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Sample records for complex tonopah test

  1. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    1998-08-31

    This corrective action plan provides the closure implementation methods for the Area 3 Landfill Complex, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 424, located at the Tonopah Test Range. The Area 3 Landfill Complex consists of 8 landfill sites, each designated as a separate corrective action site.

  2. Corrective action investigation plan for CAU No. 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 3 Landfill Complex, CAU No. 424, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, nevada. The CAU 424 is comprised of eight individual landfill sites that are located around and within the perimeter of the Area 3 Compound. Due to the unregulated disposal activities commonly associated with early landfill operations, an investigation will be conducted at each CAS to complete the following tasks: identify the presence and nature of possible contaminant migration from the landfills; determine the vertical and lateral extent of possible contaminant migration; ascertain the potential impact to human health and the environment; and provide sufficient information and data to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective action strategies for each CAS.

  3. 1993 site environmental report Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Howard, D.; McClellan, Y.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company for the Tonopah Test Range operated by Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories` responsibility for environmental monitoring results extend to those activities performed by Sandia National Laboratories or under its direction. Results from other environmental monitoring activities are included to provide a measure of completeness in reporting. Other environmental compliance programs such as the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, environmental permits, and environmental restoration and waste management programs are also included in this report, prepared for the US Department of Energy in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1.

  4. 1994 site environmental report, Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Forston, W.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and Kirk-Mayer, Inc., for the Tonopah Test Range operated by Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories` responsibility for environmental surveillance results extends to those activities performed by Sandia National Laboratories or under its direction. Results from other environmental surveillance activities are included to provide a measure of completeness in reporting. Other environmental compliance programs such as the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, environmental permits, and environmental restoration and waste management programs are also included in this report, prepared for the US Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with DOE Order 5400. 1.

  5. 1996 Site environmental report Tonopah test range Tonopah, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Forston, W.; Duncan, D.; Sanchez, R.

    1997-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operates the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Weapons Ordnance Program. This annual report (calendar year 1996) summarizes the compliance status to environmental regulations applicable at the site including those statutes that govern air and water quality, waste management, clean-up of contaminated areas, control of toxic substances, and adherence to requirements as related to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In compliance with DOE Orders, SNL also conducts environmental surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL`s responsibility for environmentals surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL`s responsibility for environmental surveillance extends only to those activities performed by SNL or under its direction. Annual radiological and nonradiological routine releases and unplanned releases (occurrences) are also summarized herein.

  6. 1989 environmental monitoring report, Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, S.; Phelan, J.; Wolff, T.; Yeager, G.; Dionne, D.; West, G.

    1990-05-01

    This report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities conducted by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company (REECo) for the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) operated by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Other environmental compliance programs such as National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), environmental permits, environmental restoration, and waste management programs are also included. The maximum offsite dose impact from 1989 operations was 8.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} mrem as a result of an unusual occurrence. The population received a collective dose of 1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} person-rem from this incidence, while the same populations received 4.94 person-rem from natural background radiation. The 1989 SNL, TTR operations had no adverse impact on the general public or the environment. 18 refs., 2 figs., 14 tabs.

  7. Tonopah Test Range Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2003

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-04-01

    This post-closure inspection report provides documentation of the semiannual inspection activities, maintenance and repair activities, and conclusions and recommendations for calendar year 2003 for eight corrective action units located on the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada.

  8. CORRECTIVE ACTION DECISION DOCUMENT FOR THE AREA 3 LANDFILL COMPLEX, TONOPAH TEST RANGE, CAU 424, REVISION 0, MARCH 1998

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1998-03-03

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for the Area 3 Landfill Complex (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] 424) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Corrective Action Unit 424 is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and is comprised of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs), each an individual landfill located around and within the perimeter of the Area 3 Compound (DOE/NV, 1996a): (1) Landfill A3-1 is CAS No. 03-08-001-A301. (2) Landfill A3-2 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A302. (3) Landfill A3-3 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A303. (4) Landfill A3-4 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A304. (5) Landfill A3-5 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A305. (6) Landfill A3-6 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A306. (7) Landfill A3-7 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A307. (8) Landfill A3-8 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A308. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS. The scope of this CADD consists of the following: (1) Develop corrective action objectives. (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria. (3) Develop corrective action alternatives. (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria. (6) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS. In June and July 1997, a corrective action investigation was performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for CAU No. 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1997). Details can be found in Appendix A of this document. The results indicated four groupings of site characteristics as shown in Table ES-1. Based on the potential exposure pathways, the following corrective action objectives have been identified for CAU No. 424: (1) Prevent or mitigate human exposure to subsurface soils containing waste. (2) Remediate the site per

  9. 1990 Environmental monitoring report, Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, A.; Phelan, J.; Wolff, T.; Yeager, G.; Dionne, D.; West, G.; Girard, C.

    1991-05-01

    There is no routine radioactive emission from Sandia National Laboratories, Tonopah Test Range (SNL, TTR). However, based on the types of test activities such as air drops, gun firings, ground- launched rockets, air-launched rockets, and other explosive tests, possibilities exist that small amounts of depleted uranium (DU) (as part of weapon components) may be released to the air or to the ground because of unusual circumstances (failures) during testing. Four major monitoring programs were used in 1990 to assess radiological impact on the public. The EPA Air Surveillance Network (ASN) found that the only gamma ({gamma}) emitting radionuclide on the prefilters was beryllium-7 ({sup 7}Be), a naturally-occurring spallation product formed by the interaction of cosmic radiation with atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen. The weighted average results were consistent with the area background concentrations. The EPA Thermoluminescent Dosimetry (TLD) Network and Pressurized Ion Chamber (PIC) reported normal results. In the EPA Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program (LTHMP), analytical results for tritium ({sup 3}H) in well water were reported and were well below DOE-derived concentration guides (DCGs). In the Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company (REECo) Drinking Water Sampling Program, analytical results for {sup 3}H, gross alpha ({alpha}), beta ({beta}), and {gamma} scan, strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr) and plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) were within the EPA's primary drinking water standards. 29 refs., 5 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. Tonopah Test Range capabilities: technical manual

    SciTech Connect

    Manhart, R.L.

    1982-11-01

    This manual describes Tonopah Test Range (TTR), defines its testing capabilities, and outlines the steps necessary to schedule tests on the Range. Operated by Sandia National Laboratories, TTR is a major test facility for DOE-funded weapon programs. The Range presents an integrated system for ballistic test vehicle tracking and data acquisition. Multiple radars, optical trackers, telemetry stations, a central computer complex, and combined landline/RF communications systems assure full Range coverage for any type of test. Range operations are conducted by a department within Sandia's Field Engineering Directorate. While the overall Range functions as a complete system, it is operationally divided into the Test Measurements, Instrumentation Development, and Range Operations divisions. The primary function of TTR is to support DOE weapons test activities. Management, however, encourages other Government agencies and their contractors to schedule tests on the Range which can make effective use of its capabilities. Information concerning Range use by organizations outside of DOE is presented. Range instrumentation and support facilities are described in detail. This equipment represents the current state-of-the-art and reflects a continuing commitment by TTR management to field the most effective tracking and data acquisition system available.

  11. Tonopah Test Range 2030 Meeting Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-04-01

    Corrective Action Sites (CASs) and Corrective Action Units (CAUs) at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) may be placed into three categories: Closed, Closed in Place, or Closure in Progress. CASs and CAUs where contaminants were either not detected or were cleaned up to within regulatory action levels are summarized. CASs and CAUs where contaminants and/or waste have been closed in place are summarized. There is also a table that summarizes the contaminant that has been closed at each site, if land-use restrictions are present, and if post-closure inspections are required.

  12. Tonopah Test Range closure sites revegetation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.C.; Hall, D.B.

    1997-05-01

    This document is a revegetation plan for long-term stabilization (revegetation) of land disturbed by activities associated with the closure of a Bomblet Pit and the Five Points Landfill. Both sites are on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) located in south-central Nevada. This document contains general reclamation practices and procedures that will be followed during the revegetation of these sites. The revegetation procedures proposed have been developed over several years of research and include the results of reclamation trials at Area 11 and Area 19 on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and more recently at the Double Tracks (Nellis Air Force Range) reclamation demonstration plots. In addition, the results of reclamation efforts and concurrent research efforts at the Yucca Mountain Project have been considered in the preparation of this revegetation plan.

  13. Tonopah Test Range Summary of Corrective Action Units

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald B. Jackson

    2007-05-01

    Corrective Action Sites (CASs) and Corrective Action Units (CAUs) at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) may be placed into three categories: Clean Closure/No Further Action, Closure in Place, or Closure in Progress.

  14. Lightning threat warning system at the Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R

    1992-07-01

    This report documents the lightning threat warning system at the Tonopah Test Range and the technology it uses. The report outlines each of the system's individual components and the information each contributes.

  15. Tonopah Test Range Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2002

    SciTech Connect

    R. B. Jackson

    2003-08-01

    This Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report provides documentation of the semiannual inspections conducted at the following Corrective Action Units (CAU)s: CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill; CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench; CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area; CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes; CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches; CAU 427: Septic Waste Systems 2, 6; and CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill, all located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. Post-closure inspections are not required at CAU 400 but are conducted to monitor vegetation and fencing at the site. Site inspections were conducted in May and November 2002. All site inspections were made after Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) approval of the appropriate Closure Report (CR), excluding CAU 400 which did not require a CR, and were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Inspection Plans in the NDEP-approved CRs. Post-closure inspections conducted during 2002 identified several areas requiring maintenance/repairs. Maintenance work and proposed additional monitoring are included in the appropriate section for each CAU. This report includes copies of the Post-Closure Inspection Plans, Post-Closure Inspection Checklists, copies of the field notes, photographs, and the Post-Closure Vegetative Monitoring Report. The Post-Closure Inspection Plan for each CAU is located in Attachment A. Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are in Attachment B. Copies of the field notes from each inspection are included in Attachment C. Attachment D consists of the photographic logs and photographs of the sites. The post-closure vegetative monitoring report for calendar year 2002 is included in Attachment E.

  16. Tonopah test range - outpost of Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.

    1996-03-01

    Tonopah Test Range is a unique historic site. Established in 1957 by Sandia Corporation, Tonopah Test Range in Nevada provided an isolated place for the Atomic Energy Commission to test ballistics and non-nuclear features of atomic weapons. It served this and allied purposes well for nearly forty years, contributing immeasurably to a peaceful conclusion to the long arms race remembered as the Cold War. This report is a brief review of historical highlights at Tonopah Test Range. Sandia`s Los Lunas, Salton Sea, Kauai, and Edgewood testing ranges also receive abridged mention. Although Sandia`s test ranges are the subject, the central focus is on the people who managed and operated the range. Comments from historical figures are interspersed through the narrative to establish this perspective, and at the end a few observations concerning the range`s future are provided.

  17. Tonopah Test Range EGS graphics tracking display system: HP370

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.H.; Bauhs, K.C.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the HP370 component of the Enhanced Graphics System (EGS) used at Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Selected Radar data is fed into the computer systems and the resulting tracking symbols are displayed on high-resolution video monitors in real time. These tracking symbols overlay background maps and are used for monitoring/controlling various flight vehicles. This report discusses both the operational aspects and the internal configuration of the HP370 Workstation portion of the EGS system.

  18. Office of Inspector General audit of alternatives to testing at the Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, G.H.

    1998-03-13

    Since the 1950s, the Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have done weapons program testing at the Tonopah Test Range (Tonopah). Beginning the in 1990s, DOE`s testing at Tonopah declined dramatically. This decline was coincident with the signing of various international treaties, the end of the Cold War, and the movement of some types of tests to other ranges. As a result, Tonopah was left with some bomb and work-for-others testing. The objective of this audit was to determine if there were viable, cost effective alternatives to testing at Tonopah. During the early 1990s, DOE`s Albuquerque Operations Office (Albuquerque) and Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia), which operates Tonopah for DOE, explored the alternative of testing elsewhere. Some of the data gathered by Albuquerque and Sandia provided indications that testing at another range would be practical and economical. This audit followed up on the Albuquerque/Sandia studies and also indicated that testing could be done elsewhere, at a potential cost savings of several million dollars annually. Therefore, it was recommended that Albuquerque conduct a comprehensive study of all testing alternatives. Albuquerque agreed to implement this recommendation but raised technical questions regarding issues such as environmental permits, scheduling flexibility, and cost components, which warrant a more detailed examination as part of the recommended study. It was also recommended that, if the study found that it was not feasible or economical to move the testing elsewhere, Albuquerque reduce the cost of Tonopah to the minimum level necessary to support testing requirements. Albuquerque agreed to this recommendation and stated that it and Sandia continued to actively pursue cost reductions at Tonopah.

  19. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2013-01-28

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2012 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs: · CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR) · CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR) · CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR) · CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR) · CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR)

  20. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, For Calendar Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2011-03-30

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2010 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following seven CAUs: · CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR) · CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR) · CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR) · CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR) · CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR) · CAU 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (TTR) · CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR)

  1. POST-CLOSURE INSPECTION REPORT FOR THE TONOPAH TEST RANGE, NEVADA FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2005

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    This post-closure inspection report includes the results of inspections, maintenance and repair activities, and conclusions and recommendations for Calendar Year 2005 for nine Corrective Action Units located on the Tonopah Test Range , Nevada.

  2. 1997 annual site environmental report, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, Todd; Duncan, Dianne; Forston, William; Sanchez, Rebecca

    1998-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operates the Tonopah Test Range for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weapons Ordnance Program. Thes annual report (calendar year 1997) summarizes the compliance status to environmental regulations applicable at the site including those statutes that govern air and water quality, waste management, cleanup of contaminated areas, control of toxic substances, and adherence to requirements as related to the National Environmental Policy Act. In compliance with DOE orders, SNL also conducts environmental surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL's responsibility for environmental surveillance extends only to those activities performed by SNL or under its direction. Annual radiological and nonradiological routine releases and unplanned releases (occurrences) are also summarized. This report has been prepared as required by DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program.

  3. 1998 Annual Site Environmental Report Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.K.; Fink, C.H.; Sanchez, R.V.

    1999-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operates the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Ordnance Program. This annual report (calendar year 1998) summarizes the compliance status to environmental regulations applicable at the site including those statutes that govern air and water quality, waste management cleanup of contaminated areas, control of toxic substances, and adherence to requirements as related to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In compliance with DOE orders, SNL also conducts environmental surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL's responsibility for environmental surveillance at TTR extends only to those areas where SNL activities are carried out. Annual radiological and nonradiological routine releases and unplanned releases (occurrences) are also summarized. This report has been prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE 1990a).

  4. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 489: WWII UXO Sites, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada; May 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2005-05-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan provides the details for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 489: WWII UXO Sites, Tonopah Test Range. CAU 489 is located at the Tonopah Test Range and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996.

  5. Closure report for CAU No. 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill, Tonopah test range

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This Closure Reports presents the information obtained from corrective and investigative actions performed to affirm the decision for clean closure of Corrective Action Unit No. 400 which includes the Bomblet Pit and the Five Points Landfill, two sites used for disposal of unexploded ordnance (UXO) and other solid waste at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Tonopah Test Range, located in south-central Nevada. The first phase, or corrective action, for clean closure was performed under the Voluntary Correction Action Work Plan for Ordnance Removal from Five Disposal Sites at the Tonopah Test Range, hereafter referred to as the VCA Work Plan. The second phase consisted of collecting verification samples under the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan, CA U No. 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill, Tonopah Test Range, hereafter referred to as the SAFER Plan. Results of the two phases are summarized in this document.

  6. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, For Calendar Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-03-19

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Unit (CAU) sites located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2008 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following ten CAUs: CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR) CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench (TTR) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR) CAU 423: Area 3 Underground Discharge Point, Building 0360 (TTR) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR) CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR) CAU 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2, 6 (TTR) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR) CAU 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (TTR) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR)

  7. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 496: Buried Rocket Site, Antelope Lake, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-05-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan details the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit 496: Buried Rocket Site, Antelope Lake. CAU 496 consists of one site located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada.

  8. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Silvas, A. J.; Lantow, Tiffany A.

    2015-03-25

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2014 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs; CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) Inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports and subsequent correspondence with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. The post-closure inspection plans and subsequent correspondence modifying the requirements for each CAU are included in Appendix B. The inspection checklists are included in Appendix C. Photographs taken during inspections are included in Appendix D. The annual post-closure inspections were conducted on May 28, 2014. Maintenance was required at CAU 407. Animal burrows were backfilled and erosion repairs were performed. Vegetation monitoring was performed at CAU 407 in June 2014. The vegetation monitoring report is included in Appendix E.

  9. Corrective action investigation plan for CAU Number 453: Area 9 Landfill, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-14

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 9 Landfill, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 453/Corrective Action (CAS) 09-55-001-0952, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The Area 9 Landfill is located northwest of Area 9 on the TTR. The landfill cells associated with CAU 453 were excavated to receive waste generated from the daily operations conducted at Area 9 and from range cleanup which occurred after test activities.

  10. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 Burn Area is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). CAU 490 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and includes for Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) Fire Training Area (CAS 03-56-001-03BA); (2) Station 44 Burn Area (CAS RG-56-001-RGBA); (3) Sandia Service Yard (CAS 03-58-001-03FN); and (4) Gun Propellant Burn Area (CAS 09-54-001-09L2).

  11. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, For Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-02-21

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2011 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs: (1) CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); (2) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); (3) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); (4) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and (5) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) Inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports. The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Appendix B. The inspection checklists are included in Appendix C, field notes are included in Appendix D, and photographs taken during inspections are included in Appendix E. The annual post-closure inspections were conducted May 3 and 4, 2011. Maintenance was performed at CAU 424, CAU 453, and CAU 487. At CAU 424, two surface grade monuments at Landfill Cell A3-3 could not be located during the inspection. The two monuments were located and marked with lava rock on July 13, 2011. At CAU 453, there was evidence of animal burrowing. Animal burrows were backfilled on July 13, 2011. At CAU 487, one use restriction warning sign was missing, and wording was faded on the remaining signs. A large animal burrow was also present. The signs were replaced, and the animal burrow was backfilled on July 12, 2011. As a best management practice, the use restriction warning signs at CAU 407 were replaced with standard Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order signs on July 13, 2011. Vegetation monitoring was performed at the CAU 400 Five Points Landfill and CAU 407 in June 2011, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Appendix F.

  12. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Silvas, A. J.

    2014-03-03

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2013 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs: • CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR) • CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR) • CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR) • CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR) • CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) Inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports and subsequent correspondence with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. The post-closure inspection plans and subsequent correspondence modifying the requirements for each CAU are included in Appendix B. The inspection checklists are included in Appendix C. Field notes are included in Appendix D. Photographs taken during inspections are included in Appendix E. The annual post-closure inspections were conducted on May 14, 2013. Maintenance was performed at CAU 400, CAU 424, and CAU 453. At CAU 400, animal burrows were backfilled. At CAU 424, erosion repairs were completed at Landfill Cell A3-3, subsidence was repaired at Landfill Cell A3-4, and additional lava rock was placed in high-traffic areas to mark the locations of the surface grade monuments at Landfill Cell A3-3 and Landfill Cell A3-8. At CAU 453, two areas of subsidence were repaired and animal burrows were backfilled. Vegetation monitoring was performed at the CAU 400 Five Points Landfill and CAU 407 in June 2013. The vegetation monitoring report is included in Appendix F.

  13. A multispectral scanner survey of the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. Date of survey: August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, S.B. Jr.; Howard, M.E.; Shines, J.E.

    1994-08-01

    The Multispectral Remote Sensing Department of the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an airborne multispectral scanner survey of a portion of the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. The survey was conducted on August 21 and 22, 1993, using a Daedalus AADS1268 scanner and coincident aerial color photography. Flight altitudes were 5,000 feet (1,524 meters) above ground level for systematic coverage and 1,000 feet (304 meters) for selected areas of special interest. The multispectral scanner survey was initiated as part of an interim and limited investigation conducted to gather preliminary information regarding historical hazardous material release sites which could have environmental impacts. The overall investigation also includes an inventory of environmental restoration sites, a ground-based geophysical survey, and an aerial radiological survey. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of man-made soil disturbances. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the data to assist image interpretation. A geologic ratio enhancement and a color composite consisting of AADS1268 channels 10, 7, and 9 (mid-infrared, red, and near-infrared spectral bands) proved most useful for detecting soil disturbances. A total of 358 disturbance sites were identified on the imagery and mapped using a geographic information system. Of these sites, 326 were located within the Tonopah Test Range while the remaining sites were present on the imagery but outside the site boundary. The mapped site locations are being used to support ongoing field investigations.

  14. Calendar Year 2004 annual site environmental report : Tonopah Test Range, Nevada & Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii.

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, Amber L.; Wagner, Katrina; Goering, Teresa Lynn; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2005-09-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, manages TTR and KTF's operations. Sandia Corporation conducts operations at TTR in support of DOE/NNSA's Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Westinghouse Government Services subcontracts to Sandia Corporation in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia Corporation operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2004. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia Corporation is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA, Nevada Site Office (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2005) and DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2004b).

  15. Geologic investigation of Playa Lakes, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada : data report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur

    2004-12-01

    Subsurface geological investigations have been conducted at two large playa lakes at the Tonopah Test Range in central Nevada. These characterization activities were intended to provide basic stratigraphic-framework information regarding the lateral distribution of ''hard'' and ''soft'' sedimentary materials for use in defining suitable target regions for penetration testing. Both downhole geophysical measurements and macroscopic lithilogic descriptions were used as a surrogate for quantitative mechanical-strength properties, although some quantitative laboratory strength measurements were obtained as well. Both rotary (71) and core (19) holes on a systematic grid were drilled in the southern half of the Main Lake; drill hole spacings are 300 ft north-south and 500-ft east-west. The drilled region overlaps a previous cone-penetrometer survey that also addressed the distribution of hard and soft material. Holes were drilled to a depth of 40 ft and logged using both geologic examination and down-hole geophysical surveying. The data identify a large complex of very coarse-grained sediment (clasts up to 8 mm) with interbedded finer-grained sands, silts and clays, underlying a fairly uniform layer of silty clay 6 to 12 ft thick. Geophysical densities of the course-grained materials exceed 2.0 g/cm{sup 2}, and this petrophysical value appears to be a valid discriminator of hard vs. soft sediments in the subsurface. Thirty-four holes, including both core and rotary drilling, were drilled on a portion of the much larger Antelope Lake. A set of pre-drilling geophysical surveys, including time-domain electromagnetic methods, galvanic resistivity soundings, and terrain-conductivity surveying, was used to identify the gross distribution of conductive and resistive facies with respect to the present lake outline. Conductive areas were postulated to represent softer, clay-rich sediments with larger amounts of contained conductive ground water. Initial drilling, consisting of

  16. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    1998-09-30

    This corrective action plan proposes the closure method for the area 9 unexploded Ordnance landfill, corrective action unit 453 located at the Tonopah Test Range. The area 9 UXO landfill consists of corrective action site no. 09-55-001-0952 and is comprised of three individual landfill cells designated as A9-1, A9-2, and A9-3. The three landfill cells received wastes from daily operations at area 9 and from range cleanups which were performed after weapons testing. Cell locations and contents were not well documented due to the unregulated disposal practices commonly associated with early landfill operations. However, site process knowledge indicates that the landfill cells were used for solid waste disposal, including disposal of UXO.

  17. Corrective action plan for CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) verbally requested approval for the schedule to be accelerated from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in July 1997. Currently, field closure activities are anticipated to be completed by September 30, 1997. CAU 426 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS) comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primarily the Double Tracks Test in 1963.

  18. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, For Calendar Year 2007

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-06-01

    This report provides the results of the semiannual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Unit (CAU) sites located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2007 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following nine CAUs: (1) CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); (2) CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench (TTR); (3) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); (4) CAU 423: Area 3 Underground Discharge Point, Building 0360 (TTR); (5) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); (6) CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR); (7) CAU 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2, 6 (TTR); (8) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and (9) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR). In a letter from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) dated December 5, 2006, NDEP concurred with the request to reduce the frequency of post-closure inspections of CAUs at TTR to an annual frequency. This letter is included in Attachment B. Post-closure inspections were conducted on May 15-16, 2007. All inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports. The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Attachment B, with the exception of CAU 400. CAU 400 does not require post-closure inspections, but inspections of the vegetation and fencing are conducted as a best management practice. The inspection checklists for each site inspection are included in Attachment C, the field notes are included in Attachment D, and the site photographs are included in Attachment E. Vegetation monitoring of CAU 400, CAU 404, CAU 407, and CAU 426 was performed in May 2007, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Attachment F. Maintenance and/or repairs were performed at CAU 453. Animal burrows observed during the annual inspection at CAU 453 were backfilled on August 1, 2007. At this time, the TTR post-closure site inspections should continue as

  19. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-06-01

    This report provides the results of the semiannual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Unit (CAU) sites located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2006 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following nine CAUs: CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench (TTR); CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); CAU 423: Area 3 Underground Discharge Point, Building 0360 (TTR); CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR); CAU 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2, 6 (TTR); CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR). Post-closure inspections were conducted on May 9, 2006, May 31, 2006, and November 15, 2006. All inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports. The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Attachment B, with the exception of CAU 400. CAU 400 does not require post-closure inspections, but inspections of the vegetation and fencing are conducted as a best management practice. The inspection checklists for each site inspection are included in Attachment C, the field notes are included in Attachment D, and the site photographs are included in Attachment E. Vegetation monitoring of CAU 400, CAU 404, CAU 407, and CAU 426 was performed in June 2006, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Attachment F. Maintenance and/or repairs were performed at CAU 400, CAU 407, CAU 426, CAU 453, and CAU 487 in 2006. During the May inspection of CAU 400, it was identified that the east and west sections of chickenwire fencing beyond the standard fencing were damaged; they were repaired in June 2006. Also in June 2006, the southeast corner fence post and one warning sign at CAU 407 were reinforced and reattached, the perimeter fencing adjacent to the gate at CAU 426 was tightened, and large animal

  20. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-05-28

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Unit (CAU) sites located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2009 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following seven CAUs: · CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR) · CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR) · CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR) · CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR) · CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR) · CAU 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (TTR) · CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) The annual post-closure inspections were conducted May 5–6, 2009. All inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports. The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Attachment B, with the exception of CAU 400. CAU 400 does not require post-closure inspections, but inspections of the vegetation and fencing are conducted as a best management practice. The inspection checklists for each site inspection are included in Attachment C, the field notes are included in Attachment D, and the site photographs are included in Attachment E. Vegetation monitoring of CAU 400, CAU 404, CAU 407, and CAU 426 was performed in June 2009, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Attachment F. Maintenance was performed at CAU 453. Animal burrows observed during the annual inspection were backfilled, and a depression was restored to grade on June 25, 2009. Post-closure site inspections should continue as scheduled. Vegetation survey inspections have been conducted annually at CAUs 400, 404, 407, and 426. Discontinuation of vegetation surveys is recommended at the CAU 400 Bomblet Pit and CAU 426, which have been successfully revegetated. Discontinuation of vegetation surveys is also recommended at CAU 404, which has been changed to an administrative closure with no inspections required. Vegetation

  1. Corrective action decision document, Second Gas Station, Tonopah test range, Nevada (Corrective Action Unit No. 403)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for Second Gas Station (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 403) has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes} (FFACO, 1996). The Second Gas Station Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. 03-02-004-0360 is the only CAS in CAU No. 403. The Second Gas Station CAS is located within Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), west of the Main Road at the location of former Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) and their associated fuel dispensary stations. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (35 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The TTR is bordered on the south, east, and west by the Nellis Air Force Range and on the north by sparsely populated public land administered by the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service. The Second Gas Station CAS was formerly known as the Underground Diesel Tank Site, Sandia Environmental Restoration Site Number 118. The gas station was in use from approximately 1965 to 1980. The USTs were originally thought to be located 11 meters (m) (36 feet [ft]) east of the Old Light Duty Shop, Building 0360, and consisted of one gasoline UST (southern tank) and one diesel UST (northern tank) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The two associated fuel dispensary stations were located northeast (diesel) and southeast (gasoline) of Building 0360 (CAU 423). Presently the site is used as a parking lot, Building 0360 is used for mechanical repairs of vehicles.

  2. Air Monitoring Network at Tonopah Test Range: Network Description, Capabilities, and Analytical Results

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, William T.; Daniels, Jeffrey; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; Giles, Ken; Karr, Lynn; Kluesner, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    During the period April to June 2008, at the behest of the Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO); the Desert Research Institute (DRI) constructed and deployed two portable environmental monitoring stations at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) as part of the Environmental Restoration Project Soils Activity. DRI has operated these stations since that time. A third station was deployed in the period May to September 2011. The TTR is located within the northwest corner of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), and covers an area of approximately 725.20 km2 (280 mi2). The primary objective of the monitoring stations is to evaluate whether and under what conditions there is wind transport of radiological contaminants from Soils Corrective Action Units (CAUs) associated with Operation Roller Coaster on TTR. Operation Roller Coaster was a series of tests, conducted in 1963, designed to examine the stability and dispersal of plutonium in storage and transportation accidents. These tests did not result in any nuclear explosive yield. However, the tests did result in the dispersal of plutonium and contamination of surface soils in the surrounding area.

  3. Air Monitoring Network at Tonopah Test Range: Network Description and Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Tappen; George Nikolich; Ken Giles; David Shafer; Tammy Kluesner

    2010-05-18

    During the period April to June 2008, at the behest of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO); the Desert Research Institute (DRI) constructed and deployed two portable environmental monitoring stations at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) as part of the Environmental Restoration Project Soils Sub-Project. The TTR is located within the boundaries of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) near the northern edge, and covers an area of approximately 725.20 km2 (179,200 acres). The primary objective of the monitoring stations is to evaluate whether and under what conditions there is wind transport of radiological contaminants from one of the three Soil Sub-Project Corrective Action Units (CAUs) associated with Operation Roller Coaster on TTR. Operation Roller Coaster was a series of tests, conducted in 1963, designed to examine the stability and dispersal of plutonium in storage and transportation accidents. These tests did not result in any nuclear explosive yield. However, the tests did result in the dispersal of plutonium and contamination of surface soils in the surrounding area.

  4. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Dave Madsen

    1998-08-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers northwest of Las Vegas, NV. CAU 426 consists of one corrective action site (CAS) which is comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primary the Double Tracks Test in 1963, and were subsequently backfilled. The Double Tracks Test involved use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with the nonnuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP)which proposed ''capping'' methodology. The closure activities were completed in accordance with the approved CAP and consisted of constructing an engineered cover in the area of the trenches, constructing/planting a vegetative cover, installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on future use, and preparing a Post-Closure Monitoring Plan.

  5. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Dave D. Madsen

    1998-08-08

    This closure report provides the documentation for closure of the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range,approximately 225 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 426 consists of one Corrective Action Site which is comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primarily the Double Tracks Test in 1963, and were subsequently backfilled. The Double Tracks Test involved the use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with the non-nuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices (i.e., inhalation uptake of plutonium aerosol) (DOE, 1996). The remedial alternative proposed Nevada Division of Environmental Protection proposed the capping method. The closure activities were completed in accordance with the approved Corrective Action Plan and consisted of constructing an engineered cover in the ar ea of the trenches, constructing/planning a vegetative cover, installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on future use, and preparing a post-closure monitoring plan. Closure activities for CAU 426 have been completed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved Corrective Action Plan as documented in this Closure Report.

  6. POST-CLOSURE INSPECTION REPORT FOR THE TONOPAH TEST RANGE, NEVADA, FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2004

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2005-04-01

    This Post-Closure Inspection Report provides an analysis and summary of the semi-annual inspections conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) during Calendar Year 2004. The report includes the inspection and/or repair activities completed at the following nine Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located at TTR, Nevada: (1) CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); (2) CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench (TTR); (3) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); (4) CAU 423: Area 3 Underground Discharge Point, Building 0360 (TTR) (5) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); (6) CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR); (7) CAU 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2,6 (TTR); (8) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and (9) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR). Site inspections were conducted on July 7,2004, and November 9-10,2004. All inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports (CRs). The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Appendix B, with the exception of CAU 400 and CAU 423. CAU 400 does not require post-closure inspections, but inspections of the vegetation and fencing are conducted as a best management practice. In addition, post-closure inspections are not currently required at CAU 423; however, the CR is being revised to include inspection requirements. The inspection checklists for each site inspection are included in Appendix C, the field notes are included in Appendix D, and the site photographs are included in Appendix E. Vegetation monitoring of CAU 400, CAU 404, CAU 407, and CAU 426 was performed in June 2004, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Appendix F. In addition, topographic survey results of two repaired landfill cells in CAU 424 are included in Appendix G. Maintenance and/or repairs were performed at the CAU 400 Five Points Landfill, CAU 407, CAU 424, CAU 427, and CAU 487. CAU 400 repairs included mending the fence, reseeding of a flood damaged area, and

  7. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-07-01

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for CAU 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada (US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 2001). CAU 499 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): RG-25-001-RD24: Radar 24 Diesel Spill Site which is approximately 4.0 kilometers (2.5 miles) southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the end of Avenue 24. The Hydrocarbon Spill Site is a diesel fuel release site that is assumed to have been caused by numerous small historical over-fillings, spills, and leaks from an above-ground storage tank (AST) over a period of approximately 36 years. The tank was located on the east side of Building 24-50 on the TTR.

  8. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring. CY2014 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Nikoloch, George; Shadel, Craig; Chapman, Jenny; Mizell, Steve A.; McCurdy, Greg; Etyemezian, Vicken; Miller, Julianne J.

    2015-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2014 monitoring are: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2014 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations; (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. Differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely the result of differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  9. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2013 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Mizell, Steve A; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; McCurdy, Greg; Etyemezian, Vicken; Miller, Julianne J

    2014-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during on-going monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2013 monitoring include: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2012 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations (this was the latest documented data available at the time of this writing); (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. However, differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely due to differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  10. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 407: Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2001-12-01

    This closure report (CR) provides documentation for the closure of the Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area (RCRSA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 407 identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP] et al., 1996). CAU 407 is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). The RCRSA is located on the northeast comer of the intersection of Main Road and Browne's Lake Road, which is approximately 8 km (5 mi) south of Area 3 (Figure 1). The RCRSA was used during May and June of 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, and personnel from the Double Tracks and Clean Slate tests. Investigation of the RCRSA was conducted from June through November of 1998. A Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOEN], 1999) was approved in October of 1999. The purpose of this CR is to: Document the closure activities as proposed in the Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (DOEM, 2000). Obtain a Notice of Completion from the NDEP. Recommend the movement of CAU 407 from Appendix III to Appendix IV of the FFACO. The following is the scope of the closure actions implemented for CAU 407: Removal and disposal of surface soils which were over three times background for the area. Soils identified for removal were disposed of at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Excavated areas were backfilled with clean borrow soil located near the site. A soil cover was constructed over the waste disposal pit area, where subsurface constituents of concern remain. The site was fenced and posted as an ''Underground Radioactive Material'' area.

  11. Corrective action investigation plan for the Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area, Corrective Action Unit 407, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. CAUs consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU No. 407, the Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area (RCRSA) which is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range Complex, is approximately 255 km (140 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU No. 407 is comprised of only one CAS (TA-23-001-TARC). The RCRSA was used during May and June 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, and personnel from the Clean Slate tests. The surface and subsurface soils are likely to have been impacted by plutonium and other contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) associated with decontamination activities at this site. The purpose of the corrective action investigation described in this CAIP is to: identify the presence and nature of COPCs; determine the vertical and lateral extent of COPCs; and provide sufficient information and data to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for the CAS.

  12. U.S. Department of Energy NESHAP Annual Report for CY 2014 Sandia National Laboratories Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    Evelo, Stacie; Miller, Mark L.

    2015-05-01

    This National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Annual Report has been prepared in a format to comply with the reporting requirements of 40 CFR 61.94 and the April 5, 1995 Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). According to the EPA approved NESHAP Monitoring Plan for the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), 40 CFR 61, subpart H, and the MOA, no additional monitoring or measurements are required at TTR in order to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP regulation.

  13. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 425: Area 9 Main Lake Construction Debris Disposal Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2003-03-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 425 is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 386 kilometers (240 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 425 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and is comprised of one Corrective Action Site (CAS). CAS 09-08-001-TA09 consisted of a large pile of concrete rubble from the original Hard Target and construction debris associated with the Tornado Rocket Sled Tests. CAU 425 was closed in accordance with the FFACO and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection-approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 425: Area 9 Main Lake Construction Debris Disposal Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 2002). CAU 425 was closed by implementing the following corrective actions: The approved corrective action for this unit was clean closure. Closure activities included: (1) Removal of all the debris from the site. (2) Weighing each load of debris leaving the job site. (3) Transporting the debris to the U.S. Air Force Construction Landfill for disposal. (4) Placing the radioactive material in a U.S. Department of Transportation approved container for proper transport and disposal. (5) Transporting the radioactive material to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. (6) Regrading the job site to its approximate original contours/elevation.

  14. Corrective action decision document second gas station, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Corrective Action Unit No. 403). Revision No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for Second Gas Station has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes}. The Second Gas Station Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. 03-02-004-03 is the only CAS in CAU No. 403. The Second Gas Station CAS is located within Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), west of the Main Road at the location of former Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) and their associated fuel dispensary stations. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (3 5 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The TTR is bordered on the south, east, and west by the Nellis Air Force Range and on the north by sparsely populated public land administered by the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service.

  15. Calendar year 2007 annual site environmental report for Tonopah Test Range, Nevada and Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii,

    SciTech Connect

    Agogino, Karen; Sanchez, Rebecca

    2008-09-30

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Offi ce (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at TTR and KTF. Sandia manages and conducts operations at TTR in support of the DOE/NNSA’s Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Washington Group International subcontracts to Sandia in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2007. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA/Nevada Site Offi ce (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2007a) and DOE Manual 231.1-1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting Manual (DOE 2007).

  16. Calendar year 2003 : annual site enviromental report for Tonopah Test Range, Nevada and Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii.

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Katrina; Sanchez, Rebecca V.; Mayeux, Lucie; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2004-09-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, manages TTR and KTF's operations. Sandia Corporation conducts operations at TTR in support of DOE/NNSA's Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Westinghouse Government Services subcontracts to Sandia Corporation in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia Corporation operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2003. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia Corporation is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA, Nevada Site Office (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2003) and DOE Order 231.1 Chg 2., Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 1996).

  17. Calendar year 2002 annual site environmental report for Tonopah Test Range, Nevada and Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii.

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Katrina; Sanchez, Rebecca V.; Mayeux, Lucie; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2003-09-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, oversees TTR and KTF's operations. Sandia Corporation conducts operations at TTR in support of DOE/NNSA's Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Westinghouse Government Services subcontracts to Sandia Corporation in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia Corporation operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2002. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia Corporation is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA, Nevada Site Office (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE 1990) and DOE Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 1996).

  18. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2012 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Mizell, Steve A; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; McCurdy, Greg; Miller, Julianne J

    2013-07-01

    In 1963, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the US Department of Energy (DOE), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR)). Operation Roller Coaster consisted of four tests in which chemical explosions were detonated in the presence of nuclear devices to assess the dispersal of radionuclides and evaluate the effectiveness of storage structures to contain the ejected radionuclides. These tests resulted in dispersal of plutonium over the ground surface downwind of the test ground zero. Three tests, Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3, were conducted on the TTR in Cactus Flat; the fourth, Double Tracks, was conducted in Stonewall Flat on the NTTR. DOE is working to clean up and close all four sites. Substantial cleaned up has been accomplished at Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1. Cleanup of Clean Slate 2 and 3 is on the DOE planning horizon for some time in the next several years. The Desert Research Institute installed two monitoring stations, number 400 at the Sandia National Laboratories Range Operations Center and number 401 at Clean Slate 3, in 2008 and a third monitoring station, number 402 at Clean Slate 1, in 2011 to measure radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions. The primary objectives of the data collection and analysis effort are to (1) monitor the concentration of radiological parameters in dust particles suspended in air, (2) determine whether winds are re-distributing radionuclides or contaminated soil material, (3) evaluate the controlling meteorological conditions if wind transport is occurring, and (4) measure ancillary radiological, meteorological, and environmental parameters that might provide insight to the above assessments. The following observations are based on data collected during CY2012. The mean annual concentration of gross alpha and gross beta is highest at Station 400 and lowest at Station

  19. Chemical analyses of soil samples collected from the Sandia National Laboratories/NM, Tonopah Test Range environs, 1994-2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Deola, Regina Anne; Oldewage, Hans D.; Herrera, Heidi M.; Miller, Mark Laverne

    2006-05-01

    From 1994 through 2005, the Environmental Management Department of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), NV, has collected soil samples at numerous locations on-site, on the perimeter, and off-site for the purpose of determining potential impacts to the environs from operations at TTR. These samples were submitted to an analytical laboratory of metal-in-soil analyses. Intercomparisons of these results were then made to determine if there was any statistical difference between on-site, perimeter, and off-site samples, or if there were increasing or decreasing trends which indicated that further investigation may be warranted. This work provided the SNL Environmental Management Department with a sound baseline data reference against which to compare future operational impacts. In addition, it demonstrates the commitment that the Laboratories have to go beyond mere compliance to achieve excellence in its operations. This data is presented in graphical format with narrative commentaries on particular items of interest.

  20. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2001-09-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan addresses the action necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 499, Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range (TTR). This CAU is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996). CAU 499 is located on the TTR and consists of the following single Corrective Action Site (CAS) (Figure 1): CAS RG-25-001-RD24 - Radar 24 Diesel Spill Site is a diesel fuel release site that is assumed to have been cased by numerous small historical over fillings, spills and leaks from an above-ground storage tank (AST) over a period of 36 years. The tank was located on the north side of Building 24-50 on the TTR approximately 4.0 kilometers (2.5 miles) southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the end of the Avenue 24.

  1. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bechel Nevada

    2004-05-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration plan details the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (Tonopah Test Range). CAU 484 consists of sites located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. CAU 484 consists of the following six Corrective Action Sites: (1) CAS RG-52-007-TAML, Davis Gun Penetrator Test; (2) CAS TA-52-001-TANL, NEDS Detonation Area; (3) CAS TA-52-004-TAAL, Metal Particle Dispersion Test; (4) CAS TA-52-005-TAAL, Joint Test Assembly DU Sites; (5) CAS TA-52-006-TAPL, Depleted Uranium Site; and (6) CAS TA-54-001-TANL, Containment Tank and Steel Structure

  2. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit Number 427: Area 3 septic waste system numbers 2 and 6, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-19

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 3 Compound, specifically Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 427, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The Corrective Action Unit Work Plan, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada divides investigative activities at TTR into Source Groups. The Septic Tanks and Lagoons Group consists of seven CAUs. Corrective Action Unit Number 427 is one of three septic waste system CAUs in TTR Area 3. Corrective Action Unit Numbers 405 and 428 will be investigated at a future data. Corrective Action Unit Number 427 is comprised of Septic Waste Systems Number 2 and 6 with respective CAS Numbers 03-05-002-SW02 and 03-05-002-SW06.

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Krauss

    2010-09-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 408: Bomblet Target Area (TTR), Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. Corrective Action Unit 408 is located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, and consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) TA-55-002-TAB2, Bomblet Target Areas. This CAS includes the following seven target areas: • Mid Target • Flightline Bomblet Location • Strategic Air Command (SAC) Target Location 1 • SAC Target Location 2 • South Antelope Lake • Tomahawk Location 1 • Tomahawk Location 2 The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and data confirming that the closure objectives for the CAS within CAU 408 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Review the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. • Document Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 408 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. From July 2009 through August 2010, closure activities were performed as set forth in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 408: Bomblet Target Area, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were as follows: • Identify and remove munitions of explosive concern (MEC) associated with DOE activities. • Investigate potential disposal pit locations. • Remove depleted uranium-contaminated fragments and soil. • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are

  4. Corrective action plan for CAU No. 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 404. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range. CAU 404 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CAS): the Roller Coaster Lagoons (CAS No TA-03-001-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS No TA-21-001-TA-RC). A site map of the lagoons and trench is provided. The Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons are comprised of two unlined lagoons that received liquid sanitary waste in 1963 from the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp and debris from subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. The North Disposal Trench was excavated in approximately 1963 and received solid waste and debris from the man camp and subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. A small hydrocarbon spill occurred during the 1995 Voluntary Corrective Action (VCA) activities in an area associated with the North Disposal Trench CAS.

  5. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1999-06-19

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 423, Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the U.S Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CADD provides or references the specific information necessary to recommend a preferred corrective action for the single Corrective Action Site (CAS), 03-02-002-0308, within CAU 423. Corrective Action Unit 423 is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. The TTR is approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles[mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The UDP is approximately 73 meters (m) (240 feet [ft]) northwest of the northwest corner of Building 03-60, the Auto Maintenance Shop. Corrective Action Unit 423 is comprised of the UDP and an associated discharge line extending from Building 03-60. The UDP received waste oil products from the Auto Maintenance Shop, a light-duty fleet maintenance shop in the Area 3 compound, from 1965 to 1989 or 1990 (DOE/NV, 1997).

  6. Closure Report for CAU No. 430: Buried Depleted Uraniuim Artillery Round No. 1, Tonopah Test Range, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-25

    1.1 Purpose This Closure Report presents the information obtained from investigative actions performed to justify the decision for clean closure of CAU 430 through "No Further Action." The investigative actions were performed per the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan, CA UNO. 430: Buried Depleted Uranium Artille~ Round No. 1, Tonopah Test Range (DOE/NV, 1996a) (hereafter referred to as the SAFER Plan). The Buried DU Artillery Round No. 1 is located approximately 1.1 kilometers (km) (0.7 mile [mi]) south of Avenue 13 in the test area south of Area 9 (Figure 1-2). The site was thought to consist of a potentially unexploded W-79 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) test artillery projectile with high explosives (HE) and DU. The DU was substituted for Special Nuclear Material to prevent a nuclear explosion and yet retain the physical characteristics of uranium for ballistic and other mechanical tests. The projectile was reportedly buried in one pit, approximately 5 to 10 feet (ft) deep (Smith, 1993; Smith, 1996; Quas, 1996). The exact location of the burial pit is unknown; however, three disturbed areas (Sites A, B, and C) were identified through geophysical surveys, site visits, and employee interviews as possible locations of the test projectile (Figure 1-3). Results of the investigation are summarized within this Closure Report. Additional information about the site and investigation activities may be found in the SAFER Plan (DOE/NV, 1996a). 1.2 Scope The objectives of the SAFER Plan (DOE/NV, 1996a) activities were to prepare the site for closure through locating and identi~ing the projectile (Buried DU Artillery Round No. 1), destroying the projectile and any remaining components, collecting soil samples to detect residual contamination resulting from projectile destruction, and finally, remediating residual contamination.

  7. An in situ survey of Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range, Central Nevada. Date of survey: September--November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    A ground-based in situ radiological survey was conducted downwind of the Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3 nuclear safety test sites at the Tonopah Test Range in central Nevada from September through November 1993. The purpose of the study was to corroborate the americium-241 ({sup 241}Am) soil concentrations that were derived from the aerial radiological survey of the Clean Slate areas, which was conducted from August through October 1993. The presence of {sup 241}Am was detected at 140 of the 190 locations, with unrecoverable or lost data accounting for fifteen (15) of the sampling points. Good agreement was obtained between the aerial and in situ results.

  8. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2006-10-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan provides the details for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 408, Bomblet Target Area. CAU 408 is located at the Tonopah Test Range and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. One Corrective Action Site (CAS) is included in CAU 408: {lg_bullet} CAS TA-55-002-TAB2, Bomblet Target Areas Based on historical documentation, personnel interviews, process knowledge, site visits, aerial photography, multispectral data, preliminary geophysical surveys, and the results of data quality objectives process (Section 3.0), clean closure will be implemented for CAU 408. CAU 408 closure activities will consist of identification and clearance of bomblet target areas, identification and removal of depleted uranium (DU) fragments on South Antelope Lake, and collection of verification samples. Any soil containing contaminants at concentrations above the action levels will be excavated and transported to an appropriate disposal facility. Based on existing information, contaminants of potential concern at CAU 408 include explosives. In addition, at South Antelope Lake, bomblets containing DU were tested. None of these contaminants is expected to be present in the soil at concentrations above the action levels; however, this will be determined by radiological surveys and verification sample results. The corrective action investigation and closure activities have been planned to include data collection and hold points throughout the process. Hold points are designed to allow decision makers to review the existing data and decide which of the available options are most suitable. Hold points include the review of radiological, geophysical, and analytical data and field observations.

  9. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Work Plan for Corrective Action Unit 461: Joint Test Assembly Sites and Corrective Action Unit 495: Unconfirmed Joint Test Assembly Sites Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Smith

    1998-08-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration plan addresses the action necessary for the clean closure of Corrective Action Unit 461 (Test Area Joint Test Assembly Sites) and Corrective Action Unit 495 (Unconfirmed Joint Test Assembly Sites). The Corrective Action Units are located at the Tonopah Test Range in south central Nevada. Closure for these sites will be completed by excavating and evaluating the condition of each artillery round (if found); detonating the rounds (if necessary); excavating the impacted soil and debris; collecting verification samples; backfilling the excavations; disposing of the impacted soil and debris at an approved low-level waste repository at the Nevada Test Site

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 487: Thunderwell Site, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, January 2001)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2001-01-02

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 487, Thunderwell Site, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 487 consists of a single Corrective Action Site (CAS), RG 26-001-RGRV, Thunderwell Site. The site is located in the northwest portion of the TTR, Nevada, approximately five miles northwest of the Area 3 Control Point and closest to the Cactus Flats broad basin. Historically, Sandia National Laboratories in New Mexico used CAU 487 in the early to mid-1960s for a series of high explosive tests detonated at the bottom of large cylindrical steel tubes. Historical photographs indicate that debris from these tests and subsequent operations may have been scattered and buried throughout the site. A March 2000 walk-over survey and a July 2000 geophysical survey indicated evidence of buried and surface debris in dirt mounds and areas throughout the site; however, a radiological drive-over survey also performed in July 2000 indicated that no radiological hazards were identified at this site. Based on site history, the scope of this plan is to resolve the problem statement identified during the Data Quality Objectives process that detonation activities at this CAU site may have resulted in the release of contaminants of concern into the surface/subsurface soil including total volatile and total semivolatile organic compounds, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, radionuclides, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and high explosives. Therefore, the scope of corrective action field investigation will involve excavation, drilling, and extensive soil sampling and analysis activities to determine the extent (if any) of both the lateral and vertical contamination and whether

  11. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Tobiason

    2000-08-01

    Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 are located in Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) (Figure 1). The site is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 428 and includes Corrective Action Sites 03-05-002-SW01 (Septic Waste System 1 [SWS 1]), and 03-05-002-SW05 (Septic Waste System 5 [SWS 5]). The site history for the CAU is provided in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1999). SWS 1 consists of two leachfields and associated septic tanks. SWS 1 received effluent from both sanitary and industrial sources from various buildings in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). SWS 5 is comprised of one leachfield and outfall with an associated septic tank. SWS 5 received effluent from sources in Building 03-50 in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). Both systems were active until 1990 when a consolidated sewer system was installed. The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 3 SWS 1 and 5. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during May and June 1999. Samples of the tank contents, leachfield soil, and soil under the tanks and pipes were collected. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE/NV, 2000). Additional sampling was done in May 2000, the results of which are presented in this plan. Soil sample results indicated that two constituents of concern were detected above Preliminary Action Levels (PALs). Total arsenic was detected at a concentration of 68.7 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). The arsenic was found under the center distribution line at the proximal end of the SWS 5 Leachfield (Figure 3). Total benzo(a)pyrene was detected at a concentration of 480 micrograms per kilogram ({micro}g/kg). The benzo(a)pyrene was found in the soil under the

  12. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 403: Second Gas Station, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2009-05-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 403: Second Gas Station, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, September 1998 as described in the document Supplemental Investigation Report for FFACO Use Restrictions, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (SIR) dated November 2008. The SIR document was approved by NDEP on December 5, 2008. The approval of the SIR document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR removals. In conformance with the SIR document, this addendum consists of: • This page that refers the reader to the SIR document for additional information • The cover, title, and signature pages of the SIR document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the SIR document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 03-02-004-0360, Underground Storage Tanks. This UR was established as part of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective action and is based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was reevaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove the UR because contamination is not present at the site above the risk-based FALs. Requirements for inspecting and maintaining this UR will be canceled, and the postings and signage at this site will be removed. Fencing and posting may be present at this site that are unrelated to the FFACO UR

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 407: Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-09-24

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 407, Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area (RCRSA), under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located on Tonopah Test Range (TTR), CAU 407 is located approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and five miles south of Area 3. The RCRSA was used during May and June of 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, and personnel from the Clean Slate tests. As a result of these operations, the surface and subsurface soils in the area have been impacted by plutonium and other contaminants of potential concern associated with decontamination activities. In June and July 1998, corrective action investigation activities were performed at CAU 407 (as outlined in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan [CAIP]). The purpose of this investigation was to determine if any analytes were present at the site in concentrations above the preliminary action levels (PALs). The results indicated in the detection of plutonium above the PAL in samples taken from surface and subsurface soil within the exclusion zone, and uranium and americium detected above the PAL in samples taken from surface soil within the exclusion zone. No other COCs were identified above PALs specified in the CAIP. Based on this data, two corrective action objectives (CAOs) were defined: (1) to prevent or mitigate human exposure to surface and subsurface soil containing COCs, and (2) to prevent adverse impacts to groundwater quality. To accomplish these objectives, five CAAs were developed and evaluated. Based on the results of the detailed and comparative analysis of these alternatives, Alternative 3 (Partial Excavation, Disposal, and Administrative Controls With a Surface Cap) was chosen as the preferred alternative. This alternative was

  14. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 409: Other Waste Sites, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. 0)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2000-10-05

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 409 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 409 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): TA-53-001-TAB2, Septic Sludge Disposal Pit No.1; TA-53-002-TAB2, Septic Sludge Disposal Pit No.2; and RG-24-001-RGCR, Battery Dump Site. The Septic Sludge Disposal Pits are located near Bunker Two, close to Area 3, on the Tonopah Test Range. The Battery Dump Site is located at the abandoned Cactus Repeater Station on Cactus Peak. The Cactus Repeater Station was a remote, battery-powered, signal repeater station. The two Septic Sludge Disposal Pits were suspected to be used through the late 1980s as disposal sites for sludge from septic tanks located in Area 3. Based on site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern are the same for the disposal pits and include: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) as gasoline- and diesel-range organics, polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, and radionuclides (including plutonium and depleted uranium). The Battery Dump Site consists of discarded lead-acid batteries and associated construction debris, placing the site in a Housekeeping Category and, consequently, no contaminants are expected to be encountered during the cleanup process. The corrective action the at this CAU will include collection of discarded batteries and construction debris at the Battery Dump Site for proper disposal and recycling, along with photographic documentation as the process progresses. The corrective action for the remaining CASs involves the collection of background radiological data through borings drilled at

  15. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration plan for corrective action unit 430, buried depleted uranium artillery round No. 1, Tonopah test range

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This plan addresses actions necessary for the restoration and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 430, Buried Depleted Uranium (DU) Artillery Round No. 1 (Corrective Action Site No. TA-55-003-0960), a buried and unexploded W-79 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) artillery test projectile with high explosives (HE), at the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in south-central Nevada. It describes activities that will occur at the site as well as the steps that will be taken to gather adequate data to obtain a notice of completion from Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). This plan was prepared under the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) concept, and it will be implemented in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan.

  16. Industrial Sites Work Plan for Leachfield Corrective Action Units: Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (including Record of Technical Change Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1998-12-18

    This Leachfield Corrective Action Units (CAUs) Work Plan has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). Under the FFACO, a work plan is an optional planning document that provides information for a CAU or group of CAUs where significant commonality exists. A work plan may be developed that can be referenced by leachfield Corrective Action Investigation Plans (CAIPs) to eliminate redundant CAU documentation. This Work Plan includes FFACO-required management, technical, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, public involvement, field sampling, and waste management documentation common to several CAUs with similar site histories and characteristics, namely the leachfield systems at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the Tonopah Test Range (TT R). For each CAU, a CAIP will be prepared to present detailed, site-specific information regarding contaminants of potential concern (COPCs), sampling locations, and investigation methods.

  17. Closure report for CAU Number 430: Buried Depleted Uranium Artillery Round Number 1, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 430 consists of the Buried Depleted Uranium (DU) Artillery Round No. 1. This Closure Report presents the information obtained from investigate actions performed to justify the decision for clean closure of CAU 430 through ``No Further Action``. The site was thought to consist of a potentially unexploded W-79 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) test artillery projectile with high explosives (HE) and DU. The DU was substituted for Special Nuclear Materials to prevent a nuclear explosion and yet retain the physical characteristics of uranium for ballistic and other mechanical tests. The projectile was reportedly buried in one pit, approximately 5 to 10 feet (ft) deep. The objectives of the activities were to prepare the site for closure through locating and identifying the projectile, destroying the projectile and any remaining components, collecting soil samples to detect residual contamination resulting from projectile destruction, and finally, remediating residual contamination. This report contains the following five sections. Section 1.0 introduces the CAU and scope of work. Section 2.0 of this report presents the closure activities performed as part of this investigation. Waste disposition is discussed in Section 3.0. Closure investigation results are presented in Section 4.0, and references are presented in Section 5.0.

  18. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada: Revision No. 0

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-12-22

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 410 consists of five Corrective Action Sites (CASs): TA-21-003-TANL; 09-21-001-TA09; TA-19-002-TAB2; TA-21-002-TAAL; and 03-19-001. The CADD and CR have been combined into one report because no further action is recommended for this CAU. The corrective action alternative recommended for CAU 410 is Clean Closure; therefore, no corrective action or corrective action plan is required. No use restrictions are required to be placed on this CAU because the investigation showed no evidence of remaining soil contamination or remaining debris/waste upon completion of all investigation activities.

  19. An aerial radiological survey of the Tonopah Test Range including Clean Slate 1,2,3, Roller Coaster, decontamination area, Cactus Springs Ranch target areas. Central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.; Hendricks, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted of major sections of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in central Nevada from August through October 1993. The survey consisted of aerial measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. The initial purpose of the survey was to locate depleted uranium (detecting {sup 238}U) from projectiles which had impacted on the TTR. The examination of areas near Cactus Springs Ranch (located near the western boundary of the TTR) and an animal burial area near the Double Track site were secondary objectives. When more widespread than expected {sup 241}Am contamination was found around the Clean Slates sites, the survey was expanded to cover the area surrounding the Clean Slates and also the Double Track site. Results are reported as radiation isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area.

  20. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit Number 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-27

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 423, the Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP), which is located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, part of the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 225 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU Number 423 is comprised of only one Corrective Action Site (CAS) which includes the Building 03-60 UDP and an associated discharge line extending from Building 03-60 to a point approximately 73 meters (240 feet) northwest. The UDP was used between approximately 1965 and 1990 to dispose of waste fluids from the Building 03-60 automotive maintenance shop. It is likely that soils surrounding the UDP have been impacted by oil, grease, cleaning supplies and solvents as well as waste motor oil and other automotive fluids released from the UDP.

  1. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 407: Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2000-05-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for the Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area Corrective Action Unit 407 in accordance with the Federal Facility and Consent Order (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP] et al., 1996). This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved Corrective Action Alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 1999). The RCRSA was used during May and June of 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, and personnel from the Clean Slate tests. The Constituents of Concern (COCs) identified during the site characterization include plutonium, uranium, and americium. No other COCS were identified. The following closure actions will be implemented under this plan: (1) Remove and dispose of surface soils which are over three times background for the area. Soils identified for removal will be disposed of at an approved disposal facility. Excavated areas will be backfilled with clean borrow soil fi-om a nearby location. (2) An engineered cover will be constructed over the waste disposal pit area where subsurface COCS will remain. (3) Upon completion of the closure and approval of the Closure Report by NDEP, administrative controls, use restrictions, and site postings will be used to prevent intrusive activities at the site. Barbed wire fencing will be installed along the perimeter of this unit. Post closure monitoring will consist of site inspections to determine the condition of the engineered cover. Any identified maintenance and repair requirements will be remedied within 90 working days of discovery and documented in writing at the time of repair. Results of all inspections/repairs for a given year will be addressed in a single report submitted annually to the NDEP.

  2. CORRECTIVE ACTION DECISION DOCUMENT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 423: BUILDING 03-60 UNDERGROUND DISCHARGE POINT, TONOPAH TEST RANGE, NEVADA, REVISION 0, JUNE 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for the Area 3 Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (Corrective Action Unit 423) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 423 is located at the Tonopah Test Range and is comprised of Corrective Action Site 03-02-002-0308. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for Corrective Action Unit 423. The scope of this Correction Action Decision Document consists of the following: � Develop corrective action objectives. � Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria. � Develop corrective action alternatives. � Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria. � Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for the Corrective Action Unit. In January 1998, a corrective action investigation was performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit No. 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1997). A hydrocarbon plume was found to emanate from near the bottom of the Underground Discharge Point to the west. The plume encompasses approximately 65 square meters (700 square feet). The highest total petroleum hydrocarbon level detected was 2,400 milligrams per kilogram. No other contaminants were detected above preliminary action levels. Details of the investigation can be found in Appendix A of this document. Based on the potential exposure pathways identified during the Data Quality Objectives process, the following corrective action objectives have been identified for Corrective Action Unit 423: � Prevent or mitigate human exposure to subsurface soil containing contaminants of concern. � Prevent

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, February 2001)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2001-02-23

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended Corrective Action Alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 490 is located on the Nellis Air Force Range and the Tonopah Test Range and is approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (located southwest of Area 3); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area (located west of Main Lake); 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard (located north of the northwest corner of Area 3); and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area (located south of the Area 9 Compound on the TTR). A Corrective Action Investigation was performed in July and August 2000, and analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified in soil at the Gun Propellant Burn Area or the Station 44 Burn Area; therefore, there is no need for corrective actions at these two sites. Five soil samples at the Fire Training Area and seven at the Sandia Service Yard exceeded PALs for total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel. Upon the identification of COCs specific to CAU 490, Corrective Action Objectives were developed based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the TTR, with the following three CAAs under consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure In Place - No Further Action With Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based on

  4. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 425: Area 9 Main Lake Construction Debris Disposal Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-04-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the action necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 425, Area 9 Main Lake Construction Debris Disposal Area. This CAU is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). This site will be cleaned up under the SAFER process since the volume of waste exceeds the 23 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (30 cubic yards [yd{sup 3}]) limit established for housekeeping sites. CAU 425 is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS) 09-08-001-TA09, Construction Debris Disposal Area (Figure 1). CAS 09-08-001-TA09 is an area that was used to collect debris from various projects in and around Area 9. The site is located approximately 81 meters (m) (265 feet [ft]) north of Edwards Freeway northeast of Main Lake on the TTR. The site is composed of concrete slabs with metal infrastructure, metal rebar, wooden telephone poles, and concrete rubble from the Hard Target and early Tornado Rocket sled tests. Other items such as wood scraps, plastic pipes, soil, and miscellaneous nonhazardous items have also been identified in the debris pile. It is estimated that this site contains approximately 2280 m{sup 3} (3000 yd{sup 3}) of construction-related debris.

  5. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Krauss

    2010-03-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 408, Bomblet Target Area (TTR). Corrective Action Unit 408 is located at the Tonopah Test Range and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 408 comprises Corrective Action Site TA-55-002-TAB2, Bomblet Target Areas. Clean closure of CAU 408 will be accomplished by removal of munitions and explosives of concern within seven target areas and potential disposal pits. The target areas were used to perform submunitions related tests for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The scope of CAU 408 is limited to submunitions released from DOE activities. However, it is recognized that the presence of other types of unexploded ordnance and munitions may be present within the target areas due to the activities of other government organizations. The CAU 408 closure activities consist of: • Clearing bomblet target areas within the study area. • Identifying and remediating disposal pits. • Collecting verification samples. • Performing radiological screening of soil. • Removing soil containing contaminants at concentrations above the action levels. Based on existing information, contaminants of potential concern at CAU 408 include unexploded submunitions, explosives, Resource Conservation Recovery Act metals, and depleted uranium. Contaminants are not expected to be present in the soil at concentrations above the action levels; however, this will be determined by radiological surveys and verification sample results.

  6. Radiological dose assessment for residual radioactive material in soil at the clean slate sites 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    A radiological dose assessment has been performed for Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 at the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 390 kilometers (240 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The assessment demonstrated that the calculated dose to hypothetical individuals who may reside or work on the Clean Slate sites, subsequent to remediation, does not exceed the limits established by the US Department of Energy for protection of members of the public and the environment. The sites became contaminated as a result of Project Roller Coaster experiments conducted in 1963 in support of the US Atomic Energy Commission (Shreve, 1964). Remediation of Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 is being performed to ensure that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works on a Clean Slate site should not exceed 100 millirems per year. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline (RESRAD) computer code was used to assess the dose. RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines (Yu et al., 1993a). In May and June of 1963, experiments were conducted at Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 to study the effectiveness of earth-covered structures for reducing the dispersion of nuclear weapons material as a result of nonnuclear explosions. The experiments required the detonation of various simulated weapons using conventional chemical explosives (Shreve, 1964). The residual radioactive contamination in the surface soil consists of weapons grade plutonium, depleted uranium, and their radioactive decay products.

  7. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Tonopah Test Range, Nevada Calendar Year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-06-01

    Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit [CAW 426]) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for corrective Action Unit 426, Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV--226. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on August 14, 1998. Permeability results of soils adjacent to the engineered cover and a request for closure of CAU 404 were transmitted to the NDEP on April 29, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan) was approved by the NDEP on May 13, 1999. Post-closure monitoring at CAU 426 consists of the following: (1) Site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the unit; (2) Verification that the site is secure; (3) Notice of any subsidence or deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit; (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery; and (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on June 19, 2000, and November 21, 2000. All inspections were made after NDEP approval of the CR, and were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. This report includes copies of the inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are found in Attachment C.

  8. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-01-01

    Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Area 9 Unexploded Ordinance Landfill (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] 453) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV--284, August 1999. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on August 5 , 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan) was approved by the NDEP on September 10,1999. As stated in Section 5.0 of the NDEP-approved CR, post-closure monitoring at CAU 453 consists of the following: (1) Visual site inspections are conducted twice a year to evaluate the condition of the cover. (2) Verification that the site is secure and the condition of the fence and posted warning signs. (3) Notice of any subsidence, erosion, unauthorized excavation, etc., deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit. (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery. (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on May 15, 2001 and November 6, 2001. Both site inspections were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. This report includes copies of the inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and inspection photographs are found in Attachment C.

  9. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2 and 6 Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-01-01

    Post-closure inspection requirements for the Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2 and 6 (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] 427) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 427, Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2 and 6, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOENV-56 1, August 1999. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on August 16, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Inspection Plan) was approved by the NDEP on August 27, 1999. As stated in Section 5.1 of the NDEP-approved CR, the annual Post-Closure inspection at CAU 427 consists of the following: (1) Verification of the presence of all leachfield and septic tank below-grade markers. (2) Verification that all warning signs are in-place, intact, and readable. (3) Visual observation of the soil and asphalt cover for indications of subsidence, erosion, and unauthorized use. The site inspections were conducted on May 16, 2001, and November 6, 2001. All inspections were made after NDEP approval of the CR, and were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Inspection Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. No maintenance or repairs were conducted at the site. This report includes copies of inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. Copies of the Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and a copy of the inspection photographs is found in Attachments C.

  10. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration (SAFER) plan for corrective action unit 412: clean slate I plutonium dispersion (TTR) tonopah test range, Nevada, revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick K.

    2015-04-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 412. CAU 412 is located on the Tonopah Test Range and consists of a single corrective action site (CAS), TA-23-01CS, Pu Contaminated Soil. There is sufficient information and historical documentation from previous investigations and the 1997 interim corrective action to recommend closure of CAU 412 using the SAFER process. Based on existing data, the presumed corrective action for CAU 412 is clean closure. However, additional data will be obtained during a field investigation to document and verify the adequacy of existing information and determine whether the CAU 412 closure objectives have been achieved. This SAFER Plan provides the methodology to gather the necessary information for closing the CAU.The following summarizes the SAFER activities that will support the closure of CAU 412:• Collect environmental samples from designated target populations to confirm or disprove the presence of contaminants of concern (COCs) as necessary to supplement existing information.• If no COCs are present, establish clean closure as the corrective action. • If COCs are present, the extent of contamination will be defined and further corrective actions will be evaluated with the stakeholders (NDEP, USAF).• Confirm the preferred closure option is sufficient to protect human health and the environment.

  11. Environmental Restoration of Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Funded by the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act)

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Cabble , Mark Burmeister and Mark Krauss

    2011-03-03

    The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Environmental Restoration Program is to address the environmental impacts of weapons testing conducted on the Nevada National Security Site and the Nevada Test and Training Range. The large physical size of these sites, along with limits on funding and other resources available for remediation efforts, means that environmental restoration activities must be prioritized and accomplished incrementally over time. The remediation of a bomblet target area on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), which is located within the Nevada Test and Training Range, was originally planned in 2007 but was not carried out until funding became available in the summer of 2009 through the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act. This activity was implemented in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order established between NNSA/NSO and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. This activity which was complete by the end of Fiscal Year 2010, involved the excavation of disposal pits suspected of containing submunitions and the surface clearance of submunitions on seven target areas amounting to approximately 6.7 square kilometers of land at the TTR. The TTR was used by Sandia National Laboratories from the late 1960s through the mid-1980s to conduct research into the deployment of submunitions. Although there were efforts to identify, collect, and dispose various amounts of unexploded ordnance on the TTR in the past, no comprehensive effort to remediate the entire flightline area for submunitions was undertaken before this project.

  12. Post-Closure Strategy for Use-Restricted Sites on the Nevada National Security Site, Nevada Test and Training Range, and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Silvas, A. J.

    2014-03-26

    The purpose of this Post-Closure Strategy is to provide a consistent methodology for continual evaluation of post-closure requirements for use-restricted areas on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), and Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to consolidate, modify, or streamline the program. In addition, this document stipulates the creation of a single consolidated Post-Closure Plan that will detail the current post-closure requirements for all active use restrictions (URs) and outlines its implementation and subsequent revision. This strategy will ensure effective management and control of the post-closure sites. There are currently over 200 URs located on the NNSS, NTTR, and TTR. Post-closure requirements were initially established in the Closure Report for each site. In some cases, changes to the post-closure requirements have been implemented through addenda, errata sheets, records of technical change, or letters. Post-closure requirements have been collected from these multiple sources and consolidated into several formats, such as summaries and databases. This structure increases the possibility of inconsistencies and uncertainty. As more URs are established and the post-closure program is expanded, the need for a comprehensive approach for managing the program will increase. Not only should the current requirements be obtainable from a single source that supersedes all previous requirements, but the strategy for modifying the requirements should be standardized. This will enable more effective management of the program into the future. This strategy document and the subsequent comprehensive plan are to be implemented under the assumption that the NNSS and outlying sites will be under the purview of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration for the foreseeable future. This strategy was also developed assuming that regulatory control of the sites remains static. The comprehensive plan is not

  13. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, REVISION 0, march 1999

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1999-03-26

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 428, Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the U. S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the U. S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 428 consists of Corrective Action Sites 03- 05- 002- SW01 and 03- 05- 002- SW05, respectively known as Area 3 Septic Waste System 1 and Septic Waste System 5. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan is used in combination with the Work Plan for Leachfield Corrective Action Units: Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada , Rev. 1 (DOE/ NV, 1998c). The Leachfield Work Plan was developed to streamline investigations at leachfield Corrective Action Units by incorporating management, technical, quality assurance, health and safety, public involvement, field sampling, and waste management information common to a set of Corrective Action Units with similar site histories and characteristics into a single document that can be referenced. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan provides investigative details specific to Corrective Action Unit 428. A system of leachfields and associated collection systems was used for wastewater disposal at Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range until a consolidated sewer system was installed in 1990 to replace the discrete septic waste systems. Operations within various buildings at Area 3 generated sanitary and industrial wastewaters potentially contaminated with contaminants of potential concern and disposed of in septic tanks and leachfields. Corrective Action Unit 428 is composed of two leachfield systems in the northern portion of Area 3. Based on site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern for the site include oil/ diesel range total petroleum hydrocarbons, and Resource Conservation

  14. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-06-01

    Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench (Corrective Action Unit [CAW 404]) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404, Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV--187. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on September 11, 1998. Permeability results of soils adjacent to the engineered cover and a request for closure of CAU 404 were transmitted to the NDEP on April 29, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan) was approved by the NDEP on May 18, 1999. Post-closure monitoring at CAU 404 consists of the following: (1) Site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the unit; (2) Verification that the site is secure; (3) Notice of any subsidence or deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit; (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery; and (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on June 19, 2000, and November 21, 2000. The site inspections were conducted after completion of the revegetation activities (October 30, 1997) and NDEP approval of the CR (May 18, 1999). All site inspections were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. This report includes copies of inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are found in Attachment C.

  15. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Tonopah Test Range, Nevada Calendar Year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-02-01

    Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] 426) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 426, Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range. Nevada, report number DOE/NV--226, August 1998. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on August 14, 1998. Permeability results of soils adjacent to the engineered cover and a request for closure of CAU 404 were transmitted to the NDEP on April 29, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan) was approved by the NDEP on May 13, 1999. As stated in Section 5.0 of the NDEP-approved CRY Post-Closure Monitoring Plan, site monitoring at CAU 426 consists of the following: (1) Visual site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the cover and plant development. (2) Verification that the site is secure and condition of the fence and posted warning signs. (3) Notice of any subsidence, erosion, unauthorized excavation, etc., deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit. (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery. (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on May 16, 2001, and November 6, 2001. All inspections were made after NDEP approval of the CR, and were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. This report includes copies of the inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are found in Attachment C.

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action 405: Area 3 Septic Systems, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada Rev. No.: 0, April 2002

    SciTech Connect

    IT Coroporation, Las Vegas, NV

    2002-04-17

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 405, Area 3 Septic Systems, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) approximately 235 miles north of Las Vegas, Nevada, CAU 405 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-05-002-SW03, Septic Waste System (aka: Septic Waste System [SWS] 3); 03-05-002-SW04, Septic Waste System (aka: SWS 4); 03-05-002-SW07, Septic Waste System (aka: SWS 7). The CADD and CR have been combined into one report because no further action is recommended for this CAU, and this report provides specific information necessary to support this recommendation. The CAU consists of three leachfields and associated collection systems that were installed in or near Area 3 for wastewater disposal. These systems were used until a consolidated sewer system was installed in 1990. Historically, operations within various buildin gs in and near Area 3 of the TTR generated sanitary and industrial wastewaters. There is a potential that contaminants of concern (COCs) were present in the wastewaters and were disposed of in septic tanks and leachfields. The justification for closure of this CAU without further action is based on process knowledge and the results of the investigative activities. Closure activities were performed at these CASs between January 14 and February 2, 2002, and included the removal and proper disposal of media containing regulated constituents and proper closure of septic tanks. No further action is appropriate because all necessary activities have been completed. No use restrictions are required to be imposed for these sites since the investigation showed no evidence of COCs identified in the soil for CAU 405.

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 409: Other Waste Sites, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, June 2001)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2001-06-12

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 409: Other Waste Sites, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located near Area 3 on the TTR approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, CAU 409 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS RG-24-001-RGCR, Battery Dump Site; CAS TA-53-001-TAB2, Septic Sludge Disposal Pit (referred to as Septic Sludge Disposal Pit No.1); CAS TA-53-002-TAB2, Septic Sludge Disposal Pit (referred to as Septic Sludge Disposal Pit No.2). This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's (NNSA/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary for CAU 409. The CADD/CR have been combined into one report based on sample data collected during the field investigation performed in November 2000. Analysis of the data generated from these investigation activities indicates preliminary action levels were not exceeded for total volatile organic compounds, Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, TCLP semivolatile organic compounds, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals (except arsenic), TCLP RCRA metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, total petroleum hydrocarbons as gasoline- and diesel-range organics, isotopic uranium, and gamma-emitting radionuclides (except thorium-234) for any of the soil samples collected. Concentrations of arsenic were detected above the preliminary action level in all samples; however, the concentrations are considered representative of ambient conditions at the site. Thorium-234 was tentatively identified in one sample; however, the concentration is considered no greater than background. The NNSA/NV's final determination is that CAU 409 shows no evidence of soil

  18. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit No. 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1997-10-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), and the US Department of Defense. The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUS) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs) (FFACO, 1996). As per the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU No. 423, the Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP), which is located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, part of the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figures 1-1 and 1-2). Corrective Action Unit No. 423 is comprised of only one CAS (No. 03-02-002-0308), which includes the Building 03-60 UDP and an associated discharge line extending from Building 03-60 to a point approximately 73 meters (m) (240 feet [ft]) northwest as shown on Figure 1-3.

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-02-08

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 428, Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada, CAU 428 is comprised of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) CAS 03-05-002-SW01, Septic Waste System 1 and (2) CAS 03-05-002- SW05, Septic Waste System 5. A corrective action investigation performed in 1999 detected analyte concentrations that exceeded preliminary action levels; specifically, contaminants of concern (COCs) included benzo(a) pyrene in a septic tank integrity sample associated with Septic Tank 33-1A of Septic Waste System 1, and arsenic in a soil sample associated with Septic Waste System 5. During this investigation, three Corrective Action Objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate exposure to contents of the septic tanks and distribution box, to subsurface soil containing COCs, and the spread of COCs beyond the CAU. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Area 3 of the TTR, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls; and Alternative 3 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based on the results of the evaluation, the preferred CAA was Alternative 3. This alternative meets all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated soils at the Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5.

  20. Preliminary Assessment for CAU 485: Cactus Spring Ranch Pu and DU Site CAS No. TA-39-001-TAGR: Soil Contamination, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit 485, Corrective Action Site TA-39-001-TAGR, the Cactus Spring Ranch Soil Contamination Area, is located approximately six miles southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the eastern mouth of Sleeping Column Canyon in the Cactus Range on the Tonopah Test Range. This site was used in conjunction with animal studies involving the biological effects of radionuclides (specifically plutonium) associated with Operation Roofer Coaster. The location had been used as a ranch by private citizens prior to government control of the area. According to historical records, Operation Roofer Coaster activities involved assessing the inhalation uptake of plutonium in animals from the nonnuclear detonation of nuclear weapons. Operation Roofer Coaster consisted of four nonnuclear destruction tests of a nuclear device. The four tests all took place during May and June 1963 and consisted of Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1, 11, and 111. Eighty-four dogs, 84 burros, and 136 sheep were used for the Double Tracks test, and ten sheep and ten dogs were used for Clean Slate 11. These animals were housed at Cactus Spring Ranch. Before detonation, all animals were placed in cages and transported to the field. After the shot, they were taken to the decontamination area where some may have been sacrificed immediately. All animals, including those sacrificed, were returned to Cactus Spring Ranch at this point to have autopsies performed or to await being sacrificed at a later date. A description of the Cactus Spring Ranch activities found in project files indicates the ranch was used solely for the purpose of the Roofer Coaster tests and bioaccumulation studies and was never used for any other project. No decontamination or cleanup had been conducted at Cactus Spring Ranch prior to the start of the project. When the project was complete, the pits at Cactus Spring Ranch were filled with soil, and trailers where dogs were housed and animal autopsies had been performed were removed

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 485: Cactus Spring Ranch Pu and DU Site, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

    1998-09-18

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 485: Cactus Spring Ranch Plutonium (Pu) and Depleted Uranium (DU) Site, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located at the Cactus Spring Ranch on the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, CAU 485 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) TA-39-001-TAGR. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary for CAU 485. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report because sample data collected during the preliminary assessment investigation (PAI) performed in January and February 1998 showed no evidence of contamination at the site. In the past, this CAU included holding pens which housed sheep and burros used to test inhalation uptake from atmospheric releases of Pu and DU, and the animals were sacrificed after the tests. Specifically, the investigation focused on data to determine: if surface activities of alpha, beta, and gamma-emitting radionuclides were present; if potential contaminants of concern (COCs) such as Pu and DU were present; and if plutonium was present in the soil and dung at levels significantly above background levels. Investigation results concluded that surface radiological activities of alpha, beta, and gamma-emitting radionuclides were within range of typical background levels. Evaluation of process knowledge determined plutonium to be the only potential COC, but soil and dung samples tested were not positive for plutonium-238 and only two samples had positive concentrations of plutonium 239/240 (subsequent plutonium alpha spectroscopy results demonstrated that there was no plutonium contamination in the Cactus Spring surface soil or dung). Therefore, the DOE/NV recommended that no corrective action was required at CAU 485; further, no Corrective Action

  2. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0 (includes ROTCs 1, 2, and 3)

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2002-07-16

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 410 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 410 is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), which is included in the Nevada Test and Training Range (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range) approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of five Corrective Action Sites (CASs): TA-19-002-TAB2, Debris Mound; TA-21-003-TANL, Disposal Trench; TA-21-002-TAAL, Disposal Trench; 09-21-001-TA09, Disposal Trenches; 03-19-001, Waste Disposal Site. This CAU is being investigated because contaminants may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and/or the environment, and waste may have been disposed of with out appropriate controls. Four out of five of these CASs are the result of weapons testing and disposal activities at the TTR, and they are grouped together for site closure based on the similarity of the sites (waste disposal sites and trenches). The fifth CAS, CAS 03-19-001, is a hydrocarbon spill related to activities in the area. This site is grouped with this CAU because of the location (TTR). Based on historical documentation and process know-ledge, vertical and lateral migration routes are possible for all CASs. Migration of contaminants may have occurred through transport by infiltration of precipitation through surface soil which serves as a driving force for downward migration of contaminants. Land-use scenarios limit future use of these CASs to industrial activities. The suspected contaminants of potential concern which have been identified are volatile organic compounds; semivolatile organic compounds; high explosives; radiological constituents including depleted uranium

  3. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-01-01

    Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] 404) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404. Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench. Tonopah Test Range. Nevada, report number DOE/NV--187, September 1998. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on September 11, 1998. Permeability results of soils adjacent to the engineered cover and a request for closure of CAU 404 were transmitted to the NDEP on April 29, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan) was approved by the NDEP on May 18, 1999. As stated in Section 5.0 of the NDEP-approved CRY post-closure monitoring at CAU 404 consists of the following: (1) Visual site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the cover and plant development. (2) Verification that the site is secure and condition of the fence and posted warning signs. (3) Notice of any subsidence, erosion, unauthorized excavation, etc., deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit. (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery. (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. In addition to the above activities, vegetative monitoring of the cover (a plant census) will be done in the first, third and fifth year following revegetation. (Vegetative monitoring will done in fiscal year 2001, and the results reported in the 2002 Post-Closure Inspection Report.) Site inspections were conducted on May 16, 2001, and November 6, 2001. The site inspections were conducted after completion of the revegetation activities (October 30, 1997) and NDEP approval of the CR (May 18, 1999). All site inspections were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. This report includes copies of inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found

  4. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada with ROTC 1, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    1998-09-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Comective Action Unit (CAU) 404. CAU 404 consists of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons (Corrective Action Site [CAS] TA-03-O01-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS TA-21-001-TA-RC). The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest ofLas Vegas, Nevada. . The sewage lagoons received ~quid sanitary waste horn the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp in 1963 and debris from subsequent range and construction cleanup activities. The debris and ordnance was subsequently removed and properly dispos~, however, pesticides were detected in soil samples born the bottom of the lagoons above the U,S. Environmental Protection Agency Region IX Prelimimuy Remediation Goals (EPA 1996). . The North Disposal Trench was excavated in 1963. Debris from the man camp and subsequent range and construction cleanup activities was placed in the trench. Investigation results indicated that no constituents of concern were detected in soil samples collected from the trench. Remedial alternative proposed in the Comctive Action Decision Document (CADD) fm the site was “Covering” (DOE, 1997a). The Nevada Division of”Enviromnental Protection (NDEP)-approved Correction Action Plan (CAP) proposed the “Covering” niethodology (1997b). The closure activities were completed in accorhce with the approwil CAP and consisted of baclctllling the sewage lagoons and disposal trench, constructing/planting an engineered/vegetative cover in the area of the sewage lagoons and dikposal trencQ installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on fi~e use, and preparing a Post-Closure Monitoring Plan. “ Since closure activities. for CAU 404 have been completed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection-approved CAP (DOE, 1997b) as documented in this Closure Report, the U.S. Department of

  5. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (with Record of Technical Change No.1)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-09

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Active Unit 490 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (FTA); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area; 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard; and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area. These CASs are located at the Tonopah Test Range near Areas 3 and 9. Historically, the FTA was used for training exercises where tires and wood were ignited with diesel fuel. Records indicate that water and carbon dioxide were the only extinguishing agents used during these training exercises. The Station 44 Burn Area was used for fire training exercises and consisted of two wooden structures. The two burn areas (ignition of tires, wood, and wooden structures with diesel fuel and water) were limited to the building footprints (10 ft by 10 ft each). The Sandia Service Yard was used for storage (i.e., wood, tires, metal, electronic and office equipment, construction debris, and drums of oil/grease) from approximately 1979 to 1993. The Gun Propellant Burn Area was used from the 1960s to 1980s to burn excess artillery gun propellant, solid-fuel rocket motors, black powder, and deteriorated explosives; additionally, the area was used for the disposal of experimental explosive items. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to: (1) determine the presence of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) at each CAS, (2) determine if any COPCs exceed field-screening levels and/or preliminary action levels, and (3) determine the nature and extent of contamination with enough certainty to support selection of corrective action alternatives for each CAS. The scope of this CAIP is to resolve the

  6. Radiological and Environmental Monitoring at the Clean Slate I and III Sites, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, With Emphasis on the Implications for Off-site Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Mizell, Steve A; Etyemezian, Vic; McCurdy, Greg; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; Miller, Julianne J

    2014-09-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]) implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]). Operation Roller Coaster consisted of four tests in which chemical explosions were detonated in the presence of nuclear devices to assess the dispersal of radionuclides and evaluate the effectiveness of storage structures to contain the ejected radionuclides. These tests resulted in the dispersal of plutonium over the ground surface downwind of the test ground zero (GZ). Three tests—Clean Slate I, II, and III—were conducted on the TTR in Cactus Flat. The fourth, Double Tracks, was conducted in Stonewall Flat on the NTTR. The Desert Research Institute (DRI) installed two monitoring stations in 2008, Station 400 at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Range Operations Center (ROC) and Station 401 at Clean Slate III. Station 402 was installed at Clean Slate I in 2011 to measure radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions. The monitoring activity was implemented to determine if radionuclide contamination in the soil at the Clean Slate sites was being transported beyond the contamination area boundaries. Some of the data collected also permits comparison of radiological exposure at the TTR monitoring stations to conditions observed at Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations around the NTTR. Annual average gross alpha values from the TTR monitoring stations are higher than values from the surrounding CEMP stations. Annual average gross beta values from the TTR monitoring stations are generally lower than values observed for the surrounding CEMP stations. This may be due to use of sample filters with larger pore space because when glass-fiber filters began to be used at TTR Station 400, gross beta values increased. Gamma spectroscopy typically identified only naturally

  7. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2009-02-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the September 1998, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the modification of the UR for CAS TA-03-001-TARC Roller Coaster Lagoons. This UR was established as part of Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective actions and was based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This reevaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to modify the UR for CAS TA-03

  8. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the September 1998, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the URs for: • CAS TA-03-001-TARC Roller Coaster Lagoons • CAS TA-21-001-TARC Roller Coaster N. Disposal Trench These URs were established as part of Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective actions and were based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since these URs were established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, these URs were re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the URs) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The

  9. 1995 Site environmental report Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Forston, W.

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories` responsibility for environmental surveillance results extends to those activities performed by Sandia National Laboratories or under its direction. Results from other organizations environmental surveillance activities are included to provide a measure of completeness. Other environmental compliance programs such as the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, environmental permits, and environmental restoration and waste management programs are also included in this report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1.

  10. National Uranium Resource Evaluation, Tonopah quadrangle, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, B W; Parker, D P

    1982-04-01

    The Tonopah Quadrangle, Nevada, was evaluated using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria to identify and delineate areas favorable for uranium deposits. Investigations included reconnaissance and detailed surface geologic and radiometric studies, geochemical sampling and evaluation, analysis and ground-truth followup of aerial radiometric and hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance data, and subsurface data evaluation. The results of these investigations indicate environments favorable for hydroallogenic uranium deposits in Miocene lacustrine sediments of the Big Smoky Valley west of Tonopah. The northern portion of the Toquima granitic pluton is favorable for authigenic uranium deposits. Environments considered unfavorable for uranium deposits include Quaternary sediments; intermediate and mafic volcanic and metavolcanic rocks; Mesozoic, Paleozoic, and Precambrian sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks; those plutonic rocks not included within favorable areas; and those felsic volcanic rocks not within the Northumberland and Mount Jefferson calderas.

  11. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 405: Area 3 Septic Systems, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada(April 2001, Rev. 0) with Record of Technical Change No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2001-04-26

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 405, Area 3 Septic Systems, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 405 consists of Corrective Action Sites 03-05-002-SW03, 03-05-002-SW04, and 03-05-002-SW07 (also collectively known as: Septic Waste Systems [SWSs] 3, 4, and 7). Located in Area 3 in the northwest section of the TTR, approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, this location was historically (between 1960 and 1990) used as a research facility with the mission to perform defense-related projects, and whose operations generated sanitary and industrial wastewaters potentially contaminated with COPCs and disposed of in septic tanks and leachfields. Though Septic Waste Systems 3, 4, and 7 were origin ally constructed to receive sanitary sewage, they may have inadvertently received effluent containing potentially hazardous and radiological constituents containing acetone, benzene, ethylbenzene, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, toluene, xylenes, volatile organic compound constituents, phenols, arsenic, barium, lead, mercury, hydrocarbons of oil and grease, and uranium-234, -235, and -238. The Area 3 septic systems were documented in a DOE/NV 1996 report as being included in the septic tank abandonment program conducted by Sandia National Laboratories in 1993; however, this program was not completed and the possibility exists that some of the Area 3 septic tanks may not have been abandoned. Even though all of the SWSs addressed in this CAIP are inactive, geophysical surveys conducted in 1993 were generally inconclusive and did not provide useful data for the purposes of this investigation. The scope of this current investigation, therefore, will be to determine the existence of the identified

  12. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Tonopah Airport, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl, D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Tonopah Airport, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and the Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  13. Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Tonopah Airport, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Tonopah Airport, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and the Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  14. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 406: Area 3 Building 03-74 and Building 03-58 Under ground Discharge Points and Corrective Action Unit 429: Area 3 Building 03-55 and Area 9 Building 09-52 Underground Discharge Points, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1999-05-20

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Underground Discharge Points (UDPs) included in both CAU 406 and CAU 429. The CAUs are located in Area 3 and Area 9 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada.

  15. Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex - NPTEC

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-10

    The Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex, or NPTEC, is the world's largest facility for open air testing of hazardous toxic materials and biological simulants. NPTEC is used for testing, experimentation, and training for technologies that require the release of toxic chemicals or biological simulants into the environment.

  16. Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex - NPTEC

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex, or NPTEC, is the world's largest facility for open air testing of hazardous toxic materials and biological simulants. NPTEC is used for testing, experimentation, and training for technologies that require the release of toxic chemicals or biological simulants into the environment.

  17. Specialized Environmental Chamber Test Complex: User Test Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montz, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the Specialized Environmental Test Complex. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  18. [Testing of vaccines. The challenge of testing complex combination vaccines].

    PubMed

    Merkle, A; Lechner, H; Oppling, V; Meyer, H

    2014-10-01

    Vaccines are biologicals. This group of medicinal products is produced with a predefined variability based on the biological starting materials used. Vaccines are subject to official control authority batch release performed by the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (PEI). To release batches to the market, experimental testing has to be conducted by an official medicines control laboratory as the PEI. It is the aim of this independent testing to demonstrate the conformity of quality criteria with conditions set in the marketing authorization for each lot produced. The testing is performed on the basis of vaccine specific batch release guideline and due to the difficult and time consuming testing procedures often run in parallel with manufacturers testing. If test results comply with the predefined criteria, the lot in question is released. This article describes the challenge of official control authority batch release testing of two complex combination vaccines.

  19. Test Item Linguistic Complexity and Assessments for Deaf Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawthon, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Linguistic complexity of test items is one test format element that has been studied in the context of struggling readers and their participation in paper-and-pencil tests. The present article presents findings from an exploratory study on the potential relationship between linguistic complexity and test performance for deaf readers. A total of 64…

  20. Single Event Testing on Complex Devices: Test Like You Fly versus Test-Specific Design Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie D.; Label, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework for evaluating complex digital systems targeted for harsh radiation environments such as space. Focus is limited to analyzing the single event upset (SEU) susceptibility of designs implemented inside Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices. Tradeoffs are provided between application-specific versus test-specific test structures.

  1. Single Event Testing on Complex Devices: Test Like You Fly Versus Test-Specific Design Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie D.; Label, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    We present a mechanism for evaluating complex digital systems targeted for harsh radiation environments such as space. Focus is limited to analyzing the single event upset (SEU) susceptibility of designs implemented inside Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices. Tradeoffs are provided between application-specific versus test-specific test structures.

  2. Quantitative optical scanning tests of complex microcircuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    An approach for the development of the optical scanner as a screening inspection instrument for microcircuits involves comparing the quantitative differences in photoresponse images and then correlating them with electrical parameter differences in test devices. The existing optical scanner was modified so that the photoresponse data could be recorded and subsequently digitized. A method was devised for applying digital image processing techniques to the digitized photoresponse data in order to quantitatively compare the data. Electrical tests were performed and photoresponse images were recorded before and following life test intervals on two groups of test devices. Correlations were made between differences or changes in the electrical parameters of the test devices.

  3. IRT test equating in complex linkage plans.

    PubMed

    Battauz, Michela

    2013-07-01

    Linkage plans can be rather complex, including many forms, several links, and the connection of forms through different paths. This article studies item response theory equating methods for complex linkage plans when the common-item nonequivalent group design is used. An efficient way to average equating coefficients that link the same two forms through different paths will be presented and the asymptotic standard errors of indirect and average equating coefficients are derived. The methodology is illustrated using simulations studies and a real data example. PMID:25106395

  4. Geodetic leveling data used to define historical height changes between Tonopah Junction and Las Vegas, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, T.D.

    1992-12-31

    This report documents geodetic leveling data for a survey route following US Highway 95 from Tonopah Junction, approximately 50 km west of Tonopah, Nevada, to Las Vegas, Nevada. The survey route passes immediately south of the potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada. Comparisons among the results of the several repeated levelings along this survey route provide a partial basis for evaluating contemporary crustal deformation patterns in the vicinity of the Yucca Mountain site and the relation between any such deformation and geologic structures known or suspected to have been active during Quaternary time.

  5. 7. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, June 1962. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-60674. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  6. 2. View looking west southwest at Test Stand 'A' complex. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View looking west southwest at Test Stand 'A' complex. Monitor Building 4203/E-4 is hidden behind barrier (4216/E-17). - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Control Center, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  7. View looking northeast at Test Stand 'A' complex from road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking northeast at Test Stand 'A' complex from road, showing Test Stand 'A' test tower (Building 4202/E-3) in left background, Monitor Building 4203/E-4 in right foreground, and barrier (Building 4216/E-17) behind 4203/E-4. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  8. View east northeast at Test Stand 'A' complex from road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east northeast at Test Stand 'A' complex from road, showing Test Stand 'C' test tower in left background (Building 4217/E-18). Curved I-beam labeled '3-ton' is for small traveling hoist. Fuel tanks, propellant lines, and control panels have been removed from tower. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  9. 75 FR 72836 - Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Tonopah Solar Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... Availability for the Draft EIS for this project in the Federal Register (75 FR 54177). The BLM held two public...: 14X5017] Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Tonopah Solar Energy Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project, Nye County, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior....

  10. 75 FR 54177 - Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Tonopah Solar Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ...: 14X5017] Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Tonopah Solar Energy Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project, Nye County, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION... (EIS) for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project, Nye County, Nevada, and by this Notice is...

  11. Creative solutions for complex developmental testing

    SciTech Connect

    1993-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was requested to establish the FAA Aging Aircraft Nondestructive Inspection (NDI) Development and Demonstration Center. The Center is housed in a hangar at the Albuquerque International Airport and owns its own aged transport airplane. The Center`s work encompasses research and development in enhanced structural inspection. The goals of the Center are to: promote NDI technology development and maturation; help transfer new nondevelopment item technology to the hangar floor; validate NDI techniques; assess reliability or probability of detection of NDI processes. An important part of this project will be to make sure that the cost of implementation and operation of any technique is seriously considered and that techniques are usable in the field. Among the initial techniques to be evaluated are: enhanced visual, magneto-optic eddy current; coherent optics; ultrasonics; thermographics; eddy current scanners; experimental modal analysis. This project is a perfect example of how Development Testing draws on its own resources and teams up with others, as necessary, to get the job done. In this case, New Mexico State University and a private company, Science Applications International Corporation, are assisting.

  12. Estimation of full modal damping matrices from complex test modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasselman, T. K.; Chrostowski, J. D.; Pappa, Richard

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the refinements of a previously published method for estimating a full modal damping matrix from complex test modes. It also documents application of the refined method to a structure where complex test modes were derived by the ERA method from multi-input random vibration test data. A numerical example based on simulated test data is presented to demonstrate the validity of the method. The application using real data was not successful, presumably because of noise in the small phase angles of the measured complex modes. Alternative test and data reduction procedures are suggested as possible remedies to the problem. A careful analysis of measurement and data processing errors should be made to examine basic feasibility before implementing the alternative procedures. The ability to estimate a full modal damping matrix is considered important for the preflight estimation of on-orbit damping, and for the synthesis of structural damping from substructure tests.

  13. Credit BG. View looking southwest at Test Stand "D" complex. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. View looking southwest at Test Stand "D" complex. In the background at left is the Steam Generator Plant 4280/E-81 built in 1972 to house four gas-fired Clayton flash boilers. The boilers were later supplemented by the electrically heated steam accumulator (sphere) to supply steam to the various ejectors at Test Stand "D" vacuum test cells - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand D, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. Test Case Selection in Pre-Deployment Testing of Complex Clinical Decision Support Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tso, Geoffrey J.; Yuen, Kaeli; Martins, Susana; Tu, Samson W.; Ashcraft, Michael; Heidenreich, Paul; Hoffman, Brian B.; Goldstein, Mary K.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical decision support (CDS) systems with complex logic are being developed. Ensuring the quality of CDS is imperative, but there is no consensus on testing standards. We tested ATHENA-HTN CDS after encoding updated hypertension guidelines into the system. A logic flow and a complexity analysis of the encoding were performed to guide testing. 100 test cases were selected to test the major pathways in the CDS logic flow, and the effectiveness of the testing was analyzed. The encoding contained 26 decision points and 3120 possible output combinations. The 100 cases selected tested all of the major pathways in the logic, but only 1% of the possible output combinations. Test case selection is one of the most challenging aspects in CDS testing and has a major impact on testing coverage. A test selection strategy should take into account the complexity of the system, identification of major logic pathways, and available resources. PMID:27570678

  15. Test Case Selection in Pre-Deployment Testing of Complex Clinical Decision Support Systems.

    PubMed

    Tso, Geoffrey J; Yuen, Kaeli; Martins, Susana; Tu, Samson W; Ashcraft, Michael; Heidenreich, Paul; Hoffman, Brian B; Goldstein, Mary K

    2016-01-01

    Clinical decision support (CDS) systems with complex logic are being developed. Ensuring the quality of CDS is imperative, but there is no consensus on testing standards. We tested ATHENA-HTN CDS after encoding updated hypertension guidelines into the system. A logic flow and a complexity analysis of the encoding were performed to guide testing. 100 test cases were selected to test the major pathways in the CDS logic flow, and the effectiveness of the testing was analyzed. The encoding contained 26 decision points and 3120 possible output combinations. The 100 cases selected tested all of the major pathways in the logic, but only 1% of the possible output combinations. Test case selection is one of the most challenging aspects in CDS testing and has a major impact on testing coverage. A test selection strategy should take into account the complexity of the system, identification of major logic pathways, and available resources. PMID:27570678

  16. 8. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, June 11, 1965. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-65-1271. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  17. 9. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, June 11, 1965. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-65-1270. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  18. 1. TEST AREA 1115, SOUTH PART OF SUPPORT COMPLEX, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TEST AREA 1-115, SOUTH PART OF SUPPORT COMPLEX, LOOKING TO EAST FROM ABOVE BUILDING 8655, THE FUEL STORAGE TANK FARM, IN FOREGROUND SHADOW. AT THE RIGHT IS BUILDING 8660, ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION; TO ITS LEFT IS BUILDING 8663, THE HELIUM COMPRESSION PLANT. THE LIGHT TONED STRUCTURE IN THE MIDDLE DISTANCE, CENTER, IS THE MACHINE SHOP FOR TEST STAND 1-3. IN THE FAR DISTANCE IS TEST STAND 1-A, WITH THE WHITE SPHERICAL TANKS, AND TEST STAND 2-A TO ITS RIGHT. ALONG THE HORIZON FROM FAR LEFT ARE TEST STAND 1-D, TEST STAND 1-C, WATER TANKS ABOVE TEST AREA 1-125, AND TEST STAND 1-B IN TEST AREA 1-120. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. View looking west at Test Stand 'A' complex in morning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking west at Test Stand 'A' complex in morning sun. View shows Monitor Building 4203/E-4 at left, barrier (Building 4216/E-17) to right of 4203/E-4, and Test Stand 'A' tower. Attached structure to lower left of tower is Test Stand 'A' machine room which contained refrigeration equipment. Building in right background with Test Stand 'A' tower shadow on it is Assembly Building 4288/E-89, built in 1984. Row of ground-mounted brackets in foreground was used to carry electrical cable and/or fuel lines. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. Real-time complex cognitive surgical simulator with testing.

    PubMed

    Oliker, Aaron; Cutting, Court B

    2009-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing surgical education is the inability to effectively test a surgeon's cognitive knowledge of a complex open surgery procedure. Cognitive knowledge is tested by paper, and more recently, computer-based and oral exams. Although these tools are used for testing in surgical education, they have been limited by providing a two-dimensional static representation of complex and dynamic, three-dimensional procedures.A three-dimensional interactive surgical simulator that will engage the surgeon, ask questions, test competency and provide feedback has the potential to revolutionize surgical education. Internet connectivity allows for rapid deployment of surgical modules, networked testing formats, data aggregation, comparative analysis and guided tutorials. Combined with the approval of a surgical society, this platform has the potential to set measurable quantitative surgical standards.

  1. Using fMRI to Test Models of Complex Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John R.; Carter, Cameron S.; Fincham, Jon M.; Qin, Yulin; Ravizza, Susan M.; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the potential of fMRI to test assumptions about different components in models of complex cognitive tasks. If the components of a model can be associated with specific brain regions, one can make predictions for the temporal course of the BOLD response in these regions. An event-locked procedure is described for dealing…

  2. The Testing Effect Is Alive and Well with Complex Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpicke, Jeffrey D.; Aue, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Van Gog and Sweller (2015) claim that there is no testing effect--no benefit of practicing retrieval--for complex materials. We show that this claim is incorrect on several grounds. First, Van Gog and Sweller's idea of "element interactivity" is not defined in a quantitative, measurable way. As a consequence, the idea is applied…

  3. Journey to the Nevada Test Site Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Journey to the Nevada Test Site Radioactive Waste Management Complex begins with a global to regional perspective regarding the location of low-level and mixed low-level waste disposal at the Nevada Test Site. For decades, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) has served as a vital disposal resource in the nation-wide cleanup of former nuclear research and testing facilities. State-of-the-art waste management sites at the NNSS offer a safe, permanent disposal option for U.S. Department of Energy/U.S. Department of Defense facilities generating cleanup-related radioactive waste.

  4. Credit BG. View west of Test Stand "D" complex, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. View west of Test Stand "D" complex, with ends of Dd (left) and Dy (right) station ejectors in view. Steam piping from accumulator (sphere) to ejectors is apparent; long horizontal loops in the pipes permit expansion and contraction without special joints. The small platform straddling the Dd ejector (near the accumulator) was originally constructed for a "Hyprox" steam generator which supplied steam to the Dd ejector before the accumulator and Dy stand were built. Note ejectors on top of interstage condenser in Test Stand "D" tower. Metal shed in far right background is for storage - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand D, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  5. 76 FR 39110 - Medicare Program; Section 3113: The Treatment of Certain Complex Diagnostic Laboratory Tests...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... Certain Complex Diagnostic Laboratory Tests Demonstration AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services... participate in the Treatment of Certain Complex Diagnostic Laboratory Tests Demonstration. The Demonstration... complex diagnostic laboratory test under the Demonstration. The statute requires a Report to Congress...

  6. Experimental tests of pseudo-complex General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönenbach, Thomas; Caspar, Gunther; Hess, Peter O.; Boller, Thomas; Müller, Andreas; Schäfer, Mirko; Greiner, Walter

    2013-04-01

    Based on previous publications exploring pseudo-complex General Relativity (pc-GR) we present a selection of observable consequences of pc-GR and possible ways to experimentally access them. Whenever possible we compare the results to Einstein's GR and differences are worked out in detail. We propose experimental tests to check the predictions of pc-GR for the orbital frequency of test particles, the gravitational redshift effect and the last stable orbit. We will show that the orbital frequency of test particles at a given radius in pc-GR is in general lower compared to standard GR. Also the effect of frame dragging is modified (weakened) in pc-GR. Concerning the gravitational redshift of a radiation emitting object we find that it is also lower in pc-GR than in standard GR. Eventually, the classical concept of a last stable orbit has to be modified in pc-GR.

  7. Mathematical test criteria for filtering complex systems: Plentiful observations

    SciTech Connect

    Castronovo, E.; Harlim, J.; Majda, A.J.

    2008-03-20

    An important emerging scientific issue is the real time filtering through observations of noisy turbulent signals for complex systems as well as the statistical accuracy of spatio-temporal discretizations for such systems. These issues are addressed here in detail for the setting with plentiful observations for a scalar field through explicit mathematical test criteria utilizing a recent theory [A.J. Majda, M.J. Grote, Explicit off-line criteria for stable accurate time filtering of strongly unstable spatially extended systems, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104 (4) (2007) 1124-1129]. For plentiful observations, the number of observations equals the number of mesh points. These test criteria involve much simpler decoupled complex scalar filtering test problems with explicit formulas and elementary numerical experiments which are developed here as guidelines for filter performance. The theory includes information criteria to avoid filter divergence with large model errors, asymptotic Kalman gain, filter stability, and accurate filtering with small ensemble size as well as rigorous results delineating the role of various turbulent spectra for filtering under mesh refinement. These guidelines are also applied to discrete approximations for filtering the stochastically forced dissipative advection equation with very turbulent and noisy signals with either an equipartition of energy or -5/3 turbulent spectrum with infrequent observations as severe test problems. The theory and companion simulations demonstrate accurate statistical filtering in this context with implicit schemes with large time step with very small ensemble sizes and even with unstable explicit schemes under appropriate circumstances provided the filtering strategies are guided by the off-line theoretical criteria. The surprising failure of other strongly stable filtering strategies is also explained through these off-line criteria.

  8. Mathematical test criteria for filtering complex systems: Plentiful observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castronovo, E.; Harlim, J.; Majda, A. J.

    2008-03-01

    An important emerging scientific issue is the real time filtering through observations of noisy turbulent signals for complex systems as well as the statistical accuracy of spatio-temporal discretizations for such systems. These issues are addressed here in detail for the setting with plentiful observations for a scalar field through explicit mathematical test criteria utilizing a recent theory [A.J. Majda, M.J. Grote, Explicit off-line criteria for stable accurate time filtering of strongly unstable spatially extended systems, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104 (4) (2007) 1124-1129]. For plentiful observations, the number of observations equals the number of mesh points. These test criteria involve much simpler decoupled complex scalar filtering test problems with explicit formulas and elementary numerical experiments which are developed here as guidelines for filter performance. The theory includes information criteria to avoid filter divergence with large model errors, asymptotic Kalman gain, filter stability, and accurate filtering with small ensemble size as well as rigorous results delineating the role of various turbulent spectra for filtering under mesh refinement. These guidelines are also applied to discrete approximations for filtering the stochastically forced dissipative advection equation with very turbulent and noisy signals with either an equipartition of energy or -5/3 turbulent spectrum with infrequent observations as severe test problems. The theory and companion simulations demonstrate accurate statistical filtering in this context with implicit schemes with large time step with very small ensemble sizes and even with unstable explicit schemes under appropriate circumstances provided the filtering strategies are guided by the off-line theoretical criteria. The surprising failure of other strongly stable filtering strategies is also explained through these off-line criteria.

  9. 75 FR 81307 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, Crescent Dunes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... analyzing impacts of the proposed project was published in the Federal Register on September 3, 2010 (75 FR... November 19, 2010 (75 FR 70917) and the BLM on November 26, 2010 (75 FR 72836). Three action alternatives...: 14X5017] Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, Crescent...

  10. Langley Aerothermodynamic Facilities Complex: Enhancements and Testing Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micol, J. R.

    1998-01-01

    Description, capabilities, recent upgrades, and utilization of the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Aerothermodynamic Facilities Complex (AFC) are presented. The AFC consists of five hypersonic, blow-down-to-vacuum wind tunnels that collectively provide a range of Mach number from 6 to 20, unit Reynolds number from 0.04 to 22 million per foot and, most importantly for blunt configurations, normal shock density ratio from 4 to 12. These wide ranges of hypersonic simulation parameters are due, in part, to the use of three different test gases (air, helium, and tetrafluoromethane), thereby making several of the facilities unique. The Complex represents nearly three-fourths of the conventional (as opposed to impulse)-type hypersonic wind tunnels operational in this country. AFC facilities are used to assess and optimize the hypersonic aerodynamic performance and aeroheating characteristics of aerospace vehicle concepts and to provide benchmark aerodynamic/aeroheating data fr generating the flight aerodynamic databook and final design of the thermal protection system (TPS) (e.g., establishment of flight limitations not to exceed TPS design limits). Modifications and enhancements of AFC hardware components and instrumentation have been pursued to increase capability, reliability, and productivity in support of programmatic goals. Examples illustrating facility utilization in recent years to generate essentially all of the experimental hypersonic aerodynamic and aeroheating information for high-priority, fast-paced Agency programs are presented. These programs include Phase I of the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Advanced Technology Demonstrator, X-33 program, PHase II of the X-33 program, X-34 program, the Hyper-X program ( a Mach 5,7, and 10 airbreathing propulsion flight experiment), and the X-38 program (Experimental Crew Return Vehicle, X-CRV). Current upgrades/enchancements and future plans for the AFC are discussed.

  11. Structural geology of the Hawthorne and Tonopah quadrangles, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferguson, H.G.; Muller, S.W.

    1949-01-01

    The area lies in west-central Nevada near the western border of the Basin and Range province. Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks the chief subject of this report occur in isolated mountain ranges separated by stretches of Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic rocks, lacustrine deposits and alluvium. The report is concerned principally with the geology of the pre-Tertiary rocks and attempt is made to unravel the complex diastrophisni that occurred in the area during the Jurassic. 

  12. Lanthanide Complexes as a Test for Evidence of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benavides, Jeannette

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this research is to advance the understanding of the interaction of lanthanide metals with biological organic molecules and to develop a technique to detect these compounds in the solid state and in situ in Mars and other planetary bodies. The detection of these complexes should provide evidence of life past or present. In addition, detection of the metals alone will provide important information about the geological history of a planetary body. Lanthanides were chosen as our focus of interest because they form very stable complexes with organic molecules in solution and they produce intense luminescence in the ultraviolet and visible spectra. The rare earth complexes available are mostly synthetic for diverse applications in medicine. There is not much work done on the complexes that form in nature. Lanthanides have many applications and they are mined aR over the world, however, since the interest has been only in the elements, the analytical techniques employed destroy any organic ligands that may be present. In order to determine if and which lanthanide complexes form in nature and their concentration, soil samples have been collected from areas rich in soluble lanthanide compounds like phosphates and also rich in vegetation. The soil samples will be analyzed and the lanthanide complexes if present will be isolated and characterized. A spectrometer to detect the lanthanide complexes in situ and in the solid state will be designed. In this workshop, the research approach and its implications will be discussed.

  13. Test procedures and instructions for Hanford complexant concentrate supernatant cesium removal using CST

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1997-01-08

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test, using Hanford Complexant Concentrate supernatant liquor from tank 241-AN-107, in a bench-scale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline silicotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-023, Hanford Complexant Concentrate Supernatant Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  14. Operational test report for 2706-T complex liquid transfer system

    SciTech Connect

    BENZEL, H.R.

    1999-09-01

    This document is the Operational Test Report (OTR). It enters the Record Copy of the W-259 Operational Test Procedure (HNF-3610) into the document retrieval system. Additionally, the OTR summarizes significant issues associated with testing the 2706-T waste liquid transfer and storage system.

  15. Testing hypotheses about sun-climate complexity linking.

    PubMed

    Rypdal, M; Rypdal, K

    2010-03-26

    We reexamine observational evidence presented in support of the hypothesis of a sun-climate complexity linking by N. Scafetta and B. J. West, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 248701 (2003)10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.248701, which contended that the integrated solar flare index (SFI) and the global temperature anomaly (GTA) both follow Lévy walk statistics with the same waiting-time exponent mu approximately 2.1. However, their analysis does not account for trends in the signal, cannot deal correctly with infinite variance processes (Lévy flights), and suffers from considering only the second moment. Our analysis shows that properly detrended, the integrated SFI is well described as a Lévy flight, and the integrated GTA as a persistent fractional Brownian motion. These very different stochastic properties of the solar and climate records do not support the hypothesis of a sun-climate complexity linking. PMID:20366571

  16. Testing Hypotheses about Sun-Climate Complexity Linking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypdal, M.; Rypdal, K.

    2010-03-01

    We reexamine observational evidence presented in support of the hypothesis of a sun-climate complexity linking by N. Scafetta and B. J. West, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 248701 (2003)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.90.248701, which contended that the integrated solar flare index (SFI) and the global temperature anomaly (GTA) both follow Lévy walk statistics with the same waiting-time exponent μ≈2.1. However, their analysis does not account for trends in the signal, cannot deal correctly with infinite variance processes (Lévy flights), and suffers from considering only the second moment. Our analysis shows that properly detrended, the integrated SFI is well described as a Lévy flight, and the integrated GTA as a persistent fractional Brownian motion. These very different stochastic properties of the solar and climate records do not support the hypothesis of a sun-climate complexity linking.

  17. 42 CFR 493.1453 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; clinical consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; clinical consultant. The laboratory must have a... testing; clinical consultant. 493.1453 Section 493.1453 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION...

  18. Behavioral tests of hippocampal function: simple paradigms complex problems.

    PubMed

    Gerlai, R

    2001-11-01

    Behavioral tests have become important tools for the analysis of functional effects of induced mutations in transgenic mice. However, depending on the type of mutation and several experimental parameters, false positive or negative findings may be obtained. Given the fact that molecular neurobiologists now make increasing use of behavioral paradigms in their research, it is imperative to revisit such problems. In this review three tests, T-maze spontaneous alternation task (T-CAT), Context dependent fear conditioning (CDFC), and Morris water maze (MWM) sensitive to hippocampal function, serve as illustrative examples for the potential problems. Spontaneous alternation tests are sometimes flawed because the handling procedure makes the test dependent on fear rather than exploratory behavior leading to altered alternation rates independent of hippocampal function. CDFC can provide misleading results because the context test, assumed to be a configural task dependent on the hippocampus, may have a significant elemental, i.e. cued, component. MWM may pose problems if its visible platform task is disproportionately easier for the subjects to solve than the hidden platform task, if the order of administration of visible and hidden platform tasks is not counterbalanced, or if inappropriate parameters are measured. Without attempting to be exhaustive, this review discusses such experimental problems and gives examples on how to avoid them.

  19. Safety assessment document for the dynamic test complex (Building 836)

    SciTech Connect

    Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.

    1981-11-24

    A safety assessment was performed to determine if potential accidents at the 836 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (H) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire.

  20. LOGIC ANALYSIS: TESTING PROGRAM THEORY TO BETTER EVALUATE COMPLEX INTERVENTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Lynda; Brousselle, Astrid; Dedobbeleer, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating complex interventions requires an understanding of the program’s logic of action. Logic analysis, a specific type of program theory evaluation based on scientific knowledge, can help identify either the critical conditions for achieving desired outcomes or alternative interventions for that purpose. In this article, we outline the principles of logic analysis and its roots. We then illustrate its use with an actual evaluation case. Finally, we discuss the advantages of conducting logic analysis prior to other types of evaluations. This article will provide evaluators with both theoretical and practical information to help them in conceptualizing their evaluations. PMID:27239095

  1. Integrated quality assurance for assembly and testing of complex structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Kopylow, Christoph; Bothe, Thorsten; Elandaloussi, Frank; Kalms, Michael; Jüptner, Werner

    2005-11-01

    Modern production processes are directed by properties of the components to be manufactured. These components have different sizes, functionalities, high assembly complexity and high security requirements. The increasing requirements during the manufacturing of complex products like cars and aircrafts demand new solutions for the quality assurance - especially for the production at different places. The main focus is to find a measurement strategy that is cost effective, flexible and adaptive. That means a clear definition of the measurement problem, the measurement with adapted resolution, the data preparation and evaluation and support during measurement and utilisation of the results directly in the production. In this paper we describe flexible measurement devices on example of three different techniques: fringe projection, fringe reflection and shearography. These techniques allow the detection of surface and subsurface defects like bumps, dents and delaminations with high resolution. The defects can be optically mapped onto the object's surface. Results are demonstrated with big components taken from automotive and aircraft production. We will point out the most important adaptations of the systems to realize miniaturized, robust and mobile devices for the quality assurance in an industrial environment. Additionally the implementation into a Mobile Maintenance and Control structure is demonstrated.

  2. 42 CFR 493.1403 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1403 Section 493.1403 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  3. 42 CFR 493.1403 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1403 Section 493.1403 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  4. 42 CFR 493.1403 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1403 Section 493.1403 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  5. 42 CFR 493.1403 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1403 Section 493.1403 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  6. 42 CFR 493.1403 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1403 Section 493.1403 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  7. The Status of the Testing Effect for Complex Materials: Still a Winner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    The target articles in the special issue address a timely and important question concerning whether practice tests enhance learning of complex materials. The consensus conclusion from these articles is that the testing effect does not obtain for complex materials. In this commentary, I discuss why this conclusion is not warranted either by the…

  8. 42 CFR 493.1415 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; clinical consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... laboratory must have a clinical consultant who meets the qualification requirements of § 493.1417 of this... complexity testing; clinical consultant. 493.1415 Section 493.1415 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  9. A Reliability Test of a Complex System Based on Empirical Likelihood

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Hui, Yongchang

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the reliability of a complex system described by minimal paths, an empirical likelihood method is proposed to solve the reliability test problem when the subsystem distributions are unknown. Furthermore, we provide a reliability test statistic of the complex system and extract the limit distribution of the test statistic. Therefore, we can obtain the confidence interval for reliability and make statistical inferences. The simulation studies also demonstrate the theorem results. PMID:27760130

  10. Safety assessment document for the Dynamic Test Complex B854

    SciTech Connect

    Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.

    1981-12-11

    A safety assessment was performed to determine if potential accidents at the 854 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (HE) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire. Seismic and extreme wind (including missiles) analyses indicate that the buildings are basically sound. The lightning protection system is in the process of being upgraded to meet AMCR 385-100. These buildings are located high above the dry creek bed so that a flood is improbable. The probability of high explosive detonation involving plutonium is very remote since the radioactive materials are encased and plutonium and HE are not permitted concurrently in the same area at Site 300. (The exception to this policy is that explosive actuating devices are sometimes located in assemblies containing fissile materials. However, an accidental actuation will not affect the safe containment of the plutonium within the assembly.) There is a remote possibility of an HE explosion involving uranium and beryllium since these are permitted in the same area.The possibility of a criticality accident is very remote since the fissile materials are doubly encased in stout metal containers. All operations involving these materials are independently reviewed and inspected by the Criticality Safety Office. It was determined that a fire was unlikely due to the low fire loading and the absence of ignition sources. It was also determined that the consequences of any accidents were reduced by the remote location of these facilities, their design, and by administrative controls.

  11. High-speed instrumentation complex for car crash testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, S. V.; Gorin, I. M.; Drozhbin, Yu. A.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Ponomaryov, A. M.; Semyonov, V. B.; Udalov, V. V.

    1993-01-01

    One of the most important car checking problems consists in safety testing which includes trials for different types of collision, e.g., frontal and lateral. This allows us to study deformations of the automobile and its parts during the impact. To obtain reliable data on overloading, acceleration, deformation, force load on the car's body as well as on the anthropomorphic dummies inside it, use is made of rather a great number of different techniques. Highly informative among them is high-speed cine recording which allows us to register variations that occur during a fraction of a second, and then to reproduce with variable rate the frame images obtained. This makes it possible to study the impact parameters variations much more accurately.

  12. Three dimensional reconstructions of Nummulites tests reveal complex chamber shapes.

    PubMed

    Renema, Willem; Cotton, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) are important and prolific carbonate producers both in modern and ancient shallow tropical seas. During the Paleogene the genus Nummulites was particularly abundant with a global distribution, leading it to be frequently used in biostratigraphy. However, their evolution is poorly understood as classification is Europe-centered and mostly based on external characters and equatorial thin sections. New occurrences from regions outside the northern Tethys which poorly fit in thus reference frame, show that a more rigid framework for the classification of Nummulites is needed. Here we apply micro computed-tomographical scanning, a tool that recently has become available, to visualise 3D chamber shape of Nummulites djokdjokartae and compare these to traditional morphometrical characters. We find that despite the regular shape in equatorial and axial thin section the irregular 3D chamber shape is not predicted by these sections. We argue that 3D reconstructions of Nummulites tests will be a great aid in improving our understanding of lineages within the genus Nummulites, and to elucidate its evolutionary and biogeographical history. PMID:26157635

  13. Corrective Action Investigation Plan: Roller Coaster Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    IT Corporation, Las Vegas, NV

    1996-06-27

    1.1 Purpose The purpose of this investigation is to collect data to confirm the presence or absence of contamination, evaluate the potential for contaminant migration, and select appropriate closure methods for these sites. The potential closure methods for these sites involve either clean closure, closure in place, or no further action. 1.2 Scope The scope of this investigation includes collecting surface and subsurface soil samples at the Roller Coaster Lagoons; and collecting surface soil samples at the North Disposal Trench and the small spill area associated with the Voluntary Cotiective Action (VCA) that was conducted in 1995.

  14. Seismic evaluation of the U1a complex at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    McCamant, R R; Davito, A M; Hahn, K R; Murray, R C; Ng, D S; Sahni, V K; Schnechter, K M; Van Dyke, M

    1998-10-16

    As part of an overall safety evaluation of the Ula Complex, a seismic evaluation of structures, systems, and components (SSC) was conducted. A team of seismic, safety, and operation engineers from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Bechtel Nevada (BN) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was chartered to perform the seismic evaluation. The UlA Complex is located in Area 1 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada. The complex is a test facility for physics experiments in support of the Science Based Stockpile Stewardship Program. The Ula Complex consists of surface and subsurface facilities. The subsurface facility is a tunnel complex located 963 feet below the surface. The seismic evaluation of U 1 a Complex is required to comply with the DOE Natural Phenomena Policy. This policy consists of an order, an implementing guide, and standards which provide guidance for design and evaluation of SSCs, categorization of SSCs, characterization of site, and hazard level definition.

  15. 40 CFR 80.48 - Augmentation of the complex emission model by vehicle testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emission model is deemed valid. (b) To augment the complex emission model described at § 80.45, the... refueling VOC and toxics emissions) shall not be augmented by vehicle testing. (4) The Agency reserves the... petitions to augment the complex model defined at § 80.45 with a new parameter, the effect of the...

  16. Knowledge and attitudes to personal genomics testing for complex diseases among Nigerians

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The study examined the knowledge and attitudes to personal genomics testing for complex diseases among Nigerians and identified how the knowledge and attitudes vary with gender, age, religion, education and related factors. Methods Data were collected using qualitative method in 2 districts of the Federal Capital Territory. In the study, eight (8) Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) and twenty seven (27) Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) were conducted. Participants for the research were recruited among healthy Nigerians, individuals with complex diseases, health care professionals, community leaders and health policy makers. Result Analysis of the result showed that most respondents in both FGDs and KIIs had limited knowledge about genomics test initially. Their understanding of the test however improved after explanation on its concept. Participants showed positive attitude towards genomics tests. Nevertheless they expressed fear over direct to consumer personal genomics testing, testing unborn babies and disclosure of results to third parties. Culture and religion were found to influence the perspectives of respondents on genomics test particularly those aspects that could either directly contradict their beliefs and practices or lead to actions which contradict them. Conclusion In conclusion, most Nigerians interviewed had limited knowledge of genomics test but with supportive attitude towards its use in predicting future risk of complex diseases after understanding the test concept. Genomics testing for complex diseases was not a common practice in Nigeria. PMID:24766930

  17. Does plant architectural complexity increase with increasing habitat complexity? A test with a pioneer shrub in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Silveira, F A O; Oliveira, E G

    2013-05-01

    Understanding variation in plant traits in heterogeneous habitats is important to predict responses to changing environments, but trait-environment associations are poorly known along ecological gradients. We tested the hypothesis that plant architectural complexity increases with habitat complexity along a soil fertility gradient in a Cerrado (Neotropical savanna) area in southeastern Brazil. Plant architecture and productivity (estimated as the total number of healthy infructescences) of Miconia albicans (SW.) Triana were examined in three types of vegetation which together form a natural gradient of increasing soil fertility, tree density and canopy cover: grasslands (campo sujo, CS), shrublands (cerrado sensu strico, CE) and woodlands (cerradão, CD). As expected, plants growing at the CS were shorter and had a lower branching pattern, whereas plants at the CD were the tallest. Unexpectedly, however, CD plants did not show higher architectural complexity compared to CE plants. Higher architectural similarity between CE and CD plants compared to similarity between CS and CE plants suggests reduced expression of functional architectural traits under shade. Plants growing at the CE produced more quaternary shoots, leading to a larger number of infructescences. This higher plant productivity in CE indicates that trait variation in ecological gradients is more complex than previously thought. Nematode-induced galls accounted for fruit destruction in 76.5% infructescences across physiognomies, but percentage of attack was poorly related to architectural variables. Our data suggest shade-induced limitation in M. albicans architecture, and point to complex phenotypic variation in heterogeneous habitats in Neotropical savannas.

  18. 40 CFR 80.49 - Fuels to be used in augmenting the complex emission model through vehicle testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... complex emission model through vehicle testing. 80.49 Section 80.49 Protection of Environment... Reformulated Gasoline § 80.49 Fuels to be used in augmenting the complex emission model through vehicle testing... augmenting the complex emission model with a parameter not currently included in the complex emission...

  19. Expanding Hydrogen Peroxide Propulsion Test Capability at NASA's Stennis Space Center E-Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacks, Thomas E.; Beisler, Michele

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, the rocket propulsion test capability at NASA s John C. Stennis Space Center's (SSC) E-Complex has been enhanced to include facilitization for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) based ground testing. In particular, the E-3 test stand has conducted numerous test projects that have been reported in the open literature. These include combustion devices as simple at small-scale catalyst beds, and larger devices such as ablative thrust chambers and a flight-type engine (AR2-3). Consequently, the NASA SSC test engineering and operations knowledge base and infrastructure have grown considerably in order to conduct safe H2O2 test operations with a variety of test articles at the component and engine level. Currently, the E-Complex has a test requirement for a hydrogen peroxide based stage test. This new development, with its unique set of requirements, has motivated the facilitization for hydrogen peroxide propellant use at the E-2 Cell 2 test position in addition to E-3. Since the E-2 Cell 2 test position was not originally designed as a hydrogen peroxide test stand, a facility modernization- improvement project was planned and implemented in FY 2002-03 to enable this vertical engine test stand to accommodate H2O2. This paper discusses the ongoing enhancement of E-Complex ground test capability, specifically at the E-3 stand (Cell 1 and Cell 2) and E-2 Cell 2 stand, that enable current and future customers considerable test flexibility and operability in conducting their peroxide based rocket R&D efforts.

  20. Recent Advances in Hydrogen Peroxide Propulsion Test Capability at NASA's Stennis Space Center E-Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacks, Thomas E.; Beisler, Michele

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, the rocket propulsion test capability at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center's (SSC) E-Complex has been enhanced to include facilitization for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) based ground testing. In particular, the E-3 test stand has conducted numerous test projects that have been reported in the open literature. These include combustion devices as simple as small-scale catalyst beds, and larger devices such as ablative thrust chambers and a flight-type engine (AR2-3). Consequently, the NASA SSC test engineering and operations knowledge base and infrastructure have grown considerably in order to conduct safe H2O2 test operations with a variety of test articles at the component and engine level. Currently, the E-Complex has a test requirement for a hydrogen peroxide based stage test. This new development, with its unique set of requirements, has motivated the facilitization for hydrogen peroxide propellant use at the E-2 Cell 2 test position in addition to E-3. Since the E-2 Cell 2 test position was not originally designed as a hydrogen peroxide test stand, a facility modernization-improvement project was planned and implemented in FY 2002-03 to enable this vertical engine test stand to accomodate H2O2. This paper discusses the ongoing enhancement of E-Complex ground test capability, specifically at the E-3 stand (Cell 1 and Cell 2) and E-2 Cell 2 stand, that enable current and future customers considerable test flexibility and operability in conducting their peroxide based rocket R&D efforts.

  1. After Action Report: Advanced Test Reactor Complex 2015 Evaluated Drill October 6, 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Forest Howard

    2015-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Complex, operated by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducted an evaluated drill on October 6, 2015, to allow the ATR Complex emergency response organization (ERO) to demonstrate the ability to respond to and mitigate an emergency by implementing the requirements of DOE O 151.1C, “Comprehensive Emergency Management System.”

  2. A modified complex modal testing technique for a rotating tire with a flexible ring model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jongsuh; Wang, Semyung; Pluymers, Bert; Desmet, Wim; Kindt, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Natural frequencies, mode shapes and modal damping values are the most important parameters to describe the noise and vibration behavior of a mechanical system. For rotating machinery, however, the directivity of the propagation wave of each mode should also be taken into account. For rotating systems, this directivity can be determined by complex modal testing. In this paper, a rolling tire is represented as a flexible ring model. The limitation of application of the complex modal testing which requires two directional measurements at a certain point, which is difficult to measure in practice, has been overcome through a modified complex modal testing which requires only one directional measurements at any two points. The technique is described in detail and applied to both a numerical example and to an experimental data set of a real rotating tire.

  3. Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex (BIO-Plex): NASA's Next Human-Rated Testing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tri, Terry O.

    1999-01-01

    As a key component in its ground test bed capability, NASA's Advanced Life Support Program has been developing a large-scale advanced life support test facility capable of supporting long-duration evaluations of integrated bioregenerative life support systems with human test crews. This facility-targeted for evaluation of hypogravity compatible life support systems to be developed for use on planetary surfaces such as Mars or the Moon-is called the Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex (BIO-Plex) and is currently under development at the Johnson Space Center. This test bed is comprised of a set of interconnected chambers with a sealed internal environment which are outfitted with systems capable of supporting test crews of four individuals for periods exceeding one year. The advanced technology systems to be tested will consist of both biological and physicochemical components and will perform all required crew life support functions. This presentation provides a description of the proposed test "missions" to be supported by the BIO-Plex and the planned development strategy for the facility.

  4. 2014 Radiological Monitoring Results Associated with the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Mike

    2015-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed of the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste wastewater prior to discharge into the Cold Waste Pond and of specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000161-01, Modification B). All radiological monitoring is performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  5. 2013 Radiological Monitoring Results Associated with the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed of the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste wastewater prior to discharge into the Cold Waste Pond and of specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000161-01, Modification B). All radiological monitoring is performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  6. 2012 Radiological Monitoring Results Associated with the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed of the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste wastewater prior to discharge into the Cold Waste Pond and of specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000161-01, Modification B). All radiological monitoring is performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  7. 42 CFR 493.1441 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1441 Section 493.1441 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION...

  8. 42 CFR 493.1441 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1441 Section 493.1441 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION...

  9. 42 CFR 493.1441 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1441 Section 493.1441 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION...

  10. 42 CFR 493.1441 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1441 Section 493.1441 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION...

  11. 42 CFR 493.1441 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1441 Section 493.1441 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION...

  12. 2010 Radiological Monitoring Results Associated with the Advance Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    mike lewis

    2011-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed of the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste wastewater prior to discharge into the Cold Waste Pond and of specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000161-01, Modification B). All radiological monitoring is performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  13. 2011 Radiological Monitoring Results Associated with the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2012-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed of the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste wastewater prior to discharge into the Cold Waste Pond and of specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000161-01, Modification B). All radiological monitoring is performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  14. Analysis and modeling of 3D complex modulus tests on hot and warm bituminous mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Nguyen Hoang; Sauzéat, Cédric; Di Benedetto, Hervé; González-León, Juan A.; Barreto, Gilles; Nicolaï, Aurélia; Jakubowski, Marc

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the results of laboratory testing of hot and warm bituminous mixtures containing Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP). Complex modulus measurements, using the tension-compression test on cylindrical specimens, were conducted to determine linear viscoelastic (LVE) behavior. Sinusoidal cyclic loadings, with strain amplitude of approximately 50ṡ10-6, were applied at several temperatures (from -25 to +45 °C) and frequencies (from 0.03 Hz to 10 Hz). In addition to axial stresses and strains, radial strains were also measured. The complex modulus E ∗ and complex Poisson's ratios ν ∗ were then obtained in two perpendicular directions. Measured values in these two directions do not indicate anisotropy on Poisson's ratio. The time-temperature superposition principle (TTSP) was verified with good approximation in one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) conditions for the same values of shift factor. Experimental results were modeled using the 2S2P1D model previously developed at the University of Lyon/ENTPE. In addition, specific analysis showed that eventual damage created during complex modulus test is very small and is equivalent to the effect of an increase of temperature of about 0.25 °C.

  15. Screening tests for hazard classification of complex waste materials - Selection of methods

    SciTech Connect

    Weltens, R.; Vanermen, G.; Tirez, K.; Robbens, J.; Deprez, K.; Michiels, L.

    2012-12-15

    In this study we describe the development of an alternative methodology for hazard characterization of waste materials. Such an alternative methodology for hazard assessment of complex waste materials is urgently needed, because the lack of a validated instrument leads to arbitrary hazard classification of such complex waste materials. False classification can lead to human and environmental health risks and also has important financial consequences for the waste owner. The Hazardous Waste Directive (HWD) describes the methodology for hazard classification of waste materials. For mirror entries the HWD classification is based upon the hazardous properties (H1-15) of the waste which can be assessed from the hazardous properties of individual identified waste compounds or - if not all compounds are identified - from test results of hazard assessment tests performed on the waste material itself. For the latter the HWD recommends toxicity tests that were initially designed for risk assessment of chemicals in consumer products (pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, biocides, food, etc.). These tests (often using mammals) are not designed nor suitable for the hazard characterization of waste materials. With the present study we want to contribute to the development of an alternative and transparent test strategy for hazard assessment of complex wastes that is in line with the HWD principles for waste classification. It is necessary to cope with this important shortcoming in hazardous waste classification and to demonstrate that alternative methods are available that can be used for hazard assessment of waste materials. Next, by describing the pros and cons of the available methods, and by identifying the needs for additional or further development of test methods, we hope to stimulate research efforts and development in this direction. In this paper we describe promising techniques and argument on the test selection for the pilot study that we have performed on different types of

  16. Median and quantile tests under complex survey design using SAS and R.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yi; Caudill, Samuel P; Li, Ruosha; Caldwell, Kathleen L

    2014-11-01

    Techniques for conducting hypothesis testing on the median and other quantiles of two or more subgroups under complex survey design are limited. In this paper, we introduce programs in both SAS and R to perform such a test. A detailed illustration of the computations, macro variable definitions, input and output for the SAS and R programs are also included in the text. Urinary iodine data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) are used as examples for comparing medians between females and males as well as comparing the 75th percentiles among three salt consumption groups.

  17. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand Complex Bunker House

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the S-IC stand, additional related facilities were built during this time frame. Built to the east of the S-IC stand, the block house served as the control room. To the south of the blockhouse was a newly constructed pump house used for delivering water to the S-IC stand during testing. North of the massive test stand, the F-1 Engine test stand was built for testing a single F-1 engine. Just southeast of the S-IC stand a concrete bunker house was constructed. The bunker housed

  18. Multiplex method for initial complex testing of antibodies to blood transmitted diseases agents.

    PubMed

    Poltavchenko, Alexander G; Nechitaylo, Oleg V; Filatov, Pavel V; Ersh, Anna V; Gureyev, Vadim N

    2016-10-01

    Initial screening of donors and population at high risk of infection with blood transmitted diseases involves a number of analyses using monospesific diagnostic systems, and therefore is expensive labor- and time-consuming process. The goal of this work is to construct a multiplex test enabling to carry out rapid initial complex testing at a low price. The paper describes a kit making it possible to detect simultaneously antibodies to six agents of the most significant blood transmitted diseases: HIV virus, hepatitis B and C viruses, cytomegalovirus, T. pallidum and T. gondii in blood products. The kit comprises multiplex dot-immunoassay based on plane protein arrays (immune chips) using colloidal gold conjugates and silver development. It provides an opportunity to carry out complex analysis within 70min at room temperature, and there is no need of well-qualified personnel. We compared laboratory findings of the kit with monospecific kits for ELISA produced by two Russian commercial companies. Dot-assay results correlate well with data obtained using commercial kits for ELISA. Furthermore, multiplex analysis is quicker and cheaper in comparison with ELISA and can be carried out in non-laboratory conditions. The kit for multiplex dot-immunoassay of antibodies to blood transmitted agents can significantly simplify initial complex testing. PMID:27497868

  19. Rotorcraft research testing in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warmbrodt, W.; Smith, C. A.; Johnson, W.

    1985-01-01

    The unique capabilities of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) for testing rotorcraft systems are described. The test facilities include the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel, the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel, and the Outdoor Aerodynamic Research Facility. The Ames 7- by 10-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel is also used in support of the rotor research programs conducted in the NFAC. Detailed descriptions of each of the facilities, with an emphasis on helicopter rotor test capability, are presented. The special purpose rotor test equipment used in conducting helicopter research is reviewed. Test rigs to operate full-scale helicopter main rotors, helicopter tail rotors, and tilting prop-rotors are available, as well as full-scale and small-scale rotor systems for use in various research programs. The test procedures used in conducting rotor experiments are discussed together with representative data obtained from previous test programs. Specific examples are given for rotor performance, loads, acoustics, system interactions, dynamic and aeroelastic stability, and advanced technology and prototype demonstration models.

  20. 40 CFR 80.49 - Fuels to be used in augmenting the complex emission model through vehicle testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuels to be used in augmenting the... Reformulated Gasoline § 80.49 Fuels to be used in augmenting the complex emission model through vehicle testing... augmenting the complex emission model with a parameter not currently included in the complex emission...

  1. Completion summary for borehole USGS 136 near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, cored and completed borehole USGS 136 for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory. The borehole was initially cored to a depth of 1,048 feet (ft) below land surface (BLS) to collect core, open-borehole water samples, and geophysical data. After these data were collected, borehole USGS 136 was cemented and backfilled between 560 and 1,048 ft BLS. The final construction of borehole USGS 136 required that the borehole be reamed to allow for installation of 6-inch (in.) diameter carbon-steel casing and 5-in. diameter stainless-steel screen; the screened monitoring interval was completed between 500 and 551 ft BLS. A dedicated pump and water-level access line were placed to allow for aquifer testing, for collecting periodic water samples, and for measuring water levels. Geophysical and borehole video logs were collected after coring and after the completion of the monitor well. Geophysical logs were examined in conjunction with the borehole core to describe borehole lithology and to identify primary flow paths for groundwater, which occur in intervals of fractured and vesicular basalt. A single-well aquifer test was used to define hydraulic characteristics for borehole USGS 136 in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Specific-capacity, transmissivity, and hydraulic conductivity from the aquifer test were at least 975 gallons per minute per foot, 1.4 × 105 feet squared per day (ft2/d), and 254 feet per day, respectively. The amount of measureable drawdown during the aquifer test was about 0.02 ft. The transmissivity for borehole USGS 136 was in the range of values determined from previous aquifer tests conducted in other wells near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex: 9.5 × 103 to 1.9 × 105 ft2/d. Water samples were analyzed for cations, anions, metals, nutrients, total organic

  2. Research on the laser transmission characteristics simulation and comprehensive test in complex channel environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Qiang; Liu, Jianhua; Wang, Xiaoman; Jiang, Huilin; Liu, Zhi

    2014-12-01

    The laser transmission characteristics affected in the complex channel environment, which limits the performance of laser equipment and engineering application severely. The article aim at the influence of laser transmission in atmospheric and seawater channels, summarizes the foreign researching work of the simulation and comprehensive test regarding to the laser transmission characteristics in complex environment. And researched the theory of atmospheric turbulence effect, water attenuation features, and put forward the corresponding theoretical model. And researched the simulate technology of atmospheric channel and sea water channel, put forward the analog device plan, adopt the similar theory of flowing to simulate the atmosphere turbulence .When the flowing has the same condition of geometric limits including the same Reynolds, they must be similar to each other in the motivation despite of the difference in the size, speed, and intrinsic quality. On this basis, set up a device for complex channel simulation and comprehensive testing, the overall design of the structure of the device, Hot and Cold Air Convection Simulation of Atmospheric Turbulence, mainly consists of cell body, heating systems, cooling systems, automatic control system. he simulator provides platform and method for the basic research of laser transmission characteristics in the domestic.

  3. Effects of head-down bed rest on complex heart rate variability: Response to LBNP testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberger, Ary L.; Mietus, Joseph E.; Rigney, David R.; Wood, Margie L.; Fortney, Suzanne M.

    1994-01-01

    Head-down bed rest is used to model physiological changes during spaceflight. We postulated that bed rest would decrease the degree of complex physiological heart rate variability. We analyzed continuous heart rate data from digitized Holter recordings in eight healthy female volunteers (age 28-34 yr) who underwent a 13-day 6 deg head-down bed rest study with serial lower body negative pressure (LBNP) trials. Heart rate variability was measured on a 4-min data sets using conventional time and frequency domain measures as well as with a new measure of signal 'complexity' (approximate entropy). Data were obtained pre-bed rest (control), during bed rest (day 4 and day 9 or 11), and 2 days post-bed rest (recovery). Tolerance to LBNP was significantly reduced on both bed rest days vs. pre-bed rest. Heart rate variability was assessed at peak LBNP. Heart rate approximate entropy was significantly decreased at day 4 and day 9 or 11, returning toward normal during recovery. Heart rate standard deviation and the ratio of high- to low-power frequency did not change significantly. We conclude that short-term bed rest is associated with a decrease in the complex variability of heart rate during LBNP testing in healthy young adult women. Measurement of heart rate complexity, using a method derived from nonlinear dynamics ('chaos theory'), may provide a sensitive marker of this loss of physiological variability, complementing conventional time and frequency domain statistical measures.

  4. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Tonopah 1 by 2 degree Quadrangle, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.; Nash, J.T.; Plouff, Donald; Whitebread, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle in south-central Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle.

  5. Testing Limits on Matte Surface Color Perception in Three-Dimensional Scenes with Complex Light Fields

    PubMed Central

    Doerschner, K.; Boyaci, H.; Maloney, L. T.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated limits on the human visual system’s ability to discount directional variation in complex lights field when estimating Lambertian surface color. Directional variation in the light field was represented in the frequency domain using spherical harmonics. The bidirectional reflectance distribution function of a Lambertian surface acts as a low-pass filter on directional variation in the light field. Consequently, the visual system needs to discount only the low-pass component of the incident light corresponding to the first nine terms of a spherical harmonics expansion (Basri & Jacobs, 2001; Ramamoorthi & Hanrahan, 2001) to accurately estimate surface color. We test experimentally whether the visual system discounts directional variation in the light field up to this physical limit. Our results are consistent with the claim that the visual system can compensate for all of the complexity in the light field that affects the appearance of Lambertian surfaces. PMID:18053846

  6. MARINER 10 LAUNCH VEHICLE ATLAS CENTAUR 34 UNDERGOES TANKING TEST AT LAUNCH COMPLEX 36B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Atlas Centaur 34, undergoes tanking test on NASA Complex 36B at Cape Kennedy, Fla. Atlas Centaur 34 is under preparation to launch history's first duel-planet flight, the Mariner mission to Venus and Mercury, scheduled for early November. With all events going as planned, the Mariner spacecraft will fly by Venus in early February, 1974, and reach Mercury in late march, 1974. The spacecraft, Mariner 10, will carry two television cameras to photograph the planets, and six other scientific experiments to return planetary and interplanetary data back to Earth.

  7. Deposition Velocities of Non-Newtonian Slurries in Pipelines: Complex Simulant Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Poloski, Adam P.; Bonebrake, Michael L.; Casella, Andrew M.; Johnson, Michael D.; Toth, James J.; Adkins, Harold E.; Chun, Jaehun; Denslow, Kayte M.; Luna, Maria; Tingey, Joel M.

    2009-07-01

    ) was performed at each yield stress condition. Unlike the previous simulant, the sizes and densities of the particles that can deposit in the piping are a result of the simulant precipitation process; there is expected to be a complex mixture of particles of various sizes and densities that make it difficult to predict a stability map. The objective of the testing is to observe whether behavior consistent with the stability-map concept occurs in complex simulants with mixtures of different sizes and densities.

  8. Exploratory behaviour in the open field test adapted for larval zebrafish: impact of environmental complexity.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Farooq; Richardson, Michael K

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and characterize a novel (standard) open field test adapted for larval zebrafish. We also developed and characterized a variant of the same assay consisting of a colour-enriched open field; this was used to assess the impact of environmental complexity on patterns of exploratory behaviours as well to determine natural colour preference/avoidance. We report the following main findings: (1) zebrafish larvae display characteristic patterns of exploratory behaviours in the standard open field, such as thigmotaxis/centre avoidance; (2) environmental complexity (i.e. presence of colours) differentially affects patterns of exploratory behaviours and greatly attenuates natural zone preference; (3) larvae displayed the ability to discriminate colours. As reported previously in adult zebrafish, larvae showed avoidance towards blue and black; however, in contrast to the reported adult behaviour, larvae displayed avoidance towards red. Avoidance towards yellow and preference for green and orange are shown for the first time, (4) compared to standard open field tests, exposure to the colour-enriched open field resulted in an enhanced expression of anxiety-like behaviours. To conclude, we not only developed and adapted a traditional rodent behavioural assay that serves as a gold standard in preclinical drug screening, but we also provide a version of the same test that affords the possibility to investigate the impact of environmental stress on behaviour in larval zebrafish while representing the first test for assessment of natural colour preference/avoidance in larval zebrafish. In the future, these assays will improve preclinical drug screening methodologies towards the goal to uncover novel drugs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title.

  9. Robotic path planning for non-destructive testing of complex shaped surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineo, Carmelo; Pierce, Stephen Gareth; Wright, Ben; Nicholson, Pascual Ian; Cooper, Ian

    2015-03-01

    The requirement to increase inspection speeds for non-destructive testing (NDT) of composite aerospace parts is common to many manufacturers. The prevalence of complex curved surfaces in the industry provides significant motivation for the use of 6 axis robots for deployment of NDT probes in these inspections. A new system for robot deployed ultrasonic inspection of composite aerospace components is presented. The key novelty of the approach is through the accommodation of flexible robotic trajectory planning, coordinated with the NDT data acquisition. Using a flexible approach in MATLAB, the authors have developed a high level custom toolbox that utilizes external control of an industrial 6 axis manipulator to achieve complex path planning and provide synchronization of the employed ultrasonic phase array inspection system. The developed software maintains a high level approach to the robot programming, in order to ease the programming complexity for an NDT inspection operator. Crucially the approach provides a pathway for a conditional programming approach and the capability for multiple robot control (a significant limitation in many current off-line programming applications). Ultrasonic and experimental data has been collected for the validation of the inspection technique. The path trajectory generation for a large, curved carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) aerofoil component has been proven and is presented. The path error relative to a raster-scan tool-path, suitable for ultrasonic phased array inspection, has been measured to be within + 2mm over the 1.6 m2 area of the component surface.

  10. SOHLH2 is essential for synaptonemal complex formation during spermatogenesis in early postnatal mouse testes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Miree; Lee, Youngeun; Jang, Hoon; Lee, Ok-Hee; Park, Sung-Won; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Hong, Kwonho; Song, Hyuk; Park, Se-Pill; Park, Yun-Yong; Ko, Jung Jae; Choi, Youngsok

    2016-01-01

    Spermatogenesis- and oogenesis-specific helix-loop-helix transcription factor 2 (SOHLH2) is exclusively expressed in germ cells of the gonads. Previous studies show that SOHLH2 is critical for spermatogenesis in mouse. However, the regulatory mechanism of SOHLH2 during early spermatogenesis is poorly understood. In the present study, we analyzed the gene expression profile of the Sohlh2-deficient testis and examined the role of SOHLH2 during spermatogenesis. We found 513 genes increased in abundance, while 492 genes decreased in abundance in 14-day-old Sohlh2-deficient mouse testes compared to wildtype mice. Gene ontology analysis revealed that Sohlh2 disruption effects the relative abundance of various meiotic genes during early spermatogenesis, including Spo11, Dmc1, Msh4, Prdm9, Sycp1, Sycp2, Sycp3, Hormad1, and Hormad2. Western blot analysis and immunostaining showed that SYCP3, a component of synaptonemal complex, was significantly less abundant in Sohlh2-deficient spermatocytes. We observed a lack of synaptonemal complex formation during meiosis in Sohlh2-deficient spermatocytes. Furthermore, we found that SOHLH2 interacted with two E-boxes on the mouse Sycp1 promoter and Sycp1 promoter activity increased with ectopically expressed SOHLH2. Taken together, our data suggest that SOHLH2 is critical for the formation of synaptonemal complexes via its regulation of Sycp1 expression during mouse spermatogonial differentiation. PMID:26869299

  11. Does structural complexity determine the morphology of assemblages? An experimental test on three continents.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Heloise; Parr, Catherine L

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how species will respond to global change depends on our ability to distinguish generalities from idiosyncrasies. For diverse, but poorly known taxa, such as insects, species traits may provide a short-cut to predicting species turnover. We tested whether ant traits respond consistently to habitat complexity across geographically independent ant assemblages, using an experimental approach and baits. We repeated our study in six paired simple and complex habitats on three continents with distinct ant faunas. We also compared traits amongst ants with different foraging strategies. We hypothesised that ants would be larger, broader, have longer legs and more dorsally positioned eyes in simpler habitats. In agreement with predictions, ants had longer femurs and dorsally positioned eyes in simple habitats. This pattern was most pronounced for ants that discovered resources. Body size and pronotum width responded as predicted for experimental treatments, but were inconsistent across continents. Monopolising ants were smaller, with shorter femurs than those that occupied or discovered resources. Consistent responses for several traits suggest that many, but not all, aspects of morphology respond predictably to habitat complexity, and that foraging strategy is linked with morphology. Some traits thus have the potential to be used to predict the direction of species turnover, changes in foraging strategy and, potentially, evolution in response to changes in habitat structure.

  12. Cycling Performance of a Columnar-Structured Complex Perovskite in a Temperature Gradient Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlegel, N.; Sebold, D.; Sohn, Y. J.; Mauer, G.; Vaßen, R.

    2015-10-01

    To increase the efficiency of turbines for the power generation and the aircraft industry, advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are required. They need to be long-term stable at temperatures higher than 1200 °C. Nowadays, yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is applied as standard TBC material. But its long-term application at temperatures higher than 1200 °C leads to detrimental phase changes and sintering effects. Therefore, new materials have to be investigated, for example, complex perovskites. They provide high melting points, high thermal expansion coefficients and thermal conductivities of approx. 2.0 W/(m K). In this work, the complex perovskite La(Al1/4Mg1/2Ta1/4)O3 (LAMT) was investigated. It was deposited by the suspension plasma spraying (SPS) process, resulting in a columnar microstructure of the coating. The coatings were tested in thermal cycling gradient tests and they show excellent results, even though some phase decomposition was found.

  13. Innovative testing of spatial ability: interactive responding and the use of complex stimuli material.

    PubMed

    Jelínek, Martin; Květon, Petr; Vobořil, Dalibor

    2015-02-01

    Despite initial expectations, which have emerged with the advancement of computer technology over the last decade of the twentieth century, scientific literature does not contain many relevant references regarding the development and use of innovative items in psychological testing. Our study presents and evaluates two novel item types. One item type is derived from a standard schematic test item used for the assessment of the spatial perception aspect of spatial ability, enhanced by an interactive response module. The performance on this item type is correlated with the performance on its paper and pencil counterpart. The other innovative item type used complex stimuli in the form of a short video of a ride through a city presented in an on-route perspective, which is intended to measure navigation skills and the ability to keep oneself oriented in space. In this case, the scores were related to the capacity of visuo-spatial working memory and also to the overall score in the paper/pencil test of spatial ability. The second relationship was moderated by gender.

  14. Environmental assessment report: Nuclear Test Technology Complex. [Construction and operation of proposed facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tonnessen, K.; Tewes, H.A.

    1982-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (USDOE) is planning to construct and operate a structure, designated the Nuclear Test Technology Complex (NTTC), on a site located west of and adjacent to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NTTC is designed to house 350 nuclear test program personnel, and will accommodate the needs of the entire staff of the continuing Nuclear Test Program (NTP). The project has three phases: land acquisition, facility construction and facility operation. The purpose of this environmental assessment report is to describe the activities associated with the three phases of the NTTC project and to evaluate potential environmental disruptions. The project site is located in a rural area of southeastern Alameda County, California, where the primary land use is agriculture; however, the County has zoned the area for industrial development. The environmental impacts of the project include surface disturbance, high noise levels, possible increases in site erosion, and decreased air quality. These impacts will occur primarily during the construction phase of the NTTC project and can be mitigated in part by measures proposed in this report.

  15. The Cambridge Mindreading (CAM) Face-Voice Battery: Testing Complex Emotion Recognition in Adults with and without Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golan, Ofer; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Hill, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    Adults with Asperger Syndrome (AS) can recognise simple emotions and pass basic theory of mind tasks, but have difficulties recognising more complex emotions and mental states. This study describes a new battery of tasks, testing recognition of 20 complex emotions and mental states from faces and voices. The battery was given to males and females…

  16. Modeling Single Well Injection-Withdrawal (SWIW) Tests for Characterization of Complex Fracture-Matrix Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cotte, F.P.; Doughty, C.; Birkholzer, J.

    2010-11-01

    The ability to reliably predict flow and transport in fractured porous rock is an essential condition for performance evaluation of geologic (underground) nuclear waste repositories. In this report, a suite of programs (TRIPOLY code) for calculating and analyzing flow and transport in two-dimensional fracture-matrix systems is used to model single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tracer tests. The SWIW test, a tracer test using one well, is proposed as a useful means of collecting data for site characterization, as well as estimating parameters relevant to tracer diffusion and sorption. After some specific code adaptations, we numerically generated a complex fracture-matrix system for computation of steady-state flow and tracer advection and dispersion in the fracture network, along with solute exchange processes between the fractures and the porous matrix. We then conducted simulations for a hypothetical but workable SWIW test design and completed parameter sensitivity studies on three physical parameters of the rock matrix - namely porosity, diffusion coefficient, and retardation coefficient - in order to investigate their impact on the fracture-matrix solute exchange process. Hydraulic fracturing, or hydrofracking, is also modeled in this study, in two different ways: (1) by increasing the hydraulic aperture for flow in existing fractures and (2) by adding a new set of fractures to the field. The results of all these different tests are analyzed by studying the population of matrix blocks, the tracer spatial distribution, and the breakthrough curves (BTCs) obtained, while performing mass-balance checks and being careful to avoid some numerical mistakes that could occur. This study clearly demonstrates the importance of matrix effects in the solute transport process, with the sensitivity studies illustrating the increased importance of the matrix in providing a retardation mechanism for radionuclides as matrix porosity, diffusion coefficient, or retardation

  17. Quantitation of complex brain function in children: preliminary evaluation using a nonhuman primate behavioral test battery.

    PubMed

    Paule, M G; Cranmer, J M; Wilkins, J D; Stern, H P; Hoffman, E L

    1988-01-01

    The performance of twenty children (3-11 years of age) in a complex operant test battery (OTB) was evaluated. The operant schedules, or tasks, used in the OTB were identical to those originally designed and currently used to assess complex brain function in nonhuman primate laboratory animals (monkeys). The OTB consisted of five operant tasks: 1) Progressive-Ratio [PR]; 2) Conditioned-Position Responding [CPR]; 3) Temporal Response Differentiation [TRD]; 4) Delayed Matching-to-Sample [DMTS] and 5) Incremental Repeated Acquisition [IRA]. These operant tasks are thought to engender responding indicative of processes associated with: 1) motivation; 2) color and position discrimination; 3) time-perception; 4) short-term memory and attention; and 5) learning, respectively. The parameters for each of the tasks in the OTB were optimized for use in the clinical setting to assess cognitive function in children. In the small population studied, performance in the IRA, DMB and TRD tasks was age related. Of the four 6-yr-olds studied, only those categorized as having either learning disabilities (LD, n = 1) or attention deficit disorders (ADD, n = 2) did not complete the "learning" task. By comparison of human and monkey performance in the OTB, we also hope to validate the use of laboratory animal models in research efforts designed to yield insight into complex human brain function. It is also hoped that assessment of children's performance in the tasks in the OTB will assist in the diagnosis and treatment of certain childhood disorders such as learning disabilities and/or attention deficit disorders. PMID:3143955

  18. Method and apparatus for transfer function simulator for testing complex systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, M. J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for testing the operation of a complex stabilization circuit in a closed loop system is presented. The method is comprised of a programmed analog or digital computing system for implementing the transfer function of a load thereby providing a predictable load. The digital computing system employs a table stored in a microprocessor in which precomputed values of the load transfer function are stored for values of input signal from the stabilization circuit over the range of interest. This technique may be used not only for isolating faults in the stabilization circuit, but also for analyzing a fault in a faulty load by so varying parameters of the computing system as to simulate operation of the actual load with the fault.

  19. Endogenous versus exogenous shocks in complex networks: an empirical test using book sale rankings.

    PubMed

    Sornette, D; Deschâtres, F; Gilbert, T; Ageon, Y

    2004-11-26

    We study the precursory and recovery signatures accompanying shocks in complex networks, that we test on a unique database of the Amazon.com ranking of book sales. We find clear distinguishing signatures classifying two types of sales peaks. Exogenous peaks occur abruptly and are followed by a power law relaxation, while endogenous peaks occur after a progressively accelerating power law growth followed by an approximately symmetrical power law relaxation which is slower than for exogenous peaks. These results are rationalized quantitatively by a simple model of epidemic propagation of interactions with long memory within a network of acquaintances. The observed relaxation of sales implies that the sales dynamics is dominated by cascades rather than by the direct effects of news or advertisements, indicating that the social network is close to critical. PMID:15601125

  20. Endogenous versus exogenous shocks in complex networks: an empirical test using book sale rankings.

    PubMed

    Sornette, D; Deschâtres, F; Gilbert, T; Ageon, Y

    2004-11-26

    We study the precursory and recovery signatures accompanying shocks in complex networks, that we test on a unique database of the Amazon.com ranking of book sales. We find clear distinguishing signatures classifying two types of sales peaks. Exogenous peaks occur abruptly and are followed by a power law relaxation, while endogenous peaks occur after a progressively accelerating power law growth followed by an approximately symmetrical power law relaxation which is slower than for exogenous peaks. These results are rationalized quantitatively by a simple model of epidemic propagation of interactions with long memory within a network of acquaintances. The observed relaxation of sales implies that the sales dynamics is dominated by cascades rather than by the direct effects of news or advertisements, indicating that the social network is close to critical.

  1. Endogenous Versus Exogenous Shocks in Complex Networks: An Empirical Test Using Book Sale Rankings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornette, D.; Deschâtres, F.; Gilbert, T.; Ageon, Y.

    2004-11-01

    We study the precursory and recovery signatures accompanying shocks in complex networks, that we test on a unique database of the Amazon.com ranking of book sales. We find clear distinguishing signatures classifying two types of sales peaks. Exogenous peaks occur abruptly and are followed by a power law relaxation, while endogenous peaks occur after a progressively accelerating power law growth followed by an approximately symmetrical power law relaxation which is slower than for exogenous peaks. These results are rationalized quantitatively by a simple model of epidemic propagation of interactions with long memory within a network of acquaintances. The observed relaxation of sales implies that the sales dynamics is dominated by cascades rather than by the direct effects of news or advertisements, indicating that the social network is close to critical.

  2. Powerful Set-Based Gene-Environment Interaction Testing Framework for Complex Diseases.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Shuo; Peters, Ulrike; Berndt, Sonja; Bézieau, Stéphane; Brenner, Hermann; Campbell, Peter T; Chan, Andrew T; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Lemire, Mathieu; Newcomb, Polly A; Potter, John D; Slattery, Martha L; Woods, Michael O; Hsu, Li

    2015-12-01

    Identification of gene-environment interaction (G × E) is important in understanding the etiology of complex diseases. Based on our previously developed Set Based gene EnviRonment InterAction test (SBERIA), in this paper we propose a powerful framework for enhanced set-based G × E testing (eSBERIA). The major challenge of signal aggregation within a set is how to tell signals from noise. eSBERIA tackles this challenge by adaptively aggregating the interaction signals within a set weighted by the strength of the marginal and correlation screening signals. eSBERIA then combines the screening-informed aggregate test with a variance component test to account for the residual signals. Additionally, we develop a case-only extension for eSBERIA (coSBERIA) and an existing set-based method, which boosts the power not only by exploiting the G-E independence assumption but also by avoiding the need to specify main effects for a large number of variants in the set. Through extensive simulation, we show that coSBERIA and eSBERIA are considerably more powerful than existing methods within the case-only and the case-control method categories across a wide range of scenarios. We conduct a genome-wide G × E search by applying our methods to Illumina HumanExome Beadchip data of 10,446 colorectal cancer cases and 10,191 controls and identify two novel interactions between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and MINK1 and PTCHD3.

  3. Powerful Set-Based Gene-Environment Interaction Testing Framework for Complex Diseases.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Shuo; Peters, Ulrike; Berndt, Sonja; Bézieau, Stéphane; Brenner, Hermann; Campbell, Peter T; Chan, Andrew T; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Lemire, Mathieu; Newcomb, Polly A; Potter, John D; Slattery, Martha L; Woods, Michael O; Hsu, Li

    2015-12-01

    Identification of gene-environment interaction (G × E) is important in understanding the etiology of complex diseases. Based on our previously developed Set Based gene EnviRonment InterAction test (SBERIA), in this paper we propose a powerful framework for enhanced set-based G × E testing (eSBERIA). The major challenge of signal aggregation within a set is how to tell signals from noise. eSBERIA tackles this challenge by adaptively aggregating the interaction signals within a set weighted by the strength of the marginal and correlation screening signals. eSBERIA then combines the screening-informed aggregate test with a variance component test to account for the residual signals. Additionally, we develop a case-only extension for eSBERIA (coSBERIA) and an existing set-based method, which boosts the power not only by exploiting the G-E independence assumption but also by avoiding the need to specify main effects for a large number of variants in the set. Through extensive simulation, we show that coSBERIA and eSBERIA are considerably more powerful than existing methods within the case-only and the case-control method categories across a wide range of scenarios. We conduct a genome-wide G × E search by applying our methods to Illumina HumanExome Beadchip data of 10,446 colorectal cancer cases and 10,191 controls and identify two novel interactions between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and MINK1 and PTCHD3. PMID:26095235

  4. Complex Parts, Complex Data: Why You Need to Understand What Radiation Single Event Testing Data Does and Doesn't Show and the Implications Thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Berg, Melanie D.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic parts (integrated circuits) have grown in complexity such that determining all failure modes and risks from single particle event testing is impossible. In this presentation, the authors will present why this is so and provide some realism on what this means. Its all about understanding actual risks and not making assumptions.

  5. Complex Parts, Complex Data: Why You Need to Understand What Radiation Single Event Testing Data Does and Doesn't Show and the Implications Thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Label, Kenneth A.; Berg, Melanie D.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic parts (integrated circuits) have grown in complexity such that determining all failure modes and risks from single particle event testing is impossible. In this presentation, the authors will present why this is so and provide some realism on what this means. Its all about understanding actual risks and not making assumptions.

  6. Final environmental impact statement for the Nevada Test Site and off-site locations in the state of Nevada: Mitigation action plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The DOE Notice of Availability for this environmental impact statement was published in the Federal Register on Friday, October 18, 1996 (61 FR 54437). The final environmental impact statement identifies potential adverse effects resulting from the four use alternatives evaluated and discusses measures that DOE considered for the mitigation of these potential adverse effects. The Secretary of Energy signed the Record of Decision on the management and operation of the Nevada Test Site and other DOE sites in the state of Nevada on December 9, 1996. These decisions will result in the continuation of the multipurpose, multi-program use of the Nevada Test Site, under which DOE will pursue a further diversification of interagency, private industry, and public-education uses while meeting its Defense Program, Waste Management, and Environmental Restoration mission requirements at the Nevada Test Site and other Nevada sites, including the Tonopah Test Range, the Project Shoal Site, the Central Nevada Test Area, and on the Nellis Air Force Range Complex. The Record of Decision also identifies specific mitigation actions beyond the routine day-to-day physical and administrative controls needed for implementation of the decisions. These specific mitigation actions are focused on the transportation of waste and on groundwater availability. This Mitigation Action Plan elaborates on these mitigation commitments.

  7. Use of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test for neurotoxicity evaluation of mixtures in children.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Amador, D; Navarro, M; Trejo-Acevedo, A; Carrizales, L; Pérez-Maldonado, I; Díaz-Barriga, F; Calderón, J

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of the children's version of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test as a screening test in a population exposed to different mixtures of neurotoxicants. Copy and Immediate Recall scores were evaluated through the test. Children were recruited from three sites; an area with natural contamination by fluoride and arsenic (F-As), a mining-metallurgical area with lead and arsenic contamination (Pb-As) and a malaria zone with the evidence of fish contaminated with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Children aged 6-11 years old, living in one of the three polluted sites since birth were recruited (n=166). The exposure was evaluated as follows: fluoride and arsenic in urine, lead in blood and DDT, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and PCBs in serum. To evaluate the test performance, z-scores for Copy and Immediate Recall were calculated. The proportion of children by residence area with performance lower than expected by age (below -1 SD) for Copy and Immediate Recall was in the F-As area (88.7% and 59%) and in the DDT-PCBs area (73% and 43.8%), respectively. In the Pb-As area, the proportion was 62% for both tests. After adjustment, Copy correlated inversely with fluoride in urine (r=-0.29; p<0.001) and Immediate Recall correlated inversely with fluoride in urine (r=-0.27; p<0.05), lead in blood (r=-0.72; p<0.01), arsenic in urine (r=-0.63; p<0.05) and DDE (r=-0.25; p<0.05). This study provided evidence that children included in this research are living in high risk areas and were exposed to neurotoxicants. Poor performance in the test could be explained in some way by F, Pb, As or DDE exposure, however social factors or the low quality of school education prevalent in the areas could be playing an important role.

  8. Towards crystal structure prediction of complex organic compounds – a report on the fifth blind test

    PubMed Central

    Bardwell, David A.; Adjiman, Claire S.; Arnautova, Yelena A.; Bartashevich, Ekaterina; Boerrigter, Stephan X. M.; Braun, Doris E.; Cruz-Cabeza, Aurora J.; Day, Graeme M.; Della Valle, Raffaele G.; Desiraju, Gautam R.; van Eijck, Bouke P.; Facelli, Julio C.; Ferraro, Marta B.; Grillo, Damian; Habgood, Matthew; Hofmann, Detlef W. M.; Hofmann, Fridolin; Jose, K. V. Jovan; Karamertzanis, Panagiotis G.; Kazantsev, Andrei V.; Kendrick, John; Kuleshova, Liudmila N.; Leusen, Frank J. J.; Maleev, Andrey V.; Misquitta, Alston J.; Mohamed, Sharmarke; Needs, Richard J.; Neumann, Marcus A.; Nikylov, Denis; Orendt, Anita M.; Pal, Rumpa; Pantelides, Constantinos C.; Pickard, Chris J.; Price, Louise S.; Price, Sarah L.; Scheraga, Harold A.; van de Streek, Jacco; Thakur, Tejender S.; Tiwari, Siddharth; Venuti, Elisabetta; Zhitkov, Ilia K.

    2011-01-01

    Following on from the success of the previous crystal structure prediction blind tests (CSP1999, CSP2001, CSP2004 and CSP2007), a fifth such collaborative project (CSP2010) was organized at the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre. A range of methodologies was used by the participating groups in order to evaluate the ability of the current computational methods to predict the crystal structures of the six organic molecules chosen as targets for this blind test. The first four targets, two rigid molecules, one semi-flexible molecule and a 1:1 salt, matched the criteria for the targets from CSP2007, while the last two targets belonged to two new challenging categories – a larger, much more flexible molecule and a hydrate with more than one polymorph. Each group submitted three predictions for each target it attempted. There was at least one successful prediction for each target, and two groups were able to successfully predict the structure of the large flexible molecule as their first place submission. The results show that while not as many groups successfully predicted the structures of the three smallest molecules as in CSP2007, there is now evidence that methodologies such as dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) are able to reliably do so. The results also highlight the many challenges posed by more complex systems and show that there are still issues to be overcome. PMID:22101543

  9. Towards crystal structure prediction of complex organic compounds--a report on the fifth blind test.

    PubMed

    Bardwell, David A; Adjiman, Claire S; Arnautova, Yelena A; Bartashevich, Ekaterina; Boerrigter, Stephan X M; Braun, Doris E; Cruz-Cabeza, Aurora J; Day, Graeme M; Della Valle, Raffaele G; Desiraju, Gautam R; van Eijck, Bouke P; Facelli, Julio C; Ferraro, Marta B; Grillo, Damian; Habgood, Matthew; Hofmann, Detlef W M; Hofmann, Fridolin; Jose, K V Jovan; Karamertzanis, Panagiotis G; Kazantsev, Andrei V; Kendrick, John; Kuleshova, Liudmila N; Leusen, Frank J J; Maleev, Andrey V; Misquitta, Alston J; Mohamed, Sharmarke; Needs, Richard J; Neumann, Marcus A; Nikylov, Denis; Orendt, Anita M; Pal, Rumpa; Pantelides, Constantinos C; Pickard, Chris J; Price, Louise S; Price, Sarah L; Scheraga, Harold A; van de Streek, Jacco; Thakur, Tejender S; Tiwari, Siddharth; Venuti, Elisabetta; Zhitkov, Ilia K

    2011-12-01

    Following on from the success of the previous crystal structure prediction blind tests (CSP1999, CSP2001, CSP2004 and CSP2007), a fifth such collaborative project (CSP2010) was organized at the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre. A range of methodologies was used by the participating groups in order to evaluate the ability of the current computational methods to predict the crystal structures of the six organic molecules chosen as targets for this blind test. The first four targets, two rigid molecules, one semi-flexible molecule and a 1:1 salt, matched the criteria for the targets from CSP2007, while the last two targets belonged to two new challenging categories - a larger, much more flexible molecule and a hydrate with more than one polymorph. Each group submitted three predictions for each target it attempted. There was at least one successful prediction for each target, and two groups were able to successfully predict the structure of the large flexible molecule as their first place submission. The results show that while not as many groups successfully predicted the structures of the three smallest molecules as in CSP2007, there is now evidence that methodologies such as dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) are able to reliably do so. The results also highlight the many challenges posed by more complex systems and show that there are still issues to be overcome. PMID:22101543

  10. Population genetic simulations of complex phenotypes with implications for rare variant association tests

    PubMed Central

    Uricchio, Lawrence H.; Torres, Raul; Witte, John S.; Hernandez, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    Demographic events and natural selection alter patterns of genetic variation within populations, and may play a substantial role in shaping the genetic architecture of complex phenotypes and disease. However, the joint impact of these basic evolutionary forces is often ignored in the assessment of statistical tests of association. Here, we provide a simulation-based framework for generating DNA sequences that incorporates selection and demography with flexible models for simulating phenotypic variation (sfs_coder). This tool also allows the user to perform locus-specific simulations by automatically querying annotated genomic functional elements and genetic maps. We demonstrate the effects of evolutionary forces on patterns of genetic variation by simulating recently inferred models of human selection and demography. We use these simulations to show that the demographic model and locus-specific features, such as the proportion of sites under selection, may have practical implications for estimating the statistical power of sequencing-based rare variant association tests. In particular, for some phenotype models, there may be higher power to detect rare variant associations in African populations compared to non-Africans, but power is considerably reduced in regions of the genome with rampant negative selection. Furthermore, we show that existing methods for simulating large samples based on resampling from a small set of observed haplotypes fail to recapitulate the distribution of rare variants in the presence of rapid population growth (as has been observed in several human populations). PMID:25417809

  11. Testing robustness of relative complexity measure method constructing robust phylogenetic trees for Galanthus L. Using the relative complexity measure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most phylogeny analysis methods based on molecular sequences use multiple alignment where the quality of the alignment, which is dependent on the alignment parameters, determines the accuracy of the resulting trees. Different parameter combinations chosen for the multiple alignment may result in different phylogenies. A new non-alignment based approach, Relative Complexity Measure (RCM), has been introduced to tackle this problem and proven to work in fungi and mitochondrial DNA. Result In this work, we present an application of the RCM method to reconstruct robust phylogenetic trees using sequence data for genus Galanthus obtained from different regions in Turkey. Phylogenies have been analyzed using nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences. Results showed that, the tree obtained from nuclear ribosomal RNA gene sequences was more robust, while the tree obtained from the chloroplast DNA showed a higher degree of variation. Conclusions Phylogenies generated by Relative Complexity Measure were found to be robust and results of RCM were more reliable than the compared techniques. Particularly, to overcome MSA-based problems, RCM seems to be a reasonable way and a good alternative to MSA-based phylogenetic analysis. We believe our method will become a mainstream phylogeny construction method especially for the highly variable sequence families where the accuracy of the MSA heavily depends on the alignment parameters. PMID:23323678

  12. Using hand proportions to test taxonomic boundaries within the Tupaia glis species complex (Scandentia, Tupaiidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargos, Eric J.; Woodman, Neal; Reese, Aspen T.; Olson, Link E.

    2013-01-01

    Treeshrews (order Scandentia) comprise 2 families of squirrel-sized terrestrial, arboreal, and scansorial mammals distributed throughout much of tropical South and Southeast Asia. The last comprehensive taxonomic revision of treeshrews was published in 1913, and a well-supported phylogeny clarifying relationships among all currently recognized extant species within the order has only recently been published. Within the family Tupaiidae, 2 widely distributed species, the northern treeshrew, Tupaia belangeri (Wagner, 1841), and the common treeshrew, T. glis (Diard, 1820), represent a particularly vexing taxonomic complex. These 2 species are currently distinguished primarily based on their respective distributions north and south of the Isthmus of Kra on the Malay Peninsula and on their different mammae counts. This problematic species complex includes 54 published synonyms, many of which represent putative island endemics. The widespread T. glis and T. belangeri collectively comprise a monophyletic assemblage representing the sister lineage to a clade composed of the golden-bellied treeshrew, T. chrysogaster Miller, 1903 (Mentawai Islands), and the long-footed treeshrew, T. longipes (Thomas, 1893) (Borneo). As part of a morphological investigation of the T. glis–T. belangeri complex, we studied the proportions of hand bones, which have previously been shown to be useful in discriminating species of soricids (true shrews). We measured 38 variables from digital X-ray images of 148 museum study skins representing several subspecies of T. glis, T. belangeri, T. chrysogaster, and T. longipes and analyzed these data using principal components and cluster analyses. Manus proportions among these 4 species readily distinguish them, particularly in the cases of T. chrysogaster and T. longipes. We then tested the distinctiveness of several of the populations comprising T. glis and T. longipes. T. longipes longipes and T. l. salatana Lyon, 1913, are distinguishable from each

  13. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration plan, CAU No. 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points landfill Tonopah test range

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This plan was prepared under the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) concept. The SAFER process is employed at Corrective Action Units (CAUs) where enough information exists about the nature and extent of contamination to propose an appropriate corrective action prior to the implementation of a Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). This process combines elements of the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process and the observational approach to help plan and conduct corrective actions. DQOs are used to identify the problem and define the type and quality of data needed to complete the investigation phase of the process. The observational approach provides a framework for managing uncertainty and planning decision-making. The purpose of the investigation in the SAFER process is to document and verify the adequacy of existing information (such as process knowledge); to affirm the decision for clean closure, closure in place, or to take no further action; and to provide sufficient data to implement the corrective action.

  14. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. H. Cox

    2001-06-01

    The following site closure activities were performed at the CAU 428 site located at the TTR and are documented in this report: Preplanning and site preparation; Excavating and removing impacted soil; Removing septic tank contents; Closing septic tanks by filling them with clean soil; Collecting verification samples to verify that COCs have been removed to approved levels; Backfilling the excavations to surface grade with clean soil; Disposal of excavated materials following applicable federal, state, and DOE/NV regulations in accordance with Section 2.3 of the CAP (DOE/NV, 2000); and Decontamination of equipment as necessary. Closure was accomplished following the approved CAP (DOE/NV, 2000). Verification sample data demonstrate that all COCs were removed to the remediation standards. Therefore, the site is clean-closed.

  15. Testing the PRISM Temperature Model in Complex Terrain: Implications for Mountain Ecohydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, S.; Daly, C.; Millar, C.

    2015-12-01

    Studies in mountainous terrain related to ecology and hydrology often use interpolated climate products because of a lack of local observations. One dataset frequently used to develop plot-to-watershed scale climatologies is the PRISM (Parameter-elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model) temperature model. Benefits of this approach include geographically-weighted station observations and topographic positioning modifiers, which become important factors for predicting temperature in complex topography. Because of the paucity of long-term climate records in mountain environments, validation of PRISM algorithms across diverse regions remains challenging, with end users instead relying on atmospheric relationships derived in sometimes distant geographic settings. Recent developments of the PRISM model have increased temporal resolution capability from monthly to daily, which in turn has allowed a reasonable test of PRISM performance during a single season at distributed points across a large watershed. Presented are results from testing instrumental observations of daily max/min temperature on 16 sites in the Walker Basin, CA-NV, located on open woodland slopes ranging from 1967 to 3111 m in elevation. Individual site MAE varies from 1.34 to 4.22 C with better performance observed during summertime as opposed to winter. We observe a consistent bias in minimum temperatures for all seasons across all sites, with bias in maximum temperatures varying with season. Model error for minimum is associated strongly with elevation, whereas model error for maximum is associated with topographic radiative indices (solar exposure and heat loading). These results indicate that actual temperature conditions across open mountain woodland slopes are more heterogeneous than interpolated models (such as PRISM) indicate, which in turn impacts prediction/modeling of landscape processes such as ecological niches, bioclimatic refugia, and snow hydrology.

  16. Standing of nucleic acid testing strategies in veterinary diagnosis laboratories to uncover Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex members.

    PubMed

    Costa, Pedro; Botelho, Ana; Couto, Isabel; Viveiros, Miguel; Inácio, João

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic acid testing (NAT) designate any molecular approach used for the detection, identification, and characterization of pathogenic microorganisms, enabling the rapid, specific, and sensitive diagnostic of infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis. These assays have been widely used since the 90s of the last century in human clinical laboratories and, subsequently, also in veterinary diagnostics. Most NAT strategies are based in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its several enhancements and variations. From the conventional PCR, real-time PCR and its combinations, isothermal DNA amplification, to the nanotechnologies, here we review how the NAT assays have been applied to decipher if and which member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is present in a clinical sample. Recent advances in DNA sequencing also brought new challenges and have made possible to generate rapidly and at a low cost, large amounts of sequence data. This revolution with the high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies makes whole genome sequencing (WGS) and metagenomics the trendiest NAT strategies, today. The ranking of NAT techniques in the field of clinical diagnostics is rising, and we provide a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis with our view of the use of molecular diagnostics for detecting tuberculosis in veterinary laboratories, notwithstanding the gold standard being still the classical culture of the agent. The complementary use of both classical and molecular diagnostics approaches is recommended to speed the diagnostic, enabling a fast decision by competent authorities and rapid tackling of the disease.

  17. Standing of nucleic acid testing strategies in veterinary diagnosis laboratories to uncover Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex members

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Pedro; Botelho, Ana; Couto, Isabel; Viveiros, Miguel; Inácio, João

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic acid testing (NAT) designate any molecular approach used for the detection, identification, and characterization of pathogenic microorganisms, enabling the rapid, specific, and sensitive diagnostic of infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis. These assays have been widely used since the 90s of the last century in human clinical laboratories and, subsequently, also in veterinary diagnostics. Most NAT strategies are based in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its several enhancements and variations. From the conventional PCR, real-time PCR and its combinations, isothermal DNA amplification, to the nanotechnologies, here we review how the NAT assays have been applied to decipher if and which member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is present in a clinical sample. Recent advances in DNA sequencing also brought new challenges and have made possible to generate rapidly and at a low cost, large amounts of sequence data. This revolution with the high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies makes whole genome sequencing (WGS) and metagenomics the trendiest NAT strategies, today. The ranking of NAT techniques in the field of clinical diagnostics is rising, and we provide a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis with our view of the use of molecular diagnostics for detecting tuberculosis in veterinary laboratories, notwithstanding the gold standard being still the classical culture of the agent. The complementary use of both classical and molecular diagnostics approaches is recommended to speed the diagnostic, enabling a fast decision by competent authorities and rapid tackling of the disease. PMID:25988157

  18. Combined radiation pressure and thermal modelling of complex satellites: Algorithms and on-orbit tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziebart, M.; Adhya, S.; Sibthorpe, A.; Edwards, S.; Cross, P.

    In an era of high resolution gravity field modelling the dominant error sources in spacecraft orbit determination are non-conservative spacecraft surface forces. These forces can be difficult to characterise a priori because they require detailed modelling of: spacecraft geometry and surface properties; attitude behaviour; the spatial and temporal variations of the incident radiation and particle fluxes and the interaction of these fluxes with the surfaces. The conventional approach to these problems is to build simplified box-and-wing models of the satellites and to estimate empirically factors that account for the inevitable mis-modelling. Over the last few years the authors have developed a suite of software utilities that model analytically three of the main effects: solar radiation pressure, thermal forces and the albedo/earthshine effects. The techniques are designed specifically to deal with complex spacecraft structures, no structural simplifications are made and the method can be applied to any spacecraft. Substantial quality control measures are used during computation to both avoid and trap errors. The paper presents the broad basis of the modelling techniques for each of the effects, and gives the results of recent tests applied to GPS Block IIR satellites and the low Earth orbit satellite altimeter JASON-1.

  19. Combined radiation pressure and thermal modelling of complex satellites: algorithms and on-orbit tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziebart, M.; Adhya, S.; Sibthorpe, A.; Edwards, S.; Cross, P.

    In an era of high resolution gravity field modelling the dominant error sources in spacecraft orbit determination are non-conservative spacecraft surface forces. These forces include: solar radiation pressure, thermal re-radiation forces, the forces due to radiation both reflected and emitted by the Earth and atmospheric drag effects. All of these forces can be difficult to characterise a priori because they require detailed modelling of the spacecraft geometry and surface properties, its attitude behaviour, the incident flux spatial and temporal variations and the interaction of these fluxes with the surface. The conventional approach to overcoming these problems is to build simplified box-and-wing models of the satellites and to estimate empirically factors that account for the inevitable mis-modelling. Over the last five years the authors have developed a suite of software utilities that model analytically the first three effects in the list above: solar radiation pressure, thermal forces and the albedo/earthshine force. The techniques are designed specifically to deal with complex spacecraft structures, no structural simplifications are made and the method can be applied to any spacecraft. Substantial quality control measures are used during computation to both avoid and trap errors. The paper presents the broad basis of the modelling techniques for each of the effects. Two operational tests of the output models, using the medium earth orbit satellite GPS Block IIR and the low earth orbit Jason-1, are presented. Model tests for GPS IIR are based on predicting the satellite orbit using the dynamic models alone (with no empirical scaling or augmentation) and comparing the integrated trajectory with precise, post-processed orbits. Using one month's worth of precise orbits, and all available Block IIR satellites, the RMS difference between the predicted orbits and the precise orbits over 12 hours are: 0.14m (height), 0.07m across track and 0.51m (along track). The

  20. Fluorescent studies on the interaction of DNA and ternary lanthanide complexes with cinnamic acid-phenanthroline and antibacterial activities testing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui-Juan; Wang, Ai-Ling; Chu, Hai-Bin; Zhao, Yong-Liang

    2015-03-01

    Twelve lanthanide complexes with cinnamate (cin(-) ) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) were synthesized and characterized. Their compositions were assumed to be RE(cin)3 phen (RE(3+)  = La(3+) , Pr(3+) , Nd(3+) , Sm(3+) , Eu(3+) , Gd(3+) , Tb(3+) , Dy(3+) , Ho(3+) , Tm(3+) , Yb(3+) , Lu(3+) ). The interaction mode between the complexes and DNA was investigated by fluorescence quenching experiment. The results indicated the complexes could bind to DNA and the main binding mode is intercalative binding. The fluorescence quenching constants of the complexes increased from La(cin)3 phen to Lu(cin)3 phen. Additionally, the antibacterial activity testing showed that the complexes exhibited excellent antibacterial ability against Escherichia coli, and the changes of antibacterial ability are in agreement with that of the fluorescence quenching constants.

  1. Herbicide effects of metazachlor on duckweed (Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza) in test systems with different trophic status and complexity.

    PubMed

    Müller, Ruth; Berghahn, Rüdiger; Hilt, Sabine

    2010-02-01

    Growth of common duckweed Lemna minor under optimal standard test conditions was compared to growth of L. minor exposed to nutrient-poor water in both a modified standardised test and in oligo- to mesotrophic indoor pond mesocosms in order to test the impact of trophic conditions and test system complexity on the effect of the herbicide metazachlor (2-chloro-N-(pyrazol-1-ylmethyl)acet-2',6'-xylidide) on aquatic macrophytes. In the mesocosms L. minor was replaced by greater duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza after 3 weeks due to high mortality even in the controls. The pond systems contained other macrophytes and biota as well as sediment and were thus more complex than standard test systems. For L. minor front area, the ErC(50) (50% effective concentration related to growth rate) was 2.8 microg L(-1) metazachlor in the standardised and 4.7 microg L(-1) in the modified laboratory test after 7 days (4.9 microg L(-1) and 52.9 microg L(-1) metazachlor when using front number). In the oligo- to mesotrophic pond mesocosms, similar sensitivities to metazachlor (ErC(50) 4.5-6.4 microg L(-1)) were noted for S. polyrhiza after 21 and 28 days of exposure. In comparison with dicotyledonous macrophytes, duckweed species are more sensitive for irreversible enzyme inhibitors of growth such as metazachlor independent of trophic status and complexity of the test system. PMID:20390937

  2. Herbicide effects of metazachlor on duckweed (Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza) in test systems with different trophic status and complexity.

    PubMed

    Müller, Ruth; Berghahn, Rüdiger; Hilt, Sabine

    2010-02-01

    Growth of common duckweed Lemna minor under optimal standard test conditions was compared to growth of L. minor exposed to nutrient-poor water in both a modified standardised test and in oligo- to mesotrophic indoor pond mesocosms in order to test the impact of trophic conditions and test system complexity on the effect of the herbicide metazachlor (2-chloro-N-(pyrazol-1-ylmethyl)acet-2',6'-xylidide) on aquatic macrophytes. In the mesocosms L. minor was replaced by greater duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza after 3 weeks due to high mortality even in the controls. The pond systems contained other macrophytes and biota as well as sediment and were thus more complex than standard test systems. For L. minor front area, the ErC(50) (50% effective concentration related to growth rate) was 2.8 microg L(-1) metazachlor in the standardised and 4.7 microg L(-1) in the modified laboratory test after 7 days (4.9 microg L(-1) and 52.9 microg L(-1) metazachlor when using front number). In the oligo- to mesotrophic pond mesocosms, similar sensitivities to metazachlor (ErC(50) 4.5-6.4 microg L(-1)) were noted for S. polyrhiza after 21 and 28 days of exposure. In comparison with dicotyledonous macrophytes, duckweed species are more sensitive for irreversible enzyme inhibitors of growth such as metazachlor independent of trophic status and complexity of the test system.

  3. Bioregenerative Life Support Systems Test Complex (Bio-Plex) Food Processing System: A Dual System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Vittadini, Elena; Peterson, Laurie J.; Swango, Beverly E.; Toerne, Mary E.; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A Bioregenerative Life Support Test Complex, BIO-Plex, is currently being constructed at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX. This facility will attempt to answer the questions involved in developing a lunar or planetary base. The Food Processing System (FPS) of the BIO-Plex is responsible for supplying food to the crew in coordination with the chosen mission scenario. Long duration space missions require development of both a Transit Food System and of a Lunar or Planetary Food System. These two systems are intrinsically different since the first one will be utilized in the transit vehicle in microgravity conditions with mostly resupplied foods, while the second will be used in conditions of partial gravity (hypogravity) to process foods from crops grown in the facility. The Transit Food System will consist of prepackaged food of extended shelf life. It will be supplemented with salad crops that will be consumed fresh. Microgravity imposes significant limitation on the ability to handle food and allows only for minimal processing. The challenge is to develop food systems similar to the International Space Station or Shuttle Food Systems but with a shelf life of 3 - 5 years. The Lunar or Planetary Food System will allow for food processing of crops due to the presence of some gravitational force (1/6 to 1/3 that of Earth). Crops such as wheat, soybean, rice, potato, peanut, and salad crops, will be processed to final products to provide a nutritious and acceptable diet for the crew. Not only are constraints imposed on the FPS from the crops (e.g., crop variation, availability, storage and shelf-life) but also significant requirements are present for the crew meals (e.g., RDA, high quality, safety, variety). The FPS becomes a fulcrum creating the right connection from crops to crew meals while dealing with issues of integration within a closed self-regenerative system (e.g., safe processing, waste production, volumes, air contaminations, water usage, etc

  4. Testing the role of preBötzinger complex somatostatin neurons in respiratory and vocal behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Tupal, Srinivasan; Rieger, Michael A.; Ling, Guang-Yi; Park, Thomas J.; Dougherty, Joseph D.; Goodchild, Ann K.; Gray, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying neurons essential for the generation of breathing and related behaviors such as vocalization is an important question for human health. The targeted loss of preBötzinger complex (preBötC) glutamatergic neurons, including those that express high levels of somatostatin protein (SST neurons), eliminates normal breathing in adult rats. Whether preBötC SST neurons represent a functionally specialized population is unknown. We tested the effects on respiratory and vocal behaviors of eliminating SST neuron glutamate release by Cre-Lox-mediated genetic ablation of the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGlut2). We found the targeted loss of VGlut2 in SST neurons had no effect on viability in vivo, or on respiratory period or responses to neurokinin 1 or µ-opioid receptor agonists in vitro. We then compared medullary SST peptide expression in mice with that of two species that share extreme respiratory environments but produce either high or low frequency vocalizations. In the Mexican free-tailed bat, SST peptide-expressing neurons extended beyond the preBötC to the caudal pole of the VII motor nucleus. In the naked mole-rat, however, SST-positive neurons were absent from the ventrolateral medulla. We then analyzed isolation vocalizations from SST-Cre;VGlut2F/F mice and found a significant prolongation of the pauses between syllables during vocalization but no change in vocalization number. These data suggest that glutamate release from preBötC SST neurons is not essential for breathing but play a species- and behavior-dependent role in modulating respiratory networks. They further suggest that the neural network generating respiration is capable of extensive plasticity given sufficient time. PMID:25040660

  5. 40 CFR 80.48 - Augmentation of the complex emission model by vehicle testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.48... a fuel claims emission reduction benefits from fuel parameters that are not included in the complex emission model or complex emission model database, or if the values of fuel parameters included in...

  6. The Ethnology of Traditional and Complex Societies. Test Edition. AAAS Study Guides on Contemporary Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simic, Andrei

    This is one of several study guides on contemporary problems produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science with support of the National Science Foundation. This guide focuses on the ethnology of traditional and complex societies. Part I, Simple and Complex Societies, includes three sections: (1) Introduction: Anthropologists…

  7. A simple laboratory method for testing the susceptibility of larvae of the Simulium neavei complex to insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Raybould, J. N.

    1966-01-01

    Certain species of the Simulium neavei complex are important vectors of human onchocerciasis in Africa. Because of the association of the larvae of this complex with freshwater crabs, their insecticide susceptibility cannot be readily tested by any of the available methods. They are firmly attached to the crabs and can be removed only with difficulty and sometimes injury. The method described in this paper was developed, therefore, to obviate removal of the larvae from the crabs. Larvae of S. nyasalandicum de Meillon, from the Eastern Usambaras in Tanzania, were used in this investigation. In order to prevent the crabs from eating larvae which became detached during the test, and to facilitate transfer from one container to another, the crabs were confined in specially designed plastic cages. Preliminary tests with DDT and fenthion suggest that the method has considerable potentialities, but that certain aspects require further investigation. PMID:5298037

  8. Clinical uncertainties, health service challenges, and ethical complexities of HIV "test-and-treat": a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Sonali P; Shah, Kavita R; Sarma, Karthik V; Mahajan, Anish P

    2013-06-01

    Despite the HIV "test-and-treat" strategy's promise, questions about its clinical rationale, operational feasibility, and ethical appropriateness have led to vigorous debate in the global HIV community. We performed a systematic review of the literature published between January 2009 and May 2012 using PubMed, SCOPUS, Global Health, Web of Science, BIOSIS, Cochrane CENTRAL, EBSCO Africa-Wide Information, and EBSCO CINAHL Plus databases to summarize clinical uncertainties, health service challenges, and ethical complexities that may affect the test-and-treat strategy's success. A thoughtful approach to research and implementation to address clinical and health service questions and meaningful community engagement regarding ethical complexities may bring us closer to safe, feasible, and effective test-and-treat implementation.

  9. Prototype of a test bench for applied research on Extracted beams of the nuclotron accelerator complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldin, A. A.; Berlev, A. I.; Bradnova, V.; Butenko, A. V.; Fedorov, A. N.; Kudashkin, I. V.

    2016-05-01

    The results of the development and testing of elements of a test bench for investigating the impact of accelerated particle beams on biological objects, electronics, and other targets are presented. The systems for beam monitoring and target positioning were tested on extracted argon beams in the framework of experiments on studying the radiation hardness of electronic components.

  10. Resampling and Distribution of the Product Methods for Testing Indirect Effects in Complex Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jason; MacKinnon, David P.

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in testing mediation have found that certain resampling methods and tests based on the mathematical distribution of 2 normal random variables substantially outperform the traditional "z" test. However, these studies have primarily focused only on models with a single mediator and 2 component paths. To address this limitation, a…

  11. Evaluation of an in vitro hsp70 induction test for toxicity assessment of complex mixtures: comparison with chemical analyses and ecotoxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Aït-Aïssa, Sélim; Pandard, Pascal; Magaud, Hélène; Arrigo, André-Patrick; Thybaud, Eric; Porcher, Jean-Marc

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of a human cell line containing the hsp70 promoter linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene in evaluating the toxic potential of complex mixtures. Cells were exposed to eluates of industrial wastes and the cellular responses were compared with the metal contents of the samples and with standardized aquatic (microalgal growth inhibition, daphnia Immobilization, bacterial luminescence inhibition, Ceriodaphnia dubia reproduction inhibition) and terrestrial (earthworm lethality, plant growth inhibition) tests. The hsp70 promoter was significantly induced by 11 of 14 samples, with different dose-response patterns. Significant correlations of in vitro induction potency with aquatic ecotoxicity, especially with chronic tests, and with the metal contents of the samples were observed. Our study provides new information on the relevance of hsp70 gene induction as a criterion of toxicity and suggests its usefulness for the detection of toxicity associated with metallic pollution in complex mixtures. PMID:12547640

  12. Towards a Framework for Generating Tests to Satisfy Complex Code Coverage in Java Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staats, Matt

    2009-01-01

    We present work on a prototype tool based on the JavaPathfinder (JPF) model checker for automatically generating tests satisfying the MC/DC code coverage criterion. Using the Eclipse IDE, developers and testers can quickly instrument Java source code with JPF annotations covering all MC/DC coverage obligations, and JPF can then be used to automatically generate tests that satisfy these obligations. The prototype extension to JPF enables various tasks useful in automatic test generation to be performed, such as test suite reduction and execution of generated tests.

  13. Testing the effect of habitat structure and complexity on nekton assemblages using experimental oyster reefs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Humphries, Austin T.; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Kimball, Matthew E.; Rozas, Lawrence P.

    2011-01-01

    Structurally complex habitats are often associated with more diverse and abundant species assemblages in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Biogenic reefs formed by the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) are complex in nature and are recognized for their potential habitat value in estuarine systems along the US Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Few studies, however, have examined the response of nekton to structural complexity within oyster reefs. We used a quantitative sampling technique to examine how the presence and complexity of experimental oyster reefs influence the abundance, biomass, and distribution of nekton by sampling reefs 4 months and 16 months post-construction. Experimental oyster reefs were colonized immediately by resident fishes and decapod crustaceans, and reefs supported a distinct nekton assemblage compared to mud-bottom habitat. Neither increased reef complexity, nor age of the experimental reef resulted in further changes in nekton assemblages or increases in nekton abundance or diversity. The presence of oyster reefs per se was the most important factor determining nekton usage.

  14. Building, characterising and catalytic activity testing of Co-C-protected amino acid complexes covalently grafted onto chloropropylated silica gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, G.; Timár, Z.; Csendes, Z.; Bajnóczi, É. G.; Carlson, S.; Canton, S. E.; Bagi, L.; Sipos, P.; Pálinkó, I.

    2015-06-01

    Co-C-protected amino acid (C-protected L-histidine, L-tyrosine, L-cysteine and L-cystine) complexes were covalently grafted onto chloropropylated silica gel, and the materials thus obtained were structurally characterised by mid/far IR and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. The superoxide dismutase-like activities of the substances were determined via the Beauchamp-Fridovich test reaction. It was found that covalent grafting and the preparation of the anchored complexes were successful in most cases. The coordinating groups varied upon changing the conditions of the syntheses. All materials displayed catalytic activity, although catalytic activities differed widely.

  15. New synthetic routes for the preparation of ruthenium-1,10-phenanthroline complexes. Tests of cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of selected ruthenium complexes.

    PubMed

    Turel, Iztok; Golobič, Amalija; Kljun, Jakob; Samastur, Petra; Batista, Urška; Sepčić, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Three novel complexes have been prepared through reactions of precursor [(dmso)2H][trans-RuCl4(dmso-S)2] (P) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) at different conditions. Whereas the analogs of mer-[RuCl3(dmso-S)(phen)] (1) and [Ru(phen)3]Cl2·6CH3OH (3·6CH3OH) have already been prepared by other synthetic routes before, product (H3O)[RuCl4(phen)]·4H2O (2·4H2O) is unprecedented. In the latter, isolated from highly acidic medium, one strongly bound dmso molecule in precursor P was substituted by chloride. Biological activity of 1 and previously isolated ruthenium-purine complexes ([mer-RuCl3(dmso-S)(acv)(CH3OH)] (4) (acv = acyclovir); [trans-RuCl4(dmso-S)(guaH)] (5) (guaH = protonated guanine)) was tested and compared. These data show that compounds 1, 4 and 5 are slightly cytotoxic against B-16 malignant melanoma cells but not against non-transformed V-79-379A cells. It seems that coordinated phen ligand increases the cytotoxicity of 1 in comparison to ruthenium precursor. The inability of tested compounds to induce lysis of bovine erythrocytes suggests that their cytotoxic effect is not due to the membrane damage. PMID:26085415

  16. RELIABILITY AND CRITERION VALIDITY OF A NOVEL CLINICAL TEST OF SIMPLE AND COMPLEX REACTION TIME IN ATHLETES.

    PubMed

    Eckner, James T; Richardson, James K; Kim, Hogene; Joshi, Monica S; Oh, Youkeun K; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2015-06-01

    Slowed reaction time (RT) represents both a risk factor for and a consequence of sport concussion. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and criterion validity of a novel clinical test of simple and complex RT, called RT(clin), in contact sport athletes. Both tasks were adapted from the well-known ruler drop test of RT and involve manually grasping a falling vertical shaft upon its release, with the complex task employing a go/no-go paradigm based on a light cue. In 46 healthy contact sport athletes (24 men; M = 16.3 yr., SD = 5.0; 22 women: M age = 15.0 yr., SD = 4.0) whose sports included soccer, ice hockey, American football, martial arts, wrestling, and lacrosse, the latency and accuracy of simple and complex RT(clin) had acceptable test-retest and inter-rater reliabilities and correlated with a computerized criterion standard, the Axon Computerized Cognitive Assessment Tool. Medium to large effect sizes were found. The novel RT(clin) tests have acceptable reliability and criterion validity for clinical use and hold promise as concussion assessment tools. PMID:26106803

  17. Parallel training and testing methods for complex image processing algorithms on distributed, heterogeneous, unreliable, and non-dedicated resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usamentiaga, Rubén; García, Daniel F.; Molleda, Julio; Sainz, Ignacio; Bulnes, Francisco G.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in the image processing field have brought new methods which are able to perform complex tasks robustly. However, in order to meet constraints on functionality and reliability, imaging application developers often design complex algorithms with many parameters which must be finely tuned for each particular environment. The best approach for tuning these algorithms is to use an automatic training method, but the computational cost of this kind of training method is prohibitive, making it inviable even in powerful machines. The same problem arises when designing testing procedures. This work presents methods to train and test complex image processing algorithms in parallel execution environments. The approach proposed in this work is to use existing resources in offices or laboratories, rather than expensive clusters. These resources are typically non-dedicated, heterogeneous and unreliable. The proposed methods have been designed to deal with all these issues. Two methods are proposed: intelligent training based on genetic algorithms and PVM, and a full factorial design based on grid computing which can be used for training or testing. These methods are capable of harnessing the available computational power resources, giving more work to more powerful machines, while taking its unreliable nature into account. Both methods have been tested using real applications.

  18. Reliability and Criterion Validity of a Novel Clinical Test of Simple and Complex Reaction Time in Athletes1

    PubMed Central

    Eckner, James T.; Richardson, James K.; Kim, Hogene; Joshi, Monica S.; Oh, Youkeun K.; Ashton-Miller, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Slowed reaction time (RT) represents both a risk factor for and a consequence of sport concussion. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and criterion validity of a novel clinical test of simple and complex RT, called RTclin, in contact sport athletes. Both tasks were adapted from the well-known ruler drop test of RT and involve manually grasping a falling vertical shaft upon its release, with the complex task employing a go/no-go paradigm based on a slight cue. In 46 healthy contact sport athletes (24 males; M = 16.3 yr., SD = 5.0; 22 women: M age= 15.0 yr., SD = 4.0) whose sports included soccer, ice hockey, American football, martial arts, wrestling, and lacrosse, the latency and accuracy of simple and complex RTclin had acceptable test-retest and inter-rater reliabilities and correlated with a computerized criterion standard, the Axon Computerized Cognitive Assessment Tool. Medium to large effect sizes were found. The novel RTclin tests have acceptable reliability and criterion validity for clinical use and hold promise as concussion assessment tools. PMID:26106803

  19. Tested Demonstrations. Color, Solubility, and Complex Ion Equilibria of Nickel (II) Species in Aqueous Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Presents three different procedures in which reagents are added in a specified order to a large beaker containing an aqueous solution of nickel sulfate. Complex ions of nickel (II) are prepared by using aqueous solutions of ammonia, ethylenediamine, dimethylglyoxime, and cyanide ion. (CS)

  20. Environmental Uncertainty and Communication Network Complexity: A Cross-System, Cross-Cultural Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danowski, James

    An infographic model is proposed to account for the operation of systems within their information environments. Infographics is a communication paradigm used to indicate the clustering of information processing variables in communication systems. Four propositions concerning environmental uncertainty and internal communication network complexity,…

  1. Radiochemical data collected on events from which radioactivity escaped beyond the borders of the Nevada test range complex. [NONE

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, H.G.

    1981-02-12

    This report identifies all nuclear events in Nevada that are known to have sent radioactivity beyond the borders of the test range complex. There have been 177 such tests, representing seven different types: nuclear detonations in the atmosphere, nuclear excavation events, nuclear safety events, underground nuclear events that inadvertently seeped or vented to the atmosphere, dispersion of plutonium and/or uranium by chemical high explosives, nuclear rocket engine tests, and nuclear ramjet engine tests. The source term for each of these events is given, together with the data base from which it was derived (except where the data are classified). The computer programs used for organizing and processing the data base and calculating radionuclide production are described and included, together with the input and output data and details of the calculations. This is the basic formation needed to make computer modeling studies of the fallout from any of these 177 events.

  2. Direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in nonrespiratory specimens by Gen-Probe Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct Test.

    PubMed Central

    Gamboa, F; Manterola, J M; Viñado, B; Matas, L; Giménez, M; Lonca, J; Manzano, J R; Rodrigo, C; Cardona, P J; Padilla, E; Domínguez, J; Ausina, V

    1997-01-01

    The Gen-Probe Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct Test (AMTDT) was adapted for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in 224 nonrespiratory specimens from 188 patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the AMTDT for such specimens, after resolution of discrepant results, were 85.7 and 100%, respectively. Pretreatment of nonrespiratory specimens with sodium dodecyl (lauryl) sulfate is mandatory to obtain consistent and reproducible AMTDT results. The use of 500 microliters of decontaminated specimen improves the sensitivity of the test. Because the AMTDT detects stable rRNA from noncultivable bacilli, it is not useful for monitoring patients receiving treatment. PMID:8968935

  3. In vitro susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains isolated from seals to antituberculosis drugs.

    PubMed

    Bernardelli, Amelia; Morcillo, Nora; Loureiro, Julio; Quse, Viviana; Davenport, Silvana

    2004-06-01

    Mycobacteria strains belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex were isolated from seals found in the South Atlantic. The animals were received in Mundo Marino installations and treated for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by conventional therapy of intensive care and enriched food supply; however, in all cases treatment failed. Necropsies of all animals revealed extensive lesions compatible with tuberculosis involving lungs, liver, spleen and lymphatic nodes. Classical biochemical methods as well as molecular techniques using the IS6110 probes were performed for mycobacterial identification. Furthermore, the LCx M. tuberculosis assay (Abbott Laboratories) identified all strains as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex members. The in vitro susceptibility pattern was examined in mycobacterial strains isolated from seven seals and in 3 reference strains--BCG, H37Rv (M. tuberculosis) and AN5 (Mycobacterium bovis)--to 4 medications--isoniazid, rifampin, streptomycin and ethambutol. Minimal inhibitory drug concentrations were determined by the Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (BD Argentina) method and a microdilution and colorimetric assay using 3-(4-5 dimethyltiazol-2)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide. All the isolates and the reference strains BCG and AN5 were inhibited by MIC values similar to those of H37Rv with good agreement obtained by both techniques. These findings suggest that a therapeutic regimen aimed to seals diagnosed with tuberculosis play an important role in the prevention of tuberculosis transmission from infected animals to humans that are in routine contact with them.

  4. Bayesian meta-analysis of test accuracy in the absence of a perfect reference test applied to bone scintigraphy for the diagnosis of complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Held, Ulrike; Brunner, Florian; Steurer, Johann; Wertli, Maria M

    2015-11-01

    There is conflicting evidence about the accuracy of bone scintigraphy (BS) for the diagnosis of complex regional pain syndrome 1 (CRPS 1). In a meta-analysis of diagnostic studies, the evaluation of test accuracy is impeded by the use of different imperfect reference tests. The aim of our study is to summarize sensitivity and specificity of BS for CRPS 1 and to identify factors to explain heterogeneity. We use a hierarchical Bayesian approach to model test accuracy and threshold, and we present different models accounting for the imperfect nature of the reference tests, and assuming conditional dependence between BS and the reference test results. Further, we include disease duration as explanatory variable in the model. The models are compared using summary ROC curves and the deviance information criterion (DIC). Our results show that those models which account for different imperfect reference tests with conditional dependence and inclusion of the covariate are the ones with the smallest DIC. The sensitivity of BS was 0.87 (95% credible interval 0.73-0.97) and the overall specificity was 0.87 (0.73-0.95) in the model with the smallest DIC, in which missing values of the covariate are imputed within the Bayesian framework. The estimated effect of duration of symptoms on the threshold parameter was 0.17 (-0.25 to 0.57). We demonstrate that the Bayesian models presented in this paper are useful to address typical problems occurring in meta-analysis of diagnostic studies, including conditional dependence between index test and reference test, as well as missing values in the study-specific covariates. PMID:26479506

  5. A 'principled' approach to complex emergencies: testing a new aid delivery model in the Nuba mountains.

    PubMed

    Pantuliano, Sara

    2005-06-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the Nuba Mountains Programme Advancing Conflict Trans-formation (NMPACT) as an example of an operational response in a complex emergency that innovatively addressed an incipient food security crisis. NMPACT is notable for having brought together an array of actors around a common principled agenda and for being the only operational programme in the Sudan to which both warring parties subscribed during the conflict. The key features of the programme are presented and the main innovative elements are reviewed, including the role of the principles of engagement and the 'political humanitarianism' of NMPACT. The paper looks at how NMPACT broke from traditional externally driven responses to food insecurity, and, drawing on lessons from Operation Lifeline Sudan, adopted an approach that focuses on capacity building, sustainable agriculture and market revitalisation, alongside conflict transformation and peace-building. The limitations of the model are also assessed, and preliminary lessons regarding its replication in other complex emergency contexts are presented. PMID:15910677

  6. Building out a Measurement Model to Incorporate Complexities of Testing in the Language Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Mark; Moore, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of a novel and integrated way to think about the item response models (most often used in measurement applications in social science areas such as psychology, education, and especially testing of various kinds) from the viewpoint of the statistical theory of generalized linear and nonlinear mixed models. In addition,…

  7. The thermometry system of superconducting magnets test bench for the Nica accelerator complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachev, E. V.; Kirichenko, A. E.; Sedykh, G. S.; Volkov, V. I.

    2016-09-01

    Precise temperature control in various parts of the magnet and thermostat is one of the vital problems during cryogenic tests. The report describes design of the thermometry system, developed at LHEP JINR. This system is the operational prototype for the NICA thermometry system. Besides, the report describes generic software tools, developed for the TANGO-based control system web client software design.

  8. 40 CFR 80.48 - Augmentation of the complex emission model by vehicle testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... section, the analysis shall fit a regression model to a combined data set that includes vehicle testing... logarithm of emissions contained in this combined data set: (A) A term for each vehicle that shall reflect... the parameter being extended, which shall be set equal to the nearest limit of the data core,...

  9. 40 CFR 80.48 - Augmentation of the complex emission model by vehicle testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... section, the analysis shall fit a regression model to a combined data set that includes vehicle testing... logarithm of emissions contained in this combined data set: (A) A term for each vehicle that shall reflect... the parameter being extended, which shall be set equal to the nearest limit of the data core,...

  10. 40 CFR 80.48 - Augmentation of the complex emission model by vehicle testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... section, the analysis shall fit a regression model to a combined data set that includes vehicle testing... logarithm of emissions contained in this combined data set: (A) A term for each vehicle that shall reflect... the parameter being extended, which shall be set equal to the nearest limit of the data core,...

  11. Chaos and Complexities Theories. Superposition and Standardized Testing: Are We Coming or Going?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Susan

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the possibility of using the principle of "superposition of states" (commonly illustrated by Schrodinger's Cat experiment) to understand the process of using standardized testing to measure a student's learning. Comparisons from literature, neuroscience, and Schema Theory will be used to expound upon the…

  12. Insight from simulations of single-well injection-withdrawal tracer tests on simple and complex fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, C.-F.; Doughty, C.

    2009-08-06

    The single-well injection withdrawal (SWIW) test, a tracer test utilizing only one well, is proposed as a useful contribution to site characterization of fractured rock, as well as providing parameters relevant to tracer diffusion and sorption. The usual conceptual model of flow and solute transport through fractured rock with low matrix permeability involves solute advection and dispersion through a fracture network coupled with diffusion and sorption into the surrounding rock matrix. Unlike two-well tracer tests, results of SWIW tests are ideally independent of advective heterogeneity, channeling and flow dimension, and, instead, focus on diffusive and sorptive characteristics of tracer (solute) transport. Thus, they can be used specifically to study such characteristics and evaluate the diffusive parameters associated with tracer transport through fractured media. We conduct simulations of SWIW tests on simple and complex fracture models, the latter being defined as having two subfractures with altered rock blocks in between and gouge material in their apertures. Using parameters from the Aspo site in Sweden, we calculate and study SWIW tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) from a test involving four days of injection and then withdrawal. By examining the peak concentration C{sub pk} of the SWIW BTCs for a variety of parameters, we confirm that C{sub pk} is largely insensitive to the fracture advective flow properties, in particular to permeability heterogeneity over the fracture plane or to subdividing the flow into two subfractures in the third dimension orthogonal to the fracture plane. The peak arrival time t{sub pk} is not a function of fracture or rock properties, but is controlled by the time schedule of the SWIW test. The study shows that the SWIW test is useful for the study of tracer diffusion-sorption processes, including the effect of the so-called flow-wetted surface (FWS) of the fracture. Calculations with schematic models with different FWS values are

  13. A Statistical Test of Walrasian Equilibrium by Means of Complex Networks Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargigli, Leonardo; Viaggiu, Stefano; Lionetto, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    We represent an exchange economy in terms of statistical ensembles for complex networks by introducing the concept of market configuration. This is defined as a sequence of nonnegative discrete random variables {w_{ij}} describing the flow of a given commodity from agent i to agent j. This sequence can be arranged in a nonnegative matrix W which we can regard as the representation of a weighted and directed network or digraph G. Our main result consists in showing that general equilibrium theory imposes highly restrictive conditions upon market configurations, which are in most cases not fulfilled by real markets. An explicit example with reference to the e-MID interbank credit market is provided.

  14. A Statistical Test of Walrasian Equilibrium by Means of Complex Networks Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargigli, Leonardo; Viaggiu, Stefano; Lionetto, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    We represent an exchange economy in terms of statistical ensembles for complex networks by introducing the concept of market configuration. This is defined as a sequence of nonnegative discrete random variables {w_{ij}} describing the flow of a given commodity from agent i to agent j. This sequence can be arranged in a nonnegative matrix W which we can regard as the representation of a weighted and directed network or digraph G. Our main result consists in showing that general equilibrium theory imposes highly restrictive conditions upon market configurations, which are in most cases not fulfilled by real markets. An explicit example with reference to the e-MID interbank credit market is provided.

  15. Rapid susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from AIDS patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhople, Arvind M.

    1994-01-01

    In ominous projections issued by both U.S. Public Health Service and the World Health Organization, the epidemic of HIV infection will continue to rise more rapidly worldwide than predicted earlier. The AIDS patients are susceptible to diseases called opportunistic infections of which tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection are most common. This has created an urgent need to uncover new drugs for the treatment of these infections. In the seventies, NASA scientists at Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, had adopted a biochemical indicator, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), to detect presence of life in extraterrestrial space. We proposed to develop ATP assay technique to determine sensitivity of antibacterial compounds against MAC and M. tuberculosis.

  16. Oblique penetration modeling and correlation with field tests into a soil target

    SciTech Connect

    Longcope, D.B. Jr.

    1996-09-01

    An oblique penetration modeling procedure is evaluated by correlation with onboard acceleration data from a series of six penetration tests into Antelope Dry Lake soil at Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. The modeling represents both the loading which is coupled to the penetrator bending and the penetrator structure including connections between the major subsections. Model results show reasonable agreement with the data which validates the modeling procedure within a modest uncertainty related to accelerometer clipping and rattling of the telemetry package. The experimental and analytical results provide design guidance for the location and lateral restraint of components to reduce their shock environment.

  17. Effects of toxicants with different modes of action on Myriophyllum spicatum in test systems with varying complexity.

    PubMed

    Mohr, S; Schott, J; Maletzki, D; Hünken, A

    2013-11-01

    At the international workshop Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides (AMRAP), it was noted that the EU risk assessment under the directive 91/414/EEC for herbicides, based only on algae and the monocotyledonous duckweed species Lemna sp., offers no certain protection against some growth regulating auxins. Therefore, AMRAP members proposed the introduction of the dicotyledonous water milfoil Myriophyllum as additional test species. This study was aimed to compare toxicity results from three test systems (TS) with varying complexity, namely Water TS, Sediment TS and Microcosm TS using Myriophyllum spicatum as test organism. As test substances, the photosynthesis inhibiting herbicide isoproturon, the growth regulating auxins fluroxypyr and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and the non-specific acting toxicant 3,5-dichlorophenol (3,5-DCP) were chosen. It was assessed if and why the sensitivity of M. spicatum towards the four toxicants varied in the different test systems and if the addition of sucrose to the medium used in the Water TS had an effect on the sensitivity of Myriophyllum. All TS were suitable for detecting negative effects of toxicants with different modes of action on M. spicatum. The lowest variability of endpoints was found in the Water TS with lowest experimental complexity. For auxins, the endpoint weight did not result in robust EC50 values in all TS, whereas root related endpoints, which are also ecologically relevant, turned out to be very sensitive with low variance. Sucrose in the medium of the Water TS did not seem to influence the sensitivity of M. spicatum towards isoproturon and 3,5-DCP but may have increased the sensitivity of M. spicatum roots when exposed to 2,4-D. However, the findings of all TS resulted in similar risk estimations if root endpoints were not considered. PMID:23928028

  18. Analysis of complex human genetic traits: An ordered-notation method and new tests for mode of inheritance

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, G.

    1995-08-01

    A novel ordered notation is introduced that allows description and calculation of the probability of any nuclear-pedigree configuration of disease status and marker-allele information. Algorithms are given that allow for complex models of disease predisposition, a highly polymorphic or less polymorphic marker locus, gametic disequilibrium between the marker and disease loci (marker association with disease), recombination between the marker and disease loci, and different ascertainment schemes. The theoretical foundation is presented for a series of new tests to identify modes of inheritance and genetic heterogeneity. These use marker-locus data in nuclear families from four ascertainment schemes: simplex (S), multiplex parent-child (MPC), multiplex sibs (MS),and multiplex parent-sibs (MPS). The tests are (1) extension of the antigen-genotype-frequencies-among-patients method to MPC, MS,and MPS pedigrees; (2) determination of the expected rates of transmission, or not, of marker alleles from parents to an affected child, for all pedigree types; (3) determination of expected identity by descent (IBD) values for affected sib pairs when a parent is affected (MPS pedigrees); and (4) determination of the expected marker-allele frequencies in affected-sib-pair IBD categories (MS and MPS pedigrees). A sampling strategy that includes the four pedigree types S, MPC, MS, and MPS is recommended for complex diseases once linkage and/or association of a marker with disease has been established. The full array of new and old tests that can be applied to these pedigrees provides a complementary suite of methods that can facilitate the mapping and characterization of complex human genetic traits. 50 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Uncovering and Testing the Fuzzy Clusters Based on Lumped Markov Chain in Complex Network

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Fan; Jianbin, Xie; Jinlong, Wang; Jinshuai, Qu

    2013-01-01

    Identifying clusters, namely groups of nodes with comparatively strong internal connectivity, is a fundamental task for deeply understanding the structure and function of a network. By means of a lumped Markov chain model of a random walker, we propose two novel ways of inferring the lumped markov transition matrix. Furthermore, some useful results are proposed based on the analysis of the properties of the lumped Markov process. To find the best partition of complex networks, a novel framework including two algorithms for network partition based on the optimal lumped Markovian dynamics is derived to solve this problem. The algorithms are constructed to minimize the objective function under this framework. It is demonstrated by the simulation experiments that our algorithms can efficiently determine the probabilities with which a node belongs to different clusters during the learning process and naturally supports the fuzzy partition. Moreover, they are successfully applied to real-world network, including the social interactions between members of a karate club. PMID:24391729

  20. Rapid susceptibility testing of mycobacterium avium complex and mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from AIDS patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhople, Arvind M.

    1993-01-01

    In ominous projections issued by both U.S. Public Health Service and the World Health Organization, the epidemic of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection will continue to rise more rapidly worldwide than predicted earlier. The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients are susceptible to diseases called opportunistic infections of which tuberculosis and M. avium Complex (MAC) infection are most common. This has created an urgent need to uncover new drugs for the treatment of these infections. In the seventies, NASA scientists at Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, had adopted a biochemical indicator, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), to detect presence of life in extraterrestrial space. Therefore, we proposed to develop ATP assay technique to determine sensitivity of antibacterial compounds against MAC and M. tuberculosis. The work was initiated in June 1992. In the last report, we described our efforts in developing ATP assay method using MAC. Studies were continued further, and during the period of this report, we established the relationship between colony forming units and ATP levels of these organisms during the growth cycle. Also, we evaluated the effects of standard antimycobacterial drugs using ATP assay technique and compared the results with those obtained with conventional tube dilution proportional method.

  1. An International Proficiency Test to Detect, Identify and Quantify Ricin in Complex Matrices.

    PubMed

    Worbs, Sylvia; Skiba, Martin; Bender, Jennifer; Zeleny, Reinhard; Schimmel, Heinz; Luginbühl, Werner; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2015-11-26

    While natural intoxications with seeds of Ricinus communis (R. communis) have long been known, the toxic protein ricin contained in the seeds is of major concern since it attracts attention of those intending criminal, terroristic and military misuse. In order to harmonize detection capabilities in expert laboratories, an international proficiency test was organized that aimed at identifying good analytical practices (qualitative measurements) and determining a consensus concentration on a highly pure ricin reference material (quantitative measurements). Sample materials included highly pure ricin as well as the related R. communis agglutinin (RCA120) spiked into buffer, milk and meat extract; additionally, an organic fertilizer naturally contaminated with R. communis shred was investigated in the proficiency test. The qualitative results showed that either a suitable combination of immunological, mass spectrometry (MS)-based and functional approaches or sophisticated MS-based approaches alone successfully allowed the detection and identification of ricin in all samples. In terms of quantification, it was possible to determine a consensus concentration of the highly pure ricin reference material. The results provide a basis for further steps in quality assurance and improve biopreparedness in expert laboratories worldwide.

  2. An International Proficiency Test to Detect, Identify and Quantify Ricin in Complex Matrices.

    PubMed

    Worbs, Sylvia; Skiba, Martin; Bender, Jennifer; Zeleny, Reinhard; Schimmel, Heinz; Luginbühl, Werner; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2015-12-01

    While natural intoxications with seeds of Ricinus communis (R. communis) have long been known, the toxic protein ricin contained in the seeds is of major concern since it attracts attention of those intending criminal, terroristic and military misuse. In order to harmonize detection capabilities in expert laboratories, an international proficiency test was organized that aimed at identifying good analytical practices (qualitative measurements) and determining a consensus concentration on a highly pure ricin reference material (quantitative measurements). Sample materials included highly pure ricin as well as the related R. communis agglutinin (RCA120) spiked into buffer, milk and meat extract; additionally, an organic fertilizer naturally contaminated with R. communis shred was investigated in the proficiency test. The qualitative results showed that either a suitable combination of immunological, mass spectrometry (MS)-based and functional approaches or sophisticated MS-based approaches alone successfully allowed the detection and identification of ricin in all samples. In terms of quantification, it was possible to determine a consensus concentration of the highly pure ricin reference material. The results provide a basis for further steps in quality assurance and improve biopreparedness in expert laboratories worldwide. PMID:26703726

  3. [Spanish version of Adonis Complex Questionnaire. A questionnaire to test the muscle dimorphism and vigorexy].

    PubMed

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel; Garrido-Ruiz, Antonio; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2014-11-08

    Objetivo: Validar la versión española del cuestionario del complejo de Adonis en deportistas de musculación. Método: La muestra está compuesta por 99 deportistas de musculación que entrenan regularmente (Edad: 25.45±5.19 años; IMC=24.53±1.89 kg/m2). Los instrumentos utilizados para valorar la validez discriminante y convergente son la escala revisada de dependencia del ejercicio (Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised, EDS-R) y la escala de autoinformes de actitudes y síntomas de los trastornos alimenticios (Eating Attitudes Test, EAT-26). Las propiedades psicométricas de la escala se obtuvieron mediante un proceso de validez convergente, análisis factorial de los componentes principales, consistencia interna y fiabilidad test-retest. Resultados: La consistencia interna del instrumento muestra un alfa de Cronbach de 0.880 en la escala total. El coeficiente de correlación intraclase (CCI) para valorar la consistencia temporal del instrumento fue de CCI= 0.707, (95% intervalo de confianza=0.336-0.871). El instrumento muestra validez convergente con la escala EDS-R (r=0.613, p.

  4. An International Proficiency Test to Detect, Identify and Quantify Ricin in Complex Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Worbs, Sylvia; Skiba, Martin; Bender, Jennifer; Zeleny, Reinhard; Schimmel, Heinz; Luginbühl, Werner; Dorner, Brigitte G.

    2015-01-01

    While natural intoxications with seeds of Ricinus communis (R. communis) have long been known, the toxic protein ricin contained in the seeds is of major concern since it attracts attention of those intending criminal, terroristic and military misuse. In order to harmonize detection capabilities in expert laboratories, an international proficiency test was organized that aimed at identifying good analytical practices (qualitative measurements) and determining a consensus concentration on a highly pure ricin reference material (quantitative measurements). Sample materials included highly pure ricin as well as the related R. communis agglutinin (RCA120) spiked into buffer, milk and meat extract; additionally, an organic fertilizer naturally contaminated with R. communis shred was investigated in the proficiency test. The qualitative results showed that either a suitable combination of immunological, mass spectrometry (MS)-based and functional approaches or sophisticated MS-based approaches alone successfully allowed the detection and identification of ricin in all samples. In terms of quantification, it was possible to determine a consensus concentration of the highly pure ricin reference material. The results provide a basis for further steps in quality assurance and improve biopreparedness in expert laboratories worldwide. PMID:26703726

  5. Summary report of results of the vapor vacuum extraction test at the RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management Complex)

    SciTech Connect

    Sisson, J.B.; Ellis, G.C.

    1990-11-01

    A test scale vapor vacuum extraction system was operated for four months at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. The extraction system removed more than 65 million ft{sup 3} of soil gas containing 429 Kg of Carbon Tetrachloride and 164 Kg of TCE. Hydraulic properties of the basalts were estimated and input into a numerical transport model. The model simulations indicated that a rubble zone at 190 ft dominated the soil gas flow pattern. Refined calibration of transport models will allow enhancement of the production system design to increase operational efficiency and effectiveness. 7 refs., 18 figs.

  6. An innovative approach to sampling complex industrial emissions for use in animal toxicity tests: application to iron casting operations.

    PubMed

    Palmer, W G; Scholz, R C; Moorman, W J

    1983-03-01

    Sampling of complex mixtures of airborne contaminants for chronic animal toxicity tests often involves numerous sampling devices, requires extensive sampling time, and yields forms of collected materials unsuitable for administration to animals. A method is described which used a high volume, wet venturi scrubber for collection of respirable fractions of emissions from iron foundry casting operations. The construction and operation of the sampler are presented along with collection efficiency data and its application to the preparation of large quantities of samples to be administered to animals by intratracheal instillation. PMID:6846144

  7. Safety assessment document for the environmental test complex (Building 834) at Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.

    1981-03-03

    A safety assessment was performed to determine if accidents occurring at the 834 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (HE) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire. Seismic and extreme wind (including missiles) analyses indicate that the buildings are basically sound. (However, there are a few recommendations to further enhance the structural integrity of these facilities). Additional lightning protection for these facilities is being installed. These buildings are located high above the dry creek bed so that a flood is improbable. A criticality or a high explosive detonation involving plutonium is very remote since the radioactive materials are encased and plutonium and HE are not permitted concurrently in the same area at Site 300. (The exceptions to this policy are that explosive actuating devices are sometimes located in assemblies containing fissile materials. However, a planned or accidental actuation will not effect the safe containment of the fissile material within the assembly). Even though the possibility of an HE explosion involving uranium and beryllium is remote, the off-site lung doses were calculated and found to be below the accepted standards. It was determined that a fire was unlikely due to the low fire loading and the absence of ignition sources. It was also determined that the consequences of any accidents were reduced by the remote location of these facilities, their design, and by administrative controls.

  8. Strength deficits of the shoulder complex during isokinetic testing in people with chronic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Lucas R.; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F.; Polese, Janaine C.; Ada, Louise; Faria, Christina D. C. M.; Laurentino, Glória E. C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the strength deficits of the shoulder complex after stroke and to characterize the pattern of weakness according to type of movement and type of isokinetic parameter. METHOD: Twelve chronic stroke survivors and 12 age-matched healthy controls had their shoulder strength measured using a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer. Concentric measures of peak torque and work during shoulder movements were obtained in random order at speeds of 60°/s for both groups and sides. Type of movement was defined as scapulothoracic (protraction and retraction), glenohumeral (shoulder internal and external rotation) or combined (shoulder flexion and extension). Type of isokinetic parameter was defined as maximum (peak torque) or sustained (work). Strength deficits were calculated using the control group as reference. RESULTS: The average strength deficit for the paretic upper limb was 52% for peak torque and 56% for work. Decreases observed in the non-paretic shoulder were 21% and 22%, respectively. Strength deficit of the scapulothoracic muscles was similar to the glenohumeral muscles, with a mean difference of 6% (95% CI -5 to 17). Ability to sustain torque throughout a given range of motion was decreased as much as the peak torque, with a mean difference of 4% (95% CI -2 to 10). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that people after stroke might benefit from strengthening exercises directed at the paretic scapulothoracic muscles in addition to exercises of arm elevation. Clinicians should also prescribe different exercises to improve the ability to generate force and the ability to sustain the torque during a specific range of motion. PMID:25003280

  9. Contact-free on-axis metrology for the fabrication and testing of complex optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courteville, Alain; Wilhelm, Rainer; Delaveau, Marie; Garcia, Fabrice; de Vecchi, François

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents a fibre-based low coherence interferometric sensor developed by FOGALE nanotech. Based on the proven principle of partial coherence interferometry the sensor works as a comparator of optical path lengths. The optical path lengths along the optical axis in the measurement interferometer arm containing a target object are compared with the optical path lengths in an internal delay line. Multiple, partially reflecting surfaces of the target can be detected during one scan of the delay line. Standard measurement ranges are between a few mm up to 400 mm (optical thickness). Longer measurement ranges are available on request. The measurement zone can be placed at a distance of up to several meters away from the instrument's exit. The sensor reaches an absolute accuracy on position measurements down to +/-100 nm over the full measurement range. The system has been successfully applied in industry (glass and optical) as well as in research environments, e.g. for the dimensional metrology of large astronomical telescopes. This paper focuses on an innovative application of the sensor in the optics manufacturing industry. The paper starts with a description of the measurement technique, the system hardware concept, the detection and signal processing scheme. We present a modeling-based approach for the dimensional metrology of optical components (e.g. single lenses, windows, prisms) or complete, mounted systems where the positions of all individual elements can be detected. A comprehensive propagation model including dispersion and phase effects is used to extract the distances from the optical path differences. Prior to a measurement, the optimum tailoring of the measurement beam is obtained by a simulation of the beam propagation through the target object. This ensures that each surface to be measured delivers a sufficiently strong signal. To illustrate our approach we present its application in the fabrication process of complex optical systems where

  10. Belowground biotic complexity drives aboveground dynamics: a test of the soil community feedback model.

    PubMed

    Pendergast, Thomas H; Burke, David J; Carson, Walter P

    2013-03-01

    Feedbacks between soil communities and plants may determine abundance and diversity in plant communities by influencing fitness and competitive outcomes. We tested the core hypotheses of soil community feedback theory: plant species culture distinct soil communities that alter plant performance and the outcome of interspecific competition. We applied this framework to inform the repeated dominance of Solidago canadensis in old-field communities. In glasshouse experiments, we examined the effects of soil communities on four plant species' performance in monoculture and outcomes of interspecific competition. We used terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis to infer differences in the soil communities associated with these plant species. Soil community origin had strong effects on plant performance, changed the intensity of interspecific competition and even reversed whether plant species were limited by conspecifics or heterospecifics. These plant-soil feedbacks are strong enough to upend winners and losers in classic competition models. Plant species cultured significantly different mycorrhizal fungal and bacterial soil communities, indicating that these feedbacks are likely microbiotic in nature. In old-fields and other plant communities, these soil feedbacks appear common, fundamentally alter the intensity and nature of plant competition and potentially maintain diversity while facilitating the dominance of So. canadensis. PMID:23311946

  11. Continuous testing system for Baeyer-Villiger biooxidation using recombinant Escherichia coli expressing cyclohexanone monooxygenase encapsulated in polyelectrolyte complex capsules.

    PubMed

    Bučko, Marek; Schenkmayerová, Andrea; Gemeiner, Peter; Vikartovská, Alica; Mihovilovič, Marko D; Lacík, Igor

    2011-08-10

    An original strategy for universal laboratory testing of Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases based on continuous packed-bed minireactor connected with flow calorimeter and integrated with bubble-free oxygenation is reported. Model enantioselective Baeyer-Villiger biooxidations of rac-bicyclo[3.2.0]hept-2-en-6-one to corresponding lactones (1R,5S)-3-oxabicyclo-[3.3.0]oct-6-en-3-one and (1S,5R)-2-oxabicyclo-[3.3.0]oct-6-en-3-one as important chiral synthons for the synthesis of bioactive compounds were performed in the minireactor equipped with a column packed with encapsulated recombinant cells Escherichia coli overexpressing cyclohexanone monooxygenase. The cells were encapsulated in polyelectrolyte complex capsules formed by reaction of oppositely charged polymers utilizing highly reproducible and controlled encapsulation process. Encapsulated cells tested in minireactor exhibited high operational stability with 4 complete substrate conversions to products and 6 conversions above 80% within 14 repeated consecutive biooxidation tests. Moreover, encapsulated cells showed high enzyme stability during 91 days of storage with substrate conversions above 80% up to 60 days of storage. Furthermore, usable thermometric signal of Baeyer-Villiger biooxidation obtained by flow calorimetry using encapsulated cells was utilized for preparatory kinetic study in order to guarantee sub-inhibitory initial substrate concentration for biooxidation tests.

  12. Interference of IgG, IgG aggregates and immune complexes in tests for platelet autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Helmerhorst, F M; Smeenk, R J; Hack, C E; Engelfriet, C P; von dem Borne, A E

    1983-11-01

    Three techniques, based on the antiglobulin principle, used for the detection of autoantibodies against platelets, were compared; the antiglobulin consumption assay (QACA), the platelet radioactive antiglobulin test (PRAT) and the platelet suspension immunofluorescence test (PSIFT). Upon incubation of normal donor platelets with purified IgG, in concentrations higher than that in serum, an increased amount of platelet-associated IgG was demonstrated only in the QACA. Upon incubation with aggregated IgG, all three tests became positive, but the PSIFT only with high concentrations of aggregates. Binding of soluble C1q-binding immune complexes (IC), which consisted of tetanus toxoid and IgG antitetanus antibodies (TaT) to normal donor platelets, was only detectable in the QACA. However, a positive result was obtained in all three tests with platelets incubated with soluble DNA-IgG-antiDNA antibodies (DaD) IC. Fixation of the platelets with paraformaldehyde prevented the binding and the detection of the DaD-IC, but not of IgG, aggregated IgG or TaT-IC. Eluates from platelets incubated with aggregated IgG, TaT- or DaD-IC did not react with normal donor platelets in the three techniques, in contrast to eluates from platelets sensitized with platelet antibodies.

  13. Estimating diagnostic test accuracies for Brachyspira hyodysenteriae accounting for the complexities of population structure in food animals.

    PubMed

    Hartnack, Sonja; Nathues, Christina; Nathues, Heiko; Grosse Beilage, Elisabeth; Lewis, Fraser Iain

    2014-01-01

    For swine dysentery, which is caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae infection and is an economically important disease in intensive pig production systems worldwide, a perfect or error-free diagnostic test ("gold standard") is not available. In the absence of a gold standard, Bayesian latent class modelling is a well-established methodology for robust diagnostic test evaluation. In contrast to risk factor studies in food animals, where adjustment for within group correlations is both usual and required for good statistical practice, diagnostic test evaluation studies rarely take such clustering aspects into account, which can result in misleading results. The aim of the present study was to estimate test accuracies of a PCR originally designed for use as a confirmatory test, displaying a high diagnostic specificity, and cultural examination for B. hyodysenteriae. This estimation was conducted based on results of 239 samples from 103 herds originating from routine diagnostic sampling. Using Bayesian latent class modelling comprising of a hierarchical beta-binomial approach (which allowed prevalence across individual herds to vary as herd level random effect), robust estimates for the sensitivities of PCR and culture, as well as for the specificity of PCR, were obtained. The estimated diagnostic sensitivity of PCR (95% CI) and culture were 73.2% (62.3; 82.9) and 88.6% (74.9; 99.3), respectively. The estimated specificity of the PCR was 96.2% (90.9; 99.8). For test evaluation studies, a Bayesian latent class approach is well suited for addressing the considerable complexities of population structure in food animals.

  14. Dynamics of interaction between complement-fixing antibody/dsDNA immune complexes and erythrocytes. In vitro studies and potential general applications to clinical immune complex testing

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.P.; Horgan, C.; Hooper, M.; Burge, J.

    1985-01-01

    Soluble antibody//sub 3/H-double-stranded PM2 DNA (dsDNA) immune complexes were briefly opsonized with complement and then allowed to bind to human erythrocytes (via complement receptors). The cells were washed and subsequently a volume of autologous blood in a variety of media was added, and the release of the bound immune complexes from the erythrocytes was studied as a function of temperature and time. After 1-2 h, the majority of the bound immune complexes were not released into the serum during blood clotting at either 37 degrees C or room temperature, but there was a considerably greater release of the immune complexes into the plasma of blood that was anticoagulated with EDTA. Similar results were obtained using various conditions of opsonization and also using complexes that contained lower molecular weight dsDNA. Thus, the kinetics of release of these antibody/dsDNA immune complexes differed substantially from the kinetics of release of antibody/bovine serum albumin complexes that was reported by others. Studies using the solution phase C1q immune complex binding assay confirmed that in approximately half of the SLE samples that were positive for immune complexes, there was a significantly higher level of detectable immune complexes in plasma vs. serum. Freshly drawn erythrocytes from some SLE patients exhibiting this plasma/serum discrepancy had IgG antigen on their surface that was released by incubation in EDTA plasma. Thus, the higher levels of immune complexes observed in EDTA plasma vs. serum using the C1q assay may often reflect the existence of immune complexes circulating in vivo bound to erythrocytes.

  15. Molecular and Growth-Based Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex for Ethambutol Resistance in the United States.

    PubMed

    Yakrus, Mitchell A; Driscoll, Jeffrey; McAlister, Allison; Sikes, David; Hartline, Denise; Metchock, Beverly; Starks, Angela M

    2016-01-01

    Ethambutol (EMB) is used as a part of drug regimens for treatment of tuberculosis (TB). Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates to EMB can be discerned by DNA sequencing to detect mutations in the embB gene associated with resistance. US Public Health Laboratories (PHL) primarily use growth-based drug susceptibility test (DST) methods to determine EMB resistance. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides a service for molecular detection of drug resistance (MDDR) by DNA sequencing and concurrent growth-based DST using agar proportion. PHL and CDC test results were compared for 211 MTBC samples submitted to CDC from September 2009 through February 2011. Concordance between growth-based DST results from PHL and CDC was 88.2%. A growth-based comparison of 39 samples, where an embB mutation associated with EMB resistance was detected, revealed a higher percentage of EMB resistance by CDC (84.6%) than by PHL (59.0%) which was significant (P value = 0.002). Discordance between all growth-based test results from PHL and CDC was also significant (P value = 0.003). Most discordance was linked to false susceptibility using the BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 (MGIT) growth-based system. Our analysis supports coalescing growth-based and molecular results for an informed interpretation of potential EMB resistance. PMID:27375902

  16. Advanced Test Reactor Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa Harvego; Brion Bennett

    2011-11-01

    U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Advanced Test Reactor Complex facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. U.S. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool to develop the radioactive waste management basis.

  17. Toward accurate molecular identification of species in complex environmental samples: testing the performance of sequence filtering and clustering methods

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Jullien M; Brown, Emily A; Chain, Frédéric J J; MacIsaac, Hugh J; Cristescu, Melania E

    2015-01-01

    Metabarcoding has the potential to become a rapid, sensitive, and effective approach for identifying species in complex environmental samples. Accurate molecular identification of species depends on the ability to generate operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that correspond to biological species. Due to the sometimes enormous estimates of biodiversity using this method, there is a great need to test the efficacy of data analysis methods used to derive OTUs. Here, we evaluate the performance of various methods for clustering length variable 18S amplicons from complex samples into OTUs using a mock community and a natural community of zooplankton species. We compare analytic procedures consisting of a combination of (1) stringent and relaxed data filtering, (2) singleton sequences included and removed, (3) three commonly used clustering algorithms (mothur, UCLUST, and UPARSE), and (4) three methods of treating alignment gaps when calculating sequence divergence. Depending on the combination of methods used, the number of OTUs varied by nearly two orders of magnitude for the mock community (60–5068 OTUs) and three orders of magnitude for the natural community (22–22191 OTUs). The use of relaxed filtering and the inclusion of singletons greatly inflated OTU numbers without increasing the ability to recover species. Our results also suggest that the method used to treat gaps when calculating sequence divergence can have a great impact on the number of OTUs. Our findings are particularly relevant to studies that cover taxonomically diverse species and employ markers such as rRNA genes in which length variation is extensive. PMID:26078860

  18. Process Knowledge Summary Report for Advanced Test Reactor Complex Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Drum TRA010029

    SciTech Connect

    B. R. Adams; R. P. Grant; P. R. Smith; J. L. Weisgerber

    2013-09-01

    This Process Knowledge Summary Report summarizes information collected to satisfy the transportation and waste acceptance requirements for the transfer of one drum containing contact-handled transuranic (TRU) actinide standards generated by the Idaho National Laboratory at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Complex to the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) for storage and subsequent shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for final disposal. The drum (i.e., Integrated Waste Tracking System Bar Code Number TRA010029) is currently stored at the Materials and Fuels Complex. The information collected includes documentation that addresses the requirements for AMWTP and applicable sections of their Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permits for receipt and disposal of this TRU waste generated from ATR. This Process Knowledge Summary Report includes information regarding, but not limited to, the generation process, the physical form, radiological characteristics, and chemical contaminants of the TRU waste, prohibited items, and packaging configuration. This report, along with the referenced supporting documents, will create a defensible and auditable record for this TRU waste originating from ATR.

  19. An improved in vitro model for testing the pulmonary toxicity of complex mixtures such as cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Aufderheide, Michaela; Knebel, Jan W; Ritter, Detlef

    2003-07-01

    Numerous approaches have been employed for testing the biological activity of cigarette smoke in vitro. None of them has managed to expose cultured lung cells in a realistic manner to the complex gaseous and particulate mixture that constitutes cigarette smoke. We have devised a system that makes this possible. The system presented here enables the direct exposure of human lung cells to native, unmodified cigarette mainstream smoke. It consists of a smoking machine, a dilution device for the smoke, analytical devices for online monitoring and a specially adapted exposure module based on the Cultex** cell cultivation system that is equipped with a gas-exposure top. Due to the special design of the exposure device and the optimised exposure conditions, this equipment allows cultured human lung cells to be exposed to freshly generated cigarette mainstream smoke. Exploratory experiments revealed that the smoke could be diluted over a wide concentration range in a reproducible way with respect to gas and particulate phases, and also demonstrated reproducible particle deposition depending on smoke concentration. Furthermore, it was shown that the exposed cells maintained their viability. Native cigarette mainstream smoke induced dose-dependent cellular effects in exposed cells with respect to cellular viability (viable cell number monitored by tetrazolium salt cleavage) and intracellular parameters (ATP and glutathione content). Therefore, fresh, physically and chemically unmodified cigarette mainstream smoke can be tested using this novel system.

  20. Biologic surveys for the Sandia National Laboratories, Coyote Canyon Test Complex, Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.M.; Knight, P.J.

    1994-05-25

    This report provides results of a comprehensive biologic survey performed in Coyote Canyon Test Complex (CCTC), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Bernalillo County, New Mexico, which was conducted during the spring and summer of 1992 and 1993. CCTC is sited on land owned by the Department of Energy (DOE) and Kirtland Air Force Base and managed by SNL. The survey covered 3,760 acres of land, most of which is rarely disturbed by CCTC operations. Absence of grazing by livestock and possibly native ungulates, and relative to the general condition of private range lands throughout New Mexico, and relative to other grazing lands in central New Mexico. Widely dispersed, low intensity use by SNL as well as prohibition of grazing has probably contributed to abundance of special status species such as grama grass cactus within the CCTC area. This report evaluates threatened and endangered species found in the area, as well as comprehensive assessment of biologic habitats. Included are analyses of potential impacts and mitigative measures designed to reduce or eliminate potential impacts. Included is a summary of CCTC program and testing activities.

  1. Testing for post-copulatory selection for major histocompatibility complex genotype in a semi-free-ranging primate population.

    PubMed

    Setchell, Joanna M; Abbott, Kristin M; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Knapp, Leslie A

    2013-10-01

    A large body of evidence suggests that major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genotype influences mate choice. However, few studies have investigated MHC-mediated post-copulatory mate choice under natural, or even semi-natural, conditions. We set out to explore this question in a large semi-free-ranging population of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) using MHC-DRB genotypes for 127 parent-offspring triads. First, we showed that offspring MHC heterozygosity correlates positively with parental MHC dissimilarity suggesting that mating among MHC dissimilar mates is efficient in increasing offspring MHC diversity. Second, we compared the haplotypes of the parental dyad with those of the offspring to test whether post-copulatory sexual selection favored offspring with two different MHC haplotypes, more diverse gamete combinations, or greater within-haplotype diversity. Limited statistical power meant that we could only detect medium or large effect sizes. Nevertheless, we found no evidence for selection for heterozygous offspring when parents share a haplotype (large effect size), genetic dissimilarity between parental haplotypes (we could detect an odds ratio of ≥1.86), or within-haplotype diversity (medium-large effect). These findings suggest that comparing parental and offspring haplotypes may be a useful approach to test for post-copulatory selection when matings cannot be observed, as is the case in many study systems. However, it will be extremely difficult to determine conclusively whether post-copulatory selection mechanisms for MHC genotype exist, particularly if the effect sizes are small, due to the difficulty in obtaining a sufficiently large sample. PMID:23677678

  2. Evidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteraemia in intradermal skin test positive cattle detected using phage-RPA.

    PubMed

    Swift, Benjamin M C; Convery, Thomas W; Rees, Catherine E D

    2016-10-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis that affects cattle and can cause tuberculosis in a range of wildlife animals. A bacteriophage-based method combined with PCR (phage-PCR) has been recently used to detect and identify viable pathogenic mycobacteria in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of animals suffering from paratuberculosis. To adapt this method for the detection of M. bovis in blood, a new isothermal DNA amplification protocol using Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) was developed and was found to be able to detect M. bovis BCG within 48 h, with a limit of detection of approximately 10 cells per ml of blood for artificially inoculated blood samples. When blood samples (2 ml) from a Single Comparative Cervical Intradermal Tuberculin (SCCIT)- negative beef herd were tested, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) cells were not detected from any (45) of the blood samples. However when blood samples from SCCIT-positive animals were tested, viable MTC bacteria were detected in 66 % (27/41) of samples. Of these 41 animals sampled, 32 % (13) had visible lesions. In the visible lesion (VL) group, 85 % (11/13) had detectable levels of MTC whereas only 57 % (16/28) of animals which had no visible lesions (NVL) were found to have detectable mycobacteraemia. These results indicated that this simple, rapid method can be applied for the study of M. bovis infections. The frequency with which viable mycobacteria were detected in the peripheral blood of SCCIT-positive animals changes the paradigm of this disease. PMID:27197018

  3. Environmental DNA COI barcoding for quantitative analysis of protists communities: A test using the Nebela collaris complex (Amoebozoa; Arcellinida; Hyalospheniidae).

    PubMed

    Kosakyan, Anush; Mulot, Matthieu; Mitchell, Edward A D; Lara, Enrique

    2015-08-01

    Environmental DNA surveys are used for screening eukaryotic diversity. However, it is unclear how quantitative this approach is and to what extent results from environmental DNA studies can be used for ecological studies requiring quantitative data. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COI) is used for species-level taxonomic studies of testate amoebae and should allow assessing the community composition from environmental samples, thus bypassing biases due to morphological identification. We tested this using a COI clone library approach and focusing on the Nebela collaris complex. Comparisons with direct microscopy counts showed that the COI clone library diversity data matched the morphologically identified taxa, and that community composition estimates using the two approaches were similar. However, this correlation was improved when microscopy counts were corrected for biovolume. Higher correlation with biovolume-corrected community data suggests that COI clone library data matches the ratio of mitochondria and that within closely-related taxa the density of mitochondria per unit biovolume is approximately constant. Further developments of this metabarcoding approach including quantifying the mitochondrial density among closely-related taxa, experiments on other taxonomic groups and using high throughput sequencing should make if possible to quantitatively estimate community composition of different groups, which would be invaluable for microbial food webs studies.

  4. 2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance issues Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 permit year, approximately 183 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  5. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance and other issues Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts During the 2011 permit year, approximately 166 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  6. Testing "species pair" hypotheses: evolutionary processes in the lichen-forming species complex Porpidia flavocoerulescens and Porpidia melinodes.

    PubMed

    Buschbom, Jutta; Mueller, Gregory M

    2006-03-01

    Pairs of taxa are commonly found in lichen-forming ascomycetes that differ primarily in their reproductive modes: one taxon reproduces sexually, the other vegetatively. The evolutionary processes underlying such "species pairs" are unknown. The species pair formed by Porpidia flavocoerulescens (sexual) and Porpidia melinodes (vegetative) was chosen to investigate four previously proposed hypotheses. These hypotheses posit that species pairs are either two monophyletic, independently evolving species with contrasting reproductive mode; a single outcrossing species polymorphic with regard to its reproductive modes; a sexual mother lineage frequently giving rise to asexual spin-offs; or a complex of cryptic species. The phylogenetic patterns observed within the species pair in the present study were analyzed using stringent hypothesis testing and visualizations of relationships and conflict based on tree and network reconstructions. DNA sequences at the three analyzed loci revealed the same four to five deeply divergent lineages. A detailed analysis of DNA-sequence variability revealed closely linked gene loci, but high levels of conflict within each of the gene fragments, as well as between observed genetic lineages. The observed patterns of phylogenetic relationships, linkage, and conflict are not congruent with any of the previously proposed species pair hypotheses. Rather, it is proposed that the observed results can be explained by conflicting reproductive and nutritional requirements imposed by an obligate symbiotic lifestyle. These interacting constraints produce recurring selective sweeps within predominantly vegetatively reproducing lineages and are the main forces that shape the evolution within the investigated species pair.

  7. Efficacy of species-specific recA PCR tests in the identification of Burkholderia cepacia complex environmental isolates.

    PubMed

    Dalmastri, Claudia; Pirone, Luisa; Tabacchioni, Silvia; Bevivino, Annamaria; Chiarini, Luigi

    2005-05-01

    In this study, we evaluated if recA species-specific PCR assays could be successfully applied to identify environmental isolates of the widespread Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) species. A total of 729 Bcc rhizosphere isolates collected in different samplings were assigned to the species B. cepacia genomovar I (61), B. cenocepacia recA lineage IIIB (514), B. ambifaria (124) and B. pyrrocinia (30), by means of recA (RFLP) analysis, and PCR tests were performed to assess sensitivity and specificity of recA species-specific primers pairs. B. cepacia genomovar I specific primers produced the expected amplicon with all isolates of the corresponding species (sensitivity, 100%), and cross-reacted with all B. pyrrocinia isolates. On the contrary, B. cenocepacia IIIB primers did not give the expected amplicon in 164 B. cenocepacia IIIB isolates (sensitivity, 68.1%), and isolates of distinct populations showed different sensitivity. B. ambifaria primers failed to amplify a recA-specific fragment only in a few isolates of this species (sensitivity, 93.5%). The absence of specific amplification in a high number of B. cenocepacia rhizosphere isolates indicates that recA specific PCR assays can lead to an underestimation of environmental microorganisms belonging to this bacterial species. PMID:15869960

  8. Atmospheric channel characterization for ORCA testing at NTTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, L. C.; Phillips, R. L.; Crabbs, R.; Wayne, D.; Leclerc, T.; Sauer, P.

    2010-02-01

    The DARPA Optical RF Communications Adjunct (ORCA) program was created to bring high data rate networking to the warfighter via airborne platforms. Recent testing of the ORCA system was conducted by the Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) at the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) at the Nellis Air Force Range near Tonopah, NV. The University of Central Florida (UCF) conducted a parallel test to measure path-averaged values of the refractiveindex structure parameter, the inner scale of turbulence, and the outer scale of turbulence along the ORCA propagation path from an airborne platform to the ground at Antelope Peak. In addition, weather instrumentation was set up at ground level on Antelope Peak to measure local conditions on the mountain top. This paper presents background information on expected atmospheric conditions for the channel, models that were used by UCF for the measurements, path-averaged values of the three atmospheric parameters, and a Cn2 profile model as a function of altitude.

  9. Novel real-time simultaneous amplification and testing method to accurately and rapidly detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhenling; Wang, Yongzhong; Fang, Liang; Zheng, Ruijuan; Huang, Xiaochen; Liu, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Gang; Rui, Dongmei; Ju, Jinliang; Hu, Zhongyi

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to establish and evaluate a simultaneous amplification and testing method for detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (SAT-TB assay) in clinical specimens by using isothermal RNA amplification and real-time fluorescence detection. In the SAT-TB assay, a 170-bp M. tuberculosis 16S rRNA fragment is reverse transcribed to DNA by use of Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MLV) reverse transcriptase, using specific primers incorporating the T7 promoter sequence, and undergoes successive cycles of amplification using T7 RNA polymerase. Using a real-time PCR instrument, hybridization of an internal 6-carboxyfluorescein-4-[4-(dimethylamino)phenylazo] benzoic acid N-succinimidyl ester (FAM-DABCYL)-labeled fluorescent probe can be used to detect RNA amplification. The SAT-TB assay takes less than 1.5 h to perform, and the sensitivity of the assay for detection of M. tuberculosis H37Rv is 100 CFU/ml. The TB probe has no cross-reactivity with nontuberculous mycobacteria or other common respiratory tract pathogens. For 253 pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) specimens and 134 non-TB specimens, the SAT-TB results correlated with 95.6% (370/387 specimens) of the Bactec MGIT 960 culture assay results. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the SAT-TB test for the diagnosis of PTB were 67.6%, 100%, 100%, and 62.0%, respectively, compared to 61.7%, 100%, 100%, and 58.0% for Bactec MGIT 960 culture. For PTB diagnosis, the sensitivities of the SAT-TB and Bactec MGIT 960 culture methods were 97.6% and 95.9%, respectively, for smear-positive specimens and 39.2% and 30.2%, respectively, for smear-negative specimens. In conclusion, the SAT-TB assay is a novel, simple test with a high specificity which may enhance the detection rate of TB. It is therefore a promising tool for rapid diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  10. Comparison of the Medical College of Georgia Complex Figures and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure tests in a normal sample of Japanese university students.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hikari; Yasugi, Mina

    2008-08-01

    Comparability of copy and recall performance on the four figures of the Medical College of Georgia Complex Figures and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure were examined using an incidental learning paradigm with 60 men and 60 women, healthy volunteers between the ages of 18 and 24 years (M = 21.5 yr., SD = 1.5) at a Japanese university. A between-subjects design was used in which each group of participants (n = 24) responded to five figures. The interrater reliability of each Georgia figure was excellent. While the five figures yielded equivalent copy scores, the Rey-Osterrieth figure had significantly lower scores than the Georgia figures at recall after 3 min. There were no significant differences between the four Georgia figures. These results are consistent with the findings of the original studies in the USA.

  11. Crash test for groundwater recharge models: The effects of model complexity and calibration period on groundwater recharge predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeck, Christian; Von Freyberg, Jana; Schrimer, Maria

    2016-04-01

    An important question in recharge impact studies is how model choice, structure and calibration period affect recharge predictions. It is still unclear if a certain model type or structure is less affected by running the model on time periods with different hydrological conditions compared to the calibration period. This aspect, however, is crucial to ensure reliable predictions of groundwater recharge. In this study, we quantify and compare the effect of groundwater recharge model choice, model parametrization and calibration period in a systematic way. This analysis was possible thanks to a unique data set from a large-scale lysimeter in a pre-alpine catchment where daily long-term recharge rates are available. More specifically, the following issues are addressed: We systematically evaluate how the choice of hydrological models influences predictions of recharge. We assess how different parameterizations of models due to parameter non-identifiability affect predictions of recharge by applying a Monte Carlo approach. We systematically assess how the choice of calibration periods influences predictions of recharge within a differential split sample test focusing on the model performance under extreme climatic and hydrological conditions. Results indicate that all applied models (simple lumped to complex physically based models) were able to simulate the observed recharge rates for five different calibration periods. However, there was a marked impact of the calibration period when the complete 20 years validation period was simulated. Both, seasonal and annual differences between simulated and observed daily recharge rates occurred when the hydrological conditions were different to the calibration period. These differences were, however, less distinct for the physically based models, whereas the simpler models over- or underestimate the observed recharge depending on the considered season. It is, however, possible to reduce the differences for the simple models by

  12. Testing the validity of the proposed ICD-11 PTSD and complex PTSD criteria using a sample from Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Siobhan; Elklit, Ask; Dokkedahl, Sarah; Shevlin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) is currently under development with proposed changes recommended for the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis and the inclusion of a separate complex PTSD (CPTSD) disorder. Empirical studies support the distinction between PTSD and CPTSD; however, less research has focused on non-western populations. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether distinct PTSD and CPTSD symptom classes emerged and to identify potential risk factors and the severity of impairment associated with resultant classes. Methods A latent class analysis (LCA) and related analyses were conducted on 314 young adults from Northern Uganda. Fifty-one percent were female and participants were aged between 18 and 25 years. Forty percent of the participants were former child soldiers (n=124) while the remaining participants were civilians (n=190). Results The LCA revealed three classes: a CPTSD class (40.2%), a PTSD class (43.8%), and a low symptom class (16%). Child soldier status was a significant predictor of both CPTSD and PTSD classes (OR=5.96 and 2.82, respectively). Classes differed significantly on measures of anxiety/depression, conduct problems, somatic complaints, and war experiences. Conclusions To conclude, this study provides preliminary support for the proposed distinction between PTSD and CPTSD in a young adult sample from Northern Uganda. However, future studies are needed using larger samples to test alternative models before firm conclusions can be made. Highlights of the article Examine the validity of CPTSD in a non-western sample Separate PTSD and CPTSD classes emerged Former child soldiers were more strongly associated with the CPTSD class CPTSD class reported significantly higher levels of anxiety, depression, somatic complaints and conduct problems PMID:27613369

  13. Aeroballistic analysis of ERB/TIGER II Aerodynamic Test Unit ATU-2 (SLA R715032)

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, R. W.

    1980-07-01

    The results of the first drop test of the 13.3-in-diameter ERB/TIGER II are documented. The test unit, designated Aerodynamic Test Unit-2 (ATU-2), was dropped on August 25, 1977, at the Sandia National Laboratories Tonopah Test Range from an Air Force F-4 Aircraft. Nominal release conditions were an altitude of 20,000 ft mean sea level and Mach 0.8. The purpose of the test was to obtain free-flight vehicle characteristics including the effect of the free-floating rollerons, to evaluate release and separation characteristics of the 13.3-in-diameter vehicle, and to evaluate the performance of the recovery system. Modifications to the mathematical model for the vehicle that yield better agreement between simulation and flight test results are presented. The system is also described. 42 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Completion summary for boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2014-01-01

    organic compounds, stable isotopes, and radionuclides. Water samples from both wells indicated that concentrations of tritium, sulfate, and chromium were affected by wastewater disposal practices at the Advanced Test Reactor Complex. Most constituents in water from wells USGS 140 and USGS 141 had concentrations similar to concentrations in well USGS 136, which is upgradient from wells USGS 140 and USGS 141.

  15. Effects of Cognitive Complexity and Emotional Upset on Processing Supportive Messages: Two Tests of a Dual-Process Theory of Supportive Communication Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodie, Graham D.; Burleson, Brant R.; Holmstrom, Amanda J.; McCullough, Jennifer D.; Rack, Jessica J.; Hanasono, Lisa K.; Rosier, Jennifer G.

    2011-01-01

    We report tests of hypotheses derived from a theory of supportive communication outcomes that maintains the effects of supportive messages are moderated by factors influencing the motivation and ability to process these messages. Participants in two studies completed a measure of cognitive complexity, which provided an assessment of processing…

  16. Effects of the immediate recall trial on Delayed Recall performance in the Rey Complex Figure Test in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hikari

    2015-01-01

    This study determines whether the presence or absence of the Immediate Recall trial influences performance among healthy young and older adults on the 30-min Delayed Recall task of the Rey Complex Figure Test. Participants in the 1-test condition (24 young adults and 24 older adults) underwent the Copy trial and 30-min Delayed Recall trial only, while participants in the 2-test condition (24 young adults and 24 older adults) completed the Copy trial, the Immediate Recall trial, and the 30-min Delayed Recall trial. Both older and younger participants in the 2-test condition showed significantly higher scores than those in the 1-test condition on the 30-min Delayed Recall trial. The relevance of these findings to the relationship with testing effects (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006 ) was discussed.

  17. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Revision 0)

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Burmeister

    2011-03-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 484 Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) activities called for the identification and remediation of surface hot spot depleted uranium (DU) with some excavation to determine the vertical extent of contamination (NNSA/NSO, 2004). During the CAU 484 SAFER investigation (conducted November 2003 through August 2007), approximately 50 locations containing DU were identified on Antelope Lake. All but four locations (CA-1, SA-5-9, SA-12-15, and SA-4) were remediated. Figure 1-1 shows locations of the four use restriction (UR) sites. The four locations were determined to have failed the SAFER conceptual site model assumption of a small volume hot spot. Two of the locations (CA-1 and SA-5-9) were excavated to depths of 3.5 to 7 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs), and a third location (SA-12-15) with a footprint of 30 by 60 ft was excavated to a depth of 0.5 ft. At the fourth site (SA-4), the discovery of unexploded ordnance (UXO) halted the excavation due to potential safety concerns. Remediation activities on Antelope Lake resulted in the removal of approximately 246 cubic yards (yd3) of DU-impacted soil from the four UR sites; however, Kiwi surveys confirmed that residual DU contamination remained at each of the four sites. (The Kiwi was a Remote Sensing Laboratory [RSL] vehicle equipped with a data-acquisition system and four sodium iodide gamma detectors. Surveys were conducted with the vehicle moving at a rate of approximately 10 miles per hour with the gamma detectors positioned 14 to 28 inches [in.] above the ground surface [NNSA/NSO, 2004]).

  18. Tetracycline susceptibility testing and resistance genes in isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii-Acinetobacter calcoaceticus complex from a U.S. military hospital.

    PubMed

    Akers, Kevin S; Mende, Katrin; Yun, Heather C; Hospenthal, Duane R; Beckius, Miriam L; Yu, Xin; Murray, Clinton K

    2009-06-01

    Infections with multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii-Acinetobacter calcoaceticus complex bacteria complicate the care of U.S. military personnel and civilians worldwide. One hundred thirty-three isolates from 89 patients at our facility during 2006 and 2007 were tested by disk diffusion, Etest, and broth microdilution for susceptibility to tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, and tigecycline. Minocycline was the most active in vitro, with 90% of the isolates tested susceptible. Susceptibilities varied significantly with the testing method. The acquired tetracycline resistance genes tetA, tetB, and tetA(39) were present in the isolates.

  19. Developing a Test for Exploring Student Performance in a Complex Domain: Challenges Faced, Decisions Made, and Implications Drawn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charalambous, Charalambos Y.; Kyriakides, Leonidas; Philippou, George N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates the application of existing guidelines to develop a test grounded in theoretical perspectives and empirical findings in the area of problem solving. By documenting this process, the paper outlines the challenges test developers face when seeking to construct a theory/research-driven test, discusses the decisions made at…

  20. Not New, but Nearly Forgotten: The Testing Effect Decreases or Even Disappears as the Complexity of Learning Materials Increases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gog, Tamara; Sweller, John

    2015-01-01

    The testing effect is a finding from cognitive psychology with relevance for education. It shows that after an initial study period, taking a practice test improves long-term retention compared to not taking a test and--more interestingly--compared to restudying the learning material. Boundary conditions of the effect that have received attention…

  1. Validation Analysis of the Groundwater Flow and Transport Model of the Central Nevada Test Area

    SciTech Connect

    A. Hassan; J. Chapman; H. Bekhit; B. Lyles; K. Pohlmann

    2006-09-30

    The Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site undergoing environmental restoration. The CNTA is located about 95 km northeast of Tonopah, Nevada, and 175 km southwest of Ely, Nevada (Figure 1.1). It was the site of the Faultless underground nuclear test conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (DOE's predecessor agency) in January 1968. The purposes of this test were to gauge the seismic effects of a relatively large, high-yield detonation completed in Hot Creek Valley (outside the Nevada Test Site [NTS]) and to determine the suitability of the site for future large detonations. The yield of the Faultless underground nuclear test was between 200 kilotons and 1 megaton (DOE, 2000). A three-dimensional flow and transport model was created for the CNTA site (Pohlmann et al., 1999) and determined acceptable by DOE and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for predicting contaminant boundaries for the site.

  2. Carney Complex

    MedlinePlus

    ... Screening guidelines may change over time as new technologies are developed and more is learned about Carney complex. It is important to talk with your doctor about appropriate screening tests. Learn more about what to expect when having ...

  3. Feasibility study in the application of optical signal analysis to non-destructive testing of complex structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, B.; Brown, H.

    1974-01-01

    Advantages of the large time bandwidth product of optical processing are presented. Experiments were performed to study the feasibility of the use of optical spectral analysis for detection of flaws in structural elements excited by random noise. Photographic and electronic methods of comparison of complex spectra were developed. Limitations were explored, and suggestions for further work are offered.

  4. SALT MARSH HABITAT FROM A FISH EYE VIEW: A TEST OF THE DIMENSIONLESS INDEX OF HABITAT COMPLEXITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salt marshes are considered important foraging and predator refuge areas for fish, but these functions are rarely measured. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between the structural complexity of the habitat and fish size in marshes subjected to different wat...

  5. 77 FR 485 - Wind Plant Performance-Public Meeting on Modeling and Testing Needs for Complex Air Flow...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wind Plant Performance--Public Meeting on Modeling and... validation techniques for complex flow phenomena in and around off- shore and on-shore utility-scale wind power plants. DOE is requesting this information to support the development of cost-effective wind...

  6. Performance and test section flow characteristics of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zell, Peter T.

    1993-01-01

    Results from the performance and test section flow calibration of the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel are presented. Measurements indicating the 80- by 120-ft test section flow quality were obtained throughout the tunnel operational envelope and for atmospheric wind speeds up to approximately 20 knots. Tunnel performance characteristics and a dynamic pressure system calibration were also documented during the process of mapping the test section flow field. Experimental results indicate that the test section flow quality is relatively insensitive to dynamic pressure and the level of atmospheric winds experienced during the calibration. The dynamic pressure variation in the test section is within +/-75 percent of the average. The axial turbulence intensity is less than 0.5 percent up to the maximum test section speed of 100 knots, and the vertical and lateral flow angle variations are within +/-5 deg and +/-7 deg, respectively. Atmospheric winds were found to affect the pressure distribution in the test section only at high ratios of wind speed to test section speed.

  7. Retrieval Can Increase or Decrease Suggestibility Depending on How Memory Is Tested: The Importance of Source Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Jason C. K.; Wilford, Miko M.; Hughes, Katharine L.

    2012-01-01

    Taking an intervening test between learning episodes can enhance later source recollection. Paradoxically, testing can also increase people's susceptibility to the misinformation effect--a finding termed retrieval-enhanced suggestibility (RES, Chan, Thomas, & Bulevich, 2009). We conducted three experiments to examine this apparent contradiction.…

  8. Will Genetic Testing for Complex Diseases Increase Motivation to Quit Smoking? Anticipated Reactions in a Survey of Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Saskia C.; Wardle, Jane

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve understanding of smokers' potential reactions to genetic testing for smoking-related diseases. One thousand twenty-four respondents completed a postal survey; 186 were smokers. Questions addressed anticipated psychological and behavioral reactions to genetic test results using hypothetical scenarios. Of…

  9. Population admixture: detection by Hardy-Weinberg test and its quantitative effects on linkage-disequilibrium methods for localizing genes underlying complex traits.

    PubMed Central

    Deng, H W; Chen, W M; Recker, R R

    2001-01-01

    In association studies searching for genes underlying complex traits, the results are often inconsistent, and population admixture has been recognized qualitatively as one major potential cause. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) is often employed to test for population admixture; however, its power is generally unknown. Through analytical and simulation approaches, we quantify the power of the HWE test for population admixture and the effects of population admixture on increasing the type I error rate of association studies under various scenarios of population differentiation and admixture. We found that (1) the power of the HWE test for detecting population admixture is usually small; (2) population admixture seriously elevates type I error rate for detecting genes underlying complex traits, the extent of which depends on the degrees of population differentiation and admixture; (3) HWE testing for population admixture should be performed with random samples or only with controls at the candidate genes, or the test can be performed for combined samples of cases and controls at marker loci that are not linked to the disease; (4) testing HWE for population admixture generally reduces false positive association findings of genes underlying complex traits but the effect is small; and (5) with population admixture, a linkage disequilibrium method that employs cases only is more robust and yields many fewer false positive findings than conventional case-control analyses. Therefore, unless random samples are carefully selected from one homogeneous population, admixture is always a legitimate concern for positive findings in association studies except for the analyses that deliberately control population admixture. PMID:11157005

  10. Inversion of the anomalous diffraction approximation for variable complex index of refraction near unity. [numerical tests for water-haze aerosol model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Fymat analytic inversion method for retrieving a particle-area distribution function from anomalous diffraction multispectral extinction data and total area is generalized to the case of a variable complex refractive index m(lambda) near unity depending on spectral wavelength lambda. Inversion tests are presented for a water-haze aerosol model. An upper-phase shift limit of 5 pi/2 retrieved an accurate peak area distribution profile. Analytical corrections using both the total number and area improved the inversion.

  11. The Nuclear Matrix Protein Megator Regulates Stem Cell Asymmetric Division through the Mitotic Checkpoint Complex in Drosophila Testes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Singh, Shree Ram; Zeng, Xiankun; Zhao, Jiangsha; Hou, Steven X

    2015-12-01

    In adult Drosophila testis, asymmetric division of germline stem cells (GSCs) is specified by an oriented spindle and cortically localized adenomatous coli tumor suppressor homolog 2 (Apc2). However, the molecular mechanism underlying these events remains unclear. Here we identified Megator (Mtor), a nuclear matrix protein, which regulates GSC maintenance and asymmetric division through the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) complex. Loss of Mtor function results in Apc2 mis-localization, incorrect centrosome orientation, defective mitotic spindle formation, and abnormal chromosome segregation that lead to the eventual GSC loss. Expression of mitotic arrest-deficient-2 (Mad2) and monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1) of the SAC complex effectively rescued the GSC loss phenotype associated with loss of Mtor function. Collectively our results define a new role of the nuclear matrix-SAC axis in regulating stem cell maintenance and asymmetric division.

  12. The Nuclear Matrix Protein Megator Regulates Stem Cell Asymmetric Division through the Mitotic Checkpoint Complex in Drosophila Testes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Singh, Shree Ram; Zeng, Xiankun; Zhao, Jiangsha; Hou, Steven X

    2015-12-01

    In adult Drosophila testis, asymmetric division of germline stem cells (GSCs) is specified by an oriented spindle and cortically localized adenomatous coli tumor suppressor homolog 2 (Apc2). However, the molecular mechanism underlying these events remains unclear. Here we identified Megator (Mtor), a nuclear matrix protein, which regulates GSC maintenance and asymmetric division through the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) complex. Loss of Mtor function results in Apc2 mis-localization, incorrect centrosome orientation, defective mitotic spindle formation, and abnormal chromosome segregation that lead to the eventual GSC loss. Expression of mitotic arrest-deficient-2 (Mad2) and monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1) of the SAC complex effectively rescued the GSC loss phenotype associated with loss of Mtor function. Collectively our results define a new role of the nuclear matrix-SAC axis in regulating stem cell maintenance and asymmetric division. PMID:26714316

  13. Testing complex networks of interaction at the onset of the Near Eastern Neolithic using modelling of obsidian exchange.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Juan José; Ortega, David; Campos, Daniel; Khalidi, Lamya; Méndez, Vicenç

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we explore the conditions that led to the origins and development of the Near Eastern Neolithic using mathematical modelling of obsidian exchange. The analysis presented expands on previous research, which established that the down-the-line model could not explain long-distance obsidian distribution across the Near East during this period. Drawing from outcomes of new simulations and their comparison with archaeological data, we provide results that illuminate the presence of complex networks of interaction among the earliest farming societies. We explore a network prototype of obsidian exchange with distant links which replicates the long-distance movement of ideas, goods and people during the Early Neolithic. Our results support the idea that during the first (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A) and second (Pre-Pottery Neolithic B) phases of the Early Neolithic, the complexity of obsidian exchange networks gradually increased. We propose then a refined model (the optimized distant link model) whereby long-distance exchange was largely operated by certain interconnected villages, resulting in the appearance of a relatively homogeneous Neolithic cultural sphere. We hypothesize that the appearance of complex interaction and exchange networks reduced risks of isolation caused by restricted mobility as groups settled and argue that these networks partially triggered and were crucial for the success of the Neolithic Revolution. Communities became highly dynamic through the sharing of experiences and objects, while the networks that developed acted as a repository of innovations, limiting the risk of involution. PMID:25948614

  14. Testing complex networks of interaction at the onset of the Near Eastern Neolithic using modelling of obsidian exchange.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Juan José; Ortega, David; Campos, Daniel; Khalidi, Lamya; Méndez, Vicenç

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we explore the conditions that led to the origins and development of the Near Eastern Neolithic using mathematical modelling of obsidian exchange. The analysis presented expands on previous research, which established that the down-the-line model could not explain long-distance obsidian distribution across the Near East during this period. Drawing from outcomes of new simulations and their comparison with archaeological data, we provide results that illuminate the presence of complex networks of interaction among the earliest farming societies. We explore a network prototype of obsidian exchange with distant links which replicates the long-distance movement of ideas, goods and people during the Early Neolithic. Our results support the idea that during the first (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A) and second (Pre-Pottery Neolithic B) phases of the Early Neolithic, the complexity of obsidian exchange networks gradually increased. We propose then a refined model (the optimized distant link model) whereby long-distance exchange was largely operated by certain interconnected villages, resulting in the appearance of a relatively homogeneous Neolithic cultural sphere. We hypothesize that the appearance of complex interaction and exchange networks reduced risks of isolation caused by restricted mobility as groups settled and argue that these networks partially triggered and were crucial for the success of the Neolithic Revolution. Communities became highly dynamic through the sharing of experiences and objects, while the networks that developed acted as a repository of innovations, limiting the risk of involution.

  15. Testing complex networks of interaction at the onset of the Near Eastern Neolithic using modelling of obsidian exchange

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Juan José; Ortega, David; Campos, Daniel; Khalidi, Lamya; Méndez, Vicenç

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the conditions that led to the origins and development of the Near Eastern Neolithic using mathematical modelling of obsidian exchange. The analysis presented expands on previous research, which established that the down-the-line model could not explain long-distance obsidian distribution across the Near East during this period. Drawing from outcomes of new simulations and their comparison with archaeological data, we provide results that illuminate the presence of complex networks of interaction among the earliest farming societies. We explore a network prototype of obsidian exchange with distant links which replicates the long-distance movement of ideas, goods and people during the Early Neolithic. Our results support the idea that during the first (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A) and second (Pre-Pottery Neolithic B) phases of the Early Neolithic, the complexity of obsidian exchange networks gradually increased. We propose then a refined model (the optimized distant link model) whereby long-distance exchange was largely operated by certain interconnected villages, resulting in the appearance of a relatively homogeneous Neolithic cultural sphere. We hypothesize that the appearance of complex interaction and exchange networks reduced risks of isolation caused by restricted mobility as groups settled and argue that these networks partially triggered and were crucial for the success of the Neolithic Revolution. Communities became highly dynamic through the sharing of experiences and objects, while the networks that developed acted as a repository of innovations, limiting the risk of involution. PMID:25948614

  16. Design, characterization, teratogenicity testing, antibacterial, antifungal and DNA interaction of few high spin Fe(II) Schiff base amino acid complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Rahman, Laila H.; El-Khatib, Rafat M.; Nassr, Lobna A. E.; Abu-Dief, Ahmed M.; Lashin, Fakhr El-Din

    2013-07-01

    In this study, new Fe(II) Schiff base amino acid chelates derived from the condensation of o-hydroxynaphthaldehyde with L-alanine, L-phenylalanine, L-aspartic acid, L-histidine and L-arginine were synthesized and characterized via elemental, thermogravimetric analysis, molar conductance, IR, electronic, mass spectra and magnetic moment measurements. The stoichiometry and the stability constants of the complexes were determined spectrophotometrically. Correlation of all spectroscopic data suggested that Schiff bases ligands exhibited tridentate with ONO sites coordinating to the metal ions via protonated phenolic-OH, azomethine-N and carboxylate-O with the general formulae [Fe(HL)2]·nH2O. But in case of L-histidine, the ligand acts as tetradentate via deprotonated phenolic-OH, azomethine-N, carboxylate-O and N-imidazole ring ([FeL(H2O)2]·2H2O), where HL = mono anion and L = dianion of the ligand. The structure of the prepared complexes is suggested to be octahedral. The prepared complexes were tested for their teratogenicity on chick embryos and found to be safe until a concentration of 100 μg/egg with full embryos formation. Moreover, the interaction between CT-DNA and the investigated complexes were followed by spectrophotometric and viscosity measurements. It was found that, the prepared complexes bind to DNA via classical intercalative mode and showed a different DNA activity with the sequence: nhi > nari > nali > nasi > nphali. Furthermore, the free ligands and their complexes are screened for their in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity against three types of bacteria, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus and three types of anti fungal cultures, Penicillium purpurogenium, Aspergillus flavus and Trichotheium rosium in order to assess their antimicrobial potential. The results show that the metal complexes are more reactive with respect to their corresponding Schiff base amino acid ligands.

  17. Supported Lipid Bilayer Platform To Test Inhibitors of the Membrane Attack Complex: Insights into Biomacromolecular Assembly and Regulation.

    PubMed

    Yorulmaz, Saziye; Jackman, Joshua A; Hunziker, Walter; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2015-11-01

    Complement activation plays an important role in innate immune defense by triggering formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC), which is a biomacromolecular assembly that exhibits membrane-lytic activity against foreign invaders including various pathogens and biomaterials. Understanding the details of MAC structure and function has been the subject of extensive work involving bulk liposome and erythrocyte assays. However, it is difficult to characterize the mechanism of action of MAC inhibitor drug candidates using the conventional assays. To address this issue, we employ a biomimetic supported lipid bilayer platform to investigate how two MAC inhibitors, vitronectin and clusterin, interfere with MAC assembly in a sequential addition format, as monitored by the quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation (QCM-D) technique. Two experimental strategies based on modular assembly were selected, precincubation of inhibitor and C5b-7 complex before addition to the lipid bilayer or initial addition of inhibitor followed by the C5b-7 complex. The findings indicate that vitronectin inhibits membrane association of C5b-7 via a direct interaction with C5b-7 and via competitive membrane association onto the supported lipid bilayer. On the other hand, clusterin directly interacts with C5b-7 such that C5b-7 is still able to bind to the lipid bilayer, and clusterin affects the subsequent binding of other complement proteins involved in the MAC assembly. Taken together, the findings in this study outline a biomimetic approach based on supported lipid bilayers to explore the interactions between complement proteins and inhibitors, thereby offering insight into MAC assembly and regulation.

  18. Techniques for control of long-term reliability of complex integrated circuits. I - Reliability assurance by test vehicle qualification.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Vonno, N. W.

    1972-01-01

    Development of an alternate approach to the conventional methods of reliability assurance for large-scale integrated circuits. The product treated is a large-scale T squared L array designed for space applications. The concept used is that of qualification of product by evaluation of the basic processing used in fabricating the product, providing an insight into its potential reliability. Test vehicles are described which enable evaluation of device characteristics, surface condition, and various parameters of the two-level metallization system used. Evaluation of these test vehicles is performed on a lot qualification basis, with the lot consisting of one wafer. Assembled test vehicles are evaluated by high temperature stress at 300 C for short time durations. Stressing at these temperatures provides a rapid method of evaluation and permits a go/no go decision to be made on the wafer lot in a timely fashion.

  19. Low-complexity biotechnology and everyday aspects of "care:" neonatal testing and sickle cell diagnosis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Calvo-González, Elena

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the link between the use of low-complexity biotechnologies and the diverse notions of "care" involved in the process of diagnosing sickle cell disease. It analyses the stories of four different patients and their families, all collected during ethnographic fieldwork, that illustrate several aspects of the experience of living with the condition. These stories demonstrate the presence of what Mol called the "logic of care," showing how the everyday use of diagnostic technology is set within life flows that relate to other realms of experience with biomedicine, kinship groups and community networks.

  20. A complex interaction between glycine/NMDA receptors and serotonergic/noradrenergic antidepressants in the forced swim test in mice.

    PubMed

    Poleszak, Ewa; Wlaź, Piotr; Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Wlaź, Aleksandra; Kasperek, Regina; Wróbel, Andrzej; Nowak, Gabriel

    2011-11-01

    Both clinical and preclinical studies demonstrate the antidepressant activity of the functional NMDA receptor antagonists. In this study, we assessed the effects of two glycine/NMDA receptor ligands, namely L-701,324 (antagonist) and D: -cycloserine (a partial agonist) on the action of antidepressant drugs with different pharmacological profiles in the forced swim test in mice. Swim sessions were conducted by placing mice individually in glass cylinders filled with warmed water for 6 min. The duration of behavioral immobility during the last 4 min of the test was evaluated. The locomotor activity of mice was measured with photoresistor actimeters. L-701,324 and D: -cycloserine given with reboxetine (administered in subeffective doses) did not change the behavior of animals in the forced swim test. A potentiating effect was seen when both tested glycine site ligands were given concomitantly with imipramine or fluoxetine in this test. The lesion of noradrenaline nerve terminals produced by DSP-4 neither altered the baseline activity nor influenced the antidepressant-like action of L-701,324 or D: -cycloserine. The depletion of serotonin by p-CPA did not alter baseline activity in the forced swim test. However, it completely antagonized the antidepressant-like action produced by L-701,324 and D: -cycloserine. Moreover, the antidepressant-like effects of imipramine, fluoxetine and reboxetine were abolished by D: -serine, a full agonist of glycine/NMDA receptors. The present study demonstrates that glycine/NMDA receptor functional antagonists enhance the antidepressant-like action of serotonin, but not noradrenaline-based antidepressants and such their activity seems to depend on serotonin rather than noradrenaline pathway.

  1. Effects on rat testes of the thiosemicarbazone derivative Schiff base (4-(1-phenylmethylcyclobutane-3-yl)-2-(2-hydroxybenzylidenehydrazino)thiazole) and its cadmium(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Oner, Hakan; Karatepe, Mustafa; Karatas, Fikret; Oner, Jale; Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Cukurovali, Alaaddin

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate structural and biochemical changes in testes of rats treated with the thiosemicarbazone derivative thiazole ring Schiff base, (4-(1-phenyl-methylcyclobutane-3-yl)-2-(2-hydroxybenzylidene-hydrazino) thiazole (L), and its Cd(II) complex (CdL(2)). The animals were divided into three groups. Group I was designated as control. The rats in groups II and III were injected subcutaneously with L or CdL(2) respectively at 150-mg kg(-1) doses at 3-day intervals for 15 days. At the end of the study, blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis, and testes were removed for histological examinations. Serum levels of vitamin A, E and MDA of the L-injected group were similar to the control group. While CdL(2) treatment decreased serum vitamin A and E levels, it increased the MDA level compared to other groups. Histologically, the testes structures of L-treated animals were similar to the control. Spermatogenic cells in seminiferous tubules of CdL(2)-treated animals displayed necrosis. Nuclei of spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes were pyknotic and heterochromatic. Homogenous pink particles were present in place of the spermatids. The interstitial areas were oedematous and intertubular vessels were plugged. In conclusion, the present results indicate that L does not cause biochemical and morphological alterations, but its Cd(II) complex has degenerative effects in normal rat testes.

  2. Modern analytics for synthetically derived complex drug substances: NMR, AFFF-MALS, and MS tests for glatiramer acetate.

    PubMed

    Rogstad, Sarah; Pang, Eric; Sommers, Cynthia; Hu, Meng; Jiang, Xiaohui; Keire, David A; Boyne, Michael T

    2015-11-01

    Glatiramer acetate (GA) is a mixture of synthetic copolymers consisting of four amino acids (glutamic acid, lysine, alanine, and tyrosine) with a labeled molecular weight range of 5000 to 9000 Da. GA is marketed as Copaxone™ by Teva for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Here, the agency has evaluated the structure and composition of GA and a commercially available comparator, Copolymer-1. Modern analytical technologies which can characterize these complex mixtures are desirable for analysis of their comparability and structural "sameness." In the studies herein, a molecular fingerprinting approach is taken using mass-accurate mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (1D-(1)H-NMR, 1D-(13)C-NMR, and 2D NMR), and asymmetric field flow fractionation (AFFF) coupled with multi-angle light scattering (MALS) for an in-depth characterization of three lots of the marketplace drug and a formulated sample of the comparator. Statistical analyses were applied to the MS and AFFF-MALS data to assess these methods' ability to detect analytical differences in the mixtures. The combination of multiple orthogonal measurements by liquid chromatography coupled with MS (LC-MS), AFFF-MALS, and NMR on the same sample set was found to be fit for the intended purpose of distinguishing analytical differences between these complex mixtures of peptide chains.

  3. Modern analytics for synthetically derived complex drug substances: NMR, AFFF-MALS, and MS tests for glatiramer acetate.

    PubMed

    Rogstad, Sarah; Pang, Eric; Sommers, Cynthia; Hu, Meng; Jiang, Xiaohui; Keire, David A; Boyne, Michael T

    2015-11-01

    Glatiramer acetate (GA) is a mixture of synthetic copolymers consisting of four amino acids (glutamic acid, lysine, alanine, and tyrosine) with a labeled molecular weight range of 5000 to 9000 Da. GA is marketed as Copaxone™ by Teva for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Here, the agency has evaluated the structure and composition of GA and a commercially available comparator, Copolymer-1. Modern analytical technologies which can characterize these complex mixtures are desirable for analysis of their comparability and structural "sameness." In the studies herein, a molecular fingerprinting approach is taken using mass-accurate mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (1D-(1)H-NMR, 1D-(13)C-NMR, and 2D NMR), and asymmetric field flow fractionation (AFFF) coupled with multi-angle light scattering (MALS) for an in-depth characterization of three lots of the marketplace drug and a formulated sample of the comparator. Statistical analyses were applied to the MS and AFFF-MALS data to assess these methods' ability to detect analytical differences in the mixtures. The combination of multiple orthogonal measurements by liquid chromatography coupled with MS (LC-MS), AFFF-MALS, and NMR on the same sample set was found to be fit for the intended purpose of distinguishing analytical differences between these complex mixtures of peptide chains. PMID:26458562

  4. Report on environmental effects at Yuma Proving Ground from continued testing of projectiles containing beryllium and depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.; Sharmer, L.A.; Cederwall, R.T.; Novo, M.G.; Mitchell, C.S.

    1988-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine, from the available information, the potential environmental effects at Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), resulting from further testing of surface-burst artillery projectiles (XM785) containing amounts of beryllium (Be) and depleted uranium (DU). A model was applied to assess the downwind deposition and air concentrations of Be and DU during actual tests with the XM753 and XM785 at YPG. In addition, one single, static test of an XM785 was conducted at Tonopah Test Range. The potential effects of continued testing of devices such as the XM753 and XM785 appear to be insignificant, providing that prudent mitigations and environmental management practices are carried out. 44 refs., 17 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Oligonucleotide array-based identification of species in the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex in isolates from blood cultures and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolates.

    PubMed

    Ko, Wen-Chien; Lee, Nan-Yao; Su, Siou Cing; Dijkshoorn, Lenie; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Wang, Li-Rong; Yan, Jin-Jou; Chang, Tsung Chain

    2008-06-01

    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, A. baumannii, Acinetobacter genomic species (gen. sp.) 3, and Acinetobacter gen. sp. 13TU, which are included in the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex, are difficult to distinguish by phenotypic methods. An array with six oligonucleotide probes based on the 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic spacer (ITS) region was developed to differentiate species in the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex. Validation of the array with a reference collection of 52 strains of the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex and 137 strains of other species resulted in an identification sensitivity and specificity of 100%. By using the array, the species distribution of 291 isolates of the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex from patients with bacteremia were determined to be A. baumannii (221 strains [75.9%]), Acinetobacter gen. sp. 3 (67 strains [23.0%]), Acinetobacter gen. sp. 13TU (2 strains [0.7%]), and unidentified Acinetobacter sp. (1 strain [0.3%]). The identification accuracy of the array for 12 randomly selected isolates from patients with bacteremia was further confirmed by sequence analyses of the ITS region and the 16S rRNA gene. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the 291 isolates from patients with bacteremia revealed that A. baumannii strains were less susceptible to antimicrobial agents than Acinetobacter gen. sp. 3. All Acinetobacter gen. sp. 3 strains were susceptible to ampicillin-sulbactam, imipenem, and meropenem; but only 67.4%, 90%, and 86% of the A. baumannii strains were susceptible to ampicillin-sulbactam, imipenem, and meropenem, respectively. The observed significant variations in antimicrobial susceptibility among different species in the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex emphasize that the differentiation of species within the complex is relevant from a clinical-epidemiological point of view.

  6. Bioavailability of cadmium and zinc to the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, in complexing environments: A test for the validity of the free ion activity model

    SciTech Connect

    Ginneken, L. Van; Chowdhury, M.J.; Blust, R.

    1999-10-01

    The uptake of cadmium and zinc by the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, was studied in chemically defined freshwater in the presence of different organic ligands (i.e., citrate, glycine, histidine, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and nitrilotriacetic acid). In most cases, metal complexation decreased Cd and Zn uptake by reducing the free Cd and Zn ion activity. However, Cd and Zn uptake did not increase linearly with the free Cd and Zn ion activity in the solution. A good fit to the data was obtained when the observations were fitted to a Michaelis-Menten-like model for carrier-mediated transport of the metal ions across the biological interface. In addition, the uptake of Cd in the presence of citrate, glycine, and histidine was markedly higher than expected on the basis of the free Cd ion activity. It was concluded that cadmium complexes of these low molecular weight, hydrophilic ligands contributed to the Cd bioavailability, probably by direct uptake of these complexes. Zinc uptake in the presence of the complexing agents could be predicted on the basis of the ambient free Zn ion activity, although uptake in the presence of citrate was lower than expected on the basis of the free Zn ion activity. These results provide a challenging test for the free ion activity model.

  7. Association mapping of complex diseases in linked regions: estimation of genetic effects and feasibility of testing rare variants.

    PubMed

    Wang, William Y S; Cordell, Heather J; Todd, John A

    2003-01-01

    Association mapping in linked regions is a current major approach for the identification of genes for complex diseases. Loci contributing to linkage, even with small values of sibling recurrence risk (lambda(s)), may be equivalent to substantial underlying genetic effects for association studies. For disease alleles with a frequency as low as 1%, highly reliable association studies (80% power for significance level alpha=10(-6)) require only 277, 781, and 1289 families or cases and controls for loci detected with lambda(s) of 1.5, 1.1, and 1.05, respectively, under a multiplicative genetic model. Under alternative models, provided epistatic effects are minor, larger achievable sample sizes will provide sufficient power to map almost any disease gene that may have initially contributed to linkage.

  8. Testing candidate genes for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in fruit flies using a high throughput assay for complex behavior.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Madsen, Lisbeth Strøm; Neumann Arvidson, Sandra Marie; Loeschcke, Volker; Demontis, Ditte; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    Fruit flies are important model organisms for functional testing of candidate genes in multiple disciplines, including the study of human diseases. Here we use a high-throughput locomotor activity assay to test the response on activity behavior of gene disruption in Drosophila melanogaster. The aim was to investigate the impact of disruption of 14 candidate genes for human attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on fly behavior. By obtaining a range of correlated measures describing the space of variables for behavioral activity we show, that some mutants display similar phenotypic responses, and furthermore, that the genes disrupted in those mutants had common molecular functions; namely processes related to cGMP activity, cation channels and serotonin receptors. All but one of the candidate genes resulted in aberrant behavioral activity, suggesting involvement of these genes in behavioral activity in fruit flies. Results provide additional support for the investigated genes being risk candidate genes for ADHD in humans.

  9. Testing candidate genes for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in fruit flies using a high throughput assay for complex behavior.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Madsen, Lisbeth Strøm; Neumann Arvidson, Sandra Marie; Loeschcke, Volker; Demontis, Ditte; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    Fruit flies are important model organisms for functional testing of candidate genes in multiple disciplines, including the study of human diseases. Here we use a high-throughput locomotor activity assay to test the response on activity behavior of gene disruption in Drosophila melanogaster. The aim was to investigate the impact of disruption of 14 candidate genes for human attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on fly behavior. By obtaining a range of correlated measures describing the space of variables for behavioral activity we show, that some mutants display similar phenotypic responses, and furthermore, that the genes disrupted in those mutants had common molecular functions; namely processes related to cGMP activity, cation channels and serotonin receptors. All but one of the candidate genes resulted in aberrant behavioral activity, suggesting involvement of these genes in behavioral activity in fruit flies. Results provide additional support for the investigated genes being risk candidate genes for ADHD in humans. PMID:26954609

  10. Forest, Trees, Dynamics: Results from a Novel Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Variant Protocol for Studying Global-Local Attention and Complex Cognitive Processes

    PubMed Central

    Cowley, Benjamin; Lukander, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recognition of objects and their context relies heavily on the integrated functioning of global and local visual processing. In a realistic setting such as work, this processing becomes a sustained activity, implying a consequent interaction with executive functions. Motivation: There have been many studies of either global-local attention or executive functions; however it is relatively novel to combine these processes to study a more ecological form of attention. We aim to explore the phenomenon of global-local processing during a task requiring sustained attention and working memory. Methods: We develop and test a novel protocol for global-local dissociation, with task structure including phases of divided (“rule search”) and selective (“rule found”) attention, based on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST). We test it in a laboratory study with 25 participants, and report on behavior measures (physiological data was also gathered, but not reported here). We develop novel stimuli with more naturalistic levels of information and noise, based primarily on face photographs, with consequently more ecological validity. Results: We report behavioral results indicating that sustained difficulty when participants test their hypotheses impacts matching-task performance, and diminishes the global precedence effect. Results also show a dissociation between subjectively experienced difficulty and objective dimension of performance, and establish the internal validity of the protocol. Contribution: We contribute an advance in the state of the art for testing global-local attention processes in concert with complex cognition. With three results we establish a connection between global-local dissociation and aspects of complex cognition. Our protocol also improves ecological validity and opens options for testing additional interactions in future work. PMID:26941689

  11. A general and accurate approach for computing the statistical power of the transmission disequilibrium test for complex disease genes.

    PubMed

    Chen, W M; Deng, H W

    2001-07-01

    Transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) is a nuclear family-based analysis that can test linkage in the presence of association. It has gained extensive attention in theoretical investigation and in practical application; in both cases, the accuracy and generality of the power computation of the TDT are crucial. Despite extensive investigations, previous approaches for computing the statistical power of the TDT are neither accurate nor general. In this paper, we develop a general and highly accurate approach to analytically compute the power of the TDT. We compare the results from our approach with those from several other recent papers, all against the results obtained from computer simulations. We show that the results computed from our approach are more accurate than or at least the same as those from other approaches. More importantly, our approach can handle various situations, which include (1) families that consist of one or more children and that have any configuration of affected and nonaffected sibs; (2) families ascertained through the affection status of parent(s); (3) any mixed sample with different types of families in (1) and (2); (4) the marker locus is not a disease susceptibility locus; and (5) existence of allelic heterogeneity. We implement this approach in a user-friendly computer program: TDT Power Calculator. Its applications are demonstrated. The approach and the program developed here should be significant for theoreticians to accurately investigate the statistical power of the TDT in various situations, and for empirical geneticists to plan efficient studies using the TDT.

  12. Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxins from Complex Matrices: Results of the First International Proficiency Test.

    PubMed

    Worbs, Sylvia; Fiebig, Uwe; Zeleny, Reinhard; Schimmel, Heinz; Rummel, Andreas; Luginbühl, Werner; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2015-12-01

    In the framework of the EU project EQuATox, a first international proficiency test (PT) on the detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) was conducted. Sample materials included BoNT serotypes A, B and E spiked into buffer, milk, meat extract and serum. Different methods were applied by the participants combining different principles of detection, identification and quantification. Based on qualitative assays, 95% of all results reported were correct. Successful strategies for BoNT detection were based on a combination of complementary immunological, MS-based and functional methods or on suitable functional in vivo/in vitro approaches (mouse bioassay, hemidiaphragm assay and Endopep-MS assay). Quantification of BoNT/A, BoNT/B and BoNT/E was performed by 48% of participating laboratories. It turned out that precise quantification of BoNT was difficult, resulting in a substantial scatter of quantitative data. This was especially true for results obtained by the mouse bioassay which is currently considered as "gold standard" for BoNT detection. The results clearly demonstrate the urgent need for certified BoNT reference materials and the development of methods replacing animal testing. In this context, the BoNT PT provided the valuable information that both the Endopep-MS assay and the hemidiaphragm assay delivered quantitative results superior to the mouse bioassay. PMID:26703724

  13. Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxins from Complex Matrices: Results of the First International Proficiency Test

    PubMed Central

    Worbs, Sylvia; Fiebig, Uwe; Zeleny, Reinhard; Schimmel, Heinz; Rummel, Andreas; Luginbühl, Werner; Dorner, Brigitte G.

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the EU project EQuATox, a first international proficiency test (PT) on the detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) was conducted. Sample materials included BoNT serotypes A, B and E spiked into buffer, milk, meat extract and serum. Different methods were applied by the participants combining different principles of detection, identification and quantification. Based on qualitative assays, 95% of all results reported were correct. Successful strategies for BoNT detection were based on a combination of complementary immunological, MS-based and functional methods or on suitable functional in vivo/in vitro approaches (mouse bioassay, hemidiaphragm assay and Endopep-MS assay). Quantification of BoNT/A, BoNT/B and BoNT/E was performed by 48% of participating laboratories. It turned out that precise quantification of BoNT was difficult, resulting in a substantial scatter of quantitative data. This was especially true for results obtained by the mouse bioassay which is currently considered as “gold standard” for BoNT detection. The results clearly demonstrate the urgent need for certified BoNT reference materials and the development of methods replacing animal testing. In this context, the BoNT PT provided the valuable information that both the Endopep-MS assay and the hemidiaphragm assay delivered quantitative results superior to the mouse bioassay. PMID:26703724

  14. Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxins from Complex Matrices: Results of the First International Proficiency Test.

    PubMed

    Worbs, Sylvia; Fiebig, Uwe; Zeleny, Reinhard; Schimmel, Heinz; Rummel, Andreas; Luginbühl, Werner; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2015-11-26

    In the framework of the EU project EQuATox, a first international proficiency test (PT) on the detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) was conducted. Sample materials included BoNT serotypes A, B and E spiked into buffer, milk, meat extract and serum. Different methods were applied by the participants combining different principles of detection, identification and quantification. Based on qualitative assays, 95% of all results reported were correct. Successful strategies for BoNT detection were based on a combination of complementary immunological, MS-based and functional methods or on suitable functional in vivo/in vitro approaches (mouse bioassay, hemidiaphragm assay and Endopep-MS assay). Quantification of BoNT/A, BoNT/B and BoNT/E was performed by 48% of participating laboratories. It turned out that precise quantification of BoNT was difficult, resulting in a substantial scatter of quantitative data. This was especially true for results obtained by the mouse bioassay which is currently considered as "gold standard" for BoNT detection. The results clearly demonstrate the urgent need for certified BoNT reference materials and the development of methods replacing animal testing. In this context, the BoNT PT provided the valuable information that both the Endopep-MS assay and the hemidiaphragm assay delivered quantitative results superior to the mouse bioassay.

  15. Predictions of tracer transport in interwell tracer tests at the C-Hole complex. Yucca Mountain site characterization project report milestone 4077

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, P.W.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents predictions of tracer transport in interwell tracer tests that are to be conducted at the C-Hole complex at the Nevada Test Site on behalf of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The predictions are used to make specific recommendations about the manner in which the tracer test should be conducted to best satisfy the needs of the Project. The objective of he tracer tests is to study flow and species transport under saturated conditions in the fractured tuffs near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the site of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. The potential repository will be located in the unsaturated zone within Yucca Mountain. The saturated zone beneath and around the mountain represents the final barrier to transport to the accessible environment that radionuclides will encounter if they breach the engineered barriers within the repository and the barriers to flow and transport provided by the unsaturated zone. Background information on the C-Holes is provided in Section 1.1, and the planned tracer testing program is discussed in Section 1.2.

  16. DWI and complex brain network analysis predicts vascular cognitive impairment in spontaneous hypertensive rats undergoing executive function tests

    PubMed Central

    López-Gil, Xavier; Amat-Roldan, Iván; Tudela, Raúl; Castañé, Anna; Prats-Galino, Alberto; Planas, Anna M.; Farr, Tracy D.; Soria, Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    The identification of biomarkers of vascular cognitive impairment is urgent for its early diagnosis. The aim of this study was to detect and monitor changes in brain structure and connectivity, and to correlate them with the decline in executive function. We examined the feasibility of early diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to predict cognitive impairment before onset in an animal model of chronic hypertension: Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Cognitive performance was tested in an operant conditioning paradigm that evaluated learning, memory, and behavioral flexibility skills. Behavioral tests were coupled with longitudinal diffusion weighted imaging acquired with 126 diffusion gradient directions and 0.3 mm3 isometric resolution at 10, 14, 18, 22, 26, and 40 weeks after birth. Diffusion weighted imaging was analyzed in two different ways, by regional characterization of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices, and by assessing changes in structural brain network organization based on Q-Ball tractography. Already at the first evaluated times, DTI scalar maps revealed significant differences in many regions, suggesting loss of integrity in white and gray matter of spontaneously hypertensive rats when compared to normotensive control rats. In addition, graph theory analysis of the structural brain network demonstrated a significant decrease of hierarchical modularity, global and local efficacy, with predictive value as shown by regional three-fold cross validation study. Moreover, these decreases were significantly correlated with the behavioral performance deficits observed at subsequent time points, suggesting that the diffusion weighted imaging and connectivity studies can unravel neuroimaging alterations even overt signs of cognitive impairment become apparent. PMID:25100993

  17. Analysis of single-hole and cross-hole tracer tests conducted at the Nye County early warning drilling program well complex, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Umari, A.; Earle, J.D.; Fahy, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the effort to understand the flow and transport characteristics downgradient from the proposed high-level radioactive waste geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, single- and cross-hole tracer tests were conducted from December 2004 through October 2005 in boreholes at the Nye County 22 well complex. The results were analyzed for transport properties using both numerical and analytical solutions of the governing advection dispersion equation. Preliminary results indicate effective flow porosity values ranging from 1.0 ?? 10-2 for an individual flow path to 2.0 ?? 10 -1 for composite flow paths, longitudinal dispersivity ranging from 0.3 to 3 m, and a transverse horizontal dispersivity of 0.03 m. Individual flow paths identified from the cross-hole testing indicate some solute diffusion into the stagnant portion of the alluvial aquifer.

  18. Completion summary for boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, drilled and constructed boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory in southeast Idaho. Borehole USGS 140 initially was cored to collect continuous geologic data, and then re-drilled to complete construction as a monitor well. Borehole USGS 141 was drilled and constructed as a monitor well without coring. Boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 are separated by about 375 feet (ft) and have similar geologic layers and hydrologic characteristics based on geophysical and aquifer test data collected. The final construction for boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 required 6-inch (in.) diameter carbon-steel well casing and 5-in. diameter stainless-steel well screen; the screened monitoring interval was completed about 50 ft into the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, between 496 and 546 ft below land surface (BLS) at both sites. Following construction and data collection, dedicated pumps and water-level access lines were placed to allow for aquifer testing, for collecting periodic water samples, and for measuring water levels. Borehole USGS 140 was cored continuously, starting from land surface to a depth of 543 ft BLS. Excluding surface sediment, recovery of basalt and sediment core at borehole USGS 140 was about 98 and 65 percent, respectively. Based on visual inspection of core and geophysical data, about 32 basalt flows and 4 sediment layers were collected from borehole USGS 140 between 34 and 543 ft BLS. Basalt texture for borehole USGS 140 generally was described as aphanitic, phaneritic, and porphyritic; rubble zones and flow mold structure also were described in recovered core material. Sediment layers, starting near 163 ft BLS, generally were composed of fine-grained sand and silt with a lesser amount of clay; however, between 223 and 228 ft BLS, silt

  19. The Power of Gene-Based Rare Variant Methods to Detect Disease-Associated Variation and Test Hypotheses About Complex Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fuchsberger, Christian; Flannick, Jason; Rivas, Manuel A.; Gaulton, Kyle J.; Albers, Patrick K.; McVean, Gil; Boehnke, Michael; Altshuler, David; McCarthy, Mark I.

    2015-01-01

    Genome and exome sequencing in large cohorts enables characterization of the role of rare variation in complex diseases. Success in this endeavor, however, requires investigators to test a diverse array of genetic hypotheses which differ in the number, frequency and effect sizes of underlying causal variants. In this study, we evaluated the power of gene-based association methods to interrogate such hypotheses, and examined the implications for study design. We developed a flexible simulation approach, using 1000 Genomes data, to (a) generate sequence variation at human genes in up to 10K case-control samples, and (b) quantify the statistical power of a panel of widely used gene-based association tests under a variety of allelic architectures, locus effect sizes, and significance thresholds. For loci explaining ~1% of phenotypic variance underlying a common dichotomous trait, we find that all methods have low absolute power to achieve exome-wide significance (~5-20% power at α=2.5×10-6) in 3K individuals; even in 10K samples, power is modest (~60%). The combined application of multiple methods increases sensitivity, but does so at the expense of a higher false positive rate. MiST, SKAT-O, and KBAC have the highest individual mean power across simulated datasets, but we observe wide architecture-dependent variability in the individual loci detected by each test, suggesting that inferences about disease architecture from analysis of sequencing studies can differ depending on which methods are used. Our results imply that tens of thousands of individuals, extensive functional annotation, or highly targeted hypothesis testing will be required to confidently detect or exclude rare variant signals at complex disease loci. PMID:25906071

  20. Increasing chlamydia screening tests in general practice: a modified Zelen prospective Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial evaluating a complex intervention based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, Cliodna A M; Hogan, Angela H; Ricketts, Ellie J; Wallace, Louise; Oliver, Isabel; Campbell, Rona; Kalwij, Sebastian; O'Connell, Elaine; Charlett, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if a structured complex intervention increases opportunistic chlamydia screening testing of patients aged 15–24 years attending English general practitioner (GP) practices. Methods A prospective, Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial with a modified Zelen design involving 160 practices in South West England in 2010. The intervention was based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). It comprised of practice-based education with up to two additional contacts to increase the importance of screening to GP staff and their confidence to offer tests through skill development (including videos). Practical resources (targets, posters, invitation cards, computer reminders, newsletters including feedback) aimed to actively influence social cognitions of staff, increasing their testing intention. Results Data from 76 intervention and 81 control practices were analysed. In intervention practices, chlamydia screening test rates were 2.43/100 15–24-year-olds registered preintervention, 4.34 during intervention and 3.46 postintervention; controls testing rates were 2.61/100 registered patients prior intervention, 3.0 during intervention and 2.82 postintervention. During the intervention period, testing in intervention practices was 1.76 times as great (CI 1.24 to 2.48) as controls; this persisted for 9 months postintervention (1.57 times as great, CI 1.27 to 2.30). Chlamydia infections detected increased in intervention practices from 2.1/1000 registered 15–24-year-olds prior intervention to 2.5 during the intervention compared with 2.0 and 2.3/1000 in controls (Estimated Rate Ratio intervention versus controls 1.4 (CI 1.01 to 1.93). Conclusions This complex intervention doubled chlamydia screening tests in fully engaged practices. The modified Zelen design gave realistic measures of practice full engagement (63%) and efficacy of this educational intervention in general practice; it should be used more often. Trial registration The trial was

  1. Modern analytics for naturally derived complex drug substances: NMR and MS tests for protamine sulfate from chum salmon.

    PubMed

    Gucinski, Ashley C; Boyne, Michael T; Keire, David A

    2015-01-01

    This work describes orthogonal NMR and MS tests for the structure and composition of the drug protamine sulfate derived from chum salmon. The spectral response pattern obtained by 1D-(1)H-NMR and MS methods from salmon protamine, a mixture of four predominant peptide chains, is dependent on the amino acid sequence and abundance of each peptide. Thus, an assay was developed based on the ratios of alanine, glycine and arginine amino acid residue NMR peaks (relative to the arginine CδH proton signal) in this mixture that are unique to the salmon source. In addition, MS analysis provided sensitive sequence determination and impurity analysis based on shifts from exact masses. Spectra from protamine sulfate active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) suppliers and from a formulated drug product purchased from the US market were examined. Based on these marketplace survey data, NMR acceptance criteria for chum salmon derived protamine sulfate could be based on the absence of aromatic amino acid signals and on ratios of Ala βH/Arg δH, Gly αH/Arg δH and Arg αH/Arg δH integrated areas of 2.4 ± 1%, 9.4 ± 3% and 50 ± 5%, respectively. For MS, acceptance criteria based on the presence of specific mass to charge (m/z) ratio peaks (m/z = +8 of 530.455, 540.841, 532.208 and 508.950) could be used for the four major peptides present in the mixture with relative abundances of 17 ± 1%, 31 ± 2%, 27 ± 1% and 25 ± 3%, respectively. The specificity of the combined NMR and MS assay was tested by comparison to data obtained from herring protamine which contains a different mixture of peptides with related amino acid sequences. Both assays were able to clearly distinguish protamine derived from these different natural sources.

  2. Development and testing of a compact basis set for use in effective core potential calculations on rhodium complexes.

    PubMed

    Roscioni, Otello M; Lee, Edmond P F; Dyke, John M

    2012-10-01

    We present a set of effective core potential (ECP) basis sets for rhodium atoms which are of reasonable size for use in electronic structure calculations. In these ECP basis sets, the Los Alamos ECP is used to simulate the effect of the core electrons while an optimized set of Gaussian functions, which includes polarization and diffuse functions, is used to describe the valence electrons. These basis sets were optimized to reproduce the ionization energy and electron affinity of atomic rhodium. They were also tested by computing the electronic ground state geometry and harmonic frequencies of [Rh(CO)(2) μ-Cl](2) , Rh(CO)(2) ClPy, and RhCO (neutral and its positive, and negative ions) as well as the enthalpy of the reaction of [Rh(CO)(2) μ-Cl](2) with pyridine (Py) to give Rh(CO)(2) ClPy, at different levels of theory. Good agreement with experimental values was obtained. Although the number of basis functions used in our ECP basis sets is smaller than those of other ECP basis sets of comparable quality, we show that the newly developed ECP basis sets provide the flexibility and precision required to reproduce a wide range of chemical and physical properties of rhodium compounds. Therefore, we recommend the use of these compact yet accurate ECP basis sets for electronic structure calculations on molecules involving rhodium atoms.

  3. Results of Hydraulic Tests in Miocene Tuffaceous Rocks at the C-Hole Complex, 1995 to 1997, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geldon, Arthur L.; Umari, Amjad M.A.; Fahy, Michael F.; Earle, John D.; Gemmell, James M.; Darnell, Jon

    2002-01-01

    Four hydraulic tests were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey at the C-hole complex at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, between May 1995 and November 1997. These tests were conducted as part of ongoing investigations to determine the hydrologic and geologic suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential site for permanent underground storage of high-level nuclear waste. The C-hole complex consists of three 900-meter-deep boreholes that are 30.4 to 76.6 meters apart. The C-holes are completed in fractured, variably welded tuffaceous rocks of Miocene age. Six hydrogeologic intervals occur within the saturated zone in these boreholes - the Calico Hills, Prow Pass, Upper Bullfrog, Lower Bullfrog, Upper Tram, and Lower Tram intervals. The Lower Bullfrog and Upper Tram intervals contributed about 90 percent of the flow during hydraulic tests. The four hydraulic tests conducted from 1995 to 1997 lasted 4 to 553 days. Discharge from the pumping well, UE-25 c #3, ranged from 8.49 to 22.5 liters per second in different tests. Two to seven observation wells, 30 to 3,526 meters from the pumping well, were used in different tests. Observation wells included UE-25 c #1, UE-25 c #2, UE-25 ONC-1, USW H-4, UE-25 WT #14, and UE-25 WT #3 in the tuffaceous rocks and UE-25 p #1 in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. In all hydraulic tests, drawdown in the pumping well was rapid and large (2.9-11 meters). Attributable mostly to frictional head loss and borehole-skin effects, this drawdown could not be used to analyze hydraulic properties. Drawdown and recovery in intervals of UE-25 c #1 and UE-25 c #2 and in other observation wells typically was less than 51 centimeters. These data were analyzed. Hydrogeologic intervals in the C-holes have layered heterogeneity related to faults and fracture zones. Transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, and storativity generally increase downhole. Transmissivity ranges from 4 to 1,600 meters squared per day; hydraulic conductivity ranges from 0.1 to 50 meters per day

  4. Sorption testing and generalized composite surface complexation models for determining uranium sorption parameters at a proposed in-situ recovery site

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Truax, Ryan A.; Lankford, David A.; Stone, James J.

    2016-02-03

    Solid-phase iron concentrations and generalized composite surface complexation models were used to evaluate procedures in determining uranium sorption on oxidized aquifer material at a proposed U in situ recovery (ISR) site. At the proposed Dewey Burdock ISR site in South Dakota, USA, oxidized aquifer material occurs downgradient of the U ore zones. Solid-phase Fe concentrations did not explain our batch sorption test results,though total extracted Fe appeared to be positively correlated with overall measured U sorption. Batch sorption test results were used to develop generalized composite surface complexation models that incorporated the full genericsorption potential of each sample, without detailedmore » mineralogiccharacterization. The resultant models provide U sorption parameters (site densities and equilibrium constants) for reactive transport modeling. The generalized composite surface complexation sorption models were calibrated to batch sorption data from three oxidized core samples using inverse modeling, and gave larger sorption parameters than just U sorption on the measured solidphase Fe. These larger sorption parameters can significantly influence reactive transport modeling, potentially increasing U attenuation. Because of the limited number of calibration points, inverse modeling required the reduction of estimated parameters by fixing two parameters. The best-fit models used fixed values for equilibrium constants, with the sorption site densities being estimated by the inversion process. While these inverse routines did provide best-fit sorption parameters, local minima and correlated parameters might require further evaluation. Despite our limited number of proxy samples, the procedures presented provide a valuable methodology to consider for sites where metal sorption parameters are required. Furthermore, these sorption parameters can be used in reactive transport modeling to assess downgradient metal attenuation, especially when no other

  5. [Taylor Complex Figure test: administration and correction according to a normalization and standardization process in Spanish population].

    PubMed

    del Pino, Rocío; Peña, Javier; Ibarretxe-Bilbao, Naroa; Schretlen, David J; Ojeda, Natalia

    2015-11-01

    Introduccion. La figura compleja de Taylor (FCT) fue creada como alternativa a la figura compleja de Rey-Osterrieth. Aunque ambas figuras son instrumentos ampliamente utilizados, no se ha realizado hasta la fecha la normalizacion de la FCT para poblacion española. Objetivo. Normalizar y estandarizar la FCT, considerando las caracteristicas sociodemograficas de la poblacion española. Sujetos y metodos. El presente estudio se enmarca dentro del proyecto Normacog. Se seleccionaron 700 participantes (rango: 18-90 años), y se evaluaron la capacidad visuoconstructiva y la memoria visual inmediata mediante la FCT. Se analizaron el efecto de la edad, el nivel educativo y el sexo sobre el rendimiento de la FCT, y se crearon los percentiles, las puntuaciones escalares para ocho rangos de edad y la puntuacion escalar ajustada por el nivel educativo. Resultados. Los resultados muestran un efecto significativo de la edad y el nivel educativo sobre el rendimiento en copia y memoria de la FCT, mientras que el sexo no influyo significativamente. La edad y la educacion explicaban el 25,3-35,7% de la varianza en la FCT. A mayor edad y menor nivel educativo, peor era el rendimiento obtenido en la FCT. Se obtienen los percentiles, las puntuaciones escalares para cada rango de edad y la puntuacion escalar individual ajustada por el nivel educativo. Conclusion. Se aportan los materiales para la administracion y correccion del test de FCT, asi como los datos normativos de la FCT teniendo en cuenta las caracteristicas sociodemograficas españolas para todo el rango adulto en nuestro pais.

  6. Testing Models of the APC Tumor Suppressor/β-Catenin Interaction Reshapes Our View of the Destruction Complex in Wnt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yamulla, Robert J.; Kane, Eric G.; Moody, Alexandra E.; Politi, Kristin A.; Lock, Nicole E.; Foley, Andrew V. A.; Roberts, David M.

    2014-01-01

    The Wnt pathway is a conserved signal transduction pathway that contributes to normal development and adult homeostasis, but is also misregulated in human diseases such as cancer. The tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is an essential negative regulator of Wnt signaling inactivated in >80% of colorectal cancers. APC participates in a multiprotein “destruction complex” that targets the proto-oncogene β-catenin for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis; however, the mechanistic role of APC in the destruction complex remains unknown. Several models of APC function have recently been proposed, many of which have emphasized the importance of phosphorylation of high-affinity β-catenin-binding sites [20-amino-acid repeats (20Rs)] on APC. Here we test these models by generating a Drosophila APC2 mutant lacking all β-catenin-binding 20Rs and performing functional studies in human colon cancer cell lines and Drosophila embryos. Our results are inconsistent with current models, as we find that β-catenin binding to the 20Rs of APC is not required for destruction complex activity. In addition, we generate an APC2 mutant lacking all β-catenin-binding sites (including the 15Rs) and find that a direct β-catenin/APC interaction is also not essential for β-catenin destruction, although it increases destruction complex efficiency in certain developmental contexts. Overall, our findings support a model whereby β-catenin-binding sites on APC do not provide a critical mechanistic function per se, but rather dock β-catenin in the destruction complex to increase the efficiency of β-catenin destruction. Furthermore, in Drosophila embryos expressing some APC2 mutant transgenes we observe a separation of β-catenin destruction and Wg/Wnt signaling outputs and suggest that cytoplasmic retention of β-catenin likely accounts for this difference. PMID:24931405

  7. Environmental assessment for double tracks test site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), with appropriate approvals from the U.S. Air Force (USAF), proposes to conduct environmental restoration operations at the Double Tracks test site located on the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) in Nye County, Nevada. This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates the potential environmental consequences of four alternative actions for conducting the restoration operation and of the no action alternative. The EA also identifies mitigation measures, where appropriate, designed to protect natural and cultural resources and reduce impacts to human health and safety. The environmental restoration operation at the Double Tracks test site would serve two primary objectives. First, the proposed work would evaluate the effectiveness of future restoration operations involving contamination over larger areas. The project would implement remediation technology options and evaluate how these technologies could be applied to the larger areas of contaminated soils on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), and the NAFR. Second, the remediation would provide for the removal of plutonium contamination down to or below a predetermined level which would require cleanup of 1 hectare (ha) (2.5 acres), for the most likely case, or up to 3.0 ha (7.4 acres) of contaminated soil, for the upper bounding case.

  8. Role of intercalation and redox potential in DNA photosensitization by ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes: assessment using DNA repair protein tests.

    PubMed

    Gicquel, Etienne; Souchard, Jean-Pierre; Magnusson, Fay; Chemaly, Jad; Calsou, Patrick; Vicendo, Patricia

    2013-08-01

    Here we report that the photoreactivity of ruthenium(II) complexes with nucleobases may not only be modulated by their photoredox properties but also by their DNA binding mode. The damage resulting from photolysis of synthetic oligonucleotides and plasmid DNA by [Ru(bpz)3](2+), [Ru(bipy)3](2+) and the two DNA intercalating agents [Ru(bpz)2dppz](2+) and [Ru(bipy)2dppz](2+) has been monitored by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by tests using proteins involved in DNA repair processes (DNA-PKCs, Ku80, Ku70, and PARP-1). The data show that intercalation controls the nature of the DNA damage photo-induced by ruthenium(II) complexes reacting with DNA via an electron transfer process. The intercalating agent [Ru(bpz)2dppz](2+) is a powerful DNA breaker inducing the formation of both single and double (DSBs) strand breaks which are recognized by the PARP-1 and DNA-PKCs proteins respectively. [Ru(bpz)2dppz](2+) is the first ruthenium(II) complex described in the literature that is able to induce DSBs by an electron transfer process. In contrast, its non-intercalating parent compound, [Ru(bpz)3](2+), is mostly an efficient DNA alkylating agent. Photoadducts are recognized by the proteins Ku70 and Ku80 as with cisplatin adducts. This result suggests that photoaddition of [Ru(bpz)2dppz](2+) is strongly affected by its DNA intercalation whereas its photonuclease activity is exalted. The data clearly show that DNA intercalation decreases drastically the photonuclease activity of ruthenium(II) complexes oxidizing guanine via the production of singlet oxygen. Interestingly, the DNA sequencing data revealed that the ligand dipyridophenazine exhibits on single-stranded oligonucleotides a preference for the 5'-TGCGT-3' sequence. Moreover the use of proteins involved in DNA repair processes to detect DNA damage was a powerful tool to examine the photoreactivity of ruthenium(II) complexes with nucleic acids. PMID:23835850

  9. Chemical analyses of soil samples collected from the vicinity of the thermal test complex at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico environs, 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Mark Laverne; Nieto, Danielle M.

    2007-01-01

    In the summer of 2006, the Environmental Programs and Assurance Department of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM), collected surface soil samples at 37 locations within one mile of the vicinity of the newly constructed Thermal Test Complex (TTC) for the purpose of determining baseline conditions against which potential future impacts to the environs from operations at the facility could be assessed. These samples were submitted to an offsite analytical laboratory for metal-in-soil analyses. This work provided the SNL Environmental Programs and Assurance Department with a sound baseline data reference set against which to assess potential future operational impacts at the TTC. In addition, it demonstrates the commitment that the Laboratories have to go beyond mere compliance to achieve excellence in its operations. This data are presented in graphical format with narrative commentaries on particular items of interest.

  10. Evidence suggesting superiority of visual (verbal) vs. auditory test presentation modality in the P300-based, Complex Trial Protocol for concealed autobiographical memory detection.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, J Peter; Ward, Anne; Frigo, Vincent; Drapekin, Jesse; Labkovsky, Elena

    2015-04-01

    One group of participants received a series of city name stimuli presented on trials of the Complex Trial Protocol (CTP) version of a P300-based, concealed information test (CIT). Stimuli were presented on alternating trials in either auditory or visual presentation modality. In 1/7 of the trials the participant's home town (probe) repeatedly appeared in a series of 6 other (irrelevant) repeated city names. In both modalities, probe stimuli produced larger P300s than irrelevant stimuli. Visual stimuli produced shorter behavioral reaction times and P300 latencies, as well as larger P300 probe amplitudes, probe-irrelevant amplitude differences, and individual diagnostic accuracies than the same stimuli presented in the auditory modality. Possible reasons for these effects are discussed, and subject to discussed limitations, the applied conclusion reached is that in all CITs, visual presentation of stimuli, if feasible, should be preferentially used. PMID:25728461

  11. Central Nevada Test Area, Nevada Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    The Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) is in the Hot Creek Valley of south-central Nevada, approximately 70 miles northeast of Tonopah. The CNTA consists of three parcels totaling 2,560 acres. The parcels are spaced approximately 3 miles apart along a roughly north-south line. The total acreage is currently withdrawn from all forms of appropriation associated with mining laws and leasing. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), acquired the CNTA in the early 1960s to develop alternative sites to the Nevada National Security Site (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site) for underground nuclear testing. Three emplacement boreholes (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4) were drilled on the three parcels at the CNTA for underground nuclear testing. The initial underground nuclear test at CNTA, Faultless, was conducted in borehole UC-1 at a depth of 3,199 feet below ground surface on January 19, 1968. The yield of the Faultless test was estimated to be 0.2 to 1 megaton. Its purpose was to evaluate the environmental and structural effects that might be expected if subsequent, higher-yield underground nuclear tests were conducted in this vicinity. The test resulted in a down-dropped fault block visible at land surface. In addition, seismic results supported the indication that the site was not favorable for larger detonations. The nuclear detonation created a cavity with a radius of approximately 328 feet. The Faultless test did not release any radioactivity at the surface, and no additional tests were conducted at the CNTA.

  12. Associations between speech understanding and auditory and visual tests of verbal working memory: effects of linguistic complexity, task, age, and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sherri L; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Listeners with hearing loss commonly report having difficulty understanding speech, particularly in noisy environments. Their difficulties could be due to auditory and cognitive processing problems. Performance on speech-in-noise tests has been correlated with reading working memory span (RWMS), a measure often chosen to avoid the effects of hearing loss. If the goal is to assess the cognitive consequences of listeners' auditory processing abilities, however, then listening working memory span (LWMS) could be a more informative measure. Some studies have examined the effects of different degrees and types of masking on working memory, but less is known about the demands placed on working memory depending on the linguistic complexity of the target speech or the task used to measure speech understanding in listeners with hearing loss. Compared to RWMS, LWMS measures using different speech targets and maskers may provide a more ecologically valid approach. To examine the contributions of RWMS and LWMS to speech understanding, we administered two working memory measures (a traditional RWMS measure and a new LWMS measure), and a battery of tests varying in the linguistic complexity of the speech materials, the presence of babble masking, and the task. Participants were a group of younger listeners with normal hearing and two groups of older listeners with hearing loss (n = 24 per group). There was a significant group difference and a wider range in performance on LWMS than on RWMS. There was a significant correlation between both working memory measures only for the oldest listeners with hearing loss. Notably, there were only few significant correlations among the working memory and speech understanding measures. These findings suggest that working memory measures reflect individual differences that are distinct from those tapped by these measures of speech understanding. PMID:26441769

  13. Validation of sensitivity and reliability of GPR and microgravity detection of underground cavities in complex urban settings: Test case of a cellar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chromčák, Jakub; Grinč, Michal; Pánisová, Jaroslava; Vajda, Peter; Kubová, Anna

    2016-03-01

    We test here the feasibility of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and microgravity methods in identifying underground voids, such as cellars, tunnels, abandoned mine-workings, etc., in complex urban conditions. For this purpose, we selected a cellar located under a private lot in a residential quarter of the town of Senec in Western Slovakia, which was discovered by chance when a small sinkhole developed on the yard just two meters away from the house. The size of our survey area was limited 1) by the presence of a technical room built at the back of the yard with a staircase leading to the garden, and 2) by the small width of the lot. Therefore the geophysical survey was carried out only in the backyard of the lot as we were not permitted to measure on neighbouring estates. The results from the GPR measurements obtained by the GSSI SIR-3000 system with 400 MHz antenna were visualized in the form of 2D radargrams with the corresponding transformed velocity model of studied cross-sections. Only the profiles running over the pavement next to the house yielded interpretable data because the local geological situation and the regular watering of the lawn covering prevailingly the backyard caused significant attenuation of the emitted GPR signal. The Bouguer gravity map is dominated by a distinctive negative anomaly indicating the presence of a shallow underground void. The quantitative interpretation by means of Euler deconvolution was utilized to validate the depth of the center and location of the cellar. Comparison with the gravitational effect of the cellar model calculated in the in-house program Polygrav shows a quite good correlation between the modelled and observed fields. Only a part of the aerial extent of the anomaly could be traced by the used geophysical methods due to accessibility issues. Nevertheless, the test cellar was successfully detected and interpreted by both methods, thus confirming their applicability in similar environmental and geotechnical

  14. Associations between speech understanding and auditory and visual tests of verbal working memory: effects of linguistic complexity, task, age, and hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sherri L.; Pichora-Fuller, M. Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Listeners with hearing loss commonly report having difficulty understanding speech, particularly in noisy environments. Their difficulties could be due to auditory and cognitive processing problems. Performance on speech-in-noise tests has been correlated with reading working memory span (RWMS), a measure often chosen to avoid the effects of hearing loss. If the goal is to assess the cognitive consequences of listeners’ auditory processing abilities, however, then listening working memory span (LWMS) could be a more informative measure. Some studies have examined the effects of different degrees and types of masking on working memory, but less is known about the demands placed on working memory depending on the linguistic complexity of the target speech or the task used to measure speech understanding in listeners with hearing loss. Compared to RWMS, LWMS measures using different speech targets and maskers may provide a more ecologically valid approach. To examine the contributions of RWMS and LWMS to speech understanding, we administered two working memory measures (a traditional RWMS measure and a new LWMS measure), and a battery of tests varying in the linguistic complexity of the speech materials, the presence of babble masking, and the task. Participants were a group of younger listeners with normal hearing and two groups of older listeners with hearing loss (n = 24 per group). There was a significant group difference and a wider range in performance on LWMS than on RWMS. There was a significant correlation between both working memory measures only for the oldest listeners with hearing loss. Notably, there were only few significant correlations among the working memory and speech understanding measures. These findings suggest that working memory measures reflect individual differences that are distinct from those tapped by these measures of speech understanding. PMID:26441769

  15. Concordance between molecular and phenotypic testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates for resistance to rifampin and isoniazid in the United States.

    PubMed

    Yakrus, Mitchell A; Driscoll, Jeffrey; Lentz, Allison J; Sikes, David; Hartline, Denise; Metchock, Beverly; Starks, Angela M

    2014-06-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) are defined by resistance to at least rifampin (RMP) and isoniazid (INH). Rapid and accurate detection of multidrug resistance is essential for effective treatment and interruption of disease transmission of tuberculosis (TB). Overdiagnosis of MDR TB may result in treatment with second-line drugs that are more costly, less effective, and more poorly tolerated than first-line drugs. CDC offers rapid confirmation of MDR TB by the molecular detection of drug resistance (MDDR) for mutations associated with resistance to RMP and INH along with analysis for resistance to other first-line and second-line drugs. Simultaneously, CDC does growth-based phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) by the indirect agar proportion method for a panel of first-line and second-line antituberculosis drugs. We reviewed discordance between molecular and phenotypic DST for INH and RMP for 285 isolates submitted as MTBC to CDC from September 2009 to February 2011. We compared CDC's results with those from the submitting public health laboratories (PHL). Concordances between molecular and phenotypic testing at CDC were 97.4% for RMP and 92.5% for INH resistance. Concordances between CDC's molecular testing and PHL DST results were 93.9% for RMP and 90.0% for INH. Overall concordance between CDC molecular and PHL DST results was 91.7% for RMP and INH collectively. Discordance was primarily attributable to the absence of known INH resistance mutations in isolates found to be INH resistant by DST and detection of mutations associated with low-level RMP resistance in isolates that were RMP susceptible by phenotypic DST. Both molecular and phenotypic test results should be considered for the diagnosis of MDR TB.

  16. Analysis of a multiple-well interference test in Miocene tuffaceous rocks at the C-Hole complex, May--June 1995, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Geldon, A.L.; Umari, A.M.A.; Earle, J.D.; Fahy, M.F.; Gemmell, J.M.; Darnell, J.

    1998-09-01

    A multiple-well interference (pumping) test was conducted in Miocene tuffaceous rocks at the C-hole complex at Yucca Mountain, Nev., from May 22 to June 12, 1995, by the US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy. This pumping test was conducted as part of investigations to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential site for the storage of high-level nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository. During the test, borehole UE-25 c{number_sign}3 was pumped for 10 days at an average rate of 17.9 liters per second. Drawdown in 6 observation wells completed in Miocene tuffaceous rocks 29.0--3,525.6 meters from the pumping well ranged from 0 to 0.42 meters 14,000 minutes after pumping started. The spatial distribution of this drawdown indicates that a northwest-trending zone of discontinuous faults might be affecting ground-water movement in the Miocene tuffaceous rocks near the C-holes. No drawdown was observed in a borehole completed in a regional Paleozoic carbonate aquifer 630.0 meters from the pumping well. Consequently, it could not be determined during the pumping test if the Miocene tuffaceous rocks are connected hydraulically to the regional aquifer. Analyses of drawdown and recovery indicate that the Miocene tuffaceous rocks in the vicinity of the C-holes have transmissivity values of 1,600--3,200 meters squared per day, horizontal hydraulic conductivity values of 6.5--13 meters per day, vertical hydraulic conductivity values of 0.2--1.7 meters per day, storativity values of 0.001--0.003, and specific yield values of 0.01--0.2.

  17. Diagnostic test accuracy of anti-glycopeptidolipid-core IgA antibodies for Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Yuji; Horita, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Tsukahara, Toshinori; Nagakura, Hideyuki; Tashiro, Ken; Watanabe, Hiroki; Nagai, Kenjiro; Nakashima, Kentaro; Ushio, Ryota; Ikeda, Misako; Narita, Atsuya; Kanai, Akinori; Sato, Takashi; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Currently, an anti-glycopeptidolipid (GPL)-core IgA antibody assay kit for diagnosing Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is commercially available. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to reveal the precise diagnostic accuracy of anti-GPL-core IgA antibodies for MAC pulmonary disease (MAC-PD). We systematically searched reports that could provide data for both sensitivity and specificity by anti-GPL-core IgA antibody for clinically diagnosed MAC-PD. Diagnostic test accuracy was estimated using the bivariate model. Of the 257 articles that we had found through primary search, we finally included 16 reports consisted of 1098 reference positive subjects and 2270 reference negative subjects. The diagnostic odds ratio was 24.8 (95% CI 11.6–52.8, I2 = 5.5%) and the area under the hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curves was 0.873 (95% CI 0.837–0.913). With a cutoff value of 0.7 U/mL, the summary estimates of sensitivity and specificity were 0.696 (95% CI 0.621–0.761) and 0.906 (95% CI 0.836–0.951), respectively. The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 7.4 (95% CI 4.1–13.8) and 0.34 (95% CI 0.26–0.43), respectively. The demanding clinical diagnostic criteria may be a cause of false positive of the index test. The index test had good overall diagnostic accuracy and was useful to ruling in MAC-PD with the cutoff value. PMID:27373718

  18. Implication of complex vertebral malformation and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency DNA-based testing on disease frequency in the Holstein population.

    PubMed

    Schütz, E; Scharfenstein, M; Brenig, B

    2008-12-01

    Two inherited lethal disorders, bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) and complex vertebral malformation (CVM), play a major role in breeding of Holstein cattle. Both inherited diseases are based on single nucleotide polymorphisms that have been known for 12 and 7 yr, respectively. A total of 25,753 cattle were genotyped for BLAD (18,200 tests) and CVM (14,493 tests) in our laboratory since the beginning of the genotyping programs for these diseases. Based on founder effects, the CVM mutation is thought to be linked to milk production. The BLAD was genotyped using RFLP until 2001; then a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay on a LightCycler was used, as for CVM genotyping. By using single nucleotide polymorphism-aided breeding, the allelic frequency of the BLAD and CVM mutations in the active sire population was reduced from 9.4% in 1997 to 0.3% in 2007 (BLAD) and from 8.3% in 2002 to 2.3% in 2007 (CVM), with calculated half-life of the mutant allele of 2.1 yr for BLAD and 3.6 yr for CVM. An observed increase of BLAD frequency in 1999 could be attributed to the massive use of a BLAD-positive sire tested falsely negative in another laboratory. These data show that marker-assisted selection is capable of substantially reducing the frequency of a mutation within a period of not more than 5 yr. The different selection strategies against the lethal recessive allele in CVM and BLAD are reflected in the different reduction rates of the specific allele frequencies. PMID:19038961

  19. A multiple testing approach for hazard evaluation of complex mixtures in the aquatic environment: the use of diesel oil as a model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, B. Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Traditional single species toxicity tests and multiple component laboratory-scaled microcosm assays were combined to assess the toxicological hazard of diesel oil, a model complex mixture, to a model aquatic environment. The immediate impact of diesel oil dosed on a freshwater community was studied in a model pond microcosm over 14 days: a 7-day dosage and a 7-day recovery period. A multicomponent laboratory microcosm was designed to monitor the biological effects of diesel oil (1·0 mg litre−1) on four components: water, sediment (soil + microbiota), plants (aquatic macrophytes and algae), and animals (zooplanktonic and zoobenthic invertebrates). To determine the sensitivity of each part of the community to diesel oil contamination and how this model community recovered when the oil dissipated, limnological, toxicological, and microbiological variables were considered. Our model revealed these significant occurrences during the spill period: first, a community production and respiration perturbation, characterized in the water column by a decrease in dissolved oxygen and redox potential and a concomitant increase in alkalinity and conductivity; second, marked changes in microbiota of sediments that included bacterial heterotrophic dominance and a high heterotrophic index (0·6), increased bacterial productivity, and the marked increases in numbers of saprophytic bacteria (10 x) and bacterial oil degraders (1000 x); and third, column water acutely toxic (100% mortality) to two model taxa: Selenastrum capricornutum and Daphnia magna. Following the simulated clean-up procedure to remove the oil slick, the recovery period of this freshwater microcosm was characterized by a return to control values. This experimental design emphasized monitoring toxicological responses in aquatic microcosm; hence, we proposed the term ‘toxicosm’ to describe this approach to aquatic toxicological hazard evaluation. The toxicosm as a valuable toxicological tool for screening

  20. A multiple testing approach for hazard evaluation of complex mixtures in the aquatic environment: the use of diesel oil as a model.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B T; Romanenko, V I

    1989-01-01

    Traditional single species toxicity tests and multiple component laboratory-scaled microcosm assays were combined to assess the toxicological hazard of diesel oil, a model complex mixture, to a model aquatic environment. The immediate impact of diesel oil dosed on a freshwater community was studied in a model pond microcosm over 14 days: a 7-day dosage and a 7-day recovery period. A multicomponent laboratory microcosm was designed to monitor the biological effects of diesel oil (1.0 mg litre(-1)) on four components: water, sediment (soil + microbiota), plants (aquatic macrophytes and algae), and animals (zooplanktonic and zoobenthic invertebrates). To determine the sensitivity of each part of the community to diesel oil contamination and how this model community recovered when the oil dissipated, limnological, toxicological, and microbiological variables were considered. Our model revealed these significant occurrences during the spill period: first, a community production and respiration perturbation, characterized in the water column by a decrease in dissolved oxygen and redox potential and a concomitant increase in alkalinity and conductivity; second, marked changes in microbiota of sediments that included bacterial heterotrophic dominance and a high heterotrophic index (0.6), increased bacterial productivity, and the marked increases in numbers of saprophytic bacteria (10 x) and bacterial oil degraders (1000 x); and third, column water acutely toxic (100% mortality) to two model taxa: Selenastrum capricornutum and Daphnia magna. Following the simulated clean-up procedure to remove the oil slick, the recovery period of this freshwater microcosm was characterized by a return to control values. This experimental design emphasized monitoring toxicological responses in aquatic microcosm; hence, we proposed the term 'toxicosm' to describe this approach to aquatic toxicological hazard evaluation. The toxicosm as a valuable toxicological tool for screening aquatic

  1. A Non-Electrostatic Surface Complexation Approach to Modeling Radionuclide Migration at the Nevada Test Site: I. Iron Oxides and Calcite

    SciTech Connect

    Zavarin, M; Bruton, C J

    2004-12-17

    Reliable quantitative prediction of contaminant transport in subsurface environments is critical to evaluating the risks associated with radionuclide migration. As part of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project, radionuclide transport away from various underground nuclear tests conducted in the saturated zone at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is being examined. In the near-field environment, reactive transport simulations must account for changes in water chemistry and mineralogy as a function of time and their effect on radionuclide migration. Unlike the K{sub d} approach, surface complexation (SC) reactions, in conjunction with ion exchange and precipitation, can be used to describe radionuclide reactive transport as a function of changing environmental conditions. They provide a more robust basis for describing radionuclide retardation in geochemically dynamic environments. The interaction between several radionuclides considered relevant to the UGTA project and iron oxides and calcite are examined in this report. The interaction between these same radionuclides and aluminosilicate minerals is examined in a companion report (Zavarin and Bruton, 2004). Selection criteria for radionuclides were based on abundance, half-life, toxicity to human and environmental health, and potential mobility at NTS (Tompson et al., 1999). Both iron oxide and calcite minerals are known to be present at NTS in various locations and are likely to affect radionuclide migration from the near-field. Modeling the interaction between radionuclides and these minerals was based on surface complexation. The effectiveness of the most simplified SC model, the one-site Non-Electrostatic Model (NEM), to describe sorption under various solution conditions is evaluated in this report. NEM reactions were fit to radionuclide sorption data available in the literature, as well as sorption data recently collected for the UGTA project, and a NEM database was developed. For radionuclide-iron oxide sorption

  2. Pilot study to test the feasibility of a trial design and complex intervention on PRIoritising MUltimedication in Multimorbidity in general practices (PRIMUMpilot)

    PubMed Central

    Muth, Christiane; Harder, Sebastian; Uhlmann, Lorenz; Rochon, Justine; Fullerton, Birgit; Güthlin, Corina; Erler, Antje; Beyer, Martin; van den Akker, Marjan; Perera, Rafael; Knottnerus, André; Valderas, Jose M; Gerlach, Ferdinand M; Haefeli, Walter E

    2016-01-01

    Objective To improve medication appropriateness and adherence in elderly patients with multimorbidity, we developed a complex intervention involving general practitioners (GPs) and their healthcare assistants (HCA). In accordance with the Medical Research Council guidance on developing and evaluating complex interventions, we prepared for the main study by testing the feasibility of the intervention and study design in a cluster randomised pilot study. Setting 20 general practices in Hesse, Germany. Participants 100 cognitively intact patients ≥65 years with ≥3 chronic conditions, ≥5 chronic prescriptions and capable of participating in telephone interviews; 94 patients completed the study. Intervention The HCA conducted a checklist-based interview with patients on medication-related problems and reconciled their medications. Assisted by a computerised decision-support system (CDSS), the GPs discussed medication intake with patients and adjusted their medication regimens. The control group continued with usual care. Outcome measures Feasibility of the intervention and required time were assessed for GPs, HCAs and patients using mixed methods (questionnaires, interviews and case vignettes after completion of the study). The feasibility of the study was assessed concerning success of achieving recruitment targets, balancing cluster sizes and minimising drop-out rates. Exploratory outcomes included the medication appropriateness index (MAI), quality of life, functional status and adherence-related measures. MAI was evaluated blinded to group assignment, and intra-rater/inter-rater reliability was assessed for a subsample of prescriptions. Results 10 practices were randomised and analysed per group. GPs/HCAs were satisfied with the interventions despite the time required (35/45 min/patient). In case vignettes, GPs/HCAs needed help using the CDSS. The study made no patients feel uneasy. Intra-rater/inter-rater reliability for MAI was excellent. Inclusion

  3. Species-specific responses to island connectivity cycles: refined models for testing phylogeographic concordance across a Mediterranean Pleistocene Aggregate Island Complex.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Anna; Knowles, L Lacey

    2015-08-01

    The contribution of Pleistocene sea level changes to diversification patterns in archipelagos around the world, and specifically whether the repeated cycles of island connectivity and isolation acted as a 'species pump' is debated. The debate has been perpetuated in part because of the type of evidence used to evaluate the species-pump hypothesis. Specifically, existing tests of the 'Pleistocene Aggregate Island Complex' (PAIC) model of diversification interpret the lack of concordant divergence times among multiple codistributed taxa as a rejection of the PAIC model. However, the null expectation of concordance disregards taxon-specific ecological traits and geographic characteristics that may affect population persistence and gene flow among islands. Here, we study the factors affecting population divergence in thirteen flightless darkling beetle species (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) across the PAIC system of the Cycladic plateau in the Aegean archipelago. Based on isolation-by-resistance analyses, hierarchical amova and the degree of genealogical sorting on individual islands, we identify a major effect of bathymetry and habitat stability on the levels of genetic divergence across the PAIC, with island size and body size playing a secondary role as well. We subsequently use bathymetric maps and habitat association to generate predictions about the set of islands and group of taxa expected to show phylogeographic concordance. We test these predictions using hierarchical approximate Bayesian computation and show how our interpretations regarding the role of PAICs as drivers of divergence change when relying on a null expectation of concordance compared to a refined model that takes geography and ecological traits into account. PMID:26154606

  4. Species-specific responses to island connectivity cycles: refined models for testing phylogeographic concordance across a Mediterranean Pleistocene Aggregate Island Complex.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Anna; Knowles, L Lacey

    2015-08-01

    The contribution of Pleistocene sea level changes to diversification patterns in archipelagos around the world, and specifically whether the repeated cycles of island connectivity and isolation acted as a 'species pump' is debated. The debate has been perpetuated in part because of the type of evidence used to evaluate the species-pump hypothesis. Specifically, existing tests of the 'Pleistocene Aggregate Island Complex' (PAIC) model of diversification interpret the lack of concordant divergence times among multiple codistributed taxa as a rejection of the PAIC model. However, the null expectation of concordance disregards taxon-specific ecological traits and geographic characteristics that may affect population persistence and gene flow among islands. Here, we study the factors affecting population divergence in thirteen flightless darkling beetle species (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) across the PAIC system of the Cycladic plateau in the Aegean archipelago. Based on isolation-by-resistance analyses, hierarchical amova and the degree of genealogical sorting on individual islands, we identify a major effect of bathymetry and habitat stability on the levels of genetic divergence across the PAIC, with island size and body size playing a secondary role as well. We subsequently use bathymetric maps and habitat association to generate predictions about the set of islands and group of taxa expected to show phylogeographic concordance. We test these predictions using hierarchical approximate Bayesian computation and show how our interpretations regarding the role of PAICs as drivers of divergence change when relying on a null expectation of concordance compared to a refined model that takes geography and ecological traits into account.

  5. [Estimation of efficiency of complex-method intestinal therapy using Nitella flexilis test-object for acute intestinal obstruction of various etiology].

    PubMed

    Berishvili, K L; Rummo, O O; Kirkovskiĭ, V V; Tret'iak, S I; Korotkov, S V

    2005-12-01

    The aim of our investigation was to define the presence of correlation between toxicity of intestinal contents and clinical and laboratory indices in the cases of ileus and peritonitis with the use of complex method of enteral therapy. Experiments have been carried out on internodal cells of Nitella Flexilis water plant. Efficiency of the given method (investigation of toxicity of the intestinal content with the use of test-object Nitella Flexilis) has been studied in 25 patients, who underwent correction of morpho-functional status of small intestine. Results of investigation have shown that changes in toxicity of intestinal content reliably reflect the nature and dynamics of the pathobiologic processes proceeding in GIS in treated patients suffering from acute intestinal impassability. Using the method of correction of morpho-functional status of small intestine decreases the role of "Intestinal factor" in formation of endogenous intoxication, which in turn results in early normalization of clinical and laboratory indices, favored process of early post-operational period, decreased rate of lethality and shortened rehabilitation period.

  6. Gauge cooling for the singular-drift problem in the complex Langevin method — a test in Random Matrix Theory for finite density QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Keitaro; Nishimura, Jun; Shimasaki, Shinji

    2016-07-01

    Recently, the complex Langevin method has been applied successfully to finite density QCD either in the deconfinement phase or in the heavy dense limit with the aid of a new technique called the gauge cooling. In the confinement phase with light quarks, however, convergence to wrong limits occurs due to the singularity in the drift term caused by small eigenvalues of the Dirac operator including the mass term. We propose that this singular-drift problem should also be overcome by the gauge cooling with different criteria for choosing the complexified gauge transformation. The idea is tested in chiral Random Matrix Theory for finite density QCD, where exact results are reproduced at zero temperature with light quarks. It is shown that the gauge cooling indeed changes drastically the eigenvalue distribution of the Dirac operator measured during the Langevin process. Despite its non-holomorphic nature, this eigenvalue distribution has a universal diverging behavior at the origin in the chiral limit due to a generalized Banks-Casher relation as we confirm explicitly.

  7. 2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    mike lewis

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2009 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of compliance activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 permit year, approximately 164 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  8. 2014 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Mike

    2015-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2013–October 31, 2014. The report contains the following information; Facility and system description; Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; Permit required groundwater monitoring data; Status of compliance activities; Noncompliance issues; and Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2014 permit year, approximately 238 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters are below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the downgradient monitoring wells.

  9. 2013 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2012–October 31, 2013. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of compliance activities • Noncompliance issues • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2013 permit year, approximately 238 million gallons of wastewater was discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters are below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  10. Superiority of visual (verbal) vs. auditory test presentation modality in a P300-based CIT: The Complex Trial Protocol for concealed autobiographical memory detection.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaohong; Rosenfeld, J Peter; Ward, Anne; Labkovsky, Elena

    2016-07-01

    This paper continues our efforts to determine which modality is best for presentation of stimuli in the P300-based concealed information test (CIT) called the Complex Trial Protocol (CTP). The first part of the CTP trial involves presentation of the key probe or irrelevant stimuli, and is followed by presentation of target (T) or non-target (NT). In Rosenfeld et al. (2015), probes and irrelevants regularly alternated modality over trials, but Ts and NTs were always visual. In the present study, (in both its experiments, EXP 1 and EXP 2), probes and irrelevants alternated modalities on successive trials, as before. In present EXP 1, Ts and NTs were always auditory, but in EXP 2, they were simultaneously auditory and visual. Probe P300 data were different in each study: In Rosenfeld et al. (2015) and EXP 2 here, the bootstrap-based detection rates based on probe-minus-irrelevant differences, significantly differed favoring visual probe and irrelevant presentation modality. In EXP 1 here, detection rates were the same for the two modalities. In Rosenfeld et al. (2015) there was no main effect of probe modality, visual vs. auditory on probe-minus-irrelevant P300 difference. There were such effects here in EXP 1 (p<0.08, effect size=0.19) and EXP 2 (p<0.02, effect size=0.31), favoring the visual modality. Probe P300 latencies were shorter for visual than for auditory stimuli in Rosenfeld et al. (2015), a trend specifically reversed in the present pair of studies. RT was faster for visual stimuli in the present studies. The T and NT modality appears to interact with probe/irrelevant modality, and the best protocol for detecting concealed information is with the 2015 study protocol or that of EXP 2, using visual stimulus presentation.

  11. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills, ed.

    2010-09-13

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009 was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This and previous years’ Nevada Test Site Environmental Reports (NTSERs) are posted on the NNSA/NSO website at http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx. This NTSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order DOE O 231.1A, “Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.” Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NNSA/NSO Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This NTSER summarizes data and compliance status for calendar year 2009 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and its two support facilities, the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF) and the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL)-Nellis. It also addresses environmental restoration (ER) projects conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Through a Memorandum of Agreement, NNSA/NSO is responsible for the oversight of TTR ER projects, and the Sandia Site Office of NNSA (NNSA/SSO) has oversight of all other TTR activities. NNSA/SSO produces the TTR annual environmental report available at http://www.sandia.gov/news/publications/environmental/index.html.

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes three flame test demonstrations including "Student-Presented Demonstrations on the Colors of Transition Metal Complexes,""A Flame Test Demonstration Device," and "Vivid Flame Tests." Preparation and procedures are discussed. Included in the first demonstration is an evaluation scheme for grading student demonstrations. (CW)

  13. German Children’s Use of Word Order and Case Marking to Interpret Simple and Complex Sentences: Testing Differences Between Constructions and Lexical Items

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Silke; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Children and adults follow cues such as case marking and word order in their assignment of semantic roles in simple transitives (e.g., the dog chased the cat). It has been suggested that the same cues are used for the interpretation of complex sentences, such as transitive relative clauses (RCs) (e.g., that’s the dog that chased the cat) (Bates, Devescovi, & D’Amico, 1999). We used a pointing paradigm to test German-speaking 3-, 4-, and 6-year-old children’s sensitivity to case marking and word order in their interpretation of simple transitives and transitive RCs. In Experiment 1, case marking was ambiguous. The only cue available was word order. In Experiment 2, case was marked on lexical NPs or demonstrative pronouns. In Experiment 3, case was marked on lexical NPs or personal pronouns. Whereas the younger children mainly followed word order, the older children were more likely to base their interpretations on the more reliable case-marking cue. In most cases, children from both age groups were more likely to use these cues in their interpretation of simple transitives than in their interpretation of transitive RCs. Finally, children paid more attention to nominative case when it was marked on first-person personal pronouns than when it was marked on third-person lexical NPs or demonstrative pronouns, such as der Löwe ‘the-NOM lion’ or der ‘he-NOM.’ They were able to successfully integrate this case-marking cue in their sentence processing even when it appeared late in the sentence. We discuss four potential reasons for these differences across development, constructions, and lexical items. (1) Older children are relatively more sensitive to cue reliability. (2) Word order is more reliable in simple transitives than in transitive RCs. (3) The processing of case marking might initially be item-specific. (4) The processing of case marking might depend on its saliency and position in the sentence. PMID:27019652

  14. Evaluation of soil radioactivity data from the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    Since 1951, 933 nuclear tests have been conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and test areas on the adjacent Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR). Until the early 1960s. the majority of tests were atmospheric, involving detonation of nuclear explosive devices on the ground or on a tower, suspended from a balloon or dropped from an airplane. Since the signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty in 1963, most tests have been conducted underground, although several shallow subsurface tests took place between 1962 and 1968. As a result of the aboveground and near-surface nuclear explosions, as well as ventings of underground tests, destruction of nuclear devices with conventional explosives, and nuclear-rocket engine tests, the surface soil on portions of the NTS has been contaminated with radionuclides. Relatively little consideration was given to the environmental effects of nuclear testing during the first two decades of operations at the NTS. Since the early 1970s, however, increasingly strict environmental regulations have forced greater attention to be given to contamination problems at the site and how to remediate them. One key element in the current environmental restoration program at the NTS is determining the amount and extent of radioactivity in the surface soil. The general distribution of soil radioactivity on the NTS is already well known as a result of several programs carried out in the 1970s and 1980s. However, questions have been raised as to whether the data from those earlier studies are suitable for use in the current environmental assessments and risk analyses. The primary purpose of this preliminary data review is to determine to what extent the historical data collected at the NTS can be used in the characterization/remediation process.

  15. Oxygen-assisted excitation of methyl iodide as a test of double spin-flip transition in van der Waals complex CH3I-O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomolov, Alexandr S.; Kochubei, Sergei A.; Baklanov, Alexey V.

    2016-09-01

    Photoexcitation of van der Waals (vdW) complex CH3I-O2 has been studied with velocity map imaging of I atoms arising in photodissociation. A new scheme of resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization of iodine atoms has been applied with simultaneous use of UV and VIS radiation. The measured kinetic energy of I(2P3/2) atoms indicates photogeneration of precursor CH3I molecules via complex-specific channel with excitation energy expected for double spin-flip transition in complex CH3I-O2. The angular distribution for recoil directions of I(2P3/2) atoms coming from vdW complexes also corresponds to that expected for double spin-flip transition.

  16. The effects of serial skin testing with purified protein derivative on the level and quality of antibodies to complex and defined antigens in Mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several serologic tests designed to detect antibodies to immunodominant Mycobacterium bovis antigens have recently emerged as ancillary tests for the detection of bovine tuberculosis in cattle, particularly when applied after injection of purified protein derivative (PPD) for skin test that signific...

  17. Toll-like receptor signaling in vertebrates: testing the integration of protein, complex, and pathway data in the protein ontology framework.

    PubMed

    Arighi, Cecilia; Shamovsky, Veronica; Masci, Anna Maria; Ruttenberg, Alan; Smith, Barry; Natale, Darren A; Wu, Cathy; D'Eustachio, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Protein Ontology (PRO) provides terms for and supports annotation of species-specific protein complexes in an ontology framework that relates them both to their components and to species-independent families of complexes. Comprehensive curation of experimentally known forms and annotations thereof is expected to expose discrepancies, differences, and gaps in our knowledge. We have annotated the early events of innate immune signaling mediated by Toll-Like Receptor 3 and 4 complexes in human, mouse, and chicken. The resulting ontology and annotation data set has allowed us to identify species-specific gaps in experimental data and possible functional differences between species, and to employ inferred structural and functional relationships to suggest plausible resolutions of these discrepancies and gaps.

  18. Toll-Like Receptor Signaling in Vertebrates: Testing the Integration of Protein, Complex, and Pathway Data in the Protein Ontology Framework

    PubMed Central

    Ruttenberg, Alan; Smith, Barry; Natale, Darren A.; Wu, Cathy; D’Eustachio, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Protein Ontology (PRO) provides terms for and supports annotation of species-specific protein complexes in an ontology framework that relates them both to their components and to species-independent families of complexes. Comprehensive curation of experimentally known forms and annotations thereof is expected to expose discrepancies, differences, and gaps in our knowledge. We have annotated the early events of innate immune signaling mediated by Toll-Like Receptor 3 and 4 complexes in human, mouse, and chicken. The resulting ontology and annotation data set has allowed us to identify species-specific gaps in experimental data and possible functional differences between species, and to employ inferred structural and functional relationships to suggest plausible resolutions of these discrepancies and gaps. PMID:25894391

  19. A test of color-based taxonomy in nudibranchs: Molecular phylogeny and species delimitation of the Felimida clenchi (Mollusca: Chromodorididae) species complex.

    PubMed

    Padula, Vinicius; Bahia, Juliana; Stöger, Isabella; Camacho-García, Yolanda; Malaquias, Manuel António E; Cervera, Juan Lucas; Schrödl, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Traditionally, species identification in nudibranch gastropods relies heavily on body color pattern. The Felimida clenchi species complex, a group of brightly colored Atlantic and Mediterranean species in the family Chromodorididae, has a history of exceptional controversy and discussion among taxonomists. The most widely accepted hypothesis is that the complex includes four species (Felimida clenchi, F. neona, F. binza and F. britoi), each with a characteristic body color pattern. In this study, we investigated the taxonomic value of coloration in the Felimida clenchi complex, using molecular phylogenetics, species-delimitation analyses (ABGD, GMYC, PTP), haplotype-network methods, and the anatomy of the reproductive system. None of our analyses recovered the traditional separation into four species. Our results indicated the existence of three species, a result inconsistent with previous taxonomic hypotheses. We distinguished an undescribed species of Felimida and redefined the concepts of F. clenchi and F. binza, both highly polychromatic species. For the first time, molecular data support the existence of extreme color polymorphism in chromatic nudibranch species, with direct implications for the taxonomy of the group and its diversity. The polychromatism observed in the F. clenchi complex apparently correlates with the regional occurrence of similar color patterns in congeneric species, suggesting different mimicry circles. This may represent a parallel in the marine environment to the mechanisms that play a major role in the diversification of color in terrestrial and fresh-water chromatic groups, such as heliconian butterflies.

  20. A test of color-based taxonomy in nudibranchs: Molecular phylogeny and species delimitation of the Felimida clenchi (Mollusca: Chromodorididae) species complex.

    PubMed

    Padula, Vinicius; Bahia, Juliana; Stöger, Isabella; Camacho-García, Yolanda; Malaquias, Manuel António E; Cervera, Juan Lucas; Schrödl, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Traditionally, species identification in nudibranch gastropods relies heavily on body color pattern. The Felimida clenchi species complex, a group of brightly colored Atlantic and Mediterranean species in the family Chromodorididae, has a history of exceptional controversy and discussion among taxonomists. The most widely accepted hypothesis is that the complex includes four species (Felimida clenchi, F. neona, F. binza and F. britoi), each with a characteristic body color pattern. In this study, we investigated the taxonomic value of coloration in the Felimida clenchi complex, using molecular phylogenetics, species-delimitation analyses (ABGD, GMYC, PTP), haplotype-network methods, and the anatomy of the reproductive system. None of our analyses recovered the traditional separation into four species. Our results indicated the existence of three species, a result inconsistent with previous taxonomic hypotheses. We distinguished an undescribed species of Felimida and redefined the concepts of F. clenchi and F. binza, both highly polychromatic species. For the first time, molecular data support the existence of extreme color polymorphism in chromatic nudibranch species, with direct implications for the taxonomy of the group and its diversity. The polychromatism observed in the F. clenchi complex apparently correlates with the regional occurrence of similar color patterns in congeneric species, suggesting different mimicry circles. This may represent a parallel in the marine environment to the mechanisms that play a major role in the diversification of color in terrestrial and fresh-water chromatic groups, such as heliconian butterflies. PMID:27444708

  1. German Children's Use of Word Order and Case Marking to Interpret Simple and Complex Sentences: Testing Differences between Constructions and Lexical Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Silke; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Children and adults follow cues such as case marking and word order in their assignment of semantic roles in simple transitives (e.g., "the dog chased the cat"). It has been suggested that the same cues are used for the interpretation of complex sentences, such as transitive relative clauses (RCs) (e.g., "that's the dog that chased…

  2. Developing Software to “Track and Catch” Missed Follow-up of Abnormal Test Results in a Complex Sociotechnical Environment

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M.; Murphy, D.; Laxmisan, A.; Sittig, D.; Reis, B.; Esquivel, A.; Singh, H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Abnormal test results do not always receive timely follow-up, even when providers are notified through electronic health record (EHR)-based alerts. High workload, alert fatigue, and other demands on attention disrupt a provider’s prospective memory for tasks required to initiate follow-up. Thus, EHR-based tracking and reminding functionalities are needed to improve follow-up. Objectives The purpose of this study was to develop a decision-support software prototype enabling individual and system-wide tracking of abnormal test result alerts lacking follow-up, and to conduct formative evaluations, including usability testing. Methods We developed a working prototype software system, the Alert Watch And Response Engine (AWARE), to detect abnormal test result alerts lacking documented follow-up, and to present context-specific reminders to providers. Development and testing took place within the VA’s EHR and focused on four cancer-related abnormal test results. Design concepts emphasized mitigating the effects of high workload and alert fatigue while being minimally intrusive. We conducted a multifaceted formative evaluation of the software, addressing fit within the larger socio-technical system. Evaluations included usability testing with the prototype and interview questions about organizational and workflow factors. Participants included 23 physicians, 9 clinical information technology specialists, and 8 quality/safety managers. Results Evaluation results indicated that our software prototype fit within the technical environment and clinical workflow, and physicians were able to use it successfully. Quality/safety managers reported that the tool would be useful in future quality assurance activities to detect patients who lack documented follow-up. Additionally, we successfully installed the software on the local facility’s “test” EHR system, thus demonstrating technical compatibility. Conclusion To address the factors involved in missed

  3. The structure and interaction energies of the weak complexes of CHClF2 and CHF3 with HCCH: a test of density functional theory methods.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Mark A; Hillier, Ian H

    2011-03-14

    The structure and interaction energies of the weak non-covalent complexes of CHClF(2) and CHF(3) with HCCH have been predicted using a number of density functional based approaches, and compared with both high resolution spectroscopic data recently reported by Sexton et al. [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2010, 12, 14263-14270], and with high level benchmark calculations reported herein. We find that this is another case where the M05 and M06 families of functionals, as well as the DFT-D approach, are competitive with the more costly wavefunction based methods. We highlight the problem of deriving unique intermolecular structural parameters from the experimental microwave data.

  4. Functional and molecular characterization of the transcriptional regulatory region of Tcp-10bt, a testes-expressed gene from the t complex responder locus.

    PubMed

    Ewulonu, U K; Buratynski, T J; Schimenti, J C

    1993-01-01

    Mouse t haplotypes contain several mutant alleles that disrupt spermatogenesis. Their phenotypes include sterility, reduced fertility and transmission ratio distortion (TRD). The substantial genetic analyses of these mutant alleles, coupled with intensive physical characterization of the t complex, provides a fertile ground for identifying and understanding genes essential to male gametogenesis. The t complex responder (Tcr) locus plays a central role in this process, interacting with other t haplotype-encoded genes to mediate TRD. A candidate responder gene, Tcp-10bt, has been cloned and subjected to molecular characterization. Here, we define the transcriptional regulatory regions of this gene in transgenic mice. A 1.6 kb (but not 0.6 kb) DNA fragment upstream of the transcription start site contains all the regulatory signals for appropriate temporal and germ cell-specific expression of this gene. Two smaller fragments within this region bound specifically to nuclear factor(s) from germ cell protein extracts in gel shift assays. This work is a step towards understanding the mechanism of Tcp-10bt regulated expression and may ultimately help reveal a common regulatory pathway shared by other similarly expressed spermatogenic genes. PMID:8223262

  5. The structure and interaction energies of the weak complexes of CHClF2 and CHF3 with HCCH: a test of density functional theory methods.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Mark A; Hillier, Ian H

    2011-03-14

    The structure and interaction energies of the weak non-covalent complexes of CHClF(2) and CHF(3) with HCCH have been predicted using a number of density functional based approaches, and compared with both high resolution spectroscopic data recently reported by Sexton et al. [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2010, 12, 14263-14270], and with high level benchmark calculations reported herein. We find that this is another case where the M05 and M06 families of functionals, as well as the DFT-D approach, are competitive with the more costly wavefunction based methods. We highlight the problem of deriving unique intermolecular structural parameters from the experimental microwave data. PMID:21246115

  6. Genotyping of Fusarium Isolates from Onychomycoses in Colombia: Detection of Two New Species Within the Fusarium solani Species Complex and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Testing.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Suarez, Marcela; Cano-Lira, José Francisco; de García, María Caridad Cepero; Sopo, Leticia; De Bedout, Catalina; Cano, Luz Elena; García, Ana María; Motta, Adriana; Amézquita, Adolfo; Cárdenas, Martha; Espinel-Ingroff, Ana; Guarro, Josep; Restrepo, Silvia; Celis, Adriana

    2016-04-01

    Fusariosis have been increasing in Colombia in recent years, but its epidemiology is poorly known. We have morphologically and molecularly characterized 89 isolates of Fusarium obtained between 2010 and 2012 in the cities of Bogotá and Medellín. Using a multi-locus sequence analysis of rDNA internal transcribed spacer, a fragment of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (Tef-1α) and of the RNA-dependent polymerase subunit II (Rpb2) genes, we identified the phylogenetic species and circulating haplotypes. Since most of the isolates studied were from onychomycoses (nearly 90 %), we carried out an epidemiological study to determine the risk factors associated with such infections. Five phylogenetic species of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), i.e., F. falciforme, F. keratoplasticum, F. lichenicola, F. petroliphilum, and FSSC 6 as well as two of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC), i.e., FOSC 3 and FOSC 4, were identified. The most prevalent species were FOSC 3 (38.2%) followed by F. keratoplasticum (33.7%). In addition, our isolates were distributed into 23 haplotypes (14 into FOSC and nine into FSSC). Two of the FSSC phylogenetic species and two haplotypes of FSSC were not described before. Our results demonstrate that recipients of pedicure treatments have a lower probability of acquiring onychomycosis than those not receiving such treatments. The antifungal susceptibility of all the isolates to five clinically available agents showed that amphotericin B was the most active drug, while the azoles exhibited lower in vitro activity. PMID:26943726

  7. Enhancing the ecological validity of tests of lateralization and hemispheric interaction: Evidence from fixated displays of letters or symbols of varying complexity.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Andrew J; Upshaw, Jennifer N; Macaulay, Georgia M; Rutherford, Barbara J

    2016-07-01

    Two experiments expand upon behavioural evidence of interactions among lateralization, hemispheric interaction, and task complexity with findings from an ecologically valid procedure. Target displays of letters or symbols were presented at fixation in go/no-go matching tasks of physical or categorical identity. Simultaneously with the target, a distractor appeared in the left visual field or right visual field to weight processing of the target to the hemisphere ipsilateral to the distractor, or the distractor did not appear at all. Comparison of the respective distractor-present trials with distractor-absent trials measures the relative costs or benefits of hemispheric interaction. Both experiments found that 3-item displays were processed faster and more accurately than displays of 5 items, suggesting they are relatively simple. Accuracy to the simple tasks showed left-hemisphere lateralization in the lexical task, right-hemisphere lateralization in the spatial task, a cost of hemispheric interaction compared to the advantaged hemisphere, and a benefit of hemispheric interaction compared to the less-advantaged hemisphere, suggesting that the contributions of the less-advantaged hemisphere interfere with processing, and that the advantaged hemisphere controls the lion's share. In contrast, 5-item displays for physical match in both experiments showed a significant benefit to accuracy of hemispheric interaction compared to the left hemisphere, an insignificant benefit compared to the right hemisphere, no lateralization, no cost of hemispheric interaction, and a consequence to performance that was more costly to the hemisphere that had been advantaged in simple tasks, suggesting that the advantaged hemisphere relinquishes control as tasks become more complex and complementary processing results from both increased collaboration and decreased lateralization between the hemispheres. The findings expand upon behavioural evidence, converge with imaging evidence, and

  8. Genotyping of Fusarium Isolates from Onychomycoses in Colombia: Detection of Two New Species Within the Fusarium solani Species Complex and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Testing.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Suarez, Marcela; Cano-Lira, José Francisco; de García, María Caridad Cepero; Sopo, Leticia; De Bedout, Catalina; Cano, Luz Elena; García, Ana María; Motta, Adriana; Amézquita, Adolfo; Cárdenas, Martha; Espinel-Ingroff, Ana; Guarro, Josep; Restrepo, Silvia; Celis, Adriana

    2016-04-01

    Fusariosis have been increasing in Colombia in recent years, but its epidemiology is poorly known. We have morphologically and molecularly characterized 89 isolates of Fusarium obtained between 2010 and 2012 in the cities of Bogotá and Medellín. Using a multi-locus sequence analysis of rDNA internal transcribed spacer, a fragment of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (Tef-1α) and of the RNA-dependent polymerase subunit II (Rpb2) genes, we identified the phylogenetic species and circulating haplotypes. Since most of the isolates studied were from onychomycoses (nearly 90 %), we carried out an epidemiological study to determine the risk factors associated with such infections. Five phylogenetic species of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), i.e., F. falciforme, F. keratoplasticum, F. lichenicola, F. petroliphilum, and FSSC 6 as well as two of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC), i.e., FOSC 3 and FOSC 4, were identified. The most prevalent species were FOSC 3 (38.2%) followed by F. keratoplasticum (33.7%). In addition, our isolates were distributed into 23 haplotypes (14 into FOSC and nine into FSSC). Two of the FSSC phylogenetic species and two haplotypes of FSSC were not described before. Our results demonstrate that recipients of pedicure treatments have a lower probability of acquiring onychomycosis than those not receiving such treatments. The antifungal susceptibility of all the isolates to five clinically available agents showed that amphotericin B was the most active drug, while the azoles exhibited lower in vitro activity.

  9. Enhancing the ecological validity of tests of lateralization and hemispheric interaction: Evidence from fixated displays of letters or symbols of varying complexity.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Andrew J; Upshaw, Jennifer N; Macaulay, Georgia M; Rutherford, Barbara J

    2016-07-01

    Two experiments expand upon behavioural evidence of interactions among lateralization, hemispheric interaction, and task complexity with findings from an ecologically valid procedure. Target displays of letters or symbols were presented at fixation in go/no-go matching tasks of physical or categorical identity. Simultaneously with the target, a distractor appeared in the left visual field or right visual field to weight processing of the target to the hemisphere ipsilateral to the distractor, or the distractor did not appear at all. Comparison of the respective distractor-present trials with distractor-absent trials measures the relative costs or benefits of hemispheric interaction. Both experiments found that 3-item displays were processed faster and more accurately than displays of 5 items, suggesting they are relatively simple. Accuracy to the simple tasks showed left-hemisphere lateralization in the lexical task, right-hemisphere lateralization in the spatial task, a cost of hemispheric interaction compared to the advantaged hemisphere, and a benefit of hemispheric interaction compared to the less-advantaged hemisphere, suggesting that the contributions of the less-advantaged hemisphere interfere with processing, and that the advantaged hemisphere controls the lion's share. In contrast, 5-item displays for physical match in both experiments showed a significant benefit to accuracy of hemispheric interaction compared to the left hemisphere, an insignificant benefit compared to the right hemisphere, no lateralization, no cost of hemispheric interaction, and a consequence to performance that was more costly to the hemisphere that had been advantaged in simple tasks, suggesting that the advantaged hemisphere relinquishes control as tasks become more complex and complementary processing results from both increased collaboration and decreased lateralization between the hemispheres. The findings expand upon behavioural evidence, converge with imaging evidence, and

  10. Analysis of complex pumping interactions during an aquifer test conducted at a well field in the coastal plain near Augusta, Georgia, October 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gonthier, Gerald J.

    2009-01-01

    A 24-hour aquifer test was conducted in Well Field 2 near Augusta, Georgia, October 21–22, 2009, to characterize the hydraulic properties of the Midville aquifer system. The selected well was pumped at a rate of 684 gallons per minute. At the initiation of aquifer-test pumping, water levels in each of eight wells monitored for the test were still recovering from the well-field production. Because water levels had not stabilized, data analyses were needed to account for the ongoing recovery. Hydraulic properties of the Midville aquifer system were estimated by an approach based on the Theis model and superposition. The Midville aquifer system was modeled as a Theis aquifer. The principle of superposition was used to sum the effects of multiple pumping and recovery events from a single pumped well and to sum the effects of all pumped wells as the estimated total drawdown at a monitored well. Simulated drawdown at each monitored well was determined by using a spreadsheet (SUMTheis) function of aquifer transmissivity and storativity. Simulated drawdown values were transformed into simulated water levels, accounting for longterm water-level trends. The transmissivity and storativity values that were used to calibrate the simulated water levels to measured water levels (roughly 4,000 square feet per day and 2E-04, respectively) provide estimates of the transmissivity and storativity of the Midville aquifer system in the vicinity of Well Field 2. The approach used in this study can be applied to similar well-field tests in which incomplete drawdown recovery or other known pumping is evident.

  11. Complexity Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sandra L.; Anderson, Beth C.

    To determine whether consensus existed among teachers about the complexity of common classroom materials, a survey was administered to 66 pre-service and in-service kindergarten and prekindergarten teachers. Participants were asked to rate 14 common classroom materials as simple, complex, or super-complex. Simple materials have one obvious part,…

  12. Housekeeping Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 119: Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-26

    The Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order was entered into by the State of Nevada, US Department of Energy, and US Department of Defense to identify sites of potential historical contamination and implement corrective actions based on public health and environmental considerations. The facilities subject to this agreement include the Nevada Test Site (NTS), parts of the Tonopah Test Range, parts to the Nellis Air Force Range, the Central Nevada Test Area, and the Project Shoal Area. Corrective Action Sites (CASs) are areas potentially requiring corrective actions and may include solid waste management units, individual disposal, or release sites. Based on geography, technical similarity, agency responsibility, or other appropriate reasons, CASs are grouped together into Corrective Action Units (CAUs) for the purpose of determining appropriate corrective actions. This report contains the Closure Verification Forms for cleanup activities that were performed at 19 CASs with in CAU 119 on the NTS. The form for each CAS provides the location, directions to the site, general description, and photographs of the site before and after cleanup activities. Activities included verification of the prior removal of both aboveground and underground gas/oil storage tanks, gas sampling tanks, pressure fuel tanks, tank stands, trailers, debris, and other material. Based on these former activities, no further action is required at these CASs.

  13. Population history of the Hispaniolan hutia Plagiodontia aedium (Rodentia: Capromyidae): testing the model of ancient differentiation on a geotectonically complex Caribbean island.

    PubMed

    Brace, Selina; Barnes, Ian; Powell, Adam; Pearson, Rebecca; Woolaver, Lance G; Thomas, Mark G; Turvey, Samuel T

    2012-05-01

    Hispaniola is a geotectonically complex island consisting of two palaeo-islands that docked c. 10 Ma, with a further geological boundary subdividing the southern palaeo-island into eastern and western regions. All three regions have been isolated by marine barriers during the late Cenozoic and possess biogeographically distinct terrestrial biotas. However, there is currently little evidence to indicate whether Hispaniolan mammals show distributional patterns reflecting this geotectonic history, as the island's endemic land mammal fauna is now almost entirely extinct. We obtained samples of Hispaniolan hutia (Plagiodontia aedium), one of the two surviving Hispaniolan land mammal species, through fieldwork and historical museum collections from seven localities distributed across all three of the island's biogeographic regions. Phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b) reveals a pattern of historical allopatric lineage divergence in this species, with the spatial distribution of three distinct hutia lineages biogeographically consistent with the island's geotectonic history. Coalescent modelling, approximate Bayesian computation and approximate Bayes factor analyses support our phylogenetic inferences, indicating near-complete genetic isolation of these biogeographically separate populations and differing estimates of their effective population sizes. Spatial congruence of hutia lineage divergence is not however matched by temporal congruence with divergences in other Hispaniolan taxa or major events in Hispaniola's geotectonic history; divergence between northern and southern hutia lineages dates to c. 0.6 Ma, significantly later than the unification of the palaeo-islands. The three allopatric Plagiodontia populations should all be treated as distinct management units for conservation, with particular attention required for the northern population (low haplotype diversity) and the south-western population (high haplotype diversity but highly

  14. D and D (System Closure) Mockup Testing Demonstration. Remediation of Legacy Radioactive Piping and Tank Systems at the Reactor Technology Complex (RTC) (2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne-Kelly, D.; Brown, Ch.; Hart, A.; Welty, B.; Winterholler, K.

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the results of an integrated mockup demonstration of technologies and equipment designed to remove radioactively contaminated piping systems from underground vaults and pipe trenches at the Idaho National Laboratory. The integrated mockup demonstration included performing a bench scale wax fixative study and field demonstrations of the remotely operated equipment that will be used to remove radioactively contaminated pipe systems. The bench-scale wax fixative study involved defining optimum temperature and moisture conditions for effectively filling pipe sections containing residual wastes with a wax based fixative. The field demonstrations involved dismantling underground vault and trench piping systems, including pipe sections filled with the wax fixative. The purpose of the demonstration was to ensure the selected technologies and equipment would be effective prior to field deployment. The demonstration was conducted as a joint effort by MSE Technology Applications, Inc., and CWI on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy at the Mike Mansfield Advanced Technology Center in Butte Montana. In summary: The mockup included two main tests at the MSE facility: 1) a vault mockup that included stainless and carbon steel pipe cutting and removal; and 2) a trench mockup that included cutting and removing buried Duriron and ductile iron piping. Both mockups included cutting and removing a pipe filled with the WAXFIX stabilizing material. Based on the MSE moisture tests, project personnel concluded that the WAXFIX product would be effective when used on wastes with different moisture contents that may be encountered in piping systems during the closure of the TRA-630 Catch Tank System at INL. A section of stainless steel pipe was also used to test a number of leak stop alternatives for wax leaks that may be encountered in a degraded piping system. Both the vault and the trench mockup demonstration proved successful for ICP, DOE, and MSE. The ICP

  15. The relationship between complexity (taxonomy) and difficulty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yih Tyng; Othman, Abdul Rahman

    2013-04-01

    Difficulty and complexity are important factors that occur in every test questions. These two factors will also affect the reliability of the test. Hence, difficulty and complexity must be considered by educators during preparation of the test questions. The relationship between difficulty and complexity is studied. Complexity is defined as the level in Bloom's Taxonomy. Difficulty is represented by the proportion of students scoring between specific score intervals. A chi-square test of independence between difficulty and complexity was conducted on the results of a continuous assessment of a third year undergraduate course, Probability Theory. The independence test showed that the difficulty and complexity are related. However, this relationship is small.

  16. [Carney complex].

    PubMed

    Losada Grande, Eladio José; Al Kassam Martínez, Daniel; González Boillos, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    Carney complex (CNC) is an autosomal dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by spotty skin pigmentation, cardiac and cutaneous myxoma, and endocrine overactivity. Skin pigmentation includes lentigines and blue nevi. Myxomas may occur in breast, skin and heart. Cardiac myxomas may be multiple and occur in any cardiac chamber, and are more prone to recurrence. The most common endocrine gland manifestation is an ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). PPNAD may occur isolated, with no other signs of CNC. Pituitary and thyroid glands and gonads are also involved. The PRKAR1A gene, located in 17 q22-24, encodes type 1A regulatory subunit of protein kinase A. Inactivating germline mutations of this gene are found in 70% of patients with CNC. PRKAR1A is a key component of the c-AMP signaling pathway that has been implicated in endocrine tumorigenesis. Many different mutations have been reported in the PRKAR1A gene. In almost all cases the sequence change was predicted to lead to a premature stop codon and the resultant mutant mRNA was subject to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. There is no clear genotype-phenotype correlation in patients with CNC. Genetic analysis should be performed in all CNC index cases. All affected patients should be monitored for clinical signs of CNC at least once a year. Genetic diagnosis allows for more effective preparation of more appropriate and effective therapeutic strategies and genetic counseling for patients and gene carriers, and to avoid unnecessary tests to relatives not carrying the gene. PMID:21536508

  17. Applications of the Petri net to simulate, test, and validate the performance and safety of complex, heterogeneous, multi-modality patient monitoring alarm systems.

    PubMed

    Sloane, E B; Gelhot, V

    2004-01-01

    This research is motivated by the rapid pace of medical device and information system integration. Although the ability to interconnect many medical devices and information systems may help improve patient care, there is no way to detect if incompatibilities between one or more devices might cause critical events such as patient alarms to go unnoticed or cause one or more of the devices to become stuck in a disabled state. Petri net tools allow automated testing of all possible states and transitions between devices and/or systems to detect potential failure modes in advance. This paper describes an early research project to use Petri nets to simulate and validate a multi-modality central patient monitoring system. A free Petri net tool, HPSim, is used to simulate two wireless patient monitoring networks: one with 44 heart monitors and a central monitoring system and a second version that includes an additional 44 wireless pulse oximeters. In the latter Petri net simulation, a potentially dangerous heart arrhythmia and pulse oximetry alarms were detected. PMID:17271039

  18. Inside the complexity labyrinth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Gordon

    2010-02-01

    Although the world we live in is complex, complexity as a science does not have a long history. For generations, most physicists tried to understand everything in terms of interactions between pairs of idealized "test particles". Then, about a 100 years ago, Henri Poincaré pointed out that a fully interacting three-body system was not just the sum of its three component pairs. The famous "three-body problem" was born.

  19. Controlling Mercury Release from Source Zones to Surface Water: Initial Results of Pilot Tests at the Y-12 National Security Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, George R; Brooks, Scott C; Peterson, Mark J; Bogle, Mary Anna; Miller, Carrie L; Liang, Liyuan; Elliott, Mike

    2009-01-01

    This report presents initial results obtained during year 2008 and satisfies a deliverable listed in the work breakdown structure (WBS) element OR081301. Broad objectives of the multi-year project are: (1) evaluation of remediation technologies for waterborne mercury, (2) development of treatment methods for soil mercury, and (3) source identification, characterization and analyses to improve mass balance on mercury estimates. This report presents the results of pilot tests, conducted in summer and fall 2008, which focused on remediation of waterborne mercury. The goal of this task is to develop strategies and treatment technologies that reduce the concentration and loading of waterborne mercury discharges to the UEFPC, thus minimizing mercury uptake by fish. The two specific studies are: (1) reducing flow augmentation in UEFPC to lessen mercury mobilization from contaminated stream sediments, and (2) treatment of contaminated source waters with a chemical reductant to convert dissolved mercury to a volatile form that can be removed by air stripping or natural evasion. Diversion of 50% of the flow currently added to UEFPC by the flow management system appeared to reduce mercury inputs from a localized, highly contaminated streambed by 0.6-1.5 grams per day (g/d). A reduction of 0.6 g/d represents {approx} 7-10% decrease in mercury input to UEFPC. Mercury concentrations within UEFPC did not rise proportionately with the loss of dilution, in part because of the reduction in input from the streambed source and in part because of reduced flow from the Y-12 NSC storm drain system. A longer-term test that includes seasonal variability will be the next step to validate these initial field observations of the flow diversion experiment. Preliminary laboratory experiments show that a large fraction ({approx} 90%) of the mercury can be chemically reduced to Hg(0) by addition of low concentrations of tin, Sn(II). Conversion of mercury to volatile Hg(0) in UEFPC was also

  20. Supplemental Investigation Plan for FFACO Use Restrictions, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-02-01

    This document is part of an effort to re-evaluate all FFACO URs against the current RBCA criteria (referred to in this document as the Industrial Sites [IS] RBCA process) as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006a). After reviewing all of the existing FFACO URs, the 12 URs addressed in this Supplemental Investigation Plan (SIP) could not be evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as sufficient information about the contamination at each site was not available. This document presents the plan for conducting field investigations to obtain the needed information. This SIP includes URs from Corrective Action Units (CAUs) 326, 339, 358, 452, 454, 464, and 1010, located in Areas 2, 6, 12, 19, 25, and 29 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada; and CAU 403, located in Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range, which is approximately 165 miles north of Las Vegas, Nevada.

  1. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Sites quality assurance project plan: Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This quality assurance project plan (QAPjP) describes the measures that shall be taken to ensure that the environmental data collected during characterization and closure activities of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Industrial Sites at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are meaningful, valid, defensible, and can be used to achieve project objectives. These activities are conducted by the US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) under the Nevada Environmental Restoration (ER) Project. The Nevada ER Project consists of environmental restoration activities on the NTS, Tonopah Test Range, Nellis Air Force Range, and eight sites in five other states. The RCRA Industrial Sites subproject constitutes a component of the Nevada ER Project. Currently, this QAPjP is limited to the seven RCRA Industrial Sites identified within this document that are to be closed under an interim status and pertains to all field-investigation, analytical-laboratory, and data-review activities in support of these closures. The information presented here supplements the RCRA Industrial Sites Project Management Plan and is to be used in conjunction with the site-specific subproject sampling and analysis plans.

  2. Spatial and temporal variability of microbes in selected soils at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Angerer, J.P.; Winkel, V.K.; Ostler, W.K.; Hall, P.F.

    1993-12-31

    Large areas encompassing almost 800 hectares on the Nevada Test Site, Nellis Air Force Range and the Tonopah Test Range are contaminated with plutonium. Decontamination of plutonium from these sites may involve removal of plants and almost 370,000 cubic meters of soil. The soil may be subjected to a series of processes to remove plutonium. After decontamination, the soils will be returned to the site and revegetated. There is a paucity of information on the spatial and temporal distribution of microbes in soils of the Mojave and Great Basin Deserts. Therefore, this study was initiated to determine the biomass and diversity of microbes in soils prior to decontamination. Soils were collected to a depth of 10 cm along each of five randomly located 30-m transects at each of four sites. To ascertain spatial differences, soils were collected from beneath major shrubs and from associated interspaces. Soils were collected every three to four months to determine temporal (seasonal) differences in microbial parameters. Soils from beneath shrubs generally had greater active fungi and bacteria, and greater non-amended respiration than soils from interspaces. Temporal variability also was found; total and active fungi, and non-amended respiration were correlated with soil moisture at the time of sampling. Information from this study will aid in determining the effects of plutonium decontamination on soil microorganisms, and what measures, if any, will be required to restore microbial populations during revegetation of these sites.

  3. Complex derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

  4. Designing Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanville, Ranulph

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the nature of complexity and design, as well as relationships between the two, and suggests that design may have much potential as an approach to improving human performance in situations seen as complex. It is developed against two backgrounds. The first is a world view that derives from second order cybernetics and radical…

  5. Complex networks: Patterns of complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2010-07-01

    The Turing mechanism provides a paradigm for the spontaneous generation of patterns in reaction-diffusion systems. A framework that describes Turing-pattern formation in the context of complex networks should provide a new basis for studying the phenomenon.

  6. Complex chimerism

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Kimberly K.; Petroff, Margaret G.; Coscia, Lisa A.; Armenti, Vincent T.; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of women with organ transplantation have undergone successful pregnancies, however little is known about how the profound immunologic changes associated with pregnancy might influence tolerance or rejection of the allograft. Pregnant women with a solid organ transplant are complex chimeras with multiple foreign cell populations from the donor organ, fetus, and mother of the pregnant woman. We consider the impact of complex chimerism and pregnancy-associated immunologic changes on tolerance of the allograft both during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Mechanisms of allograft tolerance are likely dynamic during pregnancy and affected by the influx of fetal microchimeric cells, HLA relationships (between the fetus, pregnant woman and/or donor), peripheral T cell tolerance to fetal cells, and fetal minor histocompatibility antigens. Further research is necessary to understand the complex immunology during pregnancy and the postpartum period of women with a solid organ transplant. PMID:23974274

  7. Researching Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumara, Dennis J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses what Complexity Theory (presented as a rubric that collects theoretical understandings from a number of domains such as ecology, biology, neurology, and education) suggests about mind, selfhood, intelligence, and practices of reading, and the import of these reconceptualizations to reader-response researchers. Concludes that developing…

  8. Complex interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Régules, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Complexity science - which describes phenomena such as collective and emergent behaviour - is the focus of a new centre where researchers are examining everything from the spread of influenza to what a healthy heartbeat looks like. Sergio de Régules reports.

  9. Amorphic complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, G.; Gröger, M.; Jäger, T.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce amorphic complexity as a new topological invariant that measures the complexity of dynamical systems in the regime of zero entropy. Its main purpose is to detect the very onset of disorder in the asymptotic behaviour. For instance, it gives positive value to Denjoy examples on the circle and Sturmian subshifts, while being zero for all isometries and Morse-Smale systems. After discussing basic properties and examples, we show that amorphic complexity and the underlying asymptotic separation numbers can be used to distinguish almost automorphic minimal systems from equicontinuous ones. For symbolic systems, amorphic complexity equals the box dimension of the associated Besicovitch space. In this context, we concentrate on regular Toeplitz flows and give a detailed description of the relation to the scaling behaviour of the densities of the p-skeletons. Finally, we take a look at strange non-chaotic attractors appearing in so-called pinched skew product systems. Continuous-time systems, more general group actions and the application to cut and project quasicrystals will be treated in subsequent work.

  10. Optical testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyant, James; Hochberg, Eric; Breault, Robert; Greivenkamp, John; Hunt, Gary; Mason, Pete; Mcguire, James; Meinel, Aden; Morris, Mike; Scherr, Larry

    1992-01-01

    Optical testing is one of the most vital elements in the process of preparing an optical instrument for launch. Without well understood, well controlled, and well documented test procedures, current and future mission goals will be jeopardized. We should keep in mind that the reason we test is to provide an opportunity to catch errors, oversights, and problems on the ground, where solutions are possible and difficulties can be rectified. Consequently, it is necessary to create tractable test procedures that truly provide a measure of the performance of all optical elements and systems under conditions which are close to those expected in space. Where testing is not feasible, accurate experiments are required in order to perfect models that can exactly predict the optical performance. As we stretch the boundaries of technology to perform more complex space and planetary investigations, we must expand the technology required to test the optical components and systems which we send into space. As we expand the observational wavelength ranges, so must we expand our range of optical sources and detectors. As we increase resolution and sensitivity, our understanding of optical surfaces to accommodate more stringent figure and scatter requirements must expand. Only with research and development in these areas can we hope to achieve success in the ever increasing demands made on optical testing by the highly sophisticated missions anticipated over the next two decades. Technology assessment and development plan for surface figure, surface roughness, alignment, image quality, radiometric quantities, and stray light measurement are presented.

  11. Managing Complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  12. Children's Comprehension of Complex Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Richard J.

    1975-01-01

    Children, aged 4-12, performed four tasks designed to test their comprehension of complex sentences that contained main verbs taking underlying sentences as their complements. Tasks involved imperatives, semantic anomalies, truth questioning and short-term memory. (JMB)

  13. Deletions of the PRKAR1A Locus at 17q24.2-q24.3 in Carney Complex: Genotype-Phenotype Correlations and Implications for Genetic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Salpea, Paraskevi; Horvath, Anelia; London, Edra; Faucz, Fabio R.; Vetro, Annalisa; Levy, Isaac; Gourgari, Evgenia; Dauber, Andrew; Holm, Ingrid A.; Morrison, Patrick J.; Keil, Margaret F.; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Smith, Eric D.; Sanidad, Marc A.; Kelly, JoAnn C.; Dai, Zunyan; Mowrey, Philip; Forlino, Antonella; Zuffardi, Orsetta

    2014-01-01

    Background: Carney complex (CNC) is a multiple neoplasia syndrome caused by PRKAR1A-inactivating mutations. One-third of the patients, however, have no detectable PRKAR1A coding sequence defects. Small deletions of the gene were previously reported in few patients, but large deletions of the chromosomal PRKAR1A locus have not been studied systematically in a large cohort of patients with CNC. Setting: A tertiary care referral center was the setting for analysis of an international cohort of patients with CNC. Methods: Methods included genome-wide array analysis followed by fluorescent in situ hybridization, mRNA, and other studies as well as a retrospective analysis of clinical information and phenotype-genotype correlation. Results: We detected 17q24.2-q24.3 deletions of varying size that included the PRKAR1A gene in 11 CNC patients (of 51 tested). Quantitative PCR showed that these patients had significantly lower PRKAR1A mRNA levels. Phenotype varied but was generally severe and included manifestations that are not commonly associated with CNC, presumably due to haploinsufficiency of other genes in addition to PRKAR1A. Conclusions: A significant number (21.6%) of patients with CNC that are negative in currently available testing may have PRKAR1A haploinsufficiency due to genomic defects that are not detected by Sanger sequencing. Array-based studies are necessary for diagnostic confirmation of these defects and should be done in patients with unusual and severe phenotypes who are PRKAR1A mutation-negative. PMID:24170103

  14. Annotated bibliography of literature relating to wind transport of plutonium-contaminated soils at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, N.; Bamford, R.

    1993-12-01

    During the period from 1954 through 1963, a number of tests were conducted on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to determine the safety of nuclear devices with respect to storage, handling, transport, and accidents. These tests were referred to as ``safety shots.`` ``Safety`` in this context meant ``safety against fission reaction.`` The safety tests were comprised of chemical high explosive detonations with components of nuclear devices. The conduct of these tests resulted in the dispersion of plutonium, and some americium over areas ranging from several tens to several hundreds of hectares. Of the various locations used for safety tests, the site referred to as ``Plutonium Valley`` was subject to a significant amount of plutonium contamination. Plutonium Valley is located in Area 11 on the eastern boundary of the NTS at an elevation of about 1036 m (3400 ft). Plutonium Valley was the location of four safety tests (A,B,C, and D) conducted during 1956. A major environmental, health, and safety concern is the potential for inhalation of Pu{sup 239,240} by humans as a result of airborne dust containing Pu particles. Thus, the wind transport of Pu{sup 239,240} particles has been the subject of considerable research. This annotated bibliography was created as a reference guide to assist in the better understanding of the environmental characteristics of Plutonium Valley, the safety tests performed there, the processes and variables involved with the wind transport of dust, and as an overview of proposed clean-up procedures.

  15. Initiation and propagation of complex 3D networks of cracks in heterogeneous quasi-brittle materials: Direct comparison between in situ testing-microCT experiments and phase field simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, T. T.; Yvonnet, J.; Bornert, M.; Chateau, C.

    2016-10-01

    We provide the first direct comparisons, to our knowledge, of complex 3D micro cracking initiation and propagation in heterogeneous quasi-brittle materials modelled by the phase field numerical method and observed in X-ray microtomography images recorded during in situ mechanical testing. Some material parameters of the damage model, including the process zone (internal) length, are identified by an inverse approach combining experimental data and 3D simulations. A new technique is developed to study the micro cracking at a finer scale by prescribing the local displacements measured by digital volume correlation over the boundary of a small sub-volume inside the sample during the numerical simulations. The comparisons, performed on several samples of lightweight plaster and concrete, show a remarkable quantitative agreement between the 3D crack morphology obtained by the model and by the experiments, without any a priori knowledge about the location of the initiation of the cracks in the numerical model. The results indicate that the crack paths can be predicted in a fully deterministic way in spite of the highly random geometry of the microstructure and the brittle nature of its constituents.

  16. [Carney complex].

    PubMed

    Kacerovská, D; Michal, M; Síma, R; Grossmann, P; Kazakov, D V

    2011-10-01

    Carney complex is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease, with at least two genetic loci including the PRKAR1A gene located on chromosome 17 and the CNC2 locus mapped to chromosome 2. Clinically this syndrome is characterized by multiple myxomas occurring in different anatomic sites, mucocutaneous pigmentary lesions, and a variety of non-endocrine and endocrine tumors, often causing endocrine abnormalities, involving various organs. Knowledge of morphological findings in CNC patients with their typical locations is necessary to raise suspicion of this syndrome by pathologists. Confirmation of the diagnosis allows regular clinical check-ups and early treatment of these patients. PMID:22145222

  17. Complex Systems

    PubMed Central

    Goldberger, Ary L.

    2006-01-01

    Physiologic systems in health and disease display an extraordinary range of temporal behaviors and structural patterns that defy understanding based on linear constructs, reductionist strategies, and classical homeostasis. Application of concepts and computational tools derived from the contemporary study of complex systems, including nonlinear dynamics, fractals and “chaos theory,” is having an increasing impact on biology and medicine. This presentation provides a brief overview of an emerging area of biomedical research, including recent applications to cardiopulmonary medicine and chronic obstructive lung disease. PMID:16921107

  18. Testing alternative tectono-stratigraphic interpretations of the Late Palaeozoic-Early Mesozoic Karakaya Complex in NW Turkey: support for an accretionary origin related to northward subduction of Palaeotethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Alastair; Ustaömer, Timur

    2010-05-01

    The mainly Permian-Triassic rocks of the Karakaya Complex exposed E-W across Turkey are critical to reconstruction of Tethys in the E Mediterranean region. Their origin remains controversial with both stratigraphic layer-cake and accretionary-type settings being advocated. Suggested tectonic settings range from back-arc rift, to accretionary prism- related to either northward or southward subduction. To test alternatives we have studied the contact relations and the internal fabric of each of the main litho-tectonic units making up the Karakaya Complex and related "basement" in nine outcrop areas across NW Turkey, also taking account of existing chemical and dating evidence. Our results show that the Karakaya Complex was assembled by regional-scale thrust faulting without evidence of layer cake-type stratigraphical contacts, or even of deformed sedimentary contacts separating the major lithotectonic units. In several areas (e.g. Havran) the outcrops of meta-siliciclastic sediments of presumed Palaeozoic-age (~Kalabak Unit) are locally cut by Early-Mid Devonian granites. These outcrops represent one or more high-level crustal imbricates made up of basement rocks together with depositionally overlying U. Triassic siliciclastic rocks. Evidence from structurally lower, high pressure-low temperature Karakaya rocks (~Nilüfer Unit) reveals an imbricated, mainly volcaniclastic-carbonate sequence. Both these relatively high-grade Karakaya rocks and the structurally overlying, lower-grade Karakaya rocks (i.e. Çal and Ortaoba units) are interpreted as tectonically emplaced accretionary melange rather than sedimentary "olistostromes". MOR-type basalts (Ortaoba Unit) are locally overlain by red ribbon radiolarites that then pass upwards into feldspar-rich siliciclastics. Triassic oceanic crust and oceanic siliceous sediments were overlain by terrigenous turbidites derived from the north (Sakarya continent), followed by tectonic accretion at a subduction trench bordering the

  19. Carney complex.

    PubMed

    Espiard, Stéphanie; Bertherat, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    Carney complex is a rare, dominantly inherited multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome, affecting endocrine glands as the adrenal cortex (causing Cushing's syndrome), the pituitary and the thyroid. It is associated with many other nonendocrine tumors, including cardiac myxomas, testicular tumors, melanotic schwannoma, breast myxomatosis, and abnormal pigmentation (lentiginosis) or myxomas of the skin. The gene located on the CNC1 locus was identified 12 years ago as the regulatory subunit 1A (R1A) of the protein kinase A (PRKAR1A) located at 17q22-24. Inactivating heterozygous germline mutations of PRKAR1A are observed in about two thirds of Carney complex patients with some genotype-phenotype correlation useful for follow-up and prognosis. More rarely, mutations of phosphodiesterase genes have been reported in patients presenting mainly with Cushing's syndrome. In vitro and in vivo studies help to understand how R1A inactivation leads to tumorigenesis. PRKAR1A appears to be a relatively weak tumorigenic signal which can cooperate with other signaling pathways and tumor suppressors. PMID:23652670

  20. Housekeeping Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 36: Areas 8, 10, 16, 18, and 26, Housekeeping Waste Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2000-04-26

    The Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order was entered into by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy, and U.S. Department of Defense to identify sites of potential historical contamination and implement corrective actions based on public health and environmental considerations. The facilities subject to this agreement include the Nevada Test Site (NTS), parts of the Tonopah Test Range, parts to the Nellis Air Force Range, the Central Nevada Test Area, and the Project Shoal Area. Corrective Action Sites (CASs) are areas potentially requiring corrective actions and may include solid waste management units, individual disposal, or release sites. Based on geography, technical similarity, agency responsibility, or other appropriate reasons, CASs are grouped together into Corrective Action Units (CAUs) for the purposes of determining corrective actions. This report contains the Closure Verification Forms for cleanup activities performed at the 12 CASs within CAU 36 on the NTS. The Housekeeping Closure Verification Form for each CAS provides the location, directions to the site, general description, and photographs of the site before and after cleanup activities. Housekeeping activities at these sites included removal of batteries, buckets, cans, drums, gas cylinders, and smoke pots. Based on these activities, no further action is required at these CASs.

  1. Housekeeping Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 463: Areas 2, 3, 9, and 25 Housekeeping Waste Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-11-24

    The Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order was entered into by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy, and U.S. Department of Defense to identify sites of potential historical contamination and implement corrective actions based on public health and environmental considerations. The facilities subject to this agreement include the Nevada Test Site (NTS), parts of the Tonopah Test Range, parts of the Nellis Air Force Range, the Central Nevada Test Area, and the Project Shoal Area. Corrective Action Sites (CASs) are areas potentially requiring corrective actions and may include solid waste management units, individual disposal, or release sites. Based on geography, technical similarity, agency responsibility, or other appropriate reasons, CASs are grouped together into Corrective Action Units (CAUs) for the purposes of determining corrective actions. This report contains the Closure Verification Forms for cleanup activities that were performed at 13 CASs within CAU 463 on the NTS. The Housekeeping Closure Verification Form for each CAS provides the location, directions to the site, general description, and photographs of the site before and after cleanup activities. Housekeeping activities at these sites included removal of debris (e.g., wooden pallets, metal, glass, and trash) and other material. In addition, these forms confirm prior removal of other contaminated materials such as metal drums or buckets, transformers, lead bricks, batteries, and gas cylinders. Based on these activities, no further action is required at these CASs.

  2. Cosmic Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  3. Cosmic Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  4. Chlamydia Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Amplification Test (NAAT); Chlamydia trachomatis Culture; Chlamydia trachomatis DNA Probe Related tests: Gonorrhea Testing , HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen , Syphilis Tests , Herpes Testing , HPV Test , Trichomonas Testing All content on Lab Tests Online has ...

  5. The Electronic Patient Reported Outcome Tool: Testing Usability and Feasibility of a Mobile App and Portal to Support Care for Patients With Complex Chronic Disease and Disability in Primary Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Ashlinder; Khan, Anum Irfan; Hans, Parminder Kaur; Kuluski, Kerry; Cott, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Background People experiencing complex chronic disease and disability (CCDD) face some of the greatest challenges of any patient population. Primary care providers find it difficult to manage multiple discordant conditions and symptoms and often complex social challenges experienced by these patients. The electronic Patient Reported Outcome (ePRO) tool is designed to overcome some of these challenges by supporting goal-oriented primary care delivery. Using the tool, patients and providers collaboratively develop health care goals on a portal linked to a mobile device to help patients and providers track progress between visits. Objectives This study tested the usability and feasibility of adopting the ePRO tool into a single interdisciplinary primary health care practice in Toronto, Canada. The Fit between Individuals, Fask, and Technology (FITT) framework was used to guide our assessment and explore whether the ePRO tool is: (1) feasible for adoption in interdisciplinary primary health care practices and (2) usable from both the patient and provider perspectives. This usability pilot is part of a broader user-centered design development strategy. Methods A 4-week pilot study was conducted in which patients and providers used the ePRO tool to develop health-related goals, which patients then monitored using a mobile device. Patients and providers collaboratively set goals using the system during an initial visit and had at least 1 follow-up visit at the end of the pilot to discuss progress. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with patients and providers to capture usability and feasibility measures. Data from the ePRO system were extracted to provide information regarding tool usage. Results Six providers and 11 patients participated in the study; 3 patients dropped out mainly owing to health issues. The remaining 8 patients completed 210 monitoring protocols, equal to over 1300 questions, with patients often answering questions daily. Providers and patients

  6. What State Tests Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Glenn W.

    What the Illinois Goal Assessment Program (IGAP) test actually tests and the consequences of these tests for funding decisions were studied with a random sample of 100 school districts in the Cook County suburbs of Chicago. Eighth-grade IGAP scores for reading were obtained from the state report card, a document prepared by each school district…

  7. Circulating immune complexes in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, N M; NcNicol, M W; Burton-Kee, J E; Mowbray, J F

    1980-01-01

    The sera of 50 patients with sarcoidosis were tested for the presence of circulating immune complexes using polyethylene glycol precipitation, followed by single radial immuno diffusion for the amounts of Clg, IgG, IgM, and double diffusion for the presence of IgA. Complexes were detected in 29 (58%) patients. No correlation could be found between the presence of these complexes and the length of history stage, or activity of disease, nor to steroid therapy. Rheumatoid factor was detected in 14 patients (28%), 13 of whom had circulating immune complexes, and 12 of whom had active disease. Total serum C3, CH50, and Clq were normal, as were immunoglobulin levels. In patients with extrathoracic sarcoidosis, especially skin or joint involvement, complexes were commonly found. The aetiological significance of these complexes remains uncertain. PMID:7434270

  8. Coaxial test fixture

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, W.F.

    1984-03-30

    This invention pertains to arrangements for performing electrical tests on contact material samples, and in particular for testing contact material test samples in an evacuated environment under high current loads. Frequently, it is desirable in developing high-current separable contact material, to have at least a preliminary analysis of selected candidate conductor materials. Testing of material samples will hopefully identify materials unsuitable for high current electrical contact without requiring incorporation of the materials into a completed and oftentimes complex structure.

  9. Gonorrhea Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... gonorrhoeae Culture; Neisseria gonorrhoeae Gram Stain; Neisseria gonorrhoeae DNA Probe Related tests: Chlamydia Testing , HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen , Syphilis Tests , Herpes Testing , HPV Test , Trichomonas Testing All content on Lab Tests Online has ...

  10. SSC Test Operations Contract Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleim, Kerry D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Test Operations Contract at the Stennis Space Center (SSC). There are views of the test stands layouts, and closer views of the test stands. There are descriptions of the test stand capabilities, some of the other test complexes, the Cryogenic propellant storage facility, the High Pressure Industrial Water (HPIW) facility, and Fluid Component Processing Facility (FCPF).

  11. NDT for Complex Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnevale, Mario

    2013-04-01

    Non-destructive testing of structures composed of various types of materials is performed using a variety of methods. Most commonly, electromagnetic and acoustic methods are used to perform this task. Advances in computer software and electro-mechanical hardware have resulted in semi-automated systems for performing simple low-cost in-situ concrete testing. These systems are designed to be operated by anyone who can read a manual and push the right buttons. Although useful in many circumstances, we ask: "What happens when concrete structures are not simple and are too complex to be analyzed by these semi-automated systems and, most importantly, by minimally trained operators?" Many infrastructure projects are boldly pushing the limit of traditional engineering design. As structures become more complex, the methods and techniques used to evaluate these structures must also evolve. A first step towards adapting geophysical methods to evaluate complex structures is to develop pre-investigation conceptual models of possible responses that structures will have to available geophysical methods. This approach is important for designing the geometry and data acquisition parameters necessary for achieving the desired results. Examples of case by case assessments of the application of GPR to concrete investigations are examined. These include complex concrete wall structures, soil tunnel structures, and airport runways. HGI's adaption of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and seismic methods for assessing the substrate of a heavily reinforced concrete structure up to seven feet thick is reviewed. A range of GPR antenna frequencies were used to image the concrete and the underlying material. Time and frequency domain GPR analyses where used in the assessment. A multi-channel seismic survey using a roll-along data collection technique was used to assess the resonant frequency of the concrete structure, the nature of the underlying medium, and behavior of the structural system.

  12. Galileo battery testing and the impact of test automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pertuch, W. T.; Dils, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    Test complexity, changes of test specifications, and the demand for tight control of tests led to the development of automated testing used for Galileo and other projects. The use of standardized interfacing, i.e., IEEE-488, with desktop computers and test instruments, resulted in greater reliability, repeatability, and accuracy of both control and data reporting. Increased flexibility of test programming has reduced costs by permitting a wide spectrum of test requirements at one station rather than many stations.

  13. Complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sebastin, Sandeep J

    2011-05-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic neurological disorder involving the limbs characterized by disabling pain, swelling, vasomotor instability, sudomotor abnormality, and impairment of motor function. CRPS is not uncommon after hand surgery and may complicate post-operative care. There is no specific diagnostic test for CRPS and the diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, and supportive laboratory findings. Recent modifications to diagnostic criteria have enabled clinicians to diagnose this disease more consistently. This review gives a synopsis of CRPS and discusses the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment options based on the limited evidence in the literature. PMID:22022040

  14. Complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sebastin, Sandeep J

    2011-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic neurological disorder involving the limbs characterized by disabling pain, swelling, vasomotor instability, sudomotor abnormality, and impairment of motor function. CRPS is not uncommon after hand surgery and may complicate post-operative care. There is no specific diagnostic test for CRPS and the diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, and supportive laboratory findings. Recent modifications to diagnostic criteria have enabled clinicians to diagnose this disease more consistently. This review gives a synopsis of CRPS and discusses the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment options based on the limited evidence in the literature. PMID:22022040

  15. Complexity and synchronization in stochastic chaotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son Dang, Thai; Palit, Sanjay Kumar; Mukherjee, Sayan; Hoang, Thang Manh; Banerjee, Santo

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the complexity of a hyperchaotic dynamical system perturbed by noise and various nonlinear speech and music signals. The complexity is measured by the weighted recurrence entropy of the hyperchaotic and stochastic systems. The synchronization phenomenon between two stochastic systems with complex coupling is also investigated. These criteria are tested on chaotic and perturbed systems by mean conditional recurrence and normalized synchronization error. Numerical results including surface plots, normalized synchronization errors, complexity variations etc show the effectiveness of the proposed analysis.

  16. Research and test facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A description is given of each of the following Langley research and test facilities: 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel, 7-by 10-Foot High Speed Tunnel, 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel, 13-Inch Magnetic Suspension & Balance System, 14-by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel, 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel, 16-by 24-Inch Water Tunnel, 20-Foot Vertical Spin Tunnel, 30-by 60-Foot Wind Tunnel, Advanced Civil Transport Simulator (ACTS), Advanced Technology Research Laboratory, Aerospace Controls Research Laboratory (ACRL), Aerothermal Loads Complex, Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF), Avionics Integration Research Laboratory, Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel (BART), Compact Range Test Facility, Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS), Enhanced/Synthetic Vision & Spatial Displays Laboratory, Experimental Test Range (ETR) Flight Research Facility, General Aviation Simulator (GAS), High Intensity Radiated Fields Facility, Human Engineering Methods Laboratory, Hypersonic Facilities Complex, Impact Dynamics Research Facility, Jet Noise Laboratory & Anechoic Jet Facility, Light Alloy Laboratory, Low Frequency Antenna Test Facility, Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel, Mechanics of Metals Laboratory, National Transonic Facility (NTF), NDE Research Laboratory, Polymers & Composites Laboratory, Pyrotechnic Test Facility, Quiet Flow Facility, Robotics Facilities, Scientific Visualization System, Scramjet Test Complex, Space Materials Research Laboratory, Space Simulation & Environmental Test Complex, Structural Dynamics Research Laboratory, Structural Dynamics Test Beds, Structures & Materials Research Laboratory, Supersonic Low Disturbance Pilot Tunnel, Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA), Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT), Transport Systems Research Vehicle, Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, and the Visual Motion Simulator (VMS).

  17. Susceptibility Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... page helpful? Also known as: Sensitivity Testing; Drug Resistance Testing; Culture and Sensitivity; C & S; Antimicrobial Susceptibility Formal name: Bacterial and Fungal Susceptibility Testing Related tests: Urine Culture ; ...

  18. DNA Binding Test, X-Ray Crystal Structure, Spectral Studies, TG-DTA, and Electrochemistry of [CoX2(dmdphphen)] (Dmdphphen Is 2,9-Dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline, X = Cl, and NCS) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Noaimi, Mousa; Suleiman, Mohammed; Darwish, Hany W.; Bakheit, Ahmed H.; Abdoh, Muneer; Saadeddin, Iyad; Shivalingegowda, Naveen; Lokanath, Neartur Krishnappagowda; Bsharat, Odey; Barakat, Assem; Warad, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Two new neutral mixed-ligand cobalt(II) complexes, [CoCl2(dmdphphen)] 1 and [Co(NCS)2(dmdphphen)]  2, where dmdphphen is 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline, were synthesized and characterized by an elemental analysis, UV-Vis, IR, TG/DTA, cyclic voltammetry CV, and single X-ray diffraction. Complex 2 crystallized as monoclinic with a space group P21/c. Co(II) ions are located in a distorted tetrahedral environment. TG/DTA result shows that these complexes are very stable and decomposed through one-step reaction. The two complexes exhibit a quasireversible one-electron response at −550 and 580 mV versus Cp2Fe/Cp2Fe+, which has been assigned to Co(I)/Co(II) and Co(II)/Co(III) couples. Absorption spectral studies reveal that such complexes exhibit hypochromicity during their interaction with CT-DNA. PMID:25614733

  19. Nonlocality and communication complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhrman, Harry; Cleve, Richard; Massar, Serge; de Wolf, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Quantum information processing is the emerging field that defines and realizes computing devices that make use of quantum mechanical principles such as the superposition principle, entanglement, and interference. Until recently the common notion of computing was based on classical mechanics and did not take into account all the possibilities that physically realizable computing devices offer in principle. The field gained momentum after Shor developed an efficient algorithm for factoring numbers, demonstrating the potential computing powers that quantum computing devices can unleash. In this review the information counterpart of computing is studied. It was realized early on by Holevo that quantum bits, the quantum mechanical counterpart of classical bits, cannot be used for efficient transformation of information in the sense that arbitrary k -bit messages cannot be compressed into messages of k-1 qubits. The abstract form of the distributed computing setting is called communication complexity. It studies the amount of information, in terms of bits or in our case qubits, that two spatially separated computing devices need to exchange in order to perform some computational task. Surprisingly, quantum mechanics can be used to obtain dramatic advantages for such tasks. The area of quantum communication complexity is reviewed and it is shown how it connects the foundational physics questions regarding nonlocality with those of communication complexity studied in theoretical computer science. The first examples exhibiting the advantage of the use of qubits in distributed information-processing tasks were based on nonlocality tests. However, by now the field has produced strong and interesting quantum protocols and algorithms of its own that demonstrate that entanglement, although it cannot be used to replace communication, can be used to reduce the communication exponentially. In turn, these new advances yield a new outlook on the foundations of physics and could even

  20. Test plan :

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, Stephen F.

    2013-05-01

    This test plan is a document that provides a systematic approach to the planned testing of rooftop structures to determine their actual load carrying capacity. This document identifies typical tests to be performed, the responsible parties for testing, the general feature of the tests, the testing approach, test deliverables, testing schedule, monitoring requirements, and environmental and safety compliance.

  1. Prenatal Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... X Home > Pregnancy > Prenatal care > Prenatal tests Prenatal tests E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... if you’re feeling fine. What are prenatal tests? Prenatal tests are medical tests you get during ...

  2. Thyroid Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... calories and how fast your heart beats. Thyroid tests check how well your thyroid is working. They ... thyroid diseases such as hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Thyroid tests include blood tests and imaging tests. Blood tests ...

  3. Pinworm test

    MedlinePlus

    Oxyuriasis test; Enterobiasis test; Tape test ... diagnose this infection is to do a tape test. The best time to do this is in ... to determine if there are eggs. The tape test may need to be done on 3 separate ...

  4. Testing? Testing? In Literature?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Alan C.

    The assumptions behind secondary school literature course tests--whether asking students to recall aspects of literary works, to relate literary works to each other, or to analyze unfamiliar literary works--are open to question. They fail to acknowledge some of the most important aspects of literature which, if properly taught, should provide a…

  5. Testing "Compatibility Testing."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Elliot; Huston, Ted L.

    Most models of marital choice are attempts to explain choices within the field of available eligibles. The essence of compatibility testing is that people select their mates by evaluating the match between psychological characteristics after sorting the available field on the basis of social characteristics. A compatibility model seems to require…

  6. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    K. Campbell

    2000-04-01

    This Corrective Action Plan provides methods for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as provided in the Corrective Action Decision Document for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA), Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 (DOE/NV, 1999). The CNTA is located in the Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, approximately 137 kilometers (85 miles) northeast of Tonopah, Nevada. The CNTA consists of three separate land withdrawal areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4, all of which are accessible to the public. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs). Results of the investigation activities completed in 1998 are presented in Appendix D of the Corrective Action Decision Document (DOE/NV, 1999). According to the results, the only Constituent of Concern at the CNTA is total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Of the 34 CASs, corrective action was proposed for 16 sites in 13 CASs. In fiscal year 1999, a Phase I Work Plan was prepared for the construction of a cover on the UC-4 Mud Pit C to gather information on cover constructibility and to perform site management activities. With Nevada Division of Environmental Protection concurrence, the Phase I field activities began in August 1999. A multi-layered cover using a Geosynthetic Clay Liner as an infiltration barrier was constructed over the UC-4 Mud Pit. Some TPH impacted material was relocated, concrete monuments were installed at nine sites, signs warning of site conditions were posted at seven sites, and subsidence markers were installed on the UC-4 Mud Pit C cover. Results from the field activities indicated that the UC-4 Mud Pit C cover design was constructable and could be used at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP). However, because of the size of the UC-1 CMP this design would be extremely costly. An alternative cover design, a vegetated cover, is proposed for the UC-1 CMP.

  7. On State Complexes and Special Cube Complexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Valerie J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the first steps toward a classification of non-positively curved cube complexes called state complexes. A "state complex" is a configuration space for a "reconfigurable system," i.e., an abstract system in which local movements occur in some discrete manner. Reconfigurable systems can be used to describe, for example,…

  8. Accelerated Test Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Ralph

    1995-01-01

    Neural network systems were evaluated for use in predicting wear of mechanical systems. Three different neural network software simulation packages were utilized in order to create models of tribological wear tests. Representative simple, medium, and high complexity simulation packages were selected. Pin-on-disk, rub shoe, and four-ball tribological test data was used for training, testing, and verification of the neural network models. Results showed mixed success. The neural networks were able to predict results with some accuracy if the number of input variables was low or the amount of training data was high. Increased neural network complexity resulted in more accurate results, however there was a point of diminishing return. Medium complexity models were the best trade off between accuracy and computing time requirements. A NASA Technical Memorandum and a Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers paper are being published which detail the work.

  9. Ham test

    MedlinePlus

    Acid hemolysin test; Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria - Ham test; PNH - Ham test ... BJ. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  10. Coombs test

    MedlinePlus

    Direct antiglobulin test; Indirect antiglobulin test; Anemia - hemolytic ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. ... There are 2 types of the Coombs test: Direct Indirect The direct ... that are stuck to the surface of red blood cells. Many diseases ...

  11. Trichomonas Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... vaginalis by Amplified Detection; Trichomonas vaginalis by Direct Fluorescent Antibody (DFA) Related tests: Pap Smear , Chlamydia Testing , ... and men. Other methods. These include the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test and a test that detects ...

  12. Corrective Action Investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit 263: Area 25 Building 4839 Leachfield, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, March 1999

    SciTech Connect

    ITLV

    1999-03-01

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 263, the Area 25 Building 4839 Leachfield, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the US Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 263 is comprised of the Corrective Action Site 25-05-04 sanitary leachfield and associated collection system. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan is used in combination with the Work Plan for Leachfield Corrective Action Units: Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1998d). The Leachfield Work Plan was developed to streamline investigations at Leachfield Corrective Action Units by incorporating management, technical, quality assurance, health and safety, public involvement, field sampling, and waste management information common to a set of Corrective Action Units with similar site histories and characteristics into a single document that can be referenced. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan provides investigative details specific to Corrective Action Unit 263. Corrective Action Unit 263 is located southwest of Building 4839, in the Central Propellant Storage Area. Operations in Building 4839 from 1968 to 1996 resulted in effluent releases to the leachfield and associated collection system. In general, effluent released to the leachfield consisted of sanitary wastewater from a toilet, urinal, lavatory, and drinking fountain located within Building 4839. The subsurface soils in the vicinity of the collection system and leachfield may have been impacted by effluent containing contaminants of potential concern generated by support activities associated with the Building 4839 operations.

  13. Holographic Complexity Equals Bulk Action?

    PubMed

    Brown, Adam R; Roberts, Daniel A; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying

    2016-05-13

    We conjecture that the quantum complexity of a holographic state is dual to the action of a certain spacetime region that we call a Wheeler-DeWitt patch. We illustrate and test the conjecture in the context of neutral, charged, and rotating black holes in anti-de Sitter spacetime, as well as black holes perturbed with static shells and with shock waves. This conjecture evolved from a previous conjecture that complexity is dual to spatial volume, but appears to be a major improvement over the original. In light of our results, we discuss the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature. PMID:27232013

  14. Holographic Complexity Equals Bulk Action?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Adam R.; Roberts, Daniel A.; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying

    2016-05-01

    We conjecture that the quantum complexity of a holographic state is dual to the action of a certain spacetime region that we call a Wheeler-DeWitt patch. We illustrate and test the conjecture in the context of neutral, charged, and rotating black holes in anti-de Sitter spacetime, as well as black holes perturbed with static shells and with shock waves. This conjecture evolved from a previous conjecture that complexity is dual to spatial volume, but appears to be a major improvement over the original. In light of our results, we discuss the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature.

  15. Fact Sheet: Range Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelson, C.; Fretter, E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Ames has a long tradition in leadership with the use of ballistic ranges and shock tubes for the purpose of studying the physics and phenomena associated with hypervelocity flight. Cutting-edge areas of research run the gamut from aerodynamics, to impact physics, to flow-field structure and chemistry. This legacy of testing began in the NACA era of the 1940's with the Supersonic Free Flight Tunnel, and evolved dramatically up through the late 1950s with the pioneering work in the Ames Hypersonic Ballistic Range. The tradition continued in the mid-60s with the commissioning of the three newest facilities: the Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) in 1964, the Hypervelocity Free Flight Facility (HFFF) in 1965 and the Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) in 1966. Today the Range Complex continues to provide unique and critical testing in support of the Nation's programs for planetary geology and geophysics; exobiology; solar system origins; earth atmospheric entry, planetary entry, and aerobraking vehicles; and various configurations for supersonic and hypersonic aircraft.

  16. Social complexity can drive vocal complexity: group size influences vocal information in Carolina chickadees.

    PubMed

    Freeberg, Todd M

    2006-07-01

    One hypothesis to explain variation in vocal communication in animal species is that the complexity of the social group influences the group's vocal complexity. This social-complexity hypothesis for communication is also central to recent arguments regarding the origins of human language, but experimental tests of the hypothesis are lacking. This study investigated whether group size, a fundamental component of social complexity, influences the complexity of a call functioning in the social organization of Carolina chickadees, Poecile carolinensis. In unmanipulated field settings, calls of individuals in larger groups had greater complexity (more information) than calls of individuals in smaller groups. In aviary settings manipulating group size, individuals in larger groups used calls with greater complexity than individuals in smaller groups. These results indicate that social complexity can influence communicative complexity in this species. PMID:16866738

  17. Test Bed For Telerobots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matijevic, Jacob R.; Zimmerman, Wayne F.; Dolinsky, Shlomo

    1990-01-01

    Assembly of electromechanical and electronic equipment (including computers) constitutes test bed for development of advanced robotic systems for remote manipulation. Combines features not found in commercial systems. Its architecture allows easy growth in complexity and level of automation. System national resource for validation of new telerobotic technology. Intended primarily for robots used in outer space, test bed adapted to development of advanced terrestrial telerobotic systems for handling radioactive materials, dangerous chemicals, and explosives.

  18. Where Lab Tests Are Performed

    MedlinePlus

    ... labs also vary in complexity, the volume of tests performed, the technology utilized, and the number and type of professionals who conduct the testing . There are important differences among the various testing settings. This information will be useful in ... Proudly sponsored by ... Learn ...

  19. Protein Complexes in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Caufield, J. Harry; Abreu, Marco; Wimble, Christopher; Uetz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale analyses of protein complexes have recently become available for Escherichia coli and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, yielding 443 and 116 heteromultimeric soluble protein complexes, respectively. We have coupled the results of these mass spectrometry-characterized protein complexes with the 285 “gold standard” protein complexes identified by EcoCyc. A comparison with databases of gene orthology, conservation, and essentiality identified proteins conserved or lost in complexes of other species. For instance, of 285 “gold standard” protein complexes in E. coli, less than 10% are fully conserved among a set of 7 distantly-related bacterial “model” species. Complex conservation follows one of three models: well-conserved complexes, complexes with a conserved core, and complexes with partial conservation but no conserved core. Expanding the comparison to 894 distinct bacterial genomes illustrates fractional conservation and the limits of co-conservation among components of protein complexes: just 14 out of 285 model protein complexes are perfectly conserved across 95% of the genomes used, yet we predict more than 180 may be partially conserved across at least half of the genomes. No clear relationship between gene essentiality and protein complex conservation is observed, as even poorly conserved complexes contain a significant number of essential proteins. Finally, we identify 183 complexes containing well-conserved components and uncharacterized proteins which will be interesting targets for future experimental studies. PMID:25723151

  20. Prenatal Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests are suggested for all women, such as screenings for gestational diabetes, Down syndrome, and HIV. Other tests might be offered based on your: Age Personal or family health history Ethnic background Results of routine tests Some tests are screening tests. They detect risks for or signs of ...

  1. Immune complexes in myeloproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Lewis, C M; Pegrum, G D

    1977-12-01

    A fluorescein-labelled anti-human immunoglobulin was used to demonstrate that peripheral blood from patients with myelofibrosis had a high proportion of phagocytic cells containing fluorescent immune complexes. Cells from patients with other myeloproliferative diseases (either chronic myeloid leukaemia or polycythaemia rubra vera) did not show similar intracellular immune complexes. Serum from patients with myelofibrosis incubated with polymorphs from healthy subjects caused the appearance of inclusions similar to those found when the patients' own cells were used, the healthy phagocytes apparently engulfing complexes from the patients' sera. The presence of platelets or complement did not alter the incidence of intracellular fluorescence. These tests may help in the diagnosis of myelofibrosis and may also be valuable in recognising the onset of this condition in patients with polycythaemia rubra vera.

  2. Thyroid Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations (PDF, 269 KB). Alternate Language URL Thyroid Tests Page Content On this page: What is the ... Top ] Why do health care providers perform thyroid tests? Health care providers perform thyroid tests to assess ...

  3. Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  4. Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Medical Devices Products and Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Lab Tests Laboratory Tests Share Tweet Linkedin ... Approved Home and Lab Tests Find All In Vitro Diagnostic Products and Decision Summaries Since November 2003 ...

  5. IQ testing

    MedlinePlus

    Many IQ tests are used today. Whether they measure actual intelligence or simply certain abilities is controversial. IQ tests measure a specific functioning ability and may not accurately ... any intelligence test may be culturally biased. The more widely ...

  6. Test Madness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedrick, Wanda B., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    There's accountability and then there's the testing craze an iatrogenic practice that undermines real learning. Hedrick documents the negative effects of testing, giving teachers another weapon in their arsenal against mindless preparation for high-stakes tests.

  7. String test

    MedlinePlus

    Duodenal parasites test; Giardia - string test ... To have this test, you swallow a string with a weighted gelatin capsule on the end. The string is pulled out 4 hours later. Any bile , blood, or mucus attached to ...

  8. Material behavior under complex loading

    SciTech Connect

    Breuer, H.J.; Raule, G.; Rodig, M.

    1984-09-01

    Studies of material behavior under complex loading form a bridge between standard material testing methods and the stress analysis calculations for reactor components at high temperatures. The aim of these studies is to determine the influence of typical load change sequences on material properties, to derive the equations required for stress analyses, to carry out tests under multiaxial conditions, and to investigate the structural deformation mechanisms of creep buckling and ratcheting. The present state of the investigations within the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor materials program is described, with emphasis on the experimental apparatus, the scope of the program, and the initial results obtained.

  9. Cyanobacterial NADPH dehydrogenase complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Teruo; Mi, Hualing

    2007-07-01

    Cyanobacteria possess functionally distinct multiple NADPH dehydrogenase (NDH-1) complexes that are essential to CO2 uptake, photosystem-1 cyclic electron transport and respiration. The unique nature of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes is the presence of subunits involved in CO2 uptake. Other than CO2 uptake, chloroplastic NDH-1 complex has similar role as cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes in photosystem-1 cyclic electron transport and respiration (chlororespiration). In this mini-review we focus on the structure and function of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes and their phylogeny. The function of chloroplastic NDH-1 complex and characteristics of plants defective in NDH-1 are also described forcomparison.

  10. [COMPLEX REGIONAL PAIN SYNDROME].

    PubMed

    Blažeković, Ivan; Bilić, Ervina; Žagar, Marija; Anić, Branimir

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) represents a state of constant and often disabling pain, affecting one region (usually hand) and often occurs after a trauma whose severity does not correlate with the level of pain. The older term for this condition of chronic pain associated with motor and autonomic symptoms is reflex sympathetic dystrophy or causalgia. The aim of this review, based on contemporary literature, is to show the epidemiology and etiology, proposed pathophysiological mechanisms, method of diagnosis and treatment options, prevention and mitigation of this under-recognized disease. CRPS I occurs without known neurological damage, unlike CRPS II, where the history of trauma is present and in some cases damage to the peripheral nervous system can be objectively assessed using electromyoneurography. New diagnostic methods, such as quantitative sensory testing (CST), challenge this division because the CST findings in patients with CRPS I can suggest damage to Adelta peripheral nerve fibers. Except for distinguishing type I and type II disease, it is important to bear in mind the diversity of clinical presentation of CRPS in acute and chronic phase of the disease. This regional pain syndrome typically includes the autonomic and motor signs and thus differs from other peripheral neuropathic pain syndromes. The complexity of the clinical presentation indicates the likely presence of different pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disease. Previous studies have demonstrated the autonomic dysfunction, neurogenic inflammation and neuroplastic changes. The diagnosis of CRPS is based on anamnesis and clinical examination on the basis of which the disease can be graded according to the Budapest Criteria. A valuable aid in differentiating subtypes of the disease is electromyoneurography. The treatment of CRPS is as complex as the clinical picture and the pathophysiology of the disease and requires interdisciplinary cooperation and individual approach

  11. [COMPLEX REGIONAL PAIN SYNDROME].

    PubMed

    Blažeković, Ivan; Bilić, Ervina; Žagar, Marija; Anić, Branimir

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) represents a state of constant and often disabling pain, affecting one region (usually hand) and often occurs after a trauma whose severity does not correlate with the level of pain. The older term for this condition of chronic pain associated with motor and autonomic symptoms is reflex sympathetic dystrophy or causalgia. The aim of this review, based on contemporary literature, is to show the epidemiology and etiology, proposed pathophysiological mechanisms, method of diagnosis and treatment options, prevention and mitigation of this under-recognized disease. CRPS I occurs without known neurological damage, unlike CRPS II, where the history of trauma is present and in some cases damage to the peripheral nervous system can be objectively assessed using electromyoneurography. New diagnostic methods, such as quantitative sensory testing (CST), challenge this division because the CST findings in patients with CRPS I can suggest damage to Adelta peripheral nerve fibers. Except for distinguishing type I and type II disease, it is important to bear in mind the diversity of clinical presentation of CRPS in acute and chronic phase of the disease. This regional pain syndrome typically includes the autonomic and motor signs and thus differs from other peripheral neuropathic pain syndromes. The complexity of the clinical presentation indicates the likely presence of different pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disease. Previous studies have demonstrated the autonomic dysfunction, neurogenic inflammation and neuroplastic changes. The diagnosis of CRPS is based on anamnesis and clinical examination on the basis of which the disease can be graded according to the Budapest Criteria. A valuable aid in differentiating subtypes of the disease is electromyoneurography. The treatment of CRPS is as complex as the clinical picture and the pathophysiology of the disease and requires interdisciplinary cooperation and individual approach

  12. A novel approach for identification of biologically active phenolic compounds in complex matrices using hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometer: A promising tool for testing antimicrobial activity of hops.

    PubMed

    Dušek, Martin; Jandovská, Vladimíra; Čermák, Pavel; Mikyška, Alexandr; Olšovská, Jana

    2016-08-15

    The phenolic compounds, secondary metabolites of hops represent a large family of compounds that could be subsequently divided into smaller groups based on the similarities between their chemical structures. The antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties of hops are well known, but there is a lack of information about antimicrobial activities of individual hop compounds. This study was carried out with an objective to identify compounds present in hops that have potential antibacterial activity. In the first stage of experiment, the active compounds with potential anti-microbial activity had to be extracted from hop cones. Therefore, minced hop cones were applied on solid growth medium inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus. The active substances that migrated into the medium created an inhibition zone. In the second stage of experiment, the inhibition zones were cut out from Petri dishes, active compounds were extracted from these zones and consequently analyzed using LC-HRMS. These complex assays were developed and optimized. The data were acquired by using a quadrupole-orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer by targeted-MS2 experiment in both ionization modes. The MS method has been developed as a screening method with a subsequent fragmentation of compound of interest on the base of inclusion mass list. The unknown compounds extracted from inhibition zones have been identified either by searching against a database or their structure has been elucidated on the basis of their fragmentation spectra. On the basis of this experiment the list of active compounds with potential anti-microbial activities was enhanced.

  13. A novel approach for identification of biologically active phenolic compounds in complex matrices using hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometer: A promising tool for testing antimicrobial activity of hops.

    PubMed

    Dušek, Martin; Jandovská, Vladimíra; Čermák, Pavel; Mikyška, Alexandr; Olšovská, Jana

    2016-08-15

    The phenolic compounds, secondary metabolites of hops represent a large family of compounds that could be subsequently divided into smaller groups based on the similarities between their chemical structures. The antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties of hops are well known, but there is a lack of information about antimicrobial activities of individual hop compounds. This study was carried out with an objective to identify compounds present in hops that have potential antibacterial activity. In the first stage of experiment, the active compounds with potential anti-microbial activity had to be extracted from hop cones. Therefore, minced hop cones were applied on solid growth medium inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus. The active substances that migrated into the medium created an inhibition zone. In the second stage of experiment, the inhibition zones were cut out from Petri dishes, active compounds were extracted from these zones and consequently analyzed using LC-HRMS. These complex assays were developed and optimized. The data were acquired by using a quadrupole-orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer by targeted-MS2 experiment in both ionization modes. The MS method has been developed as a screening method with a subsequent fragmentation of compound of interest on the base of inclusion mass list. The unknown compounds extracted from inhibition zones have been identified either by searching against a database or their structure has been elucidated on the basis of their fragmentation spectra. On the basis of this experiment the list of active compounds with potential anti-microbial activities was enhanced. PMID:27260455

  14. Electromagnetic Borehole Flowmeter Testing at the Southwest Plume Test Pad

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.P.

    2001-01-29

    Multiple-well aquifer tests were recently conducted at the Southwest Plume Test Pad near the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) in accordance with the BGC Field Investigation Plan (WSRC, 1999). The pumping tests were performed in the Upper Three Runs and Gordon aquifers in February and March of 1999. The tests provide reliable estimates of horizontal conductivity averaged over aquifer thickness, and a relatively large horizontal zone of influence.

  15. What is complex about complex disorders?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Rather than being polygenic, complex disorders probably represent umbrella terms for collections of conditions caused by rare, recent mutations in any of a large number of different genes. PMID:22269335

  16. Morpheus Lander Hot Fire Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows a successful "hot fire" test of the Morpheus lander on February 27, 2012, at the VTB Flight Complex at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The engine burns for an extended period of time ...

  17. Complex-I-ty in aging

    PubMed Central

    Stork, Devon A.

    2016-01-01

    The role of mitochondrial complex I in aging has been studied in both C. elegans and Drosophila, where RNAi knock down of specific complex I subunits has been shown to extend lifespan. More recently, studies in Drosophila have shown that an increase in mitochondrial activity, including complex I-like activity, can also slow aging. In this review, we discuss this apparent paradox. Improved maintenance of mitochondrial activity, mitochondrial homeostasis, may be responsible for lifespan extension in both cases. Decreased electron transport chain activity caused by reducing complex I subunit expression prompts an increase in stress response signaling that leads to enhanced mitochondrial homeostasis during aging. Increased complex I activity, as well as mitochondrial biogenesis, is expected to both directly counteract the decline in mitochondrial health that occurs during aging and may also increase cellular NAD+ levels, which have been linked to mitochondrial homeostatic mechanisms through activation of sirtuins. We suggest that manipulations that increase or decrease complex I activity both converge on improved mitochondrial homeostasis during aging, resulting in prolonged lifespan. PMID:24961226

  18. Irinotecan Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Irinotecan lipid complex is used in combination with other medications to treat pancreatic cancer that has spread to other parts of ... after treatment with other chemotherapy medications. Irinotecan lipid complex is in a class of antineoplastic medications called ...

  19. Vincristine Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Vincristine lipid complex is used to treat a certain type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; a type of cancer of the ... two different treatments with other medications. Vincristine lipid complex is in a class of medications called vinca ...

  20. Daunorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Daunorubicin lipid complex is used to treat advanced Kaposi's sarcoma (a type of cancer that causes abnormal tissue to grow on ... related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Daunorubicin lipid complex is in a class of medications called anthracyclines. ...