Science.gov

Sample records for complex object processing

  1. Reducing the complexity of the software design process with object-oriented design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuler, M. P.

    1991-01-01

    Designing software is a complex process. How object-oriented design (OOD), coupled with formalized documentation and tailored object diagraming techniques, can reduce the complexity of the software design process is described and illustrated. The described OOD methodology uses a hierarchical decomposition approach in which parent objects are decomposed into layers of lower level child objects. A method of tracking the assignment of requirements to design components is also included. Increases in the reusability, portability, and maintainability of the resulting products are also discussed. This method was built on a combination of existing technology, teaching experience, consulting experience, and feedback from design method users. The discussed concepts are applicable to hierarchal OOD processes in general. Emphasis is placed on improving the design process by documenting the details of the procedures involved and incorporating improvements into those procedures as they are developed.

  2. The Human Medial Temporal Lobe Processes Online Representations of Complex Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barense, Morgan D.; Gaffan, David; Graham, Kim S.

    2007-01-01

    There has been considerable debate as to whether structures in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) support both memory and perception, in particular whether the perirhinal cortex may be involved in the perceptual discrimination of complex objects with a large number of overlapping features. Similar experiments testing the discrimination of blended…

  3. A flexible object-based software framework for modeling complex systems with interacting natural and societal processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, J. H.

    2000-06-15

    The Dynamic Information Architecture System (DIAS) is a flexible, extensible, object-based framework for developing and maintaining complex multidisciplinary simulations. The DIAS infrastructure makes it feasible to build and manipulate complex simulation scenarios in which many thousands of objects can interact via dozens to hundreds of concurrent dynamic processes. The flexibility and extensibility of the DIAS software infrastructure stem mainly from (1) the abstraction of object behaviors, (2) the encapsulation and formalization of model functionality, and (3) the mutability of domain object contents. DIAS simulation objects are inherently capable of highly flexible and heterogeneous spatial realizations. Geospatial graphical representation of DIAS simulation objects is addressed via the GeoViewer, an object-based GIS toolkit application developed at ANL. DIAS simulation capabilities have been extended by inclusion of societal process models generated by the Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions (FACET), another object-based framework developed at Argonne National Laboratory. By using FACET models to implement societal behaviors of individuals and organizations within larger DIAS-based natural systems simulations, it has become possible to conveniently address a broad range of issues involving interaction and feedback among natural and societal processes. Example DIAS application areas discussed in this paper include a dynamic virtual oceanic environment, detailed simulation of clinical, physiological, and logistical aspects of health care delivery, and studies of agricultural sustainability of urban centers under environmental stress in ancient Mesopotamia.

  4. Modelling and prediction of complex non-linear processes by using Pareto multi-objective genetic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali, A.; Khaleghi, E.; Gholaminezhad, I.; Nariman-zadeh, N.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a new multi-objective genetic programming (GP) with a diversity preserving mechanism and a real number alteration operator is presented and successfully used for Pareto optimal modelling of some complex non-linear systems using some input-output data. In this study, two different input-output data-sets of a non-linear mathematical model and of an explosive cutting process are considered separately in three-objective optimisation processes. The pertinent conflicting objective functions that have been considered for such Pareto optimisations are namely, training error (TE), prediction error (PE), and the length of tree (complexity of the network) (TL) of the GP models. Such three-objective optimisation implementations leads to some non-dominated choices of GP-type models for both cases representing the trade-offs among those objective functions. Therefore, optimal Pareto fronts of such GP models exhibit the trade-off among the corresponding conflicting objectives and, thus, provide different non-dominated optimal choices of GP-type models. Moreover, the results show that no significant optimality in TE and PE may occur when the TL of the corresponding GP model exceeds some values.

  5. Graspable Objects Shape Number Processing

    PubMed Central

    Ranzini, Mariagrazia; Lugli, Luisa; Anelli, Filomena; Carbone, Rossella; Nicoletti, Roberto; Borghi, Anna M.

    2011-01-01

    The field of numerical cognition represents an interesting case for action-based theories of cognition, since number is a special kind of abstract concept. Several studies have shown that within the parietal lobes adjacent neural regions code numerical magnitude and grasping-related information. This anatomical proximity between brain areas involved in number and sensorimotor processes may account for interactions between numerical magnitude and action. In particular, recent studies have demonstrated a causal role of action perception on numerical magnitude processing. If objects are represented in terms of actions (affordances), the causal role of action on number processing should extend to the case of objects affordances. This study investigates the relationship between numbers and objects affordances in two experiments, without (Experiment 1) or with (Experiment 2) the requirement of an action (i.e., participants were asked to hold an object in their hands during the task). The task consisted in repeating aloud the odd or even digit within a pair depending on the type of the preceding or following object. Order of presentation (object–number vs. number–object), Object type (graspable vs. ungraspable), Object size (small vs. large), and Numerical magnitude (small vs. large) were manipulated for each experiment. Experiment 1 showed a facilitation – in terms of quicker responses – for graspable over ungraspable objects preceded by numbers, and an effect of numerical magnitude after the presentation of graspable objects. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the action execution enhanced overall the sensitivity to numerical magnitude, and that at the same time it interfered with the effects of objects affordances on number processing. Overall, these findings demonstrate that numbers and graspable objects are strongly interrelated, supporting the view that abstract concepts may be grounded in the motor experience. PMID:22164141

  6. Recurrent Processing during Object Recognition

    PubMed Central

    O’Reilly, Randall C.; Wyatte, Dean; Herd, Seth; Mingus, Brian; Jilk, David J.

    2013-01-01

    How does the brain learn to recognize objects visually, and perform this difficult feat robustly in the face of many sources of ambiguity and variability? We present a computational model based on the biology of the relevant visual pathways that learns to reliably recognize 100 different object categories in the face of naturally occurring variability in location, rotation, size, and lighting. The model exhibits robustness to highly ambiguous, partially occluded inputs. Both the unified, biologically plausible learning mechanism and the robustness to occlusion derive from the role that recurrent connectivity and recurrent processing mechanisms play in the model. Furthermore, this interaction of recurrent connectivity and learning predicts that high-level visual representations should be shaped by error signals from nearby, associated brain areas over the course of visual learning. Consistent with this prediction, we show how semantic knowledge about object categories changes the nature of their learned visual representations, as well as how this representational shift supports the mapping between perceptual and conceptual knowledge. Altogether, these findings support the potential importance of ongoing recurrent processing throughout the brain’s visual system and suggest ways in which object recognition can be understood in terms of interactions within and between processes over time. PMID:23554596

  7. Reduction of Subjective and Objective System Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Occam's razor is often used in science to define the minimum criteria to establish a physical or philosophical idea or relationship. Albert Einstein is attributed the saying "everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler". These heuristic ideas are based on a belief that there is a minimum state or set of states for a given system or phenomena. In looking at system complexity, these heuristics point us to an idea that complexity can be reduced to a minimum. How then, do we approach a reduction in complexity? Complexity has been described as a subjective concept and an objective measure of a system. Subjective complexity is based on human cognitive comprehension of the functions and inter relationships of a system. Subjective complexity is defined by the ability to fully comprehend the system. Simplifying complexity, in a subjective sense, is thus gaining a deeper understanding of the system. As Apple's Jonathon Ive has stated," It's not just minimalism or the absence of clutter. It involves digging through the depth of complexity. To be truly simple, you have to go really deep". Simplicity is not the absence of complexity but a deeper understanding of complexity. Subjective complexity, based on this human comprehension, cannot then be discerned from the sociological concept of ignorance. The inability to comprehend a system can be either a lack of knowledge, an inability to understand the intricacies of a system, or both. Reduction in this sense is based purely on a cognitive ability to understand the system and no system then may be truly complex. From this view, education and experience seem to be the keys to reduction or eliminating complexity. Objective complexity, is the measure of the systems functions and interrelationships which exist independent of human comprehension. Jonathon Ive's statement does not say that complexity is removed, only that the complexity is understood. From this standpoint, reduction of complexity can be approached

  8. Modeling Electromagnetic Scattering From Complex Inhomogeneous Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, Manohar; Reddy, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    This software innovation is designed to develop a mathematical formulation to estimate the electromagnetic scattering characteristics of complex, inhomogeneous objects using the finite-element-method (FEM) and method-of-moments (MoM) concepts, as well as to develop a FORTRAN code called FEMOM3DS (Finite Element Method and Method of Moments for 3-Dimensional Scattering), which will implement the steps that are described in the mathematical formulation. Very complex objects can be easily modeled, and the operator of the code is not required to know the details of electromagnetic theory to study electromagnetic scattering.

  9. Building complex reference objects from dual sets

    PubMed Central

    Patson, Nikole D.; Warren, Tessa

    2011-01-01

    There has been considerable psycholinguistic investigation into the conditions that allow separately introduced individuals to be joined into a plural set and represented as a complex reference object (e.g., Eschenbach, et al., 1989; Garrod & Sanford, 1982; Koh & Clifton, 2002; Koh et al., 2008; Moxey et al., 2004; Sanford & Lockhart, 1990). The current paper reports three eye-tracking experiments that investigate the less-well understood question of what conditions allow pointers to be assigned to the individuals within a previously undifferentiated set, turning it into a complex reference object. The experiments made use of a methodology used in Patson and Ferreira (2009) to distinguish between complex reference objects and undifferentiated sets. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that assigning different properties to the members of an undifferentiated dual set via a conjoined modifier or a comparative modifier transformed it into a complex reference object. Experiment 3 indicated that assigning a property to only one member of an undifferentiated dual set introduced pointers to both members. These results demonstrate that pointers can be established to referents within a plural set without picking them out via anaphors; they set boundaries on the kinds of implicit contrasts between referents that establish pointers; and they illustrate that extremely subtle properties of the semantic and referential context can affect early parsing decisions. PMID:21666836

  10. Building Complex Reference Objects from Dual Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patson, Nikole D.; Warren, Tessa

    2011-01-01

    There has been considerable psycholinguistic investigation into the conditions that allow separately introduced individuals to be joined into a plural set and represented as a complex reference object (e.g., Eschenbach et al., 1989; Garrod & Sanford, 1982; Koh & Clifton, 2002; Koh et al., 2008; Moxey, Sanford, Sturt, & Morrow, 2004; Sanford &…

  11. SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE FOR DESIGNING PROCESSES WITH MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of multiple objectives is very important in designing environmentally benign processes. It requires a systematic procedure for solving multiobjective decision-making problems, due to the complex nature of the problems, the need for complex assessments, and complicated ...

  12. Visual conspicuity of objects in complex scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boersema, Theo; Zwaga, Harm J. G.

    2000-06-01

    In many everyday situations people have to locate a particular object in a cluttered environment, for instance a routing sign among commercial signs in an airport terminal. The object's conspicuity determines the efficiency of the search. The literature on human visual search does not unequivocally answer the question how a cluttered environment affects target conspicuity. A method was developed and validated to measure target conspicuity and the effect of distractors, using the case of routing signs (blue with white lettering) and commercial signs (non-blue) in large public buildings as a vehicle. The stimulus fields are complex, computer-generated images, which mimic natural scenes in public buildings but have no apparent meaning. Target conspicuity is operationalized as the time a subject needs to locate the target; this search time is derived from the subject's eye movements. To avoid artifacts of perceptual learning, the number of trials per subject is limited. Experiments in which this method was used clearly demonstrated that conspicuity results from the combined action of the object's own physical properties in relation to those of its environment and of the observer's perceptual and cognitive properties and current intention. Thus, conspicuity never depends merely on the characteristics of the visual stimulus.

  13. A SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE FOR DESIGNING PROCESSES WITH MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation and analysis of multiple objectives are very important in designing environmentally benign processes. They require a systematic procedure for solving multi-objective decision-making problems due to the complex nature of the problems and the need for complex assessment....

  14. Emotion and Object Processing in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Henri; Gagne, Marie-Helene; Hess, Ursula; Pourcher, Emmanuelle

    2010-01-01

    The neuropsychological literature on the processing of emotions in Parkinson's disease (PD) reveals conflicting evidence about the role of the basal ganglia in the recognition of facial emotions. Hence, the present study had two objectives. One was to determine the extent to which the visual processing of emotions and objects differs in PD. The…

  15. The Complex Information Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taborsky, Edwina

    2000-09-01

    This paper examines the semiosic development of energy to information within a dyadic reality that operates within the contradictions of both classical and quantum physics. These two realities are examined within the three Peircean modal categories of Firstness, Secondness and Thirdness. The paper concludes that our world cannot operate within either of the two physical realities but instead filiates the two to permit a semiosis or information-generation of complex systems.

  16. Development of Three-Dimensional Completion of Complex Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soska, Kasey C.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) object completion, the ability to perceive the backs of objects seen from a single viewpoint, emerges at around 6 months of age. Yet, only relatively simple 3D objects have been used in assessing its development. This study examined infants' 3D object completion when presented with more complex stimuli. Infants…

  17. Optical apparatus for laser scattering by objects having complex shapes

    DOEpatents

    Ellingson, William A.; Visher, Robert J.

    2006-11-14

    Apparatus for observing and measuring in realtime surface and subsurface characteristics of objects having complex shapes includes an optical fiber bundle having first and second opposed ends. The first end includes a linear array of fibers, where the ends of adjacent fibers are in contact and are aligned perpendicular to the surface of the object being studied. The second ends of some of the fibers are in the form of a polished ferrule forming a multi-fiber optical waveguide for receiving laser light. The second ends of the remaining fibers are formed into a linear array suitable for direct connection to a detector, such as a linear CMOS-based optical detector. The output data is analyzed using digital signal processing for the detection of anomalies such as cracks, voids, inclusions and other defects.

  18. Color Image Processing and Object Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimek, Robert B.; Wright, Ted W.; Sielken, Robert S.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes a personal computer based system for automatic and semiautomatic tracking of objects on film or video tape, developed to meet the needs of the Microgravity Combustion and Fluids Science Research Programs at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The system consists of individual hardware components working under computer control to achieve a high degree of automation. The most important hardware components include 16-mm and 35-mm film transports, a high resolution digital camera mounted on a x-y-z micro-positioning stage, an S-VHS tapedeck, an Hi8 tapedeck, video laserdisk, and a framegrabber. All of the image input devices are remotely controlled by a computer. Software was developed to integrate the overall operation of the system including device frame incrementation, grabbing of image frames, image processing of the object's neighborhood, locating the position of the object being tracked, and storing the coordinates in a file. This process is performed repeatedly until the last frame is reached. Several different tracking methods are supported. To illustrate the process, two representative applications of the system are described. These applications represent typical uses of the system and include tracking the propagation of a flame front and tracking the movement of a liquid-gas interface with extremely poor visibility.

  19. Method and system for producing complex-shape objects

    DOEpatents

    Jeantette, Francisco P.; Keicher, David M.; Romero, Joseph A.; Schanwald, Lee P.

    2000-01-01

    A method and system are provided for producing complex, three-dimensional, net shape objects from a variety of powdered materials. The system includes unique components to ensure a uniform and continuous flow of powdered materials as well as to focus and locate the flow of powdered materials with respect to a laser beam which results in the melting of the powdered material. The system also includes a controller so that the flow of molten powdered materials can map out and form complex, three-dimensional, net-shape objects by layering the molten powdered material. Advantageously, such complex, three-dimensional net-shape objects can be produced having material densities varying from 90% of theoretical to fully dense, as well as a variety of controlled physical properties. Additionally, such complex, three-dimensional objects can be produced from two or more different materials so that the composition of the object can be transitioned from one material to another.

  20. Object Processing in the Infant: Lessons from Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Teresa; Biondi, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    Object identification is a fundamental cognitive capacity that forms the basis for more complex thought and behavior. The adult cortex is organized into functionally distinct visual object-processing pathways that mediate this ability. Insights into the origin of these pathways have begun to emerge through the use of neuroimaging techniques with infant populations. The outcome of this work supports the view that, from the early days of life, object-processing pathways are organized in a way that resembles that of the adult. At the same time, theoretically important changes in patterns of cortical activation are observed during the first year. These findings lead to a new understanding of the cognitive and neural architecture that supports infants’ emerging object-processing capacities. PMID:26008625

  1. Process Architecture for Managing Digital Object Identifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanchoo, L.; James, N.; Stolte, E.

    2014-12-01

    In 2010, NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project implemented a process for registering Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) for data products distributed by Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). For the first 3 years, ESDIS evolved the process involving the data provider community in the development of processes for creating and assigning DOIs, and guidelines for the landing page. To accomplish this, ESDIS established two DOI User Working Groups: one for reviewing the DOI process whose recommendations were submitted to ESDIS in February 2014; and the other recently tasked to review and further develop DOI landing page guidelines for ESDIS approval by end of 2014. ESDIS has recently upgraded the DOI system from a manually-driven system to one that largely automates the DOI process. The new automated feature include: a) reviewing the DOI metadata, b) assigning of opaque DOI name if data provider chooses, and c) reserving, registering, and updating the DOIs. The flexibility of reserving the DOI allows data providers to embed and test the DOI in the data product metadata before formally registering with EZID. The DOI update process allows the changing of any DOI metadata except the DOI name unless the name has not been registered. Currently, ESDIS has processed a total of 557 DOIs of which 379 DOIs are registered with EZID and 178 are reserved with ESDIS. The DOI incorporates several metadata elements that effectively identify the data product and the source of availability. Of these elements, the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) attribute has the very important function of identifying the landing page which describes the data product. ESDIS in consultation with data providers in the Earth Science community is currently developing landing page guidelines that specify the key data product descriptive elements to be included on each data product's landing page. This poster will describe in detail the unique automated process and

  2. Color image processing and object tracking workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimek, Robert B.; Paulick, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    A system is described for automatic and semiautomatic tracking of objects on film or video tape which was developed to meet the needs of the microgravity combustion and fluid science experiments at NASA Lewis. The system consists of individual hardware parts working under computer control to achieve a high degree of automation. The most important hardware parts include 16 mm film projector, a lens system, a video camera, an S-VHS tapedeck, a frame grabber, and some storage and output devices. Both the projector and tapedeck have a computer interface enabling remote control. Tracking software was developed to control the overall operation. In the automatic mode, the main tracking program controls the projector or the tapedeck frame incrementation, grabs a frame, processes it, locates the edge of the objects being tracked, and stores the coordinates in a file. This process is performed repeatedly until the last frame is reached. Three representative applications are described. These applications represent typical uses and include tracking the propagation of a flame front, tracking the movement of a liquid-gas interface with extremely poor visibility, and characterizing a diffusion flame according to color and shape.

  3. MARSSIM: Data quality objectives (DQO) process

    SciTech Connect

    Doehnert, M.

    1996-06-01

    The Department of Defense, Department of Energy, Environmental Protection Agency, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission are developing joint Federal guidance for standardized and consistent approaches to accomplish structural and environmental radiation surveys. The guidance is being developed as a draft document titled the {open_quotes}Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM).{close_quotes} MARSSIM is using the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) Process, a series of planning steps based on the scientific method for establishing criteria for data quality and developing survey designs. The DQO Process is iterative; the outputs of one step may lead to reconsideration of prior steps. Planning radiation site surveys using the DQO Process can improve the effectiveness, efficiency, and defensibility of decisions in a resource-effective manner. It also can minimize expenditures related to data collection by eliminating unnecessary, duplicative, or overly precise data. Using the DQO Process assures that the type, quantity, and quality of environmental data used in decision making will be appropriate for the intended application.

  4. Computational complexity of object-based image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalz, Mark S.; Ritter, Gerhard X.

    2005-09-01

    Image compression via transform coding applied to small rectangular regions or encoding blocks appears to be approaching asymptotic rate-distortion performance. However, an emerging compression technology, called object-based compression (OBC) promises significantly improved performance via compression ratios ranging from 200:1 to as high as 2,500:1. OBC involves segmentation of image regions, followed by efficient encoding of each region's content and boundary. During decompression, such regions can be approximated by objects from a codebook, yielding a reconstructed image that is semantically equivalent to the corresponding source image, but has pixel- and featural-level differences. Semantic equivalence between the source and decompressed image facilitates fast decompression through efficient substitutions, albeit at the cost of codebook search in the compression step. Given small codebooks, OBC holds promise for information-push technologies where approximate context is sufficient, for example, transmission of surveillance images that provide the gist of a scene. However, OBC is not necessarily useful for applications requiring high accuracy, such as medical image processing, because substitution of source content can be inaccurate at small spatial scales. The cost of segmentation is a significant disadvantage in current OBC implementations. Several innovative techniques have been developed for region segmentation, as discussed in a previous paper [4]. Additionally, tradeoffs between representational fidelity, computational cost, and storage requirement occur, as with the vast majority of lossy compression algorithms. This paper analyzes the computational (time) and storage (space) complexities of several recent OBC algorithms applied to single-frame imagery. A time complexity model is proposed, which can be associated theoretically with a space complexity model that we have previously published [2]. The result, when combined with measurements of

  5. Stereo vision tracking of multiple objects in complex indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Marrón-Romera, Marta; García, Juan C; Sotelo, Miguel A; Pizarro, Daniel; Mazo, Manuel; Cañas, José M; Losada, Cristina; Marcos, Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel system capable of solving the problem of tracking multiple targets in a crowded, complex and dynamic indoor environment, like those typical of mobile robot applications. The proposed solution is based on a stereo vision set in the acquisition step and a probabilistic algorithm in the obstacles position estimation process. The system obtains 3D position and speed information related to each object in the robot's environment; then it achieves a classification between building elements (ceiling, walls, columns and so on) and the rest of items in robot surroundings. All objects in robot surroundings, both dynamic and static, are considered to be obstacles but the structure of the environment itself. A combination of a Bayesian algorithm and a deterministic clustering process is used in order to obtain a multimodal representation of speed and position of detected obstacles. Performance of the final system has been tested against state of the art proposals; test results validate the authors' proposal. The designed algorithms and procedures provide a solution to those applications where similar multimodal data structures are found.

  6. Stereo Vision Tracking of Multiple Objects in Complex Indoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Marrón-Romera, Marta; García, Juan C.; Sotelo, Miguel A.; Pizarro, Daniel; Mazo, Manuel; Cañas, José M.; Losada, Cristina; Marcos, Álvaro

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel system capable of solving the problem of tracking multiple targets in a crowded, complex and dynamic indoor environment, like those typical of mobile robot applications. The proposed solution is based on a stereo vision set in the acquisition step and a probabilistic algorithm in the obstacles position estimation process. The system obtains 3D position and speed information related to each object in the robot’s environment; then it achieves a classification between building elements (ceiling, walls, columns and so on) and the rest of items in robot surroundings. All objects in robot surroundings, both dynamic and static, are considered to be obstacles but the structure of the environment itself. A combination of a Bayesian algorithm and a deterministic clustering process is used in order to obtain a multimodal representation of speed and position of detected obstacles. Performance of the final system has been tested against state of the art proposals; test results validate the authors’ proposal. The designed algorithms and procedures provide a solution to those applications where similar multimodal data structures are found. PMID:22163385

  7. Visual Short-Term Memory Capacity for Simple and Complex Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luria, Roy; Sessa, Paola; Gotler, Alex; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Dell'Acqua, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Does the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) depend on the complexity of the objects represented in memory? Although some previous findings indicated lower capacity for more complex stimuli, other results suggest that complexity effects arise during retrieval (due to errors in the comparison process with what is in memory) that is not…

  8. Sparsity assisted phase retrieval of complex valued objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaur, Charu; Khare, Kedar

    2016-04-01

    Iterative phase retrieval of complex valued objects (phase objects) suffers from twin image problem due to the presence of features of image and its complex conjugate in the recovered solution. The twin-image problem becomes more severe when object support is centro-symmetric. In this paper, we demonstrate that by modifying standard Hybrid-Input output (HIO) algorithm using an adaptive sparsity enhancement step, the twin-image problem can be addressed successfully even when the object support is centro-symmetric. Adaptive sparsity enhanced algorithm and numerical simulation for binary as well as gray scale phase objects are presented. The high quality phase recovery results presented here show the effectiveness of adaptive sparsity enhanced algorithm.

  9. Complex object correspondence construction in two-dimensional animation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun; Liu, Dongquan; Tao, Dacheng; Seah, Hock Soon

    2011-11-01

    Correspondence construction of objects in key frames is the precondition for inbetweening and coloring in 2-D computer-assisted animation production. Since each frame of an animation consists of multiple layers, objects are complex in terms of shape and structure. Therefore, existing shape-matching algorithms specifically designed for simple structures such as a single closed contour cannot perform well on objects constructed by multiple contours with an open shape. This paper introduces a semisupervised patch alignment framework for complex object correspondence construction. In particular, the new framework constructs local patches for each point on an object and aligns these patches in a new feature space, in which correspondences between objects can be detected by the subsequent clustering. For local patch construction, pairwise constraints, which indicate the corresponding points (must link) or unfitting points (cannot link), are introduced by users to improve the performance of correspondence construction. This kind of input is convenient for animation software users via user-friendly interfaces. A dozen of experimental results on our cartoon data set that is built on industrial production suggest the effectiveness of the proposed framework for constructing correspondences of complex objects. As an extension of our framework, additional shape retrieval experiments on MPEG-7 data set show that its performance is comparable with that of a prominent algorithm published in T-PAMI 2009.

  10. Complex molecule formation around massive young stellar objects.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Karin I; Fayolle, Edith C; Reiter, John B; Cyganowski, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Interstellar complex organic molecules were first identified in the hot inner regions of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs), but have more recently been found in many colder sources, indicating that complex molecules can form at a range of temperatures. However, individually these observations provide limited constraints on how complex molecules form, and whether the same formation pathways dominate in cold, warm and hot environments. To address these questions, we use spatially resolved observations from the Submillimeter Array of three MYSOs together with mostly unresolved literature data to explore how molecular ratios depend on environmental parameters, especially temperature. Towards the three MYSOs, we find multiple complex organic emission peaks characterized by different molecular compositions and temperatures. In particular, CH3CCH and CH3CN seem to always trace a lukewarm (T = 60 K) and a hot (T > 100 K) complex chemistry, respectively. These spatial trends are consistent with abundance-temperature correlations of four representative complex organics--CH3CCH, CH3CN, CH3OCH3 and CH3CHO--in a large sample of complex molecule hosts mined from the literature. Together, these results indicate a general chemical evolution with temperature, i.e. that new complex molecule formation pathways are activated as a MYSO heats up. This is qualitatively consistent with model predictions. Furthermore, these results suggest that ratios of complex molecules may be developed into a powerful probe of the evolutionary stage of a MYSO, and may provide information about its formation history.

  11. Task context impacts visual object processing differentially across the cortex.

    PubMed

    Harel, Assaf; Kravitz, Dwight J; Baker, Chris I

    2014-03-11

    Perception reflects an integration of "bottom-up" (sensory-driven) and "top-down" (internally generated) signals. Although models of visual processing often emphasize the central role of feed-forward hierarchical processing, less is known about the impact of top-down signals on complex visual representations. Here, we investigated whether and how the observer's goals modulate object processing across the cortex. We examined responses elicited by a diverse set of objects under six distinct tasks, focusing on either physical (e.g., color) or conceptual properties (e.g., man-made). Critically, the same stimuli were presented in all tasks, allowing us to investigate how task impacts the neural representations of identical visual input. We found that task has an extensive and differential impact on object processing across the cortex. First, we found task-dependent representations in the ventral temporal and prefrontal cortex. In particular, although object identity could be decoded from the multivoxel response within task, there was a significant reduction in decoding across tasks. In contrast, the early visual cortex evidenced equivalent decoding within and across tasks, indicating task-independent representations. Second, task information was pervasive and present from the earliest stages of object processing. However, although the responses of the ventral temporal, prefrontal, and parietal cortex enabled decoding of both the type of task (physical/conceptual) and the specific task (e.g., color), the early visual cortex was not sensitive to type of task and could only be used to decode individual physical tasks. Thus, object processing is highly influenced by the behavioral goal of the observer, highlighting how top-down signals constrain and inform the formation of visual representations.

  12. Epidemic processes in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Castellano, Claudio; Van Mieghem, Piet; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    In recent years the research community has accumulated overwhelming evidence for the emergence of complex and heterogeneous connectivity patterns in a wide range of biological and sociotechnical systems. The complex properties of real-world networks have a profound impact on the behavior of equilibrium and nonequilibrium phenomena occurring in various systems, and the study of epidemic spreading is central to our understanding of the unfolding of dynamical processes in complex networks. The theoretical analysis of epidemic spreading in heterogeneous networks requires the development of novel analytical frameworks, and it has produced results of conceptual and practical relevance. A coherent and comprehensive review of the vast research activity concerning epidemic processes is presented, detailing the successful theoretical approaches as well as making their limits and assumptions clear. Physicists, mathematicians, epidemiologists, computer, and social scientists share a common interest in studying epidemic spreading and rely on similar models for the description of the diffusion of pathogens, knowledge, and innovation. For this reason, while focusing on the main results and the paradigmatic models in infectious disease modeling, the major results concerning generalized social contagion processes are also presented. Finally, the research activity at the forefront in the study of epidemic spreading in coevolving, coupled, and time-varying networks is reported.

  13. Visual short-term memory capacity for simple and complex objects.

    PubMed

    Luria, Roy; Sessa, Paola; Gotler, Alex; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Dell'Acqua, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    Does the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) depend on the complexity of the objects represented in memory? Although some previous findings indicated lower capacity for more complex stimuli, other results suggest that complexity effects arise during retrieval (due to errors in the comparison process with what is in memory) that is not related to storage limitations of VSTM, per se. We used ERPs to track neuronal activity specifically related to retention in VSTM by measuring the sustained posterior contralateral negativity during a change detection task (which required detecting if an item was changed between a memory and a test array). The sustained posterior contralateral negativity, during the retention interval, was larger for complex objects than for simple objects, suggesting that neurons mediating VSTM needed to work harder to maintain more complex objects. This, in turn, is consistent with the view that VSTM capacity depends on complexity.

  14. Exploration of complex visual feature spaces for object perception.

    PubMed

    Leeds, Daniel D; Pyles, John A; Tarr, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The mid- and high-level visual properties supporting object perception in the ventral visual pathway are poorly understood. In the absence of well-specified theory, many groups have adopted a data-driven approach in which they progressively interrogate neural units to establish each unit's selectivity. Such methods are challenging in that they require search through a wide space of feature models and stimuli using a limited number of samples. To more rapidly identify higher-level features underlying human cortical object perception, we implemented a novel functional magnetic resonance imaging method in which visual stimuli are selected in real-time based on BOLD responses to recently shown stimuli. This work was inspired by earlier primate physiology work, in which neural selectivity for mid-level features in IT was characterized using a simple parametric approach (Hung et al., 2012). To extend such work to human neuroimaging, we used natural and synthetic object stimuli embedded in feature spaces constructed on the basis of the complex visual properties of the objects themselves. During fMRI scanning, we employed a real-time search method to control continuous stimulus selection within each image space. This search was designed to maximize neural responses across a pre-determined 1 cm(3) brain region within ventral cortex. To assess the value of this method for understanding object encoding, we examined both the behavior of the method itself and the complex visual properties the method identified as reliably activating selected brain regions. We observed: (1) Regions selective for both holistic and component object features and for a variety of surface properties; (2) Object stimulus pairs near one another in feature space that produce responses at the opposite extremes of the measured activity range. Together, these results suggest that real-time fMRI methods may yield more widely informative measures of selectivity within the broad classes of visual features

  15. A Survey of Complex Object Technologies for Digital Libraries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Argue, Brad; Efron, Miles; Denn, Sheila; Pattuelli, Maria Cristina

    2001-01-01

    Many early web-based digital libraries (DLs) had implicit assumptions reflected in their architecture that the unit of focus in the DL (frequently "reports" or "e-prints") would only be manifested in a single, or at most a few, common file formats such as PDF or PostScript. DLs have now matured to the point where their contents are commonly no longer simple files. Complex objects in DLs have emerged from in response to various requirements, including: simple aggregation of formats and supporting files, bundling additional information to aid digital preservation, creating opaque digital objects for e-commerce applications, and the incorporation of dynamic services with the traditional data files. We examine a representative (but not necessarily exhaustive) number of current and recent historical web-based complex object technologies and projects that are applicable to DLs: Aurora, Buckets, ComMentor, Cryptolopes, Digibox, Document Management Alliance, FEDORA, Kahn-Wilensky Framework Digital Objects, Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standard, Multivalent Documents, Open eBooks, VERS Encapsulated Objects, and the Warwick Framework.

  16. Parallel Processing of Objects in a Naming Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Antje S.; Ouellet, Marc; Hacker, Christine

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated whether speakers who named several objects processed them sequentially or in parallel. Speakers named object triplets, arranged in a triangle, in the order left, right, and bottom object. The left object was easy or difficult to identify and name. During the saccade from the left to the right object, the right object shown…

  17. Processible Polyaniline Copolymers and Complexes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yun-Hsin

    1995-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) is an intractable polymer due to the difficulty of melt processing or dissolving it in common solvents. The purpose of the present investigation was to prepare a new class of conducting polyanilines with better solubility both in base and dope forms by (1) adding external salt to break aggregated chains, (2) introducing ring substituted units onto the backbone without disturbing the coplanar structure, and (3) complexing with polymeric dopants to form a soluble polymer complex. Aggregation of PANI chains in dilute solution was investigated in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) by light scattering, gel permeation chromatography, and viscosity measurements. The aggregation of chains resulted in a negative second virial coefficient in light scattering measurement, a bimodal molecular weight distribution in gel permeation chromatography, and concave reduced viscosity curves. The aggregates can be broken by adding external salt, which resulting in a higher reduced viscosity. The driving force for aggregation is assumed to be a combination of hydrogen bonding between the imine and amine groups, and the rigidity of backbone. The aggregation was modeled to occur via side-on packing of PANI chains. The ring substituted PANI copolymers, poly(aniline -co-phenetidine) were synthesized by chemical oxidation copolymerization using ammonium persulfate as an oxidant. The degree of copolymerization declined with an increasing feed of o-phenetidine in the reaction mixture. The o-phenetidine had a higher reactivity than aniline in copolymerization resulting in a higher content of o-phenetidine in copolymers. The resulting copolymers can be readily dissolved in NMP up to 20% (w/w), and other common solvents, and solutions possess a longer gelation time. The highly soluble copolymer with 20 mole % o-phenetidine in the backbone has same order of conductivity as the unsubstituted PANI after it is doped by HCl. Complexation of PANI and polymeric dopant, poly

  18. Using Perspective to Model Complex Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, R.L.; Bisset, K.R.

    1999-04-04

    The notion of perspective, when supported in an object-based knowledge representation, can facilitate better abstractions of reality for modeling and simulation. The object modeling of complex physical and chemical processes is made more difficult in part due to the poor abstractions of state and phase changes available in these models. The notion of perspective can be used to create different views to represent the different states of matter in a process. These techniques can lead to a more understandable model. Additionally, the ability to record the progress of a process from start to finish is problematic. It is desirable to have a historic record of the entire process, not just the end result of the process. A historic record should facilitate backtracking and re-start of a process at different points in time. The same representation structures and techniques can be used to create a sequence of process markers to represent a historic record. By using perspective, the sequence of markers can have multiple and varying views tailored for a particular user's context of interest.

  19. Rhythmic Manipulation of Objects with Complex Dynamics: Predictability over Chaos

    PubMed Central

    Nasseroleslami, Bahman; Hasson, Christopher J.; Sternad, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    The study of object manipulation has been largely confined to discrete tasks, where accuracy, mechanical effort, or smoothness were examined to explain subjects' preferred movements. This study investigated a rhythmic manipulation task, which involved continuous interaction with a nonlinear object that led to unpredictable object behavior. Using a simplified virtual version of the task of carrying a cup of coffee, we studied how this unpredictable object behavior affected the selected strategies. The experiment was conducted in a virtual set-up, where subjects moved a cup with a ball inside, modeled by cart-and-pendulum dynamics. Inverse dynamics calculations of the system showed that performing the task with different amplitudes and relative phases required different force profiles and rendered the object's dynamics with different degrees of predictability (quantified by Mutual Information between the applied force and the cup kinematics and its sensitivity). Subjects (n = 8) oscillated the virtual cup between two targets via a robotic manipulandum, paced by a metronome at 1 Hz for 50 trials, each lasting 45 s. They were free to choose their movement amplitude and relative phase between the ball and cup. Experimental results showed that subjects increased their movement amplitudes, which rendered the interactions with the object more predictable and with lower sensitivity to the execution variables. These solutions were associated with higher average exerted force and lower object smoothness, contradicting common expectations from studies on discrete object manipulation and unrestrained movements. Instead, the findings showed that humans selected strategies with higher predictability of interaction dynamics. This finding expressed that humans seek movement strategies where force and kinematics synchronize to repeatable patterns that may require less sensorimotor information processing. PMID:25340581

  20. A Digital Preservation Ingest Parsing Agent for Complex Data Objects

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, Don F.

    2006-01-05

    Digital preservation systems are being researched and studied in academia and government-funded efforts all over the world. However, the actual release of a proven production system is still yet to happen. Some efforts have broken ground and present great potential, but major roadblocks still exist. One such obstacle is the complex data object, similar to what is produced by the DOE2000 Electronic Laboratory Notebook (ELN). This research effort will focus on determining a methodology for extracting a complex data object from the ELN, and transforming that into a standard digital preservation ingest file. This standard file type will be based on the Library of Congress Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standard (METS) . A METS file serves as a Submission Information Package (SIP) as defined by the Open Archive Information System (OAIS). In addition to the content information, a complete set of Preservation Description Information (PDI) for the content conformation needs to be collected as well in order to create an Archival Information Package (AIP) which will be used for preservation.

  1. Echo-acoustic flow shapes object representation in spatially complex acoustic scenes.

    PubMed

    Greiter, Wolfgang; Firzlaff, Uwe

    2017-03-08

    Echolocating bats use echoes of their sonar emissions to determine the position and distance of objects or prey. Target distance is represented as a map of echo delay in the auditory cortex (AC) of bats. During a bat's flight through a natural complex environment, echo streams are reflected from multiple objects along its flight path. Separating such complex streams of echoes or other sounds is a challenge for the auditory system of bats as well as other animals. We investigated the representation of multiple echo streams in the AC of anaesthetized bats (Phyllostomus discolor) and tested the hypothesis, if neurons can lock on echoes from specific objects in a complex echo-acoustic pattern while the representation of surrounding objects is suppressed. We combined naturalistic pulse/echo sequences simulating a bat's flight through a virtual acoustic space with extracellular recordings. Neurons could selectively lock on echoes from one object in complex echo streams originating from two different objects along a virtual flight path. The objects were processed sequentially in the order in which they were approached. Object selection depended on sequential changes of echo delay and amplitude but not on absolute values. Furthermore, the detailed representation of the object echo delays in the cortical target range map was not fixed but could be dynamically adapted depending on the temporal pattern of sonar emission during target approach within a simulated flight sequence.

  2. 33 CFR 279.6 - Overview of objective setting process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Overview of objective setting..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE RESOURCE USE: ESTABLISHMENT OF OBJECTIVES § 279.6 Overview of objective setting process... three main sets of data. Figure 1 presents an overview of this process. EC31OC91.024...

  3. 33 CFR 279.6 - Overview of objective setting process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Overview of objective setting..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE RESOURCE USE: ESTABLISHMENT OF OBJECTIVES § 279.6 Overview of objective setting process... three main sets of data. Figure 1 presents an overview of this process. EC31OC91.024...

  4. 33 CFR 279.6 - Overview of objective setting process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overview of objective setting..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE RESOURCE USE: ESTABLISHMENT OF OBJECTIVES § 279.6 Overview of objective setting process... three main sets of data. Figure 1 presents an overview of this process. EC31OC91.024...

  5. 33 CFR 279.6 - Overview of objective setting process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Overview of objective setting..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE RESOURCE USE: ESTABLISHMENT OF OBJECTIVES § 279.6 Overview of objective setting process... three main sets of data. Figure 1 presents an overview of this process. EC31OC91.024...

  6. 33 CFR 279.6 - Overview of objective setting process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overview of objective setting..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE RESOURCE USE: ESTABLISHMENT OF OBJECTIVES § 279.6 Overview of objective setting process... three main sets of data. Figure 1 presents an overview of this process. EC31OC91.024...

  7. Object-oriented process dose modeling for glovebox operations

    SciTech Connect

    Boerigter, S.T.; Fasel, J.H.; Kornreich, D.E.

    1999-06-01

    The Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory supports several defense and nondefense-related missions for the country by performing fabrication, surveillance, and research and development for materials and components that contain plutonium. Most operations occur in rooms with one or more arrays of gloveboxes connected to each other via trolley gloveboxes. Minimizing the effective dose equivalent (EDE) is a growing concern as a result of steadily declining allowable dose limits being imposed and a growing general awareness of safety in the workplace. In general, the authors discriminate three components of a worker`s total EDE: the primary EDE, the secondary EDE, and background EDE. A particular background source of interest is the nuclear materials vault. The distinction between sources inside and outside of a particular room is arbitrary with the underlying assumption that building walls and floors provide significant shielding to justify including sources in other rooms in the background category. Los Alamos has developed the Process Modeling System (ProMoS) primarily for performing process analyses of nuclear operations. ProMoS is an object-oriented, discrete-event simulation package that has been used to analyze operations at Los Alamos and proposed facilities such as the new fabrication facilities for the Complex-21 effort. In the past, crude estimates of the process dose (the EDE received when a particular process occurred), room dose (the EDE received when a particular process occurred in a given room), and facility dose (the EDE received when a particular process occurred in the facility) were used to obtain an integrated EDE for a given process. Modifications to the ProMoS package were made to utilize secondary dose information to use dose modeling to enhance the process modeling efforts.

  8. Teacher Trainees as Learning Object Designers: Problems and Issues in Learning Object Development Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guler, Cetin; Altun, Arif

    2010-01-01

    Learning objects (LOs) can be defined as resources that are reusable, digital with the aim of fulfilling learning objectives (or expectations). Educators, both at the individual and institutional levels, are cautioned about the fact that LOs are to be processed through a proper development process. Who should be involved in the LO development…

  9. Objective high Resolution Analysis over Complex Terrain with VERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, D.; Steinacker, R.; Steiner, A.

    2012-04-01

    VERA (Vienna Enhanced Resolution Analysis) is a model independent, high resolution objective analysis of meteorological fields over complex terrain. This system consists of a special developed quality control procedure and a combination of an interpolation and a downscaling technique. Whereas the so called VERA-QC is presented at this conference in the contribution titled "VERA-QC, an approved Data Quality Control based on Self-Consistency" by Andrea Steiner, this presentation will focus on the method and the characteristics of the VERA interpolation scheme which enables one to compute grid point values of a meteorological field based on irregularly distributed observations and topography related aprior knowledge. Over a complex topography meteorological fields are not smooth in general. The roughness which is induced by the topography can be explained physically. The knowledge about this behavior is used to define the so called Fingerprints (e.g. a thermal Fingerprint reproducing heating or cooling over mountainous terrain or a dynamical Fingerprint reproducing positive pressure perturbation on the windward side of a ridge) under idealized conditions. If the VERA algorithm recognizes patterns of one or more Fingerprints at a few observation points, the corresponding patterns are used to downscale the meteorological information in a greater surrounding. This technique allows to achieve an analysis with a resolution much higher than the one of the observational network. The interpolation of irregularly distributed stations to a regular grid (in space and time) is based on a variational principle applied to first and second order spatial and temporal derivatives. Mathematically, this can be formulated as a cost function that is equivalent to the penalty function of a thin plate smoothing spline. After the analysis field has been divided into the Fingerprint components and the unexplained part respectively, the requirement of a smooth distribution is applied to the

  10. Saloplastics: processing compact polyelectrolyte complexes.

    PubMed

    Schaaf, Pierre; Schlenoff, Joseph B

    2015-04-17

    Polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) are prepared by mixing solutions of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes. These diffuse, amorphous precipitates may be compacted into dense materials, CoPECs, by ultracentrifugation (ucPECs) or extrusion (exPECs). The presence of salt water is essential in plasticizing PECs to allow them to be reformed and fused. When hydrated, CoPECs are versatile, rugged, biocompatible, elastic materials with applications including bioinspired materials, supports for enzymes and (nano)composites. In this review, various methods for making CoPECs are described, as well as fundamental responses of CoPEC mechanical properties to salt concentration. Possible applications as synthetic cartilage, enzymatically active biocomposites, self-healing materials, and magnetic nanocomposites are presented.

  11. Nonrational Processes and Ethical Complexities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogerson, Mark D.; Gottlieb, Michael C.; Handelsman, Mitchell M.; Knapp, Samuel; Younggren, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Responds to the comments by Pomerantz and Sisti and Baum-Baicker on the current authors' original article, "Nonrational processes in ethical decision making". Pomerantz (2012) further explicated one interpersonal and contextual factor--the perceived characteristics of the recipient of any act. He cited evidence that these characteristics affect…

  12. Modeling the simulation execution process with digital objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubert, Robert M.; Fishwick, Paul A.

    1999-06-01

    Object Oriented Physical Modeling (OOPM), formerly known as MOOSE, and its implementation of behavior multimodels provide an ability to manage arbitrarily complex patterns of behavioral abstraction in web-friendly simulation modeling. In an OOPM mode, one object stands as surrogate for another object, and these surrogates cognitively map to the real world. This `physical object' principle mitigates impact of incomplete knowledge and ambiguity because its real-world metaphors enable model authors to draw on intuition, facilitating reuse and integration, as well as consistency in collaborative efforts. A 3D interface for modeling and simulation visualization, under construction to augment the existing 2D GUI, obeys the physical object principle, providing a means to create, change, reuse, and integrate digital worlds made of digital objects. Implementation includes Distributed Simulation Executive, Digital object MultiModel Language, Digital Object Warehouse, and multimodel Translator. This approach is powerful and its capabilities have steadily grown; however, it has lacked a formal basis which we now provide: we define multimodels, represent digital objects as multimodels, transform multimodels to simulations, demonstrate the correctness of execution sequence of the simulations, and closure under coupling of digital objects. These theoretical results complement and enhance the practical aspects of physical multimodeling.

  13. The role of local feature processing in object perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Hyejean

    One of the outstanding questions in the study of human visual perception of objects is how local feature processing affects object perception. In this thesis, we addressed this fundamental question by examining human perceptual performance on images containing whole objects or partial images of objects (containing one, two or three features) for two perceptual tasks: detection ("something" vs. random dot noise) and classification (perception of the object category, e.g., car vs. other objects). Images were embedded in visual noise and we measured human subjects' performance in a range of noise levels close to subjects' perceptual threshold. First, we found that human detection performance increases when more object area (A) is revealed and when the noise variance (N) decreases. The contribution of these factors can be characterized as a function of Ln(A/N), which we will refer to as the Area-to-Noise ratio (ANR). When the ANR was equated in the subsequent experiments, comparison of detection performance on partial vs. whole images of objects revealed the dynamic role of local feature processing in object detection: (i) detection based on a single useful feature was better than detection based on a whole object suggesting the effectiveness of local feature processing, (ii) however, detection of a whole object did not require detection of its features and (iii) detection performance varied across features; useful features (such as eyes for faces and wheels for cars) yielded better performance than suboptimal features (such as nose and mouth for faces). This pattern of results did not significantly vary across two methods we used to select features (features based on semantic judgments and a computer algorithm), and two object categories (faces and cars). For classification, results were largely similar, except that in low ANR levels (below the level sufficient for successful detection of a whole object) classification performance was better on a single useful feature

  14. Spontaneous Object Recognition Memory in Aged Rats: Complexity versus Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamiz, Fernando; Gallo, Milagros

    2012-01-01

    Previous work on the effect of aging on spontaneous object recognition (SOR) memory tasks in rats has yielded controversial results. Although the results at long-retention intervals are consistent, conflicting results have been reported at shorter delays. We have assessed the potential relevance of the type of object used in the performance of…

  15. Multi-Objective Optimization for Alumina Laser Sintering Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayed, E. M.; Elmesalamy, A. S.; Sobih, M.; Elshaer, Y.

    2016-09-01

    Selective laser sintering processes has become one of the most popular additive manufacturing processes due to its flexibility in creation of complex components. This process has many interacting parameters, which have a significant influence on the process output. In this work, high purity alumina is sintered through a pulsed Nd:YAG laser sintering process. The aim of this work is to understand the effect of relevant sintering process parameters (laser power and laser scanning speed) on the quality of the sintered layer (layer surface roughness, layer thickness and vector/line width, and density). Design of experiments and statistical modeling techniques are employed to optimize the process control factors and to establish a relationship between these factors and output responses. Model results have been verified through experimental work and show reasonable prediction of process responses within the limits of sintering parameters.

  16. 3-D Object Pose Determination Using Complex EGI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    IKEG1 ji = 0. . .. 12 4.1 Tesselated pentakis dodecahedron ..... ....................... 19 4.2 First composite object used for testing... dodecahedron (tesselated pentakis dodecahedron ) as shown in Fig. 4.1. The normal direction space is discretized into 240 cells as well. The CEGI weights are...deviation of the error distribution.) 18 Figure 4. 1: Tesselated pentakis dodecahedron Figure 4.2: First composite object used for testing 19 Figure

  17. Causality and complexity: the myth of objectivity in science.

    PubMed

    Mikulecky, Donald C

    2007-10-01

    Two distinctly different worldviews dominate today's thinking in science and in the world of ideas outside of science. Using the approach advocated by Robert M. Hutchins, it is possible to see a pattern of interaction between ideas in science and in other spheres such as philosophy, religion, and politics. Instead of compartmentalizing these intellectual activities, it is worthwhile to look for common threads of mutual influence. Robert Rosen has created an approach to scientific epistemology that might seem radical to some. However, it has characteristics that resemble ideas in other fields, in particular in the writings of George Lakoff, Leo Strauss, and George Soros. Historically, the atmosphere at the University of Chicago during Hutchins' presidency gave rise to Rashevsky's relational biology, which Rosen carried forward. Strauss was writing his political philosophy there at the same time. One idea is paramount in all this, and it is Lakoff who gives us the most insight into how the worldviews differ using this idea. The central difference has to do with causality, the fundamental concept that we use to build a worldview. Causal entailment has two distinct forms in Lakoff 's analysis: direct causality and complex causality. Rosen's writings on complexity create a picture of complex causality that is extremely useful in its detail, grounding in the ideas of Aristotle. Strauss asks for a return to the ancients to put philosophy back on track. Lakoff sees the weaknesses in Western philosophy in a similar way, and Rosen provides tools for dealing with the problem. This introduction to the relationships between the thinking of these authors is meant to stimulate further discourse on the role of complex causal entailment in all areas of thought, and how it brings them together in a holistic worldview. The worldview built on complex causality is clearly distinct from that built around simple, direct causality. One important difference is that the impoverished causal

  18. A novel multi-view object recognition in complex background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yongxin; Yu, Huapeng; Xu, Zhiyong; Fu, Chengyu; Gao, Chunming

    2015-02-01

    Recognizing objects from arbitrary aspects is always a highly challenging problem in computer vision, and most existing algorithms mainly focus on a specific viewpoint research. Hence, in this paper we present a novel recognizing framework based on hierarchical representation, part-based method and learning in order to recognize objects from different viewpoints. The learning evaluates the model's mistakes and feeds it back the detector to avid the same mistakes in the future. The principal idea is to extract intrinsic viewpoint invariant features from the unseen poses of object, and then to take advantage of these shared appearance features to support recognition combining with the improved multiple view model. Compared with other recognition models, the proposed approach can efficiently tackle multi-view problem and promote the recognition versatility of our system. For an quantitative valuation The novel algorithm has been tested on several benchmark datasets such as Caltech 101 and PASCAL VOC 2010. The experimental results validate that our approach can recognize objects more precisely and the performance outperforms others single view recognition methods.

  19. Constructing Mental Representations of Complex Three-Dimensional Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aust, Ronald

    This exploratory study investigated whether there are differences between males and females in the strategies used to construct mental representations from three-dimensional objects in a dimensional travel display. A Silicon Graphics IRIS computer was used to create the travel displays and mathematical models were created for each of the objects…

  20. Surrogate-based Multi-Objective Optimization and Uncertainty Quantification Methods for Large, Complex Geophysical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Wei; Duan, Qingyun

    2016-04-01

    Parameterization scheme has significant influence to the simulation ability of large, complex dynamic geophysical models, such as distributed hydrological models, land surface models, weather and climate models, etc. with the growing knowledge of physical processes, the dynamic geophysical models include more and more processes and producing more output variables. Consequently the parameter optimization / uncertainty quantification algorithms should also be multi-objective compatible. Although such algorithms have long been available, they usually require a large number of model runs and are therefore computationally expensive for large, complex dynamic models. In this research, we have developed surrogate-based multi-objective optimization method (MO-ASMO) and Markov Chain Monte Carlo method (MC-ASMO) for uncertainty quantification for these expensive dynamic models. The aim of MO-ASMO and MC-ASMO is to reduce the total number of model runs with appropriate adaptive sampling strategy assisted by surrogate modeling. Moreover, we also developed a method that can steer the search process with the help of prior parameterization scheme derived from the physical processes involved, so that all of the objectives can be improved simultaneously. The proposed algorithms have been evaluated with test problems and a land surface model - the Common Land Model (CoLM). The results demonstrated their effectiveness and efficiency.

  1. Research on recognition methods of aphid objects in complex backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui-Yan; Zhang, Ji-Hong

    2009-07-01

    In order to improve the recognition accuracy among the kinds of aphids in the complex backgrounds, the recognition method among kinds of aphids based on Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DT-CWT) and Support Vector Machine (Libsvm) is proposed. Firstly the image is pretreated; secondly the aphid images' texture feature of three crops are extracted by DT-CWT in order to get the training parameters of training model; finally the training model could recognize aphids among the three kinds of crops. By contrasting to Gabor wavelet transform and the traditional extracting texture's methods based on Gray-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM), the experiment result shows that the method has a certain practicality and feasibility and provides basic for aphids' recognition between the identification among same kind aphid.

  2. A case of complex regional pain syndrome with agnosia for object orientation.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Gail; Cohen, Helen; Goebel, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    This systematic investigation of the neurocognitive correlates of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in a single case also reports agnosia for object orientation in the context of persistent CRPS. We report a patient (JW) with severe long-standing CRPS who had no difficulty identifying and naming line drawings of objects presented in 1 of 4 cardinal orientations. In contrast, he was extremely poor at reorienting these objects into the correct upright orientation and in judging whether an object was upright or not. Moreover, JW made orientation errors when copying drawings of objects, and he also showed features of mirror reversal in writing single words and reading single letters. The findings are discussed in relation to accounts of visual processing. Agnosia for object orientation is the term for impaired knowledge of an object's orientation despite good recognition and naming of the same misoriented object. This defect has previously only been reported in patients with major structural brain lesions. The neuroanatomical correlates are discussed. The patient had no structural brain lesion, raising the possibility that nonstructural reorganisation of cortical networks may be responsible for his deficits. Other patients with CRPS may have related neurocognitive defects.

  3. Invariant visual object recognition and shape processing in rats.

    PubMed

    Zoccolan, Davide

    2015-05-15

    Invariant visual object recognition is the ability to recognize visual objects despite the vastly different images that each object can project onto the retina during natural vision, depending on its position and size within the visual field, its orientation relative to the viewer, etc. Achieving invariant recognition represents such a formidable computational challenge that is often assumed to be a unique hallmark of primate vision. Historically, this has limited the invasive investigation of its neuronal underpinnings to monkey studies, in spite of the narrow range of experimental approaches that these animal models allow. Meanwhile, rodents have been largely neglected as models of object vision, because of the widespread belief that they are incapable of advanced visual processing. However, the powerful array of experimental tools that have been developed to dissect neuronal circuits in rodents has made these species very attractive to vision scientists too, promoting a new tide of studies that have started to systematically explore visual functions in rats and mice. Rats, in particular, have been the subjects of several behavioral studies, aimed at assessing how advanced object recognition and shape processing is in this species. Here, I review these recent investigations, as well as earlier studies of rat pattern vision, to provide an historical overview and a critical summary of the status of the knowledge about rat object vision. The picture emerging from this survey is very encouraging with regard to the possibility of using rats as complementary models to monkeys in the study of higher-level vision.

  4. Invariant visual object recognition and shape processing in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zoccolan, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Invariant visual object recognition is the ability to recognize visual objects despite the vastly different images that each object can project onto the retina during natural vision, depending on its position and size within the visual field, its orientation relative to the viewer, etc. Achieving invariant recognition represents such a formidable computational challenge that is often assumed to be a unique hallmark of primate vision. Historically, this has limited the invasive investigation of its neuronal underpinnings to monkey studies, in spite of the narrow range of experimental approaches that these animal models allow. Meanwhile, rodents have been largely neglected as models of object vision, because of the widespread belief that they are incapable of advanced visual processing. However, the powerful array of experimental tools that have been developed to dissect neuronal circuits in rodents has made these species very attractive to vision scientists too, promoting a new tide of studies that have started to systematically explore visual functions in rats and mice. Rats, in particular, have been the subjects of several behavioral studies, aimed at assessing how advanced object recognition and shape processing is in this species. Here, I review these recent investigations, as well as earlier studies of rat pattern vision, to provide an historical overview and a critical summary of the status of the knowledge about rat object vision. The picture emerging from this survey is very encouraging with regard to the possibility of using rats as complementary models to monkeys in the study of higher-level vision. PMID:25561421

  5. A Subjective and Objective Process for Athletic Training Student Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Jeremy R.; McLoda, Todd A.; Stanek, Justin M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Admission decisions are made annually concerning whom to accept into athletic training programs. Objective: To present an approach used to make admissions decisions at an undergraduate athletic training program and to corroborate this information by comparing each aspect to nursing program admission processes. Background: Annually,…

  6. Medial Temporal Lobe Activity During Complex Discrimination of Faces, Objects, and Scenes: Effects of Viewpoint

    PubMed Central

    Barense, Morgan D.; Henson, Richard N.A.; Lee, Andy C.H.; Graham, Kim S.

    2010-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe (MTL), a set of heavily inter-connected structures including the hippocampus and underlying entorhinal, perirhinal and parahippocampal cortex, is traditionally believed to be part of a unitary system dedicated to declarative memory. Recent studies, however, demonstrated perceptual impairments in amnesic individuals with MTL damage, with hippocampal lesions causing scene discrimination deficits, and perirhinal lesions causing object and face discrimination deficits. The degree of impairment on these tasks was influenced by the need to process complex conjunctions of features: discriminations requiring the integration of multiple visual features caused deficits, whereas discriminations that could be solved on the basis of a single feature did not. Here, we address these issues with functional neuroimaging in healthy participants as they performed a version of the oddity discrimination task used previously in patients. Three different types of stimuli (faces, scenes, novel objects) were presented from either identical or different viewpoints. Consistent with studies in patients, we observed increased perirhinal activity when participants distinguished between faces and objects presented from different, compared to identical, viewpoints. The posterior hippocampus, by contrast, showed an effect of viewpoint for both faces and scenes. These findings provide convergent evidence that the MTL is involved in processes beyond long-term declarative memory and suggest a critical role for these structures in integrating complex features of faces, objects, and scenes into view-invariant, abstract representations. PMID:19499575

  7. The COGs (context, object, and goals) in multisensory processing.

    PubMed

    ten Oever, Sanne; Romei, Vincenzo; van Atteveldt, Nienke; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Murray, Micah M; Matusz, Pawel J

    2016-05-01

    Our understanding of how perception operates in real-world environments has been substantially advanced by studying both multisensory processes and "top-down" control processes influencing sensory processing via activity from higher-order brain areas, such as attention, memory, and expectations. As the two topics have been traditionally studied separately, the mechanisms orchestrating real-world multisensory processing remain unclear. Past work has revealed that the observer's goals gate the influence of many multisensory processes on brain and behavioural responses, whereas some other multisensory processes might occur independently of these goals. Consequently, other forms of top-down control beyond goal dependence are necessary to explain the full range of multisensory effects currently reported at the brain and the cognitive level. These forms of control include sensitivity to stimulus context as well as the detection of matches (or lack thereof) between a multisensory stimulus and categorical attributes of naturalistic objects (e.g. tools, animals). In this review we discuss and integrate the existing findings that demonstrate the importance of such goal-, object- and context-based top-down control over multisensory processing. We then put forward a few principles emerging from this literature review with respect to the mechanisms underlying multisensory processing and discuss their possible broader implications.

  8. Shape Recognition Of Complex Objects By Syntactical Primitives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenger, D.; Cipovic, H.

    1985-04-01

    The paper describes a pattern recognition method based on syntactic image analysis applicable in autonomous systems of robot vision for the purpose of pattern detection or classification. The discrimination of syntactic elements is realized by polygonal approximation of contours employing a very fast algorithm based upon coding, local pixel logic and methods of choice instead of numerical methods. Semantic information is derived from attributes calculated from the filtered shape vector. No a priori information on image objects is required, and the choice of starting point is determined by finding the significant directions on the shape vector. The radius of recognition sphere is minimum Euclidian distance, i.e. maximum similarity between the unknown model and each individual grammar created in the learning phase. By keeping information on derivations of individual syntactic elements, an alternative of parsing recognition is left. The analysis is very flexible, and permits the recognition of highly distorted or even partially visible objects. The output from syntactic analyzer is the measure of irregularity, and the method is thus applicable in any application where sample deformation is being examined.

  9. The σ-Capricornids complex of near-Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babadzhanov, P. B.; Kokhirova, G. I.; Khamroev, U. Kh.

    2015-04-01

    The Earth-crossing asteroids 2008BO16, 2011EC41, and 2013CT36 have very similar orbits according to the Southworth and Hawkins DSH criterion. Their orbits are additionally classified as comet-like based on using the Tisserand parameter which is a standard tool used to distinction between asteroids and comets. The orbital evolution research shows that they cross the Earth's orbit four times over one cycle of the perihelion argument variations. Consequently, a meteoroid stream, possibly associated with them, may produce four meteor showers. Theoretic parameters of the predicted showers were calculated and identified with the observable nighttime σ-Capricornids and χ-Sagittariids, and daytime χ-Capricornids and Capricornids-Sagittariids meteor showers. The similar comet-like orbits and the linkage with the same meteoroid stream producing four active showers provide strong evidence that these asteroids have a common cometary origin. Earlier, it was demonstrated that the Earth-crossing asteroids (2101) Adonis and 1995CS, being a potentially hazardous asteroid (PHA), were recognized as dormant comets because of their linkage with the σ-Capricornids meteoroid stream. Thus, a conclusion was made, that either the considered objects are large pieces of the Adonis, or all five objects are extinct or dormant fragments of a larger comet that was the parent body of the σ-Capricornids meteoroid stream, and whose break-up occurred several tens of thousands years ago. During 2010-2011, three σ-Capricornids fireballs were captured by the Tajikistan fireball network. Taking into account the observations in Canada and the USA, the dynamic and physical properties of the σ-Capricornid meteoroids were identified. According to the estimated meteoroids bulk density a non-homogeneous compound of the σ-Capricornids shower comet-progenitor was suggested.

  10. SEPARATION PROCESS USING COMPLEXING AND ADSORPTION

    DOEpatents

    Spedding, J.H.; Ayers, J.A.

    1958-06-01

    An adsorption process is described for separating plutonium from a solution of neutron-irradiated uranium containing ions of a compound of plutonium and other cations. The method consists of forming a chelate complex compound with plutoniunn ions in the solution by adding a derivative of 8- hydroxyquinoline, which derivative contains a sulfonic acid group, and adsorbing the remaining cations from the solution on a cation exchange resin, while the complexed plutonium remains in the solution.

  11. Electrophysiological Advances on Multiple Object Processing in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Mazza, Veronica; Brignani, Debora

    2016-01-01

    EEG research conducted in the past 5 years on multiple object processing has begun to define how the aging brain tracks the numerosity of the objects presented in the visual field for different goals. We review the recent EEG findings in healthy older individuals (age range: 65–75 years approximately) on perceptual, attentional and memory mechanisms-reflected in the N1, N2pc and contralateral delayed activity (CDA) components of the EEG, respectively-during the execution of a variety of cognitive tasks requiring simultaneous processing of multiple elements. The findings point to multiple loci of neural changes in multi-object analysis, and suggest the involvement of early perceptual mechanisms, attentive individuation and working memory (WM) operations in the neural and cognitive modification due to aging. However, the findings do not simply reflect early impairments with a cascade effect over subsequent stages of stimulus processing, but in fact highlight interesting dissociations between the effects occurring at the various stages of stimulus processing. Finally, the results on older adults indicate the occurrence of neural overactivation in association to good levels of performance in easy perceptual contexts, thus providing some hints on the existence of compensatory phenomena that are associated with the functioning of early perceptual mechanisms. PMID:26973520

  12. Simple, Affordable and Sustainable Borehole Observatories for Complex Monitoring Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf, A.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Davis, E.; Saffer, D.; Wheat, G.; LaBonte, A.; Meldrum, R.; Heesemann, M.; Villinger, H.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Renken, J.; Bergenthal, M.; Wefer, G.

    2012-04-01

    Around 20 years ago, the scientific community started to use borehole observatories, so-called CORKs or Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kits, which are installed inside submarine boreholes, and which allow the re-establishment and monitoring of in situ conditions. From the first CORKs which allowed only rudimentary fluid pressure and temperature measurements, the instruments evolved to multi-functional and multi-level subseafloor laboratories, including, for example, long-term fluid sampling devices, in situ microbiological experiments or strainmeter. Nonetheless, most boreholes are still left uninstrumented, which is a major loss for the scientific community. In-stallation of CORKs usually requires a drillship and subsequent ROV assignments for data download and instru-ment maintenance, which is a major logistic and financial effort. Moreover, the increasing complexity of the CORK systems increased not only the expenses but led also to longer installation times and a higher sensitivity of the in-struments to environmental constraints. Here, we present three types of Mini-CORKs, which evolved back to more simple systems yet providing a wide range of possible in situ measurements. As a regional example the Nankai Trough is chosen, where repeated subduction thrust earthquakes with M8+ occurred. The area has been investigated by several drilling campaigns of the DSDP, ODP and IODP, where boreholes were already instrumented by different CORKs. Unfortunately, some of the more complex systems showed incomplete functionality, and moreover, the increased ship time forced IODP to rely on third party funds for the observatories. Consequently, the need for more affordable CORKs arose, which may be satisfied by the systems presented here. The first type, the so-called SmartPlug, provides two pressure transducers and four temperature sensors, and monitors a hydrostatic reference section and an isolated zone of interest. It was already installed at the Nankai Trough accretionary

  13. Design and Use of a Learning Object for Finding Complex Polynomial Roots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benitez, Julio; Gimenez, Marcos H.; Hueso, Jose L.; Martinez, Eulalia; Riera, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Complex numbers are essential in many fields of engineering, but students often fail to have a natural insight of them. We present a learning object for the study of complex polynomials that graphically shows that any complex polynomials has a root and, furthermore, is useful to find the approximate roots of a complex polynomial. Moreover, we…

  14. Process for coating an object with silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Harry (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A process for coating a carbon or graphite object with silicon carbide by contacting it with silicon liquid and vapor over various lengths of contact time. In the process, a stream of silicon-containing precursor material in gaseous phase below the decomposition temperature of said gas and a co-reactant, carrier or diluent gas such as hydrogen is passed through a hole within a high emissivity, thin, insulating septum into a reaction chamber above the melting point of silicon. The thin septum has one face below the decomposition temperature of the gas and an opposite face exposed to the reaction chamber. The precursor gas is decomposed directly to silicon in the reaction chamber. A stream of any decomposition gas and any unreacted precursor gas from said reaction chamber is removed. The object within the reaction chamber is then contacted with silicon, and recovered after it has been coated with silicon carbide.

  15. A new standardized set of ecological pictures for experimental and clinical research on visual object processing.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, Maria Pia; Vannucci, Manila; Righi, Stefania

    2004-06-01

    A new set of 174 pictures in black-and-white, coloured and spatially filtered versions, taken from photographs of real objects belonging to different semantic categories, was realised for experimental and clinical research on visual object processing. Two samples, one of English speakers and one of Italian speakers, were tested in order to provide the normative data for each picture, in both black-and-white and coloured versions, in relation to familiarity, visual complexity and name agreement.

  16. On the optimal viewing position for object processing.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, Lotje; Vitu, Françoise

    2016-02-01

    Numerous studies have shown that a visually presented word is processed most easily when participants initially fixate just to the left of the word's center. Fixating on this optimal viewing position (OVP) results in shorter response times and a lower probability of making additional within-word refixations (OVP effects), but also longer initial-fixation durations (an inverted-OVP or I-OVP effect), as compared to initially fixating at the beginning or the end of the word. Thus, typical curves are u-shaped (or inverted-u-shaped), with a leftward bias. Most researchers explain the u-shape in terms of visual constraints, and the leftward bias in terms of language constraints. Previous studies have demonstrated that (I)-OVP effects are not specific to words, but generalize to object viewing. We further investigated this by comparing the strength and (a)symmetry of (I-)OVP effects for words and objects. To this purpose, we gave participants an object- versus word-naming task in which we manipulated the position at which they initially fixated the stimulus (i.e., a line drawing or the written name of an object). Our results showed that object viewing, just as word viewing, resulted in u-shaped (I-)OVP curves. However, the effect was weaker than for words. Furthermore, for words, the curves were biased to the left, whereas they were symmetrical for objects. This might indicate that part of the (I-)OVP effect for words is language specific, and that (I-)OVP effects for objects are a purer measure of the effect of visual constraints.

  17. ERPs Differentially Reflect Automatic and Deliberate Processing of the Functional Manipulability of Objects

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Christopher R.; Chen, Yvonne Y.; Singhal, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the functional properties of an object can interact with perceptual, cognitive, and motor processes. Previously we have found that a between-subjects manipulation of judgment instructions resulted in different manipulability-related memory biases in an incidental memory test. To better understand this effect we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) while participants made judgments about images of objects that were either high or low in functional manipulability (e.g., hammer vs. ladder). Using a between-subjects design, participants judged whether they had seen the object recently (Personal Experience), or could manipulate the object using their hand (Functionality). We focused on the P300 and slow-wave event-related potentials (ERPs) as reflections of attentional allocation. In both groups, we observed higher P300 and slow wave amplitudes for high-manipulability objects at electrodes Pz and C3. As P300 is thought to reflect bottom-up attentional processes, this may suggest that the processing of high-manipulability objects recruited more attentional resources. Additionally, the P300 effect was greater in the Functionality group. A more complex pattern was observed at electrode C3 during slow wave: processing the high-manipulability objects in the Functionality instruction evoked a more positive slow wave than in the other three conditions, likely related to motor simulation processes. These data provide neural evidence that effects of manipulability on stimulus processing are further mediated by automatic vs. deliberate motor-related processing. PMID:27536224

  18. Social ecological complexity and resilience processes.

    PubMed

    Ungar, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A social ecological model of resilience avoids the reductionism of simple explanations of the complex and multisystemic processes associated with well-being in contexts of adversity. There is evidence that when stressors are abnormally high, environmental factors account for more of an individual's resilience than do individual traits or cognitions. In this commentary, a social ecological model of resilience is discussed.

  19. The Process of Solving Complex Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Andreas; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    This article is about Complex Problem Solving (CPS), its history in a variety of research domains (e.g., human problem solving, expertise, decision making, and intelligence), a formal definition and a process theory of CPS applicable to the interdisciplinary field. CPS is portrayed as (a) knowledge acquisition and (b) knowledge application…

  20. Thematic Roles, Markedness Alignment and Processing Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yoonhyoung; Kwon, Youan; Gordon, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments used eye-tracking during reading to investigate the role of the consistency of the relative markedness alignment of noun phrases (NPs) in the processing of complex sentences in Korean. To do so, the animacy of the first NP was varied in both experiments to manipulate the relative markedness of NPs. In addition, case markings of the…

  1. Children use object-level category knowledge to detect changes in complex auditory scenes.

    PubMed

    Vanden Bosch der Nederlanden, Christina M; Snyder, Joel S; Hannon, Erin E

    2016-11-01

    Children interact with and learn about all types of sound sources, including dogs, bells, trains, and human beings. Although it is clear that knowledge of semantic categories for everyday sights and sounds develops during childhood, there are very few studies examining how children use this knowledge to make sense of auditory scenes. We used a change deafness paradigm and an object-encoding task to investigate how children (6, 8, and 10 years of age) and adults process auditory scenes composed of everyday sounds (e.g., human voices, animal calls, environmental sounds, and musical instruments). Results indicated that although change deafness was present and robust at all ages, listeners improved at detecting changes with age. All listeners were less sensitive to changes within the same semantic category than to small acoustic changes, suggesting that, regardless of age, listeners relied heavily on semantic category knowledge to detect changes. Furthermore, all listeners showed less change deafness when they correctly encoded change-relevant objects (i.e., when they remembered hearing the changing object during the task). Finally, we found that all listeners were better at encoding human voices and were more sensitive to detecting changes involving the human voice. Despite poorer overall performance compared with adults, children detect changes in complex auditory scenes much like adults, using high-level knowledge about auditory objects to guide processing, with special attention to the human voice. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation reveals the cortical networks for processing grasp-relevant object properties.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Simona; Chen, Ying; Medendorp, W P; Crawford, J D; Fiehler, Katja; Henriques, Denise Y P

    2014-06-01

    Grasping behaviors require the selection of grasp-relevant object dimensions, independent of overall object size. Previous neuroimaging studies found that the intraparietal cortex processes object size, but it is unknown whether the graspable dimension (i.e., grasp axis between selected points on the object) or the overall size of objects triggers activation in that region. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation to investigate human brain areas involved in processing the grasp-relevant dimension of real 3-dimensional objects in grasping and viewing tasks. Trials consisted of 2 sequential stimuli in which the object's grasp-relevant dimension, its global size, or both were novel or repeated. We found that calcarine and extrastriate visual areas adapted to object size regardless of the grasp-relevant dimension during viewing tasks. In contrast, the superior parietal occipital cortex (SPOC) and lateral occipital complex of the left hemisphere adapted to the grasp-relevant dimension regardless of object size and task. Finally, the dorsal premotor cortex adapted to the grasp-relevant dimension in grasping, but not in viewing, tasks, suggesting that motor processing was complete at this stage. Taken together, our results provide a complete cortical circuit for progressive transformation of general object properties into grasp-related responses.

  3. Reentrant processing mediates object substitution masking: comment on Põder (2013).

    PubMed

    Di Lollo, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Object-substitution masking (OSM) occurs when a target stimulus and a surrounding mask are displayed briefly together, and the display then continues with the mask alone. Target identification is accurate when the stimuli co-terminate but is progressively impaired as the duration of the trailing mask is increased. In reentrant accounts, OSM is said to arise from iterative exchanges between brain regions connected by two-way pathways. In an alternative account, OSM is explained on the basis of exclusively feed-forward processes, without recourse to reentry. Here I show that the feed-forward account runs afoul of the extant phenomenological, behavioral, brain-imaging, and electrophysiological evidence. Further, the feed-forward assumption that masking occurs when attention finds a degraded target is shown to be entirely ad hoc. In contrast, the evidence is uniformly consistent with a reentrant-processing account of OSM.

  4. Complexity constrained rate-distortion optimization of sign language video using an objective intelligibility metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciaramello, Frank M.; Hemami, Sheila S.

    2008-01-01

    Sign language users are eager for the freedom and convenience of video communication over cellular devices. Compression of sign language video in this setting offers unique challenges. The low bitrates available make encoding decisions extremely important, while the power constraints of the device limit the encoder complexity. The ultimate goal is to maximize the intelligibility of the conversation given the rate-constrained cellular channel and power constrained encoding device. This paper uses an objective measure of intelligibility, based on subjective testing with members of the Deaf community, for rate-distortion optimization of sign language video within the H.264 framework. Performance bounds are established by using the intelligibility metric in a Lagrangian cost function along with a trellis search to make optimal mode and quantizer decisions for each macroblock. The optimal QP values are analyzed and the unique structure of sign language is exploited in order to reduce complexity by three orders of magnitude relative to the trellis search technique with no loss in rate-distortion performance. Further reductions in complexity are made by eliminating rarely occuring modes in the encoding process. The low complexity SL optimization technique increases the measured intelligibility up to 3.5 dB, at fixed rates, and reduces rate by as much as 60% at fixed levels of intelligibility with respect to a rate control algorithm designed for aesthetic distortion as measured by MSE.

  5. A real-time fault diagnosis methodology of complex systems using object-oriented Bayesian networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Baoping; Liu, Hanlin; Xie, Min

    2016-12-01

    Bayesian network (BN) is a commonly used tool in probabilistic reasoning of uncertainty in industrial processes, but it requires modeling of large and complex systems, in situations such as fault diagnosis and reliability evaluation. Motivated by reduction of the overall complexities of BNs for fault diagnosis, and the reporting of faults that immediately occur, a real-time fault diagnosis methodology of complex systems with repetitive structures is proposed using object-oriented Bayesian networks (OOBNs). The modeling methodology consists of two main phases: an off-line OOBN construction phase and an on-line fault diagnosis phase. In the off-line phase, sensor historical data and expert knowledge are collected and processed to determine the faults and symptoms, and OOBN-based fault diagnosis models are developed subsequently. In the on-line phase, operator experience and sensor real-time data are placed in the OOBNs to perform the fault diagnosis. According to engineering experience, the judgment rules are defined to obtain the fault diagnosis results.

  6. Using the data quality objectives process in risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency`s Quality Assurance Management Staff has developed a systematic process, the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process, as an important tool for assisting project managers and planners in determining the type, quantity, and quality of environmental data sufficient for environmental decision-making. This information brief presents the basic concepts of, and information requirements for using the DQO process to plan the collection of the necessary environmental data, to support the performance of human health risk assessments under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The goal of the DQO process is to identify the type, quality, and quantity of data required to support remedial action decisions which are based on risk assessment and its associated uncertainties. The DQO process consists of a number of discrete steps. These steps include a statement of the problem and the decision to be made, identifying inputs to the decision, developing a decision rule, and optimizing the design for data collection. In defining the data for input into the decision, a Site Conceptual Exposure Model should be developed to identify the existing or potential complete exposure pathways. To determine the data quality for use din the risk assessment, the DQO team must assist the decision-maker to define the acceptable level of uncertainty for making site-specific decisions. To determine the quantity of data needed, the DQO team utilizes the established target cleanup level, previously collected data and variability, and the acceptable errors. The results of the DQO process are qualitative and quantitative statements that define the scope of risk assessment data to be collected to support a defensible site risk management decision.

  7. Tracker: Image-Processing and Object-Tracking System Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimek, Robert B.; Wright, Theodore W.

    1999-01-01

    Tracker is an object-tracking and image-processing program designed and developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to help with the analysis of images generated by microgravity combustion and fluid physics experiments. Experiments are often recorded on film or videotape for analysis later. Tracker automates the process of examining each frame of the recorded experiment, performing image-processing operations to bring out the desired detail, and recording the positions of the objects of interest. It can load sequences of images from disk files or acquire images (via a frame grabber) from film transports, videotape, laser disks, or a live camera. Tracker controls the image source to automatically advance to the next frame. It can employ a large array of image-processing operations to enhance the detail of the acquired images and can analyze an arbitrarily large number of objects simultaneously. Several different tracking algorithms are available, including conventional threshold and correlation-based techniques, and more esoteric procedures such as "snake" tracking and automated recognition of character data in the image. The Tracker software was written to be operated by researchers, thus every attempt was made to make the software as user friendly and self-explanatory as possible. Tracker is used by most of the microgravity combustion and fluid physics experiments performed by Lewis, and by visiting researchers. This includes experiments performed on the space shuttles, Mir, sounding rockets, zero-g research airplanes, drop towers, and ground-based laboratories. This software automates the analysis of the flame or liquid s physical parameters such as position, velocity, acceleration, size, shape, intensity characteristics, color, and centroid, as well as a number of other measurements. It can perform these operations on multiple objects simultaneously. Another key feature of Tracker is that it performs optical character recognition (OCR). This feature is useful in

  8. Giordano Bruno, the June 1975 meteoroid storm, Encke, and other Taurid Complex objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartung, Jack B.

    1993-08-01

    The possibility that the Giordano Bruno and Tunguska events, and the June 1975 meteoroid storm all had a common source is explored. These events are argued to be part of a larger complex of objects that range in size from millimeters to kilometers in diameters. Smaller objects may be derived from Taurid Complex objects, but tend to lose their identity as their orbits change in response to forces related to the Poynting-Robertson effect, solar wind pressure, and other nongravitational effects. Objects which produce fireballs and airwaves in the earth's atmosphere, impact flashes on the moon, and most meteorite falls do not occur in late June and are, therefore, not members of the Taurid Complex. The Taurid Complex has been derived from low-strength and low-density objects, i.e., comets, but inclusions or crusts of higher density cannot be ruled out.

  9. Exploratory study of complexant concentrate waste processing

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, G.J.; Bray, L.A.; Kurath, D.E.; Morrey, J.R.; Swanson, J.L.; Wester, D.W.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for Westinghouse Hanford Company, was to determine the effect of applying advanced chemical separations technologies to the processing and disposal of high-level wastes (HLW) stored in underground tanks. The major goals of this study were to determine (1) if the wastes can be partitioned into a small volume of HLW plus a large volume of low-level waste (LLW), and (2) if the activity in the LLW can be lowered enough to meet NRC Class LLW criteria. This report presents the results obtained in a brief scouting study of various processes for separating radionuclides from Hanford complexant concentrate (CC) waste.

  10. Supercritical separation process for complex organic mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Chum, H.L.; Filardo, G.

    1990-10-23

    A process is disclosed for separating low molecular weight components from complex aqueous organic mixtures. The process includes preparing a separation solution of supercritical carbon dioxide with an effective amount of an entrainer to modify the solvation power of the supercritical carbon dioxide and extract preselected low molecular weight components. The separation solution is maintained at a temperature of at least about 70 C and a pressure of at least about 1,500 psi. The separation solution is then contacted with the organic mixtures while maintaining the temperature and pressure as above until the mixtures and solution reach equilibrium to extract the preselected low molecular weight components from the organic mixtures. Finally, the entrainer/extracted components portion of the equilibrium mixture is isolated from the separation solution. 1 fig.

  11. Supercritical separation process for complex organic mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Chum, Helena L.; Filardo, Giuseppe

    1990-01-01

    A process is disclosed for separating low molecular weight components from complex aqueous organic mixtures. The process includes preparing a separation solution of supercritical carbon dioxide with an effective amount of an entrainer to modify the solvation power of the supercritical carbon dioxide and extract preselected low molecular weight components. The separation solution is maintained at a temperature of at least about 70.degree. C. and a pressure of at least about 1,500 psi. The separation solution is then contacted with the organic mixtures while maintaining the temperature and pressure as above until the mixtures and solution reach equilibrium to extract the preselected low molecular weight components from the organic mixtures. Finally, the entrainer/extracted components portion of the equilibrium mixture is isolated from the separation solution.

  12. Software Process Assurance for Complex Electronics (SPACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plastow, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Complex Electronics (CE) are now programmed to perform tasks that were previously handled in software, such as communication protocols. Many of the methods used to develop software bare a close resemblance to CE development. For instance, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) can have over a million logic gates while system-on-chip (SOC) devices can combine a microprocessor, input and output channels, and sometimes an FPGA for programmability. With this increased intricacy, the possibility of software-like bugs such as incorrect design, logic, and unexpected interactions within the logic is great. Since CE devices are obscuring the hardware/software boundary, we propose that mature software methodologies may be utilized with slight modifications in the development of these devices. Software Process Assurance for Complex Electronics (SPACE) is a research project that looks at using standardized S/W Assurance/Engineering practices to provide an assurance framework for development activities. Tools such as checklists, best practices and techniques can be used to detect missing requirements and bugs earlier in the development cycle creating a development process for CE that will be more easily maintained, consistent and configurable based on the device used.

  13. Software Process Assurance for Complex Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plastow, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Complex Electronics (CE) now perform tasks that were previously handled in software, such as communication protocols. Many methods used to develop software bare a close resemblance to CE development. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) can have over a million logic gates while system-on-chip (SOC) devices can combine a microprocessor, input and output channels, and sometimes an FPGA for programmability. With this increased intricacy, the possibility of software-like bugs such as incorrect design, logic, and unexpected interactions within the logic is great. With CE devices obscuring the hardware/software boundary, we propose that mature software methodologies may be utilized with slight modifications in the development of these devices. Software Process Assurance for Complex Electronics (SPACE) is a research project that used standardized S/W Assurance/Engineering practices to provide an assurance framework for development activities. Tools such as checklists, best practices and techniques were used to detect missing requirements and bugs earlier in the development cycle creating a development process for CE that was more easily maintained, consistent and configurable based on the device used.

  14. Knowledge Judgments and Object Memory Processes in Early Childhood: Support for the Dual Criterion Account of Object Nameability Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipowski, Stacy L.; Merriman, William E.

    2011-01-01

    According to the dual criterion account of early linguistic judgment (Merriman & Lipko, 2008), preschool-aged children who possess more efficient object memory processes should also be more accurate judges of whether various objects have known names. In support of this claim, both the accuracy of object recognition and the speed of object…

  15. Mirror-image sensitivity and invariance in object and scene processing pathways

    PubMed Central

    Dilks, Daniel D.; Julian, Joshua B.; Kubilius, Jonas; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Electrophysiological and behavioral studies in many species have demonstrated mirror-image confusion for objects, perhaps because many objects are vertically symmetric (e.g., a cup is the same cup when seen in left or right profile). In contrast, the navigability of a scene changes when it is mirror reversed, and behavioral studies reveal high sensitivity to this change. Thus, we predicted that representations in object-selective cortex will be unaffected by mirror reversals, whereas representations in scene-selective cortex will be sensitive to such reversals. To test this hypothesis, we ran an event-related functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) adaptation experiment in human adults. Consistent with our prediction, we found tolerance to mirror reversals in one object-selective region, the posterior fusiform sulcus (pFs), and a strong sensitivity to these reversals in two scene-selective regions, the transverse occipital sulcus (TOS) and the retrosplenial complex (RSC). However, a more posterior object-selective region, the lateral occipital sulcus (LO), showed sensitivity to mirror reversals, suggesting that the sense information that distinguishes mirror images is represented at earlier stages in the object processing hierarchy. Moreover, one scene-selective region (the parahippocampal place area – PPA) was tolerant to mirror reversals. The last finding challenges the hypothesis that the PPA is involved in navigation and reorientation, and suggests instead that scenes, like objects, are processed by distinct pathways guiding recognition and action. PMID:21813690

  16. Mirror-image sensitivity and invariance in object and scene processing pathways.

    PubMed

    Dilks, Daniel D; Julian, Joshua B; Kubilius, Jonas; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2011-08-03

    Electrophysiological and behavioral studies in many species have demonstrated mirror-image confusion for objects, perhaps because many objects are vertically symmetric (e.g., a cup is the same cup when seen in left or right profile). In contrast, the navigability of a scene changes when it is mirror reversed, and behavioral studies reveal high sensitivity to this change. Thus, we predicted that representations in object-selective cortex will be unaffected by mirror reversals, whereas representations in scene-selective cortex will be sensitive to such reversals. To test this hypothesis, we ran an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation experiment in human adults. Consistent with our prediction, we found tolerance to mirror reversals in one object-selective region, the posterior fusiform sulcus, and a strong sensitivity to these reversals in two scene-selective regions, the transverse occipital sulcus and the retrosplenial complex. However, a more posterior object-selective region, the lateral occipital sulcus, showed sensitivity to mirror reversals, suggesting that the sense information that distinguishes mirror images is represented at earlier stages in the object-processing hierarchy. Moreover, one scene-selective region (the parahippocampal place area or PPA) was tolerant to mirror reversals. This last finding challenges the hypothesis that the PPA is involved in navigation and reorientation and suggests instead that scenes, like objects, are processed by distinct pathways guiding recognition and action.

  17. On the existence of near-Earth-object meteoroid complexes producing meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodriguez, J.; Madiedo, J.; Williams, I.

    2014-07-01

    It is generally thought that meteorites are formed as a result of collisions within the main belt of asteroids [1]. They are delivered onto Earth-crossing orbits because of the effects of orbital resonances, primarily with Jupiter. About 15 meteorites are known where their passage through the atmosphere was observed and recorded, allowing the parameters of the pre-encounter orbit to be derived [2]. The cosmic-ray-exposure ages (CREAs) are suggesting that most meteorites have been exposed to cosmic rays for tens of millions of years (Myrs) [3], re-enforcing the belief that the process of modifying the orbit from being near-circular in the main belt to highly elliptical as an Earth-crossing orbit was a gradual process like the effects of resonance. However, there is growing evidence that some meteorite could originate directly from the near-Earth-object (NEO) population. A good example of this is the recent discovery of rare primitive groups in the Antarctic, an example being Elephant Moraine (EET) 96026: a C4/5 carbonaceous chondrite with a measured cosmic ray exposure age of only 0.28 Ma [4]. Here, we focus on recent dynamic links that have been established between meteorite-dropping bolides and NEOs that support the idea of short-life meteoroid streams that can generate meteoroids on Earth. The fact that such streams can exist allows rocky material from potentially-hazardous asteroids (PHA) to be sampled and investigated in the laboratory. The existence of meteoroid streams capable of producing meteorites has been proposed following the determination of accurate meteoroid orbits of fireballs obtained by the Canadian Meteorite Observation and Recovery Project (MORP) [5]. Some asteroids in the Earth's vicinity are undergoing both dynamical and collisional evolution on very short timescales [6]. Many of these objects are crumbly bodies that originated from the collisions between main-belt asteroids during their life-time. An obvious method of forming these complexes

  18. Faster than the speed of rejection: Object identification processes during visual search for multiple targets

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, Hayward J.; Walenchok, Stephen C.; Houpt, Joseph W.; Hout, Michael C.; Goldinger, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    When engaged in a visual search for two targets, participants are slower and less accurate in their responses, relative to their performance when searching for singular targets. Previous work on this “dual-target cost” has primarily focused on the breakdown of attention guidance when looking for two items. Here, we investigated how object identification processes are affected by dual-target search. Our goal was to chart the speed at which distractors could be rejected, in order to assess whether dual-target search impairs object identification. To do so, we examined the capacity coefficient, which measures the speed at which decisions can be made, and provides a baseline of parallel performance against which to compare. We found that participants could search at or above this baseline, suggesting that dual-target search does not impair object identification abilities. We also found substantial differences in performance when participants were asked to search for simple versus complex images. Somewhat paradoxically, participants were able to reject complex images more rapidly than simple images. We suggest that this reflects the greater number of features that can be used to identify complex images, a finding that has important consequences for understanding object identification in visual search more generally. PMID:25938253

  19. Improved multi-objective ant colony optimization algorithm and its application in complex reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinqing; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Huijie; Zhang, Qing

    2013-09-01

    The problem of fault reasoning has aroused great concern in scientific and engineering fields. However, fault investigation and reasoning of complex system is not a simple reasoning decision-making problem. It has become a typical multi-constraint and multi-objective reticulate optimization decision-making problem under many influencing factors and constraints. So far, little research has been carried out in this field. This paper transforms the fault reasoning problem of complex system into a paths-searching problem starting from known symptoms to fault causes. Three optimization objectives are considered simultaneously: maximum probability of average fault, maximum average importance, and minimum average complexity of test. Under the constraints of both known symptoms and the causal relationship among different components, a multi-objective optimization mathematical model is set up, taking minimizing cost of fault reasoning as the target function. Since the problem is non-deterministic polynomial-hard(NP-hard), a modified multi-objective ant colony algorithm is proposed, in which a reachability matrix is set up to constrain the feasible search nodes of the ants and a new pseudo-random-proportional rule and a pheromone adjustment mechinism are constructed to balance conflicts between the optimization objectives. At last, a Pareto optimal set is acquired. Evaluation functions based on validity and tendency of reasoning paths are defined to optimize noninferior set, through which the final fault causes can be identified according to decision-making demands, thus realize fault reasoning of the multi-constraint and multi-objective complex system. Reasoning results demonstrate that the improved multi-objective ant colony optimization(IMACO) can realize reasoning and locating fault positions precisely by solving the multi-objective fault diagnosis model, which provides a new method to solve the problem of multi-constraint and multi-objective fault diagnosis and

  20. Digital image processing in the SECURE concealed-object detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Steven W.

    1993-04-01

    A new technology has been developed for detecting explosives and other dangerous objects concealed under persons' clothing. The 'Subambient Exposure, Computer Utilized Reflected Energy' (SECURE) method uses a very low level of back-scattered x-rays in conjunction with digital image processing to produce an image of the person and any concealed objects. Image processing algorithms, used in the system are directed at presenting information to a human operator in the best possible manner for foreign object detection. These algorithms are viewed as being near optimum, and additional development is probably not justified. Algorithm development is needed in the area of automatic threat detection. This has the potential of reducing the invasion of privacy associated with having a security operator view each image. It also has the potential of reducing the serious problem of operator complacency. In one approach, the new algorithm must (1) recognize and isolate objects in the image, (2) discriminate between concealed objects and human anatomy, and (3) discriminate between dangerous and benign concealed objects. The images produced with the SECURE technology are extremely noisy due to the low levels of radiation used. Any algorithm developed must perform well in this noisy environment. Execution of the algorithm must be accomplished in less than a few seconds. Hardware to implement the algorithm must be of a complexity and cost compatible with the commercial SECURE system.

  1. The perception of odor objects in everyday life: a review on the processing of odor mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Thomas-Danguin, Thierry; Sinding, Charlotte; Romagny, Sébastien; El Mountassir, Fouzia; Atanasova, Boriana; Le Berre, Elodie; Le Bon, Anne-Marie; Coureaud, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Smelling monomolecular odors hardly ever occurs in everyday life, and the daily functioning of the sense of smell relies primarily on the processing of complex mixtures of volatiles that are present in the environment (e.g., emanating from food or conspecifics). Such processing allows for the instantaneous recognition and categorization of smells and also for the discrimination of odors among others to extract relevant information and to adapt efficiently in different contexts. The neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning this highly efficient analysis of complex mixtures of odorants is beginning to be unraveled and support the idea that olfaction, as vision and audition, relies on odor-objects encoding. This configural processing of odor mixtures, which is empirically subject to important applications in our societies (e.g., the art of perfumers, flavorists, and wine makers), has been scientifically studied only during the last decades. This processing depends on many individual factors, among which are the developmental stage, lifestyle, physiological and mood state, and cognitive skills; this processing also presents striking similarities between species. The present review gathers the recent findings, as observed in animals, healthy subjects, and/or individuals with affective disorders, supporting the perception of complex odor stimuli as odor objects. It also discusses peripheral to central processing, and cognitive and behavioral significance. Finally, this review highlights that the study of odor mixtures is an original window allowing for the investigation of daily olfaction and emphasizes the need for knowledge about the underlying biological processes, which appear to be crucial for our representation and adaptation to the chemical environment. PMID:24917831

  2. No Evidence for a Fixed Object Limit in Working Memory: Spatial Ensemble Representations Inflate Estimates of Working Memory Capacity for Complex Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Timothy F.; Alvarez, George A.

    2015-01-01

    A central question for models of visual working memory is whether the number of objects people can remember depends on object complexity. Some influential "slot" models of working memory capacity suggest that people always represent 3-4 objects and that only the fidelity with which these objects are represented is affected by object…

  3. The number of objects determines visual working memory capacity allocation for complex items.

    PubMed

    Balaban, Halely; Luria, Roy

    2015-10-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine whether visual working memory (WM) capacity allocation is determined solely by complexity, with the number of objects being redundant, as suggested by flexible resource models. Participants performed the change detection task with random polygons as stimuli, while we monitored the contralateral delay activity (CDA), an electrophysiological marker whose amplitude rises as WM load increases. In Experiment 1, we compared the WM maintenance of one whole polygon to a single half of the polygon, equating the number of items but varying the complexity level. Additionally, we compared the whole polygon to two halves of a polygon, thus roughly equating perceptual complexity but manipulating the number of items. The results suggested that only the number of objects determined WM capacity allocation: the CDA was identical when comparing one whole polygon to one polygon half, even though these conditions differed in complexity. Furthermore, the CDA amplitude was lower in the whole polygon condition relative to the two halves condition, even though both contained roughly the same amount of information. Experiment 2 extended these results by showing that two polygon halves that moved separately but then met and moved together were gradually integrated to consume similar WM capacity as one polygon half. Additionally, in both experiments we found an object benefit in accuracy, corroborating the important role of objects in WM. Our results demonstrate that WM capacity allocation cannot be explained by complexity alone. Instead, it is highly sensitive to objecthood, as suggested by discrete slot models.

  4. Auditory scene analysis and sonified visual images. Does consonance negatively impact on object formation when using complex sonified stimuli?

    PubMed Central

    Brown, David J.; Simpson, Andrew J. R.; Proulx, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    A critical task for the brain is the sensory representation and identification of perceptual objects in the world. When the visual sense is impaired, hearing and touch must take primary roles and in recent times compensatory techniques have been developed that employ the tactile or auditory system as a substitute for the visual system. Visual-to-auditory sonifications provide a complex, feature-based auditory representation that must be decoded and integrated into an object-based representation by the listener. However, we don’t yet know what role the auditory system plays in the object integration stage and whether the principles of auditory scene analysis apply. Here we used coarse sonified images in a two-tone discrimination task to test whether auditory feature-based representations of visual objects would be confounded when their features conflicted with the principles of auditory consonance. We found that listeners (N = 36) performed worse in an object recognition task when the auditory feature-based representation was harmonically consonant. We also found that this conflict was not negated with the provision of congruent audio–visual information. The findings suggest that early auditory processes of harmonic grouping dominate the object formation process and that the complexity of the signal, and additional sensory information have limited effect on this. PMID:26528202

  5. Auditory scene analysis and sonified visual images. Does consonance negatively impact on object formation when using complex sonified stimuli?

    PubMed

    Brown, David J; Simpson, Andrew J R; Proulx, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    A critical task for the brain is the sensory representation and identification of perceptual objects in the world. When the visual sense is impaired, hearing and touch must take primary roles and in recent times compensatory techniques have been developed that employ the tactile or auditory system as a substitute for the visual system. Visual-to-auditory sonifications provide a complex, feature-based auditory representation that must be decoded and integrated into an object-based representation by the listener. However, we don't yet know what role the auditory system plays in the object integration stage and whether the principles of auditory scene analysis apply. Here we used coarse sonified images in a two-tone discrimination task to test whether auditory feature-based representations of visual objects would be confounded when their features conflicted with the principles of auditory consonance. We found that listeners (N = 36) performed worse in an object recognition task when the auditory feature-based representation was harmonically consonant. We also found that this conflict was not negated with the provision of congruent audio-visual information. The findings suggest that early auditory processes of harmonic grouping dominate the object formation process and that the complexity of the signal, and additional sensory information have limited effect on this.

  6. Improvement of the F-Perceptory Approach Through Management of Fuzzy Complex Geographic Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalfi, B.; de Runz, C.; Faiz, S.; Akdag, H.

    2015-08-01

    In the real world, data is imperfect and in various ways such as imprecision, vagueness, uncertainty, ambiguity and inconsistency. For geographic data, the fuzzy aspect is mainly manifested in time, space and the function of objects and is due to a lack of precision. Therefore, the researchers in the domain emphasize the importance of modeling data structures in GIS but also their lack of adaptation to fuzzy data. The F-Perceptory approachh manages the modeling of imperfect geographic information with UML. This management is essential to maintain faithfulness to reality and to better guide the user in his decision-making. However, this approach does not manage fuzzy complex geographic objects. The latter presents a multiple object with similar or different geographic shapes. So, in this paper, we propose to improve the F-Perceptory approach by proposing to handle fuzzy complex geographic objects modeling. In a second step, we propose its transformation to the UML modeling.

  7. Eye Movements and Processing Difficulty in Object Relative Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that sentences containing object-extracted relative clauses (e.g., "The reporter that the senator attacked admitted the error") are more difficult to comprehend than sentences containing subject-extracted relative clauses (e.g., "The reporter that attacked the senator admitted the error"). Two major accounts of this phenomenon…

  8. 36 CFR 218.10 - Objection time periods and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... legal notice of the EA or final EIS in the newspaper of record or the publication date of the notice in... of the EA or final EIS in the newspaper of record or Federal Register (§ 218.5(c)) is the first day of the objection-filing period. (3) The publication date of the legal notice of the EA or final...

  9. Learning Objects: A User-Centered Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branon, Rovy F., III

    2011-01-01

    Design research systematically creates or improves processes, products, and programs through an iterative progression connecting practice and theory (Reinking, 2008; van den Akker, 2006). Developing a new instructional systems design (ISD) processes through design research is necessary when new technologies emerge that challenge existing practices…

  10. Cognitive Process Modeling of Spatial Ability: The Assembling Objects Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Jennifer L.; Embretson, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Spatial ability tasks appear on many intelligence and aptitude tests. Although the construct validity of spatial ability tests has often been studied through traditional correlational methods, such as factor analysis, less is known about the cognitive processes involved in solving test items. This study examines the cognitive processes involved in…

  11. Distinct Visual Processing of Real Objects and Pictures of Those Objects in 7- to 9-month-old Infants.

    PubMed

    Gerhard, Theresa M; Culham, Jody C; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined 7- and 9-month-old infants' visual habituation to real objects and pictures of the same objects and their preferences between real and pictorial versions of the same objects following habituation. Different hypotheses would predict that infants may habituate faster to pictures than real objects (based on proposed theoretical links between behavioral habituation in infants and neuroimaging adaptation in adults) or to real objects vs. pictures (based on past infant electrophysiology data). Sixty-one 7-month-old infants and fifty-nine 9-month-old infants were habituated to either a real object or a picture of the same object and afterward preference tested with the habituation object paired with either the novel real object or its picture counterpart. Infants of both age groups showed basic information-processing advantages for real objects. Specifically, during the initial presentations, 9-month-old infants looked longer at stimuli in both formats than the 7-month olds but more importantly both age groups looked longer at real objects than pictures, though with repeated presentations, they habituated faster for real objects such that at the end of habituation, they looked equally at both types of stimuli. Surprisingly, even after habituation, infants preferred to look at the real objects, regardless of whether they had habituated to photos or real objects. Our findings suggest that from as early as 7-months of age, infants show strong preferences for real objects, perhaps because real objects are visually richer and/or enable the potential for genuine interactions.

  12. Distinct Visual Processing of Real Objects and Pictures of Those Objects in 7- to 9-month-old Infants

    PubMed Central

    Gerhard, Theresa M.; Culham, Jody C.; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined 7- and 9-month-old infants’ visual habituation to real objects and pictures of the same objects and their preferences between real and pictorial versions of the same objects following habituation. Different hypotheses would predict that infants may habituate faster to pictures than real objects (based on proposed theoretical links between behavioral habituation in infants and neuroimaging adaptation in adults) or to real objects vs. pictures (based on past infant electrophysiology data). Sixty-one 7-month-old infants and fifty-nine 9-month-old infants were habituated to either a real object or a picture of the same object and afterward preference tested with the habituation object paired with either the novel real object or its picture counterpart. Infants of both age groups showed basic information-processing advantages for real objects. Specifically, during the initial presentations, 9-month-old infants looked longer at stimuli in both formats than the 7-month olds but more importantly both age groups looked longer at real objects than pictures, though with repeated presentations, they habituated faster for real objects such that at the end of habituation, they looked equally at both types of stimuli. Surprisingly, even after habituation, infants preferred to look at the real objects, regardless of whether they had habituated to photos or real objects. Our findings suggest that from as early as 7-months of age, infants show strong preferences for real objects, perhaps because real objects are visually richer and/or enable the potential for genuine interactions. PMID:27378962

  13. Diffusive capture process on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungmin; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Yup

    2006-10-01

    We study the dynamical properties of a diffusing lamb captured by a diffusing lion on the complex networks with various sizes of N . We find that the lifetime ⟨T⟩ of a lamb scales as ⟨T⟩˜N and the survival probability S(N→∞,t) becomes finite on scale-free networks with degree exponent γ>3 . However, S(N,t) for γ<3 has a long-living tail on tree-structured scale-free networks and decays exponentially on looped scale-free networks. This suggests that the second moment of degree distribution ⟨k2⟩ is the relevant factor for the dynamical properties in the diffusive capture process. We numerically find that the normalized number of capture events at a node with degree k , n(k) , decreases as n(k)˜k-σ . When γ<3 , n(k) still increases anomalously for k≈kmax , where kmax is the maximum value of k of given networks with size N . We analytically show that n(k) satisfies the relation n(k)˜k2P(k) for any degree distribution P(k) and the total number of capture events Ntot is proportional to ⟨k2⟩ , which causes the γ -dependent behavior of S(N,t) and ⟨T⟩ .

  14. Application of Complex Fluids in Lignocellulose Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo Lugo, Carlos A.

    Complex fluids such as emulsions, microemulsions and foams, have been used for different applications due to the multiplicity of properties they possess. In the present work, such fluids are introduced as effective media for processing lignocellulosic biomass. A demonstration of the generic benefits of complex fluids is presented to enhance biomass impregnation, to facilitate pretreatment for fiber deconstruction and to make compatible cellulose fibrils with hydrophobic polymers during composite manufacture. An improved impregnation of woody biomass was accomplished by application of water-continuous microemulsions. Microemulsions with high water content, > 85%, were formulated and wood samples were impregnated by wicking and capillary flooding at atmospheric pressure and temperature. Formulations were designed to effectively impregnate different wood species during shorter times and to a larger extent compared to the single components of the microemulsions (water, oil or surfactant solutions). The viscosity of the microemulsions and their interactions with cell wall constituents in fibers were critical to define the extent of impregnation and solubilization. The relation between composition and formulation variables and the extent of microemulsion penetration in different woody substrates was studied. Formulation variables such as salinity content of the aqueous phase and type of surfactant were elucidated. Likewise, composition variables such as the water-to-oil ratio and surfactant concentration were investigated. These variables affected the characteristics of the microemulsion and determined their effectiveness in wood treatment. Also, the interactions between the surfactant and the substrate had an important contribution in defining microemulsion penetration in the capillary structure of wood. Microemulsions as an alternative pretreatment for the manufacture of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) was also studied. Microemulsions were applied to pretreat lignin

  15. Examining Complexity across Domains: Relating Subjective and Objective Measures of Affective Environmental Scenes, Paintings and Music

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Manuela M.; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Subjective complexity has been found to be related to hedonic measures of preference, pleasantness and beauty, but there is no consensus about the nature of this relationship in the visual and musical domains. Moreover, the affective content of stimuli has been largely neglected so far in the study of complexity but is crucial in many everyday contexts and in aesthetic experiences. We thus propose a cross-domain approach that acknowledges the multidimensional nature of complexity and that uses a wide range of objective complexity measures combined with subjective ratings. In four experiments, we employed pictures of affective environmental scenes, representational paintings, and Romantic solo and chamber music excerpts. Stimuli were pre-selected to vary in emotional content (pleasantness and arousal) and complexity (low versus high number of elements). For each set of stimuli, in a between-subjects design, ratings of familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal were obtained for a presentation time of 25 s from 152 participants. In line with Berlyne’s collative-motivation model, statistical analyses controlling for familiarity revealed a positive relationship between subjective complexity and arousal, and the highest correlations were observed for musical stimuli. Evidence for a mediating role of arousal in the complexity-pleasantness relationship was demonstrated in all experiments, but was only significant for females with regard to music. The direction and strength of the linear relationship between complexity and pleasantness depended on the stimulus type and gender. For environmental scenes, the root mean square contrast measures and measures of compressed file size correlated best with subjective complexity, whereas only edge detection based on phase congruency yielded equivalent results for representational paintings. Measures of compressed file size and event density also showed positive correlations with complexity and arousal in music, which is

  16. Examining complexity across domains: relating subjective and objective measures of affective environmental scenes, paintings and music.

    PubMed

    Marin, Manuela M; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Subjective complexity has been found to be related to hedonic measures of preference, pleasantness and beauty, but there is no consensus about the nature of this relationship in the visual and musical domains. Moreover, the affective content of stimuli has been largely neglected so far in the study of complexity but is crucial in many everyday contexts and in aesthetic experiences. We thus propose a cross-domain approach that acknowledges the multidimensional nature of complexity and that uses a wide range of objective complexity measures combined with subjective ratings. In four experiments, we employed pictures of affective environmental scenes, representational paintings, and Romantic solo and chamber music excerpts. Stimuli were pre-selected to vary in emotional content (pleasantness and arousal) and complexity (low versus high number of elements). For each set of stimuli, in a between-subjects design, ratings of familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal were obtained for a presentation time of 25 s from 152 participants. In line with Berlyne's collative-motivation model, statistical analyses controlling for familiarity revealed a positive relationship between subjective complexity and arousal, and the highest correlations were observed for musical stimuli. Evidence for a mediating role of arousal in the complexity-pleasantness relationship was demonstrated in all experiments, but was only significant for females with regard to music. The direction and strength of the linear relationship between complexity and pleasantness depended on the stimulus type and gender. For environmental scenes, the root mean square contrast measures and measures of compressed file size correlated best with subjective complexity, whereas only edge detection based on phase congruency yielded equivalent results for representational paintings. Measures of compressed file size and event density also showed positive correlations with complexity and arousal in music, which is

  17. Modeling the electric image produced by objects with complex impedance in weakly electric fish.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kazuhisa; Kashimori, Yoshiki

    2010-08-01

    Weakly electric fish generate an electric field around their body by electric organ discharge (EOD). By measuring the modulation of the electric field produced by an object in the field these fish are able to accurately locate an object. Theoretical and experimental studies have focused on the amplitude modulations of EODs produced by resistive objects. However, little is known about the phase modulations produced by objects with complex impedance. The fish must be able to detect changes in object impedance to discriminate between food and nonfood objects. To investigate the features of electric images produced by objects with complex impedance, we developed a model that can be used to map the electric field around the fish body. The present model allows us to calculate the spatial distribution of the amplitude and phase shift in an electric image. This is the first study to investigate the changes in amplitude and phase shift of electric images induced by objects with complex impedance in wave-type fish. Using the model, we show that the amplitude of the electric image exhibits a sigmoidal change as the capacitance and resistance of an object are increased. Similarly, the phase shift exhibits a significant change within the object capacitance range of 0.1-100 nF. We also show that the spatial distribution of the amplitude and phase shifts of the electric image resembles a "Mexican hat" in shape for varying object distances and sizes. The spatial distribution of the phase shift and the amplitude was dependent on the object distance and size. Changes in the skin capacitance were associated with a tradeoff relationship between the magnitude of the amplitude and phase shift of the electric image. The specific range of skin capacitance (1-100 nF) allows the receptor afferents to extract object features that are relevant to electrolocation. These results provide a useful basis for the study of the neural mechanisms by which weakly electric fish recognize object features

  18. Computational issues in complex water-energy optimization problems: Time scales, parameterizations, objectives and algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstratiadis, Andreas; Tsoukalas, Ioannis; Kossieris, Panayiotis; Karavokiros, George; Christofides, Antonis; Siskos, Alexandros; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2015-04-01

    Modelling of large-scale hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) is a challenging task, for which several open computational issues exist. HRES comprise typical components of hydrosystems (reservoirs, boreholes, conveyance networks, hydropower stations, pumps, water demand nodes, etc.), which are dynamically linked with renewables (e.g., wind turbines, solar parks) and energy demand nodes. In such systems, apart from the well-known shortcomings of water resources modelling (nonlinear dynamics, unknown future inflows, large number of variables and constraints, conflicting criteria, etc.), additional complexities and uncertainties arise due to the introduction of energy components and associated fluxes. A major difficulty is the need for coupling two different temporal scales, given that in hydrosystem modeling, monthly simulation steps are typically adopted, yet for a faithful representation of the energy balance (i.e. energy production vs. demand) a much finer resolution (e.g. hourly) is required. Another drawback is the increase of control variables, constraints and objectives, due to the simultaneous modelling of the two parallel fluxes (i.e. water and energy) and their interactions. Finally, since the driving hydrometeorological processes of the integrated system are inherently uncertain, it is often essential to use synthetically generated input time series of large length, in order to assess the system performance in terms of reliability and risk, with satisfactory accuracy. To address these issues, we propose an effective and efficient modeling framework, key objectives of which are: (a) the substantial reduction of control variables, through parsimonious yet consistent parameterizations; (b) the substantial decrease of computational burden of simulation, by linearizing the combined water and energy allocation problem of each individual time step, and solve each local sub-problem through very fast linear network programming algorithms, and (c) the substantial

  19. The Perception of Concurrent Sound Objects in Harmonic Complexes Impairs Gap Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Ada W. S.; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Vachon, Francois; Alain, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of the concept of auditory scene analysis, there has been a paucity of work focusing on the theoretical explanation of how attention is allocated within a complex auditory scene. Here we examined signal detection in situations that promote either the fusion of tonal elements into a single sound object or the segregation of a…

  20. Formation of complex organic molecules in cold objects: the role of gas-phase reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balucani, Nadia; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Taquet, Vianney

    2015-04-01

    While astrochemical models are successful in reproducing many of the observed interstellar species, they have been struggling to explain the observed abundances of complex organic molecules. Current models tend to privilege grain surface over gas-phase chemistry in their formation. One key assumption of those models is that radicals trapped in the grain mantles gain mobility and react on lukewarm ( ≳ 30 K) dust grains. Thus, the recent detections of methyl formate (MF) and dimethyl ether (DME) in cold objects represent a challenge and may clarify the respective role of grain-surface and gas-phase chemistry. We propose here a new model to form DME and MF with gas-phase reactions in cold environments, where DME is the precursor of MF via an efficient reaction overlooked by previous models. Furthermore, methoxy, a precursor of DME, is also synthesized in the gas phase from methanol, which is desorbed by a non-thermal process from the ices. Our new model reproduces fairly well the observations towards L1544. It also explains, in a natural way, the observed correlation between DME and MF. We conclude that gas-phase reactions are major actors in the formation of MF, DME and methoxy in cold gas. This challenges the exclusive role of grain-surface chemistry and favours a combined grain-gas chemistry.

  1. Salient object detection using coarse-to-fine processing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Lin; Zhao, Weidong; Liu, Xianhui; Chen, Yufei; Wang, Zhicheng

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a salient object detection algorithm that considers both background and foreground cues. It integrates both coarse salient region extraction and a top-down background weight map measure via boundary label propagation into a unified optimization framework to acquire a refined salient map. The coarse saliency map is additionally fused by three prior components: a local contrast map with greater alignment to physiological law, a global focus prior map, and a global color prior map. During the formation of the background weight map, we first construct an affinity matrix and select nodes existing on the border as labels to represent the background. Then we perform a propagation to generate the regional background weight map. Our proposed model was verified on four benchmark datasets, and the experimental results demonstrate that our method has excellent performance.

  2. Method and system for nanoscale plasma processing of objects

    DOEpatents

    Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.; Hua, Xuefeng; Stolz, Christian

    2008-12-30

    A plasma processing system includes a source of plasma, a substrate and a shutter positioned in close proximity to the substrate. The substrate/shutter relative disposition is changed for precise control of substrate/plasma interaction. This way, the substrate interacts only with a fully established, stable plasma for short times required for nanoscale processing of materials. The shutter includes an opening of a predetermined width, and preferably is patterned to form an array of slits with dimensions that are smaller than the Debye screening length. This enables control of the substrate/plasma interaction time while avoiding the ion bombardment of the substrate in an undesirable fashion. The relative disposition between the shutter and the substrate can be made either by moving the shutter or by moving the substrate.

  3. Visual Information Processing in the Perception of Features and Objects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-22

    display containing two other types of bars that differ from them in color or size or orientaton. The target group is shifted either as a whole, preserving...of the target group . The results so far suggest that both color and orientation can provide an input to the matching process that determines apparent...were larger than the background. When the target group was defined by a value intermediate between two types of distractors (medium-sized against large

  4. IFR fuel cycle process equipment design environment and objectives

    SciTech Connect

    Rigg, R.H.

    1993-03-01

    Argonne National laboratory (ANL) is refurbishing the hot cell facility originally constructed with the EBR-II reactor. When refurbishment is complete, the facility win demonstrate the complete fuel cycle for current generation high burnup metallic fuel elements. These are sodium bonded, stainless steel clad fuel pins of U-Zr or U-Pu-Zr composition typical of the fuel type proposed for a future Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) design. To the extent possible, the process equipment is being built at full commercial scale, and the facility is being modified to incorporate current DOE facility design requirements and modem remote maintenance principles. The current regulatory and safety environment has affected the design of the fuel fabrication equipment, most of which will be described in greater detail in subsequent papers in this session.

  5. IFR fuel cycle process equipment design environment and objectives

    SciTech Connect

    Rigg, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    Argonne National laboratory (ANL) is refurbishing the hot cell facility originally constructed with the EBR-II reactor. When refurbishment is complete, the facility win demonstrate the complete fuel cycle for current generation high burnup metallic fuel elements. These are sodium bonded, stainless steel clad fuel pins of U-Zr or U-Pu-Zr composition typical of the fuel type proposed for a future Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) design. To the extent possible, the process equipment is being built at full commercial scale, and the facility is being modified to incorporate current DOE facility design requirements and modem remote maintenance principles. The current regulatory and safety environment has affected the design of the fuel fabrication equipment, most of which will be described in greater detail in subsequent papers in this session.

  6. Intercalation processes of copper complexes in DNA.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Murillo, Rodrigo; García-Ramos, Juan Carlos; Ruiz-Azuara, Lena; Cheatham, Thomas E; Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando

    2015-06-23

    The family of anticancer complexes that include the transition metal copper known as Casiopeínas® shows promising results. Two of these complexes are currently in clinical trials. The interaction of these compounds with DNA has been observed experimentally and several hypotheses regarding the mechanism of action have been developed, and these include the generation of reactive oxygen species, phosphate hydrolysis and/or base-pair intercalation. To advance in the understanding on how these ligands interact with DNA, we present a molecular dynamics study of 21 Casiopeínas with a DNA dodecamer using 10 μs of simulation time for each compound. All the complexes were manually inserted into the minor groove as the starting point of the simulations. The binding energy of each complex and the observed representative type of interaction between the ligand and the DNA is reported. With this extended sampling time, we found that four of the compounds spontaneously flipped open a base pair and moved inside the resulting cavity and four compounds formed stacking interactions with the terminal base pairs. The complexes that formed the intercalation pocket led to more stable interactions.

  7. Intercalation processes of copper complexes in DNA

    PubMed Central

    Galindo-Murillo, Rodrigo; García-Ramos, Juan Carlos; Ruiz-Azuara, Lena; Cheatham, Thomas E.; Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The family of anticancer complexes that include the transition metal copper known as Casiopeínas® shows promising results. Two of these complexes are currently in clinical trials. The interaction of these compounds with DNA has been observed experimentally and several hypotheses regarding the mechanism of action have been developed, and these include the generation of reactive oxygen species, phosphate hydrolysis and/or base-pair intercalation. To advance in the understanding on how these ligands interact with DNA, we present a molecular dynamics study of 21 Casiopeínas with a DNA dodecamer using 10 μs of simulation time for each compound. All the complexes were manually inserted into the minor groove as the starting point of the simulations. The binding energy of each complex and the observed representative type of interaction between the ligand and the DNA is reported. With this extended sampling time, we found that four of the compounds spontaneously flipped open a base pair and moved inside the resulting cavity and four compounds formed stacking interactions with the terminal base pairs. The complexes that formed the intercalation pocket led to more stable interactions. PMID:25958394

  8. RNA assemblages orchestrate complex cellular processes

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Hansen, Heidi Theil

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic mRNAs are monocistronic, and therefore mechanisms exist that coordinate the synthesis of multiprotein complexes in order to obtain proper stoichiometry at the appropriate intracellular locations. RNA‐binding proteins containing low‐complexity sequences are prone to generate liquid droplets via liquid‐liquid phase separation, and in this way create cytoplasmic assemblages of functionally related mRNAs. In a recent iCLIP study, we showed that the Drosophila RNA‐binding protein Imp, which exhibits a C‐terminal low‐complexity sequence, increases the formation of F‐actin by binding to 3′ untranslated regions of mRNAs encoding components participating in F‐actin biogenesis. We hypothesize that phase transition is a mechanism the cell employs to increase the local mRNA concentration considerably, and in this way synchronize protein production in cytoplasmic territories, as discussed in the present review. PMID:27172226

  9. Complex Network Clustering by a Multi-objective Evolutionary Algorithm Based on Decomposition and Membrane Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Ying; Zhang, Songming; Ding, Ningxiang; Zeng, Xiangxiang; Zhang, Xingyi

    2016-09-01

    The field of complex network clustering is gaining considerable attention in recent years. In this study, a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on membranes is proposed to solve the network clustering problem. Population are divided into different membrane structures on average. The evolutionary algorithm is carried out in the membrane structures. The population are eliminated by the vector of membranes. In the proposed method, two evaluation objectives termed as Kernel J-means and Ratio Cut are to be minimized. Extensive experimental studies comparison with state-of-the-art algorithms proves that the proposed algorithm is effective and promising.

  10. An analysis of packaging formats for complex digtal objects: review of principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekaert, Jeroen L.; Hochstenbach, Patrick; De Kooning, Emiel; Van de Walle, Rik

    2003-11-01

    During recent years, the number of organizations making digital information available has massively increased. This evolution encouraged the development of standards for packaging and encoding digital representations of complex objects (such as a digital music albums or digitized books and photograph albums). The primary goal of this article is to offer a method to compare these packaging standards and best practices tailored to the needs of the digital library community and the rising digital preservation programs. The contribution of this paper is the definition of an integrated reference model, based on both the OAIS framework and some additional significant properties that affect the quality, usability, encoding and behavior of the digital objects.

  11. Complex Network Clustering by a Multi-objective Evolutionary Algorithm Based on Decomposition and Membrane Structure

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Ying; Zhang, Songming; Ding, Ningxiang; Zeng, Xiangxiang; Zhang, Xingyi

    2016-01-01

    The field of complex network clustering is gaining considerable attention in recent years. In this study, a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on membranes is proposed to solve the network clustering problem. Population are divided into different membrane structures on average. The evolutionary algorithm is carried out in the membrane structures. The population are eliminated by the vector of membranes. In the proposed method, two evaluation objectives termed as Kernel J-means and Ratio Cut are to be minimized. Extensive experimental studies comparison with state-of-the-art algorithms proves that the proposed algorithm is effective and promising. PMID:27670156

  12. When a Dog Has a Pen for a Tail: The Time Course of Creative Object Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Botao; Duan, Haijun; Qi, Senqing; Hu, Weiping; Zhang, Huan

    2017-01-01

    Creative objects differ from ordinary objects in that they are created by human beings to contain novel, creative information. Previous research has demonstrated that ordinary object processing involves both a perceptual process for analyzing different features of the visual input and a higher-order process for evaluating the relevance of this…

  13. Decontamination processes for low level radioactive waste metal objects

    SciTech Connect

    Longnecker, E.F.; Ichikawa, Sekigo; Kanamori, Osamu

    1996-12-31

    Disposal and safe storage of contaminated nuclear waste is a problem of international scope. Although the greatest volume of such waste is concentrated in the USA and former Soviet Union, Western Europe and Japan have contaminated nuclear waste requiring attention. Japan`s radioactive nuclear waste is principally generated at nuclear power plants since it has no nuclear weapons production. However, their waste reduction, storage and disposal problems may be comparable to that of the USA on an inhabited area basis when consideration is given to population density where Japan`s population, half that of the USA, lives in an area slightly smaller than that of California`s. If everyone`s backyard was in California, the USA might have insoluble radioactive waste reduction, storage and disposal problems. Viewing Japan`s contaminated nuclear waste as a national problem requiring solutions, as well as an economic opportunity, Morikawa began research and development for decontaminating low level radioactive nuclear waste seven years ago. As engineers and manufacturers of special machinery for many years Morikawa brings special electro/mechanical/pneumatic Skills and knowledge to solving these unique problems. Genden Engineering Services and Construction Company (GESC), an affiliate of Japan Atomic Power Company, recently joined with Morikawa in this R&D effort to decontaminate low level radioactive nuclear waste (LLW) and to substantially reduce the volume of such nuclear waste requiring long term storage. This paper will present equipment with both mechanical and chemical processes developed over these several years by Morikawa and most recently in cooperation with GESC.

  14. TOR and ageing: a complex pathway for a complex process.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Mark A; Tsai, Shih-Yin; Kennedy, Brian K

    2011-01-12

    Studies in invertebrate model organisms have led to a wealth of knowledge concerning the ageing process. But which of these discoveries will apply to ageing in humans? Recently, an assessment of the degree of conservation of ageing pathways between two of the leading invertebrate model organisms, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans, was completed. The results (i) quantitatively indicated that pathways were conserved between evolutionarily disparate invertebrate species and (ii) emphasized the importance of the TOR kinase pathway in ageing. With recent findings that deletion of the mTOR substrate S6K1 or exposure of mice to the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin result in lifespan extension, mTOR signalling has become a major focus of ageing research. Here, we address downstream targets of mTOR signalling and their possible links to ageing. We also briefly cover other ageing genes identified by comparing worms and yeast, addressing the likelihood that their mammalian counterparts will affect longevity.

  15. Mixing and Processing of Complex Biological Fluids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    Microfabricated Microneedles ," Technical Proceedings of the 2002 International Conference on Computational Nanoscienceand Nanotechnology, and Technical...France, 12-14 Oct. 2000, 311-15. Zahn, J.D. and Liepmann, D. (2000) "Complex Biological Fluid Flow Through Microfabricated Microneedles ," Proceedings

  16. Phonemic Awareness: A Complex Developmental Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Janet A.; Hoffman, Paul R.

    2002-01-01

    This article uses a developmental model of language (Situational- Discourse-Semantics or SDS), along with a constellation or neuro-network model, to describe the developmental emergence of phonemic awareness. Ten sources of phonemic awareness are profiled along with developmental continuum, providing an integrated view of this complex development.…

  17. Fast laser systems for measuring the geometry of complex-shaped objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiulin, Ravil M.; Galiulin, Rishat M.; Bakirov, J. M.; Vorontsov, A. V.; Ponomarenko, I. V.

    1999-01-01

    The technical characteristics, advantages and applications of an automated optoelectronic measuring system designed by 'Optel' company, State Aviation University of Ufa, are presented in this paper. The measuring apparatus can be applied for industrial development and research, for example, in rapid prototyping, and for obtaining geometrical parameters in medicine and criminalistics. It essentially is a non-contact and rapid scanning system, allowing measurements of complex shaped objects like metal and plastic workpieces or parts of human body.

  18. Framework for dynamic background modeling and shadow suppression for moving object segmentation in complex wavelet domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushwaha, Alok Kumar Singh; Srivastava, Rajeev

    2015-09-01

    Moving object segmentation using change detection in wavelet domain under continuous variations of lighting condition is a challenging problem in video surveillance systems. There are several methods proposed in the literature for change detection in wavelet domain for moving object segmentation having static backgrounds, but it has not been addressed effectively for dynamic background changes. The methods proposed in the literature suffer from various problems, such as ghostlike appearance, object shadows, and noise. To deal with these issues, a framework for dynamic background modeling and shadow suppression under rapidly changing illumination conditions for moving object segmentation in complex wavelet domain is proposed. The proposed method consists of eight steps applied on given video frames, which include wavelet decomposition of frame using complex wavelet transform; use of change detection on detail coefficients (LH, HL, and HH), use of improved Gaussian mixture-based dynamic background modeling on approximate coefficient (LL subband); cast shadow suppression; use of soft thresholding for noise removal; strong edge detection; inverse wavelet transformation for reconstruction; and finally using closing morphology operator. A comparative analysis of the proposed method is presented both qualitatively and quantitatively with other standard methods available in the literature for six datasets in terms of various performance measures. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.

  19. Moving objects extraction method in H.264/advanced video coding bit stream of a complex scene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingsheng, Chen; Mingxin, Qin; Guangming, Liang; Jixiang, Sun; Xu, Ning

    2013-08-01

    For the purpose of extracting moving objects from H.264/advanced video coding (AVC) bit stream of a complex scene, an algorithm based on maximum a posteriori Markov random field (MRF) framework to extract moving objects directly from H.264 compressed video is proposed in this paper. It mainly involves encoding information of motion vectors (MVs) and block partition modes in H.264/AVC bit stream and utilizes temporal continuity and spatial consistency of moving object's pieces. First, it retrieves MVs and block partition modes of identical 4×4 pixel blocks in P frames and establishes Gaussian mixture model (GMM) of the phase of MVs as a reference background, and then creates MRF model based on MVs, block partition modes, the GMM of the background, spatial, and temporal consistency. The moving objects are retrieved by solving the MRF model. The experimental results show that it can perform robustly in a complex environment and the precision and recall have been improved over the existing algorithm.

  20. Holo-graphics: A Framework for Synthesizing Hologram of Complex Object Scene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Peter Wai Ming

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports a novel concept known as "Holo-graphics", a term that is an amalgamation of "hologram" and "computer graphics". The idea is to explore a method whereby traditional computer graphic techniques can be applied in synthesizing holograms of complicated object scenes. The need of such a technology, apparently, is to reduce the heavy computation that is required to generate a hologram directly from a three dimensional (3-D) image. In the proposed method, a hologram is back projected onto a hypothetical plane known as the Virtual Diffraction Plane (VDP) that is located at close proximity to the object space. Groups of diffraction fringes, each corresponding to an item represented by the hologram, are extracted to form the HG models. Subsequently, HG models obtained from one or more holograms are modified, and integrated onto a VDP canvas to synthesize a targeted object scene. The resulting complex image on the VDP canvas is then converted to a hologram.

  1. Process consistency in models: The importance of system signatures, expert knowledge, and process complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrachowitz, M.; Fovet, O.; Ruiz, L.; Euser, T.; Gharari, S.; Nijzink, R.; Freer, J.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Gascuel-Odoux, C.

    2014-09-01

    Hydrological models frequently suffer from limited predictive power despite adequate calibration performances. This can indicate insufficient representations of the underlying processes. Thus, ways are sought to increase model consistency while satisfying the contrasting priorities of increased model complexity and limited equifinality. In this study, the value of a systematic use of hydrological signatures and expert knowledge for increasing model consistency was tested. It was found that a simple conceptual model, constrained by four calibration objective functions, was able to adequately reproduce the hydrograph in the calibration period. The model, however, could not reproduce a suite of hydrological signatures, indicating a lack of model consistency. Subsequently, testing 11 models, model complexity was increased in a stepwise way and counter-balanced by "prior constraints," inferred from expert knowledge to ensure a model which behaves well with respect to the modeler's perception of the system. We showed that, in spite of unchanged calibration performance, the most complex model setup exhibited increased performance in the independent test period and skill to better reproduce all tested signatures, indicating a better system representation. The results suggest that a model may be inadequate despite good performance with respect to multiple calibration objectives and that increasing model complexity, if counter-balanced by prior constraints, can significantly increase predictive performance of a model and its skill to reproduce hydrological signatures. The results strongly illustrate the need to balance automated model calibration with a more expert-knowledge-driven strategy of constraining models.

  2. The open source, object- and process oriented simulation system OpenGeoSys - concepts, development, community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, S.; Li, D.; Beyer, C.; Wang, W.; Bilke, L.; Graupner, B.

    2011-12-01

    Many geoscientific problems, such as underground waste disposal, nuclear waste disposal, CO2 sequestration, geothermal energy, etc., require for prediction of ongoing processes as well as risk and safety assessment a numerical simulation system. The governing processes are thermal heat transfer (T), hydraulic flow in multi-phase systems (H), mechanical deformation (M) and geochemical reactions (C), which interact in a complex way (THMC). The development of suitable simulation systems requires a large amount of effort for code development, verification and applications. OpenGeoSys (OGS) is an open source scientific initiative for the simulation of these THMC processes in porous media. A flexible numerical framework based on the Finite Element Method is provided and applied to the governing process equations. Due to the object- and process-oriented character of the code, functionality enhancement and code coupling with external simulators can be performed reasonably effectively. This structure also allows for a distributed development, with developers at different locations contributing to the common code. The code is platform independent, accessible via internet for development and application, and checked by an automated benchmarking system regularly.

  3. Meshing complex macro-scale objects into self-assembling bricks

    PubMed Central

    Hacohen, Adar; Hanniel, Iddo; Nikulshin, Yasha; Wolfus, Shuki; Abu-Horowitz, Almogit; Bachelet, Ido

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembly provides an information-economical route to the fabrication of objects at virtually all scales. However, there is no known algorithm to program self-assembly in macro-scale, solid, complex 3D objects. Here such an algorithm is described, which is inspired by the molecular assembly of DNA, and based on bricks designed by tetrahedral meshing of arbitrary objects. Assembly rules are encoded by topographic cues imprinted on brick faces while attraction between bricks is provided by embedded magnets. The bricks can then be mixed in a container and agitated, leading to properly assembled objects at high yields and zero errors. The system and its assembly dynamics were characterized by video and audio analysis, enabling the precise time- and space-resolved characterization of its performance and accuracy. Improved designs inspired by our system could lead to successful implementation of self-assembly at the macro-scale, allowing rapid, on-demand fabrication of objects without the need for assembly lines. PMID:26226488

  4. A new young stellar object in the S 187 complex: Photometry and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavagno, A.; Deharveng, L.; Caplan, J.

    1994-01-01

    We report the discovery in the S 187 complex of a young stellar object with an optical counterpart. High resolution spectroscopy in the red and near infrared indicates that this object is a pre-main-sequence star. In the red, the spectrumis dominated by a very bright H-alpha line with a total width (wing to wing) greater than 1000 km/s. This line exhibits a special type of P Cygni profile (Beal's Type III). The object's near infrared spectrum is dominated by the Ca II triplet emission at 8498 A, 8542 A, and 8662 A; these lines are broad and optically thick. Numerous Fe I and Fe II emission lines are observed also, B, V, R, I, H, K, and L magnitudes of the object, as well as its H-alpha luminosity, indicate that it is probably a Herbig late Be or early Ae star. It presents many characteristics of the 'outflow group' of Herbig stars identified by Hamann & Persson (1992B); it is very similar, both in luminosity and geometry, to the well-known young stellar objects V645 Cyh and R Mon.

  5. Verbal Labels Modulate Perceptual Object Processing in 1-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gliga, Teodora; Volein, Agnes; Csibra, Gergely

    2010-01-01

    Whether verbal labels help infants visually process and categorize objects is a contentious issue. Using electroencephalography, we investigated whether possessing familiar or novel labels for objects directly enhances 1-year-old children's neural processes underlying the perception of those objects. We found enhanced gamma-band (20-60 Hz)…

  6. Sensory Processing Relates to Attachment to Childhood Comfort Objects of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalpidou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The author tested the hypothesis that attachment to comfort objects is based on the sensory processing characteristics of the individual. Fifty-two undergraduate students with and without a childhood comfort object reported sensory responses and performed a tactile threshold task. Those with a comfort object described their object and rated their…

  7. Strategising as a Complex Responsive Leadership Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groot, Nol; Homan, Thijs H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper, based on a narrative of one of the authors, explores management reality where a chosen strategy developed into a different direction than expected. The authors offer an insight in a manager's daily struggle, where power, gossip and conflict can influence the strategising process. The plans and strategic ambitions chosen at the outset…

  8. Separate channels for processing form, texture, and color: evidence from FMRI adaptation and visual object agnosia.

    PubMed

    Cavina-Pratesi, C; Kentridge, R W; Heywood, C A; Milner, A D

    2010-10-01

    Previous neuroimaging research suggests that although object shape is analyzed in the lateral occipital cortex, surface properties of objects, such as color and texture, are dealt with in more medial areas, close to the collateral sulcus (CoS). The present study sought to determine whether there is a single medial region concerned with surface properties in general or whether instead there are multiple foci independently extracting different surface properties. We used stimuli varying in their shape, texture, or color, and tested healthy participants and 2 object-agnosic patients, in both a discrimination task and a functional MR adaptation paradigm. We found a double dissociation between medial and lateral occipitotemporal cortices in processing surface (texture or color) versus geometric (shape) properties, respectively. In Experiment 2, we found that the medial occipitotemporal cortex houses separate foci for color (within anterior CoS and lingual gyrus) and texture (caudally within posterior CoS). In addition, we found that areas selective for shape, texture, and color individually were quite distinct from those that respond to all of these features together (shape and texture and color). These latter areas appear to correspond to those associated with the perception of complex stimuli such as faces and places.

  9. Complexity analysis of dual-channel game model with different managers' business objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ting; Ma, Junhai

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers dual-channel game model with bounded rationality, using the theory of bifurcations of dynamical system. The business objectives of retailers are assumed to be different, which is closer to reality than previous studies. We study the local stable region of Nash equilibrium point and find that business objectives can expand the stable region and play an important role in price strategy. One interesting finding is that a fiercer competition tends to stabilize the Nash equilibrium. Simulation shows the complex behavior of two dimensional dynamic system, we find period doubling bifurcation and chaos phenomenon. We measure performances of the model in different period by using the index of average profit. The results show that unstable behavior in economic system is often an unfavorable outcome. So this paper discusses the application of adaptive adjustment mechanism when the model exhibits chaotic behavior and then allows the retailers to eliminate the negative effects.

  10. An fMRI analysis of object priming and workload in the precuneus complex.

    PubMed

    Korsnes, Maria Stylianou; Wright, Anthony A; Gabrieli, John D E

    2008-04-01

    Drawings depicting familiar objects and unreal structures were presented twice, and participants (N=16) determined whether line drawings were real (familiar) or unreal (unfamiliar). The second presentation (repetition) of a drawing was typically responded to faster and more accurately than the first presentation and was accompanied by reduced activation in occipitotemporal (fusiform) and lateral precuneus regions, and increased activation in medial precuneus regions. The behavioral effects and reduced activations (e.g., lateral precuneus) on the second presentation were less pronounced for unreal objects than for real objects. Activation changes in the medial precuneus - increased activation on repetition and reduced activation for novel unreal objects - was further supported by the increased activation in this area during rest and reduced activation when workload was increased (i.e., processing novel unreal objects). The results from the present study in conjunction with those from several previous studies converge on the conclusion that the occipitotemporal and lateral regions of the precuneus are primarily involved in object priming, whereas the medial portion of precuneus primarily activates and deactivates as a function of workload.

  11. Fingerprints of Learned Object Recognition Seen in the fMRI Activation Patterns of Lateral Occipital Complex.

    PubMed

    Roth, Zvi N; Zohary, Ehud

    2015-09-01

    One feature of visual processing in the ventral stream is that cortical responses gradually depart from the physical aspects of the visual stimulus and become correlated with perceptual experience. Thus, unlike early retinotopic areas, the responses in the object-related lateral occipital complex (LOC) are typically immune to parameter changes (e.g., contrast, location, etc.) when these do not affect recognition. Here, we use a complementary approach to highlight changes in brain activity following a shift in the perceptual state (in the absence of any alteration in the physical image). Specifically, we focus on LOC and early visual cortex (EVC) and compare their functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses to degraded object images, before and after fast perceptual learning that renders initially unrecognized objects identifiable. Using 3 complementary analyses, we find that, in LOC, unlike EVC, learned recognition is associated with a change in the multivoxel response pattern to degraded object images, such that the response becomes significantly more correlated with that evoked by the intact version of the same image. This provides further evidence that the coding in LOC reflects the recognition of visual objects.

  12. Processing Motion Signals in Complex Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verghese, Preeti

    2000-01-01

    Motion information is critical for human locomotion and scene segmentation. Currently we have excellent neurophysiological models that are able to predict human detection and discrimination of local signals. Local motion signals are insufficient by themselves to guide human locomotion and to provide information about depth, object boundaries and surface structure. My research is aimed at understanding the mechanisms underlying the combination of motion signals across space and time. A target moving on an extended trajectory amidst noise dots in Brownian motion is much more detectable than the sum of signals generated by independent motion energy units responding to the trajectory segments. This result suggests that facilitation occurs between motion units tuned to similar directions, lying along the trajectory path. We investigated whether the interaction between local motion units along the motion direction is mediated by contrast. One possibility is that contrast-driven signals from motion units early in the trajectory sequence are added to signals in subsequent units. If this were the case, then units later in the sequence would have a larger signal than those earlier in the sequence. To test this possibility, we compared contrast discrimination thresholds for the first and third patches of a triplet of sequentially presented Gabor patches, aligned along the motion direction. According to this simple additive model, contrast increment thresholds for the third patch should be higher than thresholds for the first patch.The lack of a measurable effect on contrast thresholds for these various manipulations suggests that the pooling of signals along a trajectory is not mediated by contrast-driven signals. Instead, these results are consistent with models that propose that the facilitation of trajectory signals is achieved by a second-level network that chooses the strongest local motion signals and combines them if they occur in a spatio-temporal sequence consistent

  13. Dynamics of ranking processes in complex systems.

    PubMed

    Blumm, Nicholas; Ghoshal, Gourab; Forró, Zalán; Schich, Maximilian; Bianconi, Ginestra; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Barabási, Albert-László

    2012-09-21

    The world is addicted to ranking: everything, from the reputation of scientists, journals, and universities to purchasing decisions is driven by measured or perceived differences between them. Here, we analyze empirical data capturing real time ranking in a number of systems, helping to identify the universal characteristics of ranking dynamics. We develop a continuum theory that not only predicts the stability of the ranking process, but shows that a noise-induced phase transition is at the heart of the observed differences in ranking regimes. The key parameters of the continuum theory can be explicitly measured from data, allowing us to predict and experimentally document the existence of three phases that govern ranking stability.

  14. Design and Implementation of a Multimedia DBMS: Complex Query Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    IMPLEMENTATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DBMS: COMPLEX QUERY PROCESSING by Huseyin Aygun September 1991 Thesis Advisor Vincent Y. Lum Approved for public release...type "trace in <function name>. 31 IV. DESIGN OF COMPLEX QUERY PROCESSING In Chapter II of this thesis the general architecture of the MDBMS...data to display. More detailed information about the modification can be found in the next chapter of this thesis . Because the design for the process

  15. Minimized state complexity of quantum-encoded cryptic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechers, Paul M.; Mahoney, John R.; Aghamohammadi, Cina; Crutchfield, James P.

    2016-05-01

    The predictive information required for proper trajectory sampling of a stochastic process can be more efficiently transmitted via a quantum channel than a classical one. This recent discovery allows quantum information processing to drastically reduce the memory necessary to simulate complex classical stochastic processes. It also points to a new perspective on the intrinsic complexity that nature must employ in generating the processes we observe. The quantum advantage increases with codeword length: the length of process sequences used in constructing the quantum communication scheme. In analogy with the classical complexity measure, statistical complexity, we use this reduced communication cost as an entropic measure of state complexity in the quantum representation. Previously difficult to compute, the quantum advantage is expressed here in closed form using spectral decomposition. This allows for efficient numerical computation of the quantum-reduced state complexity at all encoding lengths, including infinite. Additionally, it makes clear how finite-codeword reduction in state complexity is controlled by the classical process's cryptic order, and it allows asymptotic analysis of infinite-cryptic-order processes.

  16. The Lateral Occipital Complex shows no net response to object familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Margalit, Eshed; Shah, Manan P.; Tjan, Bosco S.; Biederman, Irving; Keller, Brenton; Brenner, Rorry

    2016-01-01

    In 1995, Malach et al. discovered an area whose fMRI BOLD response was greater when viewing intact, familiar objects than when viewing their scrambled versions (resembling texture). Since then hundreds of studies have explored this late visual region termed the Lateral Occipital Complex (LOC), which is now known to be critical for shape perception (James, Culham, Humphrey, Milner, & Goodale, 2003). Malach et al. (1995) discounted a role of familiarity by showing that “abstract” Henry Moore sculptures, unfamiliar to the subjects, also activated this region. This characterization of LOC as a region that responds to shape independently of familiarity has been accepted but never tested with control of the same low-level features. We assessed LOC's response to objects that had identical parts in two different arrangements, one familiar and the other novel. Malach was correct: There is no net effect of familiarity in LOC. However, a multivoxel correlation analysis showed that LOC does distinguish familiar from novel objects. PMID:27599373

  17. Simulation and fitting of complex reaction network TPR: The key is the objective function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savara, Aditya

    2016-11-01

    A method has been developed for finding improved fits during simulation and fitting of data from complex reaction network temperature programmed reactions (CRN-TPR). It was found that simulation and fitting of CRN-TPR presents additional challenges relative to simulation and fitting of simpler TPR systems. The method used here can enable checking the plausibility of proposed chemical mechanisms and kinetic models. The most important finding was that when choosing an objective function, use of an objective function that is based on integrated production provides more utility in finding improved fits when compared to an objective function based on the rate of production. The response surface produced by using the integrated production is monotonic, suppresses effects from experimental noise, requires fewer points to capture the response behavior, and can be simulated numerically with smaller errors. For CRN-TPR, there is increased importance (relative to simple reaction network TPR) in resolving of peaks prior to fitting, as well as from weighting of experimental data points. Using an implicit ordinary differential equation solver was found to be inadequate for simulating CRN-TPR. The method employed here was capable of attaining improved fits in simulation and fitting of CRN-TPR when starting with a postulated mechanism and physically realistic initial guesses for the kinetic parameters.

  18. Simulation and fitting of complex reaction network TPR: The key is the objective function

    SciTech Connect

    Savara, Aditya Ashi

    2016-07-07

    In this research, a method has been developed for finding improved fits during simulation and fitting of data from complex reaction network temperature programmed reactions (CRN-TPR). It was found that simulation and fitting of CRN-TPR presents additional challenges relative to simulation and fitting of simpler TPR systems. The method used here can enable checking the plausibility of proposed chemical mechanisms and kinetic models. The most important finding was that when choosing an objective function, use of an objective function that is based on integrated production provides more utility in finding improved fits when compared to an objective function based on the rate of production. The response surface produced by using the integrated production is monotonic, suppresses effects from experimental noise, requires fewer points to capture the response behavior, and can be simulated numerically with smaller errors. For CRN-TPR, there is increased importance (relative to simple reaction network TPR) in resolving of peaks prior to fitting, as well as from weighting of experimental data points. Using an implicit ordinary differential equation solver was found to be inadequate for simulating CRN-TPR. Lastly, the method employed here was capable of attaining improved fits in simulation and fitting of CRN-TPR when starting with a postulated mechanism and physically realistic initial guesses for the kinetic parameters.

  19. Simulation and fitting of complex reaction network TPR: The key is the objective function

    DOE PAGES

    Savara, Aditya Ashi

    2016-07-07

    In this research, a method has been developed for finding improved fits during simulation and fitting of data from complex reaction network temperature programmed reactions (CRN-TPR). It was found that simulation and fitting of CRN-TPR presents additional challenges relative to simulation and fitting of simpler TPR systems. The method used here can enable checking the plausibility of proposed chemical mechanisms and kinetic models. The most important finding was that when choosing an objective function, use of an objective function that is based on integrated production provides more utility in finding improved fits when compared to an objective function based onmore » the rate of production. The response surface produced by using the integrated production is monotonic, suppresses effects from experimental noise, requires fewer points to capture the response behavior, and can be simulated numerically with smaller errors. For CRN-TPR, there is increased importance (relative to simple reaction network TPR) in resolving of peaks prior to fitting, as well as from weighting of experimental data points. Using an implicit ordinary differential equation solver was found to be inadequate for simulating CRN-TPR. Lastly, the method employed here was capable of attaining improved fits in simulation and fitting of CRN-TPR when starting with a postulated mechanism and physically realistic initial guesses for the kinetic parameters.« less

  20. Experimental Evaluation of Processing Time for the Synchronization of XML-Based Business Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameling, Michael; Wolf, Bernhard; Springer, Thomas; Schill, Alexander

    Business objects (BOs) are data containers for complex data structures used in business applications such as Supply Chain Management and Customer Relationship Management. Due to the replication of application logic, multiple copies of BOs are created which have to be synchronized and updated. This is a complex and time consuming task because BOs rigorously vary in their structure according to the distribution, number and size of elements. Since BOs are internally represented as XML documents, the parsing of XML is one major cost factor which has to be considered for minimizing the processing time during synchronization. The prediction of the parsing time for BOs is an significant property for the selection of an efficient synchronization mechanism. In this paper, we present a method to evaluate the influence of the structure of BOs on their parsing time. The results of our experimental evaluation incorporating four different XML parsers examine the dependencies between the distribution of elements and the parsing time. Finally, a general cost model will be validated and simplified according to the results of the experimental setup.

  1. Understanding the Complexity of Social Issues through Process Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mara, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    Attempts to capture the process of understanding and questioning deforestation through process drama (in which students and teacher work both in and out of role to explore a problem, situation, or theme). Notes that moving topics such as the destruction of a rainforest into process drama introduces complexity into social issues. Considers how…

  2. Inclusive Education as Complex Process and Challenge for School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khamisy, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Education may be considered as a number of processes, actions and effects affecting human being, as the state or level of the results of these processes or as the modification of the functions, institutions and social practices roles, which in the result of inclusion become new, integrated system. Thus this is very complex process. Nowadays the…

  3. Effects of Local and Global Context on Processing Sentences with Subject and Object Relative Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Fang; Mo, Lun; Louwerse, Max M.

    2013-01-01

    An eye tracking study investigated the effects of local and global discourse context on the processing of subject and object relative clauses, whereby the contexts favored either a subject relative clause interpretation or an object relative clause interpretation. The fixation data replicated previous studies showing that object relative clause…

  4. Unraveling the complexity of mitochondrial complex I assembly: A dynamic process.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Caballero, Laura; Guerrero-Castillo, Sergio; Nijtmans, Leo

    2016-07-01

    Mammalian complex I is composed of 44 different subunits and its assembly requires at least 13 specific assembly factors. Proper function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme is of crucial importance for cell survival due to its major participation in energy production and cell signaling. Complex I assembly depends on the coordination of several crucial processes that need to be tightly interconnected and orchestrated by a number of assembly factors. The understanding of complex I assembly evolved from simple sequential concept to the more sophisticated modular assembly model describing a convoluted process. According to this model, the different modules assemble independently and associate afterwards with each other to form the final enzyme. In this review, we aim to unravel the complexity of complex I assembly and provide the latest insights in this fundamental and fascinating process. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  5. Functional Dissociations within the Ventral Object Processing Pathway: Cognitive Modules or a Hierarchical Continuum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowell, Rosemary A.; Bussey, Timothy J.; Saksida, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the organization and function of the ventral object processing pathway. The prevailing theoretical approach in this field holds that the ventral object processing stream has a modular organization, in which visual perception is carried out in posterior regions and visual memory is carried out, independently, in the anterior temporal…

  6. FACET: an object-oriented software framework for modeling complex social behavior patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Dolph, J. E.; Christiansen, J. H.; Sydelko, P. J.

    2000-06-30

    The Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions (FACET) is a flexible, object-oriented architecture for implementing models of dynamic behavior of multiple individuals, or agents, in a simulation. These agents can be human (individuals or organizations) or animal and may exhibit any type of organized social behavior that can be logically articulated. FACET was developed by Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL) Decision and Information Sciences Division (DIS) out of the need to integrate societal processes into natural system simulations. The FACET architecture includes generic software components that provide the agents with various mechanisms for interaction, such as step sequencing and logic, resource management, conflict resolution, and preemptive event handling. FACET components provide a rich environment within which patterns of behavior can be captured in a highly expressive manner. Interactions among agents in FACET are represented by Course of Action (COA) object-based models. Each COA contains a directed graph of individual actions, which represents any known pattern of social behavior. The agents' behavior in a FACET COA, in turn, influences the natural landscape objects in a simulation (i.e., vegetation, soil, and habitat) by updating their states. The modular design of the FACET architecture provides the flexibility to create multiple and varied simulation scenarios by changing social behavior patterns, without disrupting the natural process models. This paper describes the FACET architecture and presents several examples of FACET models that have been developed to assess the effects of anthropogenic influences on the dynamics of the natural environment.

  7. Complexity, Methodology and Method: Crafting a Critical Process of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhadeff-Jones, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper defines a theoretical framework aiming to support the actions and reflections of researchers looking for a "method" in order to critically conceive the complexity of a scientific process of research. First, it starts with a brief overview of the core assumptions framing Morin's "paradigm of complexity" and Le…

  8. Cognitive Complexity as a Determinant of Information Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewin, L.; Anderson, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    Relationships between cognitive complexity as defined by the ITI [Interpersonal Topical Inventory (Tuckman, 1966) and the CST [Conceptual Systems Test (Harvey, 1967)] and a number of other information processing variables were examined using 107 grade eleven students. (Editor)

  9. Electromagnetic Scattering by a Morphologically Complex Object: Fundamental Concepts and Common Misconceptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mischenko, Michael I.; Travis, Larry D.; Cairns, Brian; Tishkovets, Victor P.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Rosenbush, Vera K.; Kiselev, Nikolai N.

    2011-01-01

    Following Keller(Proc Symp Appl Math 1962;13:227:46), we classify all theoretical treatments of electromagnetic scattering by a morphologically complex object into first- principle (or "honest" in Keller s terminology) and phenomenological (or "dishonest") categories. This helps us identify, analyze, and dispel several profound misconceptions widespread in the discipline of electromagnetic scattering by solitary particles and discrete random media. Our goal is not to call for a complete renunciation of phenomenological approaches but rather to encourage a critical and careful evaluation of their actual origin, virtues, and limitations. In other words, we do not intend to deter creative thinking in terms of phenomenological short-cuts, but we do want to raise awareness when we stray (often for practical reasons) from the fundamentals. The main results and conclusions are illustrated by numerically-exact data based on direct numerical solutions of the macroscopic Maxwell equations.

  10. Dynamic information processing states revealed through neurocognitive models of object semantics

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Recognising objects relies on highly dynamic, interactive brain networks to process multiple aspects of object information. To fully understand how different forms of information about objects are represented and processed in the brain requires a neurocognitive account of visual object recognition that combines a detailed cognitive model of semantic knowledge with a neurobiological model of visual object processing. Here we ask how specific cognitive factors are instantiated in our mental processes and how they dynamically evolve over time. We suggest that coarse semantic information, based on generic shared semantic knowledge, is rapidly extracted from visual inputs and is sufficient to drive rapid category decisions. Subsequent recurrent neural activity between the anterior temporal lobe and posterior fusiform supports the formation of object-specific semantic representations – a conjunctive process primarily driven by the perirhinal cortex. These object-specific representations require the integration of shared and distinguishing object properties and support the unique recognition of objects. We conclude that a valuable way of understanding the cognitive activity of the brain is though testing the relationship between specific cognitive measures and dynamic neural activity. This kind of approach allows us to move towards uncovering the information processing states of the brain and how they evolve over time. PMID:25745632

  11. Auditory Processing of Complex Sounds Across Frequency Channels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-26

    towards gaining an understanding how the auditory system processes complex sounds. "The results of binaural psychophysical experiments in human subjects...suggest (1) that spectrally synthetic binaural processing is the rule when the number of components in the tone complex are relatively few (less than...10) and there are no dynamic binaural cues to aid segregation of the target from the background, and (2) that waveforms having large effective

  12. Transcranial magnetic stimulation to the transverse occipital sulcus affects scene but not object processing.

    PubMed

    Ganaden, Rachel E; Mullin, Caitlin R; Steeves, Jennifer K E

    2013-06-01

    Traditionally, it has been theorized that the human visual system identifies and classifies scenes in an object-centered approach, such that scene recognition can only occur once key objects within a scene are identified. Recent research points toward an alternative approach, suggesting that the global image features of a scene are sufficient for the recognition and categorization of a scene. We have previously shown that disrupting object processing with repetitive TMS to object-selective cortex enhances scene processing possibly through a release of inhibitory mechanisms between object and scene pathways [Mullin, C. R., & Steeves, J. K. E. TMS to the lateral occipital cortex disrupts object processing but facilitates scene processing. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 4174-4184, 2011]. Here we show the effects of TMS to the transverse occipital sulcus (TOS), an area implicated in scene perception, on scene and object processing. TMS was delivered to the TOS or the vertex (control site) while participants performed an object and scene natural/nonnatural categorization task. Transiently interrupting the TOS resulted in significantly lower accuracies for scene categorization compared with control conditions. This demonstrates a causal role of the TOS in scene processing and indicates its importance, in addition to the parahippocampal place area and retrosplenial cortex, in the scene processing network. Unlike TMS to object-selective cortex, which facilitates scene categorization, disrupting scene processing through stimulation of the TOS did not affect object categorization. Further analysis revealed a higher proportion of errors for nonnatural scenes that led us to speculate that the TOS may be involved in processing the higher spatial frequency content of a scene. This supports a nonhierarchical model of scene recognition.

  13. A modeling process to understand complex system architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Santiago Balestrini

    2009-12-01

    In recent decades, several tools have been developed by the armed forces, and their contractors, to test the capability of a force. These campaign level analysis tools, often times characterized as constructive simulations are generally expensive to create and execute, and at best they are extremely difficult to verify and validate. This central observation, that the analysts are relying more and more on constructive simulations to predict the performance of future networks of systems, leads to the two central objectives of this thesis: (1) to enable the quantitative comparison of architectures in terms of their ability to satisfy a capability without resorting to constructive simulations, and (2) when constructive simulations must be created, to quantitatively determine how to spend the modeling effort amongst the different system classes. The first objective led to Hypothesis A, the first main hypotheses, which states that by studying the relationships between the entities that compose an architecture, one can infer how well it will perform a given capability. The method used to test the hypothesis is based on two assumptions: (1) the capability can be defined as a cycle of functions, and that it (2) must be possible to estimate the probability that a function-based relationship occurs between any two types of entities. If these two requirements are met, then by creating random functional networks, different architectures can be compared in terms of their ability to satisfy a capability. In order to test this hypothesis, a novel process for creating representative functional networks of large-scale system architectures was developed. The process, named the Digraph Modeling for Architectures (DiMA), was tested by comparing its results to those of complex constructive simulations. Results indicate that if the inputs assigned to DiMA are correct (in the tests they were based on time-averaged data obtained from the ABM), DiMA is able to identify which of any two

  14. Effects of local and global context on processing sentences with subject and object relative clauses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang; Mo, Lun; Louwerse, Max M

    2013-06-01

    An eye tracking study investigated the effects of local and global discourse context on the processing of subject and object relative clauses, whereby the contexts favored either a subject relative clause interpretation or an object relative clause interpretation. The fixation data replicated previous studies showing that object relative clause sentences were more difficult to process than subject relative sentences. Crucially, however, the reading difficulty asymmetry between subject and object relative clause sentences disappeared when the sentences were presented with a local or a global discourse context that favored the objects in the object relative clauses. These findings demonstrate that the evidence for a syntax-based account of sentence processing is found when sentences are presented in isolation. However, if sentences are placed more naturally, in context, discourse factors outweigh the initial structural assignment.

  15. A neuroanatomical model of space-based and object-centered processing in spatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Pedrazzini, Elena; Schnider, Armin; Ptak, Radek

    2017-04-05

    Visual attention can be deployed in space-based or object-centered reference frames. Right-hemisphere damage may lead to distinct deficits of space- or object-based processing, and such dissociations are thought to underlie the heterogeneous nature of spatial neglect. Previous studies have suggested that object-centered processing deficits (such as in copying, reading or line bisection) result from damage to retro-rolandic regions while impaired spatial exploration reflects damage to more anterior regions. However, this evidence is based on small samples and heterogeneous tasks. Here, we tested a theoretical model of neglect that takes in account the space- and object-based processing and relates them to neuroanatomical predictors. One hundred and one right-hemisphere-damaged patients were examined with classic neuropsychological tests and structural brain imaging. Relations between neglect measures and damage to the temporal-parietal junction, intraparietal cortex, insula and middle frontal gyrus were examined with two structural equation models by assuming that object-centered processing (involved in line bisection and single-word reading) and space-based processing (involved in cancelation tasks) either represented a unique latent variable or two distinct variables. Of these two models the latter had better explanatory power. Damage to the intraparietal sulcus was a significant predictor of object-centered, but not space-based processing, while damage to the temporal-parietal junction predicted space-based, but not object-centered processing. Space-based processing and object-centered processing were strongly intercorrelated, indicating that they rely on similar, albeit partly dissociated processes. These findings indicate that object-centered and space-based deficits in neglect are partly independent and result from superior parietal and inferior parietal damage, respectively.

  16. Anthropogenic and technogenic factors of operational risk at hazardous industrial objects of fuel-power complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magid, S. I.; Arkhipova, E. N.; Kulichikhin, V. V.; Zagretdinov, I. Sh.

    2016-12-01

    Technogenic and anthropogenic accidence at hazardous industrial objects (HIO) in the Russian Federation has been considered. The accidence level at HIO, including power plants and network enterprises, is determined by anthropogenic reasons, so-called "human factor", in 70% of all cases. The analysis of incidents caused by personnel has shown that errors occur most often during accidental situations, launches, holdups, routine switches, and other effects on equipment controls. It has been demonstrated that skills needed to perform type and routine switches can be learned, to certain limits, on real operating equipment, while combating emergency and accidental situations can be learned only with the help of modern training simulators developed based on information technologies. Problems arising during the following processes have been considered: development of mathematical and software support of modern training equipment associated, in one way or another, with adequate power-generating object modeling in accordance with human operator specifics; modeling and/or simulation of the corresponding control and management systems; organization of the education system (functional supply of the instructor, education and methodological resources (EMR)); organization of the program-technical, scalable and adaptable, platform for modeling of the main and secondary functions of the training simulator. It has been concluded that the systemic approach principle on the necessity and sufficiency in the applied methodology allows to reproduce all technological characteristics of the equipment, its topological completeness, as well as to achieve the acceptable counting rate. The initial "rough" models of processes in the equipment are based on the normative techniques and equation coefficients taken from the normative materials as well. Then, the synthesis of "fine" models has been carried out following the global practice in modeling and training simulator building, i

  17. The Effects of Syntactic Complexity on Processing Sentences in Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Rebecca; Ruigendijk, Esther

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of stationary (non-fluctuating) noise on processing and understanding of sentences, which vary in their syntactic complexity (with the factors canonicity, embedding, ambiguity). It presents data from two RT-studies with 44 participants testing processing of German sentences in silence and in noise. Results show a…

  18. The Complexity of Developmental Predictions from Dual Process Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanovich, Keith E.; West, Richard F.; Toplak, Maggie E.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing developmental predictions from dual-process theories is more complex than is commonly realized. Overly simplified predictions drawn from such models may lead to premature rejection of the dual process approach as one of many tools for understanding cognitive development. Misleading predictions can be avoided by paying attention to several…

  19. Design and implementation of a distributed Complex Event Processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Shang, Yanlei

    2017-01-01

    Making use of the massive events from event sources such as sensors and bank transactions and extract valuable information is of significant importance. Complex Event Processing (CEP), a method of detecting complex events from simple events stream, provides a solution of processing data in real time fast and efficiently. However, a single node CEP system can't satisfy requirements of processing massive event streams from multitudinous event sources. Therefore, this article designs a distributed CEP system, which combine Siddhi, a CEP engine, and Storm, a distributed real time computation architecture. This system can construct topology automatically based on the event streams and execution plans provided by users and process the event streams parallel. Compared with single node complex event system, the distributed system can achieve better performance.

  20. Optimization of multi-objective integrated process planning and scheduling problem using a priority based optimization algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausaf, Muhammad Farhan; Gao, Liang; Li, Xinyu

    2015-12-01

    For increasing the overall performance of modern manufacturing systems, effective integration of process planning and scheduling functions has been an important area of consideration among researchers. Owing to the complexity of handling process planning and scheduling simultaneously, most of the research work has been limited to solving the integrated process planning and scheduling (IPPS) problem for a single objective function. As there are many conflicting objectives when dealing with process planning and scheduling, real world problems cannot be fully captured considering only a single objective for optimization. Therefore considering multi-objective IPPS (MOIPPS) problem is inevitable. Unfortunately, only a handful of research papers are available on solving MOIPPS problem. In this paper, an optimization algorithm for solving MOIPPS problem is presented. The proposed algorithm uses a set of dispatching rules coupled with priority assignment to optimize the IPPS problem for various objectives like makespan, total machine load, total tardiness, etc. A fixed sized external archive coupled with a crowding distance mechanism is used to store and maintain the non-dominated solutions. To compare the results with other algorithms, a C-matric based method has been used. Instances from four recent papers have been solved to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed method is an efficient approach for solving the MOIPPS problem.

  1. Process Consistency in Models: the Importance of System Signatures, Expert Knowledge and Process Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrachowitz, Markus; Fovet, Ophelie; Ruiz, Laurent; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Savenije, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    Hydrological models are frequently characterized by what is often considered to be adequate calibration performances. In many cases, however, these models experience a substantial uncertainty and performance decrease in validation periods, thus resulting in poor predictive power. Besides the likely presence of data errors, this observation can point towards wrong or insufficient representations of the underlying processes and their heterogeneity. In other words, right results are generated for the wrong reasons. Thus ways are sought to increase model consistency and to thereby satisfy the contrasting priorities of the need a) to increase model complexity and b) to limit model equifinality. In this study a stepwise model development approach is chosen to test the value of an exhaustive and systematic combined use of hydrological signatures, expert knowledge and readily available, yet anecdotal and rarely exploited, hydrological information for increasing model consistency towards generating the right answer for the right reasons. A simple 3-box, 7 parameter, conceptual HBV-type model, constrained by 4 calibration objective functions was able to adequately reproduce the hydrograph with comparatively high values for the 4 objective functions in the 5-year calibration period. However, closer inspection of the results showed a dramatic decrease of model performance in the 5-year validation period. In addition, assessing the model's skill to reproduce a range of 20 hydrological signatures including, amongst others, the flow duration curve, the autocorrelation function and the rising limb density, showed that it could not adequately reproduce the vast majority of these signatures, indicating a lack of model consistency. Subsequently model complexity was increased in a stepwise way to allow for more process heterogeneity. To limit model equifinality, increase in complexity was counter-balanced by a stepwise application of "realism constraints", inferred from expert

  2. Beyond Faces and Expertise: Facelike Holistic Processing of Nonface Objects in the Absence of Expertise.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2016-02-01

    Holistic processing-the tendency to perceive objects as indecomposable wholes-has long been viewed as a process specific to faces or objects of expertise. Although current theories differ in what causes holistic processing, they share a fundamental constraint for its generalization: Nonface objects cannot elicit facelike holistic processing in the absence of expertise. Contrary to this prevailing view, here we show that line patterns with salient Gestalt information (i.e., connectedness, closure, and continuity between parts) can be processed as holistically as faces without any training. Moreover, weakening the saliency of Gestalt information in these patterns reduced holistic processing of them, which indicates that Gestalt information plays a crucial role in holistic processing. Therefore, holistic processing can be achieved not only via a top-down route based on expertise, but also via a bottom-up route relying merely on object-based information. The finding that facelike holistic processing can extend beyond the domains of faces and objects of expertise poses a challenge to current dominant theories.

  3. A functional neuroimaging study of the variables that generate category-specific object processing differences.

    PubMed

    Moore, C J; Price, C J

    1999-05-01

    Brain damage can cause remarkably selective deficits in processing specific categories of objects, indicating the high degree of functional segregation within the brain. The neuroimaging study presented here investigates differences in the neural activity associated with two categories of natural objects (animals and fruit) and two categories of man-made objects (vehicles and tools). Stimuli were outline drawings and the tasks were naming and word-picture matching. For man-made objects, the only category-specific effect was in the left posterior middle temporal cortex, which was most active for drawings of tools, as previously reported. For natural objects, drawings of animals and fruit (relative to drawings of man-made objects) enhanced activity in bilateral anterior temporal and right posterior middle temporal cortices. Critically, these effects with natural objects were not observed when the stimuli were coloured appropriately to facilitate identification. Furthermore, activation in the same right hemisphere areas was also observed for viewing and matching unfamiliar non-objects relative to naming and matching man-made objects. These results indicate that, in the right hemisphere, differences between processing natural relative to man-made objects overlap with the effects of increasing demands on object identification. In the left hemisphere, the effects are more consistent with functional specialization within the semantic system. We discuss (i) how category-specific differences can emerge for multiple reasons and (ii) the implications of these effects on the interpretation of functional imaging data and patients with category-specific deficits.

  4. HOP: (Hardware Viewed as Objects and Processes). A Process Model for Synchronous Hardware Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    that was based on an abstract data type view of hardware systems into a new, simple, and deterministic process model that we have invented. Our process ... model is inspired by the works of Mil82, Mil83, and Hoa85. Secondly it is believed that not only should an HSL be founded in mathematical principles

  5. Developing Goals and Objectives for a Process-Based Technology Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicklein, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    An 11-member DACUM team identified necessary instructional elements and student outcomes for process-based secondary technology education. A panel of 43 exemplary teachers then validated goals and objectives, resulting in a curriculum framework. (SK)

  6. Top-down modulation of visual processing and knowledge after 250 ms supports object constancy of category decisions

    PubMed Central

    Schendan, Haline E.; Ganis, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    People categorize objects more slowly when visual input is highly impoverished instead of optimal. While bottom-up models may explain a decision with optimal input, perceptual hypothesis testing (PHT) theories implicate top-down processes with impoverished input. Brain mechanisms and the time course of PHT are largely unknown. This event-related potential study used a neuroimaging paradigm that implicated prefrontal cortex in top-down modulation of occipitotemporal cortex. Subjects categorized more impoverished and less impoverished real and pseudo objects. PHT theories predict larger impoverishment effects for real than pseudo objects because top-down processes modulate knowledge only for real objects, but different PHT variants predict different timing. Consistent with parietal-prefrontal PHT variants, around 250 ms, the earliest impoverished real object interaction started on an N3 complex, which reflects interactive cortical activity for object cognition. N3 impoverishment effects localized to both prefrontal and occipitotemporal cortex for real objects only. The N3 also showed knowledge effects by 230 ms that localized to occipitotemporal cortex. Later effects reflected (a) word meaning in temporal cortex during the N400, (b) internal evaluation of prior decision and memory processes and secondary higher-order memory involving anterotemporal parts of a default mode network during posterior positivity (P600), and (c) response related activity in posterior cingulate during an anterior slow wave (SW) after 700 ms. Finally, response activity in supplementary motor area during a posterior SW after 900 ms showed impoverishment effects that correlated with RTs. Convergent evidence from studies of vision, memory, and mental imagery which reflects purely top-down inputs, indicates that the N3 reflects the critical top-down processes of PHT. A hybrid multiple-state interactive, PHT and decision theory best explains the visual constancy of object cognition. PMID:26441701

  7. The Effects of Directional Processing on Objective and Subjective Listening Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picou, Erin M.; Moore, Travis M.; Ricketts, Todd A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this investigation were (a) to evaluate the effects of hearing aid directional processing on subjective and objective listening effort and (b) to investigate the potential relationships between subjective and objective measures of effort. Method: Sixteen adults with mild to severe hearing loss were tested with study…

  8. Mirror-Image Confusions: Implications for Representation and Processing of Object Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Emma; McCloskey, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Perceiving the orientation of objects is important for interacting with the world, yet little is known about the mental representation or processing of object orientation information. The tendency of humans and other species to confuse mirror images provides a potential clue. However, the appropriate characterization of this phenomenon is not…

  9. Stimulus size mediates Gestalt processes in object perception - evidence from simultanagnosia.

    PubMed

    Rennig, Johannes; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2016-08-01

    Simultanagnosia caused by posterior temporo-parietal brain damage is characterized through an inability to recognize a global Gestalt from an arrangement of single objects while perception of single objects appears widely intact. We asked whether recognition of single objects in simultanagnosia is still intact if objects are really large, i.e. if they exceed the size of a usual computer screen. Single objects were presented in three different sizes: 'regular', 'medium', and 'large'. Simultanagnosia patients demonstrated a decrease of recognition performance with increasing object size; recognition of 'large' objects was significantly impaired while perception of 'regular' sized objects was unaffected. The results argue against the traditional view of preserved recognition of single objects in simultanagnosia. They provide evidence for a more general perceptual impairment that emerges irrespective of presenting single or multiple objects, but whenever the visual system has to assemble information over larger spatial distances or other demanding viewing conditions. It appears that perception of large single objects requires intact abilities of dorsal Gestalt processing, in addition to regular functions of ventral object recognition.

  10. The MRB1 complex functions in kinetoplastid RNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Acestor, Nathalie; Panigrahi, Aswini K.; Carnes, Jason; Zíková, Alena; Stuart, Kenneth D.

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) gene expression in Trypanosoma brucei entails multiple types of RNA processing, including polycistronic transcript cleavage, mRNA editing, gRNA oligouridylation, and mRNA polyadenylation, which are catalyzed by various multiprotein complexes. We examined the novel mitochondrial RNA-binding 1 (MRB1) complex that has 16 associated proteins, four of which have motifs suggesting RNA interaction. RNase treatment or the lack of kDNA in mutants resulted in lower MRB1 complex sedimentation in gradients, indicating that MRB1 complex associates with kDNA transcripts. RNAi knockdowns of expression of the Tb10.406.0050 (TbRGGm, RGG motif), Tb927.6.1680 (C2H2 zinc finger), and Tb11.02.5390 (no known motif) MRB1 proteins each inhibited in vitro growth of procyclic form parasites and resulted in cells with abnormal numbers of nuclei. Knockdown of TbRGGm, but not the other two proteins, disrupted the MRB1 complex, indicating that it, but perhaps not the other two, is required for complex assembly and/or stability. The knockdowns resulted in similar but nonidentical patterns of altered in vivo abundances of edited, pre-edited, and preprocessed mt mRNAs, but did not appreciably affect the abundances of mRNAs that do not get edited. These results indicate that MRB1 complex is critical to the processing of mt RNAs, and although its specific function is unknown, it appears essential to parasite viability. PMID:19096045

  11. Discourse accessibility constraints in children’s processing of object relative clauses

    PubMed Central

    Haendler, Yair; Kliegl, Reinhold; Adani, Flavia

    2015-01-01

    Children’s poor performance on object relative clauses has been explained in terms of intervention locality. This approach predicts that object relatives with a full DP head and an embedded pronominal subject are easier than object relatives in which both the head noun and the embedded subject are full DPs. This prediction is shared by other accounts formulated to explain processing mechanisms. We conducted a visual-world study designed to test the off-line comprehension and on-line processing of object relatives in German-speaking 5-year-olds. Children were tested on three types of object relatives, all having a full DP head noun and differing with respect to the type of nominal phrase that appeared in the embedded subject position: another full DP, a 1st- or a 3rd-person pronoun. Grammatical skills and memory capacity were also assessed in order to see whether and how they affect children’s performance. Most accurately processed were object relatives with 1st-person pronoun, independently of children’s language and memory skills. Performance on object relatives with two full DPs was overall more accurate than on object relatives with 3rd-person pronoun. In the former condition, children with stronger grammatical skills accurately processed the structure and their memory abilities determined how fast they were; in the latter condition, children only processed accurately the structure if they were strong both in their grammatical skills and in their memory capacity. The results are discussed in the light of accounts that predict different pronoun effects like the ones we find, which depend on the referential properties of the pronouns. We then discuss which role language and memory abilities might have in processing object relatives with various embedded nominal phrases. PMID:26157410

  12. Multispectral illumination and image processing techniques for active millimeter-wave concealed object detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lixiao; Stiens, Johan; Elhawil, Amna; Vounckx, Roger

    2008-12-01

    Active millimeter-wave imaging systems for concealed object detection offer the possibility of much higher image contrast than passive systems, especially in indoor applications. By studying active millimeter-wave images of different test objects derived in the W band, we show that multispectral illumination is critical to the detectability of targets. We also propose to use image change detection techniques, including image differencing, normalized difference vegetation index, and principle component analysis to process the multispectral millimeter-wave images. The results demonstrate that multispectral illumination can significantly reveal the object features hidden by image artifacts and improve the appearance of the objects.

  13. Laser diffraction process and apparatus for width measurement of elongated objects

    DOEpatents

    Naqwi, Amir A.; Fandrey, Christopher W.

    2006-07-04

    Size distribution of elongated objects is measured by forward scattering radiation from the objects at a range of scatter angles. The scattered radiation is refracted to locations on a scatter detector based on the scatter angles and independent of the location of the objects along the radiation axis. The intensity of radiation is sensed at each position on the scatter detector, and signals representative of the intensities at the positions are processed and compared to masks to identify a size distribution. The scatter detector may include individual radiation detectors arranged to receive refracted radiation representing respective ranges of scatter angles to thereby compensate for lower radiation intensities scattered from smaller objects.

  14. Habitat Complexity in Aquatic Microcosms Affects Processes Driven by Detritivores

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Lorea; Bailey, R. A.; Elosegi, Arturo; Larrañaga, Aitor; Reiss, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Habitat complexity can influence predation rates (e.g. by providing refuge) but other ecosystem processes and species interactions might also be modulated by the properties of habitat structure. Here, we focussed on how complexity of artificial habitat (plastic plants), in microcosms, influenced short-term processes driven by three aquatic detritivores. The effects of habitat complexity on leaf decomposition, production of fine organic matter and pH levels were explored by measuring complexity in three ways: 1. as the presence vs. absence of habitat structure; 2. as the amount of structure (3 or 4.5 g of plastic plants); and 3. as the spatial configuration of structures (measured as fractal dimension). The experiment also addressed potential interactions among the consumers by running all possible species combinations. In the experimental microcosms, habitat complexity influenced how species performed, especially when comparing structure present vs. structure absent. Treatments with structure showed higher fine particulate matter production and lower pH compared to treatments without structures and this was probably due to higher digestion and respiration when structures were present. When we explored the effects of the different complexity levels, we found that the amount of structure added explained more than the fractal dimension of the structures. We give a detailed overview of the experimental design, statistical models and R codes, because our statistical analysis can be applied to other study systems (and disciplines such as restoration ecology). We further make suggestions of how to optimise statistical power when artificially assembling, and analysing, ‘habitat complexity’ by not confounding complexity with the amount of structure added. In summary, this study highlights the importance of habitat complexity for energy flow and the maintenance of ecosystem processes in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:27802267

  15. Categorical and coordinate processing in object recognition depends on different spatial frequencies.

    PubMed

    Saneyoshi, Ayako; Michimata, Chikashi

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested that processing categorical spatial relations requires high spatial frequency (HSF) information, while coordinate spatial relations require low spatial frequency (LSF) information. The aim of the present study was to determine whether spatial frequency influences categorical and coordinate processing in object recognition. Participants performed two object-matching tasks for novel, non-nameable objects consisting of "geons" (c.f. Brain Cogn 71:181-186, 2009). For each original stimulus, categorical and coordinate transformations were applied to create comparison stimuli. These stimuli were high-pass/low-cut-filtered or low-pass/high-cut-filtered by a filter with a 2D Gaussian envelope. The categorical task consisted of the original and categorical-transformed objects. The coordinate task consisted of the original and coordinate-transformed objects. The non-filtered object image was presented on a CRT monitor, followed by a comparison object (non-filtered, high-pass-filtered, and low-pass-filtered stimuli). The results showed that the removal of HSF information from the object image produced longer reaction times (RTs) in the categorical task, while removal of LSF information produced longer RTs in the coordinate task. These results support spatial frequency processing theory, specifically Kosslyn's hypothesis and the double filtering frequency model.

  16. Space-time finite-element objects: Efficiently modeling physically complex flows

    SciTech Connect

    Dilts, G.A.

    1996-03-28

    Accurate modeling of high-explosive systems requires detailed consideration of many different physical properties and processes: These diverse processes generally occur in localized regions of the problem. Thus the very partial differential equations used to mathematically model the problem change from one region of space and time to another. The numerical algorithms generally used to solve these equations are frequently conceived in terms of data values for physical field variables u{sup i} defined at a number of spatial points indexed by multi-integer subscripts x{sub J}, resulting in a number of discrete state variables u{sup i}{sub J}. Instead of using as the fundamental object a physical field, which naturally maps to an array, the authors imagine a small piece of space modeled for a small amount of time, a space-time ``element``. Within it, various physical processes occur at various times. Self-contained, it gives account of what happens within its borders. It cooperates with a set of neighbors that organize into meshes, which organize into problems. The authors achieve in the software model a decoupling between the where and the how and the what, lack of which historically has been the source of a great deal of the software overhead of modelling continuum systems, and which is a necessary consequence of writing down u{sup i}{sub J}. An efficient implementation of this idea requires a reformulation of the discretization and solution of systems of conservation laws, and careful class design. A working prototype for systems in one space dimension using Mathematica and C++ is provided.

  17. Spatial versus object feature processing in human auditory cortex: a magnetoencephalographic study.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Christoph S; Senkowski, Daniel; Maess, Burkhard; Friederici, Angela D

    2002-12-06

    The human visual system is divided into two pathways specialized for the processing of either objects or spatial locations. Neuroanatomical studies in monkeys have suggested that a similar specialization may also divide auditory cortex into two such pathways. We used the identical stimulus material in two experimental sessions in which subjects had to either identify auditory objects or their location. Magnetoencephalograms were recorded and M100 dipoles were fitted into individual brain models. In the right hemisphere, the processing of auditory spatial information lead to more lateral activations within the temporal plane while object identification lead to more medial activations. These findings suggest that the human auditory system processes object features and spatial features in distinct areas.

  18. Mid-fusiform activation during object discrimination reflects the process of differentiating structural descriptions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xun; Steinmetz, Nicholas A; Farley, Alison B; Smith, Charles D; Joseph, Jane E

    2008-09-01

    The present study explored constraints on mid-fusiform activation during object discrimination. In three experiments, participants performed a matching task on simple line configurations, nameable objects, three dimensional (3-D) shapes, and colors. Significant bilateral mid-fusiform activation emerged when participants matched objects and 3-D shapes, as compared to when they matched two-dimensional (2-D) line configurations and colors, indicating that the mid-fusiform is engaged more strongly for processing structural descriptions (e.g., comparing 3-D volumetric shape) than perceptual descriptions (e.g., comparing 2-D or color information). In two of the experiments, the same mid-fusiform regions were also modulated by the degree of structural similarity between stimuli, implicating a role for the mid-fusiform in fine differentiation of similar visual object representations. Importantly, however, this process of fine differentiation occurred at the level of structural, but not perceptual, descriptions. Moreover, mid-fusiform activity was more robust when participants matched shape compared to color information using the identical stimuli, indicating that activity in the mid-fusiform gyrus is not driven by specific stimulus properties, but rather by the process of distinguishing stimuli based on shape information. Taken together, these findings further clarify the nature of object processing in the mid-fusiform gyrus. This region is engaged specifically in structural differentiation, a critical component process of object recognition and categorization.

  19. Prioritization criteria of objective index for disaster management by satellite image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poursaber, Mohammad R.; Ariki, Yasuo; Safi, Mohammad

    2014-10-01

    The outputs obtained from satellite image processing generally presents various information based on the interpretation technique, selected objects for object based processing, precision of processing, the number and time of images used for this process. This issue should be managed well during a disaster management process based on satellite images. Very high resolution (VHR) optical satellite data are potential sources to provide detailed information on damage and geological changes for a large area in a short time. In this paper, we studied tsunami triggered area, which was caused on 11 March 2011 by Tohoku earthquake, using VHR data from GeoEye-1satellite images. A set of pre and post-earthquake images were used to perform visual change analysis through comparison of these data. These images include the data of the same area before the disaster in normal condition and after the disaster which caused changes and also some modification imposed to that area. Upon occurrence of a disaster, the images are used to estimate the extent of the damage. Then based on disaster management criteria and the needs for recovery and reconstruction, the priorities for object based classification indexes are defined. In post-disaster management, they are used for reconstruction and sustainable development activities. Finally a classified characteristic definition has been proposed which can be used as sample indexes prioritization criteria for disaster management based on satellite image processing. This prioritization criteria are based on an object based processing technique and can be further developed for other image processing methods.

  20. Possible Overlapping Time Frames of Acquisition and Consolidation Phases in Object Memory Processes: A Pharmacological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkerman, Sven; Blokland, Arjan; Prickaerts, Jos

    2016-01-01

    In previous studies, we have shown that acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE-Is) are able to improve object memory by enhancing acquisition processes. On the other hand, only PDE-Is improve consolidation processes. Here we show that the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil also improves memory performance when…

  1. Petri net model for analysis of concurrently processed complex algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoughton, John W.; Mielke, Roland R.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a Petri-net model suitable for analyzing the concurrent processing of computationally complex algorithms. The decomposed operations are to be processed in a multiple processor, data driven architecture. Of particular interest is the application of the model to both the description of the data/control flow of a particular algorithm, and to the general specification of the data driven architecture. A candidate architecture is also presented.

  2. Processing complexity and sentence memory: evidence from amnesia.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, L P; McNamara, P; Zurif, E; Lanzoni, S; Cermak, L

    1992-05-01

    This study examines sentence memory as a function of linguistic processing complexity in amnesic patients. Sentence length as well as lexical and syntactic complexity were manipulated in two sentence repetition experiments. It was found that the amnesic patients performed considerably worse than the control subjects and that performance decreased: (1) when sentence length was increased by the addition of adjuncts compared to arguments of the verb; (2) when the verb selected more thematic frames; and (3) when sentences involved "empty" argument positions that must be linked to antecedents, particularly across clausal boundaries. These data showed how linguistic complexity affects sentence memory and implied that the amnesic deficit did not involve a generalized difficulty for materials of similar length, rather, the deficit was specific to certain representational types and processing routines.

  3. Do aqueous ternary complexes influence the TALSPEAK process?

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, C. j.; Liu, G.; Jensen, M. P.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2010-01-01

    The aqueous speciation of trivalent lanthanide and actinide cations in solutions containing DTPA (diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N',N'-pentaacetic acid) and lactic acid were studied under conditions representative of the TALSPEAK process. Spectrophotometric titrations, fluorescence spectroscopy, and thermometric titrations were used to search for indications of ternary metal-DTPA-lactate complexes. The addition of lactate anions to metal-DTPA complexes was undetectable by any of these techniques, even at free lactate concentrations of 0.75 M. Although lactic acid is necessary for the optimal performance of the TALSPEAK process, we find that the fractions of aqueous ternary Ln3+/An3+-DTPA-lactate complexes are far too low to account for the observed acid dependence of TALSPEAK metal extraction.

  4. Assessing processes in uncertain, complex physical phenomena and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, J. M.; Kerscher, W. J. III; Smith, R. E.

    2002-01-01

    PREDICT (Performance and Reliability Evaluation with Diverse Information Combination and Tracking) is a set of structured quantitative approaches for the evaluation of system performance based on multiple information sources. The methodology integrates diverse types and sources of information, and their associated uncertainties, to develop full distributions for performance metrics, such as reliability. The successful application of PREDICT has involved system performance assessment in automotive product development, aging nuclear weapons, and fatigued turbine jet engines. In each of these applications, complex physical, mechanical and materials processes affect performance, safety and reliability assessments. Processes also include the physical actions taken during manufacturing, quality control, inspections, assembly, etc. and the steps involved in product design, development and certification. In this paper, we will examine the various types of processes involved in the decision making leading to production in an automotive system reliability example. Analysis of these processes includes not only understanding their impact on performance and reliability, but also the uncertainties associated with them. The automotive example demonstrates some of the tools used in tackling the complex problem of understanding processes. While some tools and methods exist for understanding processes (man made and natural) and the uncertainties associated with them, many of the complex issues discussed are open for continued research efforts.

  5. Cueing Complex Animations: Does Direction of Attention Foster Learning Processes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Richard; Boucheix, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    The time course of learners' processing of a complex animation was studied using a dynamic diagram of a piano mechanism. Over successive repetitions of the material, two forms of cueing (standard colour cueing and anti-cueing) were administered either before or during the animated segment of the presentation. An uncued group and two other control…

  6. MTR AND ETR COMPLEXES. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY TOWARD CHEMICAL PROCESSING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR AND ETR COMPLEXES. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY TOWARD CHEMICAL PROCESSING PLANT. MTR AND ITS ATTACHMENTS IN FOREGROUND. ETR BEYOND TO RIGHT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4100. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. The five elements process: designing optimal landscapes to meet bird conservation objectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Will, T.C.; Ruth, J.M.; Rosenberg, K.V.; Krueper, D.; Hahn, D.; Fitzgerald, J.; Dettmers, R.; Beardmore, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    In February 2004 at Port Aransas, Texas, Partners in Flight (PIF) and representatives from the other NABCI bird initiative met to discuss the process of stepping down PIF continental population objectives (Rich et al. 2004) to regional and local scales. Participants also discussed rolling up local population estimates and targets to assess the feasibility of the landscape changes necessary to meet continental objectives. Since the process of stepping-down/rolling-up population objectives shifts focus from identifying priority species to formulating quantitative estimates of how much habitat was needed, where, and by when the Port Aransas group called the stepping-down/rolling-up process a??stepping forward.a?? Participants agreed that stepping forward objectives was the beginning of an inevitably iterative dialog necessary to evaluate the assumptions of PIF population estimates and objectives as well as the methods used to monitor local implementation. To facilitate the translation of continental population objectives into biologically sound, measurable regional and local population-based habitat targets the Port Aransas group recommended a process no commonly referred to as the Five Elements Processa?|

  8. Visual Short-Term Memory for Complex Objects in 6- and 8-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Mee-Kyoung; Luck, Steven J.; Oakes, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Infants' visual short-term memory (VSTM) for simple objects undergoes dramatic development: Six-month-old infants can store in VSTM information about only a simple object presented in isolation, whereas 8-month-old infants can store information about simple objects presented in multiple-item arrays. This study extended this work to examine…

  9. Optical processing of holographic lateral shear interferograms recorded by displacing an object

    SciTech Connect

    Lyalikov, A M

    2008-01-31

    A new approach is considered which is used in holographic lateral shear interferometry and allows the combination of the displacement of a phase object under study during the recording of holographic interferograms with the optical processing of displaced and optically conjugate holographic interferograms. Depending on the method of optical processing of such a pair of holographic interferograms, several aberration-free interference patterns are observed, which reflect with different sensitivities variations in the light wave phase caused by the phase object. Due to the lateral shear, which is equal to or exceeds the linear size of the object, the interference patterns of the object are identical to interference patterns obtained in a two-beam, reference-wave interferometer. The possibility of using this method to control optical inhomogeneities in active crystals in solid-state lasers is studied experimentally. (interferometry)

  10. P3b, consciousness, and complex unconscious processing.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Brian H; Snodgrass, Michael; Shevrin, Howard; Kushwaha, Ramesh

    2015-12-01

    How can perceptual consciousness be indexed in humans? Recent work with ERPs suggests that P3b, a relatively late component, may be a neural correlate of consciousness (NCC). This proposal dovetails with currently prevailing cognitive theory regarding the nature of conscious versus unconscious processes, which holds that the latter are simple and very brief, whereas consciousness is ostensibly required for more durable, complex cognitive processing. Using a P3b oddball paradigm, we instead show that P3b and even later, related slow wave activity occur under rigorously subliminal conditions. Additional principal component analysis (PCA) further differentiated the presence of both P3a and P3b components, demonstrating that the latter indeed occurred subliminally. Collectively, our results suggest that complex, sustained cognitive processing can occur unconsciously and that P3b is not an NCC after all.

  11. Simulations of one- and two-dimensional complex plasmas using a modular, object-oriented code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefferson, R. A.; Cianciosa, M.; Thomas, E.

    2010-11-01

    In a complex plasma, charged microparticles ("dust") are added to a background of ions, electrons, and neutral particles. This dust fully interacts with the surrounding plasma and self-consistently alters the plasma environment leading to the emergence of new plasma behavior. Numerical tools that complement experimental investigations can provide important insights into the properties of complex plasmas. This paper discusses a newly developed code, named DEMON (dynamic exploration of microparticle clouds optimized numerically), for simulating a complex plasma. The DEMON code models the behavior of the charged particle component of a complex plasma in a uniform plasma background. The key feature of the DEMON code is the use of a modular force model that allows a wide variety of experimental configurations to be studied without varying the core code infrastructure. Examples of the flexibility of this modular approach are presented using examples of one- and two-dimensional complex plasmas.

  12. Contributions of low and high spatial frequency processing to impaired object recognition circuitry in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Calderone, Daniel J; Hoptman, Matthew J; Martínez, Antígona; Nair-Collins, Sangeeta; Mauro, Cristina J; Bar, Moshe; Javitt, Daniel C; Butler, Pamela D

    2013-08-01

    Patients with schizophrenia exhibit cognitive and sensory impairment, and object recognition deficits have been linked to sensory deficits. The "frame and fill" model of object recognition posits that low spatial frequency (LSF) information rapidly reaches the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and creates a general shape of an object that feeds back to the ventral temporal cortex to assist object recognition. Visual dysfunction findings in schizophrenia suggest a preferential loss of LSF information. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) to investigate the contribution of visual deficits to impaired object "framing" circuitry in schizophrenia. Participants were shown object stimuli that were intact or contained only LSF or high spatial frequency (HSF) information. For controls, fMRI revealed preferential activation to LSF information in precuneus, superior temporal, and medial and dorsolateral PFC areas, whereas patients showed a preference for HSF information or no preference. RSFC revealed a lack of connectivity between early visual areas and PFC for patients. These results demonstrate impaired processing of LSF information during object recognition in schizophrenia, with patients instead displaying increased processing of HSF information. This is consistent with findings of a preference for local over global visual information in schizophrenia.

  13. Retrieval and reconsolidation of object recognition memory are independent processes in the perirhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Balderas, I; Rodriguez-Ortiz, C J; Bermudez-Rattoni, F

    2013-12-03

    Reconsolidation refers to the destabilization/re-stabilization process upon memory reactivation. However, the parameters needed to induce reconsolidation remain unclear. Here we evaluated the capacity of memory retrieval to induce reconsolidation of object recognition memory in rats. To assess whether retrieval is indispensable to trigger reconsolidation, we injected muscimol in the perirhinal cortex to block retrieval, and anisomycin (ani) to impede reconsolidation. We observed that ani impaired reconsolidation in the absence of retrieval. Therefore, stored memory underwent reconsolidation even though it was not recalled. These results indicate that retrieval and reconsolidation of object recognition memory are independent processes.

  14. EEG complexity and attentional processes related to dissociative states.

    PubMed

    Bob, Peter; Golla, Megan; Epstein, Phillip; Konopka, Lukasz

    2011-07-01

    Reported findings indicate that attentional narrowing is related to decreased complexity and increased inhibition of neural assemblies. These findings suggest that analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) complexity could present a useful method for research of attentional changes related to dissociation. To examine this model we used a case study to test the two hypotheses: (1) that successful anticonvulsant medication would result in dissociative symptom alleviation, improvement of inhibitory neural functions, and decreased EEG complexity, and (2) that cognitive conflict, related to aversive events in the patient's past experience, during reliving of a dissociative state would lead to greater allocation of attention and decreased EEG complexity. Three EEG studies recorded in the eyes closed non-drowsy state were performed: (1) at baseline, (2) post-induction of dissociative state, and (3) post-anticonvulsant medication following induction of dissociative state. A dissociative state was achieved following an interview regarding the patient's aversive past experiences through use of the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ). The patient's level of dissociation was measured using the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II). The PDEQ interview and DES-II assessment were also used one hour following the oral consumption of an anticonvulsant medication (clonazepam 2mg). Analysis of the data revealed that complexity values (PD2) are significantly lower following the oral consumption of clonazepam (2mg) in the majority of EEG channels. Additionally, complexity during the reliving of a dissociative state was statistically significantly lower than both the baseline and post-medication conditions in all but two EEG channels. Results of the case study suggest that changes in attentional processes linked to dissociation are related to: (1) decreased complexity when attention is extremely focused because of attentional narrowing to the disturbing past

  15. Unconscious Processing of Negative Animals and Objects: Role of the Amygdala Revealed by fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zhiyong; Li, Han; Chen, Gang; Yang, JiongJiong

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that emotional stimuli can be processed through the amygdala without conscious awareness. The amygdala is also involved in processing animate and social information. However, it is unclear whether different categories of pictures (e.g., animals, objects) elicit different activity in the amygdale and other regions without conscious awareness. The objective of this study was to explore whether the factors of category, emotion and picture context modulate brain activation for unconscious processing. Pictures denoting different nonhuman animals and objects in negative and neutral emotional valences were presented using a sandwich-masking paradigm. Half of them were presented with human-related information in the contexts, and half were not. Our results showed significant interaction among category, emotion and context in the amygdala and subcortical regions. Specifically, negative animals elicited stronger activation in these regions than negative objects, especially with human contexts. In addition, there were different correlation patterns between the amygdala and cortical regions according to whether they included human context. There were limited activations in cortical category-related networks. These results suggest that the amygdala and subcortical regions dominantly process negative animals, and contextual information modulates their activities, making threatening stimuli that are most relevant to human survival preferentially processed without conscious awareness. PMID:27092067

  16. Do discrimination tasks discourage multi-dimensional stimulus processing? Evidence from a cross-modal object discrimination in rats.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Kathryn J

    2007-11-02

    Neurobiologists are becoming increasingly interested in how complex cognitive representations are formed by the integration of sensory stimuli. To this end, discrimination tasks are frequently used to assess perceptual and cognitive processes in animals, because they are easy to administer and score, and the ability of an animal to make a particular discrimination establishes beyond doubt that the necessary perceptual/cognitive processes are present. It does not, however, follow that absence of discrimination means the animal cannot make a particular perceptual judgement; it may simply mean that the animal did not manage to discover the relevant discriminative stimulus when trying to learn the task. Here, it is shown that rats did not learn a cross-modal object discrimination (requiring association of each object's visual appearance with its odour) when trained on the complete task from the beginning. However, they could eventually make the discrimination when trained on the component parts step by step, showing that they were able to do the necessary cross-modal integration in the right circumstances. This finding adds to growing evidence that discrimination tasks tend to encourage feature-based discrimination, perhaps by engaging automatic, habit-based brain systems. Thus, they may not be the best way to assess the formation of multi-dimensional stimulus representations of the kind needed in more complex cognitive processes such as declarative memory. Instead, more natural tasks such as spontaneous exploration may be preferable.

  17. Flying triangulation - A motion-robust optical 3D sensor for the real-time shape acquisition of complex objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willomitzer, Florian; Ettl, Svenja; Arold, Oliver; Häusler, Gerd

    2013-05-01

    The three-dimensional shape acquisition of objects has become more and more important in the last years. Up to now, there are several well-established methods which already yield impressive results. However, even under quite common conditions like object movement or a complex shaping, most methods become unsatisfying. Thus, the 3D shape acquisition is still a difficult and non-trivial task. We present our measurement principle "Flying Triangulation" which enables a motion-robust 3D acquisition of complex-shaped object surfaces by a freely movable handheld sensor. Since "Flying Triangulation" is scalable, a whole sensor-zoo for different object sizes is presented. Concluding, an overview of current and future fields of investigation is given.

  18. Functional Activation in the Ventral Object Processing Pathway during the First Year

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Teresa; Biondi, Marisa

    2016-01-01

    Infants' capacity to represent objects in visual working memory changes substantially during the first year of life. There is a growing body of research focused on identifying neural mechanisms that support this emerging capacity, and the extent to which visual object processing elicits different patterns of cortical activation in the infant as compared to the adult. Recent studies have identified areas in temporal and occipital cortex that mediate infants' developing capacity to track objects on the basis of their featural properties. The current research (Experiments 1 and 2) assessed patterns of activation in posterior temporal cortex and occipital cortex using fNIRS in infants 3–13 months of age as they viewed occlusion events. In the occlusion events, either the same object or featurally distinct objects emerged to each side of a screen. The outcome of these studies, combined, revealed that in infants 3–6 months, posterior temporal cortex was activated to all events, regardless of the featural properties of the objects and whether the event involved one object or two (featurally distinct) objects. Infants 7–8 infants months showed a waning posterior temporal response and by 10–13 months this response was negligible. Additional analysis showed that the age groups did not differ in their visual attention to the events and that changes in HbO were better explained by age in days than head circumference. In contrast to posterior temporal cortex, robust activation was obtained in occipital cortex across all ages tested. One interpretation of these results is that they reflect pruning of the visual object-processing network during the first year. The functional contribution of occipital and posterior temporal cortex, along with higher-level temporal areas, to infants' capacity to keep track of distinct entities in visual working memory is discussed. PMID:26778979

  19. Energetic Processing of Interstellar Ices: A Route to Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Marla H.; Hudson, Reggie L.

    2009-01-01

    More than 140 gas-phase molecules have been detected in the interstellar (IS) medium or in circumstellar environments including inorganics, organics, ions, and radicals. The significant abundance of large, complex organic molecules, and families of isomers in these regions makes the origin and formation history of these species the subject of debate. Observationally determined condensed-phase species are H2O, CO, CO2, NH3 and CH30H, with CH4, HCOOH, OCS, OCN-, H2CO and NH4(+) present at trace levels. These ices can undergo energetic processing with cosmic rays or far-UV photons to form larger complex organics with abundance levels that make them undetectable in icy mantles. Once warmed, however, it is likely that these complex species would enter the gas-phase where they might be detected by Herschel or Alma. Understanding the role of radiation chemistry and thermal processing of ices and identifying new products are the goals of our laboratory research. In the Cosmic lee Laboratory at NASA Goddard Space Plight Center, we can study both the photo-and radiation chemistries of ices from 8 -- 300 K. Using dear- and mid-IR spectroscopy we can follow the destruction of primary molecules and the formation of radicals and secondary products as a function of energetic processing. During warming we can monitor the trapping of species and the results of any thermal chemistry. An overview of recent and past work will focus on complex secondary radiation products from small condensed-phase IS species. Likely reactions include dimerization, isomerization, H-addition and H-elimination. Another focus of our work is the development of reaction schemes for the formation of complex molecules and the use of such schemes to predict new molecules awaiting detection by Herschel and Alma.

  20. A cultural side effect: learning to read interferes with identity processing of familiar objects

    PubMed Central

    Kolinsky, Régine; Fernandes, Tânia

    2014-01-01

    Based on the neuronal recycling hypothesis (Dehaene and Cohen, 2007), we examined whether reading acquisition has a cost for the recognition of non-linguistic visual materials. More specifically, we checked whether the ability to discriminate between mirror images, which develops through literacy acquisition, interferes with object identity judgments, and whether interference strength varies as a function of the nature of the non-linguistic material. To these aims we presented illiterate, late literate (who learned to read at adult age), and early literate adults with an orientation-independent, identity-based same-different comparison task in which they had to respond “same” to both physically identical and mirrored or plane-rotated images of pictures of familiar objects (Experiment 1) or of geometric shapes (Experiment 2). Interference from irrelevant orientation variations was stronger with plane rotations than with mirror images, and stronger with geometric shapes than with objects. Illiterates were the only participants almost immune to mirror variations, but only for familiar objects. Thus, the process of unlearning mirror-image generalization, necessary to acquire literacy in the Latin alphabet, has a cost for a basic function of the visual ventral object recognition stream, i.e., identification of familiar objects. This demonstrates that neural recycling is not just an adaptation to multi-use but a process of at least partial exaptation. PMID:25400605

  1. An ERP Study of the Processing of Subject and Object Relative Clauses in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Mieko; Garnsey, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    Using reading times and event-related brain potentials (ERPs), we investigated the processing of Japanese subject and object relative clauses (SRs/ORs). Previous research on English relative clauses shows that ORs take longer to read (King & Just, 1991) and elicit anterior negativity between fillers and gaps (King & Kutas, 1995), which is…

  2. Analyzing Preschoolers' Overgeneralizations of Object Labeling in the Process of Mother-Tongue Acquisition in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabadayi, Abdulkadir

    2006-01-01

    Language, as is known, is acquired under certain conditions: rapid and sequential brain maturation and cognitive development, the need to exchange information and to control others' actions, and an exposure to appropriate speech input. This research aims at analyzing preschoolers' overgeneralizations of the object labeling process in different…

  3. Integration of a three-dimensional process-based hydrological model into the Object Modeling System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The integration of a spatial process model into an environmental modelling framework can enhance the model’s capabilities. We present the integration of the GEOtop model into the Object Modeling System (OMS) version 3.0 and illustrate its application in a small watershed. GEOtop is a physically base...

  4. Frequency Affects Object Relative Clause Processing: Some Evidence in Favor of Usage-Based Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reali, Florencia

    2014-01-01

    The processing difficulty of nested grammatical structure has been explained by different psycholinguistic theories. Here I provide corpus and behavioral evidence in favor of usage-based models, focusing on the case of object relative clauses in Spanish as a first language. A corpus analysis of spoken Spanish reveals that, as in English, the…

  5. The Benefits of Sensorimotor Knowledge: Body-Object Interaction Facilitates Semantic Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siakaluk, Paul D.; Pexman, Penny M.; Sears, Christopher R.; Wilson, Kim; Locheed, Keri; Owen, William J.

    2008-01-01

    This article examined the effects of body-object interaction (BOI) on semantic processing. BOI measures perceptions of the ease with which a human body can physically interact with a word's referent. In Experiment 1, BOI effects were examined in 2 semantic categorization tasks (SCT) in which participants decided if words are easily imageable.…

  6. The Processing of Subject-Object Ambiguities in Native and Near-Native Mexican Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jegerski, Jill

    2012-01-01

    This self-paced reading study first tested the prediction that the garden path effect previously observed during the processing of subject-object ambiguities in native English would not obtain in a null subject language like Spanish. The investigation then further explored whether the effect would be evident among near-native readers of Spanish…

  7. Improved object segmentation using Markov random fields, artificial neural networks, and parallel processing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulkes, Stephen B.; Booth, David M.

    1997-07-01

    Object segmentation is the process by which a mask is generated which identifies the area of an image which is occupied by an object. Many object recognition techniques depend on the quality of such masks for shape and underlying brightness information, however, segmentation remains notoriously unreliable. This paper considers how the image restoration technique of Geman and Geman can be applied to the improvement of object segmentations generated by a locally adaptive background subtraction technique. Also presented is how an artificial neural network hybrid, consisting of a single layer Kohonen network with each of its nodes connected to a different multi-layer perceptron, can be used to approximate the image restoration process. It is shown that the restoration techniques are very well suited for parallel processing and in particular the artificial neural network hybrid has the potential for near real time image processing. Results are presented for the detection of ships in SPOT panchromatic imagery and the detection of vehicles in infrared linescan images, these being a fair representation of the wider class of problem.

  8. Ferric and cobaltous hydroacid complexes for forward osmosis (FO) processes.

    PubMed

    Ge, Qingchun; Fu, Fengjiang; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2014-07-01

    Cupric and ferric hydroacid complexes have proven their advantages as draw solutes in forward osmosis in terms of high water fluxes, negligible reverse solute fluxes and easy recovery (Ge and Chung, 2013. Hydroacid complexes: A new class of draw solutes to promote forward osmosis (FO) processes. Chemical Communications 49, 8471-8473.). In this study, cobaltous hydroacid complexes were explored as draw solutes and compared with the ferric hydroacid complex to study the factors influencing their FO performance. The solutions of the cobaltous complexes produce high osmotic pressures due to the presence of abundant hydrophilic groups. These solutes are able to dissociate and form a multi-charged anion and Na(+) cations in water. In addition, these complexes have expanded structures which lead to negligible reverse solute fluxes and provide relatively easy approaches in regeneration. These characteristics make the newly synthesized cobaltous complexes appropriate as draw solutes. The FO performance of the cobaltous and ferric-citric acid (Fe-CA) complexes were evaluated respectively through cellulose acetate membranes, thin-film composite membranes fabricated on polyethersulfone supports (referred as TFC-PES), and polybenzimidazole and PES dual-layer (referred as PBI/PES) hollow fiber membranes. Under the conditions of DI water as the feed and facing the support layer of TFC-PES FO membranes (PRO mode), draw solutions at 2.0 M produced relatively high water fluxes of 39-48 LMH (L m(-2) hr(-1)) with negligible reverse solute fluxes. A water flux of 17.4 LMH was achieved when model seawater of 3.5 wt.% NaCl replaced DI water as the feed and 2.0 M Fe-CA as the draw solution under the same conditions. The performance of these hydroacid complexes surpasses those of the synthetic draw solutes developed in recent years. This observation, along with the relatively easy regeneration, makes these complexes very promising as a novel class of draw solutes.

  9. Cortical plasticity for visuospatial processing and object recognition in deaf and hearing signers.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Jill; Koo, Daniel S; Crain, Kelly L; Eden, Guinevere F

    2012-03-01

    Experience-dependent plasticity in deaf participants has been shown in a variety of studies focused on either the dorsal or ventral aspects of the visual system, but both systems have never been investigated in concert. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated functional plasticity for spatial processing (a dorsal visual pathway function) and for object processing (a ventral visual pathway function) concurrently, in the context of differing sensory (auditory deprivation) and language (use of a signed language) experience. During scanning, deaf native users of American Sign Language (ASL), hearing native ASL users, and hearing participants without ASL experience attended to either the spatial arrangement of frames containing objects or the identity of the objects themselves. These two tasks revealed the expected dorsal/ventral dichotomy for spatial versus object processing in all groups. In addition, the object identity matching task contained both face and house stimuli, allowing us to examine category-selectivity in the ventral pathway in all three participant groups. When contrasting the groups we found that deaf signers differed from the two hearing groups in dorsal pathway parietal regions involved in spatial cognition, suggesting sensory experience-driven plasticity. Group differences in the object processing system indicated that responses in the face-selective right lateral fusiform gyrus and anterior superior temporal cortex were sensitive to a combination of altered sensory and language experience, whereas responses in the amygdala were more closely tied to sensory experience. By selectively engaging the dorsal and ventral visual pathways within participants in groups with different sensory and language experiences, we have demonstrated that these experiences affect the function of both of these systems, and that certain changes are more closely tied to sensory experience, while others are driven by the combination of sensory and

  10. Complex Processes from Dynamical Architectures with Time-Scale Hierarchy

    PubMed Central

    Perdikis, Dionysios; Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    The idea that complex motor, perceptual, and cognitive behaviors are composed of smaller units, which are somehow brought into a meaningful relation, permeates the biological and life sciences. However, no principled framework defining the constituent elementary processes has been developed to this date. Consequently, functional configurations (or architectures) relating elementary processes and external influences are mostly piecemeal formulations suitable to particular instances only. Here, we develop a general dynamical framework for distinct functional architectures characterized by the time-scale separation of their constituents and evaluate their efficiency. Thereto, we build on the (phase) flow of a system, which prescribes the temporal evolution of its state variables. The phase flow topology allows for the unambiguous classification of qualitatively distinct processes, which we consider to represent the functional units or modes within the dynamical architecture. Using the example of a composite movement we illustrate how different architectures can be characterized by their degree of time scale separation between the internal elements of the architecture (i.e. the functional modes) and external interventions. We reveal a tradeoff of the interactions between internal and external influences, which offers a theoretical justification for the efficient composition of complex processes out of non-trivial elementary processes or functional modes. PMID:21347363

  11. Complex processes from dynamical architectures with time-scale hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Perdikis, Dionysios; Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor

    2011-02-10

    The idea that complex motor, perceptual, and cognitive behaviors are composed of smaller units, which are somehow brought into a meaningful relation, permeates the biological and life sciences. However, no principled framework defining the constituent elementary processes has been developed to this date. Consequently, functional configurations (or architectures) relating elementary processes and external influences are mostly piecemeal formulations suitable to particular instances only. Here, we develop a general dynamical framework for distinct functional architectures characterized by the time-scale separation of their constituents and evaluate their efficiency. Thereto, we build on the (phase) flow of a system, which prescribes the temporal evolution of its state variables. The phase flow topology allows for the unambiguous classification of qualitatively distinct processes, which we consider to represent the functional units or modes within the dynamical architecture. Using the example of a composite movement we illustrate how different architectures can be characterized by their degree of time scale separation between the internal elements of the architecture (i.e. the functional modes) and external interventions. We reveal a tradeoff of the interactions between internal and external influences, which offers a theoretical justification for the efficient composition of complex processes out of non-trivial elementary processes or functional modes.

  12. Electric relaxation processes in chemodynamics of aqueous metal complexes: from simple ligands to soft nanoparticulate complexants.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Herman P; Buffle, Jacques; Town, Raewyn M

    2012-01-10

    The chemodynamics of metal complexes with nanoparticulate complexants can differ significantly from that for simple ligands. The spatial confinement of charged sites and binding sites to the nanoparticulate body impacts on the time scales of various steps in the overall complex formation process. The greater the charge carried by the nanoparticle, the longer it takes to set up the counterion distribution equilibrium with the medium. A z+ metal ion (z > 1) in a 1:1 background electrolyte will accumulate in the counterionic atmosphere around negatively charged simple ions, as well as within/around the body of a soft nanoparticle with negative structural charge. The rate of accumulation is often governed by diffusion and proceeds until Boltzmann partition equilibrium between the charged entity and the ions in the medium is attained. The electrostatic accumulation proceeds simultaneously with outer-sphere and inner-sphere complex formation. The rate of the eventual inner-sphere complex formation is generally controlled by the rate constant of dehydration of the metal ion, k(w). For common transition metal ions with moderate to fast dehydration rates, e.g., Cu(2+), Pb(2+), and Cd(2+), it is shown that the ionic equilibration with the medium may be the slower step and thus rate-limiting in their overall complexation with nanoparticles.

  13. The relation between crawling and 9-month-old infants' visual prediction abilities in spatial object processing.

    PubMed

    Kubicek, Claudia; Jovanovic, Bianca; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2017-06-01

    We examined whether 9-month-old infants' visual prediction abilities in the context of spatial object processing are related to their crawling ability. A total of 33 9-month-olds were tested; half of them crawled for 7.6weeks on average. A new visual prediction paradigm was developed during which a three-dimensional three-object array was presented in a live setting. During familiarization, the object array rotated back and forth along the vertical axis. While the array was moving, two target objects of it were briefly occluded from view and uncovered again as the array changed its direction of motion. During the test phase, the entire array was rotated around 90° and then rotated back and forth along the horizontal axis. The targets remained at the same position or were moved to a modified placement. We recorded infants' eye movements directed at the dynamically covered and uncovered target locations and analyzed infants' prediction rates. All infants showed higher prediction rates at test and when the targets' placement was modified. Most importantly, the results demonstrated that crawlers had higher prediction rates during test trials as compared with non-crawlers. Our study supports the assumption that crawling experience might enhance 9-month-old infants' ability to correctly predict complex object movement.

  14. Image Processing Strategies Based on a Visual Saliency Model for Object Recognition Under Simulated Prosthetic Vision.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Li, Heng; Fu, Weizhen; Chen, Yao; Li, Liming; Lyu, Qing; Han, Tingting; Chai, Xinyu

    2016-01-01

    Retinal prostheses have the potential to restore partial vision. Object recognition in scenes of daily life is one of the essential tasks for implant wearers. Still limited by the low-resolution visual percepts provided by retinal prostheses, it is important to investigate and apply image processing methods to convey more useful visual information to the wearers. We proposed two image processing strategies based on Itti's visual saliency map, region of interest (ROI) extraction, and image segmentation. Itti's saliency model generated a saliency map from the original image, in which salient regions were grouped into ROI by the fuzzy c-means clustering. Then Grabcut generated a proto-object from the ROI labeled image which was recombined with background and enhanced in two ways--8-4 separated pixelization (8-4 SP) and background edge extraction (BEE). Results showed that both 8-4 SP and BEE had significantly higher recognition accuracy in comparison with direct pixelization (DP). Each saliency-based image processing strategy was subject to the performance of image segmentation. Under good and perfect segmentation conditions, BEE and 8-4 SP obtained noticeably higher recognition accuracy than DP, and under bad segmentation condition, only BEE boosted the performance. The application of saliency-based image processing strategies was verified to be beneficial to object recognition in daily scenes under simulated prosthetic vision. They are hoped to help the development of the image processing module for future retinal prostheses, and thus provide more benefit for the patients.

  15. How low can you go? Changing the resolution of novel complex objects in visual working memory according to task demands.

    PubMed

    Allon, Ayala S; Balaban, Halely; Luria, Roy

    2014-01-01

    In three experiments we manipulated the resolution of novel complex objects in visual working memory (WM) by changing task demands. Previous studies that investigated the trade-off between quantity and resolution in visual WM yielded mixed results for simple familiar stimuli. We used the contralateral delay activity as an electrophysiological marker to directly track the deployment of visual WM resources while participants preformed a change-detection task. Across three experiments we presented the same novel complex items but changed the task demands. In Experiment 1 we induced a medium resolution task by using change trials in which a random polygon changed to a different type of polygon and replicated previous findings showing that novel complex objects are represented with higher resolution relative to simple familiar objects. In Experiment 2 we induced a low resolution task that required distinguishing between polygons and other types of stimulus categories, but we failed in finding a corresponding decrease in the resolution of the represented item. Finally, in Experiment 3 we induced a high resolution task that required discriminating between highly similar polygons with somewhat different contours. This time, we observed an increase in the item's resolution. Our findings indicate that the resolution for novel complex objects can be increased but not decreased according to task demands, suggesting that minimal resolution is required in order to maintain these items in visual WM. These findings support studies claiming that capacity and resolution in visual WM reflect different mechanisms.

  16. A split-optimization approach for obtaining multiple solutions in single-objective process parameter optimization.

    PubMed

    Rajora, Manik; Zou, Pan; Yang, Yao Guang; Fan, Zhi Wen; Chen, Hung Yi; Wu, Wen Chieh; Li, Beizhi; Liang, Steven Y

    2016-01-01

    It can be observed from the experimental data of different processes that different process parameter combinations can lead to the same performance indicators, but during the optimization of process parameters, using current techniques, only one of these combinations can be found when a given objective function is specified. The combination of process parameters obtained after optimization may not always be applicable in actual production or may lead to undesired experimental conditions. In this paper, a split-optimization approach is proposed for obtaining multiple solutions in a single-objective process parameter optimization problem. This is accomplished by splitting the original search space into smaller sub-search spaces and using GA in each sub-search space to optimize the process parameters. Two different methods, i.e., cluster centers and hill and valley splitting strategy, were used to split the original search space, and their efficiency was measured against a method in which the original search space is split into equal smaller sub-search spaces. The proposed approach was used to obtain multiple optimal process parameter combinations for electrochemical micro-machining. The result obtained from the case study showed that the cluster centers and hill and valley splitting strategies were more efficient in splitting the original search space than the method in which the original search space is divided into smaller equal sub-search spaces.

  17. Memory for Complex Visual Objects but Not for Allocentric Locations during the First Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupierrix, Eve; Hillairet de Boisferon, Anne; Barbeau, Emmanuel; Pascalis, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Although human infants demonstrate early competence to retain visual information, memory capacities during infancy remain largely undocumented. In three experiments, we used a Visual Paired Comparison (VPC) task to examine abilities to encode identity (Experiment 1) and spatial properties (Experiments 2a and 2b) of unfamiliar complex visual…

  18. Multifeatural shape processing in rats engaged in invariant visual object recognition.

    PubMed

    Alemi-Neissi, Alireza; Rosselli, Federica Bianca; Zoccolan, Davide

    2013-04-03

    The ability to recognize objects despite substantial variation in their appearance (e.g., because of position or size changes) represents such a formidable computational feat that it is widely assumed to be unique to primates. Such an assumption has restricted the investigation of its neuronal underpinnings to primate studies, which allow only a limited range of experimental approaches. In recent years, the increasingly powerful array of optical and molecular tools that has become available in rodents has spurred a renewed interest for rodent models of visual functions. However, evidence of primate-like visual object processing in rodents is still very limited and controversial. Here we show that rats are capable of an advanced recognition strategy, which relies on extracting the most informative object features across the variety of viewing conditions the animals may face. Rat visual strategy was uncovered by applying an image masking method that revealed the features used by the animals to discriminate two objects across a range of sizes, positions, in-depth, and in-plane rotations. Noticeably, rat recognition relied on a combination of multiple features that were mostly preserved across the transformations the objects underwent, and largely overlapped with the features that a simulated ideal observer deemed optimal to accomplish the discrimination task. These results indicate that rats are able to process and efficiently use shape information, in a way that is largely tolerant to variation in object appearance. This suggests that their visual system may serve as a powerful model to study the neuronal substrates of object recognition.

  19. Stochastic Process Underlying Emergent Recognition of Visual Objects Hidden in Degraded Images

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Tsutomu; Hamada, Takashi; Shimokawa, Tetsuya; Tanifuji, Manabu; Yanagida, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    When a degraded two-tone image such as a “Mooney” image is seen for the first time, it is unrecognizable in the initial seconds. The recognition of such an image is facilitated by giving prior information on the object, which is known as top-down facilitation and has been intensively studied. Even in the absence of any prior information, however, we experience sudden perception of the emergence of a salient object after continued observation of the image, whose processes remain poorly understood. This emergent recognition is characterized by a comparatively long reaction time ranging from seconds to tens of seconds. In this study, to explore this time-consuming process of emergent recognition, we investigated the properties of the reaction times for recognition of degraded images of various objects. The results show that the time-consuming component of the reaction times follows a specific exponential function related to levels of image degradation and subject's capability. Because generally an exponential time is required for multiple stochastic events to co-occur, we constructed a descriptive mathematical model inspired by the neurophysiological idea of combination coding of visual objects. Our model assumed that the coincidence of stochastic events complement the information loss of a degraded image leading to the recognition of its hidden object, which could successfully explain the experimental results. Furthermore, to see whether the present results are specific to the task of emergent recognition, we also conducted a comparison experiment with the task of perceptual decision making of degraded images, which is well known to be modeled by the stochastic diffusion process. The results indicate that the exponential dependence on the level of image degradation is specific to emergent recognition. The present study suggests that emergent recognition is caused by the underlying stochastic process which is based on the coincidence of multiple stochastic events

  20. New image processing software for analyzing object size-frequency distributions, geometry, orientation, and spatial distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beggan, Ciarán; Hamilton, Christopher W.

    2010-04-01

    Geological Image Analysis Software (GIAS) combines basic tools for calculating object area, abundance, radius, perimeter, eccentricity, orientation, and centroid location, with the first automated method for characterizing the aerial distribution of objects using sample-size-dependent nearest neighbor (NN) statistics. The NN analyses include tests for (1) Poisson, (2) Normalized Poisson, (3) Scavenged k=1, and (4) Scavenged k=2 NN distributions. GIAS is implemented in MATLAB with a Graphical User Interface (GUI) that is available as pre-parsed pseudocode for use with MATLAB, or as a stand-alone application that runs on Windows and Unix systems. GIAS can process raster data (e.g., satellite imagery, photomicrographs, etc.) and tables of object coordinates to characterize the size, geometry, orientation, and spatial organization of a wide range of geological features. This information expedites quantitative measurements of 2D object properties, provides criteria for validating the use of stereology to transform 2D object sections into 3D models, and establishes a standardized NN methodology that can be used to compare the results of different geospatial studies and identify objects using non-morphological parameters.

  1. Attentional spreading to task-irrelevant object features: experimental support and a 3-step model of attention for object-based selection and feature-based processing modulation.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Detlef; Galashan, Fingal Orlando; Aurich, Maike Kathrin; Kreiter, Andreas Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Directing attention to a specific feature of an object has been linked to different forms of attentional modulation. Object-based attention theory founds on the finding that even task-irrelevant features at the selected object are subject to attentional modulation, while feature-based attention theory proposes a global processing benefit for the selected feature even at other objects. Most studies investigated either the one or the other form of attention, leaving open the possibility that both object- and feature-specific attentional effects do occur at the same time and may just represent two sides of a single attention system. We here investigate this issue by testing attentional spreading within and across objects, using reaction time (RT) measurements to changes of attended and unattended features on both attended and unattended objects. We asked subjects to report color and speed changes occurring on one of two overlapping random dot patterns (RDPs), presented at the center of gaze. The key property of the stimulation was that only one of the features (e.g., motion direction) was unique for each object, whereas the other feature (e.g., color) was shared by both. The results of two experiments show that co-selection of unattended features even occurs when those features have no means for selecting the object. At the same time, they demonstrate that this processing benefit is not restricted to the selected object but spreads to the task-irrelevant one. We conceptualize these findings by a 3-step model of attention that assumes a task-dependent top-down gain, object-specific feature selection based on task- and binding characteristics, and a global feature-specific processing enhancement. The model allows for the unification of a vast amount of experimental results into a single model, and makes various experimentally testable predictions for the interaction of object- and feature-specific processes.

  2. Spectral transformation in the SOFI complex for processing photographic images on the ES computer, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debabov, A. S.; Usikov, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    A description is given of three programs catalogued in the form of object modules in the library of a system for processing photographic images computer. PFT is the subprogram of the multi-dimensional BPF of real-valued information, in the operative computer memory. INRECO is a subprogram-interface between the real and complex formats for representing two-dimensional spectra and images. FFT2 is a subprogram for calculating the correlation functions of the image using the previous subprograms.

  3. Information processing using a single dynamical node as complex system

    PubMed Central

    Appeltant, L.; Soriano, M.C.; Van der Sande, G.; Danckaert, J.; Massar, S.; Dambre, J.; Schrauwen, B.; Mirasso, C.R.; Fischer, I.

    2011-01-01

    Novel methods for information processing are highly desired in our information-driven society. Inspired by the brain's ability to process information, the recently introduced paradigm known as 'reservoir computing' shows that complex networks can efficiently perform computation. Here we introduce a novel architecture that reduces the usually required large number of elements to a single nonlinear node with delayed feedback. Through an electronic implementation, we experimentally and numerically demonstrate excellent performance in a speech recognition benchmark. Complementary numerical studies also show excellent performance for a time series prediction benchmark. These results prove that delay-dynamical systems, even in their simplest manifestation, can perform efficient information processing. This finding paves the way to feasible and resource-efficient technological implementations of reservoir computing. PMID:21915110

  4. QA Objectives for Nondestructive Assay at the Waste Receiving & Processing (WRAP) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    CANTALOUB, M.G.

    2000-08-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility, located on the Word Site in southeast Washington, is a key link in the certification of transuranic (TRU) waste for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Waste characterization is one of the vital functions performed at WRAP, and nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of TRU waste containers is one of two required methods used for waste characterization. The Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, DOE/WIPP-069 (WIPP-WAC) delineates the quality assurance objectives which have been established for NDA measurement systems. Sites must demonstrate that the quality assurance objectives can be achieved for each radioassay system over the applicable ranges of measurement. This report summarizes the validation of the WRAP NDA systems against the radioassay quality assurance objectives or QAOs. A brief description of the each test and significant conclusions are included. Variables that may have affected test outcomes and system response are also addressed.

  5. Nuclear processing - a simple cost equation or a complex problem?

    SciTech Connect

    Banfield, Z.; Banford, A.W.; Hanson, B.C.; Scully, P.J.

    2007-07-01

    BNFL has extensive experience of nuclear processing plant from concept through to decommissioning, at all stages of the fuel cycle. Nexia Solutions (formerly BNFL's R and D Division) has always supported BNFL in development of concept plant, including the development of costed plant designs for the purpose of economic evaluation and technology selection. Having undertaken such studies over a number of years, this has enabled Nexia Solutions to develop a portfolio of costed plant designs for a broad range of nuclear processes, throughputs and technologies. This work has led to an extensive understanding of the relationship of the cost of nuclear processing plant, and how this can be impacted by scale of process, and the selection of design philosophy. The relationship has been seen to be non linear and so simplistic equations do not apply, the relationship is complex due to the variety of contributory factors. This is particularly evident when considering the scale of a process, for example how step changes in design occurs with increasing scale, how the applicability of technology options can vary with scale etc... This paper will explore the contributory factor of scale to nuclear processing plant costs. (authors)

  6. Occipital alpha activity during stimulus processing gates the information flow to object-selective cortex.

    PubMed

    Zumer, Johanna M; Scheeringa, René; Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs; Norris, David G; Jensen, Ole

    2014-10-01

    Given the limited processing capabilities of the sensory system, it is essential that attended information is gated to downstream areas, whereas unattended information is blocked. While it has been proposed that alpha band (8-13 Hz) activity serves to route information to downstream regions by inhibiting neuronal processing in task-irrelevant regions, this hypothesis remains untested. Here we investigate how neuronal oscillations detected by electroencephalography in visual areas during working memory encoding serve to gate information reflected in the simultaneously recorded blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signals recorded by functional magnetic resonance imaging in downstream ventral regions. We used a paradigm in which 16 participants were presented with faces and landscapes in the right and left hemifields; one hemifield was attended and the other unattended. We observed that decreased alpha power contralateral to the attended object predicted the BOLD signal representing the attended object in ventral object-selective regions. Furthermore, increased alpha power ipsilateral to the attended object predicted a decrease in the BOLD signal representing the unattended object. We also found that the BOLD signal in the dorsal attention network inversely correlated with visual alpha power. This is the first demonstration, to our knowledge, that oscillations in the alpha band are implicated in the gating of information from the visual cortex to the ventral stream, as reflected in the representationally specific BOLD signal. This link of sensory alpha to downstream activity provides a neurophysiological substrate for the mechanism of selective attention during stimulus processing, which not only boosts the attended information but also suppresses distraction. Although previous studies have shown a relation between the BOLD signal from the dorsal attention network and the alpha band at rest, we demonstrate such a relation during a visuospatial task, indicating

  7. Bi-Objective Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling Problem Considering Energy Consumption under Stochastic Processing Times.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Zeng, Zhenxiang; Wang, Ruidong; Sun, Xueshan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method on the optimization of bi-objective Flexible Job-shop Scheduling Problem (FJSP) under stochastic processing times. The robust counterpart model and the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II) are used to solve the bi-objective FJSP with consideration of the completion time and the total energy consumption under stochastic processing times. The case study on GM Corporation verifies that the NSGA-II used in this paper is effective and has advantages to solve the proposed model comparing with HPSO and PSO+SA. The idea and method of the paper can be generalized widely in the manufacturing industry, because it can reduce the energy consumption of the energy-intensive manufacturing enterprise with less investment when the new approach is applied in existing systems.

  8. Bi-Objective Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling Problem Considering Energy Consumption under Stochastic Processing Times

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Zhenxiang; Wang, Ruidong; Sun, Xueshan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method on the optimization of bi-objective Flexible Job-shop Scheduling Problem (FJSP) under stochastic processing times. The robust counterpart model and the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II) are used to solve the bi-objective FJSP with consideration of the completion time and the total energy consumption under stochastic processing times. The case study on GM Corporation verifies that the NSGA-II used in this paper is effective and has advantages to solve the proposed model comparing with HPSO and PSO+SA. The idea and method of the paper can be generalized widely in the manufacturing industry, because it can reduce the energy consumption of the energy-intensive manufacturing enterprise with less investment when the new approach is applied in existing systems. PMID:27907163

  9. Using object-based analysis to derive surface complexity information for improved filtering of airborne laser scanning data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Menglong; Blaschke, Thomas; Tang, Hongzhao; Xiao, Chenchao; Sun, Xian; Zhang, Daobing; Fu, Kun

    2017-03-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is a technique used to obtain Digital Surface Models (DSM) and Digital Terrain Models (DTM) efficiently, and filtering is the key procedure used to derive DTM from point clouds. Generating seed points is an initial step for most filtering algorithms, whereas existing algorithms usually define a regular window size to generate seed points. This may lead to an inadequate density of seed points, and further introduce error type I, especially in steep terrain and forested areas. In this study, we propose the use of objectbased analysis to derive surface complexity information from ALS datasets, which can then be used to improve seed point generation.We assume that an area is complex if it is composed of many small objects, with no buildings within the area. Using these assumptions, we propose and implement a new segmentation algorithm based on a grid index, which we call the Edge and Slope Restricted Region Growing (ESRGG) algorithm. Surface complexity information is obtained by statistical analysis of the number of objects derived by segmentation in each area. Then, for complex areas, a smaller window size is defined to generate seed points. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm could greatly improve the filtering results in complex areas, especially in steep terrain and forested areas.

  10. On having complex representations of things: preschoolers use multiple words for objects and people.

    PubMed

    Deák, G O; Maratsos, M

    1998-03-01

    Applying several names to an entity (polynomy) reflects the ability to categorize entities in different ways. Two experiments demonstrate preschoolers' abilities to apply multiple labels to representational objects and to people. In Experiment 1, 3- and 4-year-olds labeled representational objects and verified labels for story characters. In both tasks children reliably produced or accepted several words per entity and accepted a high percentage of both class-inclusive and overlapping word pairs. These results were replicated in Experiment 2; 3- to 5-year-olds also completed appearance-reality and receptive vocabulary tests. The mean number of words produced in the labeling task was significantly related to receptive vocabulary, but not to appearance-reality performance. The results indicate that preschoolers represent an entity as belonging to multiple categories (e.g., dinosaur and crayon). Implications for cognitive and language development, particularly the appearance-reality distinction and the mutual exclusivity bias, are discussed.

  11. Flying triangulation--an optical 3D sensor for the motion-robust acquisition of complex objects.

    PubMed

    Ettl, Svenja; Arold, Oliver; Yang, Zheng; Häusler, Gerd

    2012-01-10

    Three-dimensional (3D) shape acquisition is difficult if an all-around measurement of an object is desired or if a relative motion between object and sensor is unavoidable. An optical sensor principle is presented-we call it "flying triangulation"-that enables a motion-robust acquisition of 3D surface topography. It combines a simple handheld sensor with sophisticated registration algorithms. An easy acquisition of complex objects is possible-just by freely hand-guiding the sensor around the object. Real-time feedback of the sequential measurement results enables a comfortable handling for the user. No tracking is necessary. In contrast to most other eligible sensors, the presented sensor generates 3D data from each single camera image.

  12. Breastfeeding interventions in Kansas: a qualitative process evaluation of program goals and objectives.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Lisette T; Wetta, Ruth

    2014-10-01

    Across the state of Kansas, eighteen public health departments received funding through the 2011 Breastfeeding Grant Initiative to start a breastfeeding intervention. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the progress toward program goals and objectives. This study was a process evaluation. Qualitative data were collected from recipient health departments at two time-points during the program year. Structured, open-ended questions were asked through telephone interviews. This study examined: (1) progress toward program goals and objectives, (2) problems encountered during implementation, and (3) evaluation measures employed to assess program impact. All health departments reported making significant progress toward program goals and objectives and reported successful collaboration with other healthcare providers. The use of breast pumps, educational classes, and professional training of staff were reported as providing the best outcome in the promotion of breastfeeding. The majority of respondents did not measure program impact. From a public health perspective, it is important that infants receive breast milk for the first six months of life. It appears that goals and objectives set a priori guided health departments with the administration of their breastfeeding program. Results may be used to enhance and sustain delivery of breastfeeding support programs in Kansas communities.

  13. A Representational Similarity Analysis of the Dynamics of Object Processing Using Single-Trial EEG Classification

    PubMed Central

    Kaneshiro, Blair; Perreau Guimaraes, Marcos; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Norcia, Anthony M.

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of object categories is effortlessly accomplished in everyday life, yet its neural underpinnings remain not fully understood. In this electroencephalography (EEG) study, we used single-trial classification to perform a Representational Similarity Analysis (RSA) of categorical representation of objects in human visual cortex. Brain responses were recorded while participants viewed a set of 72 photographs of objects with a planned category structure. The Representational Dissimilarity Matrix (RDM) used for RSA was derived from confusions of a linear classifier operating on single EEG trials. In contrast to past studies, which used pairwise correlation or classification to derive the RDM, we used confusion matrices from multi-class classifications, which provided novel self-similarity measures that were used to derive the overall size of the representational space. We additionally performed classifications on subsets of the brain response in order to identify spatial and temporal EEG components that best discriminated object categories and exemplars. Results from category-level classifications revealed that brain responses to images of human faces formed the most distinct category, while responses to images from the two inanimate categories formed a single category cluster. Exemplar-level classifications produced a broadly similar category structure, as well as sub-clusters corresponding to natural language categories. Spatiotemporal components of the brain response that differentiated exemplars within a category were found to differ from those implicated in differentiating between categories. Our results show that a classification approach can be successfully applied to single-trial scalp-recorded EEG to recover fine-grained object category structure, as well as to identify interpretable spatiotemporal components underlying object processing. Finally, object category can be decoded from purely temporal information recorded at single electrodes. PMID

  14. Simulation and Processing Seismic Data in Complex Geological Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forestieri da Gama Rodrigues, S.; Moreira Lupinacci, W.; Martins de Assis, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic simulations in complex geological models are interesting to verify some limitations of seismic data. In this project, different geological models were designed to analyze some difficulties encountered in the interpretation of seismic data. Another idea is these data become available for LENEP/UENF students to test new tools to assist in seismic data processing. The geological models were created considering some characteristics found in oil exploration. We simulated geological medium with volcanic intrusions, salt domes, fault, pinch out and layers more distante from surface (Kanao, 2012). We used the software Tesseral Pro to simulate the seismic acquisitions. The acquisition geometries simulated were of the type common offset, end-on and split-spread. (Figure 1) Data acquired with constant offset require less processing routines. The processing flow used with tools available in Seismic Unix package (for more details, see Pennington et al., 2005) was geometric spreading correction, deconvolution, attenuation correction and post-stack depth migration. In processing of the data acquired with end-on and split-spread geometries, we included velocity analysis and NMO correction routines. Although we analyze synthetic data and carefully applied each processing routine, we can observe some limitations of the seismic reflection in imaging thin layers, great surface depth layers, layers with low impedance contrast and faults.

  15. Ruby-Helix: an implementation of helical image processing based on object-oriented scripting language.

    PubMed

    Metlagel, Zoltan; Kikkawa, Yayoi S; Kikkawa, Masahide

    2007-01-01

    Helical image analysis in combination with electron microscopy has been used to study three-dimensional structures of various biological filaments or tubes, such as microtubules, actin filaments, and bacterial flagella. A number of packages have been developed to carry out helical image analysis. Some biological specimens, however, have a symmetry break (seam) in their three-dimensional structure, even though their subunits are mostly arranged in a helical manner. We refer to these objects as "asymmetric helices". All the existing packages are designed for helically symmetric specimens, and do not allow analysis of asymmetric helical objects, such as microtubules with seams. Here, we describe Ruby-Helix, a new set of programs for the analysis of "helical" objects with or without a seam. Ruby-Helix is built on top of the Ruby programming language and is the first implementation of asymmetric helical reconstruction for practical image analysis. It also allows easier and semi-automated analysis, performing iterative unbending and accurate determination of the repeat length. As a result, Ruby-Helix enables us to analyze motor-microtubule complexes with higher throughput to higher resolution.

  16. The structure and proteolytic processing of Cbln1 complexes.

    PubMed

    Bao, Dashi; Pang, Zhen; Morgan, James I

    2005-11-01

    The hexadecapeptide cerebellin is present in the brains of many vertebrate species and is derived from a larger protein, Cbln1 (cerebellin 1 precursor protein). Although cerebellin has features of a neuropeptide, Cbln1 belongs to the C1q/tumor necrosis factor superfamily of secreted proteins, suggesting that it is the biologically active molecule and the proteolytic events that generate cerebellin serve another function. Therefore, we assessed whether Cbln1 undergoes proteolytic processing and determined what consequences the cleavage events necessary to produce cerebellin have on the structure of Cbln1. Substantial degradation of Cbln1 was evident in the synaptic compartment of cerebellum and lysates of cultured cerebellar neurons and cells transfected with Cbln1 expression vectors. However, only uncleaved Cbln1 containing the cerebellin motif was released and assembled into hexameric complexes. Using yeast two hybrid and mammalian expression systems we show that the cleavages required to produce cerebellin influence the subunit stoichiometry of Cbln1 complexes. Cleavage at the N-terminus of the cerebellin sequence in Cbln1 yields trimeric complexes by separating the trimer-mediating C-terminal C1q domain from conserved N-terminal cysteine residues that mediate higher order oligomerization. Cleavage at the C-terminus of the cerebellin motif disrupts the C1q domain and abolishes subunit interactions. Functional implications of these data are discussed.

  17. Possible overlapping time frames of acquisition and consolidation phases in object memory processes: a pharmacological approach

    PubMed Central

    Akkerman, Sven; Blokland, Arjan

    2016-01-01

    In previous studies, we have shown that acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE-Is) are able to improve object memory by enhancing acquisition processes. On the other hand, only PDE-Is improve consolidation processes. Here we show that the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil also improves memory performance when administered within 2 min after the acquisition trial. Likewise, both PDE5-I and PDE4-I reversed the scopolamine deficit model when administered within 2 min after the learning trial. PDE5-I was effective up to 45 min after the acquisition trial and PDE4-I was effective when administered between 3 and 5.5 h after the acquisition trial. Taken together, our study suggests that acetylcholine, cGMP, and cAMP are all involved in acquisition processes and that cGMP and cAMP are also involved in early and late consolidation processes, respectively. Most important, these pharmacological studies suggest that acquisition processes continue for some time after the learning trial where they share a short common time frame with early consolidation processes. Additional brain concentration measurements of the drugs suggest that these acquisition processes can continue up to 4–6 min after learning. PMID:26670184

  18. Multiple-predators-based capture process on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramiz Sharafat, Rajput; Pu, Cunlai; Li, Jie; Chen, Rongbin; Xu, Zhongqi

    2017-03-01

    The predator/prey (capture) problem is a prototype of many network-related applications. We study the capture process on complex networks by considering multiple predators from multiple sources. In our model, some lions start from multiple sources simultaneously to capture the lamb by biased random walks, which are controlled with a free parameter $\\alpha$. We derive the distribution of the lamb's lifetime and the expected lifetime $\\left\\langle T\\right\\rangle $. Through simulation, we find that the expected lifetime drops substantially with the increasing number of lions. We also study how the underlying topological structure affects the capture process, and obtain that locating on small-degree nodes is better than large-degree nodes to prolong the lifetime of the lamb. Moreover, dense or homogeneous network structures are against the survival of the lamb.

  19. Industrial processing of complex fluids: Formulation and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Scovel, J.C.; Bleasdale, S.; Forest, G.M.; Bechtel, S.

    1997-08-01

    The production of many important commercial materials involves the evolution of a complex fluid through a cooling phase into a hardened product. Textile fibers, high-strength fibers(KEVLAR, VECTRAN), plastics, chopped-fiber compounds, and fiber optical cable are such materials. Industry desires to replace experiments with on-line, real time models of these processes. Solutions to the problems are not just a matter of technology transfer, but require a fundamental description and simulation of the processes. Goals of the project are to develop models that can be used to optimize macroscopic properties of the solid product, to identify sources of undesirable defects, and to seek boundary-temperature and flow-and-material controls to optimize desired properties.

  20. Approximate Methods for Obtaining the Complex Natural Electromagnetic Oscillations of an Object.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    studying Prony’s method r for other scatterers and looking also for solutions to the problems inherent in the Prony process . E.M. Kennaugh suggested the...The search procedure is time consuming in machine computing. ILE 3. The search procedure cannot be used to process measured scattering data. 0. POLES...of the extracted poles as P. E. of real part = IReal part (Poleext.Poletrue)l , (3-11) SIPol I-oL etrue P. E. of imaginary part = IImag . part(Poleext

  1. On the design and implementation of a parallel, object-oriented, image processing toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, C; Baldwin, C; Fodor, I; Tang, N A

    2000-06-22

    Advanced in technology have enabled us to collect data from observations, experiments, and simulations at an ever increasing pace. As these data sets approach the terabyte and petabyte range, scientists are increasingly using semi-automated techniques from data mining and pattern recognition to find useful information in the data. In order for data mining to be successful, the raw data must first be processed into a form suitable for the detection of patterns. When the data is in the form of images, this can involve a substantial amount of processing on very large data sets. To help make this task more efficient, they are designing and implementing an object-oriented image processing toolkit that specifically targets massively-parallel, distributed-memory architectures. They first show that it is possible to use object-oriented technology to effectively address the diverse needs of image applications. Next, they describe how we abstract out the similarities in image processing algorithms to enable re-use in the software. They will also discuss the difficulties encountered in parallelizing image algorithms on massively parallel machines as well as the bottlenecks to high performance. They will demonstrate the work using images from an astronomical data set, and illustrate how techniques such as filters and denoising through the thresholding of wavelet coefficients can be applied when a large image is distributed across several processors.

  2. An exploration of student midwives' experiences of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination assessment process.

    PubMed

    Barry, Maebh; Noonan, Maria; Bradshaw, Carmel; Murphy-Tighe, Sylvia

    2012-08-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative descriptive study that explored student midwives' experiences of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination assessment process for obstetric emergencies within a university setting. The development of fundamental clinical skills is an important component in preparing students to meet the responsibilities of a midwife. There is an international concern that the transfer of midwifery education into universities may impact on the development of midwifery clinical skills. Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) have the potential to promote integration and consolidation of skills prior to clinical placement. Twenty six students (n=36) from two midwifery programmes (BSc and Higher Diploma) participated in four focus groups and Burnard's (2006) framework was used for data analysis. Three main themes emerged following analysis: preparation for the OSCE assessment, the OSCE process and learning through simulating practice. Preparation for the OSCE's which included lectures, demonstrations, and practice of OSCE's facilitated by lecturers and by the students themselves, was considered central to the process. Learning via OSCEs was perceived to be more effective in comparison to other forms of assessment and prepared students for clinical practice. Positive aspects of the process and areas for improvement were identified. Using OSCE's increased the depth of learning for the students with the steps taken in preparation for the OSCE's proving to be a valuable learning tool. This study adds to the evidence on the use of OSCE's in midwifery education.

  3. Different Gestalt processing for different actions? Comparing object-directed reaching and looking time measures.

    PubMed

    Vishton, Peter M; Ware, Elizabeth A; Badger, Amy N

    2005-02-01

    Six experiments compared the Gestalt processing that mediates infant reaching and looking behaviors. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the positioning and timing of 8- and 9-month-olds' reaching was influenced by remembered relative motion. Experiment 2 suggested that a visible gap, without this relative motion, was not sufficient to produce these effects. Experiment 3 found that 6- and 7-month-olds required both remembered relative motion and a continuously visible gap to affect reaching; when two separate objects were placed adjacent to one another, they were treated as though they were connected. Experiments 4 and 5, using a looking time measure, identified a dissociation between looking and reaching performance. In Experiment 6, 6- and 7-month-olds' reaching was influenced when display parts differed in shape and color. In these experiments, Gestalt processing for looking was more influenced by remembered information than was Gestalt processing for reaching. For reaching, a low weighting of separation cues was also apparent.

  4. Multi-objective optimization of gear forging process based on adaptive surrogate meta-models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fanjuan; Labergere, Carl; Lafon, Pascal; Daniel, Laurent

    2013-05-01

    In forging industry, net shape or near net shape forging of gears has been the subject of considerable research effort in the last few decades. So in this paper, a multi-objective optimization methodology of net shape gear forging process design has been discussed. The study is mainly done in four parts: building parametric CAD geometry model, simulating the forging process, fitting surrogate meta-models and optimizing the process by using an advanced algorithm. In order to maximally appropriate meta-models of the real response, an adaptive meta-model based design strategy has been applied. This is a continuous process: first, bui Id a preliminary version of the meta-models after the initial simulated calculations; second, improve the accuracy and update the meta-models by adding some new representative samplings. By using this iterative strategy, the number of the initial sample points for real numerical simulations is greatly decreased and the time for the forged gear design is significantly shortened. Finally, an optimal design for an industrial application of a 27-teeth gear forging process was introduced, which includes three optimization variables and two objective functions. A 3D FE nu merical simulation model is used to realize the process and an advanced thermo-elasto-visco-plastic constitutive equation is considered to represent the material behavior. The meta-model applied for this example is kriging and the optimization algorithm is NSGA-II. At last, a relatively better Pareto optimal front (POF) is gotten with gradually improving the obtained surrogate meta-models.

  5. Indicator system for a process plant control complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  6. Multi-Objective Markov Decision Processes for Data-Driven Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Lizotte, Daniel J.; Laber, Eric B.

    2016-01-01

    We present new methodology based on Multi-Objective Markov Decision Processes for developing sequential decision support systems from data. Our approach uses sequential decision-making data to provide support that is useful to many different decision-makers, each with different, potentially time-varying preference. To accomplish this, we develop an extension of fitted-Q iteration for multiple objectives that computes policies for all scalarization functions, i.e. preference functions, simultaneously from continuous-state, finite-horizon data. We identify and address several conceptual and computational challenges along the way, and we introduce a new solution concept that is appropriate when different actions have similar expected outcomes. Finally, we demonstrate an application of our method using data from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness and show that our approach offers decision-makers increased choice by a larger class of optimal policies. PMID:28018133

  7. Using neural modeling and functional neuroimaging to study the neural basis of auditory object processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwitz, Barry; Husain, Fatima T.

    2003-04-01

    The neural basis of auditory object processing in the human cerebral cortex was investigated by combining neural modeling and functional neuroimaging. We developed a large-scale, neurobiologically realistic network model of auditory pattern recognition that relates neuronal dynamics of cortical auditory processing of frequency-modulated (FM) sweeps to functional neuroimaging data obtained using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). FM sweeps are ubiquitous in animal communication. Areas included in the model extend from primary auditory to prefrontal cortex. The electrical activities of the model neuronal units were constrained to agree with data from the neurophysiological literature regarding FM sweep perception. A fMRI experiment using stimuli and tasks similar to those used in our simulations was performed. The regional integrated synaptic activities of the model were used to determine simulated regional fMRI activities, and generally agreed with the experimentally observed fMRI data. Our results demonstrate that the model is capable of exhibiting the salient features of both electrophysiological neuronal activities and fMRI values that are in agreement with empirically observed data. These findings provide support for our hypotheses concerning how auditory objects are processed by primate neocortex. This type of approach offers the potential for understanding the neural basis of human speech perception.

  8. Imaging-based optical caliper for objects in hot manufacturing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Howard

    2013-04-03

    OG Technologies, Inc. (OGT), in conjunction with its industrial and academic partners, proposes to develop an Imaging-Based Optical Caliper (hereafter referred to as OC) for Objects in Hot Manufacturing Processes. The goal is to develop and demonstrate the OC with the synergy of OGT's current technological pool and other innovations to provide a light weight, robust, safe and accurate portable dimensional measurement device for hot objects with integrated wireless communication capacity to enable real time process control. The technical areas of interest in this project are the combination of advanced imaging, Sensor Fusion, and process control. OGT believes that the synergistic interactions between its current set of technologies and other innovations could deliver products that are viable and have high impact in the hot manufacture processes, such as steel making, steel rolling, open die forging, and glass industries, resulting in a new energy efficient control paradigm in the operations through improved yield, prolonged tool life and improved quality. In-line dimension measurement and control is of interest to the steel makers, yet current industry focus is on the final product dimension only instead of whole process due to the limit of man power, system cost and operator safety concerns. As sensor technologies advances, the industry started to see the need to enforce better dimensional control throughout the process, but lack the proper tools to do so. OGT along with its industrial partners represent the indigenous effort of technological development to serve the US steel industry. The immediate market that can use and get benefited from the proposed OC is the Steel Industry. The deployment of the OC has the potential to provide benefits in reduction of energy waste, CO2 emission, waste water amount, toxic waste, and so forth. The potential market after further expended function includes Hot Forging and Freight Industries. The OC prototypes were fabricated, and

  9. Temperature and heat flux datasets of a complex object in a fire plume for the validation of fire and thermal response codes.

    SciTech Connect

    Jernigan, Dann A.; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2010-09-01

    It is necessary to improve understanding and develop temporally- and spatially-resolved integral scale validation data of the heat flux incident to a complex object in addition to measuring the thermal response of said object located within the fire plume for the validation of the SIERRA/FUEGO/SYRINX fire and SIERRA/CALORE codes. To meet this objective, a complex calorimeter with sufficient instrumentation to allow validation of the coupling between FUEGO/SYRINX/CALORE has been designed, fabricated, and tested in the Fire Laboratory for Accreditation of Models and Experiments (FLAME) facility. Validation experiments are specifically designed for direct comparison with the computational predictions. Making meaningful comparison between the computational and experimental results requires careful characterization and control of the experimental features or parameters used as inputs into the computational model. Validation experiments must be designed to capture the essential physical phenomena, including all relevant initial and boundary conditions. This report presents the data validation steps and processes, the results of the penlight radiant heat experiments (for the purpose of validating the CALORE heat transfer modeling of the complex calorimeter), and the results of the fire tests in FLAME.

  10. Complexity of line-seru conversion for different scheduling rules and two improved exact algorithms for the multi-objective optimization.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Wang, Sihan; Tang, Jiafu; Kaku, Ikou; Sun, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Productivity can be greatly improved by converting the traditional assembly line to a seru system, especially in the business environment with short product life cycles, uncertain product types and fluctuating production volumes. Line-seru conversion includes two decision processes, i.e., seru formation and seru load. For simplicity, however, previous studies focus on the seru formation with a given scheduling rule in seru load. We select ten scheduling rules usually used in seru load to investigate the influence of different scheduling rules on the performance of line-seru conversion. Moreover, we clarify the complexities of line-seru conversion for ten different scheduling rules from the theoretical perspective. In addition, multi-objective decisions are often used in line-seru conversion. To obtain Pareto-optimal solutions of multi-objective line-seru conversion, we develop two improved exact algorithms based on reducing time complexity and space complexity respectively. Compared with the enumeration based on non-dominated sorting to solve multi-objective problem, the two improved exact algorithms saves computation time greatly. Several numerical simulation experiments are performed to show the performance improvement brought by the two proposed exact algorithms.

  11. Polarization processes in rocks: 2. Complex Dielectric Permittivity method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitskaya, Tsylya M.; Sternberg, Ben K.

    1996-07-01

    This is the second part of a review of research performed in the former USSR. Experimental data were used from several regions of the USSR, including Russia, Ukraine, and Georgia. Many of the publications are available in U.S. libraries. Some of them are translated into English. This part considers results of studying rocks with the Complex Electrical Resistivity method, primarily in the frequency range from 0.01 Hz to 50 MHz. Results of studying polarization processes in sedimentary rocks of different lithology and porosity with different types of saturation (salt solutions of various salinity and hydrocarbons) are described. Laboratory studies of ore-mineral containing rocks are also considered. Describing the measurement methods, we have placed primary emphasis on means for avoiding or reducing the electrode polarization effects. It is shown that wet rocks may have two polarization processes: one at low frequencies, below 1 Hz, and one at high frequencies, above 10 kHz. The mechanisms of these processes are discussed based on experimental results.

  12. Complex Leaching Process of Scheelite in Hydrochloric and Phosphoric Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liang; Xue, Jilai; Liu, Kang; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Zengjie

    2016-09-01

    The complex leaching process of synthetic scheelite and scheelite concentrate in hydrochloric and phosphoric solutions has been investigated for improving process efficiency. A higher leaching rate, compared with the classic acid leaching process, can be obtained through the synergy of HCl and H3PO4 with appropriate W/P mole ratio, temperature, and acid concentration. For synthetic scheelite, the optimum leaching conditions were W/P mole ratio 7:1, temperature 50°C, HCl 0.72 mol/L, and stirring speed 600 rpm; for scheelite concentrate, W/P mole ratio 7:1, temperature 80°C, HCl 2.16 mol/L, and stirring speed 1000 rpm. The leaching rates under the optimized conditions can reach up to 98% or even higher. FTIR spectra analysis confirmed that the leachate composition remained as H3[PW12O40] in the range of varying W/P mole ratios, so the PO4 3- in acidic solution and phosphorus content in the leaching product could be better controlled. The function 1 - (1 - X)1/3 against leaching time was applied to fit the experimental data, and the apparent activation energy, E a, was calculated as 60.65 kJ/mol. The results would be valuable for effectively using scheelite as a raw material resource for sustainable tungsten production.

  13. Methods for simulating the dynamics of complex biological processes.

    PubMed

    Schilstra, Maria J; Martin, Stephen R; Keating, Sarah M

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, we provide the basic information required to understand the central concepts in the modeling and simulation of complex biochemical processes. We underline the fact that most biochemical processes involve sequences of interactions between distinct entities (molecules, molecular assemblies), and also stress that models must adhere to the laws of thermodynamics. Therefore, we discuss the principles of mass-action reaction kinetics, the dynamics of equilibrium and steady state, and enzyme kinetics, and explain how to assess transition probabilities and reactant lifetime distributions for first-order reactions. Stochastic simulation of reaction systems in well-stirred containers is introduced using a relatively simple, phenomenological model of microtubule dynamic instability in vitro. We demonstrate that deterministic simulation [by numerical integration of coupled ordinary differential equations (ODE)] produces trajectories that would be observed if the results of many rounds of stochastic simulation of the same system were averaged. In Section V, we highlight several practical issues with regard to the assessment of parameter values. We draw some attention to the development of a standard format for model storage and exchange, and provide a list of selected software tools that may facilitate the model building process, and can be used to simulate the modeled systems.

  14. WONKA: objective novel complex analysis for ensembles of protein-ligand structures.

    PubMed

    Bradley, A R; Wall, I D; von Delft, F; Green, D V S; Deane, C M; Marsden, B D

    2015-10-01

    WONKA is a tool for the systematic analysis of an ensemble of protein-ligand structures. It makes the identification of conserved and unusual features within such an ensemble straightforward. WONKA uses an intuitive workflow to process structural co-ordinates. Ligand and protein features are summarised and then presented within an interactive web application. WONKA's power in consolidating and summarising large amounts of data is described through the analysis of three bromodomain datasets. Furthermore, and in contrast to many current methods, WONKA relates analysis to individual ligands, from which we find unusual and erroneous binding modes. Finally the use of WONKA as an annotation tool to share observations about structures is demonstrated. WONKA is freely available to download and install locally or can be used online at http://wonka.sgc.ox.ac.uk.

  15. WONKA: objective novel complex analysis for ensembles of protein-ligand structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, A. R.; Wall, I. D.; von Delft, F.; Green, D. V. S.; Deane, C. M.; Marsden, B. D.

    2015-10-01

    WONKA is a tool for the systematic analysis of an ensemble of protein-ligand structures. It makes the identification of conserved and unusual features within such an ensemble straightforward. WONKA uses an intuitive workflow to process structural co-ordinates. Ligand and protein features are summarised and then presented within an interactive web application. WONKA's power in consolidating and summarising large amounts of data is described through the analysis of three bromodomain datasets. Furthermore, and in contrast to many current methods, WONKA relates analysis to individual ligands, from which we find unusual and erroneous binding modes. Finally the use of WONKA as an annotation tool to share observations about structures is demonstrated. WONKA is freely available to download and install locally or can be used online at http://wonka.sgc.ox.ac.uk.

  16. Microfluidic-SANS: flow processing of complex fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Carlos G.; Watanabe, Takaichi; Martel, Anne; Porcar, Lionel; Cabral, João T.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and engineering the flow-response of complex and non-Newtonian fluids at a molecular level is a key challenge for their practical utilisation. Here we demonstrate the coupling of microfluidics with small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Microdevices with high neutron transmission (up to 98%), low scattering background (), broad solvent compatibility and high pressure tolerance (~3-15 bar) are rapidly prototyped via frontal photo polymerisation. Scattering from single microchannels of widths down to 60 μm, with beam footprint of 500 μm diameter, was successfully obtained in the scattering vector range 0.01-0.3 Å-1, corresponding to real space dimensions of . We demonstrate our approach by investigating the molecular re-orientation and alignment underpinning the flow response of two model complex fluids, namely cetyl trimethylammonium chloride/pentanol/D2O and sodium lauryl sulfate/octanol/brine lamellar systems. Finally, we assess the applicability and outlook of microfluidic-SANS for high-throughput and flow processing studies, with emphasis of soft matter.

  17. Microfluidic-SANS: flow processing of complex fluids

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Carlos G.; Watanabe, Takaichi; Martel, Anne; Porcar, Lionel; Cabral, João T.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and engineering the flow-response of complex and non-Newtonian fluids at a molecular level is a key challenge for their practical utilisation. Here we demonstrate the coupling of microfluidics with small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Microdevices with high neutron transmission (up to 98%), low scattering background (), broad solvent compatibility and high pressure tolerance (≈3–15 bar) are rapidly prototyped via frontal photo polymerisation. Scattering from single microchannels of widths down to 60 μm, with beam footprint of 500 μm diameter, was successfully obtained in the scattering vector range 0.01–0.3 Å−1, corresponding to real space dimensions of . We demonstrate our approach by investigating the molecular re-orientation and alignment underpinning the flow response of two model complex fluids, namely cetyl trimethylammonium chloride/pentanol/D2O and sodium lauryl sulfate/octanol/brine lamellar systems. Finally, we assess the applicability and outlook of microfluidic-SANS for high-throughput and flow processing studies, with emphasis of soft matter. PMID:25578326

  18. Polarization processes in rocks: 1. Complex Dielectric Permittivity method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitskaya, Tsylya M.; Sternberg, Ben K.

    1996-07-01

    This is the first part of a review of research performed in the former USSR. Experimental data were used from several regions of the USSR, including Russia, Ukraine, and Georgia. Many of the publications are available in U.S. libraries. Some of them are translated into English. This part contains results from applying the Complex Dielectric Permittivity method (Dielectric Spectroscopy) for studying the electrical response of rocks in alternating fields with frequencies from 100 Hz to 100 MHz. Data on dielectric properties of sedimentary rocks of different lithology and with various porosities, salinities of saturating solution, and hydrocarbon content are reviewed here. Measurement methods, including means for avoiding or reducing the electrode polarization, are also considered. It is shown that wet rocks exhibit a Maxwell-Wagner polarization process at frequencies 105-107 Hz, caused by charge accumulation on the pore boundaries.

  19. Detecting link failures in complex network processes using remote monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhal, R.; Abad Torres, J.; Roy, S.

    2015-11-01

    We study whether local structural changes in a complex network can be distinguished from passive remote time-course measurements of the network's dynamics. Specifically the detection of link failures in a network synchronization process from noisy measurements at a single network component is considered. By phrasing the detection task as a Maximum A Posteriori Probability hypothesis testing problem, we are able to obtain conditions under which the detection is (1) improved over the a priori and (2) asymptotically perfect, in terms of the network spectrum and graph. We find that, in the case where the detector has knowledge of the network's state, perfect detection is possible under general connectivity conditions regardless of the measurement location. When the detector does not have state knowledge, a remote signature permits improved but not perfect detection, under the same connectivity conditions. At its essence, detectability is achieved because of the close connection between a network's topology, its eigenvalues and local response characteristics.

  20. Rapid Pattern Recognition of Three Dimensional Objects Using Parallel Processing Within a Hierarchy of Hexagonal Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Haojun

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes using parallel processing within a hierarchy of hexagonal grids to achieve rapid recognition of patterns. A seven-pixel basic hexagonal neighborhood, a sixty-one-pixel superneighborhood and pyramids of a 2-to-4 area ratio are employed. The hexagonal network achieves improved accuracy over the square network for object boundaries. The hexagonal grid with less directional sensitivity is a better approximation of the human vision grid, is more suited to natural scenes than the square grid and avoids the 4-neighbor/8-neighbor problem. Parallel processing in image analysis saves considerable time versus the traditional line-by-line method. Hexagonal parallel processing combines the optimum hexagonal geometry with the parallel structure. Our work has surveyed behavior and internal properties to construct the image on the different level of hexagonal pixel grids in a parallel computation scheme. A computer code has been developed to detect edges of digital images of real objects taken with a CCD camera within a hexagonal grid at any level. The algorithm uses the differences of the local gray level and those of its six neighbors, and is able to determine the boundary of a digital image in parallel. Also a series of algorithms and techniques have been built up to manage edge linking, feature extraction, etc. The digital images obtained from the improved CRS digital image processing system are a good approximation to the images which would be obtained with a real physical hexagonal grid. We envision that our work done within this little-known area will have some important applications in real-time machine vision. A parallel two-layer hexagonal-array retina has been designed to do pattern recognition using simple operations such as differencing, rationing, thresholding, etc. which may occur in the human retina and other biological vision systems.

  1. Objective detection of the central auditory processing disorder: a new machine learning approach.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Daniel J; Delb, Wolfgang; Plinkert, Peter K

    2004-07-01

    The objective detection of binaural interaction is of diagnostic interest for the evaluation of the central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). The beta-wave of the binaural interaction component in auditory brainstem responses has been suggested as an objective measure of binaural interaction and has been shown to be of diagnostic value in the CAPD diagnosis. However, a reliable and automated detection of the beta-wave capable of clinical use still remains a challenge. We propose a new machine learning approach to the detection of the CAPD that is based on adapted tight frame decompositions which are tailored for support vector machines with radial kernels. Using shift-invariant scale and morphological features of the binaurally evoked brainstem potentials, our approach provides at least comparable results to the beta-wave detection in view of the discrimination of subjects being at risk for CAPD and subjects being not at risk for CAPD. Furthermore, as no information from the monaurally evoked potentials is necessary, the measurement cost is reduced by two-thirds compared to the computation of the binaural interaction component. We conclude that a machine learning approach in the form of a hybrid tight frame-support vector classification is effective in the objective detection of the CAPD.

  2. Road-safety education: spatial decentering and subjective or objective picture processing.

    PubMed

    Guercin, F

    2007-10-01

    The current study examined children's ability to analyse pictures of a risky situation, both in relation to the characteristics of the pictures and in relation to the centering/decentering process of cognitive development. Sixty children aged 6, 9 or 11 years were given an objective or subjective version of a story about a risky situation involving road crossing and were asked to reconstruct it by putting six pictures in chronological order. The type of picture series, objective or subjective, had a different effect on the children's understanding and performance, according to the age. The older children were better at ordering the pictures, but on the subjective version only. The picture-version effect on planning time decreased with age; only the younger children took more time to start touching the pictures. On one hand, it is concluded that for the youngest children, objective representations are essential to analysing pictures showing a risk, whereas the oldest children will profit more from a subjective view. On the other hand, subjective representations, which give a more realistic view, provide an excellent tool for testing children's abilities. Subjective representations can be used to detect potentially risky behaviour in virtual situations (static pictures, or multimedia tools), since it permits one to predict at-risk behaviour in the street and to assess the effectiveness of remedial measures.

  3. Complexity and Dynamic Heterogeneity of the Process of Cancer Metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Ann

    2010-03-01

    Cancer metastasis -- the spread of cancer from a primary tumor to distant parts of the body -- is responsible for most cancer deaths. If cancer is detected early, before it has spread, it can often be treated with local therapies like surgery and radiation. If cancer is detected after it has already spread, it is much harder to treat successfully. Cancer cells may be distributed to many organs, may be present as tiny micrometastases that are hard to detect, and cancer cells can be in a dormant state that may be resistant to treatment that is directed against actively dividing cells. A better understanding of the process of metastasis thus is needed in order to improve survival from cancer. Cancer is not a static disease, but one that can undergo stepwise evolution and progression from early, treatable cancer to aggressive cancer that is harder to treat. Furthermore, cancers are made up of many cells, and there is considerable heterogeneity among the cells in a tumor. Thus, cancer is ``plastic,'' with heterogeneity among cancer cells and changes over time. Understanding this ``dynamic heterogeneity'' has proven to be difficult. Input from physical sciences disciplines may help to shed light on this complex aspect of cancer biology. Here the process of cancer metastasis will be discussed, and experimental models for imaging the process described. The concept of ``dynamic heterogeneity'' of the metastatic process will be discussed, and some of the questions that need to be addressed for better understanding of metastasis will be outlined. An evolving dialogue between cancer biologists and physical scientists may lead to new ways of studying and understanding this lethal aspect of cancer.

  4. Full-matrix capture with phased shift migration for flaw detection in layered objects with complex geometry.

    PubMed

    Lukomski, Tomasz

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces a method for an ultrasonic imaging with a phased array based on a wave migration algorithm. The method allows for imaging layered objects with lateral velocity variations such as objects with a complex geometry or layers that are not perpendicular to the array's axis. The full-matrix capture ensures that there is enough information to reconstruct an image even when the wave indication angle is large. The method is implemented in a omega-k domain. The proposed algorithm is first tested in a single simulation of a concave object with side drilled holes under the concave surface. For evaluating the algorithm's performance three experiments are presented: one with a tilted object (surface not perpendicular with respect to the array axis) with side drilled holes and two experiments of an object with concave surface and two artificial defects under it. The results presented in the paper verify that the proposed method reconstructs images from the data gathered with the phased array.

  5. FACET: A simulation software framework for modeling complex societal processes and interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, J. H.

    2000-06-02

    FACET, the Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions, was developed at Argonne National Laboratory to address the need for a simulation software architecture in the style of an agent-based approach, but with sufficient robustness, expressiveness, and flexibility to be able to deal with the levels of complexity seen in real-world social situations. FACET is an object-oriented software framework for building models of complex, cooperative behaviors of agents. It can be used to implement simulation models of societal processes such as the complex interplay of participating individuals and organizations engaged in multiple concurrent transactions in pursuit of their various goals. These transactions can be patterned on, for example, clinical guidelines and procedures, business practices, government and corporate policies, etc. FACET can also address other complex behaviors such as biological life cycles or manufacturing processes. To date, for example, FACET has been applied to such areas as land management, health care delivery, avian social behavior, and interactions between natural and social processes in ancient Mesopotamia.

  6. Bio-objects and the media: the role of communication in bio-objectification processes

    PubMed Central

    Maeseele, Pieter; Allgaier, Joachim; Martinelli, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The representation of biological innovations in and through communication and media practices is vital for understanding the nature of “bio-objects” and the process we call “bio-objectification.” This paper discusses two ideal-typical analytical approaches based on different underlying communication models, ie, the traditional (science- and media-centered) and media sociological (a multi-layered process involving various social actors in defining the meanings of scientific and technological developments) approach. In this analysis, the latter is not only found to be the most promising approach for understanding the circulation, (re)production, and (re)configuration of meanings of bio-objects, but also to interpret the relationship between media and science. On the basis of a few selected examples, this paper highlights how media function as a primary arena for the (re)production and (re)configuration of scientific and biomedical information with regards to bio-objects in the public sphere in general, and toward decision-makers, interest groups, and the public in specific. PMID:23771763

  7. Switching industrial production processes from complex to defined media: method development and case study using the example of Penicillium chrysogenum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Filamentous fungi are versatile cell factories and widely used for the production of antibiotics, organic acids, enzymes and other industrially relevant compounds at large scale. As a fact, industrial production processes employing filamentous fungi are commonly based on complex raw materials. However, considerable lot-to-lot variability of complex media ingredients not only demands for exhaustive incoming components inspection and quality control, but unavoidably affects process stability and performance. Thus, switching bioprocesses from complex to defined media is highly desirable. Results This study presents a strategy for strain characterization of filamentous fungi on partly complex media using redundant mass balancing techniques. Applying the suggested method, interdependencies between specific biomass and side-product formation rates, production of fructooligosaccharides, specific complex media component uptake rates and fungal strains were revealed. A 2-fold increase of the overall penicillin space time yield and a 3-fold increase in the maximum specific penicillin formation rate were reached in defined media compared to complex media. Conclusions The newly developed methodology enabled fast characterization of two different industrial Penicillium chrysogenum candidate strains on complex media based on specific complex media component uptake kinetics and identification of the most promising strain for switching the process from complex to defined conditions. Characterization at different complex/defined media ratios using only a limited number of analytical methods allowed maximizing the overall industrial objectives of increasing both, method throughput and the generation of scientific process understanding. PMID:22727013

  8. The Aerosol Modeling Testbed: A community tool to objectively evaluate aerosol process modules

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, William I.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Easter, Richard C.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Grell, Georg; Barth, Mary

    2011-03-02

    This study describes a new modeling paradigm that significantly advances how the third activity is conducted while also fully exploiting data and findings from the first two activities. The Aerosol Modeling Testbed (AMT) is a computational framework for the atmospheric sciences community that streamlines the process of testing and evaluating aerosol process modules over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The AMT consists of a fully-coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model, and a suite of tools to evaluate the performance of aerosol process modules via comparison with a wide range of field measurements. The philosophy of the AMT is to systematically and objectively evaluate aerosol process modules over local to regional spatial scales that are compatible with most field campaigns measurement strategies. The performance of new treatments can then be quantified and compared to existing treatments before they are incorporated into regional and global climate models. Since the AMT is a community tool, it also provides a means of enhancing collaboration and coordination among aerosol modelers.

  9. The application of multi-objective optimization method for activated sludge process: a review.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hongliang; Chen, Wenliang; Lu, Xiwu

    2016-01-01

    The activated sludge process (ASP) is the most generally applied biological wastewater treatment approach. Depending on the design and specific application, activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) can achieve biological nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) removal, besides the removal of organic carbon substances. However, the effluent N and P limits are getting tighter because of increased emphasis on environmental protection, and the needs for energy conservation as well as the operational reliability. Therefore, the balance between treatment performance and cost becomes a critical issue for the operations of WWTPs, which necessitates a multi-objective optimization (MOO). Recent studies in this field have shown promise in utilizing MOO to address the multiple conflicting criteria (i.e. effluent quality, operation cost, operation stability), including studying the ASP models that are primarily responsible for the process, and developing the method of MOO in the wastewater treatment process, which facilitates better optimization of process performance. Based on a better understanding of the application of MOO for ASP, a comprehensive review is conducted to offer a clear vision of the advances, and potential areas for future research are also proposed in the field.

  10. Men and Women Exhibit a Differential Bias for Processing Movement versus Objects

    PubMed Central

    McGivern, Robert F.; Adams, Brian; Handa, Robert J.; Pineda, Jaime A.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in many spatial and verbal tasks appear to reflect an inherent low-level processing bias for movement in males and objects in females. We explored this potential movement/object bias in men and women using a computer task that measured targeting performance and/or color recognition. The targeting task showed a ball moving vertically towards a horizontal line. Before reaching the line, the ball disappeared behind a masking screen, requiring the participant to imagine the movement vector and identify the intersection point. For the color recognition task, the ball briefly changed color before disappearing beneath the mask and participants were required only to identify the color shade. Results showed that targeting accuracy for slow and fast moving balls was significantly better in males compared to females. No sex difference was observed for color shade recognition. We also studied a third, dual attention task comprised of the first two, where the moving ball briefly changed color randomly just before passing beneath the masking screen. When the ball changed color, participants were required only to identify the color shade. If the ball didn't change color, participants estimated the intersection point. Participants in this dual attention condition were first tested with the targeting and color tasks alone and showed results that were similar to the previous groups tested on a single task. However, under the dual attention condition, male accuracy in targeting, as well as color shade recognition, declined significantly compared to their performance when the tasks were tested alone. No significant changes were found in female performance. Finally, reaction times for targeting and color choices in both sexes correlated highly with ball speed, but not accuracy. Overall, these results provide evidence of a sex-related bias in processing objects versus movement, which may reflect sex differences in bottom up versus top-down analytical strategies. PMID

  11. Identification of physical properties for the retrieval data quality objective process

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, C.M.; Beckette, M.R.

    1995-06-01

    This activity supports the retrieval data quality objective (DQO) process by identifying the material properties that are important to the design, development, and operation of retrieval equipment; the activity also provides justification for characterizing those properties. These properties, which control tank waste behavior during retrieval operations, are also critical to the development of valid physical simulants for designing retrieval equipment. The waste is to be retrieved in a series of four steps. First, a selected retrieval technology breaks up or dislodges the waste into subsequently smaller pieces. Then, the dislodged waste is conveyed out of the tank through the conveyance line. Next, the waste flows into a separator unit that separates the gaseous phase from the liquid and solid phases. Finally, a unit may be present to condition the slurried waste before transporting it to the treatment facility. This document describes the characterization needs for the proposed processes to accomplish waste retrieval. Baseline mobilization technologies include mixer pump technology, sluicing, and high-pressure water-jet cutting. Other processes that are discussed in this document include slurry formation, pneumatic conveyance, and slurry transport. Section 2.0 gives a background of the DQO process and the different retrieval technologies. Section 3.0 provides the mechanistic descriptions and material properties critical to the different technologies and processes. Supplemental information on specific technologies and processes is provided in the appendices. Appendix A contains a preliminary sluicing model, and Appendices B and C cover pneumatic transport and slurry transport, respectively, as prepared for this document. Appendix D contains sample calculations for various equations.

  12. Extension of RCC Topological Relations for 3d Complex Objects Components Extracted from 3d LIDAR Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Xu-Feng; Abolfazl Mostafavia, Mir; Wang, Chen

    2016-06-01

    Topological relations are fundamental for qualitative description, querying and analysis of a 3D scene. Although topological relations for 2D objects have been extensively studied and implemented in GIS applications, their direct extension to 3D is very challenging and they cannot be directly applied to represent relations between components of complex 3D objects represented by 3D B-Rep models in R3. Herein we present an extended Region Connection Calculus (RCC) model to express and formalize topological relations between planar regions for creating 3D model represented by Boundary Representation model in R3. We proposed a new dimension extended 9-Intersection model to represent the basic relations among components of a complex object, including disjoint, meet and intersect. The last element in 3*3 matrix records the details of connection through the common parts of two regions and the intersecting line of two planes. Additionally, this model can deal with the case of planar regions with holes. Finally, the geometric information is transformed into a list of strings consisting of topological relations between two planar regions and detailed connection information. The experiments show that the proposed approach helps to identify topological relations of planar segments of point cloud automatically.

  13. Generic design methodology for the development of three-dimensional structured-light sensory systems for measuring complex objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Veronica E.; Chang, Wei Hao Wayne; Nejat, Goldie

    2014-11-01

    Structured-light (SL) techniques are emerging as popular noncontact approaches for obtaining three-dimensional (3-D) measurements of complex objects for real-time applications in manufacturing, bioengineering, and robotics. The performance of SL systems is determined by the emitting (i.e., projector) and capturing (i.e., camera) hardware components and the triangulation configuration between them and an object of interest. A generic design methodology is presented to determine optimal triangulation configurations for SL systems. These optimal configurations are determined with respect to a set of performance metrics: (1) minimizing the 3-D reconstruction errors, (2) maximizing the pixel-to-pixel correspondence between the projector and camera, and (3) maximizing the dispersion of the measured 3-D points within a measurement volume, while satisfying design constraints based on hardware and user-defined specifications. The proposed methodology utilizes a 3-D geometric triangulation model based on ray-tracing geometry and pin-hole models for the projector and camera. Using the methodology, a set of optimal system configurations can be determined for a given set of hardware components. The design methodology was applied to a real-time SL system for surface profiling of complex objects. Experiments were conducted with an optimal sensor configuration and its performance verified with respect to a nonoptimal hardware configuration.

  14. Process for the reconstruction of three-dimensional images of an area of interest of an object comprising the combination of measurements over the entire object with measurements of an area of interest of said object, and appropriate installation

    DOEpatents

    Azevedo, Stephen; Grangeat, Pierre; Rizo, Philippe

    1995-01-01

    Process and installation making it possible to reconstitute precise images of an area of interest (2) of an object (1) by reducing the errors produced by the contribution of the compliment of the object. A first series of measurements is carried out, where a conical beam (10) only takes in the area of interest of the object (2) and this is followed by a second series of measurements in which the beam takes in the entire object. A combination of the measurements of the two series is carried out in order to make them compatible and obtain a more accurate image of the area of interest (2).

  15. Electrophilicity of aromatic triflones in sigma-complexation processes.

    PubMed

    El Guesmi, Nizar; Boubaker, Taoufik; Goumont, Régis; Terrier, François

    2008-11-07

    The kinetics of sigma-complexation of 2,6-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)-4-nitroanisole (4) have been investigated over a large pH range of 2-15.68 in methanol. Two competitive processes have been identified with the initial addition of MeO(-) at the unsubstituted 3-position of 4 to give a 1,3-dimethoxy adduct (4b-Me) and a subsequent and slow conversion of this species into the 1,1-dimethoxy isomer (4a-Me). Both 4a-Me and 4b-Me are more stable than the related adducts of 2,6-dinitro-4-trifluromethanesulfonylanisole, i.e.5a-Me and 5b-Me, and 2,4,6-trinitroanisole, i.e.6a-Me and 6b-Me, the latter compound being a conventional reference aromatic electrophile in Meisenheimer complex chemistry. The high thermodynamic stability of 4a-Me (pK(a) = 10.48) and 4b-Me (pK(a) = 12.23) relative to 5a-Me (pK(a) = 10.68) and 6a-Me (pK(a) = 12.56) or 5b-Me (pK(a) = 15.38) and 6b-Me (pK(a) = 16.46), is shown to derive from an especially high capacity of a para or an ortho SO(2)CF(3) group to stabilize a negative charge through Fpi-type polarization effects. From the kinetic data, it appears that the contribution of a methanol pathway to the formation of 4a-Me is much weaker than that found to operate in the formation of the 1,1-complex 5a-Me of 2,6-dinitro-4-trifluromethanesulfonylanisole, the experimental evidence suggesting that the reactivity of 4 and 5 is located just beyond the region defining the boundary between super- and normal-electrophilicity in methanol. Comparison of our results with available literature data show that this boundary corresponds to a pK(MeOH)(a) value of approximately 10, in agreement with our previous finding of a very effective solvent contribution to the sigma-complexation of 1,3,5-tris(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)benzene (13; pK(MeOH)(a) = 9.12) in methanol. Taking advantage of our observation that pK(MeOH)(a) and pK(H(2)O)(a) values for sigma-complexation at unsubstituted ring positions are related by a nice linear correlation, an approximate ranking

  16. Differential modulation of visual object processing in dorsal and ventral stream by stimulus visibility.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Karin; Sterzer, Philipp; Kathmann, Norbert; Hesselmann, Guido

    2016-10-01

    As a functional organization principle in cortical visual information processing, the influential 'two visual systems' hypothesis proposes a division of labor between a dorsal "vision-for-action" and a ventral "vision-for-perception" stream. A core assumption of this model is that the two visual streams are differentially involved in visual awareness: ventral stream processing is closely linked to awareness while dorsal stream processing is not. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study with human observers, we directly probed the stimulus-related information encoded in fMRI response patterns in both visual streams as a function of stimulus visibility. We parametrically modulated the visibility of face and tool stimuli by varying the contrasts of the masks in a continuous flash suppression (CFS) paradigm. We found that visibility - operationalized by objective and subjective measures - decreased proportionally with increasing log CFS mask contrast. Neuronally, this relationship was closely matched by ventral visual areas, showing a linear decrease of stimulus-related information with increasing mask contrast. Stimulus-related information in dorsal areas also showed a dependency on mask contrast, but the decrease rather followed a step function instead of a linear function. Together, our results suggest that both the ventral and the dorsal visual stream are linked to visual awareness, but neural activity in ventral areas more closely reflects graded differences in awareness compared to dorsal areas.

  17. Seeing through walls at the nanoscale: Microwave microscopy of enclosed objects and processes in liquids

    DOE PAGES

    Velmurugan, Jeyavel; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Kolmakov, Andrei; ...

    2016-02-11

    Here, noninvasive in situ nanoscale imaging in liquid environments is a current imperative in the analysis of delicate biomedical objects and electrochemical processes at reactive liquid–solid interfaces. Microwaves of a few gigahertz frequencies offer photons with energies of ≈10 μeV, which can affect neither electronic states nor chemical bonds in condensed matter. Here, we describe an implementation of scanning near-field microwave microscopy for imaging in liquids using ultrathin molecular impermeable membranes separating scanning probes from samples enclosed in environmental cells. We imaged a model electroplating reaction as well as individual live cells. Through a side-by-side comparison of the microwave imagingmore » with scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrate the advantage of microwaves for artifact-free imaging.« less

  18. Image processing of standard grading scales for objective assessment of contact lens wear complications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Cabre, Elisabet; Millan, Maria S.; Abril, Hector C.; Otxoa, E.

    2004-10-01

    Ocular complications in contact lens wearers are usually graded by specialists using visual inspection and comparing with established standards. The standard grading scales consist of either a set of illustrations or photographs ordered from a normal situation to a severe complication. In this work, an objective assessment of contact lens wear complications is intended by applying different image processing techniques to two standard grading scales (Efron and CCLRU grading scales). In particular, conjunctival hyperemia and papillary conjunctivitis are considered. Given a set of standard illustrations or pictures for each considered ocular disorder, image preprocessing is needed to compare equivalent areas. Histogram analysis allows segmenting vessel and background pixel populations, which are used to determine the most relevant features in the measurement of contact lens effects. Features such as color, total area of vessels and vessel length are used to evaluate bulbar and lid redness. The procedure to obtain an automatic grading method by digital image analysis of standard grading scales is described.

  19. Seeing through walls at the nanoscale: Microwave microscopy of enclosed objects and processes in liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Velmurugan, Jeyavel; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Kolmakov, Andrei; Tselev, Alexander; Ievlev, Anton V.

    2016-02-11

    Here, noninvasive in situ nanoscale imaging in liquid environments is a current imperative in the analysis of delicate biomedical objects and electrochemical processes at reactive liquid–solid interfaces. Microwaves of a few gigahertz frequencies offer photons with energies of ≈10 μeV, which can affect neither electronic states nor chemical bonds in condensed matter. Here, we describe an implementation of scanning near-field microwave microscopy for imaging in liquids using ultrathin molecular impermeable membranes separating scanning probes from samples enclosed in environmental cells. We imaged a model electroplating reaction as well as individual live cells. Through a side-by-side comparison of the microwave imaging with scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrate the advantage of microwaves for artifact-free imaging.

  20. Attachment and object relations in patients with narcissistic personality disorder: implications for therapeutic process and outcome.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Diana; Meehan, Kevin B

    2013-11-01

    This article presents a therapeutic approach for patients with severe personality disorders, transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP), a manualized evidence-based treatment, which integrates contemporary object relations theory with attachment theory and research. Case material is presented from a narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) patient in TFP whose primary presenting problems were in the arena of sexuality and love relations, and whose attachment state of mind showed evidence of oscillation between dismissing and preoccupied mechanisms. Clinical process material is presented to illustrate the tactics and techniques of TFP and how they have been refined for treatment of individuals with NPD. The ways in which conflicts around sexuality and love relations were lived out in the transference is delineated with a focus on the interpretation of devalued and idealized representations of self and others, both of which are key components of the compensatory grandiose self that defensively protects the individual from an underlying sense of vulnerability and imperfection.

  1. Data quality objectives process applied to characterization of Hanford tanks containing ferrocyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, B.A.; Anderson, C.M.; Buck, J.W.; Cash, R.J.; Dukelow, G.T.; Meacham, J.E.

    1994-08-01

    Since 1944, underground storage tanks located at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, have stored approximately 277,000 m{sup 3} (60 Mgal) of highly radioactive and non-radioactive wastes. Recently, a number of safety issues have arisen concerning these tanks, with regard to worker and public health. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has made the resolution of these safety concerns its number one priority at the Hanford Site. The safety program of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) was developed to provide an integrated approach to resolution of these waste tank safety issues and safety concerns. The Characterization Program within TWRS is responsible for characterizing the wastes contained in the tanks. To ensure that characterization activities provide data that will be adequate to resolve safety concerns, the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process is being implemented.

  2. Objective models of EMG signals for cyclic processes such as a human gait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babska, Luiza; Selegrat, Monika; Dusza, Jacek J.

    2016-09-01

    EMG signals are small potentials appearing at the surface of human skin during muscle work. They arise due to changes in the physiological state of cell membranes in the muscle fibers. They are characterized by a relatively low frequency range (500 Hz) and a low amplitude signal (of the order of μV), making it difficult to record. Raw EMG signal is inherently random shape. However we can distinguish certain features related to the activation of the muscles of a deterministic or quasi-deterministic associated with the movement and its parametric description. Objective models of EMG signals were created on the base of actual data obtained from the VICON system installed at the University of Physical Education in Warsaw. The object of research (healthy woman) moved repeatedly after a fixed track. On her body 35 reflective markers to record the gait kinematics and 8 electrodes to record EMG signals were placed. We obtained research data included more than 1,000 EMG signals synchronized with the phases of gait. Test result of the work is an algorithm for obtaining the average EMG signal received from the multiple registration gait cycles carried out in the same reproducible conditions. The method described in the article is essentially a pre-finding measurement data from the two quasi-synchronous signals at different sampling frequencies for further processing. This signal is characterized by a significant reduction of high frequency noise and emphasis on the specific characteristics of individual records found in muscle activity.

  3. Connectivity-based constraints on category-specificity in the ventral object processing pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quanjing; Garcea, Frank E; Almeida, Jorge; Mahon, Bradford Z

    2016-11-19

    Recent efforts to characterize visual object representations in the ventral object processing pathway in the human brain have led to contrasting proposals about the causes of neural specificity for different categories. Here we use multivariate techniques in a novel way to relate patterns of functional connectivity to patterns of stimulus preferences. Stimulus preferences were measured throughout the ventral stream to tools, animals, faces and places; separately, we measured the strength of functional connectivity of each voxel in the ventral stream to category-preferring regions outside the ventral stream. Multivariate analyses were then performed over ventral stream voxels, relating 'category-preferences' to 'functional connectivity preferences'. We show that the relation of those two measures doubly dissociates 'tools' and 'places', within what is ostensibly 'place' selective cortex (parahippocampal gyrus). Specifically, in the parahippocampal gyrus, functional connectivity to the left inferior parietal lobule is selectively related to stimulus preferences for tools (and not places), while functional connectivity to retrosplenial cortex is selectively related to place preferences (and not tools preferences). These findings indicate that functional connectivity can be used to index representational content rather than just provide an understanding of 'which regions are talking to which regions'. We suggest that the connectivity of the brain is what drives category-specificity in the ventral stream, and that if this is correct, then understanding the connectivity of the ventral stream will be key to understanding the causes and function of category-specific neural organization.

  4. Incorporating Deeply Uncertain Factors into the Many Objective Search Process: Improving Adaptation to Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzyk, J. R.; Watson, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Deep uncertainty refers to situations in which decision makers or stakeholders do not know, or cannot fully agree upon, the full suite of risk factors within a planning problem. This phenomenon is especially important when considering scenarios of future environmental change, since there exist multiple trajectories of environmental forcings (e.g., streamflow timing and magnitude) and socioeconomic factors (e.g., population growth). This presentation first briefly reviews robust optimization and scenario approaches that have been proposed to plan for systems under deep uncertainty. One recently introduced framework is Many Objective Robust Decision Making (MORDM). MORDM combines two techniques: evolutionary algorithm search is used to generate planning alternatives, and robust decision making methods are used to sample performance over a large range of plausible factors and, subsequently, choose a robust solution. Within MORDM, Pareto approximate tradeoff sets of solutions are used to balance objectives and examine alternatives. However, MORDM does not currently incorporate the deeply uncertain scenario information into the search process itself. In this presentation, we suggest several avenues for doing so, that are focused on modifying the suite of uncertain data that is selected within the search process. Visualizations that compare tradeoff sets across different sets of assumptions can be used to guide decision makers' learning and, ultimately, their selection of several candidate solutions for further planning. For example, the baseline assumptions about probability distributions can be compared to optimization results under severe events to determine adaptive management strategies. A case study of water planning in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) in Texas is used to demonstrate the approach. Our LRGV results compare baseline optimization with new solution sets that examine optimal management strategies under scenarios characterized by lower than average

  5. Public pharmacovigilance communication: a process calling for evidence-based, objective-driven strategies.

    PubMed

    Bahri, Priya

    2010-12-01

    As a contribution to the debate on how best to communicate information on the effective and safe use of medicines to patients, healthcare professionals and the general public, this article proposes to distinguish between communication and transparency purposes, and to test a strategic health communication approach. Any organization aiming to improve medicines use could adapt this approach to its remits and legal obligations. The approach includes agreeing measurable communication objectives through shared problem ownership of all concerned parties, evidence-based design and a cyclic process for planning, implementation and evaluation of communication as a public health intervention. The evidence base, which supplements risk assessment for product- and situation-specific communication on safety concerns, would be derived from research into drug utilization, medical decision making and risk perception, as well as from the participation of patients and healthcare professionals. It is crucial to address the practical questions and concerns of medicine users and to find out why unfavourable patterns of medicine use persist, in order to develop behaviour change models for overcoming these obstacles. For this purpose, appropriate models for facilitating the participation of medicine users in the risk management process will need to be explored. Such two-way communication would inform risk assessment as well as the analysis of risk minimization options, allow for agreement upon communication objectives and enable understandable, attractive communication materials to be designed. The communication programme should use mixed media and repetition of messages for long-term success. This would require cooperation within healthcare and medical information systems. An evaluation of the effectiveness of the communication should support the sustainability of the programme and provide lessons for the future. Given its mission, the pharmacovigilance community has the standing and

  6. Head and Eye Movements Affect Object Processing in 4-Month-Old Infants More than an Artificial Orientation Cue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Sebastian; Michel, Christine; Pauen, Sabina; Hoehl, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of attention-guiding stimuli on 4-month-old infants' object processing. In the human head condition, infants saw a person turning her head and eye gaze towards or away from objects. When presented with the objects again, infants showed increased attention in terms of longer looking time measured by eye…

  7. A learning process of water cycle as complex system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertzer, D.; Deroubaix, J. F.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Tassin, B.; Thevenot, D.

    2009-04-01

    Water cycle is a very good example of a complex geosystem which has many societal impacts and drivers. A permanent and ubiquitous question is how to increase public awareness and understanding of its extreme behaviours, as well as of the related uncertainties. For instance, CEREVE is highly solicited to help the general public, particularly the youth, and the local politicians to get better acquainted with the new water culture in general and with flood risks in particular, in the nearby county Val-de-Marne. Since 2001, May is the month of the "Festival de l'Oh"(which sounds like "Festival de l'Eau", i.e. the water festival co-organized by the county council and city of Paris. "Oh » at the same time partly displays the chemical composition of water and is an exclamation for atonishment). This festival starts with the Scientific Days of Environment that involve researchers and students of the county, as well as collaborators of all around the world. This conference is open to the public who can be informed from the latest research developments, in particular with the help of some general synthesis and panel discussions. On the other hand, (young) researchers can present their own works to a large public. This conference is followed by a Professional Forum where students, heads of water public services or private operators can meet. In the framework of the water festival preparation, there are several water forums for the secondary schools. All along the year, there are regular pedagogical activities for secondary schools, in particular in the framework of Water Houses scattered across the county. We will discuss the importance to better evaluate the effective impact of these pedagogical events on the public awareness and understanding, and to make the learning process more adaptive and interactive, as well as to better address the underlying fundamental problems, e.g. the present limitations of current modelling and data processing.

  8. Computational Complexity of Subspace Detectors and Matched Field Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D B

    2010-12-01

    Subspace detectors implement a correlation type calculation on a continuous (network or array) data stream [Harris, 2006]. The difference between subspace detectors and correlators is that the former projects the data in a sliding observation window onto a basis of template waveforms that may have a dimension (d) greater than one, and the latter projects the data onto a single waveform template. A standard correlation detector can be considered to be a degenerate (d=1) form of a subspace detector. Figure 1 below shows a block diagram for the standard formulation of a subspace detector. The detector consists of multiple multichannel correlators operating on a continuous data stream. The correlation operations are performed with FFTs in an overlap-add approach that allows the stream to be processed in uniform, consecutive, contiguous blocks. Figure 1 is slightly misleading for a calculation of computational complexity, as it is possible, when treating all channels with the same weighting (as shown in the figure), to perform the indicated summations in the multichannel correlators before the inverse FFTs and to get by with a single inverse FFT and overlap add calculation per multichannel correlator. In what follows, we make this simplification.

  9. Recovery from Object Substitution Masking Induced by Transient Suppression of Visual Motion Processing: A Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirose, Nobuyuki; Kihara, Ken; Mima, Tatsuya; Ueki, Yoshino; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2007-01-01

    Object substitution masking is a form of visual backward masking in which a briefly presented target is rendered invisible by a lingering mask that is too sparse to produce lower image-level interference. Recent studies suggested the importance of an updating process in a higher object-level representation, which should rely on the processing of…

  10. Context Effects on the Processing of Action-Relevant Object Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girardi, Giovanna; Lindemann, Oliver; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-01-01

    In 4 experiments, we investigated the effects of object affordance in reach-to-grasp actions. Participants indicated whether a depicted small or large object was natural or manmade by means of different object-grasping responses (i.e., with a power or a precision grip). We observed that the size of the depicted object affected the grasping…

  11. Object-Oriented Development Process for Department of Defense Information Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-07-01

    Incremental: total system |Jsystem[ 1/ specification 1• /• increment 1k..n" __ /" • /1..n.n •emonstratiOevelopmentPo ucinOperations" Defintion & Validationj...by the Assuming that mutual inheritance and looping are excluded. A-24 Object F Physical-object Even Abstract-object [ Animate -object I Inanimate

  12. Professional judgment in the Data Quality Objectives process: A Bayesian approach to screening assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Black, P.K.; Neptune, M.D.; Ryti, R.T.; Hickmott, D.D.

    1994-05-01

    The Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process provides a logical planning structure for specifying the optimal sample allocation for defensible decision making, depending on acceptable levels of decision uncertainty and anticipated sampling and measurement errors. These planning inputs must be established prior to designing the data collection activity. Application of the DQO process has traditionally been performed under the framework of Classical statistical theory; elicited decision errors have been interpreted as Classical Type I and Type II errors; mean and variance constraints have been incorporated based on historical information; and, Classical statistical testing methods have been used to determine optimal sample sizes. However, decision errors are usually stated, for dichotomous hypotheses, in terms of the probability of making a false positive or false negative decision; these probabilities, at best, relate loosely to probabilities of Classical Type I and Type II errors. Statements of Classical error types are couched in the language of the probability of rejection of hypotheses as opposed to the probability that a hypothesis is correct. Also, historical or archival data are often insufficient to adequately support prior judgments of means and variances. In many circumstances, however, expert knowledge and opinion is not only available, but is substantial. Finally, a paradigm that provides solutions for other than dichotomous decision problems offers greater diversity for solving real world problems.

  13. Development of a hazardous air pollutants monitoring program using the Data Quality Objectives process.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Michael J; Nelson, Tim M; Palmer, Glenn R

    2004-05-01

    To effectively reduce the environmental compliance costs associated with meeting hazardous air pollutant emission requirements, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Data Quality Objective (DQO) process has been proposed as a suitable framework for establishing a defensible monitoring program. Through the use of a hazardous materials pilot study, the variability in the composite vapor pressure for regulated handwipe cleaning solvents was established. These results served as inputs to the DQO process, which identified that for facility decision-makers to claim with a 99% confidence level that the facility is in compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), a minimum of 12 handwipe cleaning solvent compliance samples (taken at random every 6 months) must have a composite vapor pressure equal to or below the regulatory limit of 45 mmHg at 20 degrees C. Implementation of the DQO-based compliance-sampling plan eliminates the need for an affected facility to sample all regulated handwipe cleaning solvents while still maintaining a reasonably high level of confidence in the compliance status of its regulated sources. The approach described for designing a defensible compliance sampling plan can be extended to other aspects of the aerospace NESHAP rule, including compliance sampling for surface coating, chemical depainting, and hazardous waste disposal.

  14. Brain process for perception of the "out of the body" tactile illusion for virtual object interaction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Jin; Lee, Jaedong; Kim, Chi Jung; Kim, Gerard J; Kim, Eun-Soo; Whang, Mincheol

    2015-04-01

    "Out of the body" tactile illusion refers to the phenomenon in which one can perceive tactility as if emanating from a location external to the body without any stimulator present there. Taking advantage of such a tactile illusion is one way to provide and realize richer interaction feedback without employing and placing actuators directly at all stimulation target points. However, to further explore its potential, it is important to better understand the underlying physiological and neural mechanism. As such, we measured the brain wave patterns during such tactile illusion and mapped out the corresponding brain activation areas. Participants were given stimulations at different levels with the intention to create veridical (i.e., non-illusory) and phantom sensations at different locations along an external hand-held virtual ruler. The experimental data and analysis indicate that both veridical and illusory sensations involve, among others, the parietal lobe, one of the most important components in the tactile information pathway. In addition, we found that as for the illusory sensation, there is an additional processing resulting in the delay for the ERP (event-related potential) and involvement by the limbic lobe. These point to regarding illusion as a memory and recognition task as a possible explanation. The present study demonstrated some basic understanding; how humans process "virtual" objects and the way associated tactile illusion is generated will be valuable for HCI (Human-Computer Interaction).

  15. A Multi-Objective Compounded Local Mobile Cloud Architecture Using Priority Queues to Process Multiple Jobs.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaohui; Sun, Bingyi; Cui, Jiaxu; Xu, Gaochao

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the greatly increased use of mobile devices, the disadvantages of portable devices have gradually begun to emerge. To solve these problems, the use of mobile cloud computing assisted by cloud data centers has been proposed. However, cloud data centers are always very far from the mobile requesters. In this paper, we propose an improved multi-objective local mobile cloud model: Compounded Local Mobile Cloud Architecture with Dynamic Priority Queues (LMCpri). This new architecture could briefly store jobs that arrive simultaneously at the cloudlet in different priority positions according to the result of auction processing, and then execute partitioning tasks on capable helpers. In the Scheduling Module, NSGA-II is employed as the scheduling algorithm to shorten processing time and decrease requester cost relative to PSO and sequential scheduling. The simulation results show that the number of iteration times that is defined to 30 is the best choice of the system. In addition, comparing with LMCque, LMCpri is able to effectively accommodate a requester who would like his job to be executed in advance and shorten execution time. Finally, we make a comparing experiment between LMCpri and cloud assisting architecture, and the results reveal that LMCpri presents a better performance advantage than cloud assisting architecture.

  16. A Multi-Objective Compounded Local Mobile Cloud Architecture Using Priority Queues to Process Multiple Jobs

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaohui; Sun, Bingyi; Cui, Jiaxu; Xu, Gaochao

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the greatly increased use of mobile devices, the disadvantages of portable devices have gradually begun to emerge. To solve these problems, the use of mobile cloud computing assisted by cloud data centers has been proposed. However, cloud data centers are always very far from the mobile requesters. In this paper, we propose an improved multi-objective local mobile cloud model: Compounded Local Mobile Cloud Architecture with Dynamic Priority Queues (LMCpri). This new architecture could briefly store jobs that arrive simultaneously at the cloudlet in different priority positions according to the result of auction processing, and then execute partitioning tasks on capable helpers. In the Scheduling Module, NSGA-II is employed as the scheduling algorithm to shorten processing time and decrease requester cost relative to PSO and sequential scheduling. The simulation results show that the number of iteration times that is defined to 30 is the best choice of the system. In addition, comparing with LMCque, LMCpri is able to effectively accommodate a requester who would like his job to be executed in advance and shorten execution time. Finally, we make a comparing experiment between LMCpri and cloud assisting architecture, and the results reveal that LMCpri presents a better performance advantage than cloud assisting architecture. PMID:27419854

  17. Effects of Animacy and Noun-Phrase Relatedness on the Processing of Complex Sentences

    PubMed Central

    Lowder, Matthew W.; Gordon, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that syntactically complex object-extracted relative clauses are easier to process when the head noun phrase (NP1) is inanimate and the embedded noun phrase (NP2) is animate compared to the reverse animacy configuration, with differences in processing difficulty beginning as early as NP2 (e.g., The article that the senator… versus The senator that the article…). Two eye-tracking-while-reading experiments were conducted to better understand the source of this effect. Experiment 1 showed that having an inanimate NP1 facilitated processing even when NP2 was held constant. Experiment 2 manipulated both animacy of NP1 and the degree of semantic relatedness between the critical NPs. When NP1 and NP2 were paired arbitrarily, the early animacy effect emerged at NP2. When NP1 and NP2 were semantically related, this effect disappeared, with effects of NP1 animacy emerging in later processing stages for both the Related and Arbitrary conditions. The results indicate that differences in the animacy of NP1 influence early processing of complex sentences only when the critical NPs share no meaningful relationship. PMID:24452417

  18. Atypical Brain Activation during Simple & Complex Levels of Processing in Adult ADHD: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, T. Sigi; Bookheimer, Susan; McGough, James J.; Phillips, Joseph M.; McCracken, James T.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Executive dysfunction in ADHD is well supported. However, recent studies suggest that more fundamental impairments may be contributing. We assessed brain function in adults with ADHD during simple and complex forms of processing. Method: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging with forward and backward digit spans to investigate…

  19. Automatic pre-processing for an object-oriented distributed hydrological model using GRASS-GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanzana, P.; Jankowfsky, S.; Branger, F.; Braud, I.; Vargas, X.; Hitschfeld, N.

    2012-04-01

    Landscapes are very heterogeneous, which impact the hydrological processes occurring in the catchments, especially in the modeling of peri-urban catchments. The Hydrological Response Units (HRUs), resulting from the intersection of different maps, such as land use, soil types and geology, and flow networks, allow the representation of these elements in an explicit way, preserving natural and artificial contours of the different layers. These HRUs are used as model mesh in some distributed object-oriented hydrological models, allowing the application of a topological oriented approach. The connectivity between polygons and polylines provides a detailed representation of the water balance and overland flow in these distributed hydrological models, based on irregular hydro-landscape units. When computing fluxes between these HRUs, the geometrical parameters, such as the distance between the centroid of gravity of the HRUs and the river network, and the length of the perimeter, can impact the realism of the calculated overland, sub-surface and groundwater fluxes. Therefore, it is necessary to process the original model mesh in order to avoid these numerical problems. We present an automatic pre-processing implemented in the open source GRASS-GIS software, for which several Python scripts or some algorithms already available were used, such as the Triangle software. First, some scripts were developed to improve the topology of the various elements, such as snapping of the river network to the closest contours. When data are derived with remote sensing, such as vegetation areas, their perimeter has lots of right angles that were smoothed. Second, the algorithms more particularly address bad-shaped elements of the model mesh such as polygons with narrow shapes, marked irregular contours and/or the centroid outside of the polygons. To identify these elements we used shape descriptors. The convexity index was considered the best descriptor to identify them with a threshold

  20. A Large-Particle Monte Carlo Code for Simulating Non-Linear High-Energy Processes Near Compact Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Boris E.; Svensson, Roland; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Sikora, Marek

    1995-01-01

    High-energy radiation processes in compact cosmic objects are often expected to have a strongly non-linear behavior. Such behavior is shown, for example, by electron-positron pair cascades and the time evolution of relativistic proton distributions in dense radiation fields. Three independent techniques have been developed to simulate these non-linear problems: the kinetic equation approach; the phase-space density (PSD) Monte Carlo method; and the large-particle (LP) Monte Carlo method. In this paper, we present the latest version of the LP method and compare it with the other methods. The efficiency of the method in treating geometrically complex problems is illustrated by showing results of simulations of 1D, 2D and 3D systems. The method is shown to be powerful enough to treat non-spherical geometries, including such effects as bulk motion of the background plasma, reflection of radiation from cold matter, and anisotropic distributions of radiating particles. It can therefore be applied to simulate high-energy processes in such astrophysical systems as accretion discs with coronae, relativistic jets, pulsar magnetospheres and gamma-ray bursts.

  1. NCWin — A Component Object Model (COM) for processing and visualizing NetCDF data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Jinxun; Chen, J.M.; Price, D.T.; Liu, S.

    2005-01-01

    NetCDF (Network Common Data Form) is a data sharing protocol and library that is commonly used in large-scale atmospheric and environmental data archiving and modeling. The NetCDF tool described here, named NCWin and coded with Borland C + + Builder, was built as a standard executable as well as a COM (component object model) for the Microsoft Windows environment. COM is a powerful technology that enhances the reuse of applications (as components). Environmental model developers from different modeling environments, such as Python, JAVA, VISUAL FORTRAN, VISUAL BASIC, VISUAL C + +, and DELPHI, can reuse NCWin in their models to read, write and visualize NetCDF data. Some Windows applications, such as ArcGIS and Microsoft PowerPoint, can also call NCWin within the application. NCWin has three major components: 1) The data conversion part is designed to convert binary raw data to and from NetCDF data. It can process six data types (unsigned char, signed char, short, int, float, double) and three spatial data formats (BIP, BIL, BSQ); 2) The visualization part is designed for displaying grid map series (playing forward or backward) with simple map legend, and displaying temporal trend curves for data on individual map pixels; and 3) The modeling interface is designed for environmental model development by which a set of integrated NetCDF functions is provided for processing NetCDF data. To demonstrate that the NCWin can easily extend the functions of some current GIS software and the Office applications, examples of calling NCWin within ArcGIS and MS PowerPoint for showing NetCDF map animations are given.

  2. Space Object Collision Probability via Monte Carlo on the Graphics Processing Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittaldev, Vivek; Russell, Ryan P.

    2017-03-01

    Fast and accurate collision probability computations are essential for protecting space assets. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is the most accurate but computationally intensive method. A Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is used to parallelize the computation and reduce the overall runtime. Using MC techniques to compute the collision probability is common in literature as the benchmark. An optimized implementation on the GPU, however, is a challenging problem and is the main focus of the current work. The MC simulation takes samples from the uncertainty distributions of the Resident Space Objects (RSOs) at any time during a time window of interest and outputs the separations at closest approach. Therefore, any uncertainty propagation method may be used and the collision probability is automatically computed as a function of RSO collision radii. Integration using a fixed time step and a quartic interpolation after every Runge Kutta step ensures that no close approaches are missed. Two orders of magnitude speedups over a serial CPU implementation are shown, and speedups improve moderately with higher fidelity dynamics. The tool makes the MC approach tractable on a single workstation, and can be used as a final product, or for verifying surrogate and analytical collision probability methods.

  3. Mass Accretion Processes in Young Stellar Objects: Role of Intense Flaring Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Salvatore; Reale, Fabio; Peres, Giovanni; Mignone, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    According to the magnetospheric accretion scenario, young low-mass stars are surrounded by circumstellar disks which they interact with through accretion of mass. The accretion builds up the star to its final mass and is also believed to power the mass outflows, which may in turn have a signicant role in removing the excess angular momentum from the star-disk system. Although the process of mass accretion is a critical aspect of star formation, some of its mechanisms are still to be fully understood. On the other hand, strong flaring activity is a common feature of young stellar objects (YSOs). In the Sun, such events give rise to perturbations of the interplanetary medium. Similar but more energetic phenomena occur in YSOs and may influence the circumstellar environment. In fact, a recent study has shown that an intense flaring activity close to the disk may strongly perturb the stability of circumstellar disks, thus inducing mass accretion episodes (Orlando et al. 2011). Here we review the main results obtained in the field and the future perspectives.

  4. Developmental Changes in Children’s Processing of Redundant Modifiers in Definite Object Descriptions

    PubMed Central

    Koolen, Ruud; Krahmer, Emiel; Swerts, Marc

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates developmental changes in children’s processing of redundant information in definite object descriptions. In two experiments, children of two age groups (6 or 7, and 9 or 10 years old) were presented with pictures of sweets. In the first experiment (pairwise comparison), two identical sweets were shown, and one of these was described with a redundant modifier. After the description, the children had to indicate the sweet they preferred most in a forced-choice task. In the second experiment (graded rating), only one sweet was shown, which was described with a redundant color modifier in half of the cases (e.g., “the blue sweet”) and in the other half of the cases simply as “the sweet.” This time, the children were asked to indicate on a 5-point rating scale to what extent they liked the sweets. In both experiments, the results showed that the younger children had a preference for the sweets described with redundant information, while redundant information did not have an effect on the preferences for the older children. These results imply that children are learning to distinguish between situations in which redundant information carries an implicature and situations in which this is not the case. PMID:27994569

  5. Complex Nano-objects Displaying Both Magnetic and Catalytic Properties: A Proof of Concept for Magnetically Induced Heterogeneous Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Meffre, Anca; Mehdaoui, Boubker; Connord, Vincent; Carrey, Julian; Fazzini, Pier Francesco; Lachaize, Sébastien; Respaud, Marc; Chaudret, Bruno

    2015-05-13

    Addition of Co2(Co)9 and Ru3(CO)12 on preformed monodisperse iron(0) nanoparticles (Fe(0) NPs) at 150 °C under H2 leads to monodisperse core-shell Fe@FeCo NPs and to a thin discontinuous Ru(0) layer supported on the initial Fe(0) NPs. The new complex NPs were studied by state-of-the-art transmission electron microscopy techniques as well as X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and magnetic measurements. These particles display large heating powers (SAR) when placed in an alternating magnetic field. The combination of magnetic and surface catalytic properties of these novel objects were used to demonstrate a new concept: the possibility of performing Fischer-Tropsch syntheses by heating the catalytic nanoparticles with an external alternating magnetic field.

  6. Web mapping system for complex processing and visualization of environmental geospatial datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Alexander; Gordov, Evgeny; Okladnikov, Igor

    2016-04-01

    Environmental geospatial datasets (meteorological observations, modeling and reanalysis results, etc.) are used in numerous research applications. Due to a number of objective reasons such as inherent heterogeneity of environmental datasets, big dataset volume, complexity of data models used, syntactic and semantic differences that complicate creation and use of unified terminology, the development of environmental geodata access, processing and visualization services as well as client applications turns out to be quite a sophisticated task. According to general INSPIRE requirements to data visualization geoportal web applications have to provide such standard functionality as data overview, image navigation, scrolling, scaling and graphical overlay, displaying map legends and corresponding metadata information. It should be noted that modern web mapping systems as integrated geoportal applications are developed based on the SOA and might be considered as complexes of interconnected software tools for working with geospatial data. In the report a complex web mapping system including GIS web client and corresponding OGC services for working with geospatial (NetCDF, PostGIS) dataset archive is presented. There are three basic tiers of the GIS web client in it: 1. Tier of geospatial metadata retrieved from central MySQL repository and represented in JSON format 2. Tier of JavaScript objects implementing methods handling: --- NetCDF metadata --- Task XML object for configuring user calculations, input and output formats --- OGC WMS/WFS cartographical services 3. Graphical user interface (GUI) tier representing JavaScript objects realizing web application business logic Metadata tier consists of a number of JSON objects containing technical information describing geospatial datasets (such as spatio-temporal resolution, meteorological parameters, valid processing methods, etc). The middleware tier of JavaScript objects implementing methods for handling geospatial

  7. Complex variational mode decomposition for signal processing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanxue; Liu, Fuyun; Jiang, Zhansi; He, Shuilong; Mo, Qiuyun

    2017-03-01

    Complex-valued signals occur in many areas of science and engineering and are thus of fundamental interest. The complex variational mode decomposition (CVMD) is proposed as a natural and a generic extension of the original VMD algorithm for the analysis of complex-valued data in this work. Moreover, the equivalent filter bank structure of the CVMD in the presence of white noise, and the effects of initialization of center frequency on the filter bank property are both investigated via numerical experiments. Benefiting from the advantages of CVMD algorithm, its bi-directional Hilbert time-frequency spectrum is developed as well, in which the positive and negative frequency components are formulated on the positive and negative frequency planes separately. Several applications in the real-world complex-valued signals support the analysis.

  8. Object Management Group object transaction service based on an X/Open and International Organization for Standardization open systems interconnection transaction processing kernel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, J.; Sédillot, S.; Traverson, B.

    1997-09-01

    This paper addresses federation of a transactional object standard - Object Management Group (OMG) object transaction service (OTS) - with the X/Open distributed transaction processing (DTP) model and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) open systems interconnection (OSI) transaction processing (TP) communication protocol. The two-phase commit propagation rules within a distributed transaction tree are similar in the X/Open, ISO and OMG models. Building an OTS on an OSI TP protocol machine is possible because the two specifications are somewhat complementary. OTS defines a set of external interfaces without specific internal protocol machine, while OSI TP specifies an internal protocol machine without any application programming interface. Given these observations, and having already implemented an X/Open two-phase commit transaction toolkit based on an OSI TP protocol machine, we analyse the feasibility of using this implementation as a transaction service provider for OMG interfaces. Based on the favourable result of this feasibility study, we are implementing an OTS compliant system, which, by initiating the extensibility and openness strengths of OSI TP, is able to provide interoperability between X/Open DTP and OMG OTS models.

  9. Head and eye movements affect object processing in 4-month-old infants more than an artificial orientation cue.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Sebastian; Michel, Christine; Pauen, Sabina; Hoehl, Stefanie

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of attention-guiding stimuli on 4-month-old infants' object processing. In the human head condition, infants saw a person turning her head and eye gaze towards or away from objects. When presented with the objects again, infants showed increased attention in terms of longer looking time measured by eye tracking and an increased Nc amplitude measured by event-related potentials (ERP) for the previously uncued objects versus the cued objects. This suggests that the uncued objects were previously processed less effectively and appeared more novel to the infants. In a second condition, a car instead of a human head turned towards or away from objects. Eye-tracking results did not reveal any significant difference in infants' looking time. ERPs indicated only a marginally significant effect in late slow-wave activity associated with memory encoding for the uncued objects. We conclude that human head orientation and gaze direction affect infants' object-directed attention, whereas movement and orientation of a car have only limited influence on infants' object processing.

  10. Infantile sexuality, primary object-love and the anthropological significance of the Oedipus complex: re-reading Freud's 'Female sexuality'.

    PubMed

    van Haute, Philippe

    2005-12-01

    The author attempts to show why and in what respect Freud's famous article 'Female sexuality' can still be a source of inspiration for a contemporary metapsychology. In this text, Freud acknowledges the importance of the child's tie to its mother for the first time. Both Balint and Bowlby consider this text to be a distant forerunner of their own theories on primary object-love and attachment respectively. At the same time, Freud's text contains some elements of a 'theory of generalized seduction' as it was developed in the last decades by Jean Laplanche. 'Female sexuality' therefore presents itself as the perfect point of departure for a discussion of the relation between primary object-love (and attachment) and sexuality. Based on his reading of Freud's text, the author argues that human subjectivity is characterized by the lack of attunement between the world of the adult and the world of the child. This insight allows for a reformulation of the anthropological significance of the Oedipus and castration complexes. They are no longer interpreted as universal problems that every child has to face, but as historical and contingent solutions to the lack of attunement between the child and the adult that is essential to human subjectivity.

  11. Complex organic matter in space: about the chemical composition of carriers of the Unidentified Infrared Bands (UIBs) and protoplanetary emission spectra recorded from certain astrophysical objects.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Franco; Keheyan, Yeghis; Heymann, Dieter

    2004-02-01

    In this communication we present the basic concept that the pure PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) can be considered only the ideal carriers of the UIBs (Unidentified Infrared Bands), the emission spectra coming from a large variety of astronomical objects. Instead we have proposed that the carriers of UIBs and of protoplanetary nebulae (PPNe) emission spectra are much more complex molecular mixtures possessing also complex chemical structures comparable to certain petroleum fractions obtained from the petroleum refining processes. The demonstration of our proposal is based on the comparison between the emission spectra recorded from the protoplanetary nebulae (PPNe) IRAS 22272+ 5435 and the infrared absorption spectra of certain 'heavy' petroleum fractions. It is shown that the best match with the reference spectrum is achieved by highly aromatic petroleum fractions. It is shown that the selected petroleum fractions used in the present study are able to match the band pattern of anthracite coal. Coal has been proposed previously as a model for the PPNe and UIBs but presents some drawbacks which could be overcome by adopting the petroleum fractions as model for PPNe and UIBs in place of coal. A brief discussion on the formation of the petroleum-like fractions in PPNe objects is included.

  12. Nonthermal processes around collapsed objects: High energy gamma ray sources in the radio sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, David J.; Ruderman, Malvin; Applegate, James H.; Becker, Robert H.

    1993-01-01

    In our proposal responding to the initial Guest Observer NRA for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, 'Nonthermal Processes Around Collapsed Objects: High Energy Gamma Ray Sources in the Radio Sky', we stated that 'At high energies - the identity of the principal Galactic source population remains unknown' although the 'one certain source of high energy emission is young radio pulsars'. These two statements remain true, although at this writing, eighteen months after the beginning of the Compton allsky survey, much of the gamma-ray data required to greatly extend our knowledge of the Galaxy's high energy emission has been collected. The thrust of the program supported by our grant was to collect and analyze a complementary set of data on the Milky Way at radio wavelengths in order to help identify the dominant Pop 1 component of the Galaxy's gamma ray sources, and to pursue theoretical investigations on the origins and emission mechanisms of young pulsars, the one component of this population identified to date. We summarize here our accomplishments under the grant. In Section 2, we describe our VLA surveys of the Galactic Plane along with the current status of the radio source catalogs derived therefrom; unfortunately, owing to the TDRSS antenna problem and subsequent extension of the Sky Survey, we were not able to carry out a comparison with the EGRET data directly, although everything is now in place to do so as soon as it becomes available. In Section 2, we summarize our progress on the theoretical side, including the substantial completion of a dissertation on pulsar origins and work on the high energy emission mechanisms of isolated pulsars. We list the personnel supported by the grant in section 4 and provide a complete bibliography of publications supported in whole or in part by the grant in the final section.

  13. Object Clitics and Their Omission in Child L2 French: The Contributions of Processing Limitations and L1 Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruter, Theres; Crago, Martha

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the widely documented difficulty with object clitics in the acquisition of French. The study investigates the effects of L1 transfer and processing limitations on the production and comprehension of object clitics in child L2 learners of French with different L1 backgrounds (Chinese, Spanish). The Spanish-speaking learners…

  14. Object Clitic Omission in Child Spanish: Evaluating Representational and Processing Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mateu, Victoria Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the widely documented difficulty children have with object clitics in the acquisition of Romance languages. It reports on two experiments: a production task and a comprehension task. Results from the elicitation task confirm that object omission occurs at nonnegligible rates in 2- and 3-year-olds. Findings from the…

  15. Object Knowledge, Personal Knowledge, and Processes of Equilibration in Adult Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labouvie-Vief, Gisela; Lawrence, Renee

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the logical discontinuity between object and personal knowledge. Proposes an extension of Piaget's subject-object equilibrium to a dialogic situation between an ego and an alter. Suggests that this structural model provides a scheme by which differences in adulthood between adaptive and maladaptive cognitive change can be clarified.…

  16. Object Manipulation and Motion Perception: Evidence of an Influence of Action Planning on Visual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindemann, Oliver; Bekkering, Harold

    2009-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors investigated the bidirectional coupling of perception and action in the context of object manipulations and motion perception. Participants prepared to grasp an X-shaped object along one of its 2 diagonals and to rotate it in a clockwise or a counterclockwise direction. Action execution had to be delayed until the…

  17. Phenylketonuria and Complex Spatial Visualization: An Analysis of Information Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Robert L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The study of the ability of 16 early treated phenylketonuric (PKU) patients (ages 6-23 years) to solve complex spatial problems suggested that choice of problem-solving strategy, attention span, and accuracy of mental representation may be affected in PKU patients, despite efforts to maintain well-controlled phenylalanine concentrations in the…

  18. Can Models Capture the Complexity of the Systems Engineering Process?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boppana, Krishna; Chow, Sam; de Weck, Olivier L.; Lafon, Christian; Lekkakos, Spyridon D.; Lyneis, James; Rinaldi, Matthew; Wang, Zhiyong; Wheeler, Paul; Zborovskiy, Marat; Wojcik, Leonard A.

    Many large-scale, complex systems engineering (SE) programs have been problematic; a few examples are listed below (Bar-Yam, 2003 and Cullen, 2004), and many others have been late, well over budget, or have failed: Hilton/Marriott/American Airlines system for hotel reservations and flights; 1988-1992; 125 million; "scrapped"

  19. Safe operations of unmanned systems for reconnaissance in complex environments Army technology objective (SOURCE ATO): a year later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kott, N. Joseph, III; Mottern, Edward; Keys van Lierop, Tracy; Gray, Jeremy P.

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines the testbed autonomy system, software technologies developed or enhanced, and an overview of the Enhanced Experiment during the second year of the SOURCE ATO. Over the past year, the Safe Operations of Unmanned systems for Reconnaissance in Complex Environments (SOURCE) program continued to make enhancements to LADAR and image based Perception, Intelligence, Control and Tactical Behavior technologies. These are required for autonomous collaborative unmanned systems. The hardware and software technologies are installed on a TARDEC developed testbed, the Autonomous Platform Demonstrator (APD). Ultimately, soldiers will be utilized to conduct safe operation testing scenarios in cluttered dynamic environments using Autonomous Navigation System (ANS) perception and processing hardware as well as software. Soldier testing will take place during October 2012 at Camp Lejeune MOUT facility in North Carolina.

  20. Defining desired genetic gains for rainbow trout breeding objective using analytic hierarchy process.

    PubMed

    Sae-Lim, P; Komen, H; Kause, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Barfoot, A J; Martin, K E; Parsons, J E

    2012-06-01

    Distributing animals from a single breeding program to a global market may not satisfy all producers, as they may differ in market objectives and farming environments. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to estimate preferences, which can be aggregated to consensus preference values using weighted goal programming (WGP). The aim of this study was to use an AHP-WGP based approach to derive desired genetic gains for rainbow trout breeding and to study whether breeding trait preferences vary depending on commercial products and farming environments. Two questionnaires were sent out. Questionnaire-A (Q-A) was distributed to 178 farmers from 5 continents and used to collect information on commercial products and farming environments. In this questionnaire, farmers were asked to rank the 6 most important traits for genetic improvement from a list of 13 traits. Questionnaire B (Q-B) was sent to all farmers who responded to Q-A (53 in total). For Q-B, preferences of the 6 traits were obtained using pairwise comparison. Preference intensity was given to quantify (in % of a trait mean; G%) the degree to which 1 trait is preferred over the other. Individual preferences, social preferences, and consensus preferences (Con-P) were estimated using AHP and WGP. Desired gains were constructed by multiplying Con-P by G%. The analysis revealed that the 6 most important traits were thermal growth coefficient (TGC), survival (Surv), feed conversion ratio (FCR), condition factor (CF), fillet percentage (FIL%), and late maturation (LMat). Ranking of traits based on average Con-P values were Surv (0.271), FCR (0.246), TGC (0.246), LMat (0.090), FIL% (0.081), and CF (0.067). Corresponding desired genetic gains (in % of trait mean) were 1.63, 1.87, 1.67, 1.29, 0.06, and 0.33%, respectively. The results from Con-P values show that trait preferences may vary for different types of commercial production or farming environments. This study demonstrated that combination of AHP and WGP can

  1. Calculation method for computer-generated holograms with cylindrical basic object light by using a graphics processing unit.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Hironobu; Hosoyachi, Kouhei; Yang, Chan-Young; Sakamoto, Yuji

    2011-12-01

    It takes an enormous amount of time to calculate a computer-generated hologram (CGH). A fast calculation method for a CGH using precalculated object light has been proposed in which the light waves of an arbitrary object are calculated using transform calculations of the precalculated object light. However, this method requires a huge amount of memory. This paper proposes the use of a method that uses a cylindrical basic object light to reduce the memory requirement. Furthermore, it is accelerated by using a graphics processing unit (GPU). Experimental results show that the calculation speed on a GPU is about 65 times faster than that on a CPU.

  2. Activation of response force by self-splitting objects: where are the limits of feedforward Gestalt processing?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Filipp; Weber, Andreas; Schmidt, Thomas

    2014-08-21

    Most objects can be recognized easily even when they are partly occluded. This also holds when several overlapping objects share the same surface features (self-splitting objects) which is an illustration of the grouping principle of Good Gestalt. We employed outline and filled contour stimuli in a primed flanker task to test whether the processing of self-splitting objects is in accordance with a simple feedforward model. We obtained priming effects in response time and response force for both types of stimuli, even when increasing the number of occluders up to three. The results for outline contours were in full accordance with a feedforward account. This was not the case for the results for filled contours (i.e., for self-splitting objects), especially under conditions of strong occlusion. We conclude that the implementation of the Good Gestalt principle is fast but still based on recurrent processing.

  3. On numerical model of time-dependent processes in three-dimensional porous heat-releasing objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutsenko, Nickolay A.

    2016-10-01

    The gas flows in the gravity field through porous objects with heat-releasing sources are investigated when the self-regulation of the flow rate of the gas passing through the porous object takes place. Such objects can appear after various natural or man-made disasters (like the exploded unit of the Chernobyl NPP). The mathematical model and the original numerical method, based on a combination of explicit and implicit finite difference schemes, are developed for investigating the time-dependent processes in 3D porous energy-releasing objects. The advantage of the numerical model is its ability to describe unsteady processes under both natural convection and forced filtration. The gas cooling of 3D porous objects with different distribution of heat sources is studied using computational experiment.

  4. Setting Goals and Objectives for LD Children-Process and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallistel, Elizabeth R.

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are problems and procedures in setting goals and objectives for learning disabled children in the implementation of Individualized Education Programs required by the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. (Author/ DLS)

  5. On the mapping associated with the complex representation of functions and processes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harger, R. O.

    1972-01-01

    The mapping between function spaces that is implied by the representation of a real 'bandpass' function by a complex 'low-pass' function is explicitly accepted. The discussion is extended to the representation of stationary random processes where the mapping is between spaces of random processes. This approach clarifies the nature of the complex representation, especially in the case of random processes and, in addition, derives the properties of the complex representation.-

  6. Continuous K-Nearest Neighbor Processing Based on Speed and Direction of Moving Objects in a Road Network.

    PubMed

    Li, Guohui; Fan, Ping; Yuan, Ling

    2014-03-01

    Recent research has focused on Continuous K-Nearest Neighbor (CKNN) query over moving objects in road networks. A CKNN query is to find among all moving objects the K-Nearest Neighbors (KNNs) of a moving query point within a given time interval. As the data objects move frequently and arbitrarily in road networks, the frequent updates of object locations make it complicated to process CKNN accurately and efficiently. In this paper, according to the relative moving situation between the moving objects and the query point, a Moving State of Object (MSO) model is presented to indicate the relative moving state of the object to the query point. With the help of this model, we propose a novel Object Candidate Processing (OCP) algorithm to highly reduce the repetitive query cost with pruning phase and refining phase. In the pruning phase, the data objects which cannot be the KNN query results are excluded within the given time interval. In the refining phase, the time subintervals of the given time interval are determined where the certain KNN query results are obtained. Comprehensive experiments are conducted and the results verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  7. Integrating complex business processes for knowledge-driven clinical decision support systems.

    PubMed

    Kamaleswaran, Rishikesan; McGregor, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents in detail the component of the Complex Business Process for Stream Processing framework that is responsible for integrating complex business processes to enable knowledge-driven Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) recommendations. CDSSs aid the clinician in supporting the care of patients by providing accurate data analysis and evidence-based recommendations. However, the incorporation of a dynamic knowledge-management system that supports the definition and enactment of complex business processes and real-time data streams has not been researched. In this paper we discuss the process web service as an innovative method of providing contextual information to a real-time data stream processing CDSS.

  8. Evaluation of various processes for simultaneous complexation and granulation to incorporate drug-cyclodextrin complexes into solid dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Gyanani, Vijay; Siddalingappa, Basavaraj; Betageri, Guru V

    2015-01-01

    Insoluble drugs often formulated with various excipients to enhance the dissolution. Cyclodextrins (CDs) are widely used excipients to improve dissolution profile of poorly soluble drugs. Drug-CD complexation process is complex and often requires multiple processes to produce solid dosage form. Hence, this study explored commonly used granulation processes for simultaneous complexation and granulation. Poorly soluble drugs ibuprofen and glyburide were selected as experimental drugs. Co-evaporation of drug:CD mixture from a solvent followed by wet granulation with water was considered as standard process for comparison. Spray granulation and fluid bed processing (FBP) using drug:CD solution in ethanol were evaluated as an alternative processes. The dissolution data of glyburide tablets indicated that tablets produced by spray granulation, FBP and co-evaporation-granulation have almost identical dissolution profile in water and 0.1% SLS (>70% in water and >60% in SLS versus 30 and 34%, respectively for plain tablet, in 120 min). Similarly, ibuprofen:CD tablets produced by co-evaporation-granulation and FBP displayed similar dissolution profile in 0.01 M HCl (pH 2.0) and buffer pH 5.5 (>90 and 100% versus 44 and 80% respectively for plain tablets, 120 min). Results of this study demonstrated that spray granulation is simple and cost effective process for low dose poorly soluble drugs to incorporate drug:CD complex into solid dosage form, whereas FBP is suitable for poorly soluble drugs with moderate dose.

  9. Continuous Process Improvement at Tinker Air Logistics Complex

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Abstract The Air Logistics Complexes (ALC) represent the Air Force’s largest Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul ( MRO ) Operations. The ALCs strive to...this problem is important to the ALCs because it provides a roadmap for how to sustain Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul ( MRO ) actions with less...ALC) represent the Air Force’s largest Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul ( MRO ) Operations. The ALCs strive to become leaner by reducing Work In

  10. Using Multi-objective Optimization to Identify Dynamical Network Biomarkers as Early-warning Signals of Complex Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Vafaee, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers have gained immense scientific interest and clinical value in the practice of medicine. With unprecedented advances in high-throughput technologies, research interest in identifying novel and customized disease biomarkers for early detection, diagnosis, or drug responses is rapidly growing. Biomarkers can be identified in different levels of molecular biomarkers, networks biomarkers and dynamical network biomarkers (DNBs). The latter is a recently developed concept which relies on the idea that a cell is a complex system whose behavior is emerged from interplay of various molecules, and this network of molecules dynamically changes over time. A DNB can serve as an early-warning signal of disease progression, or as a leading network that drives the system into the disease state, and thus unravels mechanisms of disease initiation and progression. It is therefore of great importance to identify DNBs efficiently and reliably. In this work, the problem of DNB identification is defined as a multi-objective optimization problem, and a framework to identify DNBs out of time-course high-throughput data is proposed. Temporal gene expression data of a lung injury with carbonyl chloride inhalation exposure has been used as a case study, and the functional role of the discovered biomarker in the pathogenesis of lung injury has been thoroughly analyzed. PMID:26906975

  11. Using Multi-objective Optimization to Identify Dynamical Network Biomarkers as Early-warning Signals of Complex Diseases.

    PubMed

    Vafaee, Fatemeh

    2016-02-24

    Biomarkers have gained immense scientific interest and clinical value in the practice of medicine. With unprecedented advances in high-throughput technologies, research interest in identifying novel and customized disease biomarkers for early detection, diagnosis, or drug responses is rapidly growing. Biomarkers can be identified in different levels of molecular biomarkers, networks biomarkers and dynamical network biomarkers (DNBs). The latter is a recently developed concept which relies on the idea that a cell is a complex system whose behavior is emerged from interplay of various molecules, and this network of molecules dynamically changes over time. A DNB can serve as an early-warning signal of disease progression, or as a leading network that drives the system into the disease state, and thus unravels mechanisms of disease initiation and progression. It is therefore of great importance to identify DNBs efficiently and reliably. In this work, the problem of DNB identification is defined as a multi-objective optimization problem, and a framework to identify DNBs out of time-course high-throughput data is proposed. Temporal gene expression data of a lung injury with carbonyl chloride inhalation exposure has been used as a case study, and the functional role of the discovered biomarker in the pathogenesis of lung injury has been thoroughly analyzed.

  12. Trade-off in object versus spatial visualization abilities: restriction in the development of visual-processing resources.

    PubMed

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Blazhenkova, Olesya; Becker, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Previous research indicates relative independence between the ventral and dorsal visual pathways, associated with object and spatial visual processing, respectively. The present research shows that, at the individual-differences level, there is a trade-off, rather than independence, between object and spatial visualization abilities. Across five different age groups with different professional specializations, participants with above-average object visualization abilities (artists) had below-average spatial visualization abilities, and the inverse was true for those with above-average spatial visualization abilities (scientists). No groups showed both above-average object and above-average spatial visualization abilities. Furthermore, while total object and spatial visualization resources increase with age and experience, the trade-off relationship between object and spatial visualization abilities does not. These results suggest that the trade-off originates through a bottleneck that restricts the development of overall visualization resources, rather than through preferential experience in one type of visualization.

  13. [Multi-objective optimization of extraction process for red ginseng based upon extraction efficiency and cost control].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yi; Zhu, Jie-Qiang; Fan, Xiao-Hui; Kang, Li-Yuan; Li, Zheng

    2014-07-01

    It is the objective of this study to optimize the extraction process of red ginseng to minimize the unit cost of extracting effective ingredients. The relation between the target variables of total quantity of ginsenosides and first extraction time, first extraction solution amount, second extraction time, second extract solution amount were studied with Box-Behnken experimental design method. At the same we also considered the cost of extraction solution and energy usage. The objective function was set as unit cost of target (total quantity of ginsenosides or its purity) for the multi-objective optimization of extraction process. As a result, the optimal process parameters were found as first extraction time (108.7 min), first extraction solution amount folds (12), second extraction time (30 min), second extraction solution amount folds (8) to minimize the unit cost. It indicated that this approach could potentially be used to optimize industrial extraction process for manufacturing Chinese medicine.

  14. Visual processing of the impending collision of a looming object: time to collision revisited.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jing-Jiang; Lorv, Bailey; Li, Hong; Sun, Hong-Jin

    2011-10-14

    As an object approaches an observer's eye, the optical variable tau, defined as the inverse relative expansion rate of the object's image on the retina (D. N. Lee, 1976), approximates the time to collision (TTC). Many studies have provided support that human observers use TTC, but evidence for the exclusive use of TTC generated by tau remains inconclusive. In the present study, observers were presented with a visual display of two sequentially approaching objects and asked to compare their TTCs at the moment these objects vanished. Upon dissociating several variables that may have potentially contributed to TTC perception, we found that observers were most sensitive to TTC information when completing the task and less sensitive to non-time variables, such as those that specified distance to collision, speed, and object size. Moreover, when we manipulated presented variables to provide conflicting TTC information, TTC specified by tau was weighted much more than TTC derived from distance and speed. In conclusion, our results suggested that even in the presence of other monocular sources of information, observers still had a greater tendency to specifically use optical tau when making relative TTC judgments.

  15. Object manipulation and motion perception: evidence of an influence of action planning on visual processing.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, Oliver; Bekkering, Harold

    2009-08-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors investigated the bidirectional coupling of perception and action in the context of object manipulations and motion perception. Participants prepared to grasp an X-shaped object along one of its 2 diagonals and to rotate it in a clockwise- or a counterclockwise direction. Action execution had to be delayed until the appearance of a visual go signal, which induced an apparent rotational motion in either a clockwise- or a counterclockwise direction. Stimulus detection was faster when the direction of the induced apparent motion was consistent with the direction of the concurrently intended manual object rotation. Responses to action-consistent motions were also faster when the participants prepared the manipulation actions but signaled their stimulus detections with another motor effector (i.e., with a foot response). Taken together, the present study demonstrates a motor-visual priming effect of prepared object manipulations on visual motion perception, indicating a bidirectional functional link between action and perception beyond object-related visuomotor associations.

  16. Electrochemical process and production of novel complex hydrides

    DOEpatents

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2013-06-25

    A process of using an electrochemical cell to generate aluminum hydride (AlH.sub.3) is provided. The electrolytic cell uses a polar solvent to solubilize NaAlH.sub.4. The resulting electrochemical process results in the formation of AlH.sub.3. The AlH.sub.3 can be recovered and used as a source of hydrogen for the automotive industry. The resulting spent aluminum can be regenerated into NaAlH.sub.4 as part of a closed loop process of AlH.sub.3 generation.

  17. Evidence for global processing of complex visual displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munson, Robert C.; Horst, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    'Polar graphic' displays, in which changes in system status are represented by distortions in the form of a geometric figure, were presented to subjects, and reaction time (RT) to discriminate system status was recorded. Of interest was the extent to which reaction time showed evidence of global processing of these displays as the number of nodes and difficulty of discrimination were varied. When discrimination of system status was easy, RT showed no increase with increasing number of nodes, providing evidence of global processing. When discrimination was difficult, systematic differences in RT as a function of the number of nodes suggested the invocation of other (local) processes, although the data were not consistent with a node-by-node search process.

  18. Atypical Faces vs. Object Processing and Hemispheric Asymmetries in 10-Month-Old Infants at Risk for Autism

    PubMed Central

    McCleery, Joseph P.; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Dobkins, Karen R.; Carver, Leslie J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies have documented atypicalities in face/object processing in children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). To investigate whether such atypicalities may reflect a genetically-mediated risk factor present early in development, we measured face/object processing in 10-month-old “High-Risk” infants, who carry some of the genes associated with ASD because they have an older sibling diagnosed with the disorder. Methods We employed event related potentials (ERPs) to measure cortical responses to pictures of faces and objects, the objects being pictures of toys. Latencies and amplitudes of four ERP components (P100, N290, P400 and Nc) were compared between 20 High-Risk infants and 20 Low-Risk controls (infants with no family history of ASD). Results Responses to faces vs. objects differed between High- and Low-Risk infants, for the latencies of the N290 and P400. Differences were driven by faster responses to faces than objects in Low-Risk, but not High-Risk, infants (P400), and conversely, faster responses to objects than faces in High-Risk, but not Low-Risk, infants (N290). And, object responses were faster in High-Risk than Low-Risk infants (both N290 and P400). Left vs. right hemisphere responses also differed between High- and Low-Risk infants, for the amplitudes of the P100, N290 and P400; collapsed across faces/objects, Low-Risk, but not High-Risk, infants exhibited hemisphere asymmetries. Conclusions Genetic risk for ASD is associated with atypical face vs. object processing, and an atypical lack of hemispheric asymmetry, early in life. These atypicalities might contribute to development of the disorder. PMID:19765688

  19. Electrophysiological evidence for separation between human face and non-face object processing only in the right hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Niina, Megumi; Okamura, Jun-ya; Wang, Gang

    2015-10-01

    Scalp event-related potential (ERP) studies have demonstrated larger N170 amplitudes when subjects view faces compared to items from object categories. Extensive attempts have been made to clarify face selectivity and hemispheric dominance for face processing. The purpose of this study was to investigate hemispheric differences in N170s activated by human faces and non-face objects, as well as the extent of overlap of their sources. ERP was recorded from 20 subjects while they viewed human face and non-face images. N170s obtained during the presentation of human faces appeared earlier and with larger amplitude than for other category images. Further source analysis with a two-dipole model revealed that the locations of face and object processing largely overlapped in the left hemisphere. Conversely, the source for face processing in the right hemisphere located more anterior than the source for object processing. The results suggest that the neuronal circuits for face and object processing are largely shared in the left hemisphere, with more distinct circuits in the right hemisphere.

  20. Effect of process configuration and substrate complexity on the performance of anaerobic processes.

    PubMed

    Azbar, N; Ursillo, P; Speece, R E

    2001-03-01

    The roles of substrate complexity (molecular size of the substrate) and process configuration in anaerobic wastewater treatment were investigated to determine optimal methanogenic technology parameters. Five substrates (glucose, propionate, butyrate, ethanol, and lactate) plus a mixed waste (60% carbohydrate, 34% protein, and 6% lipids) were studied under five reactor configurations: batch-fed single-stage continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), continuously fed single-stage CSTR, two-phase CSTR, two-stage CSTR, and single-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB). The substrate feed concentration was 20,000 mg/L as COD. The solids retention time (SRT) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the CSTR reactors were 20 d, while HRT in the UASB was 2 d. All reactors were operated for at least 60 d (equal to 3SRT). Substrate complexity was observed to be less significant under two-phase, two-stage and UASB reactor configurations. Two-phase CSTR, two-stage CSTR, and single-stage UASB configurations yielded the lowest effluent chemical oxygen demands (130-550, 60-700, and 50-250 mg/L, respectively). The highest effluent chemical oxygen demands were detected when feeding glucose, propionate, and lactate to continuously fed single-stage CSTRs (10, 400, 9900, and 4700 mg/L COD, respectively) and to batch-fed single-stage CSTRs (11, 200, 2500, and 2700 mg/L COD, respectively). Ironically, the one stage CSTR--most commonly utilized in the field--was the worst possible reactor configuration.

  1. Anticancer Activity of Metal Complexes: Involvement of Redox Processes

    PubMed Central

    Jungwirth, Ute; Kowol, Christian R.; Keppler, Bernhard K.; Hartinger, Christian G.; Berger, Walter; Heffeter, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Cells require tight regulation of the intracellular redox balance and consequently of reactive oxygen species for proper redox signaling and maintenance of metal (e.g., of iron and copper) homeostasis. In several diseases, including cancer, this balance is disturbed. Therefore, anticancer drugs targeting the redox systems, for example, glutathione and thioredoxin, have entered focus of interest. Anticancer metal complexes (platinum, gold, arsenic, ruthenium, rhodium, copper, vanadium, cobalt, manganese, gadolinium, and molybdenum) have been shown to strongly interact with or even disturb cellular redox homeostasis. In this context, especially the hypothesis of “activation by reduction” as well as the “hard and soft acids and bases” theory with respect to coordination of metal ions to cellular ligands represent important concepts to understand the molecular modes of action of anticancer metal drugs. The aim of this review is to highlight specific interactions of metal-based anticancer drugs with the cellular redox homeostasis and to explain this behavior by considering chemical properties of the respective anticancer metal complexes currently either in (pre)clinical development or in daily clinical routine in oncology. PMID:21275772

  2. Quality Assurance for Digital Learning Object Repositories: Issues for the Metadata Creation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currier, Sarah; Barton, Jane; O'Beirne, Ronan; Ryan, Ben

    2004-01-01

    Metadata enables users to find the resources they require, therefore it is an important component of any digital learning object repository. Much work has already been done within the learning technology community to assure metadata quality, focused on the development of metadata standards, specifications and vocabularies and their implementation…

  3. Dynamic Complexity Study of Nuclear Reactor and Process Heat Application Integration

    SciTech Connect

    J'Tia Patrice Taylor; David E. Shropshire

    2009-09-01

    Abstract This paper describes the key obstacles and challenges facing the integration of nuclear reactors with process heat applications as they relate to dynamic issues. The paper also presents capabilities of current modeling and analysis tools available to investigate these issues. A pragmatic approach to an analysis is developed with the ultimate objective of improving the viability of nuclear energy as a heat source for process industries. The extension of nuclear energy to process heat industries would improve energy security and aid in reduction of carbon emissions by reducing demands for foreign derived fossil fuels. The paper begins with an overview of nuclear reactors and process application for potential use in an integrated system. Reactors are evaluated against specific characteristics that determine their compatibility with process applications such as heat outlet temperature. The reactor system categories include light water, heavy water, small to medium, near term high-temperature, and far term high temperature reactors. Low temperature process systems include desalination, district heating, and tar sands and shale oil recovery. High temperature processes that support hydrogen production include steam reforming, steam cracking, hydrogen production by electrolysis, and far-term applications such as the sulfur iodine chemical process and high-temperature electrolysis. A simple static matching between complementary systems is performed; however, to gain a true appreciation for system integration complexity, time dependent dynamic analysis is required. The paper identifies critical issues arising from dynamic complexity associated with integration of systems. Operational issues include scheduling conflicts and resource allocation for heat and electricity. Additionally, economic and safety considerations that could impact the successful integration of these systems are considered. Economic issues include the cost differential arising due to an integrated

  4. Spatial Attention Effects during Conscious and Nonconscious Processing of Visual Features and Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Evelina; Breitmeyer, Bruno G.; Jacob, Jane; Broyles, Elizabeth C.

    2013-01-01

    Flanker congruency effects were measured in a masked flanker task to assess the properties of spatial attention during conscious and nonconscious processing of form, color, and conjunctions of these features. We found that (1) consciously and nonconsciously processed colored shape distractors (i.e., flankers) produce flanker congruency effects;…

  5. Processing of spatial and non-spatial information in rats with lesions of the medial and lateral entorhinal cortex: Environmental complexity matters.

    PubMed

    Rodo, Christophe; Sargolini, Francesca; Save, Etienne

    2017-03-01

    The entorhinal-hippocampal circuitry has been suggested to play an important role in episodic memory but the contribution of the entorhinal cortex remains elusive. Predominant theories propose that the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) processes spatial information whereas the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) processes non spatial information. A recent study using an object exploration task has suggested that the involvement of the MEC and LEC spatial and non-spatial information processing could be modulated by the amount of information to be processed, i.e. environmental complexity. To address this hypothesis we used an object exploration task in which rats with excitotoxic lesions of the MEC and LEC had to detect spatial and non-spatial novelty among a set of objects and we varied environmental complexity by decreasing the number of objects or amount of object diversity. Reducing diversity resulted in restored ability to process spatial and non-spatial information in MEC and LEC groups, respectively. Reducing the number of objects yielded restored ability to process non-spatial information in the LEC group but not the ability to process spatial information in the MEC group. The findings indicate that the MEC and LEC are not strictly necessary for spatial and non-spatial processing but that their involvement depends on the complexity of the information to be processed.

  6. Complex life forms may arise from electrical processes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    There is still not an appealing and testable model to explain how single-celled organisms, usually following fusion of male and female gametes, proceed to grow and evolve into multi-cellular, complexly differentiated systems, a particular species following virtually an invariant and unique growth pattern. An intrinsic electrical oscillator, resembling the cardiac pacemaker, may explain the process. Highly auto-correlated, it could live independently of ordinary thermodynamic processes which mandate increasing disorder, and could coordinate growth and differentiation of organ anlage. PMID:20576122

  7. Intersection of participation and environmental factors: a complex interactive process.

    PubMed

    Noreau, Luc; Boschen, Kathryn

    2010-09-01

    The objective was to review contemporary and historical rehabilitation-focused literature on conceptualizations of the environment, broadly defined, and environmental measures. Data sources included historical nonempirical American-based literature from 1935 to the present and descriptive and empirical rehabilitation articles worldwide, retrieved from computerized databases predominantly from past 10 years depicting a participation-environment association. Literature selection required relevance to 3 combined topics: physical disability rehabilitation, participation/community integration, and impact of environmental barriers and facilitators. The ultimate focus was on spinal cord injury for recent literature and measures reviewed. Data extraction was based on author-assessed relevance to both participation and environmental considerations. Nonempirical literature from last three quarters of a century suggests an environmental impact on participation, focusing on "person-environment fit." Recent empirical evidence supports environmental contributions to participation, but the magnitude of the contribution is low. Despite the obvious theoretic impact of the environment, scientific demonstration of environmental contribution to participation restriction or facilitation has yet to be achieved. Participation-environment interaction could be illustrated better by (1) taking into account critical elements in environmental measures (eg, comprehensiveness of approach to environment, scales describing spectrum of environmental influence, subjective vs objective perspectives), (2) addressing the concept of participation in a dimension-specific approach, and (3) avoiding environmental features in construction of participation measures.

  8. Random matrices, complexity of spin glasses and heavy tailed processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auffinger, Antonio

    2011-12-01

    In the first part of this thesis we introduce a new identity relating critical values of random Hamiltonians in certain compact manifolds to eigenvalues of random matrix ensembles. This identity allows us identify the location of the ground state energy and obtain an explicit formula for the asymptotic complexity of the number of critical points of finite and diverging index at any level of energy. We show that two possible scenarios for the bottom energy landscape emerge. This picture is consistent with a transition from a glass to spin glass system. In the second part, we establish the limit laws for largest eigenvalues of Wigner and Sample Covariance matrices when the entries are heavy tailed with less than four moments. We then study a model of Directed Polymer in a heavy tailed Random Environment proving a scaling limit law for the polymer measure.

  9. Aircraft stress sequence development: A complex engineering process made simple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, K. H.; Butts, D. G.; Sparks, W. A.

    1994-01-01

    Development of stress sequences for critical aircraft structure requires flight measured usage data, known aircraft loads, and established relationships between aircraft flight loads and structural stresses. Resulting cycle-by-cycle stress sequences can be directly usable for crack growth analysis and coupon spectra tests. Often, an expert in loads and spectra development manipulates the usage data into a typical sequence of representative flight conditions for which loads and stresses are calculated. For a fighter/trainer type aircraft, this effort is repeated many times for each of the fatigue critical locations (FCL) resulting in expenditure of numerous engineering hours. The Aircraft Stress Sequence Computer Program (ACSTRSEQ), developed by Southwest Research Institute under contract to San Antonio Air Logistics Center, presents a unique approach for making complex technical computations in a simple, easy to use method. The program is written in Microsoft Visual Basic for the Microsoft Windows environment.

  10. Complex Dynamics in Academics' Developmental Processes in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trautwein, Caroline; Nückles, Matthias; Merkt, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Improving teaching in higher education is a concern for universities worldwide. This study explored academics' developmental processes in teaching using episodic interviews and teaching portfolios. Eight academics in the context of teaching development reported changes in their teaching and change triggers. Thematic analyses revealed seven areas…

  11. Segmentation of complex objects with non-spherical topologies from volumetric medical images using 3D livewire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Kelvin; Hamarneh, Ghassan; Abugharbieh, Rafeef

    2007-03-01

    Segmentation of 3D data is one of the most challenging tasks in medical image analysis. While reliable automatic methods are typically preferred, their success is often hindered by poor image quality and significant variations in anatomy. Recent years have thus seen an increasing interest in the development of semi-automated segmentation methods that combine computational tools with intuitive, minimal user interaction. In an earlier work, we introduced a highly-automated technique for medical image segmentation, where a 3D extension of the traditional 2D Livewire was proposed. In this paper, we present an enhanced and more powerful 3D Livewire-based segmentation approach with new features designed to primarily enable the handling of complex object topologies that are common in biological structures. The point ordering algorithm we proposed earlier, which automatically pairs up seedpoints in 3D, is improved in this work such that multiple sets of points are allowed to simultaneously exist. Point sets can now be automatically merged and split to accommodate for the presence of concavities, protrusions, and non-spherical topologies. The robustness of the method is further improved by extending the 'turtle algorithm', presented earlier, by using a turtle-path pruning step. Tests on both synthetic and real medical images demonstrate the efficiency, reproducibility, accuracy, and robustness of the proposed approach. Among the examples illustrated is the segmentation of the left and right ventricles from a T1-weighted MRI scan, where an average task time reduction of 84.7% was achieved when compared to a user performing 2D Livewire segmentation on every slice.

  12. The ventral visual pathway: an expanded neural framework for the processing of object quality.

    PubMed

    Kravitz, Dwight J; Saleem, Kadharbatcha S; Baker, Chris I; Ungerleider, Leslie G; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2013-01-01

    Since the original characterization of the ventral visual pathway, our knowledge of its neuroanatomy, functional properties, and extrinsic targets has grown considerably. Here we synthesize this recent evidence and propose that the ventral pathway is best understood as a recurrent occipitotemporal network containing neural representations of object quality both utilized and constrained by at least six distinct cortical and subcortical systems. Each system serves its own specialized behavioral, cognitive, or affective function, collectively providing the raison d'être for the ventral visual pathway. This expanded framework contrasts with the depiction of the ventral visual pathway as a largely serial staged hierarchy culminating in singular object representations and more parsimoniously incorporates attentional, contextual, and feedback effects.

  13. PROCESS DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENT: A MULTI-OBJECTIVE FRAMEWORK UNDER UNCERTAINTY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Designing chemical processes for environment requires consideration of several indexes of environmental impact including ozone depletion and global warming potentials, human and aquatic toxicity, and photochemical oxidation, and acid rain potentials. Current methodologies like t...

  14. Comparison of Raman spectroscopy vs. high performance liquid chromatography for quality control of complex therapeutic objects: model of elastomeric portable pumps filled with a fluorouracil solution.

    PubMed

    Bourget, Philippe; Amin, Alexandre; Vidal, Fabrice; Merlette, Christophe; Lagarce, Frédéric

    2014-03-01

    This study compares the performance of a reference method of HPLC to Raman spectroscopy (RS) for the analytical quality control (AQC) of complex therapeutic objects. We assessed a model consisting of a widely used anticancer drug, i.e., 5-fluorouracil, which was compounded in a complex medical device, i.e., an elastomeric portable infusion pump. In view of the main objective, the two methods provided excellent results for the analytical validation key criteria, i.e., trueness, precision and accuracy, ranging from 7.5 to 50mg/mL and in either isotonic sodium or 5% dextrose. The Spearman and Kendall correlation tests (p-value<1×10(-15)) and the statistical studies performed on the graphs confirm a strong correlation in the results between RS and the standard HPLC under the experimental conditions. The selection of a spectral interval between 700 and 1400cm(-1) for both the characterization and quantification by RS was the result of a gradual process optimization, combining matrix and packaging responses. In this new application, we demonstrate at least eight benefits of RS: (a) operator safety, (b) elimination of disposables, (c) elimination of analysis waste, which contributes to the protection of the environment, (d) a fast analytical response of less than 2min, (e) the ability to identify the solubilizing phase, (f) reduction of the risk of errors because no intrusion or dilution are needed, (g) negligible maintenance costs and (h) a reduction in the budget dedicated to technician training. Overall, we indicate the potential of non-intrusive AQC performed by RS, especially when the analysis is not possible using the usual techniques, and the technique's high potential as a contributor to the safety of medication.

  15. The Complexities of Complex Memory Span: Storage and Processing Deficits in Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, Lisa M. D.; Gathercole, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the verbal and visuospatial processing and storage skills of children with SLI and typically developing children. Fourteen school-age children with SLI, and two groups of typically developing children matched either for age or language abilities, completed measures of processing speed and storage capacity, and a set of…

  16. Nuclear Materials: Plutonium Processing in the Nuclear Weapons Complex

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    metal parts, Los Alamos uses ion exchange, after having dissolved the scrap with nitric acid. Sixteen of Los Alamos’ pyrochemical furnaces are used for...weapons components was done, produced much of the scrap . All plutonium processing operations for recovering metal are currently shut down and are not...impure plutonium metal . For the purposes of this report, the various types of scrap or residue are compiled into 14 general categories.1 Graphite

  17. The role of microphysical processes on the mesoscale simulation over the complex terrain, the Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, R. K.; Gallagher, M. W.; Connolly, P.

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of the four different cloud microphysical schemes (WSM3, WSM6, Morrison double moment and Lin scheme) within the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), as part of simulations of mesoscale weather systems across complex terrain in the Nepalese Himalayas. The Himalayas is characterized by a complex and rugged topography, with altitudes varying e.g. 70m in Southeastern Nepal, to the highest peak of the world, 8850m (Mt. Everest), and which extends from West to East covering many South and Central Asian countries: Afghanistan, Pakistan, China, India, Nepal, Bhutan, and Myanmar. Circulation in such a complex environment is complicated due to obstruction of flows by mountain ranges which in turn have wide ranging effects on cloud and rain formation and distribution. Monsoon rain is intrinsically linked to people’s daily life across the South Asia since more than 80% people depend on agriculture and majority of the agricultural systems are rainfall dependent. Modeling of the key microphysical process in this complex terrain provides insight into the general understanding of the processes and their spatial patterns, however there are many uncertainties in general. These uncertainties are even more pronounced when such models are applied to the complex terrain characteristic of the Himalayas. Numerical experiments are designed using the WRF model, with three nested domains (27, 9 and 3 km grid spacing). The performance of the four categories of microphysical schemes is examined in model experiments for (i) monsoon onset, (ii) monsoon decay and (iii) winter rainfall. The simulated results are compared with limited observed meteorological parameters such as rainfall, temperature, wind speed and wind direction, from ground-based meteorological stations situated within the high resolution (3km x 3km) domain. Results show that a) Simulated rainfall is very sensitive to the chosen microphysical scheme with rainfall

  18. Managing Complex IT Security Processes with Value Based Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Mili, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Current trends indicate that IT security measures will need to greatly expand to counter the ever increasingly sophisticated, well-funded and/or economically motivated threat space. Traditional risk management approaches provide an effective method for guiding courses of action for assessment, and mitigation investments. However, such approaches no matter how popular demand very detailed knowledge about the IT security domain and the enterprise/cyber architectural context. Typically, the critical nature and/or high stakes require careful consideration and adaptation of a balanced approach that provides reliable and consistent methods for rating vulnerabilities. As reported in earlier works, the Cyberspace Security Econometrics System provides a comprehensive measure of reliability, security and safety of a system that accounts for the criticality of each requirement as a function of one or more stakeholders interests in that requirement. This paper advocates a dependability measure that acknowledges the aggregate structure of complex system specifications, and accounts for variations by stakeholder, by specification components, and by verification and validation impact.

  19. A foundational methodology for determining system static complexity using notional lunar oxygen production processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Nicholas James

    This thesis serves to develop a preliminary foundational methodology for evaluating the static complexity of future lunar oxygen production systems when extensive information is not yet available about the various systems under consideration. Evaluating static complexity, as part of a overall system complexity analysis, is an important consideration in ultimately selecting a process to be used in a lunar base. When system complexity is higher, there is generally an overall increase in risk which could impact the safety of astronauts and the economic performance of the mission. To evaluate static complexity in lunar oxygen production, static complexity is simplified and defined into its essential components. First, three essential dimensions of static complexity are investigated, including interconnective complexity, strength of connections, and complexity in variety. Then a set of methods is developed upon which to separately evaluate each dimension. Q-connectivity analysis is proposed as a means to evaluate interconnective complexity and strength of connections. The law of requisite variety originating from cybernetic theory is suggested to interpret complexity in variety. Secondly, a means to aggregate the results of each analysis is proposed to create holistic measurement for static complexity using the Single Multi-Attribute Ranking Technique (SMART). Each method of static complexity analysis and the aggregation technique is demonstrated using notional data for four lunar oxygen production processes.

  20. Dissociation of object and spatial visual processing pathways in human extrastriate cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Haxby, J.V.; Grady, C.L.; Horwitz, B.; Ungerleider, L.G.; Mishkin, M.; Carson, R.E.; Herscovitch, P.; Schapiro, M.B.; Rapoport, S.I. )

    1991-03-01

    The existence and neuroanatomical locations of separate extrastriate visual pathways for object recognition and spatial localization were investigated in healthy young men. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured by positron emission tomography and bolus injections of H2(15)O, while subjects performed face matching, dot-location matching, or sensorimotor control tasks. Both visual matching tasks activated lateral occipital cortex. Face discrimination alone activated a region of occipitotemporal cortex that was anterior and inferior to the occipital area activated by both tasks. The spatial location task alone activated a region of lateral superior parietal cortex. Perisylvian and anterior temporal cortices were not activated by either task. These results demonstrate the existence of three functionally dissociable regions of human visual extrastriate cortex. The ventral and dorsal locations of the regions specialized for object recognition and spatial localization, respectively, suggest some homology between human and nonhuman primate extrastriate cortex, with displacement in human brain, possibly related to the evolution of phylogenetically newer cortical areas.

  1. Non-destructive testing of objects of complex shape using infrared thermography: rear surface reconstruction by temporal tracking of the thermal front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djupkep Dizeu, F. B.; Laurendeau, Denis; Bendada, Abdelhakim

    2016-12-01

    Infrared thermography allows contactless non-destructive testing of objects based on their thermal behavior. Quantitative inspection of an object aims to characterize its internal defects by estimating their size and their depth. In the field, a one-dimensional thermal model has been used for depth estimation. Unfortunately, the methods based on this model become inaccurate when the inspected object has a high thermal diffusivity, a complex shape, or when the defects, like corrosion, have a complex geometry. For such cases, a 3D formulation of the problem is needed. In this paper, we consider the defect characterization as an inverse geometry problem and we propose a new method: the rear surface reconstruction by temporal tracking of the thermal front. The idea is to follow the thermal front while it propagates inside the object. Referring to the duality time-depth, at every moment, the penetration depth of the thermal front can be estimated. As soon as the thermal front reaches the rear surface, a temperature change will be noticeable on the frontal surface. It is then possible to update the internal geometry of the object at each time step in such a way that the difference between the theoretical temperature, obtained by a 3D solver, and the experimental temperature, recorded by an infrared camera, is minimized. The proposed method shows accurate results and can address situations involving rear surfaces with complex geometry and objects with high thermal diffusivity and a complex shape.

  2. Patient flow scorecards capture complexity in the patient flow process.

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    To get a larger, more holistic view of the patient flow process, a multidisciplinary improvement team at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) developed a five-domain patient flow scorecard. Each domain has several weighted sub-metrics that add up to 20 points, so the maximum number of points in the composite score is 100. Improvement team leaders say the approach has helped them home in on specific reasons for hold-ups so that resources can be focused in the most effective way. The "ED and ED-to-inpatient transition" domain includes eight sub-metrics that cover five specific time intervals, the leave-without-being-seen (LWBS) rate, and two adjustment measures that are used to account for high volumes and high admission rates from the ED. The other domains cover bed management, the discharge process, room turnover and environmental services, and scheduling and utilization. Administrators say it is important to establish metrics that can be captured easily along with entry points that tie in with workflows.

  3. Space Launch System Complex Decision-Making Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyles, Garry; Flores, Tim; Hundley, Jason; Monk, Timothy; Feldman,Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The Space Shuttle program has ended and elements of the Constellation Program have either been cancelled or transitioned to new NASA exploration endeavors. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has worked diligently to select an optimum configuration for the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low earth orbit (LEO) large-scale missions for the next several decades. From Fall 2010 until Spring 2011, an SLS decision-making framework was formulated, tested, fully documented, and applied to multiple SLS vehicle concepts at NASA from previous exploration architecture studies. This was a multistep process that involved performing figure of merit (FOM)-based assessments, creating Pass/Fail gates based on draft threshold requirements, performing a margin-based assessment with supporting statistical analyses, and performing sensitivity analysis on each. This paper focuses on the various steps and methods of this process (rather than specific data) that allowed for competing concepts to be compared across a variety of launch vehicle metrics in support of the successful completion of the SLS Mission Concept Review (MCR) milestone.

  4. Renal development: a complex process dependent on inductive interaction.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Kiran K; Silverstein, Douglas M

    2014-01-01

    Renal development begins in-utero and continues throughout childhood. Almost one-third of all developmental anomalies include structural or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract. There are three main phases of in-utero renal development: Pronephros, Mesonephros and Metanephros. Within three weeks of gestation, paired pronephri appear. A series of tubules called nephrotomes fuse with the pronephric duct. The pronephros elongates and induces the nearby mesoderm, forming the mesonephric (Woffian) duct. The metanephros is the precursor of the mature kidney that originates from the ureteric bud and the metanephric mesoderm (blastema) by 5 weeks of gestation. The interaction between these two components is a reciprocal process, resulting in the formation of a mature kidney. The ureteric bud forms the major and minor calyces, and the collecting tubules while the metanephrogenic blastema develops into the renal tubules and glomeruli. In humans, all of the nephrons are formed by 32 to 36 weeks of gestation. Simultaneously, the lower urinary tract develops from the vesico urethral canal, ureteric bud and mesonephric duct. In utero, ureters deliver urine from the kidney to the bladder, thereby creating amniotic fluid. Transcription factors, extracellular matrix glycoproteins, signaling molecules and receptors are the key players in normal renal development. Many medications (e.g., aminoglycosides, cyclooxygenase inhibitors, substances that affect the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system) also impact renal development by altering the expression of growth factors, matrix regulators or receptors. Thus, tight regulation and coordinated processes are crucial for normal renal development.

  5. Processing Instruction and Dictogloss: A Study on Object Pronouns and Word Order in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanPatten, Bill; Inclezan, Daniela; Salazar, Hilda; Farley, Andrew P.

    2009-01-01

    In the current study, we present the findings of an experiment with 108 participants of Spanish as a second language in which we compared the effects of dictogloss (DG) and processing instruction (PI) and compared both sets of effects to a control group. Our findings do not support the results of a recent study, Qin (2008). In that study, DG and…

  6. Different Gestalt Processing for Different Actions? Comparing Object-Directed Reaching and Looking Time Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vishton, P.M.; Ware, E.A.; Badger, A.N.

    2005-01-01

    Six experiments compared the Gestalt processing that mediates infant reaching and looking behaviors. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the positioning and timing of 8- and 9-month-olds' reaching was influenced by remembered relative motion. Experiment 2 suggested that a visible gap, without this relative motion, was not sufficient to produce these…

  7. KAZIA: A computer system for solar-terrestrial data processing and objective prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stasiewicz, K.; Maksymienko, M.; Jakimiec, M.

    1979-01-01

    A computer system for solar terrestrial data processing is described. The data base consists mainly of information contained in Ursigrams exchanged between the IUWDS Regional Warning Centers. The system structure and its functions are presented. Solar flare forecasting is described, as one of the prediction techniques incorporated in the system.

  8. Rapid e-Learning Tools Selection Process for Cognitive and Psychomotor Learning Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, David Tawei; Huang, Yung-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a decision making process for the selection of rapid e-learning tools that could match different learning domains. With the development of the Internet, the speed of information updates has become faster than ever. E-learning has rapidly become the mainstream for corporate training and academic instruction. In order to reduce…

  9. A Novel Spectral Data Processing Procedure on Multi-Object Fiber Spectral Data Based on 2-D Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Ye, Z. F.; Xu, X.

    2016-01-01

    The data processing procedures currently used on most multi-object fiber spectroscopic telescopes, such as Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Anglo-Australia Telescope (AAT), etc., are based on one-dimensional (1-D) algorithms. In this paper, LAMOST is taken as an example to display the proposed multi-object fiber spectral data processing procedure. In the using processing procedure on LAMOST, after the pretreatment process, the two-dimensional (2-D) observed raw data are extracted into 1-D intermediate data simply based on 1-D model. Then the subsequent key steps are all done by 1-D algorithms. However, this processing procedure is not in accord with the formation mechanism of the observed spectra. Therefore, it brings a considerable error in each step. To solve the problem, we propose a novel processing procedure that has not been used on LAMOST or other telescopes. The modules of the procedure are reordered, and the main steps are all based on 2-D algorithms. The principles of the core algorithms are explained in detail. Besides, some partial experimental results are shown to prove the effectiveness and superiority of the 2-D algorithms.

  10. Optimization of formulation and processing of Moringa oleifera and spirulina complex tablets.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; Zhu, Fan; Lin, Dan; Wu, Jun; Zhou, Yichao; Mark, Bohn

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To prepare a more comprehensive nutrition, more balanced proportion of natural nutritional supplement tablets with Moringa oleifera leaves and spirulina the two nutrients which have complementary natural food ingredients. Method: On the basis of research M. oleifera leaves with spirulina nutrient composition was determined on M. oleifera leaves and spirulina ratio of raw materials, and the choice of microcrystalline cellulose, sodium salt of caboxy methyl cellulose(CMC),magnesium stearate excipient, through single factor and orthogonal experiment, selecting the best formula tablets prepared by powder direct compression technology, for preparation of M. oleifera and spirulina complex tablets. Results: The best ratio of raw material for the M. oleifera leaves powder: spirulina powder was 7:3, the best raw materials for the tablet formulation was 88.5%, 8.0% microcrystalline cellulose, CMC 2.0%, stearin magnesium 1.5%, the optimum parameters for the raw material crushing 200-300 mesh particle size, moisture content of 7%, tableting pressure 40 kN. Conclusion: Through formulation and process optimization, we can prepare more comprehensive and balanced nutrition M. oleifera and spirulina complex tablets, its sheet-shaped appearance, piece weight variation, hardness, friability, disintegration and other indicators have reached the appropriate quality requirements.

  11. Hierarchical versus parallel processing in tactile object recognition: a behavioural-neuroanatomical study of aperceptive tactile agnosia.

    PubMed

    Bohlhalter, S; Fretz, C; Weder, B

    2002-11-01

    The organization of the normal perceptual processing subserving tactile object recognition is poorly understood. While perceptual deficits associated with cases of tactile agnosia may pinpoint sites of critical interference with normal tactile information processing, the precise character of such deficits remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to explore the behavioural and neuroanatomical correlates of perceptual disturbances in two cases of unilateral aperceptive tactile agnosia. Perception of microgeometrical and macrogeometrical features was tested using an alternative forced choice paradigm. While both patients were impaired in the assessment of microgeometrical properties of objects (i.e. detecting subtle differences in grating profiles), one patient showed an additional deficit in the perception of macrogeometrical properties of objects (i.e. detecting differences in length of cuboids). The pattern of perceptual deficits for both patients suggested a severely compromised (if not totally lost) ability to recognize everyday objects. Perceptual performance improved when the patients had complementary tactile information (i.e. for intramodal comparison), despite a persistent inability to explicitly name the objects. That is, the patients were able to recognize objects, but only implicitly. Improved perceptual performance was also observed when complementary visual information was available (i.e. transmodal information transfer). In this case, the perceptual improvement was accompanied by a corresponding improvement in explicit object recognition. High resolution MRIs identified lesions in the postcentral gyrus in both patients, and additionally in the secondary somatosensory area (SII) and the posterior parietal cortex in the more severely affected patient. The results demonstrate that the underlying failure in tactile agnosia is mainly impaired perception of microgeometrical properties of objects due to a lesion of primary sensory cortex. The related

  12. Dimensional Stability of Complex Shapes Manufactured by the VARTM Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubert, Pascal; Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Pipes, R. Byron

    2002-01-01

    The vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process is a cost effective, innovative method that is being considered for manufacture of large aircraft-quality components where high mechanical properties and dimensional tolerance are essential. In the present work, carbon fiber SAERTEX fabric/SI-ZG-5A epoxy resin C-shaped laminates were manufactured by VARTM using different cure cycles followed by the same post-cure cycle. The final part thickness was uniform except at the corner were thinning was observed. The cure cycle selected is shown to significantly affect the part spring-in and a long cycle at 66 C followed by a 178 C post-cure produced a part with negligible spring-in.

  13. Digital Signal Processing at 1GHz in a Field-Programmable Object Array

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    96 MAC – 6*8 = 48 RF – rest = 297 ALU • Periphery – 12*7KB int. RAM – 2*72b ext. RAM – 2*16b LVDS – 192 GPIO Page 7 Communication • Uniform bus...Rx,Tx = High-speed parallel I/O – Configurable for 16-bit LVDS or 32-bit HSTL • Up to 800MHz DDR LVDS (25Gb/s) – Receive into 2,4,8 object rows...GPIO • DSP FFT and FIR – Processors = ALU-TF, MAC, RF – Periphery = Narrow IRAM, Narrow XRAM, GPIO and/or LVDS – Future processor: FEC • Networking

  14. Social marketing and the creative process: staying true to your social marketing objectives.

    PubMed

    Keller, Heidi; Thackeray, Rosemary

    2011-09-01

    Developing the promotional strategy is often the most exciting and enjoyable part of the social marketing plan. Health communication and social marketing campaigns that combine mass media with the distribution of health-related products, such as child safety restraints and sun protection products, have shown strong evidence of effectiveness for producing intended behavior changes (Guide to Community Preventive Services, 2010). This article discusses the promotional aspect of social marketing plans--the fourth P in the marketing mix that includes product, place, and price--and how public health practitioners can work with creative professionals to be sure that the creative development and execution of promotional messages and materials stay "on strategy" and support their objectives.

  15. Image Processing Method of the Motion-Capturing PSP/TSP for the Measurement of a Free-Flight Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Masato; Goya, Hideki; Miyazaki, Takeshi; Sakaue, Hirotaka

    2015-11-01

    The motion-capturing PSP/TSP system consists of a two-color PSP/TSP and a high-speed color camera. Red and green luminescent images are acquired simultaneously as signal and reference outputs by this system. Simply by rationing the red and the green images, we can obtain a pressure/temperature distribution on the surface of a target object. This system is applied to measure the surface pressure/temperature of a free-flight object. However, an acquired image includes motion blur, focus blur and random noise around the object. We discuss image processing methods and evaluations to optimize those uncertainties. Three types of the edge detect methods are used, which are the sobel, the laplassian and the canny. We will also show the evaluation results to discuss an optimized image processing for the motion-capturing PSP/TSP system.

  16. Brief Report: Lack of Processing Bias for the Objects Other People Attend to in 3-Year-Olds with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falck-Ytter, Terje; Thorup, Emilia; Bölte, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Whether gaze following--a key component of joint attention--is impaired in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is currently debated. Functional gaze following involves saccading towards the attended rather than unattended targets (accuracy) as well as a subsequent processing bias for attended objects. Using non-invasive eye tracking…

  17. Visual Information-Processing in the Perception of Features and Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-10

    display containing two other types of bars that differ from them in color or size or orientation. The target group is shifted either as a whole...motion of the target group . The results so far suggest that both color and orientation can provide an input to the matching process that determines...targets were larger than the background. When the target group was defined by a value intermediate between two types of distractors (medium-sized against

  18. Investigation of cu-BTA complex formation during Cu chemical mechanical planarization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Byoung-Jun; Shima, Shohei; Hamada, Satomi; Park, Jin-Goo

    2016-10-01

    The effect of Cu surface conditions on Cu-BTA complex formation was investigated using contact angle, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and XPS measurements which is of interest to Cu Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) process. During Cu CMP process BTA is widely used as a corrosion inhibitor, reacts with Cu and forms a strong Cu-BTA complex. Thus, it is very essential to remove Cu-BTA complex during post-Cu CMP cleaning process as Cu-BTA complex causes severe problems such as particle contamination and watermark due to its hydrophobic nature. In this report, the Cu-BTA complex formation at various Cu surfaces (as received, pure Cu and Cu oxide) was investigated in order to understand its adsorption reaction and develop effective post-Cu CMP cleaning process.

  19. Information processes in visual and object buffers of scene understanding system for reliable target detection, separation from background, and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvich, Gary

    2006-05-01

    Modern target recognition systems suffer from the lack of human-like abilities to understand the visual scene, detect, unambiguously identify and recognize objects. As result, the target recognition systems become dysfunctional if target doesn't demonstrate remarkably distinctive and contrast features that allow for unambiguous separation from background and identification upon such features. This is somewhat similar to visual systems of primitive animals like frogs, which can separate and recognize only moving objects. However, human vision unambiguously separates any object from its background. Human vision combines a rough but wide peripheral, and narrow but precise foveal systems with visual intelligence that utilize both scene and object contexts and resolve ambiguity and uncertainty in the visual information. Perceptual grouping is one of the most important processes in human vision, and it binds visual information into meaningful patterns and structures. Unlike the traditional computer vision models, biologically-inspired Network-Symbolic models convert image information into an "understandable" Network-Symbolic format, which is similar to relational knowledge models. The equivalent of interaction between peripheral and foveal systems in the network-symbolic system is achieved via interaction between Visual and Object Buffers and the top-level system of Visual Intelligence. This interaction provides recursive rough context identification of regions of interest in the visual scene and their analysis in the object buffer for precise and unambiguous separation of the object from background/clutter with following recognition of the target.

  20. Gaussian Process Model for Collision Dynamics of Complex Molecules.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jie; Krems, Roman V

    2015-08-14

    We show that a Gaussian process model can be combined with a small number (of order 100) of scattering calculations to provide a multidimensional dependence of scattering observables on the experimentally controllable parameters (such as the collision energy or temperature) as well as the potential energy surface (PES) parameters. For the case of Ar-C_{6}H_{6} collisions, we show that 200 classical trajectory calculations are sufficient to provide a ten-dimensional hypersurface, giving the dependence of the collision lifetimes on the collision energy, internal temperature, and eight PES parameters. This can be used for solving the inverse scattering problem, for the efficient calculation of thermally averaged observables, for reducing the error of the molecular dynamics calculations by averaging over the PES variations, and for the analysis of the sensitivity of the observables to individual parameters determining the PES. Trained by a combination of classical and quantum calculations, the model provides an accurate description of the quantum scattering cross sections, even near scattering resonances.

  1. Complex physiological and molecular processes underlying root gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Rujin; Guan, Changhui; Boonsirichai, Kanokporn; Masson, Patrick H.

    2002-01-01

    Gravitropism allows plant organs to guide their growth in relation to the gravity vector. For most roots, this response to gravity allows downward growth into soil where water and nutrients are available for plant growth and development. The primary site for gravity sensing in roots includes the root cap and appears to involve the sedimentation of amyloplasts within the columella cells. This process triggers a signal transduction pathway that promotes both an acidification of the wall around the columella cells, an alkalinization of the columella cytoplasm, and the development of a lateral polarity across the root cap that allows for the establishment of a lateral auxin gradient. This gradient is then transmitted to the elongation zones where it triggers a differential cellular elongation on opposite flanks of the central elongation zone, responsible for part of the gravitropic curvature. Recent findings also suggest the involvement of a secondary site/mechanism of gravity sensing for gravitropism in roots, and the possibility that the early phases of graviresponse, which involve differential elongation on opposite flanks of the distal elongation zone, might be independent of this auxin gradient. This review discusses our current understanding of the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying these various phases of the gravitropic response in roots.

  2. Objective measures of subjective experience: the use of therapist notes in process-outcome research.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Wilma; Maskit, Bernard; Hoffman, Leon

    2012-06-01

    Computerized linguistic measures of emotional engagement, and reflective and affective language, previously applied to session transcripts, were applied to notes of 14 treatments by candidates under supervision at the New York Psychoanalytic Society and Institute, covering the five decades from the 1950s to the 1990s. The findings indicate a strong relationship between candidates' subjective experience as represented unintentionally in the linguistic style of their case notes and the effectiveness of their clinical work. The treatments were evaluated for effectiveness by experienced clinicians using the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and the Psychodynamic Functioning Scales of Høglend and colleagues; a Composite Clinical Effectiveness (CCE) measure was constructed based on level and change in these measures. The Mean High Weighted Referential Activity Dictionary (MHW), a computerized measure of emotional engagement developed in the framework of Bucci's theory of multiple coding and the referential process, showed a positive correlation of .73 with CCE. The Hostility subcategory of the Negative Affect Dictionary (ANH) showed a negative correlation, -.48, with CCE. In a multiple regression analysis, these two variables accounted for over three-quarters of the variance in the CCE. Implications of the findings for process/outcome research and supervision and evaluation of trainees are discussed.

  3. Faces as objects of non-expertise: processing of thatcherised faces in congenital prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Grüter, Thomas; Weber, Joachim E; Lueschow, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Congenital prosopagnosia (cPA) is a severe disorder in recognising familiar faces, a human characteristic that is presumably innate, without any macro-spatial brain anomalies. Following the idea that cPA is based on deficits of configural face processing, we used a speeded grotesqueness decision task with thatcherised faces, since the Thatcher illusion can serve as a test of configural disruption (Lewis and Johnston, 1997 Perception 26 225-227). The time needed to report the grotesqueness of a face in relation to orientation showed dissociate patterns between a group of fourteen people with cPA and a group of matched controls: whereas the RTs of controls followed a strong sigmoid function depending on rotation from the upright orientation, the RTs of people with cPA showed a much weaker sigmoid trend approaching a linear function. The latter result is interpreted as a diagnostic sign of impaired configural processing, being the primary cause of the absence of 'face expertise' in prosopagnosia.

  4. Decision Making Under Objective Risk Conditions-a Review of Cognitive and Emotional Correlates, Strategies, Feedback Processing, and External Influences.

    PubMed

    Schiebener, Johannes; Brand, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    While making decisions under objective risk conditions, the probabilities of the consequences of the available options are either provided or calculable. Brand et al. (Neural Networks 19:1266-1276, 2006) introduced a model describing the neuro-cognitive processes involved in such decisions. In this model, executive functions associated with activity in the fronto-striatal loop are important for developing and applying decision-making strategies, and for verifying, adapting, or revising strategies according to feedback. Emotional rewards and punishments learned from such feedback accompany these processes. In this literature review, we found support for the role of executive functions, but also found evidence for the importance of further cognitive abilities in decision making. Moreover, in addition to reflective processing (driven by cognition), decisions can be guided by impulsive processing (driven by anticipation of emotional reward and punishment). Reflective and impulsive processing may interact during decision making, affecting the evaluation of available options, as both processes are affected by feedback. Decision-making processes are furthermore modulated by individual attributes (e.g., age), and external influences (e.g., stressors). Accordingly, we suggest a revised model of decision making under objective risk conditions.

  5. Developmental plateau in visual object processing from adolescence to adulthood in autism.

    PubMed

    O'Hearn, Kirsten; Tanaka, James; Lynn, Andrew; Fedor, Jennifer; Minshew, Nancy; Luna, Beatriz

    2014-10-01

    A lack of typical age-related improvement from adolescence to adulthood contributes to face recognition deficits in adults with autism on the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT). The current studies examine if this atypical developmental trajectory generalizes to other tasks and objects, including parts of the face. The CFMT tests recognition of whole faces, often with a substantial delay. The current studies used the immediate memory (IM) task and the parts-whole face task from the Let's Face It! battery, which examines whole faces, face parts, and cars, without a delay between memorization and test trials. In the IM task, participants memorize a face or car. Immediately after the target disappears, participants identify the target from two similar distractors. In the part-whole task, participants memorize a whole face. Immediately after the face disappears, participants identify the target from a distractor with different eyes or mouth, either as a face part or a whole face. Results indicate that recognition deficits in autism become more robust by adulthood, consistent with previous work, and also become more general, including cars. In the IM task, deficits in autism were specific to faces in childhood, but included cars by adulthood. In the part-whole task, deficits in autism became more robust by adulthood, including both eyes and mouths as parts and in whole faces. Across tasks, the deficit in autism increased between adolescence and adulthood, reflecting a lack of typical improvement, leading to deficits with non-face stimuli and on a task without a memory delay. These results suggest that brain maturation continues to be affected into adulthood in autism, and that the transition from adolescence to adulthood is a vulnerable stage for those with autism.

  6. Development of a signal processing technique for the objective rating of gear noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blankenship, G. W.; Singh, Rajendra

    A technique for signal processing is proposed that focuses on the content and concentration of energy in narrow-band frequency spectra to rate sources of gear noise. The nature of gear noise is examined, and the rating scheme for gear whine is developed based on measurements of sound pressure, sound power, and gearbox vibration acceleration and velocity levels. Spatially, spectrally, and temporally weighted averages are determined for a range of operating conditions. The weighted averages incorporate results from a range of operating conditions into indices that correlate with subjective response under certain conditions. The method is tested by applying it to single-mesh steady-state applications and multimesh nonsteady-state applications. The present method is shown to be more suitable for studying machinery noise than conventional PNL methods.

  7. 360 degree realistic 3D image display and image processing from real objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xin; Chen, Yue; Huang, Yong; Tan, Xiaodi; Horimai, Hideyoshi

    2016-12-01

    A 360-degree realistic 3D image display system based on direct light scanning method, so-called Holo-Table has been introduced in this paper. High-density directional continuous 3D motion images can be displayed easily with only one spatial light modulator. Using the holographic screen as the beam deflector, 360-degree full horizontal viewing angle was achieved. As an accompany part of the system, CMOS camera based image acquisition platform was built to feed the display engine, which can take a full 360-degree continuous imaging of the sample at the center. Customized image processing techniques such as scaling, rotation, format transformation were also developed and embedded into the system control software platform. In the end several samples were imaged to demonstrate the capability of our system.

  8. Evolutionary multi-objective optimization based comparison of multi-column chromatographic separation processes for a ternary separation.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Jari; Kukkonen, Saku; Sainio, Tuomo

    2014-09-05

    Performance characteristics of two advanced multi-column chromatographic separation processes with discontinuous feed, Multi-Column Recycling Chromatogrphy (MCRC) and Japan Organo (JO), were investigated for a ternary separation using multi-objective optimization with an evolutionary algorithm. Conventional batch process was used as a reference. Fractionation of a concentrated acid hydrolysate of wood biomass into sulfuric acid, monosaccharide, and acetic acid fractions was used as a model system. Comparison of the separation processes was based on selected performance parameters in their optimized states. Flow rates and step durations were taken as decision variables whereas the column configuration and dimensions were fixed. The MCRC process was found to be considerably more efficient than the other processes with respect to eluent consumption. The batch process gave the highest productivity and the JO process the lowest. Both of the multi-column processes gave significantly higher monosaccharide yield than the batch process. When eluent consumption and monosaccharide yield are taken into account together with productivity, the MCRC process was found to be the most efficient in the studied case.

  9. Processing of Uav Based Range Imaging Data to Generate Detailed Elevation Models of Complex Natural Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohoutek, T. K.; Eisenbeiss, H.

    2012-07-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are more and more used in civil areas like geomatics. Autonomous navigated platforms have a great flexibility in flying and manoeuvring in complex environments to collect remote sensing data. In contrast to standard technologies such as aerial manned platforms (airplanes and helicopters) UAVs are able to fly closer to the object and in small-scale areas of high-risk situations such as landslides, volcano and earthquake areas and floodplains. Thus, UAVs are sometimes the only practical alternative in areas where access is difficult and where no manned aircraft is available or even no flight permission is given. Furthermore, compared to terrestrial platforms, UAVs are not limited to specific view directions and could overcome occlusions from trees, houses and terrain structures. Equipped with image sensors and/or laser scanners they are able to provide elevation models, rectified images, textured 3D-models and maps. In this paper we will describe a UAV platform, which can carry a range imaging (RIM) camera including power supply and data storage for the detailed mapping and monitoring of complex structures, such as alpine riverbed areas. The UAV platform NEO from Swiss UAV was equipped with the RIM camera CamCube 2.0 by PMD Technologies GmbH to capture the surface structures. Its navigation system includes an autopilot. To validate the UAV-trajectory a 360° prism was installed and tracked by a total station. Within the paper a workflow for the processing of UAV-RIM data is proposed, which is based on the processing of differential GNSS data in combination with the acquired range images. Subsequently, the obtained results for the trajectory are compared and verified with a track of a UAV (Falcon 8, Ascending Technologies) carried out with a total station simultaneously to the GNSS data acquisition. The results showed that the UAV's position using differential GNSS could be determined in the centimetre to the decimetre level. The RIM

  10. Multi-objective optimization of a continuous bio-dissimilation process of glycerol to 1, 3-propanediol.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gongxian; Liu, Ying; Gao, Qunwang

    2016-02-10

    This paper deals with multi-objective optimization of continuous bio-dissimilation process of glycerol to 1, 3-propanediol. In order to maximize the production rate of 1, 3-propanediol, maximize the conversion rate of glycerol to 1, 3-propanediol, maximize the conversion rate of glycerol, and minimize the concentration of by-product ethanol, we first propose six new multi-objective optimization models that can simultaneously optimize any two of the four objectives above. Then these multi-objective optimization problems are solved by using the weighted-sum and normal-boundary intersection methods respectively. Both the Pareto filter algorithm and removal criteria are used to remove those non-Pareto optimal points obtained by the normal-boundary intersection method. The results show that the normal-boundary intersection method can successfully obtain the approximate Pareto optimal sets of all the proposed multi-objective optimization problems, while the weighted-sum approach cannot achieve the overall Pareto optimal solutions of some multi-objective problems.

  11. Consecutive TMS-fMRI reveals an inverse relationship in BOLD signal between object and scene processing.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Caitlin R; Steeves, Jennifer K E

    2013-12-04

    The human visual system is capable of recognizing an infinite number of scenes containing an abundance of rich visual information. There are several cortical regions associated with the representation of a scene, including those specialized for object processing (the lateral occipital area [LO]) and for the spatial layout of scenes (the parahippocampal place area). Although behavioral studies have demonstrated that these image categories (scenes and objects) exert an influence on each other such that scene context can facilitate object identification or that scene categorization can be impaired by the presence of a salient object, little is known about the apparent cortical interactions involved in building the conscious representation of a complete scene. It has been shown that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the left LO disrupts object categorization but facilitates scene categorization. Here, we show that this effect is also reflected by changes in the BOLD signal such that TMS to the left LO decreases BOLD signal at the stimulation site (LO) while viewing objects and increases BOLD signal in the left PPA when viewing scenes. This suggests that these regions, although likely not on a strict hierarchy of bottom-up coding, share functional communication likely in the form of inhibitory connections.

  12. Enhanced oil recovery. Improved reservoir evaluation object of sponge coring process

    SciTech Connect

    Mickey, V.

    1981-04-01

    Oil saturation data determined by core analysis have improved. One result is the development of the sponge coring process. In the sponge coring method, the core sample is taken in much the same way as in conventional coring. The major difference is the porous, hard sponge that lines the core barrel. The sponge is so porous (approximately 80%) that cigarette smoke can be blown through it. It has one full darcy permeability and is oil-wet. The sponge is inside a thin polyvinyl chloride liner with small perforations in it. As the sponge core barrel is run into the hole, the sponge becomes wet with drilling fluid, usually water. Any oil in the core being forced out by the water and the reduction in pressure as the core is brought to surface is caught by the sponge. Since it is oil-wet the oil is retained. But water is forced out the small perforations in the liner. At the surface the 20-ft core is cut into 5-ft sections and put into special containers filled with fluid from the formation. That keeps the core in standard condition. Even much of the gas in solution remains in the core. This is noted during capping operations as the cap is forced back until the glue on it holds and seals the tube.

  13. Near Earth Object impact simulation tool for supporting the NEO mitigation decision making process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Nick J.; Swinerd, Graham G.; Morley, Andrew D.; Lewis, Hugh G.

    2007-05-01

    This paper describes the development of a computer simulation tool, NEOSim, capable of modelling small NEO impacts and their effect on the global population. The development of the tool draws upon existing models for the atmospheric passage and impact processes. Simulation of the land and ocean impact effects combined with a population density model leads to a casualty estimation at both a regional and global level. Casualty predictions are based upon the intensity of each impact effect on the local population density with consideration given to the population inside or outside local infrastructure. Two case studies are presented. The first evaluates the potential threat to the UK from localised NEO impacts, and highlights coastal locations as being at greater risk. Locations around Cornwall demonstrate a 69% increase in casualties above the local average. The second case study concerns the potential impact of asteroid 99942 Apophis in 2036. Propagation of the possible orbits along the line of variance leads to an extensive path of risk on the Earth. Deflection of the asteroid, by a variety of means, will move the projected impact site along this path. Results generated by NEOSim for the path indicate that South American countries such as Colombia and Venezuela are at a greater risk with estimated casualty figures in excess of 10 million. Applications of this software to the NEO threat are discussed along with the next stage of NEO impact simulation.

  14. Studying Dynamic Processes of Nano-sized Objects in Liquid using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hermannsdörfer, Justus; de Jonge, Niels

    2017-02-05

    Samples fully embedded in liquid can be studied at a nanoscale spatial resolution with Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) using a microfluidic chamber assembled in the specimen holder for Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and STEM. The microfluidic system consists of two silicon microchips supporting thin Silicon Nitride (SiN) membrane windows. This article describes the basic steps of sample loading and data acquisition. Most important of all is to ensure that the liquid compartment is correctly assembled, thus providing a thin liquid layer and a vacuum seal. This protocol also includes a number of tests necessary to perform during sample loading in order to ensure correct assembly. Once the sample is loaded in the electron microscope, the liquid thickness needs to be measured. Incorrect assembly may result in a too-thick liquid, while a too-thin liquid may indicate the absence of liquid, such as when a bubble is formed. Finally, the protocol explains how images are taken and how dynamic processes can be studied. A sample containing AuNPs is imaged both in pure water and in saline.

  15. Children's Verbal Working Memory: Role of Processing Complexity in Predicting Spoken Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magimairaj, Beula M.; Montgomery, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the role of processing complexity of verbal working memory tasks in predicting spoken sentence comprehension in typically developing children. Of interest was whether simple and more complex working memory tasks have similar or different power in predicting sentence comprehension. Method: Sixty-five children (6- to…

  16. Managing Complexity: Impact of Organization and Processing Style on Nonverbal Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsatsanis, Katherine D.; Noens, Ilse L. J.; Illmann, Cornelia L.; Pauls, David L.; Volkmar, Fred R.; Schultz, Robert T.; Klin, Ami

    2011-01-01

    The contributions of cognitive style and organization to processing and recalling a complex novel stimulus were examined by comparing the Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) test performance of children, adolescents, and adults with ASD to clinical controls (CC) and non-impaired controls (NC) using the "Developmental Scoring System."…

  17. The Effects of Visual Complexity for Japanese Kanji Processing with High and Low Frequencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamaoka, Katsuo; Kiyama, Sachiko

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of visual complexity for kanji processing by selecting target kanji from different stroke ranges of visually simple (2-6 strokes), medium (8-12 strokes), and complex (14-20 strokes) kanji with high and low frequencies. A kanji lexical decision task in Experiment 1 and a kanji naming task in Experiment 2…

  18. The Interaction of Complexity and Grammatical Processability: The Case of Swedish as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norrby, Catrin; Hakansson, Gisela

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to discuss the interaction of linguistic complexity and morpho-syntactic development in foreign language learners. The analysis of morpho-syntactic structures was carried out within the framework of Processability Theory (Pienemann 1998). To capture the level of complexity we investigate the following: sentence length,…

  19. Process for using surface strain measurements to obtain operational loads for complex structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, William Lance (Inventor); Ko, William L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The invention is an improved process for using surface strain data to obtain real-time, operational loads data for complex structures that significantly reduces the time and cost versus current methods.

  20. CALIBRATION OF SUBSURFACE BATCH AND REACTIVE-TRANSPORT MODELS INVOLVING COMPLEX BIOGEOCHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, the calibration of subsurface batch and reactive-transport models involving complex biogeochemical processes was systematically evaluated. Two hypothetical nitrate biodegradation scenarios were developed and simulated in numerical experiments to evaluate the perfor...

  1. Auditory object salience: human cortical processing of non-biological action sounds and their acoustic signal attributes.

    PubMed

    Lewis, James W; Talkington, William J; Tallaksen, Katherine C; Frum, Chris A

    2012-01-01

    Whether viewed or heard, an object in action can be segmented as a distinct salient event based on a number of different sensory cues. In the visual system, several low-level attributes of an image are processed along parallel hierarchies, involving intermediate stages wherein gross-level object form and/or motion features are extracted prior to stages that show greater specificity for different object categories (e.g., people, buildings, or tools). In the auditory system, though relying on a rather different set of low-level signal attributes, meaningful real-world acoustic events and "auditory objects" can also be readily distinguished from background scenes. However, the nature of the acoustic signal attributes or gross-level perceptual features that may be explicitly processed along intermediate cortical processing stages remain poorly understood. Examining mechanical and environmental action sounds, representing two distinct non-biological categories of action sources, we had participants assess the degree to which each sound was perceived as object-like versus scene-like. We re-analyzed data from two of our earlier functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task paradigms (Engel et al., 2009) and found that scene-like action sounds preferentially led to activation along several midline cortical structures, but with strong dependence on listening task demands. In contrast, bilateral foci along the superior temporal gyri (STG) showed parametrically increasing activation to action sounds rated as more "object-like," independent of sound category or task demands. Moreover, these STG regions also showed parametric sensitivity to spectral structure variations (SSVs) of the action sounds-a quantitative measure of change in entropy of the acoustic signals over time-and the right STG additionally showed parametric sensitivity to measures of mean entropy and harmonic content of the environmental sounds. Analogous to the visual system, intermediate stages of the

  2. Assessing the Performance of Computationally Simple and Complex Representations of Aerosol Processes using a Testbed Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fast, J. D.; Ma, P.; Easter, R. C.; Liu, X.; Zaveri, R. A.; Rasch, P.

    2012-12-01

    Predictions of aerosol radiative forcing in climate models still contain large uncertainties, resulting from a poor understanding of certain aerosol processes, the level of complexity of aerosol processes represented in models, and the ability of models to account for sub-grid scale variability of aerosols and processes affecting them. In addition, comparing the performance and computational efficiency of new aerosol process modules used in various studies is problematic because different studies often employ different grid configurations, meteorology, trace gas chemistry, and emissions that affect the temporal and spatial evolution of aerosols. To address this issue, we have developed an Aerosol Modeling Testbed (AMT) to systematically and objectively evaluate aerosol process modules. The AMT consists of the modular Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, a series of testbed cases for which extensive in situ and remote sensing measurements of meteorological, trace gas, and aerosol properties are available, and a suite of tools to evaluate the performance of meteorological, chemical, aerosol process modules. WRF contains various parameterizations of meteorological, chemical, and aerosol processes and includes interactive aerosol-cloud-radiation treatments similar to those employed by climate models. In addition, the physics suite from a global climate model, Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5), has also been ported to WRF so that these parameterizations can be tested at various spatial scales and compared directly with field campaign data and other parameterizations commonly used by the mesoscale modeling community. In this study, we evaluate simple and complex treatments of the aerosol size distribution and secondary organic aerosols using the AMT and measurements collected during three field campaigns: the Megacities Initiative Local and Global Observations (MILAGRO) campaign conducted in the vicinity of Mexico City during March 2006, the

  3. Quality inspection guided laser processing of irregular shape objects by stereo vision measurement: application in badminton shuttle manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Li; Wang, Shun; Zhang, Yixin; Sun, Yingying; Zhang, Xuping

    2015-11-01

    The quality inspection process is usually carried out after first processing of the raw materials such as cutting and milling. This is because the parts of the materials to be used are unidentified until they have been trimmed. If the quality of the material is assessed before the laser process, then the energy and efforts wasted on defected materials can be saved. We proposed a new production scheme that can achieve quantitative quality inspection prior to primitive laser cutting by means of three-dimensional (3-D) vision measurement. First, the 3-D model of the object is reconstructed by the stereo cameras, from which the spatial cutting path is derived. Second, collaborating with another rear camera, the 3-D cutting path is reprojected to both the frontal and rear views of the object and thus generates the regions-of-interest (ROIs) for surface defect analysis. An accurate visual guided laser process and reprojection-based ROI segmentation are enabled by a global-optimization-based trinocular calibration method. The prototype system was built and tested with the processing of raw duck feathers for high-quality badminton shuttle manufacture. Incorporating with a two-dimensional wavelet-decomposition-based defect analysis algorithm, both the geometrical and appearance features of the raw feathers are quantified before they are cut into small patches, which result in fully automatic feather cutting and sorting.

  4. A simple procedure for morphometric analysis of processes and growth cones of neurons in culture using parameters derived from the contour and convex hull of the object.

    PubMed

    Kawa, A; Stahlhut, M; Berezin, A; Bock, E; Berezin, V

    1998-01-31

    Morphometric estimation of neuronal processes is currently laborious and time-consuming, since the individual processes (axons and dendrites) have to be traced manually. In order to facilitate the measurement of cellular processes, we have tested a series of parameters derived from the contour and the convex hull of an object and estimated to which extent they reflect process length and number. The parameters included the area, perimeter and form factor of the object and convex hull, their ratios as well as object length, breadth, width, length/width and spreading index. Some new parameters derived from the contour and convex hull of the object, were also computed: process index (the number of areas contained within the convex hull outside the object contour), process domain (the total area contained within the convex hull outside the object contour), their ratio and the square root of the process domain (SR process domain). In total, 18 parameters were estimated. Populations of motoneurons, growth cones of cerebellar granule cells and N2a neuroblastoma cells were utilized due to their diversity in morphological features. The processes of each object were drawn by hand to establish the actual length and number. Total process length per object correlated strongly with object perimeter, process domain and SR process domain. The number of processes per object correlated well with perimeter ratio, process index and form factor, whereas object length, convex hull perimeter and spreading index correlated acceptably with the average process length. Using these parameters for the evaluation of neurite outgrowth in developing of hippocampal neurons in vitro, variables such as object perimeter, process domain and SR process domain were found to be very well suited for estimation of the total length of neurites. We conclude that based on the contour and convex hull of an object it is possible to calculate a series of parameters which may substitute direct measurements of

  5. Neural correlates in the processing of phoneme-level complexity in vowel production.

    PubMed

    Park, Haeil; Iverson, Gregory K; Park, Hae-Jeong

    2011-12-01

    We investigated how articulatory complexity at the phoneme level is manifested neurobiologically in an overt production task. fMRI images were acquired from young Korean-speaking adults as they pronounced bisyllabic pseudowords in which we manipulated phonological complexity defined in terms of vowel duration and instability (viz., COMPLEX: /tiɯi/ > MID-COMPLEX: /tiye/ > SIMPLE: /tii/). Increased activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann Areas (BA) 44 and 47), supplementary motor area and anterior insula was observed for the articulation of COMPLEX sequences relative to MID-COMPLEX; this was the case with the articulation of MID-COMPLEX relative to SIMPLE, except that the pars orbitalis (BA 47) was dominantly identified in the Broca's area. The differentiation indicates that phonological complexity is reflected in the neural processing of distinct phonemic representations, both by recruiting brain regions associated with retrieval of phonological information from memory and via articulatory rehearsal for the production of COMPLEX vowels. In addition, the finding that increased complexity engages greater areas of the brain suggests that brain activation can be a neurobiological measure of articulo-phonological complexity, complementing, if not substituting for, biomechanical measurements of speech motor activity.

  6. Du syntagme nominal aux objets-de-discours: SN complexes, nominalisations, anaphores. (From nominal syntagma to Objects of Discourse: SN Complexes, Nominalizations, Anaphora).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrendonner, Alain, Ed.; Reichler-Beguelin, Marie-Jose, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Papers on nominal syntagma as objects in discourse include: "Quelques notions utiles a la semantique des descripteurs nominaux" ("Some Useful Notions on the semantics of Nominal Descriptors") (Alain Berrendonner); "Note sur le statut semantique et la fonction de quelques relatives integrees" ("Note on the…

  7. A hybrid model for the neural representation of complex mental processing in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Fehr, Thorsten

    2013-04-01

    In the present conceptual review several theoretical and empirical sources of information were integrated, and a hybrid model of the neural representation of complex mental processing in the human brain was proposed. Based on empirical evidence for strategy-related and inter-individually different task-related brain activation networks, and further based on empirical evidence for a remarkable overlap of fronto-parietal activation networks across different complex mental processes, it was concluded by the author that there might be innate and modular organized neuro-developmental starting regions, for example, in intra-parietal, and both medial and middle frontal brain regions, from which the neural organization of different kinds of complex mental processes emerge differently during individually shaped learning histories. Thus, the here proposed model provides a hybrid of both massive modular and holistic concepts of idiosyncratic brain physiological elaboration of complex mental processing. It is further concluded that 3-D information, obtained by respective methodological approaches, are not appropriate to identify the non-linear spatio-temporal dynamics of complex mental process-related brain activity in a sufficient way. How different participating network parts communicate with each other seems to be an indispensable aspect, which has to be considered in particular to improve our understanding of the neural organization of complex cognition.

  8. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  9. A visual processing advantage for young-adolescent deaf observers: Evidence from face and object matching tasks

    PubMed Central

    Megreya, Ahmed M.; Bindemann, Markus

    2017-01-01

    It is unresolved whether the permanent auditory deprivation that deaf people experience leads to the enhanced visual processing of faces. The current study explored this question with a matching task in which observers searched for a target face among a concurrent lineup of ten faces. This was compared with a control task in which the same stimuli were presented upside down, to disrupt typical face processing, and an object matching task. A sample of young-adolescent deaf observers performed with higher accuracy than hearing controls across all of these tasks. These results clarify previous findings and provide evidence for a general visual processing advantage in deaf observers rather than a face-specific effect. PMID:28117407

  10. The role of oscillatory brain activity in object processing and figure-ground segmentation in human vision.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, K; Anderson, S J; Hadjipapas, A; Holliday, I E

    2011-03-01

    The perception of an object as a single entity within a visual scene requires that its features are bound together and segregated from the background and/or other objects. Here, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to assess the hypothesis that coherent percepts may arise from the synchronized high frequency (gamma) activity between neurons that code features of the same object. We also assessed the role of low frequency (alpha, beta) activity in object processing. The target stimulus (i.e. object) was a small patch of a concentric grating of 3c/°, viewed eccentrically. The background stimulus was either a blank field or a concentric grating of 3c/° periodicity, viewed centrally. With patterned backgrounds, the target stimulus emerged--through rotation about its own centre--as a circular subsection of the background. Data were acquired using a 275-channel whole-head MEG system and analyzed using Synthetic Aperture Magnetometry (SAM), which allows one to generate images of task-related cortical oscillatory power changes within specific frequency bands. Significant oscillatory activity across a broad range of frequencies was evident at the V1/V2 border, and subsequent analyses were based on a virtual electrode at this location. When the target was presented in isolation, we observed that: (i) contralateral stimulation yielded a sustained power increase in gamma activity; and (ii) both contra- and ipsilateral stimulation yielded near identical transient power changes in alpha (and beta) activity. When the target was presented against a patterned background, we observed that: (i) contralateral stimulation yielded an increase in high-gamma (>55 Hz) power together with a decrease in low-gamma (40-55 Hz) power; and (ii) both contra- and ipsilateral stimulation yielded a transient decrease in alpha (and beta) activity, though the reduction tended to be greatest for contralateral stimulation. The opposing power changes across different regions of the gamma spectrum with

  11. Apollo Experiment Report: Lunar-Sample Processing in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory High-Vacuum Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    A high-vacuum complex composed of an atmospheric decontamination system, sample-processing chambers, storage chambers, and a transfer system was built to process and examine lunar material while maintaining quarantine status. Problems identified, equipment modifications, and procedure changes made for Apollo 11 and 12 sample processing are presented. The sample processing experiences indicate that only a few operating personnel are required to process the sample efficiently, safely, and rapidly in the high-vacuum complex. The high-vacuum complex was designed to handle the many contingencies, both quarantine and scientific, associated with handling an unknown entity such as the lunar sample. Lunar sample handling necessitated a complex system that could not respond rapidly to changing scientific requirements as the characteristics of the lunar sample were better defined. Although the complex successfully handled the processing of Apollo 11 and 12 lunar samples, the scientific requirement for vacuum samples was deleted after the Apollo 12 mission just as the vacuum system was reaching its full potential.

  12. Using Simple Manipulatives to Improve Student Comprehension of a Complex Biological Process: Protein Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman, Karen; Bartlett, John

    2012-01-01

    Biological systems and living processes involve a complex interplay of biochemicals and macromolecular structures that can be challenging for undergraduate students to comprehend and, thus, misconceptions abound. Protein synthesis, or translation, is an example of a biological process for which students often hold many misconceptions. This article…

  13. An eye-tracking paradigm for analyzing the processing time of sentences with different linguistic complexities.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Dorothea; Brand, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger

    2014-01-01

    An eye-tracking paradigm was developed for use in audiology in order to enable online analysis of the speech comprehension process. This paradigm should be useful in assessing impediments in speech processing. In this paradigm, two scenes, a target picture and a competitor picture, were presented simultaneously with an aurally presented sentence that corresponded to the target picture. At the same time, eye fixations were recorded using an eye-tracking device. The effect of linguistic complexity on language processing time was assessed from eye fixation information by systematically varying linguistic complexity. This was achieved with a sentence corpus containing seven German sentence structures. A novel data analysis method computed the average tendency to fixate the target picture as a function of time during sentence processing. This allowed identification of the point in time at which the participant understood the sentence, referred to as the decision moment. Systematic differences in processing time were observed as a function of linguistic complexity. These differences in processing time may be used to assess the efficiency of cognitive processes involved in resolving linguistic complexity. Thus, the proposed method enables a temporal analysis of the speech comprehension process and has potential applications in speech audiology and psychoacoustics.

  14. Data reduction complex analog-to-digital data processing requirements for onsite test facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debbrecht, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The analog to digital processing requirements of onsite test facilities are described. The source and medium of all input data to the Data Reduction Complex (DRC) and the destination and medium of all output products of the analog-to-digital processing are identified. Additionally, preliminary input and output data formats are presented along with the planned use of the output products.

  15. Memory Indexing: A Novel Method for Tracing Memory Processes in Complex Cognitive Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renkewitz, Frank; Jahn, Georg

    2012-01-01

    We validate an eye-tracking method applicable for studying memory processes in complex cognitive tasks. The method is tested with a task on probabilistic inferences from memory. It provides valuable data on the time course of processing, thus clarifying previous results on heuristic probabilistic inference. Participants learned cue values of…

  16. The Influence of Prior Experience and Process Utilization in Solving Complex Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterner, Paula; Wedman, John

    By using ill-structured problems and examining problem- solving processes, this study was conducted to explore the nature of solving complex, multistep problems, focusing on how prior knowledge, problem-solving process utilization, and analogical problem solving are related to success. Twenty-four college students qualified to participate by…

  17. The Primary Physical Education Curriculum Process: More Complex That You Might Think!!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jess, Mike; Carse, Nicola; Keay, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the curriculum development process as a complex, iterative and integrated phenomenon. Building on the early work of Stenhouse [1975, "An Introduction to Curriculum Research and Development". London: Heinemann Educational], we position the teacher at the heart of this process and extend his ideas by exploring how…

  18. Methodology development for the sustainability process assessment of sheet metal forming of complex-shaped products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, D. L.; Kashapova, L. R.

    2015-06-01

    A methodology was developed for automated assessment of the reliability of the process of sheet metal forming process to reduce the defects in complex components manufacture. The article identifies the range of allowable values of the stamp parameters to obtain defect-free punching of spars trucks.

  19. A multi-objective discrete cuckoo search algorithm with local search for community detection in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xu; Liu, Yanheng; Li, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Detecting community is a challenging task in analyzing networks. Solving community detection problem by evolutionary algorithm is a heated topic in recent years. In this paper, a multi-objective discrete cuckoo search algorithm with local search (MDCL) for community detection is proposed. To the best of our knowledge, it is first time to apply cuckoo search algorithm for community detection. Two objective functions termed as negative ratio association and ratio cut are to be minimized. These two functions can break through the modularity limitation. In the proposed algorithm, the nest location updating strategy and abandon operator of cuckoo are redefined in discrete form. A local search strategy and a clone operator are proposed to obtain the optimal initial population. The experimental results on synthetic and real-world networks show that the proposed algorithm has better performance than other algorithms and can discover the higher quality community structure without prior information.

  20. Modeling invariant object processing based on tight integration of simulated and empirical data in a Common Brain Space

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Judith C.; Reithler, Joel; Goebel, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in Computer Vision and Experimental Neuroscience provided insights into mechanisms underlying invariant object recognition. However, due to the different research aims in both fields models tended to evolve independently. A tighter integration between computational and empirical work may contribute to cross-fertilized development of (neurobiologically plausible) computational models and computationally defined empirical theories, which can be incrementally merged into a comprehensive brain model. After reviewing theoretical and empirical work on invariant object perception, this article proposes a novel framework in which neural network activity and measured neuroimaging data are interfaced in a common representational space. This enables direct quantitative comparisons between predicted and observed activity patterns within and across multiple stages of object processing, which may help to clarify how high-order invariant representations are created from low-level features. Given the advent of columnar-level imaging with high-resolution fMRI, it is time to capitalize on this new window into the brain and test which predictions of the various object recognition models are supported by this novel empirical evidence. PMID:22408617

  1. Early Electrophysiological Indices Of Illusory Contour Processing Within The Lateral Occipital Complex Are Virtually Impervious To Manipulations Of Illusion Strength

    PubMed Central

    Altschuler, Ted S.; Molholm, Sophie; Russo, Natalie N.; Snyder, Adam C.; Brandwein, Alice B.; Blanco, Daniella; Foxe, John J.

    2011-01-01

    The visual system can automatically interpolate or “fill-in” the boundaries of objects when inputs are fragmented or incomplete. A canonical class of visual stimuli known as illusory-contour (IC) stimuli have been extensively used to study this contour interpolation process. Visual evoked potential (VEP) studies have identified a neural signature of these boundary completion processes, the so-called IC-effect, which typically onsets at 90–110ms and is generated within the lateral occipital complex (LOC). Here we set out to determine the delimiting factors of automatic boundary completion with the use of illusory contour stimuli and high-density scalp recordings of brain activity. Retinal eccentricity, ratio of real to illusory contours (i.e. support ratio), and inducer diameter were each varied parametrically, and any resulting effects on the amplitude and latency of the IC-effect were examined. Somewhat surprisingly, the amplitude of the IC-effect was found to be impervious to all changes in these stimulus parameters, manipulations that are known to impact perceived illusion strength. Thus, this automatic stage of object processing appears to be a binary process in which, so-long as minimal conditions are met, contours are automatically completed. At the same time, the latency of the IC-effect was found to vary inversely with support ratio, likely reflecting the additional time necessary to interpolate across the relatively longer induced boundaries of the implied object. These data are interpreted in the context of a two stage object-recognition model that parses processing into an early automatic perceptual stage that is followed by a more effortful conceptual processing stage. PMID:22037001

  2. Contaminant-Organic Complexes, Their Structure and Energetics in Surface Decontamination Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Friedrich, Donald M.; Hay, Benjamin P.; Myneni, Satish C.B.; Traina, Samuel J.

    1999-06-01

    There are a wide variety of compounds that are naturally occurring biodegradable organic chelates (siderophores) that appear to be more effective at oxide dissolution and actinide complexation than EDTA or other organic acids now used in decontamination processes. These chelates bind hard acids [Fe(III) and actinides(IV)] with extraordinarily high affinities. For example, the binding constant for the siderophore enterobactin with iron is about 1050, and its binding constant for Pu(IV) is estimated to be as high. Hence, this project is investigating the efficacy of using siderophores (or siderophore-like chelates) as decontamination agents of metal surfaces. The specific goals of this project are as follows: 1. develop an understanding of the surface interaction between siderophores (and their functional moieties), iron, and actinide oxides; their surface chemical properties that foster their dissolution; and the conditions that maximize that dissolution 2. develop the computational tools necessary to predict the reactivity of different siderophore functional groups toward oxide dissolution and actinide(IV) solubilization 3. identify likely candidate chelates for use in decontamination processes. To meet these objectives, the project combines molecular spectroscopy and computational chemistry to provide basic information on the structure and bonding of siderophore functional groups to metal (iron and uranium) oxide specimens common to corrosion products and scales on carbon steel and stainless steel encountered in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The project explores fundamental scientific aspects of oxide mineral surface chemistry and dissolution related to chelate-induced solubilization. The spectroscopic and computational aspects of this project are complemented by macroscopic dissolution and solubilization studies of oxides and associated contaminants. From this combination of molecular, macroscopic, and computational studies, structure-function and

  3. Contaminant-Organic Complexes, Their Structure and Energetics in Surface Decontamination Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Hay, Benjamin P.; Traina, Samuel J.; Myneni, Satish C. B.

    2000-06-01

    There are many compounds that are naturally occurring biodegradable organic chelates (siderophores) and appear to be more effective at oxide dissolution and actinide complexation than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or other organic acids currently used in decontamination processes. These chelates bind hard acids [Fe(III) and actinides(IV)] with extraordinarily high affinities. For example, the binding constant for the siderophore enterobactin with iron is about 1050, and its binding constant for Pu(IV) is estimated to be as high. Hence, this project is investigating the efficacy of using siderophores (or siderophore-like chelates) as decontamination agents of metal surfaces. The specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) To develop an understanding of the interactions between siderophores (and their functional moieties), Fe and actinide oxides, their surface chemical properties that foster their dissolution and the conditions that maximize that dissolution. (2) To develop the computational tools necessary to predict the reactivity of different siderophore functional groups toward oxide dissolution and actinide (IV) solubilization. (3) To identify likely candidate chelates for use in decontamination processes. To meet these objectives, the project combines x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and computational chemistry to provide basic information on the structure and bonding of siderophore functional groups to metal (Fe and U) oxide specimens common to corrosion products and scales on carbon steel and stainless steel encountered in DOE facilities. The project explores fundamental scientific aspects of oxide mineral surface chemistry and dissolution related to chelate-induced solubilization. The spectroscopic and computational aspects of this project are complemented by macroscopic dissolution and solubilization studies of oxides and associated contaminants. From this combination of molecular, macroscopic, and computational studies, structure

  4. Computer-aided laser-optoelectronic OPTEL 3D measurement systems of complex-shaped object geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiulin, Ravil M.; Galiulin, Rishat M.; Bakirov, J. M.; Bogdanov, D. R.; Shulupin, C. O.; Khamitov, D. H.; Khabibullin, M. G.; Pavlov, A. F.; Ryabov, M. S.; Yamaliev, K. N.

    1996-03-01

    Technical characteristics, advantages and applications of automated optoelectronic measuring systems designed at the Regional Interuniversity Optoelectronic Systems Laboratory ('OPTEL') of Ufa State Aviation Technical University are given. The suggested range of systems is the result of the long-term scientific and research experiments, work on design and introduction work. The system can be applied in industrial development and research, in the field of high precision measurement of geometrical parameters in aerospace, robotic, etc., where non-contact and fast measurements of complicated shape objects made of various materials including brittle and plastic articles are required.

  5. [Removal of nickel from aqueous solutions using complexation-ultrafiltration process].

    PubMed

    Qin, Shu; Shao, Jia-Hui; He, Yi-Liang; Li, Wen-Xi

    2012-04-01

    Polyacrylate (PAANa) and polyethylenimine (PEI) were used as complexing agents to combine with nickel ions. This complexation solution was transferred to the ultrafiltration cell and the separation by polyethersulfone (PES) ultrafiltration membranes was carried out under the pressure of 0.1 MPa. Effects of solution pH and polymer/Ni2+ mass ratio on nickel removal were investigated. The complex reaction equilibrium constants were calculated according to Langmuir isotherm model. Effects of concentration time on nickel removal and membrane flux were also studied. With PAANa as a polymer, the removal rate of nickel went the highest to 99.5% at pH 8 with PAANa/Ni2+ ratio of 5. When PEI was used, the removal rate of nickel ions went highest to 93.0% at pH 7 with PEI/Ni2+ ratio of 5. Best-fit complexation equilibrium constants at different pH values showed that pH 7 was most beneficial to the complex reaction. In addition, the number of nickel ions bound to a single monomer complexing agent increased with increase of pH value. During 12 h ultrafiltration process, the decline of membrane flux was less than 10% with PAANa as the complexing agent, while the membrane flux remains the same when PEI was used. The removal rates of Ni2+ kept constant with both complexing agents. Results showed that complexation-ultrafiltration can effectively remove nickel from aqueous solution at appropriate conditions.

  6. Simultaneous measurement of a profile shape and deformation of an object by processing projected pattern and texture pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizawa, Toru; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Ikeda, Takahiro

    2005-08-01

    Non-contact displacement measurement is one of important topics to analyze materials strength and structural deformation. In addition to the industrial applications in mechanical engineering, some research works in such fields as medical and dental fields, life science, textile industry, and even in cosmetics industry require non-contact methods for their specified research areas. Here we propose that both displacement of surface points and profile of an objective are able to be captured by processing textured random pattern on the surface and projected fringe pattern onto the sample. A few potentiall applications to dental and cosmetics fields using our proposal are included.

  7. DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL COMPLEX HYDRIDESSYNTHESIZED VIA MOLTEN STATE PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    Zidan, R

    2006-01-09

    This study developed novel hydrides for hydrogen storage through a novel synthesis technique utilizing high hydrogen overpressure at elevated temperatures denoted as Molten State Processing, MSP. The ultimate goal is to produce materials that have high hydrogen capacity, are stable after cycling and possess favorable thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics compatible with onboard hydrogen storage for automotive applications. In order to achieve these goals the MSP Process was developed and used to modify and form new complex hydride compounds with desired characteristics. This synthesis technique holds the potential of fusing different known complex hydrides at elevated temperatures and pressures to form new complexes having different sorption and thermodynamic properties. The new complex hydrides produced by this method were identified through structural determination and thermodynamic characterization in order to achieve a more fundamental understanding of their formation and dissociation mechanisms.

  8. Multi-objective optimization of process parameters in Electro-Discharge Diamond Face Grinding based on ANN-NSGA-II hybrid technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Ravindra Nath; Yadava, Vinod; Singh, G. K.

    2013-09-01

    The effective study of hybrid machining processes (HMPs), in terms of modeling and optimization has always been a challenge to the researchers. The combined approach of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II) has attracted attention of researchers for modeling and optimization of the complex machining processes. In this paper, a hybrid machining process of Electrical Discharge Face Grinding (EDFG) and Diamond Face Grinding (DFG) named as Electrical Discharge Diamond face Grinding (EDDFG) have been studied using a hybrid methodology of ANN-NSGA-II. In this study, ANN has been used for modeling while NSGA-II is used to optimize the control parameters of the EDDFG process. For observations of input-output relations, the experiments were conducted on a self developed face grinding setup, which is attached with the ram of EDM machine. During experimentation, the wheel speed, pulse current, pulse on-time and duty factor are taken as input parameters while output parameters are material removal rate (MRR) and average surface roughness ( R a). The results have shown that the developed ANN model is capable to predict the output responses within the acceptable limit for a given set of input parameters. It has also been found that hybrid approach of ANN-NSGAII gives a set of optimal solutions for getting appropriate value of outputs with multiple objectives.

  9. A single cognitive heuristic process meets the complexity of domain-specific moral heuristics.

    PubMed

    Dubljević, Veljko; Racine, Eric

    2014-10-01

    The inherence heuristic (a) offers modest insights into the complex nature of both the is-ought tension in moral reasoning and moral reasoning per se, and (b) does not reflect the complexity of domain-specific moral heuristics. Formal and general in nature, we contextualize the process described as "inherence heuristic" in a web of domain-specific heuristics (e.g., agent specific; action specific; consequences specific).

  10. Complexity.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Hernández, J Jaime

    2006-01-01

    It is difficult to define complexity in modeling. Complexity is often associated with uncertainty since modeling uncertainty is an intrinsically difficult task. However, modeling uncertainty does not require, necessarily, complex models, in the sense of a model requiring an unmanageable number of degrees of freedom to characterize the aquifer. The relationship between complexity, uncertainty, heterogeneity, and stochastic modeling is not simple. Aquifer models should be able to quantify the uncertainty of their predictions, which can be done using stochastic models that produce heterogeneous realizations of aquifer parameters. This is the type of complexity addressed in this article.

  11. Do the Visual Complexity Algorithms Match the Generalization Process in Geographical Displays?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brychtová, A.; Çöltekin, A.; Pászto, V.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we first develop a hypothesis that existing quantitative visual complexity measures will overall reflect the level of cartographic generalization, and test this hypothesis. Specifically, to test our hypothesis, we first selected common geovisualization types (i.e., cartographic maps, hybrid maps, satellite images and shaded relief maps) and retrieved examples as provided by Google Maps, OpenStreetMap and SchweizMobil by swisstopo. Selected geovisualizations vary in cartographic design choices, scene contents and different levels of generalization. Following this, we applied one of Rosenholtz et al.'s (2007) visual clutter algorithms to obtain quantitative visual complexity scores for screenshots of the selected maps. We hypothesized that visual complexity should be constant across generalization levels, however, the algorithm suggested that the complexity of small-scale displays (less detailed) is higher than those of large-scale (high detail). We also observed vast differences in visual complexity among maps providers, which we attribute to their varying approaches towards the cartographic design and generalization process. Our efforts will contribute towards creating recommendations as to how the visual complexity algorithms could be optimized for cartographic products, and eventually be utilized as a part of the cartographic design process to assess the visual complexity.

  12. Hemispheric balance in processing attended and non-attended vowels and complex tones.

    PubMed

    Vihla, Minna; Salmelin, Riitta

    2003-04-01

    We compared cortical processing of attended and non-attended vowels and complex tones, using a whole-head neuromagnetometer, to test for possible hemispheric differences. Stimuli included vowels [a] and [i], spoken by two female Finnish speakers, and two complex tones, each with two pure tone components corresponding to the first and second formant frequencies (F1-F2) of the vowels spoken by speaker 1. Sequences including both vowels and complex tones were presented to eight Finnish males during passive and active (phoneme/speaker/complex tone identification) listening. Sequences including only vowels were presented to five of the subjects during passive listening and during a phoneme identification task. The vowel [i] spoken by speaker 1 and the corresponding complex tone were frequent, non-target stimuli. Responses evoked by these frequent stimuli were analyzed. Cortical activation at approximately 100 ms was stronger for the complex tone than the vowel in the right hemisphere (RH). Responses were similar during active and passive listening. Hemispheric balance remained the same when the vowel was presented in sequences including only vowels. The reduction of RH activation for vowels as compared with complex tones indicates a relative increase of left hemisphere involvement, possibly reflecting a shift towards more language-specific processing.

  13. Improved motion contrast and processing efficiency in OCT angiography using complex-correlation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Li; Li, Pei; Pan, Cong; Liao, Rujia; Cheng, Yuxuan; Hu, Weiwei; Chen, Zhong; Ding, Zhihua; Li, Peng

    2016-02-01

    The complex-based OCT angiography (Angio-OCT) offers high motion contrast by combining both the intensity and phase information. However, due to involuntary bulk tissue motions, complex-valued OCT raw data are processed sequentially with different algorithms for correcting bulk image shifts (BISs), compensating global phase fluctuations (GPFs) and extracting flow signals. Such a complicated procedure results in massive computational load. To mitigate such a problem, in this work, we present an inter-frame complex-correlation (CC) algorithm. The CC algorithm is suitable for parallel processing of both flow signal extraction and BIS correction, and it does not need GPF compensation. This method provides high processing efficiency and shows superiority in motion contrast. The feasibility and performance of the proposed CC algorithm is demonstrated using both flow phantom and live animal experiments.

  14. Outline of a new approach to the analysis of complex systems and decision processes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zadeh, L. A.

    1973-01-01

    Development of a conceptual framework for dealing with systems which are too complex or too ill-defined to admit of precise quantitative analysis. The approach outlined is based on the premise that the key elements in human thinking are not numbers, but labels of fuzzy sets - i.e., classes of objects in which the transition from membership to nonmembership is gradual rather than abrupt. The approach in question has three main distinguishing features - namely, the use of so-called 'linguistic' variables in place of or in addition to numerical variables, the characterization of simple relations between variables by conditional fuzzy statements, and the characterization of complex relations by fuzzy algorithms.

  15. Challenging the distribution shift: statically-induced direction illusion implicates differential processing of object-relative and non-object-relative motion.

    PubMed

    Farrell-Whelan, Max; Wenderoth, Peter; Brooks, Kevin R

    2012-04-01

    The direction illusion is the phenomenal exaggeration of the angle between the drift directions, typically, of two superimposed sets of random dots. The direction illusion is commonly attributed to mutual inhibition between direction-selective cell populations (distribution-shift model). A second explanation attributes the direction illusion to the differential processing of relative and non-relative motion components (differential processing model). Our first experiment demonstrates that, as predicted by the differential processing model, a static line can invoke a misperception of direction in a single set of dots--a phenomenon we refer to as the statically-induced direction illusion. In a second experiment, we find that the orientation of a static line can also influence the size of the conventional direction illusion. A third experiment eliminates the possibility that these results can be explained by the presence of motion streaks. While the results of these experiments are in agreement with the predictions made by the differential processing model, they pose serious problems for the distribution-shift account of shifts in perceived direction.

  16. Rats (Rattus norvegicus) flexibly retrieve objects' non-spatial and spatial information from their visuospatial working memory: effects of integrated and separate processing of these features in a missing-object recognition task.

    PubMed

    Keshen, Corrine; Cohen, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    After being trained to find a previous missing object within an array of four different objects, rats received occasional probe trials with such test arrays rotated from that of their respective three-object study arrays. Only animals exposed to each object's non-spatial features consistently paired with both its spatial features (feeder's relative orientation and direction) in the first experiment or with only feeder's relative orientation in the second experiment (Fixed Configuration groups) were adversely affected by probe trial test array rotations. This effect, however, was less persistent for this group in the second experiment but re-emerged when objects' non-spatial features were later rendered uninformative. Animals that had both types of each object's features randomly paired over trials but not between a trial's study and test array (Varied Configuration groups) were not adversely affected on probe trials but improved their missing-object recognition in the first experiment. These findings suggest that the Fixed Configuration groups had integrated each object's non-spatial with both (in Experiment 1) or one (in Experiment 2) of its spatial features to construct a single representation that they could not easily compare to any object in a rotated probe test array. The Varied Configuration groups must maintain separate representations of each object's features to solve this task. This prevented them from exhibiting such adverse effects on rotated probe trial test arrays but enhanced the rats' missing-object recognition in the first experiment. We discussed how rats' flexible use (retrieval) of encoded information from their visuospatial working memory corresponds to that of humans' visuospatial memory in object change detection and complex object recognition tasks. We also discussed how foraging-specific factors may have influenced each group's performance in this task.

  17. Recovery of nickel from aqueous solutions by complexation-ultrafiltration process with sodium polyacrylate and polyethylenimine.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jiahui; Qin, Shu; Davidson, Joshua; Li, Wenxi; He, Yiliang; Zhou, H Susan

    2013-01-15

    The recovery of nickel from aqueous dilute solutions by complexation-ultrafiltration process with sodium polyacrylate (PAAS) and polyethylenimine (PEI) was studied. Experiments were performed as a function of aqueous pH, polymer/Ni(2+) ratio and background electrolyte concentration. At optimum experimental conditions, the nickel removal rate reaches 99.5% using PAAS and 93.0% using PEI as the complexation agent. The nickel removal rate was found to decrease as the adding salt NaCl concentration increases for both complexation agents. A series of experiments implied that the mechanism could be the compressing electric double layer other than the competitive complexation. Diafiltration technique was further performed to regenerate complexation agents and recover nickel. The nickel removal rates were found to be close to those obtained with the original PEI and PAAS. Finally, Langmuir-type binding isotherm equation was employed to evaluate the extent of nickel bound to PAAS and PEI. The overall results from the two-step process of complexation-UF and decomplexation-UF separation showed that it could be a promising method for nickel removal and recovery from aqueous solutions.

  18. Application of the hybrid complexation-ultrafiltration process for metal ion removal from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jianxian; Ye, Hongqi; Hu, Zhongyu

    2009-01-30

    Complexation-ultrafiltration process was investigated for mercury and cadmium removal from aqueous solutions by using poly(acrylic acid) sodium salt (PAASS) as a complexing agent. The kinetics of complexation reactions of PAASS with the metal ions were studied under a large excess PAASS and pH 5.5. It takes 25 and 50 min for mercury and cadmium to get the complexation equilibrium, respectively, and the reaction kinetics can be described by a pseudo-first-order equation. Effects of various operating parameters such as loading ratios, pH values, etc. on metal rejection coefficients (R) were investigated. In the process of concentration, membrane fluxes decline slowly and R values are about 1. The concentrated retentates were used further for the decomplexation. The decomplexation ratio of mercury-PAASS complex is about 30%, whereas that of cadmium-PAASS complex reaches 93.5%. After the decomplexation, diafiltration experiments were carried out at pH 2.5. Cadmium can be diafiltrated satisfactorily from the retentate, but for mercury it is the contrary. Selective separation of the both metal ions was studied from a binary solution at pH 5. When mercury, cadmium and PAASS concentrations are 30, 30 and 40 mg L(-1), respectively, mercury is retained by ultrafiltration while almost all cadmium passes through the membrane.

  19. Managing complexity in simulations of land surface and near-surface processes

    SciTech Connect

    Coon, Ethan T.; Moulton, J. David; Painter, Scott L.

    2016-01-12

    Increasing computing power and the growing role of simulation in Earth systems science have led to an increase in the number and complexity of processes in modern simulators. We present a multiphysics framework that specifies interfaces for coupled processes and automates weak and strong coupling strategies to manage this complexity. Process management is enabled by viewing the system of equations as a tree, where individual equations are associated with leaf nodes and coupling strategies with internal nodes. A dynamically generated dependency graph connects a variable to its dependencies, streamlining and automating model evaluation, easing model development, and ensuring models are modular and flexible. Additionally, the dependency graph is used to ensure that data requirements are consistent between all processes in a given simulation. Here we discuss the design and implementation of these concepts within the Arcos framework, and demonstrate their use for verification testing and hypothesis evaluation in numerical experiments.

  20. Managing complexity in simulations of land surface and near-surface processes

    DOE PAGES

    Coon, Ethan T.; Moulton, J. David; Painter, Scott L.

    2016-01-12

    Increasing computing power and the growing role of simulation in Earth systems science have led to an increase in the number and complexity of processes in modern simulators. We present a multiphysics framework that specifies interfaces for coupled processes and automates weak and strong coupling strategies to manage this complexity. Process management is enabled by viewing the system of equations as a tree, where individual equations are associated with leaf nodes and coupling strategies with internal nodes. A dynamically generated dependency graph connects a variable to its dependencies, streamlining and automating model evaluation, easing model development, and ensuring models aremore » modular and flexible. Additionally, the dependency graph is used to ensure that data requirements are consistent between all processes in a given simulation. Here we discuss the design and implementation of these concepts within the Arcos framework, and demonstrate their use for verification testing and hypothesis evaluation in numerical experiments.« less

  1. Insights into dynamic processes of cations in pyrochlores and other complex oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Perriot, Romain

    2015-08-26

    Complex oxides are critical components of many key technologies, from solid oxide fuel cells and superionics to inert matrix fuels and nuclear waste forms. In many cases, understanding mass transport is important for predicting performance and, thus, extensive effort has been devoted to understanding mass transport in these materials. However, most work has focused on the behavior of oxygen while cation transport has received relatively little attention, even though cation diffusion is responsible for many phenomena, including sintering, radiation damage evolution, and deformation processes. Here, we use accelerated molecular dynamics simulations to examine the kinetics of cation defects in one class of complex oxides, A₂B₂O₇ pyrochlore. In some pyrochlore chemistries, B cation defects are kinetically unstable, transforming to A cation defects and antisites at rates faster than they can diffuse. When this occurs, transport of B cations occurs through defect processes on the A sublattice. Further, these A cation defects, either interstitials or vacancies, can interact with antisite disorder, reordering the material locally, though this process is much more efficient for interstitials than vacancies. Whether this behavior occurs in a given pyrochlore depends on the A and B chemistry. Pyrochlores with a smaller ratio of cation radii exhibit this complex behavior, while those with larger ratios exhibit direct migration of B interstitials. Similar behavior has been reported in other complex oxides such as spinels and perovskites, suggesting that this coupling of transport between the A and B cation sublattices, while not universal, occurs in many complex oxide.

  2. Fabrication of Nanostructure 1050/6061 Complex Al Alloy by Accumulative Roll-Bonding Process.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong-Hee; Kim, Jung Han

    2015-01-01

    A nanostructure AA1050/AA6061 complex aluminum alloy was successfully fabricated by the accumulative roll-bonding (ARB) process. The ARB process was performed up to 5 cycles without a lubricant at ambient temperature. The samples fabricated by the ARB were the multi-layer complex aluminum alloys in which AA1050 and AA6061 layers are alternately stacked. The tensile strength of the samples increased with proceeding of the ARB, it reached about 300 MPa which is about twice that of the as-received AA6061. The grain size was greatly reduced to submicron order during the ARB, the efficiency of grain refinement was greater in AA6061 than AA1050. The tensile fracture surfaces showed a mixed morphology of brittle and ductile fracture. It was also found that a nanostructure multi-layer AA1050/AA6061 alloy fabricated by the ARB exhibited very complex microstructure and texture.

  3. Process Support in Learning Tasks for Acquiring Complex Cognitive Skills in the Domain of Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadolski, Rob J.; Kirschner, Paul A.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2006-01-01

    Whole tasks for acquiring complex skills are often too difficult for novices. To solve this problem, "process support" divides the problem solving into phases, offers driving questions, and provides feedback. A multimedia program was used to teach sophomore law students ("N"=82) to prepare and carry out a plea. In a randomised 2x2 design with the…

  4. Comparing Simple and Advanced Video Tools as Supports for Complex Collaborative Design Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahn, Carmen; Pea, Roy; Hesse, Friedrich W.; Rosen, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Working with digital video technologies, particularly advanced video tools with editing capabilities, offers new prospects for meaningful learning through design. However, it is also possible that the additional complexity of such tools does "not" advance learning. We compared in an experiment the design processes and learning outcomes…

  5. Some aspects of mathematical and chemical modeling of complex chemical processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemes, I.; Botar, L.; Danoczy, E.; Vidoczy, T.; Gal, D.

    1983-01-01

    Some theoretical questions involved in the mathematical modeling of the kinetics of complex chemical process are discussed. The analysis is carried out for the homogeneous oxidation of ethylbenzene in the liquid phase. Particular attention is given to the determination of the general characteristics of chemical systems from an analysis of mathematical models developed on the basis of linear algebra.

  6. Toward understanding the thermodynamics of TALSPEAK process. Medium effects on actinide complexation

    SciTech Connect

    Peter R Zalupski; Leigh R Martin; Ken Nash; Yoshinobu Nakamura; Masahiko Yamamoto

    2009-07-01

    The ingenious combination of lactate and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N’,N”,N”-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) as an aqueous actinide-complexing medium forms the basis of the successful separation of americium and curium from lanthanides known as the TALSPEAK process. While numerous reports in the prior literature have focused on the optimization of this solvent extraction system, considerably less attention has been devoted to the understanding of the basic thermodynamic features of the complex fluids responsible for the separation. The available thermochemical information of both lactate and DTPA protonation and metal complexation reactions are representative of the behavior of these ions under idealized conditions. Our previous studies of medium effects on lactate protonation suggest that significant departures from the speciation predicted based on reported thermodynamic values should be expected in the TALSPEAK aqueous environment. Thermodynamic parameters describing the separation chemistry of this process thus require further examination at conditions significantly removed from conventional ideal systems commonly employed in fundamental solution chemistry. Such thermodynamic characterization is the key to predictive modelling of TALSPEAK. Improved understanding will, in principle, allow process technologists to more efficiently respond to off-normal conditions during large scale process operation. In this report, the results of calorimetric and potentiometric investigations of the effects of aqueous electrolytes on the thermodynamic parameters for lactate protonation and lactate complexation of americium and neodymium will be presented. Studies on the lactate protonation equilibrium will clearly illustrate distinct thermodynamic variations between strong electrolyte aqueous systems and buffered lactate environment.

  7. Complex Network Structure Influences Processing in Long-Term and Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitevitch, Michael S.; Chan, Kit Ying; Roodenrys, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Complex networks describe how entities in systems interact; the structure of such networks is argued to influence processing. One measure of network structure, clustering coefficient, C, measures the extent to which neighbors of a node are also neighbors of each other. Previous psycholinguistic experiments found that the C of phonological…

  8. A Perceptual Process Approach to Selecting Color Scales for Complex Visualizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslow, Leonard A.; Trafton, J. Gregory; Ratwani, Raj M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has shown that multicolored scales are superior to ordered brightness scales for supporting identification tasks on complex visualizations (categorization, absolute numeric value judgments, etc.), whereas ordered brightness scales are superior for relative comparison tasks (greater/less). We examined the processes by which such…

  9. Self-Disclosure and Adults with Learning Disabilities: Practical Ideas about a Complex Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Paul J.; Price, Lynda A.

    2008-01-01

    Self-disclosure for adults with learning disabilities is very complex after the beyond-school years. The issues of invisibility, risk/benefit, and the multiple contexts of adult functioning create many challenges in the process of disclosure. Moreover, self-disclosure, one element of the larger issue of self-determination, is viewed as an entry…

  10. High-definition macromolecular composition of yeast RNA-processing complexes.

    PubMed

    Krogan, Nevan J; Peng, Wen-Tao; Cagney, Gerard; Robinson, Mark D; Haw, Robin; Zhong, Gouqing; Guo, Xinghua; Zhang, Xin; Canadien, Veronica; Richards, Dawn P; Beattie, Bryan K; Lalev, Atanas; Zhang, Wen; Davierwala, Armaity P; Mnaimneh, Sanie; Starostine, Andrei; Tikuisis, Aaron P; Grigull, Jorg; Datta, Nira; Bray, James E; Hughes, Timothy R; Emili, Andrew; Greenblatt, Jack F

    2004-01-30

    A remarkably large collection of evolutionarily conserved proteins has been implicated in processing of noncoding RNAs and biogenesis of ribonucleoproteins. To better define the physical and functional relationships among these proteins and their cognate RNAs, we performed 165 highly stringent affinity purifications of known or predicted RNA-related proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We systematically identified and estimated the relative abundance of stably associated polypeptides and RNA species using a combination of gel densitometry, protein mass spectrometry, and oligonucleotide microarray hybridization. Ninety-two discrete proteins or protein complexes were identified comprising 489 different polypeptides, many associated with one or more specific RNA molecules. Some of the pre-rRNA-processing complexes that were obtained are discrete sub-complexes of those previously described. Among these, we identified the IPI complex required for proper processing of the ITS2 region of the ribosomal RNA primary transcript. This study provides a high-resolution overview of the modular topology of noncoding RNA-processing machinery.

  11. Critique and Complexity: Presenting a More Effective Way to Conceptualise the Knowledge Adoption Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The process of "knowledge adoption" is defined as the means through which policy-makers digest, accept then "take on board" research findings. It is argued in Brown, however, that current models designed to explain knowledge adoption activity fail to fully account for the complexities that affect its operation. Within this…

  12. Collaborative Educational Leadership: The Emergence of Human Interactional Sense-Making Process as a Complex System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jäppinen, Aini-Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    The article aims at explicating the emergence of human interactional sense-making process within educational leadership as a complex system. The kind of leadership is understood as a holistic entity called collaborative leadership. There, sense-making emerges across interdependent domains, called attributes of collaborative leadership. The…

  13. Data from Eye-Tracking Corpora as Evidence for Theories of Syntactic Processing Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demberg, Vera; Keller, Frank

    2008-01-01

    We evaluate the predictions of two theories of syntactic processing complexity, dependency locality theory (DLT) and surprisal, against the Dundee Corpus, which contains the eye-tracking record of 10 participants reading 51,000 words of newspaper text. Our results show that DLT integration cost is not a significant predictor of reading times for…

  14. Optimum complex processing of informative and measuring signals of navigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marciszel, Jan

    A version of the optimum complex processing of the signals of a two-channel measuring system with delay in one of the channels based on Wiener's filtration is proposed. Also a correction for Doppler-course counting is presented which is based on hyperbolic radio navigation sets using a Kalman filter included into the error compensation system.

  15. Process for the displacement of cyanide ions from metal-cyanide complexes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robinson, Thomas W.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to water-soluble polymers and the use of such water-soluble polymers in a process for the displacement of the cyanide ions from the metal ions within metal-cyanide complexes. The process waste streams can include metal-cyanide containing electroplating waste streams, mining leach waste streams, mineral processing waste streams, and related metal-cyanide containing waste streams. The metal ions of interest are metals that give very strong complexes with cyanide, mostly iron, nickel, and copper. The physical separation of the water-soluble polymer-metal complex from the cyanide ions can be accomplished through the use of ultrafiltration. Once the metal-cyanide complex is disrupted, the freed cyanide ions can be recovered for reuse or destroyed using available oxidative processes rendering the cyanide nonhazardous. The metal ions are released from the polymer, using dilute acid, metal ion oxidation state adjustment, or competing chelating agents, and collected and recovered or disposed of by appropriate waste management techniques. The water-soluble polymer can then be recycled. Preferred water-soluble polymers include polyethyleneimine and polyethyleneimine having a catechol or hydroxamate group.

  16. Further Understanding of Complex Information Processing in Verbal Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Diane L.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Goldstein, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    More than 20?years ago, Minshew and colleagues proposed the Complex Information Processing model of autism in which the impairment is characterized as a generalized deficit involving multiple modalities and cognitive domains that depend on distributed cortical systems responsible for higher order abilities. Subsequent behavioral work revealed a…

  17. Multi-objective optimization of process conditions in the manufacturing of banana (Musa paradisiaca L.) starch/natural rubber films.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Hernández, A; Aparicio-Saguilán, A; Reynoso-Meza, G; Carrillo-Ahumada, J

    2017-02-10

    Multi-objective optimization was used to evaluate the effect of adding banana (Musa paradisiaca L.) starch and natural rubber (cis-1,4-poliisopreno) at different ratios (1-13w/w) to the manufacturing process of biodegradable films, specifically the effect on the biodegradability, crystallinity and moisture of the films. A structural characterization of the films was performed by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and SEM, moisture and biodegradability properties were studied. The models obtained showed that degradability vs. moisture tend to be inversely proportional and crystallinity vs. degradability tend to be directly proportional. With respect to crystallinity vs. moisture behavior, it is observed that crystallinity remains constant when moisture values remain between 27 and 41%. Beyond this value there is an exponential increase in crystallinity. These results allow for predictions on the mechanical behavior that can occur in starch/rubber films.

  18. A Benchmark Data Set to Evaluate the Illumination Robustness of Image Processing Algorithms for Object Segmentation and Classification

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Arif ul Maula; Mikut, Ralf; Reischl, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Developers of image processing routines rely on benchmark data sets to give qualitative comparisons of new image analysis algorithms and pipelines. Such data sets need to include artifacts in order to occlude and distort the required information to be extracted from an image. Robustness, the quality of an algorithm related to the amount of distortion is often important. However, using available benchmark data sets an evaluation of illumination robustness is difficult or even not possible due to missing ground truth data about object margins and classes and missing information about the distortion. We present a new framework for robustness evaluation. The key aspect is an image benchmark containing 9 object classes and the required ground truth for segmentation and classification. Varying levels of shading and background noise are integrated to distort the data set. To quantify the illumination robustness, we provide measures for image quality, segmentation and classification success and robustness. We set a high value on giving users easy access to the new benchmark, therefore, all routines are provided within a software package, but can as well easily be replaced to emphasize other aspects. PMID:26191792

  19. A Benchmark Data Set to Evaluate the Illumination Robustness of Image Processing Algorithms for Object Segmentation and Classification.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arif Ul Maula; Mikut, Ralf; Reischl, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Developers of image processing routines rely on benchmark data sets to give qualitative comparisons of new image analysis algorithms and pipelines. Such data sets need to include artifacts in order to occlude and distort the required information to be extracted from an image. Robustness, the quality of an algorithm related to the amount of distortion is often important. However, using available benchmark data sets an evaluation of illumination robustness is difficult or even not possible due to missing ground truth data about object margins and classes and missing information about the distortion. We present a new framework for robustness evaluation. The key aspect is an image benchmark containing 9 object classes and the required ground truth for segmentation and classification. Varying levels of shading and background noise are integrated to distort the data set. To quantify the illumination robustness, we provide measures for image quality, segmentation and classification success and robustness. We set a high value on giving users easy access to the new benchmark, therefore, all routines are provided within a software package, but can as well easily be replaced to emphasize other aspects.

  20. Complex permittivity measurements and mixing laws of ceramic materials and application to microwave processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershon, David Louis

    The complex permittivity of alumina composites was examined with respect to its dependence on the volume fraction of constituents, microstructure, processing temperature, and processing method. In addition, the effective permittivity of these composites was quantitatively modeled based on the permittivities, volume fractions, and microstructures of the constituents. The studies focused on the complex permittivity of alumina composites, which contained the lossy additives silicon carbide and copper oxide. Two composite systems were prepared by physically mixing alumina and one of the additives. A third composite system was produced by chemically precipitating copper oxide onto alumina. The two synthesis methods produced composites with different microstructures and complex permittivities. The imaginary part of the complex permittivity was generally larger in the chemically precipitated composites than in the physically mixed composites. The dependence of the complex permittivities of the composites on volume fraction and microstructure were compared with several algebraic mixing laws and with three dimensional, electrostatic numerical simulations. The algebraic mixing laws do not take into account for the dependence of the imaginary part of the complex permittivity on absorbed water and microstructure, which is affected by composite synthesis. By incorporating general physical characteristics of the composites, the electrostatic simulations were able to accurately predict their permittivity. Heating some selected alumina composites in conventional and microwave furnaces demonstrate several interesting results. The densification and dielectric proper-ties of the alumina/copper oxide composites varied due to processing temperature. The changes in these properties depended upon preparation method and not on heating method. The density and real part of the complex permittivity of alumina/silicon carbide also varied due to processing temperature and not on heating method

  1. Assembly and disassembly of the Golgi complex: two processes arranged in a cis-trans direction

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the disassembly and assembly of two morphologically and functionally distinct parts of the Golgi complex, the cis/middle and trans cisterna/trans network compartments. For this purpose we have followed the redistribution of three cis/middle- (GMPc-1, GMPc-2, MG 160) and two trans- (GMPt-1 and GMPt-2) Golgi membrane proteins during and after treatment of normal rat kidney (NRK) cells with brefeldin A (BFA). BFA induced complete disassembly of the cis/middle- and trans- Golgi complex and translocation of GMPc and GMPt to the ER. Cells treated for short times (3 min) with BFA showed extensive disorganization of both cis/middle- and trans-Golgi complexes. However, complete disorganization of the trans part required much longer incubations with the drug. Upon removal of BFA the Golgi complex was reassembled by a process consisting of three steps: (a) exist of cis/middle proteins from the ER and their accumulation into vesicular structures scattered throughout the cytoplasm; (b) gradual relocation and accumulation of the trans proteins in the vesicles containing the cis/middle proteins; and (c) assembly of the cisternae, and reconstruction of the Golgi complex within an area located in the vicinity of the centrosome from which the ER was excluded. Reconstruction of the cis/middle-Golgi complex occurred under temperature conditions inhibitory of the reorganization of the trans- Golgi complex, and was dependent on microtubules. Reconstruction of the trans-Golgi complex, disrupted with nocodazole after selective fusion of the cis/middle-Golgi complex with the ER, occurred after the release of cis/middle-Golgi proteins from the ER and the assembly of the cis/middle cisternae. PMID:1730750

  2. The role of point defects and defect complexes in silicon device processing. Summary report and papers

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B.; Tan, T.Y.

    1994-08-01

    This report is the summary of the third workshop on the role of point defects and defect complexes in silicon device processing. The workshop was organized: (1) to discuss recent progress in the material quality produced by photovoltaic Si manufacturers, (2) to foster the understanding of point defect issues in Si device processing, (3) to review the effects of inhomogeneities on large- area solar cell performance, (4) to discuss how to improve Si solar cell processing, and (5) to develop a new understanding of gettering, defect passivation, and defect annihilation. Separate abstract were prepared for the individual papers, for the database.

  3. Contribution of cubilin and amnionless to processing and membrane targeting of cubilin-amnionless complex.

    PubMed

    Coudroy, Gwénaëlle; Gburek, Jakub; Kozyraki, Renata; Madsen, Mette; Trugnan, Germain; Moestrup, Søren K; Verroust, Pierre J; Maurice, Michèle

    2005-08-01

    Cubilin is a peripheral apical membrane receptor for multiple ligands that are taken up in several absorptive epithelia. Recently, amnionless (AMN) was identified to form a functional receptor complex with cubilin. By expression in transfected polarized MDCK cells of AMN and several cubilin fragments, including a functional "mini" version of cubilin, the processing, sorting, and membrane anchoring of the complex to the apical membrane were investigated. The results show that truncation mutants, including the N-terminal domain of cubilin, did not appear at the plasma membrane but instead were retained in the endoplasmic reticulum or partially secreted into the medium. Coexpression with AMN led to efficient transport to the apical cell surface of the cubilin constructs, which included the EGF domains, and prevented release into the medium. AMN co-precipitated with cubilin and co-localized with cubilin at the apical cell surface. Apical sorting was observed for a broad set of nonoverlapping cubilin fragments without the N-terminal region, in the absence of AMN. The preference for apical sorting disappeared when glycosylation was inhibited by tunicamycin. In conclusion, it is shown that both units contribute to the processing of the cubilin-AMN complex to the apical membrane: AMN interacts with the EGF domains of cubilin and is responsible for membrane attachment and export of the complex from the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas the extracellular cubilin molecule is responsible for apical sorting of the complex in a carbohydrate-dependent manner.

  4. Excited-state annihilation process involving a cyclometalated platinum(II) complex

    SciTech Connect

    Maestri, M.; Sandrini, D. ); von Zelewsky, A.; Deuschel-Cornioley, C. )

    1991-05-29

    The Pt(tpy)(ppz) complex exhibits strong luminescence with a relatively long excited-state lifetime (15.3 {mu}s) in deaerated acetonitrile solution, at room temperature and at low excitation intensity, and can be easily involved in excited-state quenching processes. The {sub 3}CT excited state is, in fact, quenched (1) by oxygen (k{sub q} {congruent} 10{sup 9} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}), (2) by the ground-state complex (k{sub q} = 5.7 {times} 10{sup 7} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}), and (3) by another {sup 3}CT excited state in an annihilation process, which is practically diffusion controlled (k{sub 3} > 6 {times} 10{sup 9} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}). The ground-state quenching and the annihilation process most probably occur via an excimer formation mechanism. 46 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Study of mould design and forming process on advanced polymer-matrix composite complex structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S. J.; Zhan, L. H.; Bai, H. M.; Chen, X. P.; Zhou, Y. Q.

    2015-07-01

    Advanced carbon fibre-reinforced polymer-matrix composites are widely applied to aviation manufacturing field due to their outstanding performance. In this paper, the mould design and forming process of the complex composite structure were discussed in detail using the hat stiffened structure as an example. The key issues of the moulddesign were analyzed, and the corresponding solutions were also presented. The crucial control points of the forming process such as the determination of materials and stacking sequence, the temperature and pressure route of the co-curing process were introduced. In order to guarantee the forming quality of the composite hat stiffened structure, a mathematical model about the aperture of rubber mandrel was introduced. The study presented in this paper may provide some actual references for the design and manufacture of the important complex composite structures.

  6. Brain Process for Perception of the “Out of the Body” Tactile Illusion for Virtual Object Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Jin; Lee, Jaedong; Kim, Chi Jung; Kim, Gerard J.; Kim, Eun-Soo; Whang, Mincheol

    2015-01-01

    “Out of the body” tactile illusion refers to the phenomenon in which one can perceive tactility as if emanating from a location external to the body without any stimulator present there. Taking advantage of such a tactile illusion is one way to provide and realize richer interaction feedback without employing and placing actuators directly at all stimulation target points. However, to further explore its potential, it is important to better understand the underlying physiological and neural mechanism. As such, we measured the brain wave patterns during such tactile illusion and mapped out the corresponding brain activation areas. Participants were given stimulations at different levels with the intention to create veridical (i.e., non-illusory) and phantom sensations at different locations along an external hand-held virtual ruler. The experimental data and analysis indicate that both veridical and illusory sensations involve, among others, the parietal lobe, one of the most important components in the tactile information pathway. In addition, we found that as for the illusory sensation, there is an additional processing resulting in the delay for the ERP (event-related potential) and involvement by the limbic lobe. These point to regarding illusion as a memory and recognition task as a possible explanation. The present study demonstrated some basic understanding; how humans process “virtual” objects and the way associated tactile illusion is generated will be valuable for HCI (Human-Computer Interaction). PMID:25835301

  7. Process Management and Exception Handling in Multiprocessor Operating Systems Using Object-Oriented Design Techniques. Revised Sep. 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Vincent; Johnston, Gary; Campbell, Roy

    1988-01-01

    The programming of the interrupt handling mechanisms, process switching primitives, scheduling mechanism, and synchronization primitives of an operating system for a multiprocessor require both efficient code in order to support the needs of high- performance or real-time applications and careful organization to facilitate maintenance. Although many advantages have been claimed for object-oriented class hierarchical languages and their corresponding design methodologies, the application of these techniques to the design of the primitives within an operating system has not been widely demonstrated. To investigate the role of class hierarchical design in systems programming, the authors have constructed the Choices multiprocessor operating system architecture the C++ programming language. During the implementation, it was found that many operating system design concerns can be represented advantageously using a class hierarchical approach, including: the separation of mechanism and policy; the organization of an operating system into layers, each of which represents an abstract machine; and the notions of process and exception management. In this paper, we discuss an implementation of the low-level primitives of this system and outline the strategy by which we developed our solution.

  8. Optimal design activated sludge process by means of multi-objective optimization: case study in Benchmark Simulation Model 1 (BSM1).

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenliang; Yao, Chonghua; Lu, Xiwu

    2014-01-01

    Optimal design of activated sludge process (ASP) using multi-objective optimization was studied, and a benchmark process in Benchmark Simulation Model 1 (BSM1) was taken as a target process. The objectives of the study were to achieve four indexes of percentage of effluent violation (PEV), overall cost index (OCI), total volume and total suspended solids, making up four cases for comparative analysis. Models were solved by the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm in MATLAB. Results show that: ineffective solutions can be rejected by adding constraints, and newly added objectives can affect the relationship between the existing objectives; taking Pareto solutions as process parameters, the performance indexes of PEV and OCI can be improved more than with the default process parameters of BSM1, especially for N removal and resistance against dynamic NH4(+)-N in influent. The results indicate that multi-objective optimization is a useful method for optimal design ASP.

  9. New process for preparing complex-shaped dielectric film similar to Mylar. [Polyethylene terephthalate

    SciTech Connect

    Lagasse, R.R.; Kraynik, A.M.

    1982-02-01

    A new thermoforming/heat-treatment process yields complex-shaped dielectric film having electrical and shrinkage properties similar to those of flat Mylar film. This similarity should extend to other physical properties because the new process is directly analogous to the process used to prepare Mylar. Commercially available poly(ethylene terephthalate) film is formed into a cavity at approx. 110/sup 0/C and then heat treated at approx. 180/sup 0/C. A laboratory-scale forming apparatus has produced cylindrically shaped films having depth/diameter ratio approx. 1, a tapered wall-section, and variation in wall thickness of < 3X. Evaluation of other forming methods suggests that the production rate and thickness uniformity can be improved with existing technology. Thermal shrinkage at 150/sup 0/C, 1 kHz dielectric constant from -55 to +70/sup 0/C, leakage current at 1 kV, and breakdown voltage have been measured for both the complex-shaped film and Mylar. These comparative measurements indicate that the complex-shaped film could replace the flat Mylar dielectric currently used in energy-storage capacitors. A complex-shaped energy-storage capacitor could enhance safety in certain nuclear weapon applications by allowing strong-link devices in a firing set to be enclosed by a weak link.

  10. A Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov approach for inverse modeling of complex processes applied to a hydrological system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, Efrain; Rosmann, Thomas; Chavarro, John

    2014-05-01

    In order to extract the mathematical operators that rule complex system behavior, a numeric scheme of the multidimensional Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation is proposed allowing, through conjugate gradient optimization, the identification of deterministic kernels for an observed complex system. This scheme is analyzed using a hydrological basin as example but can be used in many fields. It is assumed that there are observed input-output signals of the system and no especial assumptions about the system kernel are required. This approach can be used at different time resolutions and it is expected to be powerful enough to characterize hydrological variability at different time scales, even under no-stationary conditions. This inverse modeling scheme has three different identification methods, the first one is related to Langevin equations system types, thus random components are described, additively, as noises while in the second method they are represented by the noises intensities instead of noise processes itself. As a result of this inverse modeling approach, hydrological processes can be described as a combination of deterministic kernels and random processes and the system phase space dimensionality can be objectively established. In this work, proposed approach was used to study hydrological variability, trends and extremes at different time resolution.

  11. Compensation Effect in the Electrical Conduction Process in Some Nucleic Acid Base Complexes with Proflavine Dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, D.; Misra, T. N.

    1988-11-01

    Compensation behaviour has been found in electrical conduction process in proflavine complexes with nucleic acid bases, guanine, adenine, uracil and thymine. At low dye concentrations these semiconducting complexes follow a three constant compensation equation σ(T){=}σ0'\\exp (E/2kT0)\\exp (-E/2kT), σ0' and T0 being constants for a specific base. The other notations have their usual meaning. Consistent values of these constants have been obtained by different experimental methods of evaluation. These results suggest that compensation effect has a physical origin.

  12. The First AO Classification System for Fractures of the Craniomaxillofacial Skeleton: Rationale, Methodological Background, Developmental Process, and Objectives.

    PubMed

    Audigé, Laurent; Cornelius, Carl-Peter; Di Ieva, Antonio; Prein, Joachim

    2014-12-01

    Validated trauma classification systems are the sole means to provide the basis for reliable documentation and evaluation of patient care, which will open the gateway to evidence-based procedures and healthcare in the coming years. With the support of AO Investigation and Documentation, a classification group was established to develop and evaluate a comprehensive classification system for craniomaxillofacial (CMF) fractures. Blueprints for fracture classification in the major constituents of the human skull were drafted and then evaluated by a multispecialty group of experienced CMF surgeons and a radiologist in a structured process during iterative agreement sessions. At each session, surgeons independently classified the radiological imaging of up to 150 consecutive cases with CMF fractures. During subsequent review meetings, all discrepancies in the classification outcome were critically appraised for clarification and improvement until consensus was reached. The resulting CMF classification system is structured in a hierarchical fashion with three levels of increasing complexity. The most elementary level 1 simply distinguishes four fracture locations within the skull: mandible (code 91), midface (code 92), skull base (code 93), and cranial vault (code 94). Levels 2 and 3 focus on further defining the fracture locations and for fracture morphology, achieving an almost individual mapping of the fracture pattern. This introductory article describes the rationale for the comprehensive AO CMF classification system, discusses the methodological framework, and provides insight into the experiences and interactions during the evaluation process within the core groups. The details of this system in terms of anatomy and levels are presented in a series of focused tutorials illustrated with case examples in this special issue of the Journal.

  13. The First AO Classification System for Fractures of the Craniomaxillofacial Skeleton: Rationale, Methodological Background, Developmental Process, and Objectives

    PubMed Central

    Audigé, Laurent; Cornelius, Carl-Peter; Ieva, Antonio Di; Prein, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Validated trauma classification systems are the sole means to provide the basis for reliable documentation and evaluation of patient care, which will open the gateway to evidence-based procedures and healthcare in the coming years. With the support of AO Investigation and Documentation, a classification group was established to develop and evaluate a comprehensive classification system for craniomaxillofacial (CMF) fractures. Blueprints for fracture classification in the major constituents of the human skull were drafted and then evaluated by a multispecialty group of experienced CMF surgeons and a radiologist in a structured process during iterative agreement sessions. At each session, surgeons independently classified the radiological imaging of up to 150 consecutive cases with CMF fractures. During subsequent review meetings, all discrepancies in the classification outcome were critically appraised for clarification and improvement until consensus was reached. The resulting CMF classification system is structured in a hierarchical fashion with three levels of increasing complexity. The most elementary level 1 simply distinguishes four fracture locations within the skull: mandible (code 91), midface (code 92), skull base (code 93), and cranial vault (code 94). Levels 2 and 3 focus on further defining the fracture locations and for fracture morphology, achieving an almost individual mapping of the fracture pattern. This introductory article describes the rationale for the comprehensive AO CMF classification system, discusses the methodological framework, and provides insight into the experiences and interactions during the evaluation process within the core groups. The details of this system in terms of anatomy and levels are presented in a series of focused tutorials illustrated with case examples in this special issue of the Journal. PMID:25489387

  14. The optimal approach for the processes of verification and validation of NPP software and hardware complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, S.; Tolokonsky, A.; Rogov, V.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays the task of increasing the quality of software and hardware complex development has not lost its urgency. The problem mentioned has still been solving by the search of an optimal structure, stage content and life cycle processes. The current system of international standards has been developed on the basis of advanced software complexes for aviation, space and defense industries being designed during the second half of the 20th century. However, it lacks a holistic approach for verification and validation. The paper presents the analysis of Russian and international regulatory framework and current verification and validation methods in the context of the life cycle of NPP software and hardware complexes. Basing on the data obtained, a new approach for verification and validation methods has been introduced.

  15. APPLICATION OF FORMOHYDROXAMIC ACID IN NUCLEAR PROCESSING: SYNTHESIS AND COMPLEXATION WITH TECHNETIUM-99

    SciTech Connect

    Amber Wright; Edward Mausolf; Keri Campbell; Frederic Poineau; P. Paviet-Hartmann

    2010-05-01

    Acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) is an organic ligand planned for use in the Uranium Extraction (UREX) process. It reduces neptunium and plutonium, and the resultant hydrophilic complexes are separated from uranium by extraction with tributyl phosphate (TBP) in a hydrocarbon diluent. AHA undergoes hydrolysis to acetic acid which will impede the recycling of nitric acid. During recent discussions of the UREX process, it has been proposed to replace AHA by formohydroxamic acid (FHA). FHA will undergo hydrolysis to formic acid which is volatile, thus allowing the recycling of nitric acid. The reported reduction potentials of AHA and pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) indicated that it may be possible for AHA to reduce technetium, altering its fate in the fuel cycle. At UNLV, it has been demonstrated that TcO{sub 4}{sup -} undergoes reductive nitrosylation by AHA under a variety of conditions. The resulting divalent technetium is complexed by AHA to form the pseudo-octahedral trans-aquonitrosyl (diacetohydroxamic)-technetium(II) complex ([Tc{sup II}(NO)(AHA){sub 2}H{sub 2}O]{sup +}). In this paper, we are reporting the synthesis of FHA and its complex formation with technetium along with the characterization of FHA crystals achieved by NMR and IR spectroscopy. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the complexation of FHA with Tc and the results were compared with previous data on AHA. The first experiment involved the elution of Tc from a Reillex HP anion exchange resin, and the second one monitored the complexation of technetium with FHA by UV-visible spectrophotometry.

  16. General and craniofacial development are complex adaptive processes influenced by diversity.

    PubMed

    Brook, A H; O'Donnell, M Brook; Hone, A; Hart, E; Hughes, T E; Smith, R N; Townsend, G C

    2014-06-01

    Complex systems are present in such diverse areas as social systems, economies, ecosystems and biology and, therefore, are highly relevant to dental research, education and practice. A Complex Adaptive System in biological development is a dynamic process in which, from interacting components at a lower level, higher level phenomena and structures emerge. Diversity makes substantial contributions to the performance of complex adaptive systems. It enhances the robustness of the process, allowing multiple responses to external stimuli as well as internal changes. From diversity comes variation in outcome and the possibility of major change; outliers in the distribution enhance the tipping points. The development of the dentition is a valuable, accessible model with extensive and reliable databases for investigating the role of complex adaptive systems in craniofacial and general development. The general characteristics of such systems are seen during tooth development: self-organization; bottom-up emergence; multitasking; self-adaptation; variation; tipping points; critical phases; and robustness. Dental findings are compatible with the Random Network Model, the Threshold Model and also with the Scale Free Network Model which has a Power Law distribution. In addition, dental development shows the characteristics of Modularity and Clustering to form Hierarchical Networks. The interactions between the genes (nodes) demonstrate Small World phenomena, Subgraph Motifs and Gene Regulatory Networks. Genetic mechanisms are involved in the creation and evolution of variation during development. The genetic factors interact with epigenetic and environmental factors at the molecular level and form complex networks within the cells. From these interactions emerge the higher level tissues, tooth germs and mineralized teeth. Approaching development in this way allows investigation of why there can be variations in phenotypes from identical genotypes; the phenotype is the outcome

  17. Insights into dynamic processes of cations in pyrochlores and other complex oxides

    DOE PAGES

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Perriot, Romain

    2015-08-26

    Complex oxides are critical components of many key technologies, from solid oxide fuel cells and superionics to inert matrix fuels and nuclear waste forms. In many cases, understanding mass transport is important for predicting performance and, thus, extensive effort has been devoted to understanding mass transport in these materials. However, most work has focused on the behavior of oxygen while cation transport has received relatively little attention, even though cation diffusion is responsible for many phenomena, including sintering, radiation damage evolution, and deformation processes. Here, we use accelerated molecular dynamics simulations to examine the kinetics of cation defects in onemore » class of complex oxides, A₂B₂O₇ pyrochlore. In some pyrochlore chemistries, B cation defects are kinetically unstable, transforming to A cation defects and antisites at rates faster than they can diffuse. When this occurs, transport of B cations occurs through defect processes on the A sublattice. Further, these A cation defects, either interstitials or vacancies, can interact with antisite disorder, reordering the material locally, though this process is much more efficient for interstitials than vacancies. Whether this behavior occurs in a given pyrochlore depends on the A and B chemistry. Pyrochlores with a smaller ratio of cation radii exhibit this complex behavior, while those with larger ratios exhibit direct migration of B interstitials. Similar behavior has been reported in other complex oxides such as spinels and perovskites, suggesting that this coupling of transport between the A and B cation sublattices, while not universal, occurs in many complex oxide.« less

  18. Hydrogeologic processes of large-scale tectonomagmatic complexes in Mongolia-southern Siberia and on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Komatsu, G.; Dohm, J.M.; Hare, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    Large-scale tectonomagmatic complexes are common on Earth and Mars. Many of these complexes are created or at least influenced by mantle processes, including a wide array of plume types ranging from superplumes to mantle plumes. Among the most prominent complexes, the Mongolian plateau on Earth and the Tharsis bulge on Mars share remarkable similarities in terms of large domal uplifted areas, great rift canyon systems, and widespread volcanism on their surfaces. Water has also played an important role in the development of the two complexes. In general, atmospheric and surface water play a bigger role in the development of the present-day Mongolian plateau than for the Tharsis bulge, as evidenced by highly developed drainages and thick accumulation of sediments in the basins of the Baikal rift system. On the Tharsis bulge, however, water appears to have remained as ground ice except during periods of elevated magmatic activity. Glacial and periglacial processes are well documented for the Mongolian plateau and are also reported for parts of the Tharsis bulge. Ice-magma interactions, which are represented by the formation of subice volcanoes in parts of the Mongolian plateau region, have been reported for the Valles Marineris region of Mars. The complexes are also characterized by cataclysmic floods, but their triggering mechanism may differ: mainly ice-dam failures for the Mongolian plateau and outburst of groundwater for the Tharsis bulge, probably by magma-ice interactions, although ice-dam failures within the Valles Marineris region cannot be ruled out as a possible contributor. Comparative studies of the Mongolian plateau and Tharsis bulge provide excellent opportunities for understanding surface manifestations of plume-driven processes on terrestrial planets and how they interact with hydro-cryospheres. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  19. Impact of Background Noise and Sentence Complexity on Processing Demands during Sentence Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Wendt, Dorothea; Dau, Torsten; Hjortkjær, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Speech comprehension in adverse listening conditions can be effortful even when speech is fully intelligible. Acoustical distortions typically make speech comprehension more effortful, but effort also depends on linguistic aspects of the speech signal, such as its syntactic complexity. In the present study, pupil dilations, and subjective effort ratings were recorded in 20 normal-hearing participants while performing a sentence comprehension task. The sentences were either syntactically simple (subject-first sentence structure) or complex (object-first sentence structure) and were presented in two levels of background noise both corresponding to high intelligibility. A digit span and a reading span test were used to assess individual differences in the participants’ working memory capacity (WMC). The results showed that the subjectively rated effort was mostly affected by the noise level and less by syntactic complexity. Conversely, pupil dilations increased with syntactic complexity but only showed a small effect of the noise level. Participants with higher WMC showed increased pupil responses in the higher-level noise condition but rated sentence comprehension as being less effortful compared to participants with lower WMC. Overall, the results demonstrate that pupil dilations and subjectively rated effort represent different aspects of effort. Furthermore, the results indicate that effort can vary in situations with high speech intelligibility. PMID:27014152

  20. Processing of simple and complex acoustic signals in a tonotopically organized ear

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, Jennifer; Wolf, Konstantin; Kössl, Manfred; Nowotny, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Processing of complex signals in the hearing organ remains poorly understood. This paper aims to contribute to this topic by presenting investigations on the mechanical and neuronal response of the hearing organ of the tropical bushcricket species Mecopoda elongata to simple pure tone signals as well as to the conspecific song as a complex acoustic signal. The high-frequency hearing organ of bushcrickets, the crista acustica (CA), is tonotopically tuned to frequencies between about 4 and 70 kHz. Laser Doppler vibrometer measurements revealed a strong and dominant low-frequency-induced motion of the CA when stimulated with either pure tone or complex stimuli. Consequently, the high-frequency distal area of the CA is more strongly deflected by low-frequency-induced waves than by high-frequency-induced waves. This low-frequency dominance will have strong effects on the processing of complex signals. Therefore, we additionally studied the neuronal response of the CA to native and frequency-manipulated chirps. Again, we found a dominant influence of low-frequency components within the conspecific song, indicating that the mechanical vibration pattern highly determines the neuronal response of the sensory cells. Thus, we conclude that the encoding of communication signals is modulated by ear mechanics. PMID:25339727