indices in the cases of ileus and peritonitis with the use of complex method of enteral therapy. Experiments have been carried out on internodal cells of Nitella Flexilis water plant. Efficiency of the given method (investigation of toxicity of the intestinal content with the use of test-object Nitella Flexilis) has been studied in 25 patients, who underwent correction of morpho-functional status of small intestine. Results of investigation have shown that changes in toxicity of intestinal content reliably reflect the nature and dynamics of the pathobiologic processes proceeding in GIS in treated patients suffering from acute intestinal impassability. Using the method of correction of morpho-functional status of small intestine decreases the role of "Intestinal factor" in formation of endogenous intoxication, which in turn results in early normalization of clinical and laboratory indices, favored process of early post-operational period, decreased rate of lethality and shortened rehabilitation period.

  16. What is it that color determinants determine? The relation between the rorschach inkblot method and cognitive object-recognition processes.

    PubMed

    Kron, Assaf; Cohen, Asher; Benziman, Hagit; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon

    2009-03-01

    We sought to demonstrate a relation between the Determinants in the Rorschach Inkblot Method (Rorschach, 1921) and fundamental properties of the participant's cognitive (visual) system by examining whether the report about Color Determinants is related to basic cognitive processes concerned with color of visual objects. In Experiment 1, we established an object-naming task that is sensitive to the objects' color. Participants were strongly influenced by the object's color, responding fastest when objects appeared in their typical color and slowest when the object's color was atypical. In Experiment 2, we examined the relationship between the Color Determinants in the Rorschach Inkblot Method and the magnitude of the color effect in the object-naming task of Experiment 1. It was found that the effect of color in the object-naming task was correlated with the type of color responses in the Rorschach Inkblot Method. The results support an "early" cognitive account of the Determinants. We discuss implications concerning the theory of the Rorschach and the relation between emotion, personality, and cognition. PMID:19205934

  17. Symbiosis as an adaptive process and source of phenotypic complexity.

    PubMed

    Moran, Nancy A

    2007-05-15

    Genomics has revealed that inheritance systems of separate species are often not well segregated: genes and capabilities that evolve in one lineage are often stably acquired by another lineage. Although direct gene transfer between species has occurred at some level in all major groups, it appears to be far more frequent in prokaryotes than in multicellular eukaryotes. An alternative to incorporating novel genes into a recipient genome is acquiring a stable, possibly heritable, symbiotic association and thus enjoying benefits of complementary metabolic capabilities. These kinds of symbioses have arisen frequently in animals; for example, many insect groups have diversified on the basis of symbiotic associations acquired early in their evolutionary histories. The resulting associations are highly complex, often involving specialized cell types and organs, developmental mechanisms that ensure transfer of symbionts between generations, and mechanisms for controlling symbiont proliferation and location. The genomes of long-term obligate symbionts often undergo irreversible gene loss and deterioration even as hosts evolve dependence on them. In some cases, animal genomes may have acquired genes from symbionts, mirroring the gene uptake from mitochondrial and plastid genomes. Multiple symbionts often coexist in the same host, resulting in coadaptation among several phylogenetically distant genomes.

  18. No Face-Like Processing for Objects-of-Expertise in Three Behavioural Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Rachel; McKone, Elinor

    2007-01-01

    In the debate between expertise and domain-specific explanations of "special" processing for faces, a common belief is that behavioural studies support the expertise hypothesis. The present article refutes this view, via a combination of new data and review. We tested dog experts with confirmed good individuation of exemplars of their…

  19. Different Gestalt Processing for Different Actions? Comparing Object-Directed Reaching and Looking Time Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vishton, P.M.; Ware, E.A.; Badger, A.N.

    2005-01-01

    Six experiments compared the Gestalt processing that mediates infant reaching and looking behaviors. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the positioning and timing of 8- and 9-month-olds' reaching was influenced by remembered relative motion. Experiment 2 suggested that a visible gap, without this relative motion, was not sufficient to produce these…

  20. Rapid e-Learning Tools Selection Process for Cognitive and Psychomotor Learning Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, David Tawei; Huang, Yung-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a decision making process for the selection of rapid e-learning tools that could match different learning domains. With the development of the Internet, the speed of information updates has become faster than ever. E-learning has rapidly become the mainstream for corporate training and academic instruction. In order to reduce…

  1. Performance Measures Analysis (PMA) as a Means of Assessing Consistency between Course Objectives and Evaluation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtiss, Frederic R.; Swonger, Alvin K.

    1981-01-01

    A performance measure analysis process developed by the Competency Based Education Committee of the University of Rhode Island College of Pharmacy to assess the status of the measurement of student performance is described. A taxonomy of levels of learning is appended. (Author/MLW)

  2. A foundational methodology for determining system static complexity using notional lunar oxygen production processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Nicholas James

    This thesis serves to develop a preliminary foundational methodology for evaluating the static complexity of future lunar oxygen production systems when extensive information is not yet available about the various systems under consideration. Evaluating static complexity, as part of a overall system complexity analysis, is an important consideration in ultimately selecting a process to be used in a lunar base. When system complexity is higher, there is generally an overall increase in risk which could impact the safety of astronauts and the economic performance of the mission. To evaluate static complexity in lunar oxygen production, static complexity is simplified and defined into its essential components. First, three essential dimensions of static complexity are investigated, including interconnective complexity, strength of connections, and complexity in variety. Then a set of methods is developed upon which to separately evaluate each dimension. Q-connectivity analysis is proposed as a means to evaluate interconnective complexity and strength of connections. The law of requisite variety originating from cybernetic theory is suggested to interpret complexity in variety. Secondly, a means to aggregate the results of each analysis is proposed to create holistic measurement for static complexity using the Single Multi-Attribute Ranking Technique (SMART). Each method of static complexity analysis and the aggregation technique is demonstrated using notional data for four lunar oxygen production processes.

  3. Evaluation of various processes for simultaneous complexation and granulation to incorporate drug-cyclodextrin complexes into solid dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Gyanani, Vijay; Siddalingappa, Basavaraj; Betageri, Guru V

    2015-01-01

    Insoluble drugs often formulated with various excipients to enhance the dissolution. Cyclodextrins (CDs) are widely used excipients to improve dissolution profile of poorly soluble drugs. Drug-CD complexation process is complex and often requires multiple processes to produce solid dosage form. Hence, this study explored commonly used granulation processes for simultaneous complexation and granulation. Poorly soluble drugs ibuprofen and glyburide were selected as experimental drugs. Co-evaporation of drug:CD mixture from a solvent followed by wet granulation with water was considered as standard process for comparison. Spray granulation and fluid bed processing (FBP) using drug:CD solution in ethanol were evaluated as an alternative processes. The dissolution data of glyburide tablets indicated that tablets produced by spray granulation, FBP and co-evaporation-granulation have almost identical dissolution profile in water and 0.1% SLS (>70% in water and >60% in SLS versus 30 and 34%, respectively for plain tablet, in 120 min). Similarly, ibuprofen:CD tablets produced by co-evaporation-granulation and FBP displayed similar dissolution profile in 0.01 M HCl (pH 2.0) and buffer pH 5.5 (>90 and 100% versus 44 and 80% respectively for plain tablets, 120 min). Results of this study demonstrated that spray granulation is simple and cost effective process for low dose poorly soluble drugs to incorporate drug:CD complex into solid dosage form, whereas FBP is suitable for poorly soluble drugs with moderate dose. PMID:25754112

  4. Practical Study on HVAC Control Technology Based on the Learning Function and Optimum Multiple Objective Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Haruka; Dazai, Ryota; Kaseda, Chosei; Ikaga, Toshiharu; Kato, Akihiro

    Demand among large office buildings for the energy-saving benefits of the HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning) System are increasing as more and more people become concerned with global environmental issues. However, immoderate measures taken in the interest of energy conservation may encroach on the thermal comfort and productivity level of office workers. Building management should satisfy both indoor thermal comfort and energy conservation while adapting to the many regulatory, social, climate, and other changes that occur during the lifespan of the building. This paper demonstrates how optimal control of the HVAC system, based on data modeling and the multi-objective optimal method, achieves an efficient equilibrium between thermal comfort and energy conservation.

  5. Does Target Object Processing Affect Reaction Times in Simple Detection Spatial Cueing Tasks?

    PubMed

    Collings, Raymond D; Eaton, Leslie G

    2016-04-01

    The current study tested the effect of varying target type and target set size during simple detection versions of Posner's exogenous spatial cueing task. The four target conditions consisted of a single letter, a single number, one of four possible letters, or one of four possible numbers. Responses were faster for numbers than for letters, but only when the cue-target lag was short, the target set included more than one potential number, and the cue and target appeared in different locations. These findings suggest that even during detection tasks, responses are influenced by the object features of the target. Methodological implications for spatial cueing studies and other types of visual perception research were discussed.

  6. Social marketing and the creative process: staying true to your social marketing objectives.

    PubMed

    Keller, Heidi; Thackeray, Rosemary

    2011-09-01

    Developing the promotional strategy is often the most exciting and enjoyable part of the social marketing plan. Health communication and social marketing campaigns that combine mass media with the distribution of health-related products, such as child safety restraints and sun protection products, have shown strong evidence of effectiveness for producing intended behavior changes (Guide to Community Preventive Services, 2010). This article discusses the promotional aspect of social marketing plans--the fourth P in the marketing mix that includes product, place, and price--and how public health practitioners can work with creative professionals to be sure that the creative development and execution of promotional messages and materials stay "on strategy" and support their objectives.

  7. On improving IED object detection by exploiting scene geometry using stereo processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Wouw, Dennis W. J. M.; Dubbelman, Gijs; de With, Peter H. N.

    2015-03-01

    Detecting changes in the environment with respect to an earlier data acquisition is important for several applications, such as finding Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs). We explore and evaluate the benefit of depth sensing in the context of automatic change detection, where an existing monocular system is extended with a second camera in a fixed stereo setup. We then propose an alternative frame registration that exploits scene geometry, in particular the ground plane. Furthermore, change characterization is applied to localized depth maps to distinguish between 3D physical changes and shadows, which solves one of the main challenges of a monocular system. The proposed system is evaluated on real-world acquisitions, containing geo-tagged test objects of 18 18 9 cm up to a distance of 60 meters. The proposed extensions lead to a significant reduction of the false-alarm rate by a factor of 3, while simultaneously improving the detection score with 5%.

  8. Social marketing and the creative process: staying true to your social marketing objectives.

    PubMed

    Keller, Heidi; Thackeray, Rosemary

    2011-09-01

    Developing the promotional strategy is often the most exciting and enjoyable part of the social marketing plan. Health communication and social marketing campaigns that combine mass media with the distribution of health-related products, such as child safety restraints and sun protection products, have shown strong evidence of effectiveness for producing intended behavior changes (Guide to Community Preventive Services, 2010). This article discusses the promotional aspect of social marketing plans--the fourth P in the marketing mix that includes product, place, and price--and how public health practitioners can work with creative professionals to be sure that the creative development and execution of promotional messages and materials stay "on strategy" and support their objectives. PMID:21955821

  9. Patient flow scorecards capture complexity in the patient flow process.

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    To get a larger, more holistic view of the patient flow process, a multidisciplinary improvement team at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) developed a five-domain patient flow scorecard. Each domain has several weighted sub-metrics that add up to 20 points, so the maximum number of points in the composite score is 100. Improvement team leaders say the approach has helped them home in on specific reasons for hold-ups so that resources can be focused in the most effective way. The "ED and ED-to-inpatient transition" domain includes eight sub-metrics that cover five specific time intervals, the leave-without-being-seen (LWBS) rate, and two adjustment measures that are used to account for high volumes and high admission rates from the ED. The other domains cover bed management, the discharge process, room turnover and environmental services, and scheduling and utilization. Administrators say it is important to establish metrics that can be captured easily along with entry points that tie in with workflows.

  10. Space Launch System Complex Decision-Making Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyles, Garry; Flores, Tim; Hundley, Jason; Monk, Timothy; Feldman,Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The Space Shuttle program has ended and elements of the Constellation Program have either been cancelled or transitioned to new NASA exploration endeavors. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has worked diligently to select an optimum configuration for the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low earth orbit (LEO) large-scale missions for the next several decades. From Fall 2010 until Spring 2011, an SLS decision-making framework was formulated, tested, fully documented, and applied to multiple SLS vehicle concepts at NASA from previous exploration architecture studies. This was a multistep process that involved performing figure of merit (FOM)-based assessments, creating Pass/Fail gates based on draft threshold requirements, performing a margin-based assessment with supporting statistical analyses, and performing sensitivity analysis on each. This paper focuses on the various steps and methods of this process (rather than specific data) that allowed for competing concepts to be compared across a variety of launch vehicle metrics in support of the successful completion of the SLS Mission Concept Review (MCR) milestone.

  11. Image Processing Method of the Motion-Capturing PSP/TSP for the Measurement of a Free-Flight Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Masato; Goya, Hideki; Miyazaki, Takeshi; Sakaue, Hirotaka

    2015-11-01

    The motion-capturing PSP/TSP system consists of a two-color PSP/TSP and a high-speed color camera. Red and green luminescent images are acquired simultaneously as signal and reference outputs by this system. Simply by rationing the red and the green images, we can obtain a pressure/temperature distribution on the surface of a target object. This system is applied to measure the surface pressure/temperature of a free-flight object. However, an acquired image includes motion blur, focus blur and random noise around the object. We discuss image processing methods and evaluations to optimize those uncertainties. Three types of the edge detect methods are used, which are the sobel, the laplassian and the canny. We will also show the evaluation results to discuss an optimized image processing for the motion-capturing PSP/TSP system.

  12. Relative availability of surface and object properties during early haptic processing.

    PubMed

    Lederman, S J; Klatzky, R L

    1997-12-01

    How the relative order in which 4 property classes of haptically perceived surfaces becomes available for processing after initial contact was studied. The classes included material, abrupt-surface discontinuity, relative orientation, and continuous 3-D surface contour properties. Relative accessibility was evaluated by using the slopes of haptic search functions obtained with a modified version of A. Treisman's (A. Treisman & S. Gormican, 1988) visual pop-out paradigm; the y0 intercepts were used to confirm and fine-tune order of accessibility. Target and distractors differed markedly in terms of their value on a single dimension. The results of 15 experiments show that coarse intensive discriminations are haptically processed early on. In marked contrast, most spatially encoded dimensions become accessible relatively later, sometimes considerably so. PMID:9425675

  13. Dimensional Stability of Complex Shapes Manufactured by the VARTM Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubert, Pascal; Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Pipes, R. Byron

    2002-01-01

    The vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process is a cost effective, innovative method that is being considered for manufacture of large aircraft-quality components where high mechanical properties and dimensional tolerance are essential. In the present work, carbon fiber SAERTEX fabric/SI-ZG-5A epoxy resin C-shaped laminates were manufactured by VARTM using different cure cycles followed by the same post-cure cycle. The final part thickness was uniform except at the corner were thinning was observed. The cure cycle selected is shown to significantly affect the part spring-in and a long cycle at 66 C followed by a 178 C post-cure produced a part with negligible spring-in.

  14. Investigation of cu-BTA complex formation during Cu chemical mechanical planarization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Byoung-Jun; Shima, Shohei; Hamada, Satomi; Park, Jin-Goo

    2016-10-01

    The effect of Cu surface conditions on Cu-BTA complex formation was investigated using contact angle, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and XPS measurements which is of interest to Cu Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) process. During Cu CMP process BTA is widely used as a corrosion inhibitor, reacts with Cu and forms a strong Cu-BTA complex. Thus, it is very essential to remove Cu-BTA complex during post-Cu CMP cleaning process as Cu-BTA complex causes severe problems such as particle contamination and watermark due to its hydrophobic nature. In this report, the Cu-BTA complex formation at various Cu surfaces (as received, pure Cu and Cu oxide) was investigated in order to understand its adsorption reaction and develop effective post-Cu CMP cleaning process.

  15. Visual processing in Alzheimer's disease: surface detail and colour fail to aid object identification.

    PubMed

    Adlington, Rebecca L; Laws, Keith R; Gale, Tim M

    2009-10-01

    It has been suggested that object recognition in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) may be strongly influenced both by image format (e.g. colour vs. line-drawn) and by low-level visual impairments. To examine these notions, we tested basic visual functioning and picture naming in 41 AD patients and 40 healthy elderly controls. Picture naming was examined using 105 images representing a wide range of living and nonliving subcategories (from the Hatfield image test [HIT]: [Adlington, R. A., Laws, K. R., & Gale, T. M. (in press). The Hatfield image test (HIT): A new picture test and norms for experimental and clinical use. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology]), with each item presented in colour, greyscale, or line-drawn formats. Whilst naming for elderly controls improved linearly with the addition of surface detail and colour, AD patients showed no benefit from the addition of either surface information or colour. Additionally, controls showed a significant category by format interaction; however, the same profile did not emerge for AD patients. Finally, AD patients showed widespread and significant impairment on tasks of visual functioning, and low-level visual impairment was predictive of patient naming. PMID:19450614

  16. Complex physiological and molecular processes underlying root gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Rujin; Guan, Changhui; Boonsirichai, Kanokporn; Masson, Patrick H.

    2002-01-01

    Gravitropism allows plant organs to guide their growth in relation to the gravity vector. For most roots, this response to gravity allows downward growth into soil where water and nutrients are available for plant growth and development. The primary site for gravity sensing in roots includes the root cap and appears to involve the sedimentation of amyloplasts within the columella cells. This process triggers a signal transduction pathway that promotes both an acidification of the wall around the columella cells, an alkalinization of the columella cytoplasm, and the development of a lateral polarity across the root cap that allows for the establishment of a lateral auxin gradient. This gradient is then transmitted to the elongation zones where it triggers a differential cellular elongation on opposite flanks of the central elongation zone, responsible for part of the gravitropic curvature. Recent findings also suggest the involvement of a secondary site/mechanism of gravity sensing for gravitropism in roots, and the possibility that the early phases of graviresponse, which involve differential elongation on opposite flanks of the distal elongation zone, might be independent of this auxin gradient. This review discusses our current understanding of the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying these various phases of the gravitropic response in roots.

  17. Objective measures of subjective experience: the use of therapist notes in process-outcome research.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Wilma; Maskit, Bernard; Hoffman, Leon

    2012-06-01

    Computerized linguistic measures of emotional engagement, and reflective and affective language, previously applied to session transcripts, were applied to notes of 14 treatments by candidates under supervision at the New York Psychoanalytic Society and Institute, covering the five decades from the 1950s to the 1990s. The findings indicate a strong relationship between candidates' subjective experience as represented unintentionally in the linguistic style of their case notes and the effectiveness of their clinical work. The treatments were evaluated for effectiveness by experienced clinicians using the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and the Psychodynamic Functioning Scales of Høglend and colleagues; a Composite Clinical Effectiveness (CCE) measure was constructed based on level and change in these measures. The Mean High Weighted Referential Activity Dictionary (MHW), a computerized measure of emotional engagement developed in the framework of Bucci's theory of multiple coding and the referential process, showed a positive correlation of .73 with CCE. The Hostility subcategory of the Negative Affect Dictionary (ANH) showed a negative correlation, -.48, with CCE. In a multiple regression analysis, these two variables accounted for over three-quarters of the variance in the CCE. Implications of the findings for process/outcome research and supervision and evaluation of trainees are discussed.

  18. Object-oriented process modeling for material-at-risk estimation.

    SciTech Connect

    Kornreich, D. E.; Farman, Richard F.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear analytical chemistry/materials characterization operations at Los Alamos support many programs related to national security. These operations work with a wide range of material masses (microgram to tens of grams) and several forms (metal, oxide, and liquid). We have used detailed flowsheets for the chemistry and characterization functions to construct a process model of the facility operations. The model, constructed with the commercially available package ExtendTMt,r acks material amounts and forms through the process of sample receiving through data return. The model calculates equipment utilization, throughput, and turnaroundtime, as well as the material-at-risk and source term as a function of time for facility safety analyses. We see that the source-term is highly dependent on the material holding time, as expected; thus, proper material management policies are essential to operating a facility within regulatory guidelines regarding material-at-risk. In addition, we see that segregation of operations based on the material used can be beneficial to the overall operations.

  19. Approximate method for calculating the radiation from a moving charge in the presence of a complex object.

    PubMed

    Belonogaya, Ekaterina S; Tyukhtin, Andrey V; Galyamin, Sergey N

    2013-04-01

    An approximate method for calculating the radiation from a moving charge in the presence of a dielectric object is developed. The method is composed of two steps. The first step is calculation of the field in the medium without considering the external boundaries of the object, and the second step is an approximate (ray-optical) calculation of the wave propagation outside the object. As a test problem, we consider the case of a charge crossing a dielectric plate. Computations of the field are performed using exact and approximate methods. It is shown that the results agree well. Additionally, we apply the method under consideration to the case of a cone-shaped object with a vacuum channel. The radiation energy spectral density as a function of the location of the observation point and the problem's parameters is given. In particular, the convergent radiation effect is described. PMID:23679539

  20. Decision Making Under Objective Risk Conditions-a Review of Cognitive and Emotional Correlates, Strategies, Feedback Processing, and External Influences.

    PubMed

    Schiebener, Johannes; Brand, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    While making decisions under objective risk conditions, the probabilities of the consequences of the available options are either provided or calculable. Brand et al. (Neural Networks 19:1266-1276, 2006) introduced a model describing the neuro-cognitive processes involved in such decisions. In this model, executive functions associated with activity in the fronto-striatal loop are important for developing and applying decision-making strategies, and for verifying, adapting, or revising strategies according to feedback. Emotional rewards and punishments learned from such feedback accompany these processes. In this literature review, we found support for the role of executive functions, but also found evidence for the importance of further cognitive abilities in decision making. Moreover, in addition to reflective processing (driven by cognition), decisions can be guided by impulsive processing (driven by anticipation of emotional reward and punishment). Reflective and impulsive processing may interact during decision making, affecting the evaluation of available options, as both processes are affected by feedback. Decision-making processes are furthermore modulated by individual attributes (e.g., age), and external influences (e.g., stressors). Accordingly, we suggest a revised model of decision making under objective risk conditions.

  1. Development of a signal processing technique for the objective rating of gear noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blankenship, G. W.; Singh, Rajendra

    A technique for signal processing is proposed that focuses on the content and concentration of energy in narrow-band frequency spectra to rate sources of gear noise. The nature of gear noise is examined, and the rating scheme for gear whine is developed based on measurements of sound pressure, sound power, and gearbox vibration acceleration and velocity levels. Spatially, spectrally, and temporally weighted averages are determined for a range of operating conditions. The weighted averages incorporate results from a range of operating conditions into indices that correlate with subjective response under certain conditions. The method is tested by applying it to single-mesh steady-state applications and multimesh nonsteady-state applications. The present method is shown to be more suitable for studying machinery noise than conventional PNL methods.

  2. 360 degree realistic 3D image display and image processing from real objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xin; Chen, Yue; Huang, Yong; Tan, Xiaodi; Horimai, Hideyoshi

    2016-09-01

    A 360-degree realistic 3D image display system based on direct light scanning method, so-called Holo-Table has been introduced in this paper. High-density directional continuous 3D motion images can be displayed easily with only one spatial light modulator. Using the holographic screen as the beam deflector, 360-degree full horizontal viewing angle was achieved. As an accompany part of the system, CMOS camera based image acquisition platform was built to feed the display engine, which can take a full 360-degree continuous imaging of the sample at the center. Customized image processing techniques such as scaling, rotation, format transformation were also developed and embedded into the system control software platform. In the end several samples were imaged to demonstrate the capability of our system.

  3. Evolutionary multi-objective optimization based comparison of multi-column chromatographic separation processes for a ternary separation.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Jari; Kukkonen, Saku; Sainio, Tuomo

    2014-09-01

    Performance characteristics of two advanced multi-column chromatographic separation processes with discontinuous feed, Multi-Column Recycling Chromatogrphy (MCRC) and Japan Organo (JO), were investigated for a ternary separation using multi-objective optimization with an evolutionary algorithm. Conventional batch process was used as a reference. Fractionation of a concentrated acid hydrolysate of wood biomass into sulfuric acid, monosaccharide, and acetic acid fractions was used as a model system. Comparison of the separation processes was based on selected performance parameters in their optimized states. Flow rates and step durations were taken as decision variables whereas the column configuration and dimensions were fixed. The MCRC process was found to be considerably more efficient than the other processes with respect to eluent consumption. The batch process gave the highest productivity and the JO process the lowest. Both of the multi-column processes gave significantly higher monosaccharide yield than the batch process. When eluent consumption and monosaccharide yield are taken into account together with productivity, the MCRC process was found to be the most efficient in the studied case. PMID:25060000

  4. Consecutive TMS-fMRI reveals an inverse relationship in BOLD signal between object and scene processing.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Caitlin R; Steeves, Jennifer K E

    2013-12-01

    The human visual system is capable of recognizing an infinite number of scenes containing an abundance of rich visual information. There are several cortical regions associated with the representation of a scene, including those specialized for object processing (the lateral occipital area [LO]) and for the spatial layout of scenes (the parahippocampal place area). Although behavioral studies have demonstrated that these image categories (scenes and objects) exert an influence on each other such that scene context can facilitate object identification or that scene categorization can be impaired by the presence of a salient object, little is known about the apparent cortical interactions involved in building the conscious representation of a complete scene. It has been shown that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the left LO disrupts object categorization but facilitates scene categorization. Here, we show that this effect is also reflected by changes in the BOLD signal such that TMS to the left LO decreases BOLD signal at the stimulation site (LO) while viewing objects and increases BOLD signal in the left PPA when viewing scenes. This suggests that these regions, although likely not on a strict hierarchy of bottom-up coding, share functional communication likely in the form of inhibitory connections.

  5. Enhanced oil recovery. Improved reservoir evaluation object of sponge coring process

    SciTech Connect

    Mickey, V.

    1981-04-01

    Oil saturation data determined by core analysis have improved. One result is the development of the sponge coring process. In the sponge coring method, the core sample is taken in much the same way as in conventional coring. The major difference is the porous, hard sponge that lines the core barrel. The sponge is so porous (approximately 80%) that cigarette smoke can be blown through it. It has one full darcy permeability and is oil-wet. The sponge is inside a thin polyvinyl chloride liner with small perforations in it. As the sponge core barrel is run into the hole, the sponge becomes wet with drilling fluid, usually water. Any oil in the core being forced out by the water and the reduction in pressure as the core is brought to surface is caught by the sponge. Since it is oil-wet the oil is retained. But water is forced out the small perforations in the liner. At the surface the 20-ft core is cut into 5-ft sections and put into special containers filled with fluid from the formation. That keeps the core in standard condition. Even much of the gas in solution remains in the core. This is noted during capping operations as the cap is forced back until the glue on it holds and seals the tube.

  6. Understanding the implementation of complex interventions in health care: the normalization process model

    PubMed Central

    May, Carl; Finch, Tracy; Mair, Frances; Ballini, Luciana; Dowrick, Christopher; Eccles, Martin; Gask, Linda; MacFarlane, Anne; Murray, Elizabeth; Rapley, Tim; Rogers, Anne; Treweek, Shaun; Wallace, Paul; Anderson, George; Burns, Jo; Heaven, Ben

    2007-01-01

    Background The Normalization Process Model is a theoretical model that assists in explaining the processes by which complex interventions become routinely embedded in health care practice. It offers a framework for process evaluation and also for comparative studies of complex interventions. It focuses on the factors that promote or inhibit the routine embedding of complex interventions in health care practice. Methods A formal theory structure is used to define the model, and its internal causal relations and mechanisms. The model is broken down to show that it is consistent and adequate in generating accurate description, systematic explanation, and the production of rational knowledge claims about the workability and integration of complex interventions. Results The model explains the normalization of complex interventions by reference to four factors demonstrated to promote or inhibit the operationalization and embedding of complex interventions (interactional workability, relational integration, skill-set workability, and contextual integration). Conclusion The model is consistent and adequate. Repeated calls for theoretically sound process evaluations in randomized controlled trials of complex interventions, and policy-makers who call for a proper understanding of implementation processes, emphasize the value of conceptual tools like the Normalization Process Model. PMID:17880693

  7. Du syntagme nominal aux objets-de-discours: SN complexes, nominalisations, anaphores. (From nominal syntagma to Objects of Discourse: SN Complexes, Nominalizations, Anaphora).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrendonner, Alain, Ed.; Reichler-Beguelin, Marie-Jose, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Papers on nominal syntagma as objects in discourse include: "Quelques notions utiles a la semantique des descripteurs nominaux" ("Some Useful Notions on the semantics of Nominal Descriptors") (Alain Berrendonner); "Note sur le statut semantique et la fonction de quelques relatives integrees" ("Note on the Semantic Rule and the Function of Several…

  8. Improving the normalization of complex interventions: measure development based on normalization process theory (NoMAD): study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding implementation processes is key to ensuring that complex interventions in healthcare are taken up in practice and thus maximize intended benefits for service provision and (ultimately) care to patients. Normalization Process Theory (NPT) provides a framework for understanding how a new intervention becomes part of normal practice. This study aims to develop and validate simple generic tools derived from NPT, to be used to improve the implementation of complex healthcare interventions. Objectives The objectives of this study are to: develop a set of NPT-based measures and formatively evaluate their use for identifying implementation problems and monitoring progress; conduct preliminary evaluation of these measures across a range of interventions and contexts, and identify factors that affect this process; explore the utility of these measures for predicting outcomes; and develop an online users’ manual for the measures. Methods A combination of qualitative (workshops, item development, user feedback, cognitive interviews) and quantitative (survey) methods will be used to develop NPT measures, and test the utility of the measures in six healthcare intervention settings. Discussion The measures developed in the study will be available for use by those involved in planning, implementing, and evaluating complex interventions in healthcare and have the potential to enhance the chances of their implementation, leading to sustained changes in working practices. PMID:23578304

  9. The Use of Play Expansions to Increase the Diversity and Complexity of Object Play in Young Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Jennifer R.; Kaiser, Ann P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if an intervention consisting of contingently imitating play, modeling expansions of play actions, and describing play actions increased the diversity of object play in young children with disabilities. The multicomponent intervention was introduced in a multiple-probe design across three young children…

  10. Multi-objective LQR with optimum weight selection to design FOPID controllers for delayed fractional order processes.

    PubMed

    Das, Saptarshi; Pan, Indranil; Das, Shantanu

    2015-09-01

    An optimal trade-off design for fractional order (FO)-PID controller is proposed with a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) based technique using two conflicting time domain objectives. A class of delayed FO systems with single non-integer order element, exhibiting both sluggish and oscillatory open loop responses, have been controlled here. The FO time delay processes are handled within a multi-objective optimization (MOO) formalism of LQR based FOPID design. A comparison is made between two contemporary approaches of stabilizing time-delay systems withinLQR. The MOO control design methodology yields the Pareto optimal trade-off solutions between the tracking performance and total variation (TV) of the control signal. Tuning rules are formed for the optimal LQR-FOPID controller parameters, using median of the non-dominated Pareto solutions to handle delayed FO processes.

  11. Children's Verbal Working Memory: Role of Processing Complexity in Predicting Spoken Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magimairaj, Beula M.; Montgomery, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the role of processing complexity of verbal working memory tasks in predicting spoken sentence comprehension in typically developing children. Of interest was whether simple and more complex working memory tasks have similar or different power in predicting sentence comprehension. Method: Sixty-five children (6- to…

  12. The Effects of Visual Complexity for Japanese Kanji Processing with High and Low Frequencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamaoka, Katsuo; Kiyama, Sachiko

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of visual complexity for kanji processing by selecting target kanji from different stroke ranges of visually simple (2-6 strokes), medium (8-12 strokes), and complex (14-20 strokes) kanji with high and low frequencies. A kanji lexical decision task in Experiment 1 and a kanji naming task in Experiment 2…

  13. Enhancement of Hydrodynamic Processes in Oil Pipelines Considering Rheologically Complex High-Viscosity Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konakhina, I. A.; Khusnutdinova, E. M.; Khamidullina, G. R.; Khamidullina, A. F.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes a mathematical model of flow-related hydrodynamic processes for rheologically complex high-viscosity bitumen oil and oil-water suspensions and presents methods to improve the design and performance of oil pipelines.

  14. CALIBRATION OF SUBSURFACE BATCH AND REACTIVE-TRANSPORT MODELS INVOLVING COMPLEX BIOGEOCHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, the calibration of subsurface batch and reactive-transport models involving complex biogeochemical processes was systematically evaluated. Two hypothetical nitrate biodegradation scenarios were developed and simulated in numerical experiments to evaluate the perfor...

  15. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  16. Quality inspection guided laser processing of irregular shape objects by stereo vision measurement: application in badminton shuttle manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Li; Wang, Shun; Zhang, Yixin; Sun, Yingying; Zhang, Xuping

    2015-11-01

    The quality inspection process is usually carried out after first processing of the raw materials such as cutting and milling. This is because the parts of the materials to be used are unidentified until they have been trimmed. If the quality of the material is assessed before the laser process, then the energy and efforts wasted on defected materials can be saved. We proposed a new production scheme that can achieve quantitative quality inspection prior to primitive laser cutting by means of three-dimensional (3-D) vision measurement. First, the 3-D model of the object is reconstructed by the stereo cameras, from which the spatial cutting path is derived. Second, collaborating with another rear camera, the 3-D cutting path is reprojected to both the frontal and rear views of the object and thus generates the regions-of-interest (ROIs) for surface defect analysis. An accurate visual guided laser process and reprojection-based ROI segmentation are enabled by a global-optimization-based trinocular calibration method. The prototype system was built and tested with the processing of raw duck feathers for high-quality badminton shuttle manufacture. Incorporating with a two-dimensional wavelet-decomposition-based defect analysis algorithm, both the geometrical and appearance features of the raw feathers are quantified before they are cut into small patches, which result in fully automatic feather cutting and sorting.

  17. Comparison of phase-difference and complex-difference processing in phase-contrast MR angiography.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, M A; Ikezaki, Y

    1991-01-01

    The two main phase-contrast reconstruction methods are phase difference and complex difference. The signal-to-noise ratio properties and relative advantages of the two techniques are discussed. It is argued that each processing method has applications in which it is superior, and guidelines are provided to determine those applications. It is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that only the complex-difference method is well suited for processing phase-contrast slabs with use of a projection dephaser gradient.

  18. Assessing the Performance of Computationally Simple and Complex Representations of Aerosol Processes using a Testbed Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fast, J. D.; Ma, P.; Easter, R. C.; Liu, X.; Zaveri, R. A.; Rasch, P.

    2012-12-01

    Predictions of aerosol radiative forcing in climate models still contain large uncertainties, resulting from a poor understanding of certain aerosol processes, the level of complexity of aerosol processes represented in models, and the ability of models to account for sub-grid scale variability of aerosols and processes affecting them. In addition, comparing the performance and computational efficiency of new aerosol process modules used in various studies is problematic because different studies often employ different grid configurations, meteorology, trace gas chemistry, and emissions that affect the temporal and spatial evolution of aerosols. To address this issue, we have developed an Aerosol Modeling Testbed (AMT) to systematically and objectively evaluate aerosol process modules. The AMT consists of the modular Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, a series of testbed cases for which extensive in situ and remote sensing measurements of meteorological, trace gas, and aerosol properties are available, and a suite of tools to evaluate the performance of meteorological, chemical, aerosol process modules. WRF contains various parameterizations of meteorological, chemical, and aerosol processes and includes interactive aerosol-cloud-radiation treatments similar to those employed by climate models. In addition, the physics suite from a global climate model, Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5), has also been ported to WRF so that these parameterizations can be tested at various spatial scales and compared directly with field campaign data and other parameterizations commonly used by the mesoscale modeling community. In this study, we evaluate simple and complex treatments of the aerosol size distribution and secondary organic aerosols using the AMT and measurements collected during three field campaigns: the Megacities Initiative Local and Global Observations (MILAGRO) campaign conducted in the vicinity of Mexico City during March 2006, the

  19. A multi-objective discrete cuckoo search algorithm with local search for community detection in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xu; Liu, Yanheng; Li, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Detecting community is a challenging task in analyzing networks. Solving community detection problem by evolutionary algorithm is a heated topic in recent years. In this paper, a multi-objective discrete cuckoo search algorithm with local search (MDCL) for community detection is proposed. To the best of our knowledge, it is first time to apply cuckoo search algorithm for community detection. Two objective functions termed as negative ratio association and ratio cut are to be minimized. These two functions can break through the modularity limitation. In the proposed algorithm, the nest location updating strategy and abandon operator of cuckoo are redefined in discrete form. A local search strategy and a clone operator are proposed to obtain the optimal initial population. The experimental results on synthetic and real-world networks show that the proposed algorithm has better performance than other algorithms and can discover the higher quality community structure without prior information.

  20. Auditory object salience: human cortical processing of non-biological action sounds and their acoustic signal attributes

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, James W.; Talkington, William J.; Tallaksen, Katherine C.; Frum, Chris A.

    2012-01-01

    Whether viewed or heard, an object in action can be segmented as a distinct salient event based on a number of different sensory cues. In the visual system, several low-level attributes of an image are processed along parallel hierarchies, involving intermediate stages wherein gross-level object form and/or motion features are extracted prior to stages that show greater specificity for different object categories (e.g., people, buildings, or tools). In the auditory system, though relying on a rather different set of low-level signal attributes, meaningful real-world acoustic events and “auditory objects” can also be readily distinguished from background scenes. However, the nature of the acoustic signal attributes or gross-level perceptual features that may be explicitly processed along intermediate cortical processing stages remain poorly understood. Examining mechanical and environmental action sounds, representing two distinct non-biological categories of action sources, we had participants assess the degree to which each sound was perceived as object-like versus scene-like. We re-analyzed data from two of our earlier functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task paradigms (Engel et al., 2009) and found that scene-like action sounds preferentially led to activation along several midline cortical structures, but with strong dependence on listening task demands. In contrast, bilateral foci along the superior temporal gyri (STG) showed parametrically increasing activation to action sounds rated as more “object-like,” independent of sound category or task demands. Moreover, these STG regions also showed parametric sensitivity to spectral structure variations (SSVs) of the action sounds—a quantitative measure of change in entropy of the acoustic signals over time—and the right STG additionally showed parametric sensitivity to measures of mean entropy and harmonic content of the environmental sounds. Analogous to the visual system, intermediate stages

  1. Visual Complexity Attenuates Emotional Processing in Psychopathy: Implications for Fear-Potentiated Startle Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Sadeh, Naomi; Verona, Edelyn

    2012-01-01

    A long-standing debate is the extent to which psychopathy is characterized by a fundamental deficit in attention or emotion. We tested the hypothesis that the interplay of emotional and attentional systems is critical for understanding processing deficits in psychopathy. Sixty-three offenders were assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and fear-potentiated startle (FPS) were collected while participants viewed pictures selected to disentangle an existing confound between perceptual complexity and emotional content in the pictures typically used to study fear deficits in psychopathy. As predicted, picture complexity moderated emotional processing deficits. Specifically, the affective-interpersonal features of psychopathy were associated with greater allocation of attentional resources to processing emotional stimuli at initial perception (visual N1) but only when picture stimuli were visually-complex. Despite this, results for the late positive potential indicated that emotional pictures were less attentionally engaging and held less motivational significance for individuals high in affective-interpersonal traits. This deficient negative emotional processing was observed later in their reduced defensive fear reactivity (FPS) to high-complexity unpleasant pictures. In contrast, the impulsive-antisocial features of psychopathy were associated with decreased sensitivity to picture complexity (visual N1) and unrelated to emotional processing as assessed by ERP and FPS. These findings are the first to demonstrate that picture complexity moderates FPS deficits and implicate the interplay of attention and emotional systems as deficient in psychopathy. PMID:22187225

  2. Complexity in object manipulation by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata): a cross-sectional analysis of manual coordination in stone handling patterns.

    PubMed

    Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; Huffman, Michael

    2011-02-01

    Defined as a spontaneous stone-directed noninstrumental manipulative behavior, and comprised of multiple one-handed and (a)symmetrical/(un)coordinated two-handed patterns, stone handling (SH) is a good candidate for the study of complexity in object manipulation. We present a cross-sectional developmental analysis of SH complexity in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), through the combined investigation of bimanuality, coordination, and symmetry in hand use. Bimanual SH patterns were more frequent than unimanual patterns. Among bimanual patterns, coordinated actions were more frequent than uncoordinated ones. We recorded five asymmetrical coordinated SH patterns with manual role differentiation, a form of hand use reminiscent of complex actions involving the use of tools in monkeys and apes. Bimanuality in SH was affected by body posture. Aging individuals performed less bimanual and less coordinated SH patterns than younger individuals. Our result on senescent males performing less bimanual patterns than senescent females was consistent with sex differences found in the late deterioration of complex manual movements in other species. Although some SH patterns represent a high degree of behavioral complexity, our results suggest that SH behavior is not as complex as tool-use or tool-manufacture in other nonhuman primates and hominids.

  3. Assuring the Quality of Agricultural Learning Repositories: Issues for the Learning Object Metadata Creation Process of the CGIAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zschocke, Thomas; Beniest, Jan

    The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Re- search (CGIAR) has established a digital repository to share its teaching and learning resources along with descriptive educational information based on the IEEE Learning Object Metadata (LOM) standard. As a critical component of any digital repository, quality metadata are critical not only to enable users to find more easily the resources they require, but also for the operation and interoperability of the repository itself. Studies show that repositories have difficulties in obtaining good quality metadata from their contributors, especially when this process involves many different stakeholders as is the case with the CGIAR as an international organization. To address this issue the CGIAR began investigating the Open ECBCheck as well as the ISO/IEC 19796-1 standard to establish quality protocols for its training. The paper highlights the implications and challenges posed by strengthening the metadata creation workflow for disseminating learning objects of the CGIAR.

  4. Apollo Experiment Report: Lunar-Sample Processing in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory High-Vacuum Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    A high-vacuum complex composed of an atmospheric decontamination system, sample-processing chambers, storage chambers, and a transfer system was built to process and examine lunar material while maintaining quarantine status. Problems identified, equipment modifications, and procedure changes made for Apollo 11 and 12 sample processing are presented. The sample processing experiences indicate that only a few operating personnel are required to process the sample efficiently, safely, and rapidly in the high-vacuum complex. The high-vacuum complex was designed to handle the many contingencies, both quarantine and scientific, associated with handling an unknown entity such as the lunar sample. Lunar sample handling necessitated a complex system that could not respond rapidly to changing scientific requirements as the characteristics of the lunar sample were better defined. Although the complex successfully handled the processing of Apollo 11 and 12 lunar samples, the scientific requirement for vacuum samples was deleted after the Apollo 12 mission just as the vacuum system was reaching its full potential.

  5. An eye-tracking paradigm for analyzing the processing time of sentences with different linguistic complexities.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Dorothea; Brand, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger

    2014-01-01

    An eye-tracking paradigm was developed for use in audiology in order to enable online analysis of the speech comprehension process. This paradigm should be useful in assessing impediments in speech processing. In this paradigm, two scenes, a target picture and a competitor picture, were presented simultaneously with an aurally presented sentence that corresponded to the target picture. At the same time, eye fixations were recorded using an eye-tracking device. The effect of linguistic complexity on language processing time was assessed from eye fixation information by systematically varying linguistic complexity. This was achieved with a sentence corpus containing seven German sentence structures. A novel data analysis method computed the average tendency to fixate the target picture as a function of time during sentence processing. This allowed identification of the point in time at which the participant understood the sentence, referred to as the decision moment. Systematic differences in processing time were observed as a function of linguistic complexity. These differences in processing time may be used to assess the efficiency of cognitive processes involved in resolving linguistic complexity. Thus, the proposed method enables a temporal analysis of the speech comprehension process and has potential applications in speech audiology and psychoacoustics.

  6. The Influence of Prior Experience and Process Utilization in Solving Complex Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterner, Paula; Wedman, John

    By using ill-structured problems and examining problem- solving processes, this study was conducted to explore the nature of solving complex, multistep problems, focusing on how prior knowledge, problem-solving process utilization, and analogical problem solving are related to success. Twenty-four college students qualified to participate by…

  7. Using Simple Manipulatives to Improve Student Comprehension of a Complex Biological Process: Protein Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman, Karen; Bartlett, John

    2012-01-01

    Biological systems and living processes involve a complex interplay of biochemicals and macromolecular structures that can be challenging for undergraduate students to comprehend and, thus, misconceptions abound. Protein synthesis, or translation, is an example of a biological process for which students often hold many misconceptions. This article…

  8. Methodology development for the sustainability process assessment of sheet metal forming of complex-shaped products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, D. L.; Kashapova, L. R.

    2015-06-01

    A methodology was developed for automated assessment of the reliability of the process of sheet metal forming process to reduce the defects in complex components manufacture. The article identifies the range of allowable values of the stamp parameters to obtain defect-free punching of spars trucks.

  9. Differential Cortical c-Fos and Zif-268 Expression after Object and Spatial Memory Processing in a Standard or Episodic-Like Object Recognition Task

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Flávio Freitas; Santos, José Ronaldo; Meurer, Ywlliane S. Rodrigues; Macêdo, Priscila Tavares; Ferreira, Luane M. Stamatto; Pontes, Isabella M. Oliveira; Ribeiro, Alessandra Mussi; Silva, Regina Helena

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory reflects the capacity to recollect what, where, and when a specific event happened in an integrative manner. Animal studies have suggested that the medial temporal lobe and the medial pre-frontal cortex are important for episodic-like memory (ELM) formation. The goal of present study was to evaluate whether there are different patterns of expression of the immediate early genes c-Fos and Zif-268 in these cortical areas after rats are exposed to object recognition (OR) tasks with different cognitive demands. Male rats were randomly assigned to five groups: home cage control, empty open field (CTR-OF), open field with one object (CTR-OF + Obj), novel OR task, and ELM task and were killed 1 h after the last behavioral procedure. Rats were able to discriminate the objects in the OR task. In the ELM task, rats showed spatial (but not temporal) discrimination of the objects. We found an increase in the c-Fos expression in the dorsal dentate gyrus (DG) and in the perirhinal cortex (PRh) in the OR and ELM groups. The OR group also presented an increase of c-Fos expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Additionally, the OR and ELM groups had increased expression of Zif-268 in the mPFC. Moreover, Zif-268 was increased in the dorsal CA1 and PRh only in the ELM group. In conclusion, the pattern of activation was different in tasks with different cognitive demands. Accordingly, correlation tests suggest the engagement of different neural networks in the tasks used. Specifically, perirhinal-DG co-activation was detected after the what-where memory retrieval, but not after the novel OR task. Both regions correlated with the respective behavioral outcome. These findings can be helpful in the understanding of the neural networks underlying memory tasks with different cognitive demands. PMID:23986669

  10. Development of a non-contact multi-axis reverse engineering measurement system for small complex objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiou, F. J.; Lai, Y. C.

    2005-01-01

    This study presents the development of a non-contact multi-axis measurement system, which consists of a circular triangulation laser probe system, a multi-axis CNC engraving machine, and a PC, to digitize the 3D profile of small workpieces. The information in the whole measuring system, comprising a personal computer, a CNC engraving machine controller, and a controller of the circular triangulation laser probe, was integrated technically. Three scanning methods for the developed measurement system were proposed to configure the scanning path, namely the multiple-fold scanning method, the rotational scanning method, and the radial scanning method. The homogenous transformation matrix method was used to calculate the data registration of different digitized data sets. The measurement error of the development system was analyzed by digitizing a designed 3D test carrier. The root mean square error was about 0.028 mm and was obtained through a comparison between the digitized, reconstructed data and the measured data obtained with a CNC coordinate measuring machine (CMM). The developed system was applied successfully to the reverse engineering measurement of some small complex models, such as a tooth model and a toy model.

  11. Manipulating the proton transfer process in molecular complexes: synthesis and spectroscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Panja, Sumit Kumar; Dwivedi, Nidhi; Saha, Satyen

    2016-08-01

    The proton transfer process in carefully designed molecular complexes has been investigated directly in the solid and solution phase. SCXRD studies have been employed to investigate the N-H-O bonding interaction sites of the molecular complexes, with additional experimental support from FTIR and Raman spectroscopic studies, to gain information on the relative position of hydrogen in between the N and O centers. Further, the proton transfer process in solution is studied using UV-Visible spectroscopy through monitoring the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) process in these molecular complexes, which is primarily governed by the number of electron withdrawing groups (nitro groups) on proton donor moieties (NP, DNP and TNP). It is found that the magnitude of the ICT process depends on the extent of proton transfer, which on the other hand depends on the relative stabilities of the constituent species (phenolate species). A correlation is observed between an increase in the number of nitro groups and an increase in the melting point of the molecular complexes, indicating the enhancement of ionic character due to the proton transfer process. The aliphatic H-bonding is identified and monitored using (1)H-NMR spectroscopy, which reveals that the identity of molecular complexes in solution interestingly depends on the extent of proton transfer, in addition to the nature of the solvents. The aliphatic C-H-O H-bonding interaction between the oxygen atom of the nitro group and the alkyl hydrogen in piperidinium was also found to play a significant role in strengthening the primary interaction involving a hydrogen transfer process. The conductivity of the molecular complexes increases with an increase in the number of nitro groups, indicating the enhancement in ionic character of the molecular complexes. PMID:27424765

  12. Geomorphological experiments for understanding cross-scale complexity of earth surface processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeger, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    The shape of the earth's surface is the result of a complex interaction of different processes at different spatial and temporal scales. The challenging problem is, that process observation is rarely possible due to this different scales. In addition, the resulting landform often does not match the scale of process observation. But it is indispensable for the development of concepts of formation of landforms to identify and understand the involved processes and their interaction. To develop models it is even necessary to quantify them and their relevant parameters. Experiments are able to bridge the constraints of process observation mentioned above: it is possible to observe and quantify individual processes as well as complex process combinations up to the development of geomorphological units. The contribution aims at showing, based on soil erosion research, the possibilities of experimental methods for contributing to th understanding of geomorphological processes. A special emphasis is put on the linkage of conceptual understanding of processes, their measurement and the following development of models. The development of experiments to quantify relevant parameters will be shown, as well as the steps undertaken to bring them into the field taking into account the resulting increase of uncertainty in system parameters and results. It will be shown that experiments are even so able to produce precise measurements on individual processes as well as of complex combinations of parameters and processes and to identify their influence on the overall geomorphological dynamics. Experiments are therefore a methodological package able to check complex soil erosion processes at different levels of conceptualization and to generate data for their quantification. And thus, also a methodological concept to take more into account and to further develop in geomorphological science.

  13. DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL COMPLEX HYDRIDESSYNTHESIZED VIA MOLTEN STATE PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    Zidan, R

    2006-01-09

    This study developed novel hydrides for hydrogen storage through a novel synthesis technique utilizing high hydrogen overpressure at elevated temperatures denoted as Molten State Processing, MSP. The ultimate goal is to produce materials that have high hydrogen capacity, are stable after cycling and possess favorable thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics compatible with onboard hydrogen storage for automotive applications. In order to achieve these goals the MSP Process was developed and used to modify and form new complex hydride compounds with desired characteristics. This synthesis technique holds the potential of fusing different known complex hydrides at elevated temperatures and pressures to form new complexes having different sorption and thermodynamic properties. The new complex hydrides produced by this method were identified through structural determination and thermodynamic characterization in order to achieve a more fundamental understanding of their formation and dissociation mechanisms.

  14. Complex-valued minimal resource allocation network for nonlinear signal processing.

    PubMed

    Jianping, D; Sundararajan, N; Saratchandran, P

    2000-04-01

    This paper presents a sequential learning algorithm and evaluates its performance on complex valued signal processing problems. The algorithm is referred to as Complex Minimal Resource Allocation Network (CMRAN) algorithm and it is an extension of the MRAN algorithm originally developed for online learning in real valued RBF networks. CMRAN has the ability to grow and prune the (complex) RBF network's hidden neurons to ensure a parsimonious network structure. The performance of the learning algorithm is illustrated using two applications from signal processing of communication systems. The first application considers identification of a nonlinear complex channel. The second application considers the use of CMRAN to QAM digital channel equalization problems. Simulation results presented clearly show that CMRAN is very effective in modeling and equalization with performance achieved often being superior to that of some of the well known methods.

  15. Perceived pitch of complex FM-AM tones--pitch determination process of vibrato sounds.

    PubMed

    Iwamiya, S; Miyakura, T; Satoh, N; Hayashi, Y

    1994-09-01

    Pitch-matching experiments were conducted to clarify the pitch determination process of complex FM-AM tones which consist of components whose frequency and amplitude are simultaneously modulated. The pitch is higher when FM and AM of each component are in phase than when they are out of phase. The pitch shift induced by the phase difference between FM and AM of each component becomes larger as its relative power increases. These experimental results suggest that the pitch of complex FM-AM tones is determined as follows: A complex FM-AM tone is resolved into each FM-AM component by the auditory filter bank. The spectral pitch of each FM-AM component is determined by a loudness-weighted pitch averaging processes. The central pattern recognizer determines the pitch of complex FM-AM tones by integration of virtual pitches derived from the spectral pitches. PMID:7872986

  16. In vivo characterization of the Drosophila mRNA 3′ end processing core cleavage complex

    PubMed Central

    Michalski, Daniel; Steiniger, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    A core cleavage complex (CCC) consisting of CPSF73, CPSF100, and Symplekin is required for cotranscriptional 3′ end processing of all metazoan pre-mRNAs, yet little is known about the in vivo molecular interactions within this complex. The CCC is a component of two distinct complexes, the cleavage/polyadenylation complex and the complex that processes nonpolyadenylated histone pre-mRNAs. RNAi-depletion of CCC factors in Drosophila culture cells causes reduction of CCC processing activity on histone mRNAs, resulting in read through transcription. In contrast, RNAi-depletion of factors only required for histone mRNA processing allows use of downstream cryptic polyadenylation signals to produce polyadenylated histone mRNAs. We used Dmel-2 tissue culture cells stably expressing tagged CCC components to determine that amino acids 272–1080 of Symplekin and the C-terminal approximately 200 amino acids of both CPSF73 and CPSF100 are required for efficient CCC formation in vivo. Additional experiments reveal that the C-terminal 241 amino acids of CPSF100 are sufficient for histone mRNA processing indicating that the first 524 amino acids of CPSF100 are dispensable for both CCC formation and histone mRNA 3′ end processing. CCCs containing deletions of Symplekin lacking the first 271 amino acids resulted in dramatic increased use of downstream polyadenylation sites for histone mRNA 3′ end processing similar to RNAi-depletion of histone-specific 3′ end processing factors FLASH, SLBP, and U7 snRNA. We propose a model in which CCC formation is mediated by CPSF73, CPSF100, and Symplekin C-termini, and the N-terminal region of Symplekin facilitates cotranscriptional 3′ end processing of histone mRNAs. PMID:26081560

  17. The interplay between prosody and syntax in sentence processing: the case of subject- and object-control verbs.

    PubMed

    Bögels, Sara; Schriefers, Herbert; Vonk, Wietske; Chwilla, Dorothee J; Kerkhofs, Roel

    2010-05-01

    This study addresses the question whether prosodic information can affect the choice for a syntactic analysis in auditory sentence processing. We manipulated the prosody (in the form of a prosodic break; PB) of locally ambiguous Dutch sentences to favor one of two interpretations. The experimental items contained two different types of so-called control verbs (subject and object control) in the matrix clause and were syntactically disambiguated by a transitive or by an intransitive verb. In Experiment 1, we established the default off-line preference of the items for a transitive or an intransitive disambiguating verb with a visual and an auditory fragment completion test. The results suggested that subject- and object-control verbs differently affect the syntactic structure that listeners expect. In Experiment 2, we investigated these two types of verbs separately in an on-line ERP study. Consistent with the literature, the PB elicited a closure positive shift. Furthermore, in subject-control items, an N400 effect for intransitive relative to transitive disambiguating verbs was found, both for sentences with and for sentences without a PB. This result suggests that the default preference for subject-control verbs goes in the same direction as the effect of the PB. In object-control items, an N400 effect for intransitive relative to transitive disambiguating verbs was found for sentences with a PB but no effect in the absence of a PB. This indicates that a PB can affect the syntactic analysis that listeners pursue.

  18. Effects of emotional tone and visual complexity on processing health information in prescription drug advertising.

    PubMed

    Norris, Rebecca L; Bailey, Rachel L; Bolls, Paul D; Wise, Kevin R

    2012-01-01

    This experiment explored how the emotional tone and visual complexity of direct-to-consumer (DTC) drug advertisements affect the encoding and storage of specific risk and benefit statements about each of the drugs in question. Results are interpreted under the limited capacity model of motivated mediated message processing framework. Findings suggest that DTC drug ads should be pleasantly toned and high in visual complexity in order to maximize encoding and storage of risk and benefit information. PMID:21707406

  19. The linguistic context effects on the processing of body-object interaction words: An ERP study on second language learners.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jin; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Pei, Xuna

    2015-07-10

    Embodied theories of cognition argue that the processing of both concrete and abstract concepts requires the activation of sensorimotor systems. The present study examined the time course for embedding a sensorimotor context in order to elicit sensitivity to the sensorimotor consequences of understanding body-object interaction (BOI) words. In the study, Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded while subjects performed a sentence acceptability task. Target BOI words were preceded by rich or poor sensorimotor sentential contexts. The behavioural results replicated previous findings in that high BOI words received a response faster than low BOI words. In addition to this, however, there was a context effect in the sensorimotor region as well as a BOI effect in the parietal region (involved in object representation). The results indicate that the sentential sensorimotor context contributes to the subsequent BOI processing and that action-and perception-related language leads to the activation of the same brain areas, which is consistent with the embodiment theory.

  20. The linguistic context effects on the processing of body-object interaction words: An ERP study on second language learners.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jin; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Pei, Xuna

    2015-07-10

    Embodied theories of cognition argue that the processing of both concrete and abstract concepts requires the activation of sensorimotor systems. The present study examined the time course for embedding a sensorimotor context in order to elicit sensitivity to the sensorimotor consequences of understanding body-object interaction (BOI) words. In the study, Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded while subjects performed a sentence acceptability task. Target BOI words were preceded by rich or poor sensorimotor sentential contexts. The behavioural results replicated previous findings in that high BOI words received a response faster than low BOI words. In addition to this, however, there was a context effect in the sensorimotor region as well as a BOI effect in the parietal region (involved in object representation). The results indicate that the sentential sensorimotor context contributes to the subsequent BOI processing and that action-and perception-related language leads to the activation of the same brain areas, which is consistent with the embodiment theory. PMID:25858488

  1. Do the Visual Complexity Algorithms Match the Generalization Process in Geographical Displays?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brychtová, A.; Çöltekin, A.; Pászto, V.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we first develop a hypothesis that existing quantitative visual complexity measures will overall reflect the level of cartographic generalization, and test this hypothesis. Specifically, to test our hypothesis, we first selected common geovisualization types (i.e., cartographic maps, hybrid maps, satellite images and shaded relief maps) and retrieved examples as provided by Google Maps, OpenStreetMap and SchweizMobil by swisstopo. Selected geovisualizations vary in cartographic design choices, scene contents and different levels of generalization. Following this, we applied one of Rosenholtz et al.'s (2007) visual clutter algorithms to obtain quantitative visual complexity scores for screenshots of the selected maps. We hypothesized that visual complexity should be constant across generalization levels, however, the algorithm suggested that the complexity of small-scale displays (less detailed) is higher than those of large-scale (high detail). We also observed vast differences in visual complexity among maps providers, which we attribute to their varying approaches towards the cartographic design and generalization process. Our efforts will contribute towards creating recommendations as to how the visual complexity algorithms could be optimized for cartographic products, and eventually be utilized as a part of the cartographic design process to assess the visual complexity.

  2. On the Minimum Description Length Complexity of Multinomial Processing Tree Models

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hao; Myung, Jay I.; Batchelder, William H.

    2010-01-01

    Multinomial processing tree (MPT) modeling is a statistical methodology that has been widely and successfully applied for measuring hypothesized latent cognitive processes in selected experimental paradigms. This paper concerns model complexity of MPT models. Complexity is a key and necessary concept to consider in the evaluation and selection of quantitative models. A complex model with many parameters often overfits data beyond and above the underlying regularities, and therefore, should be appropriately penalized. It has been well established and demonstrated in multiple studies that in addition to the number of parameters, a model’s functional form, which refers to the way by which parameters are combined in the model equation, can also have significant effects on complexity. Given that MPT models vary greatly in their functional forms (tree structures and parameter/category assignments), it would be of interest to evaluate their effects on complexity. Addressing this issue from the minimum description length (MDL) viewpoint, we prove a series of propositions concerning various ways in which functional form contributes to the complexity of MPT models. Computational issues of complexity are also discussed. PMID:20514139

  3. Application of the Environmental Protection Agency`s data quality objective process to environmental monitoring quality control

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, L.M.

    1995-11-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process was applied to two environmental monitoring networks for the purpose of optimizing field quality control sampling to give the highest quality monitoring data with minimal impact on resources. The DQO process, developed primarily to aid in cleanup and restoration activities, is a systematic approach to designing sampling, and analysis programs with improved efficiency, cost savings, and measureable and traceable data quality. The two monitoring- networks studied had not been subjected to the systematic review and analysis of the DQO process defined by the EPA. The two monitoring networks studied had relied upon field duplicates or replicates as the main source of field quality control data. Sometimes, both duplicate and routine sample were analyzed by the same analytical laboratory; at other times they were analyzed by different laboratories. This study identified some potential inconsistencies between analytical data and reporting limits from two different laboratories. Application of the EPA DQO process resulted in recommendations for changes in the field quality control sampling program, allowed new insight into the monitoring data, and raised several issues that should be the subject of further investigation.

  4. Enhanced and diminished visuo-spatial information processing in autism depends on stimulus complexity.

    PubMed

    Bertone, Armando; Mottron, Laurent; Jelenic, Patricia; Faubert, Jocelyn

    2005-10-01

    Visuo-perceptual processing in autism is characterized by intact or enhanced performance on static spatial tasks and inferior performance on dynamic tasks, suggesting a deficit of dorsal visual stream processing in autism. However, previous findings by Bertone et al. indicate that neuro-integrative mechanisms used to detect complex motion, rather than motion perception per se, may be impaired in autism. We present here the first demonstration of concurrent enhanced and decreased performance in autism on the same visuo-spatial static task, wherein the only factor dichotomizing performance was the neural complexity required to discriminate grating orientation. The ability of persons with autism was found to be superior for identifying the orientation of simple, luminance-defined (or first-order) gratings but inferior for complex, texture-defined (or second-order) gratings. Using a flicker contrast sensitivity task, we demonstrated that this finding is probably not due to abnormal information processing at a sub-cortical level (magnocellular and parvocellular functioning). Together, these findings are interpreted as a clear indication of altered low-level perceptual information processing in autism, and confirm that the deficits and assets observed in autistic visual perception are contingent on the complexity of the neural network required to process a given type of visual stimulus. We suggest that atypical neural connectivity, resulting in enhanced lateral inhibition, may account for both enhanced and decreased low-level information processing in autism. PMID:15958508

  5. Data from eye-tracking corpora as evidence for theories of syntactic processing complexity.

    PubMed

    Demberg, Vera; Keller, Frank

    2008-11-01

    We evaluate the predictions of two theories of syntactic processing complexity, dependency locality theory (DLT) and surprisal, against the Dundee Corpus, which contains the eye-tracking record of 10 participants reading 51,000 words of newspaper text. Our results show that DLT integration cost is not a significant predictor of reading times for arbitrary words in the corpus. However, DLT successfully predicts reading times for nouns. We also find evidence for integration cost effects at auxiliaries, not predicted by DLT. For surprisal, we demonstrate that an unlexicalized formulation of surprisal can predict reading times for arbitrary words in the corpus. Comparing DLT integration cost and surprisal, we find that the two measures are uncorrelated, which suggests that a complete theory will need to incorporate both aspects of processing complexity. We conclude that eye-tracking corpora, which provide reading time data for naturally occurring, contextualized sentences, can complement experimental evidence as a basis for theories of processing complexity. PMID:18930455

  6. Improved motion contrast and processing efficiency in OCT angiography using complex-correlation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Li; Li, Pei; Pan, Cong; Liao, Rujia; Cheng, Yuxuan; Hu, Weiwei; Chen, Zhong; Ding, Zhihua; Li, Peng

    2016-02-01

    The complex-based OCT angiography (Angio-OCT) offers high motion contrast by combining both the intensity and phase information. However, due to involuntary bulk tissue motions, complex-valued OCT raw data are processed sequentially with different algorithms for correcting bulk image shifts (BISs), compensating global phase fluctuations (GPFs) and extracting flow signals. Such a complicated procedure results in massive computational load. To mitigate such a problem, in this work, we present an inter-frame complex-correlation (CC) algorithm. The CC algorithm is suitable for parallel processing of both flow signal extraction and BIS correction, and it does not need GPF compensation. This method provides high processing efficiency and shows superiority in motion contrast. The feasibility and performance of the proposed CC algorithm is demonstrated using both flow phantom and live animal experiments.

  7. Outline of a new approach to the analysis of complex systems and decision processes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zadeh, L. A.

    1973-01-01

    Development of a conceptual framework for dealing with systems which are too complex or too ill-defined to admit of precise quantitative analysis. The approach outlined is based on the premise that the key elements in human thinking are not numbers, but labels of fuzzy sets - i.e., classes of objects in which the transition from membership to nonmembership is gradual rather than abrupt. The approach in question has three main distinguishing features - namely, the use of so-called 'linguistic' variables in place of or in addition to numerical variables, the characterization of simple relations between variables by conditional fuzzy statements, and the characterization of complex relations by fuzzy algorithms.

  8. HIV-1 Tat protein promotes formation of more-processive elongation complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Marciniak, R A; Sharp, P A

    1991-01-01

    The Tat protein of HIV-1 trans-activates transcription in vitro in a cell-free extract of HeLa nuclei. Quantitative analysis of the efficiency of elongation revealed that a majority of the elongation complexes generated by the HIV-1 promoter were not highly processive and terminated within the first 500 nucleotides. Tat trans-activation of transcription from the HIV-1 promoter resulted from an increase in processive character of the elongation complexes. More specifically, the analysis suggests that there exist two classes of elongation complexes initiating from the HIV promoter: a less-processive form and a more-processive form. Addition of purified Tat protein was found to increase the abundance of the more-processive class of elongation complex. The purine nucleoside analog, 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) inhibits transcription in this reaction by decreasing the efficiency of elongation. Surprisingly, stimulation of transcription elongation by Tat was preferentially inhibited by the addition of DRB. Images PMID:1756726

  9. Processing of complex sintered reaction bonded silicon nitride parts by microwave heating

    SciTech Connect

    Kiggans, J.O.; Tiegs, T.N.; Kimrey, H.D. ); Holcombe, C.E. )

    1993-01-01

    Several studies have been conducted over the last several years assessing the use of microwave heating for processing reaction-bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) and sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride (SRBSN). Although SRBSN test specimens up to 500g have been processed by using microwave heating, samples have been limited to simple shapes such as tiles. In this study, microwave packaging techniques were developed to process complex SRBSN parts and multiple samples within a single cycle. Physical and mechanical properties of test samples were measured. Comparison studies were performed using conventional furnace processing to establish baseline values and expected statistical variation.

  10. Processing of complex sintered reaction bonded silicon nitride parts by microwave heating

    SciTech Connect

    Kiggans, J.O.; Tiegs, T.N.; Kimrey, H.D.; Holcombe, C.E.

    1993-06-01

    Several studies have been conducted over the last several years assessing the use of microwave heating for processing reaction-bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) and sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride (SRBSN). Although SRBSN test specimens up to 500g have been processed by using microwave heating, samples have been limited to simple shapes such as tiles. In this study, microwave packaging techniques were developed to process complex SRBSN parts and multiple samples within a single cycle. Physical and mechanical properties of test samples were measured. Comparison studies were performed using conventional furnace processing to establish baseline values and expected statistical variation.

  11. In vitro reconstitution of a highly processive recombinant human dynein complex.

    PubMed

    Schlager, Max A; Hoang, Ha Thi; Urnavicius, Linas; Bullock, Simon L; Carter, Andrew P

    2014-09-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is an approximately 1.4 MDa multi-protein complex that transports many cellular cargoes towards the minus ends of microtubules. Several in vitro studies of mammalian dynein have suggested that individual motors are not robustly processive, raising questions about how dynein-associated cargoes can move over long distances in cells. Here, we report the production of a fully recombinant human dynein complex from a single baculovirus in insect cells. Individual complexes very rarely show directional movement in vitro. However, addition of dynactin together with the N-terminal region of the cargo adaptor BICD2 (BICD2N) gives rise to unidirectional dynein movement over remarkably long distances. Single-molecule fluorescence microscopy provides evidence that BICD2N and dynactin stimulate processivity by regulating individual dynein complexes, rather than by promoting oligomerisation of the motor complex. Negative stain electron microscopy reveals the dynein-dynactin-BICD2N complex to be well ordered, with dynactin positioned approximately along the length of the dynein tail. Collectively, our results provide insight into a novel mechanism for coordinating cargo binding with long-distance motor movement.

  12. Recovery of nickel from aqueous solutions by complexation-ultrafiltration process with sodium polyacrylate and polyethylenimine.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jiahui; Qin, Shu; Davidson, Joshua; Li, Wenxi; He, Yiliang; Zhou, H Susan

    2013-01-15

    The recovery of nickel from aqueous dilute solutions by complexation-ultrafiltration process with sodium polyacrylate (PAAS) and polyethylenimine (PEI) was studied. Experiments were performed as a function of aqueous pH, polymer/Ni(2+) ratio and background electrolyte concentration. At optimum experimental conditions, the nickel removal rate reaches 99.5% using PAAS and 93.0% using PEI as the complexation agent. The nickel removal rate was found to decrease as the adding salt NaCl concentration increases for both complexation agents. A series of experiments implied that the mechanism could be the compressing electric double layer other than the competitive complexation. Diafiltration technique was further performed to regenerate complexation agents and recover nickel. The nickel removal rates were found to be close to those obtained with the original PEI and PAAS. Finally, Langmuir-type binding isotherm equation was employed to evaluate the extent of nickel bound to PAAS and PEI. The overall results from the two-step process of complexation-UF and decomplexation-UF separation showed that it could be a promising method for nickel removal and recovery from aqueous solutions. PMID:23177250

  13. Managing complexity in simulations of land surface and near-surface processes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Coon, Ethan T.; Moulton, J. David; Painter, Scott L.

    2016-01-12

    Increasing computing power and the growing role of simulation in Earth systems science have led to an increase in the number and complexity of processes in modern simulators. We present a multiphysics framework that specifies interfaces for coupled processes and automates weak and strong coupling strategies to manage this complexity. Process management is enabled by viewing the system of equations as a tree, where individual equations are associated with leaf nodes and coupling strategies with internal nodes. A dynamically generated dependency graph connects a variable to its dependencies, streamlining and automating model evaluation, easing model development, and ensuring models aremore » modular and flexible. Additionally, the dependency graph is used to ensure that data requirements are consistent between all processes in a given simulation. Here we discuss the design and implementation of these concepts within the Arcos framework, and demonstrate their use for verification testing and hypothesis evaluation in numerical experiments.« less

  14. Insights into dynamic processes of cations in pyrochlores and other complex oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Perriot, Romain

    2015-08-26

    Complex oxides are critical components of many key technologies, from solid oxide fuel cells and superionics to inert matrix fuels and nuclear waste forms. In many cases, understanding mass transport is important for predicting performance and, thus, extensive effort has been devoted to understanding mass transport in these materials. However, most work has focused on the behavior of oxygen while cation transport has received relatively little attention, even though cation diffusion is responsible for many phenomena, including sintering, radiation damage evolution, and deformation processes. Here, we use accelerated molecular dynamics simulations to examine the kinetics of cation defects in one class of complex oxides, A₂B₂O₇ pyrochlore. In some pyrochlore chemistries, B cation defects are kinetically unstable, transforming to A cation defects and antisites at rates faster than they can diffuse. When this occurs, transport of B cations occurs through defect processes on the A sublattice. Further, these A cation defects, either interstitials or vacancies, can interact with antisite disorder, reordering the material locally, though this process is much more efficient for interstitials than vacancies. Whether this behavior occurs in a given pyrochlore depends on the A and B chemistry. Pyrochlores with a smaller ratio of cation radii exhibit this complex behavior, while those with larger ratios exhibit direct migration of B interstitials. Similar behavior has been reported in other complex oxides such as spinels and perovskites, suggesting that this coupling of transport between the A and B cation sublattices, while not universal, occurs in many complex oxide.

  15. A Benchmark Data Set to Evaluate the Illumination Robustness of Image Processing Algorithms for Object Segmentation and Classification.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arif Ul Maula; Mikut, Ralf; Reischl, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Developers of image processing routines rely on benchmark data sets to give qualitative comparisons of new image analysis algorithms and pipelines. Such data sets need to include artifacts in order to occlude and distort the required information to be extracted from an image. Robustness, the quality of an algorithm related to the amount of distortion is often important. However, using available benchmark data sets an evaluation of illumination robustness is difficult or even not possible due to missing ground truth data about object margins and classes and missing information about the distortion. We present a new framework for robustness evaluation. The key aspect is an image benchmark containing 9 object classes and the required ground truth for segmentation and classification. Varying levels of shading and background noise are integrated to distort the data set. To quantify the illumination robustness, we provide measures for image quality, segmentation and classification success and robustness. We set a high value on giving users easy access to the new benchmark, therefore, all routines are provided within a software package, but can as well easily be replaced to emphasize other aspects.

  16. Complex Network Structure Influences Processing in Long-Term and Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitevitch, Michael S.; Chan, Kit Ying; Roodenrys, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Complex networks describe how entities in systems interact; the structure of such networks is argued to influence processing. One measure of network structure, clustering coefficient, C, measures the extent to which neighbors of a node are also neighbors of each other. Previous psycholinguistic experiments found that the C of phonological…

  17. A Perceptual Process Approach to Selecting Color Scales for Complex Visualizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslow, Leonard A.; Trafton, J. Gregory; Ratwani, Raj M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has shown that multicolored scales are superior to ordered brightness scales for supporting identification tasks on complex visualizations (categorization, absolute numeric value judgments, etc.), whereas ordered brightness scales are superior for relative comparison tasks (greater/less). We examined the processes by which such…

  18. Processing of complex heteroduplexes in Escherichia coli and Cos-1 monkey cells.

    PubMed Central

    Abastado, J P; Cami, B; Dinh, T H; Igolen, J; Kourilsky, P

    1984-01-01

    Upon transformation into Escherichia coli or Cos-1 monkey cells, heteroduplex DNA made of two sequences containing many nucleotide mismatches yields a wide array of different molecules, some with a patchwork structure. Thus, complex heteroduplexes can be processed to generate many genetic variants. Images PMID:6091108

  19. Toward understanding the thermodynamics of TALSPEAK process. Medium effects on actinide complexation

    SciTech Connect

    Peter R Zalupski; Leigh R Martin; Ken Nash; Yoshinobu Nakamura; Masahiko Yamamoto

    2009-07-01

    The ingenious combination of lactate and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N’,N”,N”-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) as an aqueous actinide-complexing medium forms the basis of the successful separation of americium and curium from lanthanides known as the TALSPEAK process. While numerous reports in the prior literature have focused on the optimization of this solvent extraction system, considerably less attention has been devoted to the understanding of the basic thermodynamic features of the complex fluids responsible for the separation. The available thermochemical information of both lactate and DTPA protonation and metal complexation reactions are representative of the behavior of these ions under idealized conditions. Our previous studies of medium effects on lactate protonation suggest that significant departures from the speciation predicted based on reported thermodynamic values should be expected in the TALSPEAK aqueous environment. Thermodynamic parameters describing the separation chemistry of this process thus require further examination at conditions significantly removed from conventional ideal systems commonly employed in fundamental solution chemistry. Such thermodynamic characterization is the key to predictive modelling of TALSPEAK. Improved understanding will, in principle, allow process technologists to more efficiently respond to off-normal conditions during large scale process operation. In this report, the results of calorimetric and potentiometric investigations of the effects of aqueous electrolytes on the thermodynamic parameters for lactate protonation and lactate complexation of americium and neodymium will be presented. Studies on the lactate protonation equilibrium will clearly illustrate distinct thermodynamic variations between strong electrolyte aqueous systems and buffered lactate environment.

  20. Comparing Simple and Advanced Video Tools as Supports for Complex Collaborative Design Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahn, Carmen; Pea, Roy; Hesse, Friedrich W.; Rosen, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Working with digital video technologies, particularly advanced video tools with editing capabilities, offers new prospects for meaningful learning through design. However, it is also possible that the additional complexity of such tools does "not" advance learning. We compared in an experiment the design processes and learning outcomes of 24…

  1. Collaborative Educational Leadership: The Emergence of Human Interactional Sense-Making Process as a Complex System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jäppinen, Aini-Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    The article aims at explicating the emergence of human interactional sense-making process within educational leadership as a complex system. The kind of leadership is understood as a holistic entity called collaborative leadership. There, sense-making emerges across interdependent domains, called attributes of collaborative leadership. The…

  2. Development as a Complex Process of Change: Conception and Analysis of Projects, Programs and Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2010-01-01

    Development is often understood as a linear process of change towards Western modernity, a vision that is challenged by this paper, arguing that development efforts should rather be connected to the local stakeholders' sense of their own development. Further, the paper contends that Complexity Theory is more effective than a linear theory of…

  3. Further Understanding of Complex Information Processing in Verbal Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Diane L.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Goldstein, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    More than 20?years ago, Minshew and colleagues proposed the Complex Information Processing model of autism in which the impairment is characterized as a generalized deficit involving multiple modalities and cognitive domains that depend on distributed cortical systems responsible for higher order abilities. Subsequent behavioral work revealed a…

  4. Process for the displacement of cyanide ions from metal-cyanide complexes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robinson, Thomas W.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to water-soluble polymers and the use of such water-soluble polymers in a process for the displacement of the cyanide ions from the metal ions within metal-cyanide complexes. The process waste streams can include metal-cyanide containing electroplating waste streams, mining leach waste streams, mineral processing waste streams, and related metal-cyanide containing waste streams. The metal ions of interest are metals that give very strong complexes with cyanide, mostly iron, nickel, and copper. The physical separation of the water-soluble polymer-metal complex from the cyanide ions can be accomplished through the use of ultrafiltration. Once the metal-cyanide complex is disrupted, the freed cyanide ions can be recovered for reuse or destroyed using available oxidative processes rendering the cyanide nonhazardous. The metal ions are released from the polymer, using dilute acid, metal ion oxidation state adjustment, or competing chelating agents, and collected and recovered or disposed of by appropriate waste management techniques. The water-soluble polymer can then be recycled. Preferred water-soluble polymers include polyethyleneimine and polyethyleneimine having a catechol or hydroxamate group.

  5. Critique and Complexity: Presenting a More Effective Way to Conceptualise the Knowledge Adoption Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The process of "knowledge adoption" is defined as the means through which policy-makers digest, accept then "take on board" research findings. It is argued in Brown, however, that current models designed to explain knowledge adoption activity fail to fully account for the complexities that affect its operation. Within this paper, existing…

  6. Complex permittivity measurements and mixing laws of ceramic materials and application to microwave processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershon, David Louis

    The complex permittivity of alumina composites was examined with respect to its dependence on the volume fraction of constituents, microstructure, processing temperature, and processing method. In addition, the effective permittivity of these composites was quantitatively modeled based on the permittivities, volume fractions, and microstructures of the constituents. The studies focused on the complex permittivity of alumina composites, which contained the lossy additives silicon carbide and copper oxide. Two composite systems were prepared by physically mixing alumina and one of the additives. A third composite system was produced by chemically precipitating copper oxide onto alumina. The two synthesis methods produced composites with different microstructures and complex permittivities. The imaginary part of the complex permittivity was generally larger in the chemically precipitated composites than in the physically mixed composites. The dependence of the complex permittivities of the composites on volume fraction and microstructure were compared with several algebraic mixing laws and with three dimensional, electrostatic numerical simulations. The algebraic mixing laws do not take into account for the dependence of the imaginary part of the complex permittivity on absorbed water and microstructure, which is affected by composite synthesis. By incorporating general physical characteristics of the composites, the electrostatic simulations were able to accurately predict their permittivity. Heating some selected alumina composites in conventional and microwave furnaces demonstrate several interesting results. The densification and dielectric proper-ties of the alumina/copper oxide composites varied due to processing temperature. The changes in these properties depended upon preparation method and not on heating method. The density and real part of the complex permittivity of alumina/silicon carbide also varied due to processing temperature and not on heating method

  7. Brain Process for Perception of the “Out of the Body” Tactile Illusion for Virtual Object Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Jin; Lee, Jaedong; Kim, Chi Jung; Kim, Gerard J.; Kim, Eun-Soo; Whang, Mincheol

    2015-01-01

    “Out of the body” tactile illusion refers to the phenomenon in which one can perceive tactility as if emanating from a location external to the body without any stimulator present there. Taking advantage of such a tactile illusion is one way to provide and realize richer interaction feedback without employing and placing actuators directly at all stimulation target points. However, to further explore its potential, it is important to better understand the underlying physiological and neural mechanism. As such, we measured the brain wave patterns during such tactile illusion and mapped out the corresponding brain activation areas. Participants were given stimulations at different levels with the intention to create veridical (i.e., non-illusory) and phantom sensations at different locations along an external hand-held virtual ruler. The experimental data and analysis indicate that both veridical and illusory sensations involve, among others, the parietal lobe, one of the most important components in the tactile information pathway. In addition, we found that as for the illusory sensation, there is an additional processing resulting in the delay for the ERP (event-related potential) and involvement by the limbic lobe. These point to regarding illusion as a memory and recognition task as a possible explanation. The present study demonstrated some basic understanding; how humans process “virtual” objects and the way associated tactile illusion is generated will be valuable for HCI (Human-Computer Interaction). PMID:25835301

  8. Process Management and Exception Handling in Multiprocessor Operating Systems Using Object-Oriented Design Techniques. Revised Sep. 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Vincent; Johnston, Gary; Campbell, Roy

    1988-01-01

    The programming of the interrupt handling mechanisms, process switching primitives, scheduling mechanism, and synchronization primitives of an operating system for a multiprocessor require both efficient code in order to support the needs of high- performance or real-time applications and careful organization to facilitate maintenance. Although many advantages have been claimed for object-oriented class hierarchical languages and their corresponding design methodologies, the application of these techniques to the design of the primitives within an operating system has not been widely demonstrated. To investigate the role of class hierarchical design in systems programming, the authors have constructed the Choices multiprocessor operating system architecture the C++ programming language. During the implementation, it was found that many operating system design concerns can be represented advantageously using a class hierarchical approach, including: the separation of mechanism and policy; the organization of an operating system into layers, each of which represents an abstract machine; and the notions of process and exception management. In this paper, we discuss an implementation of the low-level primitives of this system and outline the strategy by which we developed our solution.

  9. A method to chaining web processing service on the active BPEL engine to implement complex geographic processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinguang; Fan, Hong; Fan, Minghu; Li, Shuangqing

    2009-10-01

    The specification of OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) Web Processing Service (WPS)[1] puts forward some uniform interfaces to manage, browse, query and perform kinds of Geographic disposal. At present, most of the WPS services implementing the interfaces can be called only based on HTTP GET/POST requests. This situation makes it difficult for us to vastly composite, integrate and reuse these atomic services, through Business Process Execution Language (BPEL)[2] that has been very mature. This paper brings forward a method to better solve the problem, and, at the same time, a composite process is carried out by chaining the atomic services of WPS to implement the complex Geographic data disposal, which proves the effectiveness of the method.

  10. Digging through model complexity: using hierarchical models to uncover evolutionary processes in the wild.

    PubMed

    Buoro, M; Prévost, E; Gimenez, O

    2012-10-01

    The growing interest for studying questions in the wild requires acknowledging that eco-evolutionary processes are complex, hierarchically structured and often partially observed or with measurement error. These issues have long been ignored in evolutionary biology, which might have led to flawed inference when addressing evolutionary questions. Hierarchical modelling (HM) has been proposed as a generic statistical framework to deal with complexity in ecological data and account for uncertainty. However, to date, HM has seldom been used to investigate evolutionary mechanisms possibly underlying observed patterns. Here, we contend the HM approach offers a relevant approach for the study of eco-evolutionary processes in the wild by confronting formal theories to empirical data through proper statistical inference. Studying eco-evolutionary processes requires considering the complete and often complex life histories of organisms. We show how this can be achieved by combining sequentially all life-history components and all available sources of information through HM. We demonstrate how eco-evolutionary processes may be poorly inferred or even missed without using the full potential of HM. As a case study, we use the Atlantic salmon and data on wild marked juveniles. We assess a reaction norm for migration and two potential trade-offs for survival. Overall, HM has a great potential to address evolutionary questions and investigate important processes that could not previously be assessed in laboratory or short time-scale studies.

  11. Study of mould design and forming process on advanced polymer-matrix composite complex structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S. J.; Zhan, L. H.; Bai, H. M.; Chen, X. P.; Zhou, Y. Q.

    2015-07-01

    Advanced carbon fibre-reinforced polymer-matrix composites are widely applied to aviation manufacturing field due to their outstanding performance. In this paper, the mould design and forming process of the complex composite structure were discussed in detail using the hat stiffened structure as an example. The key issues of the moulddesign were analyzed, and the corresponding solutions were also presented. The crucial control points of the forming process such as the determination of materials and stacking sequence, the temperature and pressure route of the co-curing process were introduced. In order to guarantee the forming quality of the composite hat stiffened structure, a mathematical model about the aperture of rubber mandrel was introduced. The study presented in this paper may provide some actual references for the design and manufacture of the important complex composite structures.

  12. The role of point defects and defect complexes in silicon device processing. Summary report and papers

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B.; Tan, T.Y.

    1994-08-01

    This report is the summary of the third workshop on the role of point defects and defect complexes in silicon device processing. The workshop was organized: (1) to discuss recent progress in the material quality produced by photovoltaic Si manufacturers, (2) to foster the understanding of point defect issues in Si device processing, (3) to review the effects of inhomogeneities on large- area solar cell performance, (4) to discuss how to improve Si solar cell processing, and (5) to develop a new understanding of gettering, defect passivation, and defect annihilation. Separate abstract were prepared for the individual papers, for the database.

  13. Low-complexity perceptual post-processing of MPEG-4 sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Joel; Le Maguet, Yann; Gobert, Jean; Delcorso, Sandra

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents FaDA (Fast Deblocking Algorithm), a low complexity post-processing algorithm that improves the visual quality of MPEG-4 low bit rate videos displayed on mobile devices. Most of the algorithms proposed up to now to enhance the visual quality after the decoder are far too complex for this kind of devices, and unfortunately deblocking algorithms efficiency is tightly related to their complexity. FaDA achieves complexity reduction while maintaining quality thanks to two principles: 1- The artifact correction is driven by Human Visual System properties, 2- A particular attention has been paid on the design of the most consuming parts of the algorithm, following implementation guidelines. We present a complete complexity evaluation that considers not only computational charge, but also number and locality of memory accesses, data dependency, and internal data size requirements. Critical steps of the algorithm were implemented in C and optimized on a TriMedia DSP. The complexity evaluation reveals a reduction by a factor ranging between 2 and 3.5, compared to the reference MPEG-4 informative deblocking, depending on architecture and implementation. Extensive subjective tests performed on both mobile LCD screen and high resolution monitor show that FaDA average visual quality is equivalent to the reference algorithm.

  14. Neuropsychological Study of FASD in a Sample of American Indian Children: Processing Simple Versus Complex Information

    PubMed Central

    Aragón, Alfredo S.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Buckley, David; Barela-Scott, Lindsey M.; Tabachnick, Barbara G.; May, Philip A.

    2010-01-01

    Background While a large body of literature exists on cognitive functioning in alcohol-exposed children, it is unclear if there is a signature neuropsychological profile in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). This study assesses cognitive functioning in children with FASD from several American Indian reservations in the Northern Plains States, and it applies a hierarchical model of simple versus complex information processing to further examine cognitive function. We hypothesized that complex tests would discriminate between children with FASD and culturally similar controls, while children with FASD would perform similar to controls on relatively simple tests. Methods Our sample includes 32 control children and 24 children with a form of FASD [fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) = 10, partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS) = 14]. The test battery measures general cognitive ability, verbal fluency, executive functioning, memory, and fine motor skills. Results Many of the neuropsychological tests produced results consistent with a hierarchical model of simple versus complex processing. The complexity of the tests was determined “a priori” based on the number of cognitive processes involved in them. Multidimensional scaling was used to statistically analyze the accuracy of classifying the neurocognitive tests into a simple versus complex dichotomy. Hierarchical logistic regression models were then used to define the contribution made by complex versus simple tests in predicting the significant differences between children with FASD and controls. Complex test items discriminated better than simple test items. The tests that conformed well to the model were the Verbal Fluency, Progressive Planning Test (PPT), the Lhermitte memory tasks and the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT). The FASD-grouped children, when compared to controls, demonstrated impaired performance on letter fluency, while their performance was similar on category fluency. On the more complex

  15. The Evolution of Massive Young Stellar Objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud. II. Thermal Processing of Circumstellar Ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seale, Jonathan P.; Looney, Leslie W.; Chen, C.-H. Rosie; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope spectroscopy of the CO2 ice absorption feature at 15.2 μm toward 41 high-mass young stellar objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). As the shape of the CO2 absorption profile is a measure of both the composition and thermal history of the ice, we have performed a decomposition of the spectral profiles to determine the nature of the CO2 ice. We fit the absorption profiles to laboratory analogues of ice spectra with two different methods: (1) a five-component fit with polar and apolar ices and (2) a two-component fit with a polar and an annealed H2O:CH3OH:CO2 ice mixture. Many of the LMC sources have a pronounced double peak in their CO2 feature profiles analogous to that seen from pure CO2 or annealed CO2 laboratory ice mixtures; these represent the first direct detections of the characteristic double peak in an extragalactic environment. Fits to annealed laboratory ices suggest that the ices around massive LMC young stellar objects (YSOs) have been warmed and thermally processed. We find that a majority of the CO2 is embedded in a polar ice matrix; however, the observations suggest that a lower fraction of CO2 is locked in polar ices in the LMC compared to the Milky Way, which is in agreement with the proposed lower LMC abundance of water ice. In addition, we find that the ices are best fit with laboratory ice mixtures composed of less than 50% methanol, and most absorption spectra can be fit by ices with no methanol. Finally, we corroborate mounting evidence of an enhanced CO2 ice abundance in the LMC relative to the Milky Way, and determine a CO2/H2O ratio of 0.33 ± 0.01 by combining the column densities of these observations with those in the literature.

  16. Chemical-vapor deposition of complex oxides: materials and process development

    SciTech Connect

    Muenchausen, R.

    1996-11-01

    This is the final report of a six-month, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) part of the Advanced Materials Laboratory (AML). The demand for higher performance and lower cost in electronics is driving the need for advanced materials and consequent process integration. Ceramic thin-film technology is becoming more important in the manufacture of microelectronic devices, photovoltaics, optoelectronics, magneto-optics, sensors, microwave, and radio frequency communication devices, and high-Tc superconducting tapes. A flexible processing approach for potential large-scale manufacturing of novel electronic ceramic thin films is desirable. Current thin- film deposition technologies based on physical vapor-deposition techniques are limited in scale potential and have limited control of processing parameters. The lack of control over multiple process parameters inhibits the versatility and reproducibility of the physical vapor deposition processes applied to complex oxides. Chemical vapor deposition is emerging as a viable approach for large- scale manufacturing of electronic materials. Specifically, the ability to control more processing parameters with chemical vapor deposition than with other processing techniques provides the reliability and material property reproducibility required by manufacturing. This project sought to investigate the chemical vapor deposition of complex oxides.

  17. Extracting a symbolic object description from gray-level images using a Kalman-filter-based contour tracer combined with a complex edge-operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Markus; Ley, Dietmar

    1992-11-01

    Usually, gray-level images are arranged as two-dimensional (NxM)-matrices. Tracing its contours is a common way to obtain information about an imaged object, such as position and orientation, or for purposes of object recognition. This paper describes the generation of contour-based object descriptions by edge-detection and contour-tracing. A complex differential operator is used to detect edges in the image. In addition to the gradient, also the local orientation of edges can be computed with an accuracy of approximately 5 degree(s). This edge-oriented description, which is still arranged as a two-dimensional matrix, occupies twice as much memory as the original gray-level image (gradient plus orientation) and there is no knowledge about the course of the contour. In addition to that, in most cases this edge-oriented image is fragmentary, due to illumination restrictions and shades. For this reason the imaged contour is traced using a Kalman-filter-based algorithm. The contour tracer connects and completes these edge fragments. The algorithm is able to follow the course of a contour without any prior knowledge, even if its direction changes erratically. It has been tested successfully in several applications in industrial production testing (for example for controlling an optical range sensor of a 3-D-measurement system in assembly lines).

  18. Impact of Background Noise and Sentence Complexity on Processing Demands during Sentence Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Dorothea; Dau, Torsten; Hjortkjær, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Speech comprehension in adverse listening conditions can be effortful even when speech is fully intelligible. Acoustical distortions typically make speech comprehension more effortful, but effort also depends on linguistic aspects of the speech signal, such as its syntactic complexity. In the present study, pupil dilations, and subjective effort ratings were recorded in 20 normal-hearing participants while performing a sentence comprehension task. The sentences were either syntactically simple (subject-first sentence structure) or complex (object-first sentence structure) and were presented in two levels of background noise both corresponding to high intelligibility. A digit span and a reading span test were used to assess individual differences in the participants' working memory capacity (WMC). The results showed that the subjectively rated effort was mostly affected by the noise level and less by syntactic complexity. Conversely, pupil dilations increased with syntactic complexity but only showed a small effect of the noise level. Participants with higher WMC showed increased pupil responses in the higher-level noise condition but rated sentence comprehension as being less effortful compared to participants with lower WMC. Overall, the results demonstrate that pupil dilations and subjectively rated effort represent different aspects of effort. Furthermore, the results indicate that effort can vary in situations with high speech intelligibility. PMID:27014152

  19. Impact of Background Noise and Sentence Complexity on Processing Demands during Sentence Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Dorothea; Dau, Torsten; Hjortkjær, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Speech comprehension in adverse listening conditions can be effortful even when speech is fully intelligible. Acoustical distortions typically make speech comprehension more effortful, but effort also depends on linguistic aspects of the speech signal, such as its syntactic complexity. In the present study, pupil dilations, and subjective effort ratings were recorded in 20 normal-hearing participants while performing a sentence comprehension task. The sentences were either syntactically simple (subject-first sentence structure) or complex (object-first sentence structure) and were presented in two levels of background noise both corresponding to high intelligibility. A digit span and a reading span test were used to assess individual differences in the participants' working memory capacity (WMC). The results showed that the subjectively rated effort was mostly affected by the noise level and less by syntactic complexity. Conversely, pupil dilations increased with syntactic complexity but only showed a small effect of the noise level. Participants with higher WMC showed increased pupil responses in the higher-level noise condition but rated sentence comprehension as being less effortful compared to participants with lower WMC. Overall, the results demonstrate that pupil dilations and subjectively rated effort represent different aspects of effort. Furthermore, the results indicate that effort can vary in situations with high speech intelligibility.

  20. Impact of Background Noise and Sentence Complexity on Processing Demands during Sentence Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Wendt, Dorothea; Dau, Torsten; Hjortkjær, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Speech comprehension in adverse listening conditions can be effortful even when speech is fully intelligible. Acoustical distortions typically make speech comprehension more effortful, but effort also depends on linguistic aspects of the speech signal, such as its syntactic complexity. In the present study, pupil dilations, and subjective effort ratings were recorded in 20 normal-hearing participants while performing a sentence comprehension task. The sentences were either syntactically simple (subject-first sentence structure) or complex (object-first sentence structure) and were presented in two levels of background noise both corresponding to high intelligibility. A digit span and a reading span test were used to assess individual differences in the participants’ working memory capacity (WMC). The results showed that the subjectively rated effort was mostly affected by the noise level and less by syntactic complexity. Conversely, pupil dilations increased with syntactic complexity but only showed a small effect of the noise level. Participants with higher WMC showed increased pupil responses in the higher-level noise condition but rated sentence comprehension as being less effortful compared to participants with lower WMC. Overall, the results demonstrate that pupil dilations and subjectively rated effort represent different aspects of effort. Furthermore, the results indicate that effort can vary in situations with high speech intelligibility. PMID:27014152

  1. APPLICATION OF FORMOHYDROXAMIC ACID IN NUCLEAR PROCESSING: SYNTHESIS AND COMPLEXATION WITH TECHNETIUM-99

    SciTech Connect

    Amber Wright; Edward Mausolf; Keri Campbell; Frederic Poineau; P. Paviet-Hartmann

    2010-05-01

    Acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) is an organic ligand planned for use in the Uranium Extraction (UREX) process. It reduces neptunium and plutonium, and the resultant hydrophilic complexes are separated from uranium by extraction with tributyl phosphate (TBP) in a hydrocarbon diluent. AHA undergoes hydrolysis to acetic acid which will impede the recycling of nitric acid. During recent discussions of the UREX process, it has been proposed to replace AHA by formohydroxamic acid (FHA). FHA will undergo hydrolysis to formic acid which is volatile, thus allowing the recycling of nitric acid. The reported reduction potentials of AHA and pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) indicated that it may be possible for AHA to reduce technetium, altering its fate in the fuel cycle. At UNLV, it has been demonstrated that TcO{sub 4}{sup -} undergoes reductive nitrosylation by AHA under a variety of conditions. The resulting divalent technetium is complexed by AHA to form the pseudo-octahedral trans-aquonitrosyl (diacetohydroxamic)-technetium(II) complex ([Tc{sup II}(NO)(AHA){sub 2}H{sub 2}O]{sup +}). In this paper, we are reporting the synthesis of FHA and its complex formation with technetium along with the characterization of FHA crystals achieved by NMR and IR spectroscopy. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the complexation of FHA with Tc and the results were compared with previous data on AHA. The first experiment involved the elution of Tc from a Reillex HP anion exchange resin, and the second one monitored the complexation of technetium with FHA by UV-visible spectrophotometry.

  2. General and craniofacial development are complex adaptive processes influenced by diversity.

    PubMed

    Brook, A H; O'Donnell, M Brook; Hone, A; Hart, E; Hughes, T E; Smith, R N; Townsend, G C

    2014-06-01

    Complex systems are present in such diverse areas as social systems, economies, ecosystems and biology and, therefore, are highly relevant to dental research, education and practice. A Complex Adaptive System in biological development is a dynamic process in which, from interacting components at a lower level, higher level phenomena and structures emerge. Diversity makes substantial contributions to the performance of complex adaptive systems. It enhances the robustness of the process, allowing multiple responses to external stimuli as well as internal changes. From diversity comes variation in outcome and the possibility of major change; outliers in the distribution enhance the tipping points. The development of the dentition is a valuable, accessible model with extensive and reliable databases for investigating the role of complex adaptive systems in craniofacial and general development. The general characteristics of such systems are seen during tooth development: self-organization; bottom-up emergence; multitasking; self-adaptation; variation; tipping points; critical phases; and robustness. Dental findings are compatible with the Random Network Model, the Threshold Model and also with the Scale Free Network Model which has a Power Law distribution. In addition, dental development shows the characteristics of Modularity and Clustering to form Hierarchical Networks. The interactions between the genes (nodes) demonstrate Small World phenomena, Subgraph Motifs and Gene Regulatory Networks. Genetic mechanisms are involved in the creation and evolution of variation during development. The genetic factors interact with epigenetic and environmental factors at the molecular level and form complex networks within the cells. From these interactions emerge the higher level tissues, tooth germs and mineralized teeth. Approaching development in this way allows investigation of why there can be variations in phenotypes from identical genotypes; the phenotype is the outcome

  3. General and craniofacial development are complex adaptive processes influenced by diversity.

    PubMed

    Brook, A H; O'Donnell, M Brook; Hone, A; Hart, E; Hughes, T E; Smith, R N; Townsend, G C

    2014-06-01

    Complex systems are present in such diverse areas as social systems, economies, ecosystems and biology and, therefore, are highly relevant to dental research, education and practice. A Complex Adaptive System in biological development is a dynamic process in which, from interacting components at a lower level, higher level phenomena and structures emerge. Diversity makes substantial contributions to the performance of complex adaptive systems. It enhances the robustness of the process, allowing multiple responses to external stimuli as well as internal changes. From diversity comes variation in outcome and the possibility of major change; outliers in the distribution enhance the tipping points. The development of the dentition is a valuable, accessible model with extensive and reliable databases for investigating the role of complex adaptive systems in craniofacial and general development. The general characteristics of such systems are seen during tooth development: self-organization; bottom-up emergence; multitasking; self-adaptation; variation; tipping points; critical phases; and robustness. Dental findings are compatible with the Random Network Model, the Threshold Model and also with the Scale Free Network Model which has a Power Law distribution. In addition, dental development shows the characteristics of Modularity and Clustering to form Hierarchical Networks. The interactions between the genes (nodes) demonstrate Small World phenomena, Subgraph Motifs and Gene Regulatory Networks. Genetic mechanisms are involved in the creation and evolution of variation during development. The genetic factors interact with epigenetic and environmental factors at the molecular level and form complex networks within the cells. From these interactions emerge the higher level tissues, tooth germs and mineralized teeth. Approaching development in this way allows investigation of why there can be variations in phenotypes from identical genotypes; the phenotype is the outcome

  4. Reaction time and rapid serial processing measures of information processing speed in multiple sclerosis: complexity, compounding, and augmentation.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Abbey J; Denney, Douglas R; Lynch, Sharon G

    2011-11-01

    Information processing speed is frequently cited as the primary cognitive domain impacted by multiple sclerosis (MS) and is usually evaluated with reaction time (RT) or rapid serial processing (RSP) measures. The present study compared the efficacy of RT and RSP measures to distinguish between patients with MS (N = 42) and healthy controls (N = 40). The RT measure was patterned after the Computerized Tests of Information Processing and included measures of simple, choice, and semantic RT. The RSP measures consisted of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) and the Stroop Test. Substantial differences in information processing speed between patients and controls were found on all tests, with slightly larger effect sizes for RSP measures than RT measures and for the SDMT than the Stroop Test. Binary logistic regression analyses showed RSP measures performed better than RT measures at distinguishing patients from controls, and likewise, the SDMT score performed better than the scores derived from the Stroop Test. Results are discussed in the context of three effects associated with common measures of processing speed: complexity, compounding, and augmentation. PMID:22040901

  5. Insights into dynamic processes of cations in pyrochlores and other complex oxides

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Perriot, Romain

    2015-08-26

    Complex oxides are critical components of many key technologies, from solid oxide fuel cells and superionics to inert matrix fuels and nuclear waste forms. In many cases, understanding mass transport is important for predicting performance and, thus, extensive effort has been devoted to understanding mass transport in these materials. However, most work has focused on the behavior of oxygen while cation transport has received relatively little attention, even though cation diffusion is responsible for many phenomena, including sintering, radiation damage evolution, and deformation processes. Here, we use accelerated molecular dynamics simulations to examine the kinetics of cation defects in onemore » class of complex oxides, A₂B₂O₇ pyrochlore. In some pyrochlore chemistries, B cation defects are kinetically unstable, transforming to A cation defects and antisites at rates faster than they can diffuse. When this occurs, transport of B cations occurs through defect processes on the A sublattice. Further, these A cation defects, either interstitials or vacancies, can interact with antisite disorder, reordering the material locally, though this process is much more efficient for interstitials than vacancies. Whether this behavior occurs in a given pyrochlore depends on the A and B chemistry. Pyrochlores with a smaller ratio of cation radii exhibit this complex behavior, while those with larger ratios exhibit direct migration of B interstitials. Similar behavior has been reported in other complex oxides such as spinels and perovskites, suggesting that this coupling of transport between the A and B cation sublattices, while not universal, occurs in many complex oxide.« less

  6. Hydrogeologic processes of large-scale tectonomagmatic complexes in Mongolia-southern Siberia and on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Komatsu, G.; Dohm, J.M.; Hare, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    Large-scale tectonomagmatic complexes are common on Earth and Mars. Many of these complexes are created or at least influenced by mantle processes, including a wide array of plume types ranging from superplumes to mantle plumes. Among the most prominent complexes, the Mongolian plateau on Earth and the Tharsis bulge on Mars share remarkable similarities in terms of large domal uplifted areas, great rift canyon systems, and widespread volcanism on their surfaces. Water has also played an important role in the development of the two complexes. In general, atmospheric and surface water play a bigger role in the development of the present-day Mongolian plateau than for the Tharsis bulge, as evidenced by highly developed drainages and thick accumulation of sediments in the basins of the Baikal rift system. On the Tharsis bulge, however, water appears to have remained as ground ice except during periods of elevated magmatic activity. Glacial and periglacial processes are well documented for the Mongolian plateau and are also reported for parts of the Tharsis bulge. Ice-magma interactions, which are represented by the formation of subice volcanoes in parts of the Mongolian plateau region, have been reported for the Valles Marineris region of Mars. The complexes are also characterized by cataclysmic floods, but their triggering mechanism may differ: mainly ice-dam failures for the Mongolian plateau and outburst of groundwater for the Tharsis bulge, probably by magma-ice interactions, although ice-dam failures within the Valles Marineris region cannot be ruled out as a possible contributor. Comparative studies of the Mongolian plateau and Tharsis bulge provide excellent opportunities for understanding surface manifestations of plume-driven processes on terrestrial planets and how they interact with hydro-cryospheres. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  7. Hydrogeologic processes of large-scale tectonomagmatic complexes in Mongolia southern Siberia and on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Goro; Dohm, James M.; Hare, Trent M.

    2004-04-01

    Large-scale tectonomagmatic complexes are common on Earth and Mars. Many of these complexes are created or at least influenced by mantle processes, including a wide array of plume types ranging from superplumes to mantle plumes. Among the most prominent complexes, the Mongolian plateau on Earth and the Tharsis bulge on Mars share remarkable similarities in terms of large domal uplifted areas, great rift canyon systems, and widespread volcanism on their surfaces. Water has also played an important role in the development of the two complexes. In general, atmospheric and surface water play a bigger role in the development of the present-day Mongolian plateau than for the Tharsis bulge, as evidenced by highly developed drainages and thick accumulation of sediments in the basins of the Baikal rift system. On the Tharsis bulge, however, water appears to have remained as ground ice except during periods of elevated magmatic activity. Glacial and periglacial processes are well documented for the Mongolian plateau and are also reported for parts of the Tharsis bulge. Ice-magma interactions, which are represented by the formation of subice volcanoes in parts of the Mongolian plateau region, have been reported for the Valles Marineris region of Mars. The complexes are also characterized by cataclysmic floods, but their triggering mechanism may differ: mainly ice-dam failures for the Mongolian plateau and outburst of groundwater for the Tharsis bulge, probably by magma-ice interactions, although ice-dam failures within the Valles Marineris region cannot be ruled out as a possible contributor. Comparative studies of the Mongolian plateau and Tharsis bulge provide excellent opportunities for understanding surface manifestations of plume-driven processes on terrestrial planets and how they interact with hydro-cryospheres.

  8. One severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus protein complex integrates processive RNA polymerase and exonuclease activities.

    PubMed

    Subissi, Lorenzo; Posthuma, Clara C; Collet, Axelle; Zevenhoven-Dobbe, Jessika C; Gorbalenya, Alexander E; Decroly, Etienne; Snijder, Eric J; Canard, Bruno; Imbert, Isabelle

    2014-09-16

    In addition to members causing milder human infections, the Coronaviridae family includes potentially lethal zoonotic agents causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome. The ∼30-kb positive-stranded RNA genome of coronaviruses encodes a replication/transcription machinery that is unusually complex and composed of 16 nonstructural proteins (nsps). SARS-CoV nsp12, the canonical RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), exhibits poorly processive RNA synthesis in vitro, at odds with the efficient replication of a very large RNA genome in vivo. Here, we report that SARS-CoV nsp7 and nsp8 activate and confer processivity to the RNA-synthesizing activity of nsp12. Using biochemical assays and reverse genetics, the importance of conserved nsp7 and nsp8 residues was probed. Whereas several nsp7 mutations affected virus replication to a limited extent, the replacement of two nsp8 residues (P183 and R190) essential for interaction with nsp12 and a third (K58) critical for the interaction of the polymerase complex with RNA were all lethal to the virus. Without a loss of processivity, the nsp7/nsp8/nsp12 complex can associate with nsp14, a bifunctional enzyme bearing 3'-5' exoribonuclease and RNA cap N7-guanine methyltransferase activities involved in replication fidelity and 5'-RNA capping, respectively. The identification of this tripartite polymerase complex that in turn associates with the nsp14 proofreading enzyme sheds light on how coronaviruses assemble an RNA-synthesizing machinery to replicate the largest known RNA genomes. This protein complex is a fascinating example of the functional integration of RNA polymerase, capping, and proofreading activities. PMID:25197083

  9. One severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus protein complex integrates processive RNA polymerase and exonuclease activities

    PubMed Central

    Subissi, Lorenzo; Posthuma, Clara C.; Collet, Axelle; Zevenhoven-Dobbe, Jessika C.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.; Decroly, Etienne; Snijder, Eric J.; Canard, Bruno; Imbert, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    In addition to members causing milder human infections, the Coronaviridae family includes potentially lethal zoonotic agents causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome. The ∼30-kb positive-stranded RNA genome of coronaviruses encodes a replication/transcription machinery that is unusually complex and composed of 16 nonstructural proteins (nsps). SARS-CoV nsp12, the canonical RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), exhibits poorly processive RNA synthesis in vitro, at odds with the efficient replication of a very large RNA genome in vivo. Here, we report that SARS-CoV nsp7 and nsp8 activate and confer processivity to the RNA-synthesizing activity of nsp12. Using biochemical assays and reverse genetics, the importance of conserved nsp7 and nsp8 residues was probed. Whereas several nsp7 mutations affected virus replication to a limited extent, the replacement of two nsp8 residues (P183 and R190) essential for interaction with nsp12 and a third (K58) critical for the interaction of the polymerase complex with RNA were all lethal to the virus. Without a loss of processivity, the nsp7/nsp8/nsp12 complex can associate with nsp14, a bifunctional enzyme bearing 3′-5′ exoribonuclease and RNA cap N7-guanine methyltransferase activities involved in replication fidelity and 5′-RNA capping, respectively. The identification of this tripartite polymerase complex that in turn associates with the nsp14 proofreading enzyme sheds light on how coronaviruses assemble an RNA-synthesizing machinery to replicate the largest known RNA genomes. This protein complex is a fascinating example of the functional integration of RNA polymerase, capping, and proofreading activities. PMID:25197083

  10. Processing of simple and complex acoustic signals in a tonotopically organized ear

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, Jennifer; Wolf, Konstantin; Kössl, Manfred; Nowotny, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Processing of complex signals in the hearing organ remains poorly understood. This paper aims to contribute to this topic by presenting investigations on the mechanical and neuronal response of the hearing organ of the tropical bushcricket species Mecopoda elongata to simple pure tone signals as well as to the conspecific song as a complex acoustic signal. The high-frequency hearing organ of bushcrickets, the crista acustica (CA), is tonotopically tuned to frequencies between about 4 and 70 kHz. Laser Doppler vibrometer measurements revealed a strong and dominant low-frequency-induced motion of the CA when stimulated with either pure tone or complex stimuli. Consequently, the high-frequency distal area of the CA is more strongly deflected by low-frequency-induced waves than by high-frequency-induced waves. This low-frequency dominance will have strong effects on the processing of complex signals. Therefore, we additionally studied the neuronal response of the CA to native and frequency-manipulated chirps. Again, we found a dominant influence of low-frequency components within the conspecific song, indicating that the mechanical vibration pattern highly determines the neuronal response of the sensory cells. Thus, we conclude that the encoding of communication signals is modulated by ear mechanics. PMID:25339727

  11. Processing of simple and complex acoustic signals in a tonotopically organized ear.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Jennifer; Wolf, Konstantin; Kössl, Manfred; Nowotny, Manuela

    2014-12-01

    Processing of complex signals in the hearing organ remains poorly understood. This paper aims to contribute to this topic by presenting investigations on the mechanical and neuronal response of the hearing organ of the tropical bushcricket species Mecopoda elongata to simple pure tone signals as well as to the conspecific song as a complex acoustic signal. The high-frequency hearing organ of bushcrickets, the crista acustica (CA), is tonotopically tuned to frequencies between about 4 and 70 kHz. Laser Doppler vibrometer measurements revealed a strong and dominant low-frequency-induced motion of the CA when stimulated with either pure tone or complex stimuli. Consequently, the high-frequency distal area of the CA is more strongly deflected by low-frequency-induced waves than by high-frequency-induced waves. This low-frequency dominance will have strong effects on the processing of complex signals. Therefore, we additionally studied the neuronal response of the CA to native and frequency-manipulated chirps. Again, we found a dominant influence of low-frequency components within the conspecific song, indicating that the mechanical vibration pattern highly determines the neuronal response of the sensory cells. Thus, we conclude that the encoding of communication signals is modulated by ear mechanics.

  12. Strategies for concurrent processing of complex algorithms in data driven architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoughton, John W.; Mielke, Roland R.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose is to document research to develop strategies for concurrent processing of complex algorithms in data driven architectures. The problem domain consists of decision-free algorithms having large-grained, computationally complex primitive operations. Such are often found in signal processing and control applications. The anticipated multiprocessor environment is a data flow architecture containing between two and twenty computing elements. Each computing element is a processor having local program memory, and which communicates with a common global data memory. A new graph theoretic model called ATAMM which establishes rules for relating a decomposed algorithm to its execution in a data flow architecture is presented. The ATAMM model is used to determine strategies to achieve optimum time performance and to develop a system diagnostic software tool. In addition, preliminary work on a new multiprocessor operating system based on the ATAMM specifications is described.

  13. Five schools of thought about complexity: Implications for design and process science

    SciTech Connect

    Warfield, J.N.

    1996-12-31

    The prevalence of complexity is a fact of life in virtually all aspects of system design today. Five schools of thought concerning complexity seem to be present in areas where people strive to gain more facility with difficult issues: (1) Interdisciplinary or Cross-Disciplinary {open_quotes}approaches{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}methods{close_quotes} (fostered by the Association for Integrative Studies, a predominantly liberal-arts faculty activity), (2) Systems Dynamics (fostered by Jay Forrester, Dennis Meadows, Peter Senge, and others closely associated with MIT), (3) Chaos Theory (arising in small groups in many locations), (4) Adaptive Systems Theory (predominantly associated with the Santa Fe Institute), and (5) The Structure-Based school (developed by the author, his colleagues and associates). A comparison of these five schools of thought will be offered, in order to show the implications of them upon the development and application of design and process science. The following criteria of comparison will be used: (a) how complexity is defined, (b) analysis versus synthesis, (c) potential for acquiring practical competence in coping with complexity, and (d) relationship to underlying formalisms that facilitate computer assistance in applications. Through these comparisons, the advantages and disadvantages of each school of thought can be clarified, and the possibilities of changes in the educational system to provide for the management of complexity in system design can be articulated.

  14. An Advanced User Interface Approach for Complex Parameter Study Process Specification in the Information Power Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarrow, Maurice; McCann, Karen M.; Biswas, Rupak; VanderWijngaart, Rob; Yan, Jerry C. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The creation of parameter study suites has recently become a more challenging problem as the parameter studies have now become multi-tiered and the computational environment has become a supercomputer grid. The parameter spaces are vast, the individual problem sizes are getting larger, and researchers are now seeking to combine several successive stages of parameterization and computation. Simultaneously, grid-based computing offers great resource opportunity but at the expense of great difficulty of use. We present an approach to this problem which stresses intuitive visual design tools for parameter study creation and complex process specification, and also offers programming-free access to grid-based supercomputer resources and process automation.

  15. Lagrangian and arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian simulations of complex roll-forming processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutzen, Yanick; Boman, Romain; Papeleux, Luc; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formalism is a breakthrough technique in the numerical simulation of the continuous-type roll-forming process. In contrast to the classical Lagrangian approach, the ALE formalism can compute the hopefully stationary state for the entire mill length with definitely effortless set-up tasks thanks to a nearly-stationary mesh. In this paper, advantages of ALE and Lagrangian formalisms are extensively discussed for simulating such continuous-type processes. Through a highly complex industrial application, the ease of use of ALE modelling is illustrated with the in-house code METAFOR. ALE and Lagrangian results are in good agreement with each other.

  16. Complex permittivity measurement at millimetre-wave frequencies during the fermentation process of Japanese sake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouzai, Masaki; Nishikata, Atsuhiro; Fukunaga, Kaori; Miyaoka, Shunsuke

    2007-01-01

    Various chemical reactions occur simultaneously in barrels during the fermentation processes of alcoholic beverages. Chemical analyses are employed to monitor the change in chemical components, such as glucose and ethyl alcohol. The tests are carried out with extracted specimens, are costly and require time. We have developed a permittivity measurement system for liquid specimens in the frequency range from 2.6 to 50 GHz, and applied the system to fermentation monitoring. Experimental results proved that the observed change in complex permittivity suggests a decrease in the amount of glucose and an increase in alcohol content, which are the key chemical components during the fermentation process.

  17. Reaction-diffusion processes and epidemic metapopulation models in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vespignani, A.

    2008-08-01

    The correct description of reaction-diffusion phenomena requires a detailed knowledge of the contact networks defining the interactions between individuals and groups of individuals. For this reason, the study of reaction-diffusion processes has been recently widened with opportune models and methods dealing with the heterogeneity and large scale fluctuations observed in many real world networks. Here we present a brief overview of some recent results on reaction-diffusion processes in complex networks which provide useful insights into the dynamic behavior of epidemic metapopulation models.

  18. Orbiter data reduction complex data processing requirements for the OFT mission evaluation team (level C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This document addresses requirements for post-test data reduction in support of the Orbital Flight Tests (OFT) mission evaluation team, specifically those which are planned to be implemented in the ODRC (Orbiter Data Reduction Complex). Only those requirements which have been previously baselined by the Data Systems and Analysis Directorate configuration control board are included. This document serves as the control document between Institutional Data Systems Division and the Integration Division for OFT mission evaluation data processing requirements, and shall be the basis for detailed design of ODRC data processing systems.

  19. Description of a Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex for the Hanford Site`s radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Nyman, D.H.; Wolfe, B.A.; Hoertkorn, T.R.

    1993-05-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site has changed from defense nuclear materials production to that of waste management/disposal and environmental restoration. ne Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex (MPSC) is being designed to process discarded waste tank internal hardware contaminated with mixed wastes, failed melters from the vitrification plant, and other Hanford Site high-level solid waste. The MPSC also will provide interim storage of other radioactive materials (irradiated fuel, canisters of vitrified high-level waste [HLW], special nuclear material [SNM], and other designated radioactive materials).

  20. Low-complexity PDE-based approach for automatic microarray image processing.

    PubMed

    Belean, Bogdan; Terebes, Romulus; Bot, Adrian

    2015-02-01

    Microarray image processing is known as a valuable tool for gene expression estimation, a crucial step in understanding biological processes within living organisms. Automation and reliability are open subjects in microarray image processing, where grid alignment and spot segmentation are essential processes that can influence the quality of gene expression information. The paper proposes a novel partial differential equation (PDE)-based approach for fully automatic grid alignment in case of microarray images. Our approach can handle image distortions and performs grid alignment using the vertical and horizontal luminance function profiles. These profiles are evolved using a hyperbolic shock filter PDE and then refined using the autocorrelation function. The results are compared with the ones delivered by state-of-the-art approaches for grid alignment in terms of accuracy and computational complexity. Using the same PDE formalism and curve fitting, automatic spot segmentation is achieved and visual results are presented. Considering microarray images with different spots layouts, reliable results in terms of accuracy and reduced computational complexity are achieved, compared with existing software platforms and state-of-the-art methods for microarray image processing.