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Sample records for complexes potent antitumor

  1. Inhibition of constitutive signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation by novel platinum complexes with potent antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Turkson, James; Zhang, Shumin; Palmer, Jay; Kay, Heidi; Stanko, Joseph; Mora, Linda B; Sebti, Said; Yu, Hua; Jove, Richard

    2004-12-01

    DNA-alkylating agents that are platinum complexes induce apoptotic responses and have wide application in cancer therapy. The potential for platinum compounds to modulate signal transduction events that contribute to their therapeutic outcome has not been extensively examined. Among the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins, Stat3 activity is frequently up-regulated in many human tumors. Various lines of evidence have established a causal role for aberrant Stat3 activity in malignant transformation and provided validation for its targeting in the development of small-molecule inhibitors as novel cancer therapeutics. We report here that platinum-containing compounds disrupt Stat3 signaling and suppress its biological functions. The novel platinum (IV) compounds, CPA-1, CPA-7, and platinum (IV) tetrachloride block Stat3 activity in vitro at low micromolar concentrations. In malignant cells that harbor constitutively activated Stat3, CPA-1, CPA-7, and platinum (IV) tetrachloride inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in a manner that reflects the attenuation of persistent Stat3 activity. By contrast, cells that do not contain persistent Stat3 activity are marginally affected or are not affected by these compounds. Moreover, CPA-7 induces the regression of mouse CT26 colon tumor, which correlates with the abrogation of persistent Stat3 activity in tumors. Thus, the modulation of oncogenic signal transduction pathways, such as Stat3, may be one of the key molecular mechanisms for the antitumor effects of platinum (IV)-containing complexes.

  2. N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Polyethylenimine Platinum Complexes with Potent in Vitro and in Vivo Antitumor Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Chekkat, Neila; Dahm, Georges; Chardon, Edith; Wantz, May; Sitz, Justine; Decossas, Marion; Lambert, Olivier; Frisch, Benoit; Rubbiani, Riccardo; Gasser, Gilles; Guichard, Gilles; Fournel, Sylvie; Bellemin-Laponnaz, Stéphane

    2016-08-17

    The current interest for platinum N-heterocyclic carbene complexes in cancer research stems from their impressive toxicity reported against a range of different human cancer cells. To date, the demonstration of their in vivo efficacy relative to that of established platinum-based drugs has not been specifically addressed. Here, we introduce an innovative approach to increase the NHC-Pt complex potency whereby multiple NHC-Pt(II) complexes are coordinated along a polyethylenimine polymer (PEI) chain. We show that such NHC-Pt(II)-PEI conjugates induce human cancer cell death in vitro and in vivo in a xenograft mouse model with no observable side effects in contrast to oxaliplatin. Additional studies indicate nucleus and mitochondria targeting and suggest various mechanisms of action compared to classical platinum-based anticancer drugs. PMID:27459208

  3. Esperamicins, a class of potent antitumor antibiotics: mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Long, B H; Golik, J; Forenza, S; Ward, B; Rehfuss, R; Dabrowiak, J C; Catino, J J; Musial, S T; Brookshire, K W; Doyle, T W

    1989-01-01

    The esperamicins represent a class of antitumor antibiotics characterized by an unusual chemical core structure and extremely potent cytotoxicity. The mechanism by which these drugs produce cytotoxicity was investigated and found to be related to the formation of single- and double-strand DNA breaks. Using five structurally related analogs, we defined a structure-activity relationship for cytotoxicity in various eukaryotic and DNA-repair-deficient prokaryotic cell lines, for DNA breakage in a human colon carcinoma cell line, and for DNA breakage in vitro in pBR322 DNA. Mild reducing agents such as dithiothreitol greatly increased the DNA breakage potency of these analogs in vitro. Results suggest that the pendant aromatic chromophore of esperamicin A1 may contribute to the uptake of the drug into cells but may also hinder double-strand DNA break formation. Little DNA breakage specificity was observed for the drug in a 139-base-pair fragment of pBR322 DNA. Evidence supports a previously proposed mechanism whereby esperamicins may produce the observed DNA breaks through reduction of the methyl trisulfide group to a thiolate anion followed by a Michael addition of the anion across the alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone. This addition may result in the saturation of the bridgehead double bond, thus allowing the two triple bonds to approach each other, causing cyclization of the diyn-ene to form a phenylene diradical. It is likely that this diradical is the active form of the drug responsible for single- and double-strand DNA breakage produced by this class of antitumor agents.

  4. Antitumor effect of arabinogalactan and platinum complex.

    PubMed

    Starkov, A K; Zamay, T N; Savchenko, A A; Ingevatkin, E V; Titova, N M; Kolovskaya, O S; Luzan, N A; Silkin, P P; Kuznetsova, S A

    2016-03-01

    The article presents the results of investigation of antitumor properties of platinum-arabinogalactan complex. We showed the ability of the complex to inhibit the growth of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. It is found that the distribution of the platinum-arabinogalactan complex is not specific only for tumor cells in mice. The complex was found in all tissues and organs examined (ascites cells, embryonic cells, kidney, and liver). The mechanism of action of the arabinogalactan-platinum complex may be similar to cisplatin as the complex is able to accumulate in tumor cells. PMID:27193706

  5. Novel benzimidazole-pyrimidine conjugates as potent antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Mohsen, Heba T; Ragab, Fatma A F; Ramla, Mostafa M; El Diwani, Hoda I

    2010-06-01

    As a continuation to our previous work in synthesizing antitumor benzimidazoles, a series of 2-((1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)methylthio)-4-(substituted)-6-phenylpyrimidine-5-carbonitriles was synthesized. Evaluation of the synthesized compounds for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against twelve cell lines namely, Cervical carcinoma (KB), Ovarial carcinoma (SK OV-3), CNS cancer (SF-268), Non small lung cancer (NCI H460), Colonadenocarcinoma (RKOP27), Leukaemia (HL60, U937, K562), Melanoma (G361, SK-MEL-28) and Neuroblastoma (GOTO, NB-1) revealed their marked potency when compared with known anticancer drugs. PMID:20356655

  6. Ecteinascidins. A review of the chemistry, biology and clinical utility of potent tetrahydroisoquinoline antitumor antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Le, V H; Inai, M; Williams, R M; Kan, T

    2015-02-01

    The ecteinascidin family comprises a number of biologically active compounds, containing two to three tetrahydroisoquinoline subunits. Although isolated from marine tunicates, these compounds share a common pentacyclic core with several antimicrobial compounds found in terrestrial bacteria. Among the tetrahydroisoquinoline natural products, ecteinascidin 743 (Et-743) stands out as the most potent antitumor antibiotics that it is recently approved for treatment of a number of soft tissue sarcomas. In this article, we will review the backgrounds, the mechanism of action, the biosynthesis, and the synthetic studies of Et-743. Also, the development of Et-743 as an antitumor drug is discussed.

  7. Ecteinascidins. A Review of the Chemistry, Biology and Clinical Utility of Potent Tetrahydroisoquinoline Antitumor Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Le, V. H.; Inai, M.; Williams, R. M.; Kan, T.

    2016-01-01

    The Ecteinascidin family comprises a number of biologically active compounds, containing two to three tetrahydroisoquinoline subunits. Although isolated from marine tunicates, these compounds share a common pentacyclic core with several antimicrobial compounds found in terrestrial bacteria. Among the tetrahydroisoquinoline natural products, Ecteinascidin 743 (Et-743) stands out as the most potent antitumor antibiotics that it is recently approved for treatment of a number of soft tissue sarcomas. In this article, we will review the backgrounds, the mechanism of action, the biosynthesis, and the synthetic studies of Et-743. Also, the development of Et-743 as an antitumor drug is discussed. PMID:25273374

  8. Green synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles using extract of anti-tumor potent Crocus sativus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumar, R.; Devi, V.; Adavallan, K.; Saranya, D.

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, we have explored anti-tumor potent Crocus sativus (saffron) as a reducing agent for one pot size controlled green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNps) at ambient conditions. The nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis, scanning electron microscope (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR analysis. The prepared AuNPs showed surface Plasmon resonance centered at 549 nm with average particle size of 15±5 nm. Stable, spherical and triangular crystalline AuNPs with well-defined dimensions were synthesized using anti-tumor potent Crocus sativus (saffron). Crystalline nature of the nanoparticles is confirmed from the HR-TEM, SAED and SEM images, and XRD patterns. From the FTIR spectra it is found that the biomolecules are responsible for capping in gold nanoparticles.

  9. Discovery of potent heterodimeric antagonists of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) with sustained antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Perez, Heidi L; Chaudhry, Charu; Emanuel, Stuart L; Fanslau, Caroline; Fargnoli, Joseph; Gan, Jinping; Kim, Kyoung S; Lei, Ming; Naglich, Joseph G; Traeger, Sarah C; Vuppugalla, Ragini; Wei, Donna D; Vite, Gregory D; Talbott, Randy L; Borzilleri, Robert M

    2015-02-12

    The prominent role of IAPs in controlling cell death and their overexpression in a variety of cancers has prompted the development of IAP antagonists as potential antitumor therapies. We describe the identification of a series of heterodimeric antagonists with highly potent antiproliferative activities in cIAP- and XIAP-dependent cell lines. Compounds 15 and 17 further demonstrate curative efficacy in human melanoma and lung cancer xenograft models and are promising candidates for advanced studies.

  10. Novel merosesquiterpene exerts a potent antitumor activity against breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Esther; Álvarez, Pablo Juan; Melguizo, Consolación; Prados, José; Álvarez-Manzaneda, Enrique; Chahboun, Rachid; Messouri, Ibtissam; Vázquez-Vázquez, María Isabel; Aránega, Antonia; Rodríguez-Serrano, Fernando

    2014-05-22

    This article describes the antitumor properties of a new family of merosesquiterpenes, which were synthesized by Diels-Alder cycloaddition of the labdane diene trans-communic acid, highly abundant in Cupressus sempervirens, or its methyl ester, with the appropriate dienophile. These compounds demonstrated potent cytotoxic activity in vitro against human breast, colon, and lung tumor cells. We highlight the elevated activity (IC50: 0.35 ± 0.10 μM) and specificity (TI: 9) of compound 13 against the MCF-7 line, which corresponds to the most prevalent breast cancer cell subtype, luminal A. It was found that compound 13 exerts its anti-tumor action by inducing oxidative stress, arresting the cell cycle in stages G0-G1, and activating apoptosis, which are all associated with low cyclin D1 regulation, pRb hypophosphorylation, increased expression of p27 and p53, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) fractioning. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a phenomenon associated with metastasis promotion and a worsened prognosis also appeared to be inhibited by compound 13. In addition, it markedly reduced tumor development in immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice with allografts of E0771 mouse breast tumor cells (luminal A subtype). According to these findings, this new family of compounds, especially compound 13, may be highly useful in the treatment of human breast cancer.

  11. Structure-Based Design of Potent Bcl-2/Bcl-xL Inhibitors with Strong in Vivo Antitumor Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Haibin; Aguilar, Angelo; Chen, Jianfang; Bai, Longchuan; Liu, Liu; Meagher, Jennifer L.; Yang, Chao-Yie; McEachern, Donna; Cong, Xin; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; Wang, Shaomeng

    2012-08-21

    Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL are key apoptosis regulators and attractive cancer therapeutic targets. We have designed and optimized a class of small-molecule inhibitors of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL containing a 4,5-diphenyl-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxylic acid core structure. A 1.4 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of a lead compound, 12, complexed with Bcl-xL has provided a basis for our optimization. The most potent compounds, 14 and 15, bind to Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL with subnanomolar K{sub i} values and are potent antagonists of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL in functional assays. Compounds 14 and 15 inhibit cell growth with low nanomolar IC{sub 50} values in multiple small-cell lung cancer cell lines and induce robust apoptosis in cancer cells at concentrations as low as 10 nM. Compound 14 also achieves strong antitumor activity in an animal model of human cancer.

  12. Recent progress on C-4-modified podophyllotoxin analogs as potent antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying-Qian; Tian, Jing; Qian, Keduo; Zhao, Xiao-Bo; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Yang, Liu; Nan, Xiang; Tian, Xuan; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    Podophyllotoxin (PPT), as well as its congeners and derivatives, exhibits pronounced biological activities, especially antineoplastic effects. Its strong inhibitory effect on tumor cell growth led to the development of three of the most highly prescribed anticancer drugs in the world, etoposide, teniposide, and the water-soluble prodrug etoposide phosphate. Their clinical success as well as intriguing mechanism of action stimulated great interest in further modification of PPT for better antitumor activity. The C-4 position has been a major target for structural derivatization aimed at either producing more potent compounds or overcoming drug resistance. Accordingly, numerous PPT derivatives have been prepared via hemisynthesis and important structure-activity relationship (SAR) correlations have been identified. Several resulting compounds, including GL-331, TOP-53, and NK611, reached clinical trials. Some excellent reviews on the distribution, sources, applications, synthesis, and SAR of PPT have been published. This review focuses on a second generation of new etoposide-related drugs and provides detailed coverage of the current status and recent development of C-4-modified PPT analogs as anticancer clinical trial candidates.

  13. Synthesis of new tricyclic thiolactams as potent antitumor agent for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takuya; Minehira, Daisuke; Takada, Minetatsu; Urata, Hirokazu; Kato, Atsushi; Adachi, Isao; Kurashima, Yukiko; Kaji, Satoshi; Ogura, Tsutomu; Chiba, Shigeki; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Toyooka, Naoki

    2016-06-01

    We synthesized the novel tricyclic thiolactams 2a-d, 3d-k, having a benzyl or substituted benzyl substituent on the nitrogen of indole subunit, and their preferential cytotoxicity under both nutrient-deprived medium (NDM) and Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) was evaluated against a human pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1. Among the tested compounds, the 4'-hydroxy derivative 3d showed the most potent cytotoxicity in NDM (PC50 1.68μM) although the moderate preferential cytotoxicity (PC50 1.68μM in NDM vs PC50 20μM in DMEM). The 3'-hydroxy derivative 3e exhibited the most preferential cytotoxicity (PC50 1.96μM in NDM vs less than 50% inhibition at 30μM in DMEM). The benzyl 2a and halogenated benzyl derivatives 2b,c showed no cytotoxicity in NDM. In addition, the indole (10, PC50 173.7μM), lactone (11, PC50 131.7μM), and lactam (12, PC50 44.8μM) derivatives showed week or moderate cytotoxicity in NDM. These results indicated that the hydroxy group on the benzyl substituent and tricyclic thiolactam ring were essential for the cytotoxicity in NDM against PANC-1 cell line. Moreover, 3'-hydroxy derivative 3e compound exhibited antitumor activity against the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) xenograft model in vivo. PMID:27117432

  14. Potent antitumor activities of recombinant human PDCD5 protein in combination with chemotherapy drugs in K562 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Lin; Song, Quansheng; Zhang, Yingmei; Lou, Yaxin; Wang, Yanfang; Tian, Linjie; Zheng, Yi; Ma, Dalong; Ke, Xiaoyan; Wang, Ying

    2010-05-28

    Conventional chemotherapy is still frequently used. Programmed cell death 5 (PDCD5) enhances apoptosis of various tumor cells triggered by certain stimuli and is lowly expressed in leukemic cells from chronic myelogenous leukemia patients. Here, we describe for the first time that recombinant human PDCD5 protein (rhPDCD5) in combination with chemotherapy drugs has potent antitumor effects on chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells in vitro and in vivo. The antitumor efficacy of rhPDCD5 protein with chemotherapy drugs, idarubicin (IDR) or cytarabine (Ara-C), was examined in K562 cells in vitro and K562 xenograft tumor models in vivo. rhPDCD5 protein markedly increased the apoptosis rates and decreased the colony-forming capability of K562 cells after the combined treatment with IDR or Ara-C. rhPDCD5 protein by intraperitoneal administration dramatically improved the antitumor effects of IDR treatment in the K562 xenograft model. The tumor sizes and cell proliferation were significantly decreased; and TUNEL positive cells were significantly increased in the combined group with rhPDCD5 protein and IDR treatment compared with single IDR treatment groups. rhPDCD5 protein, in combination with IDR, has potent antitumor effects on chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells and may be a novel and promising agent for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia.

  15. Discovery of Novel Antitumor Dibenzocyclooctatetraene Derivatives and Related Biphenyls as Potent Inhibitors of NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fang-Lin; He, Xiao-Yang; Gu, Chunping; Ohkoshi, Emika; Wang, Li-Ting; Wang, Sheng-Biao; Lai, Chin-Yu; Yu, Le; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Liu, Shuwen; Xie, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Several dibenzocyclooctatetraene derivatives (5-7) and related biphenyls (8-11) were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for inhibition of cancer cell growth and the NF-κB signaling pathway. Compound 5a, a dibenzocyclooctatetraene succinimide, was discovered as a potent inhibitor of the NF-κB signaling pathway with significant antitumor activity against several human tumor cell lines (GI50 1.38–1.45 μM) and was more potent than paclitaxel against the drug-resistant KBvin cell line. Compound 5a also inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation in RAW264.7 cells with an IC50 value of 0.52 μM, prevented IκB-α degradation and p65 nuclear translocation, and suppressed LPS-induced NO production in a dose-dependent manner. The antitumor data in cellular assays indicated that relative positions and types of substituents on the dibenzocyclooctatetraene or acyclic biphenyl as well as torsional angles between the two phenyls are of primary importance to antitumor activity. PMID:24315191

  16. Discovery of the First N-Hydroxycinnamamide-Based Histone Deacetylase 1/3 Dual Inhibitors with Potent Oral Antitumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, we designed and synthesized a novel series of N-hydroxycinnamamide-based HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs), among which the representative compound 14a exhibited promising HDACs inhibition and antitumor activity. In this current study, we report the development of a more potent class of N-hydroxycinnamamide-based HDACIs, using 14a as lead, among which, compound 11r gave IC50 values of 11.8, 498.1, 3.9, 2000.8, 5700.4, 308.2, and 900.4 nM for the inhibition of HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, HDAC8, HDAC4, HDAC6, and HDAC11, exhibiting dual HDAC1/3 selectivity. Compounds 11e, 11r, 11w, and 11y showed excellent growth inhibition in multiple tumor cell lines. In vivo antitumor assay in U937 xenograft model identified compound 11r as a potent, orally active HDACI. To the best of our knowledge, this work constitutes the first report of oral active N-hydroxycinnamamide-based HDACIs with dual HDAC1/3 selectivity. PMID:24694055

  17. Induction of potent anti-tumor responses while eliminating systemic side effects via liposome-anchored combinatorial immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Brandon; Liu, Haipeng; Irvine, Darrell J.

    2011-01-01

    Immunostimulatory therapies that activate immune response pathways are of great interest for overcoming the immunosuppression present in advanced tumors. Agonistic anti-CD40 antibodies and CpG oligonucleotides have previously demonstrated potent, synergistic anti-tumor effects, but their clinical use even as monotherapies is hampered by dose-limiting inflammatory toxicity provoked upon systemic exposure. We hypothesized that by anchoring immuno-agonist compounds to lipid nanoparticles we could retain the bio-activity of therapeutics in the local tumor tissue and tumor-draining lymph node, but limit systemic exposure to these potent molecules. We prepared PEGylated liposomes bearing surface-conjugated anti-CD40 and CpG and assessed their therapeutic efficacy and systemic toxicity compared to soluble versions of the same immuno-agonists, injected intratumorally in the B16F10 murine model of melanoma. Anti-CD40/CpG-liposomes significantly inhibited tumor growth and induced a survival benefit similar to locally injected soluble anti-CD40+CpG. Biodistribution analyses following local delivery showed that the liposomal carriers successfully sequestered anti-CD40 and CpG in vivo, reducing leakage into systemic circulation while allowing draining to the tumor-proximal lymph node. Contrary to locally administered soluble immunotherapy, anti-CD40/CpG liposomes did not elicit significant increases in serum levels of ALT enzyme, systemic inflammatory cytokines, or overall weight loss, confirming that off-target inflammatory effects had been minimized. The development of a delivery strategy capable of inducing robust anti-tumor responses concurrent with minimal systemic side effects is crucial for the continued progress of potent immunotherapies toward widespread clinical translation. PMID:21514665

  18. The antimicrobial peptide pardaxin exerts potent anti-tumor activity against canine perianal gland adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chieh-Yu; Lin, Chao-Nan; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Yu, Chao Yuan; Chen, Jyh-Yih; Chien, Chi-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Pardaxin is an antimicrobial peptide of 33 amino acids, originally isolated from marine fish. We previously demonstrated that pardaxin has anti-tumor activity against murine fibrosarcoma, both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined the anti-tumor activity, toxicity profile, and maximally-tolerated dose of pardaxin treatment in dogs with different types of refractory tumor. Local injection of pardaxin resulted in a significant reduction of perianal gland adenoma growth between 28 and 38 days post-treatment. Surgical resection of canine histiocytomas revealed large areas of ulceration, suggesting that pardaxin acts like a lytic peptide. Pardaxin treatment was not associated with significant variations in blood biochemical parameters or secretion of immune-related proteins. Our findings indicate that pardaxin has strong therapeutic potential for treating perianal gland adenomas in dogs. These data justify the veterinary application of pardaxin, and also provide invaluable information for veterinary medicine and future human clinical trials. PMID:25544775

  19. IL-15 superagonist/IL-15RαSushi-Fc fusion complex (IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc; ALT-803) markedly enhances specific subpopulations of NK and memory CD8+ T cells, and mediates potent anti-tumor activity against murine breast and colon carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Peter S.; Kwilas, Anna R.; Xu, Wenxin; Alter, Sarah; Jeng, Emily K.; Wong, Hing C.

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-15-N72D superagonist-complexed with IL-15RαSushi-Fc fusion protein (IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc; ALT-803) has been reported to exhibit significant anti-tumor activity in murine myeloma, rat bladder cancer, and murine glioblastoma models. In this study, we examined the immunomodulatory and anti-tumor effects of IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc in tumor-free and highly metastatic tumor-bearing mice. Here, IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc significantly expanded natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T cells. In examining NK cell subsets, the greatest significant increase was in highly cytotoxic and migrating (CD11b+, CD27hi; high effector) NK cells, leading to enhanced function on a per-cell basis. CD8+ T cell subset analysis determined that IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc significantly increased IL-15 responding memory (CD122+, CD44+) CD8+ T cells, in particular those having the innate (NKG2D+, PD1−) phenotype. In 4T1 breast tumor–bearing mice, IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc induced significant anti-tumor activity against spontaneous pulmonary metastases, depending on CD8+ T and NK cells, and resulting in prolonged survival. Similar anti-tumor activity was seen in the experimental pulmonary metastasis model of CT26 colon carcinoma cells, particularly when IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc was combined with a cocktail of checkpoint inhibitors, anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-L1. Altogether, these studies showed for the first time that IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc (1) promoted the development of high effector NK cells and CD8+ T cell responders of the innate phenotype, (2) enhanced function of NK cells, and (3) played a vital role in reducing tumor metastasis and ultimately survival, especially in combination with checkpoint inhibitors. PMID:26910920

  20. Oncolytic poliovirus therapy and immunization with poliovirus-infected cell lysate induces potent antitumor immunity against neuroblastoma in vivo.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Hidemi; Wimmer, Eckard; Cello, Jeronimo

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study, we demonstrated that neuroblastoma subcutaneously implanted in immuno-competent mice is eliminated by intratumoral administration of neuroattenuated poliovirus (PV). Our results also suggested that the in vivo destruction of neuroblastoma cells by virotherapy lead to a robust antitumor immune response. In this work, splenocytes harvested from neuroblastoma-bearing animals treated with neuroattenuated PV exhibited significantly higher lytic activity against tumor target cells than did those from splenocytes derived from control mice. In vitro T-cell depletion experiments indicated that CD8(+) T cells were essential for the cytotoxic antitumor activity of splenocytes. Moreover, adoptive transfer of splenocytes obtained from mice cured of neuroblastoma by PV virotherapy markedly delayed the tumor growth of previously established neuroblastomas in recipient naïve mice. These results confirmed that treatment with a neuroattenuated oncolytic PV strain induces antitumor immunity against neuroblastoma that is mainly mediated by cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells. Immunocompetent mice, on the other hand, were immunized with PV-infected neuroblastoma cell lysate prior intravenous challenge with neuroblastoma cells. As a control, mice were vaccinated with either non-infected neuroblastoma cell lysate alone or mixed with PV, or with PBS prior tumor cell injection. Results showed that survival is significantly prolonged only in mice immunized with PV-infected tumor lysate. This finding clearly suggested that in vitro poliovirus infection of neuroblastoma cells turns these cells into a potent tumor immunogen. Further studies in oncolytic treatment of neuroblastoma using attenuated PV alone or in combination with immunotherapy with PV oncolysate should improve the probability for successful translation in the clinic.

  1. COH-203, a novel microtubule inhibitor, exhibits potent anti-tumor activity via p53-dependent senescence in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Qi, Huan; Zuo, Dai-Ying; Bai, Zhao-Shi; Xu, Jing-Wen; Li, Zeng-Qiang; Shen, Qi-Rong; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Wei-Ge; Wu, Ying-Liang

    2014-12-12

    5-(3-Hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-3H-1,2-dithiol-3-one (COH-203) is a novel synthesized analogue of combretastatin A-4 that can be classified as a microtubule inhibitor. In this study, we evaluated the anti-hepatoma effect of COH-203 in vitro and in vivo and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. COH-203 was shown to be more effective in inhibiting the proliferation of liver cancer cells compared with normal liver cells. COH-203 also displayed potent anti-tumor activity in a hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft model without significant toxicity. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that treatment with COH-203 induced mitotic arrest by inhibiting tubulin polymerization in BEL-7402 liver cancer cells. Long-term COH-203 treatment in BEL-7402 cells led to mitotic slippage followed by senescence via the p14(Arf)-p53-p21 and p16(INK4α)-Rb pathways. Furthermore, suppression of p53 via pifithrin-α (p53 inhibitor) and p53-siRNA attenuated COH-203-induced senescence in BEL-7402 cells, suggesting that COH-203 induced senescence p53-dependently. In conclusion, we report for the first time that COH-203, one compound in the combretastatin family, promotes anti-proliferative activity through the induction of p-53 dependent senescence. Our findings will provide a molecular rationale for the development of COH-203 as a promising anti-tumor agent.

  2. Preclinical pharmacology, antitumor activity and development of pharmacodynamic markers for the novel, potent AKT inhibitor CCT128930

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Timothy A.; Walton, Mike I.; Hunter, Lisa-Jane K.; Valenti, Melanie; de Haven Brandon, Alexis; Eve, Paul D.; Ruddle, Ruth; Heaton, Simon P.; Henley, Alan; Pickard, Lisa; Vijayaraghavan, Gowri; Caldwell, John J.; Thompson, Neil T.; Aherne, Wynne; Raynaud, Florence I.; Eccles, Suzanne A.; Workman, Paul; Collins, Ian; Garrett, Michelle D.

    2016-01-01

    AKT is frequently deregulated in cancer, making it an attractive anticancer drug target. CCT128930 is a novel ATP-competitive AKT inhibitor discovered using fragment and structure-based approaches. It is a potent, advanced lead pyrrolopyrimidine compound exhibiting selectivity for AKT over PKA, achieved by targeting a single amino acid difference. CCT128930 exhibited marked antiproliferative activity and inhibited the phosphorylation of a range of AKT substrates in multiple tumor cell lines in vitro, consistent with AKT inhibition. CCT128930 caused a G1 arrest in PTEN-null U87MG human glioblastoma cells, consistent with AKT pathway blockade. Pharmacokinetic studies established that potentially active concentrations of CCT128930 could be achieved in human tumor xenografts. Furthermore, CCT128930 also blocked the phosphorylation of several downstream AKT biomarkers in U87MG tumor xenografts, indicating AKT inhibition in vivo. Antitumor activity was observed with CCT128930 in U87MG and HER2-positive, PIK3CA-mutant BT474 human breast cancer xenografts, consistent with its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. A quantitative immunofluorescence assay to measure the phosphorylation and total protein expression of the AKT substrate PRAS40 in hair follicles is presented. Significant decreases in pThr246 PRAS40 occurred in CCT128930-treated mouse whisker follicles in vivo and human hair follicles treated ex vivo, with minimal changes in total PRAS40. In conclusion, CCT128930 is a novel, selective and potent AKT inhibitor, which blocks AKT activity in vitro and in vivo and induces marked antitumor responses. We have also developed a novel biomarker assay for the inhibition of AKT in human hair follicles, which is currently being employed in clinical trials. PMID:21191045

  3. Preclinical pharmacology, antitumor activity, and development of pharmacodynamic markers for the novel, potent AKT inhibitor CCT128930.

    PubMed

    Yap, Timothy A; Walton, Mike I; Hunter, Lisa-Jane K; Valenti, Melanie; de Haven Brandon, Alexis; Eve, Paul D; Ruddle, Ruth; Heaton, Simon P; Henley, Alan; Pickard, Lisa; Vijayaraghavan, Gowri; Caldwell, John J; Thompson, Neil T; Aherne, Wynne; Raynaud, Florence I; Eccles, Suzanne A; Workman, Paul; Collins, Ian; Garrett, Michelle D

    2011-02-01

    AKT is frequently deregulated in cancer, making it an attractive anticancer drug target. CCT128930 is a novel ATP-competitive AKT inhibitor discovered using fragment- and structure-based approaches. It is a potent, advanced lead pyrrolopyrimidine compound exhibiting selectivity for AKT over PKA, achieved by targeting a single amino acid difference. CCT128930 exhibited marked antiproliferative activity and inhibited the phosphorylation of a range of AKT substrates in multiple tumor cell lines in vitro, consistent with AKT inhibition. CCT128930 caused a G(1) arrest in PTEN-null U87MG human glioblastoma cells, consistent with AKT pathway blockade. Pharmacokinetic studies established that potentially active concentrations of CCT128930 could be achieved in human tumor xenografts. Furthermore, CCT128930 also blocked the phosphorylation of several downstream AKT biomarkers in U87MG tumor xenografts, indicating AKT inhibition in vivo. Antitumor activity was observed with CCT128930 in U87MG and HER2-positive, PIK3CA-mutant BT474 human breast cancer xenografts, consistent with its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. A quantitative immunofluorescence assay to measure the phosphorylation and total protein expression of the AKT substrate PRAS40 in hair follicles is presented. Significant decreases in pThr246 PRAS40 occurred in CCT128930-treated mouse whisker follicles in vivo and human hair follicles treated ex vivo, with minimal changes in total PRAS40. In conclusion, CCT128930 is a novel, selective, and potent AKT inhibitor that blocks AKT activity in vitro and in vivo and induces marked antitumor responses. We have also developed a novel biomarker assay for the inhibition of AKT in human hair follicles, which is currently being used in clinical trials. PMID:21191045

  4. A novel immunomodulatory hemocyanin from the limpet Fissurella latimarginata promotes potent anti-tumor activity in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Arancibia, Sergio; Espinoza, Cecilia; Salazar, Fabián; Del Campo, Miguel; Tampe, Ricardo; Zhong, Ta-Ying; De Ioannes, Pablo; Moltedo, Bruno; Ferreira, Jorge; Lavelle, Ed C; Manubens, Augusto; De Ioannes, Alfredo E; Becker, María Inés

    2014-01-01

    Hemocyanins, the huge oxygen-transporting glycoproteins of some mollusks, are used as immunomodulatory proteins with proven anti-cancer properties. The biodiversity of hemocyanins has promoted interest in identifying new anti-cancer candidates with improved immunological properties. Hemocyanins promote Th1 responses without known side effects, which make them ideal for long-term sustained treatment of cancer. In this study, we evaluated a novel hemocyanin from the limpet/gastropod Fissurella latimarginata (FLH). This protein has the typical hollow, cylindrical structure of other known hemocyanins, such as the keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and the Concholepas hemocyanin (CCH). FLH, like the KLH isoforms, is composed of a single type of polypeptide with exposed N- and O-linked oligosaccharides. However, its immunogenicity was significantly greater than that of KLH and CCH, as FLH induced a stronger humoral immune response and had more potent anti-tumor activity, delaying tumor growth and increasing the survival of mice challenged with B16F10 melanoma cells, in prophylactic and therapeutic settings. Additionally, FLH-treated mice demonstrated increased IFN-γ production and higher numbers of tumor-infiltrating CD4(+) lymphocytes. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrated that FLH, but not CCH or KLH, stimulated the rapid production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-12, IL-23 and TNF-α) by dendritic cells, triggering a pro-inflammatory milieu that may explain its enhanced immunological activity. Moreover, this effect was abolished when deglycosylated FLH was used, suggesting that carbohydrates play a crucial role in the innate immune recognition of this protein. Altogether, our data demonstrate that FLH possesses increased anti-tumor activity in part because it activates a more potent innate immune response in comparison to other known hemocyanins. In conclusion, FLH is a potential new marine adjuvant for immunization and possible cancer immunotherapy.

  5. A Novel Immunomodulatory Hemocyanin from the Limpet Fissurella latimarginata Promotes Potent Anti-Tumor Activity in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Arancibia, Sergio; Espinoza, Cecilia; Salazar, Fabián; Del Campo, Miguel; Tampe, Ricardo; Zhong, Ta-Ying; De Ioannes, Pablo; Moltedo, Bruno; Ferreira, Jorge; Lavelle, Ed C.; Manubens, Augusto; De Ioannes, Alfredo E.; Becker, María Inés

    2014-01-01

    Hemocyanins, the huge oxygen-transporting glycoproteins of some mollusks, are used as immunomodulatory proteins with proven anti-cancer properties. The biodiversity of hemocyanins has promoted interest in identifying new anti-cancer candidates with improved immunological properties. Hemocyanins promote Th1 responses without known side effects, which make them ideal for long-term sustained treatment of cancer. In this study, we evaluated a novel hemocyanin from the limpet/gastropod Fissurella latimarginata (FLH). This protein has the typical hollow, cylindrical structure of other known hemocyanins, such as the keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and the Concholepas hemocyanin (CCH). FLH, like the KLH isoforms, is composed of a single type of polypeptide with exposed N- and O-linked oligosaccharides. However, its immunogenicity was significantly greater than that of KLH and CCH, as FLH induced a stronger humoral immune response and had more potent anti-tumor activity, delaying tumor growth and increasing the survival of mice challenged with B16F10 melanoma cells, in prophylactic and therapeutic settings. Additionally, FLH-treated mice demonstrated increased IFN-γ production and higher numbers of tumor-infiltrating CD4+ lymphocytes. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrated that FLH, but not CCH or KLH, stimulated the rapid production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-12, IL-23 and TNF-α) by dendritic cells, triggering a pro-inflammatory milieu that may explain its enhanced immunological activity. Moreover, this effect was abolished when deglycosylated FLH was used, suggesting that carbohydrates play a crucial role in the innate immune recognition of this protein. Altogether, our data demonstrate that FLH possesses increased anti-tumor activity in part because it activates a more potent innate immune response in comparison to other known hemocyanins. In conclusion, FLH is a potential new marine adjuvant for immunization and possible cancer immunotherapy. PMID

  6. Antitumor agents, 110. Bryophyllin B, a novel potent cytotoxic bufadienolide from Bryophyllum pinnatum.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, T; Haruna, M; Yan, X Z; Chang, J J; Lee, K H

    1989-01-01

    Bryophyllin B [1], a potent cytotoxic bufadienolide, has been isolated from Bryophyllum pinnatum and its structure confirmed by the use of 2D-nmr techniques and difference nOe method. Transformation of bryotoxin C [2] to 1 with acid is also discussed. PMID:2607348

  7. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel homocamptothecin analogues as potent antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Xie, Shao; Ma, Longjun; Chen, Yi; Lu, Wei

    2015-05-01

    Fifteen novel homocamptothecin derivatives with α-OMe substituted E-rings were designed and synthesized. All of the derivatives exhibited similar or superior cytotoxicities compared with that of SN-38, and they inhibited Topo I activity in a cell-free assay in a manner similar to that of SN-38, confirming that they represent a new class of Topo I inhibitors. Notably, the water soluble compound 36o (1.2 mg/mL) exhibited increased lactone stability, and at 0.5 mg/kg and 3.0 mg/kg, it demonstrated significant antitumor activity in mice bearing a xenograft model using human colon cancer cell line HT-29. On the basis of these positive results, further development of 36o-related compounds as potential anticancer clinical trial candidates is definitely warranted.

  8. Organometallic osmium arene complexes with potent cancer cell cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ying; Habtemariam, Abraha; Pizarro, Ana M; van Rijt, Sabine H; Healey, David J; Cooper, Patricia A; Shnyder, Steven D; Clarkson, Guy J; Sadler, Peter J

    2010-11-25

    Iodido osmium(II) complexes [Os(η(6)-arene)(XY)I](+) (XY = p-hydroxy or p-dimethylaminophenylazopyridine, arene = p-cymene or biphenyl) are potently cytotoxic at nanomolar concentrations toward a panel of human cancer cell lines; e.g., IC(50) = 140 nM for [Os(η(6)-bip)(azpy-NMe(2))I](+) toward A2780 ovarian cancer cells. They exhibit low toxicity and negligible deleterious effects in a colon cancer xenograft model, giving rise to the possibility of a broad therapeutic window. The most active complexes are stable and inert toward aquation. Their cytotoxic activity appears to involve redox mechanisms.

  9. Commentary on "Proteasome Inhibitors: A Novel Class of Potent and Effective Antitumor Agents".

    PubMed

    Tew, Kenneth D

    2016-09-01

    The relatively recent clinical success of bortezomib, particularly in multiple myeloma, has established the validity of the proteasome as a viable target for anticancer drug development. This highly cited 1999 Cancer Research article from Adams and colleagues was published during the period when this drug was transitioning from preclinical studies to phase I clinical trial status. Their results detail structure-activity analyses using a series of boronic acid proteasome inhibitors and correlate cytotoxicity with inhibition of proteasome activity. In and of itself, the recognition that interference with proteasome functions represented a novel therapeutic approach likely underlies the popularity of this article. In addition, the provision of in vitro (at that time using the NCI 60 cell line panel) and in vivo antitumor activity, toxicology, and mouse pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data provided a solid basis for establishing the future credentials for bortezomib to gain initial FDA approval in 2003. Cancer Res; 76(17); 4916-7. ©2016 AACRSee related article by Adams et al., Cancer Res 1999;59:2615-22Visit the Cancer Research 75(th) Anniversary timeline. PMID:27587650

  10. A novel Golgi protein (GOLPH2)-regulated oncolytic adenovirus exhibits potent antitumor efficacy in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yigang; Zhao, Hongfang; Zhang, Rong; Ma, Buyun; Chen, Kan; Huang, Fang; Zhou, Xiumei; Cui, Caixia; Liu, Xinyuan

    2015-01-01

    Golgi apparatus is the organelle mainly functioning as protein processing and secretion. GOLPH2 is a resident Golgi glycoprotein, usually called GP73. Recent data displayed that GOLPH2 is a superb hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) marker candidate, and even its specificity is better than liver cancer marker AFP. Oncolytic adenoviruses are broadly used for targeting cancer therapy due to their selective tumor-killing effect. However, it was reported that traditionally oncolytic adenovirus lack the HCC specificity. In this study, a novel dual-regulated oncolytic adenovirus GD55 targeting HCC was first constructed based on our cancer targeted gene-viral therapeutic strategy. To verify the targeting and effectiveness of GOLPH2-regulated oncolytic adenovirus GD55 in HCC, the anticancer capacity was investigated in HCC cell lines and animal model. The results proved that the novel GOLPH2-regulated GD55 conferred higher adenovirus replication and infectivity for liver cancer cells than oncolytic adenovirus ZD55. The GOLPH2-regulated GD55 exerted a significant grow-suppressing effect on HCC cells in vitro but little damage to normal liver cells. In animal experiment, antitumor effect of GD55 was more effective in HCC xenograft of nude mice than that of ZD55. Thus GOLPH2-regulated GD55 may be a promising oncolytic virus agent for future liver cancer treatment. PMID:25980438

  11. Commentary on "Proteasome Inhibitors: A Novel Class of Potent and Effective Antitumor Agents".

    PubMed

    Tew, Kenneth D

    2016-09-01

    The relatively recent clinical success of bortezomib, particularly in multiple myeloma, has established the validity of the proteasome as a viable target for anticancer drug development. This highly cited 1999 Cancer Research article from Adams and colleagues was published during the period when this drug was transitioning from preclinical studies to phase I clinical trial status. Their results detail structure-activity analyses using a series of boronic acid proteasome inhibitors and correlate cytotoxicity with inhibition of proteasome activity. In and of itself, the recognition that interference with proteasome functions represented a novel therapeutic approach likely underlies the popularity of this article. In addition, the provision of in vitro (at that time using the NCI 60 cell line panel) and in vivo antitumor activity, toxicology, and mouse pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data provided a solid basis for establishing the future credentials for bortezomib to gain initial FDA approval in 2003. Cancer Res; 76(17); 4916-7. ©2016 AACRSee related article by Adams et al., Cancer Res 1999;59:2615-22Visit the Cancer Research 75(th) Anniversary timeline.

  12. Potent antitumor immunity generated by a CD40-targeted adenoviral vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hangalapura, Basav N; Oosterhoff, Dinja; de Groot, Jan; Boon, Louis; Tüting, Thomas; van den Eertwegh, Alfons J; Gerritsen, Winald R; van Beusechem, Victor W; Pereboev, Alexander; Curiel, David T; Scheper, Rik J; de Gruijl, Tanja D

    2011-09-01

    In situ delivery of tumor-associated antigen (TAA) genes into dendritic cells (DC) has great potential as a generally applicable tumor vaccination approach. Although adenoviruses (Ad) are an attractive vaccine vehicle in this regard, Ad-mediated transduction of DCs is hampered by the lack of expression of the Ad receptor CAR on the DC surface. DC activation also requires interaction of CD40 with its ligand CD40L to generate protective T-cell-mediated tumor immunity. Therefore, to create a strategy to target Ads to DCs in vivo, we constructed a bispecific adaptor molecule with the CAR ectodomain linked to the CD40L extracellular domain via a trimerization motif (CFm40L). By targeting Ad to CD40 with the use of CFm40L, we enhanced both transduction and maturation of cultured bone marrow-derived DCs. Moreover, we improved transduction efficiency of DCs in lymph node and splenic cell suspensions in vitro and in skin and vaccination site-draining lymph nodes in vivo. Furthermore, CD40 targeting improved the induction of specific CD8(+) T cells along with therapeutic efficacy in a mouse model of melanoma. Taken together, our findings support the use of CD40-targeted Ad vectors encoding full-length TAA for in vivo targeting of DCs and high-efficacy induction of antitumor immunity.

  13. COH-203, a novel microtubule inhibitor, exhibits potent anti-tumor activity via p53-dependent senescence in hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Huan; Zuo, Dai-Ying; Bai, Zhao-Shi; Xu, Jing-Wen; Li, Zeng-Qiang; Shen, Qi-Rong; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Wei-Ge; Wu, Ying-Liang

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • COH-203 exhibits anti-hepatoma effects in vitro and in vivo with low toxicity. • COH-203 inhibits tubulin polymerization. • COH-203 induces mitotic arrest followed by mitotic slippage in BEL-7402 cells. • COH-203 induces p53-dependent senescence in BEL-7402 cells. - Abstract: 5-(3-Hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-3H-1, 2-dithiol-3-one (COH-203) is a novel synthesized analogue of combretastatin A-4 that can be classified as a microtubule inhibitor. In this study, we evaluated the anti-hepatoma effect of COH-203 in vitro and in vivo and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. COH-203 was shown to be more effective in inhibiting the proliferation of liver cancer cells compared with normal liver cells. COH-203 also displayed potent anti-tumor activity in a hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft model without significant toxicity. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that treatment with COH-203 induced mitotic arrest by inhibiting tubulin polymerization in BEL-7402 liver cancer cells. Long-term COH-203 treatment in BEL-7402 cells led to mitotic slippage followed by senescence via the p14{sup Arf}–p53–p21 and p16{sup INK4α}–Rb pathways. Furthermore, suppression of p53 via pifithrin-α (p53 inhibitor) and p53-siRNA attenuated COH-203-induced senescence in BEL-7402 cells, suggesting that COH-203 induced senescence p53-dependently. In conclusion, we report for the first time that COH-203, one compound in the combretastatin family, promotes anti-proliferative activity through the induction of p-53 dependent senescence. Our findings will provide a molecular rationale for the development of COH-203 as a promising anti-tumor agent.

  14. Potent anti-tumor effects of EGFR-targeted hybrid peptide on mice bearing liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Gaowa, Arong; Horibe, Tomohisa; Kohno, Masayuki; Harada, Hiroshi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Kawakami, Koji

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of EGFR2R-lytic hybrid peptide for the treatment of liver metastasis from colon carcinoma. The cytotoxic activity of the hybrid peptide against luciferase-expressing human colon cancer (HCT-116-luc) cells was determined by the WST-8 assay. The experimental mouse model of liver metastases was generated by splenic injection of HCT-116-luc cells. The hybrid peptide was intravenously injected into mice the day after cell implantation at a dose of 5 mg/kg and this was repeated on alternate days for a total of 7 doses. Saline-treated mice were used as controls. Tumor growth and therapeutic responses were monitored by an IVIS imaging system. It was shown that the hybrid peptide exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against HCT-116-luc cells and the liver metastases were significantly reduced after intravenous injections of hybrid peptide compared with controls. Furthermore, Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that hybrid peptide-treated mice had significantly longer survival than controls. In addition, bright-field and ex vivo imaging of liver tissue revealed that mice treated with the hybrid peptide had significantly fewer tumors compared with controls. These results demonstrated that the EGFR2R-lytic hybrid peptide is a potential treatment option for patients with colorectal cancer metastases in the liver.

  15. Nifuroxazide exerts potent anti-tumor and anti-metastasis activity in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yongxia; Ye, Tinghong; Yu, Xi; Lei, Qian; Yang, Fangfang; Xia, Yong; Song, Xuejiao; Liu, Li; Deng, Hongxia; Gao, Tiantao; Peng, Cuiting; Zuo, Weiqiong; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Lidan; Wang, Ningyu; Zhao, Lifeng; Xie, Yongmei; Yu, Luoting; Wei, Yuquan

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is a highly malignant neoplasm of melanocytes with considerable metastatic potential and drug resistance, explaining the need for new candidates that inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. The signal transducer and activator of the transcription 3 (Stat3) signaling pathway plays an important role in melanoma and has been validated as promising anticancer target for melanoma therapy. In this study, nifuroxazide, an antidiarrheal agent identified as an inhibitor of Stat3, was evaluated for its anti-melanoma activity in vitro and in vivo. It had potent anti-proliferative activity against various melanoma cell lines and could induce G2/M phase arrest and cell apoptosis. Moreover, nifuroxazide markedly impaired melanoma cell migration and invasion by down-regulating phosphorylated-Src, phosphorylated-FAK, and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -2, MMP-9 and vimentin. It also significantly inhibited tumor growth without obvious side effects in the A375-bearing mice model by inducing apoptosis and reducing cell proliferation and metastasis. Notably, nifuroxazide significantly inhibited pulmonary metastases, which might be associated with the decrease of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). These findings suggested that nifuroxazide might be a potential agent for inhibiting the growth and metastasis of melanoma. PMID:26830149

  16. Nifuroxazide exerts potent anti-tumor and anti-metastasis activity in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongxia; Ye, Tinghong; Yu, Xi; Lei, Qian; Yang, Fangfang; Xia, Yong; Song, Xuejiao; Liu, Li; Deng, Hongxia; Gao, Tiantao; Peng, Cuiting; Zuo, Weiqiong; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Lidan; Wang, Ningyu; Zhao, Lifeng; Xie, Yongmei; Yu, Luoting; Wei, Yuquan

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is a highly malignant neoplasm of melanocytes with considerable metastatic potential and drug resistance, explaining the need for new candidates that inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. The signal transducer and activator of the transcription 3 (Stat3) signaling pathway plays an important role in melanoma and has been validated as promising anticancer target for melanoma therapy. In this study, nifuroxazide, an antidiarrheal agent identified as an inhibitor of Stat3, was evaluated for its anti-melanoma activity in vitro and in vivo. It had potent anti-proliferative activity against various melanoma cell lines and could induce G2/M phase arrest and cell apoptosis. Moreover, nifuroxazide markedly impaired melanoma cell migration and invasion by down-regulating phosphorylated-Src, phosphorylated-FAK, and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -2, MMP-9 and vimentin. It also significantly inhibited tumor growth without obvious side effects in the A375-bearing mice model by inducing apoptosis and reducing cell proliferation and metastasis. Notably, nifuroxazide significantly inhibited pulmonary metastases, which might be associated with the decrease of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). These findings suggested that nifuroxazide might be a potential agent for inhibiting the growth and metastasis of melanoma. PMID:26830149

  17. Enantioselective Synthesis of Pactamycin, a Complex Antitumor Antibiotic

    PubMed Central

    Malinowski, Justin T.; Sharpe, Robert J.; Johnson, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal application of many complex natural products is precluded by the impracticality of their chemical synthesis. Pactamycin, the most structurally-intricate aminocyclopentitol antibiotic, displays potent anti-prolific properties across multiple phylogenetic domains, but is highly cytotoxic. A limited number of analogs produced by genetic engineering technologies show reduced cytotoxicity against mammalian cells, renewing promise for therapeutic applications. For decades, an efficient synthesis of pactamycin amenable to analog derivatizations has eluded researchers. Herein, we present a short asymmetric total synthesis of pactamycin. An enantioselective Mannich reaction/symmetry-breaking reduction sequence was designed to enable assembly of the entire carbon core skeleton in under five steps and control critical three-dimensional (stereochemical) functional group relationships. This modular route totals fifteen steps and is immediately amenable for structural analog synthesis. PMID:23580525

  18. Antitumor activity of a potent MEK inhibitor, TAK-733, against colorectal cancer cell lines and patient derived xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Lieu, Christopher H.; Klauck, Peter J.; Henthorn, Patrick K.; Tentler, John J.; Tan, Aik-Choon; Spreafico, Anna; Selby, Heather M.; Britt, Blair C.; Bagby, Stacey M.; Arcaroli, John J.; Messersmith, Wells A.; Pitts, Todd M.; Eckhardt, S. Gail

    2015-01-01

    Background CRC is a significant cause of cancer mortality, and new therapies are needed for patients with advanced disease. TAK-733 is a highly potent and selective investigational novel MEK allosteric site inhibitor. Materials and Methods In a preclinical study of TAK-733, a panel of CRC cell lines were exposed to varying concentrations of the agent for 72 hours followed by a sulforhodamine B assay. Twenty patient-derived colorectal cancer xenografts were then treated with TAK-733 in vivo. Tumor growth inhibition index (TGII) was assessed to evaluate the sensitivity of the CRC explants to TAK-733 while linear regression was utilized to investigate the predictive effects of genotype on the TGII of explants. Results Fifty-four CRC cell lines were exposed to TAK-733, while 42 cell lines were deemed sensitive across a broad range of mutations. Eighty-two percent of the cell lines within the sensitive subset were BRAF or KRAS/NRAS mutant, whereas 80% of the cell lines within the sensitive subset were PIK3CA WT. Twenty patient-derived human tumor CRC explants were then treated with TAK-733. In total, 15 primary human tumor explants were found to be sensitive to TAK-733 (TGII ≤ 20%), including 9 primary human tumor explants that exhibited tumor regression (TGII > 100%). Explants with a BRAF/KRAS/NRAS mutant and PIK3CA wild-type genotype demonstrated increased sensitivity to TAK-733 with a median TGII of −6%. MEK-response gene signatures also correlated with responsiveness to TAK-733 in KRAS-mutant CRC. Conclusions The MEK inhibitor TAK-733 demonstrated robust antitumor activity against CRC cell lines and patient-derived tumor explants. While the preclinical activity observed in this study was considerable, single-agent efficacy in the clinic has been limited in CRC, supporting the use of these models in an iterative manner to elucidate resistance mechanisms that can guide rational combination strategies. PMID:26439693

  19. An orally active antitumor cyclohexanediamine-Pt(IV) complex: trans,cis,cis-bis(n-valerato)(oxalato)(1R,2R-cyclohexane diamine)Pt(IV).

    PubMed

    Kizu, R; Nakanishi, T; Miyazaki, M; Tashiro, T; Noji, M; Matsuzawa, A; Eriguchi, M; Takeda, Y; Akiyama, N; Kidani, Y

    1996-05-01

    In order to develop orally active antitumor platinum complexes, several cyclohexanediamine-Pt(IV) complexes of a general formula trans,cis,cis-[Pt(IV) (OCOCnHn+1)2 (oxalato)(1R,2R-cyclohexanediamine)] were synthesized by derivatizing oxaliplatin [Pt(II)(oxalato)(1R,2R-cyclohexanediamine), I-OHP], which is a potent antitumor cyclohexanediamine-Pt(II) complex we have prepared and now undergoing clinical trials. The I-OHP derivatives were found to be stable, lipophilic and reduced to yield I-OHP, an active species, quantitatively by ascorbate in vitro. All the derivatives were antitumor active against mouse lymphocytic leukemia L1210 when given i.p. In particular, trans-bis-valerato-oxalato-1R,2R-dach-Pt(IV), C5-OHP, showed markedly high activity. C5-OHP also exhibited significant antitumor activity against L1210 when orally administered. C5-OHP was considered to be a suitable candidate for the oral cancer chemotherapy agent to be developed.

  20. Design and synthesis of novel PEG-conjugated 20(S)-camptothecin sulfonylamidine derivatives with potent in vitro antitumor activity via Cu-catalyzed three-component reaction.

    PubMed

    Song, Zi-Long; Chen, Hai-Le; Wang, Yu-Han; Goto, Masuo; Gao, Wen-Jing; Cheng, Pi-Le; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Liu, Ying-Qian; Zhu, Gao-Xiang; Wang, Mei-Juan; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2015-07-01

    In our continuing search for camptothecin (CPT)-derived antitumor drugs, novel structurally diverse PEG-based 20(S)-CPT sulfonylamidine derivatives were designed, synthesized via a Cu-multicomponent reaction (MCR), and evaluated for cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines (A-549, MDA-MB-231, KB, and KBvin). All of the derivatives showed promising in vitro cytotoxic activity against the tested tumor cell lines, and were more potent than irinotecan. Significantly, these derivatives exhibited comparable cytotoxicity against KBvin, while irinotecan was less active against this cell line. With a concise efficient synthesis and potent cytotoxic profiles, especially significant activity towards KBvin, these compounds merit further development as a new generation of CPT-derived PEG-conjugated drug candidates.

  1. Vaccination with Irradiated Tumor Cells Engineered to Secrete Murine Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Stimulates Potent, Specific, and Long-Lasting Anti-Tumor Immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dranoff, Glenn; Jaffee, Elizabeth; Lazenby, Audrey; Golumbek, Paul; Levitsky, Hyam; Brose, Katja; Jackson, Valerie; Hamada, Hirofumi; Pardoll, Drew; Mulligan, Richard C.

    1993-04-01

    To compare the ability of different cytokines and other molecules to enhance the immunogenicity of tumor cells, we generated 10 retroviruses encoding potential immunomodulators and studied the vaccination properties of murine tumor cells transduced by the viruses. Using a B16 melanoma model, in which irradiated tumor cells alone do not stimulate significant anti-tumor immunity, we found that irradiated tumor cells expressing murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) stimulated potent, long-lasting, and specific anti-tumor immunity, requiring both CD4^+ and CD8^+ cells. Irradiated cells expressing interleukins 4 and 6 also stimulated detectable, but weaker, activity. In contrast to the B16 system, we found that in a number of other tumor models, the levels of anti-tumor immunity reported previously in cytokine gene transfer studies involving live, transduced cells could be achieved through the use of irradiated cells alone. Nevertheless, manipulation of the vaccine or challenge doses made it possible to demonstrate the activity of murine GM-CSF in those systems as well. Overall, our results have important implications for the clinical use of genetically modified tumor cells as therapeutic cancer vaccines.

  2. Vaccination with irradiated tumor cells engineered to secrete murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulates potent, specific, and long-lasting anti-tumor immunity.

    PubMed Central

    Dranoff, G; Jaffee, E; Lazenby, A; Golumbek, P; Levitsky, H; Brose, K; Jackson, V; Hamada, H; Pardoll, D; Mulligan, R C

    1993-01-01

    To compare the ability of different cytokines and other molecules to enhance the immunogenicity of tumor cells, we generated 10 retroviruses encoding potential immunomodulators and studied the vaccination properties of murine tumor cells transduced by the viruses. Using a B16 melanoma model, in which irradiated tumor cells alone do not stimulate significant anti-tumor immunity, we found that irradiated tumor cells expressing murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) stimulated potent, long-lasting, and specific anti-tumor immunity, requiring both CD4+ and CD8+ cells. Irradiated cells expressing interleukins 4 and 6 also stimulated detectable, but weaker, activity. In contrast to the B16 system, we found that in a number of other tumor models, the levels of anti-tumor immunity reported previously in cytokine gene transfer studies involving live, transduced cells could be achieved through the use of irradiated cells alone. Nevertheless, manipulation of the vaccine or challenge doses made it possible to demonstrate the activity of murine GM-CSF in those systems as well. Overall, our results have important implications for the clinical use of genetically modified tumor cells as therapeutic cancer vaccines. PMID:8097319

  3. Direct tumor recognition by a human CD4+ T-cell subset potently mediates tumor growth inhibition and orchestrates anti-tumor immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Junko; Tsuji, Takemasa; Luescher, Immanuel F.; Shiku, Hiroshi; Mineno, Junichi; Okamoto, Sachiko; Old, Lloyd J.; Shrikant, Protul; Gnjatic, Sacha; Odunsi, Kunle

    2015-01-01

    Tumor antigen-specific CD4+ T cells generally orchestrate and regulate immune cells to provide immune surveillance against malignancy. However, activation of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells is restricted at local tumor sites where antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are frequently dysfunctional, which can cause rapid exhaustion of anti-tumor immune responses. Herein, we characterize anti-tumor effects of a unique human CD4+ helper T-cell subset that directly recognizes the cytoplasmic tumor antigen, NY-ESO-1, presented by MHC class II on cancer cells. Upon direct recognition of cancer cells, tumor-recognizing CD4+ T cells (TR-CD4) potently induced IFN-γ-dependent growth arrest in cancer cells. In addition, direct recognition of cancer cells triggers TR-CD4 to provide help to NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T cells by enhancing cytotoxic activity, and improving viability and proliferation in the absence of APCs. Notably, the TR-CD4 either alone or in collaboration with CD8+ T cells significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo in a xenograft model. Finally, retroviral gene-engineering with T cell receptor (TCR) derived from TR-CD4 produced large numbers of functional TR-CD4. These observations provide mechanistic insights into the role of TR-CD4 in tumor immunity, and suggest that approaches to utilize TR-CD4 will augment anti-tumor immune responses for durable therapeutic efficacy in cancer patients. PMID:26447332

  4. In Vitro and In Vivo Studies of Non-Platinum-Based Halogenated Compounds as Potent Antitumor Agents for Natural Targeted Chemotherapy of Cancers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qing-Bin; Zhang, Qin-Rong; Ou, Ning; Wang, Chun-Rong; Warrington, Jenny

    2015-06-01

    Based on a molecular-mechanism-based anticancer drug discovery program enabled by an innovative femtomedicine approach, we have found a previously unknown class of non-platinum-based halogenated molecules (called FMD compounds) as potent antitumor agents for effective treatment of cancers. Here, we present in vitro and in vivo studies of the compounds for targeted chemotherapy of cervical, breast, ovarian, and lung cancers. Our results show that these FMD agents led to DNA damage, cell cycle arrest in the S phase, and apoptosis in cancer cells. We also observed that such a FMD compound caused an increase of reduced glutathione (GSH, an endogenous antioxidant) levels in human normal cells, while it largely depleted GSH in cancer cells. We correspondingly found that these FMD agents exhibited no or little toxicity toward normal cells/tissues, while causing significant cytotoxicity against cancer cells, as well as suppression and delay in tumor growth in mouse xenograft models of cervical, ovarian, breast and lung cancers. These compounds are therefore a previously undiscovered class of potent antitumor agents that can be translated into clinical trials for natural targeted chemotherapy of multiple cancers.

  5. In Vitro and In Vivo Studies of Non-Platinum-Based Halogenated Compounds as Potent Antitumor Agents for Natural Targeted Chemotherapy of Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qing-Bin; Zhang, Qin-Rong; Ou, Ning; Wang, Chun-Rong; Warrington, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Based on a molecular-mechanism-based anticancer drug discovery program enabled by an innovative femtomedicine approach, we have found a previously unknown class of non-platinum-based halogenated molecules (called FMD compounds) as potent antitumor agents for effective treatment of cancers. Here, we present in vitro and in vivo studies of the compounds for targeted chemotherapy of cervical, breast, ovarian, and lung cancers. Our results show that these FMD agents led to DNA damage, cell cycle arrest in the S phase, and apoptosis in cancer cells. We also observed that such a FMD compound caused an increase of reduced glutathione (GSH, an endogenous antioxidant) levels in human normal cells, while it largely depleted GSH in cancer cells. We correspondingly found that these FMD agents exhibited no or little toxicity toward normal cells/tissues, while causing significant cytotoxicity against cancer cells, as well as suppression and delay in tumor growth in mouse xenograft models of cervical, ovarian, breast and lung cancers. These compounds are therefore a previously undiscovered class of potent antitumor agents that can be translated into clinical trials for natural targeted chemotherapy of multiple cancers. PMID:26351651

  6. Human CD1d knock-in mouse model demonstrates potent antitumor potential of human CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T cells

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xiangshu; Rao, Ping; Carreño, Leandro J.; Kim, Seil; Lawrenczyk, Agnieszka; Porcelli, Steven A.; Cresswell, Peter; Yuan, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Despite a high degree of conservation, subtle but important differences exist between the CD1d antigen presentation pathways of humans and mice. These differences may account for the minimal success of natural killer T (NKT) cell-based antitumor therapies in human clinical trials, which contrast strongly with the powerful antitumor effects in conventional mouse models. To develop an accurate model for in vivo human CD1d (hCD1d) antigen presentation, we have generated a hCD1d knock-in (hCD1d-KI) mouse. In these mice, hCD1d is expressed in a native tissue distribution pattern and supports NKT cell development. Reduced numbers of invariant NKT (iNKT) cells were observed, but at an abundance comparable to that in most normal humans. These iNKT cells predominantly expressed mouse Vβ8, the homolog of human Vβ11, and phenotypically resembled human iNKT cells in their reduced expression of CD4. Importantly, iNKT cells in hCD1d knock-in mice exert a potent antitumor function in a melanoma challenge model. Our results show that replacement of mCD1d by hCD1d can select a population of functional iNKT cells closely resembling human iNKT cells. These hCD1d knock-in mice will allow more accurate in vivo modeling of human iNKT cell responses and will facilitate the preclinical assessment of iNKT cell-targeted antitumor therapies. PMID:23382238

  7. Synergistic anti-tumor therapy by a comb-like multifunctional antibody nanoarray with exceptionally potent activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huafei; Sun, Yun; Chen, Di; Zhao, He; Zhao, Mengxin; Zhu, Xiandi; Ke, Changhong; Zhang, Ge; Jiang, Cheng; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Fulei; Wei, Huafeng; Li, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Simultaneously blocking multiple mediators offers new hope for the treatment of complex diseases. However, the curative potential of current combination therapy by chronological administration of separate monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or multi-specific mAbs is still moderate due to inconvenient manipulation, low cooperative effectors, poor pharmacokinetics and insufficient tumor accumulation. Here, we describe a facile strategy that arms distinct mAbs with cooperative effectors onto a long chain to form a multicomponent comb-like nano mAb. Unlike dissociative parental mAbs, the multifunctional mAb nanoarray (PL-RB) constructed from type I/II anti-CD20 mAbs shows good pharmacokinetics. This PL-RB simultaneously targets distinct epitopes on a single antigen (Ag) and neighboring Ags on different lymphocytes. This unique intra- and intercellular Ag cross-linking endows the multifunctional mAb nanoarray with potent apoptosis activity. The exceptional apoptosis, complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) that are synchronously evoked by the nano PL-RB are further synergistically promoted via enhanced permeability and retention (EPR), which resulted in high intratumor accumulation and excellent anti-lymphoma efficiency.

  8. Synergistic anti-tumor therapy by a comb-like multifunctional antibody nanoarray with exceptionally potent activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huafei; Sun, Yun; Chen, Di; Zhao, He; Zhao, Mengxin; Zhu, Xiandi; Ke, Changhong; Zhang, Ge; Jiang, Cheng; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Fulei; Wei, Huafeng; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneously blocking multiple mediators offers new hope for the treatment of complex diseases. However, the curative potential of current combination therapy by chronological administration of separate monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or multi-specific mAbs is still moderate due to inconvenient manipulation, low cooperative effectors, poor pharmacokinetics and insufficient tumor accumulation. Here, we describe a facile strategy that arms distinct mAbs with cooperative effectors onto a long chain to form a multicomponent comb-like nano mAb. Unlike dissociative parental mAbs, the multifunctional mAb nanoarray (PL-RB) constructed from type I/II anti-CD20 mAbs shows good pharmacokinetics. This PL-RB simultaneously targets distinct epitopes on a single antigen (Ag) and neighboring Ags on different lymphocytes. This unique intra- and intercellular Ag cross-linking endows the multifunctional mAb nanoarray with potent apoptosis activity. The exceptional apoptosis, complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) that are synchronously evoked by the nano PL-RB are further synergistically promoted via enhanced permeability and retention (EPR), which resulted in high intratumor accumulation and excellent anti-lymphoma efficiency. PMID:26508306

  9. Design and Syntheses of Novel Fluoroporphyrin-Anthraquinone Complexes as Antitumor Agents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gu-Liang; Zhao, Sheng-Fang; Chen, Nian-You; Li, Shiming

    2016-01-01

    A novel fluoroporphyrin-anthraquinone hybrid with dipeptide link and its metal complexes were synthesized and evaluated for anti-proliferation activity in human cancer cell line HeLa. The preliminary results demonstrated that all the compounds showed moderate to excellent antitumor activities. Among the active compounds, compound 3 which contains fluorinated porphyrin-anthraquinone and zinc ion exhibited the highest potency with IC50 value of 8.83 µM, indicating that it was a promising antitumor candidate. PMID:27581635

  10. EBI-907, a novel BRAF(V600E) inhibitor, has potent oral anti-tumor activity and a broad kinase selectivity profile.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiayin; Lu, Biao; Liu, Dong; Shen, Ru; Yan, Yinfa; Yang, Liuqing; Zhang, Minsheng; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Guoqing; Cao, Hu; Fu, Beibei; Gong, Aishen; Sun, Qiming; Wan, Hong; Zhang, Lianshan; Tao, Weikang; Cao, Jingsong

    2016-01-01

    The oncogenic mutation of BRAF(V600E) has been found in approximately 8% of all human cancers, including more than 60% of melanoma and 10% of colorectal cancers. The clinical proof of concept in treating BRAF(V600E)-driving melanoma patients with the BRAF inhibitors has been well established. We have sought to identify and develop novel BRAF(V600E) inhibitors with more favorable profiles. Our chemistry effort has led to the discovery of EBI-907 as a novel BRAF(V600E) inhibitor with potent anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. In a LanthaScreen BRAF(V600E) kinase assay, EBI-907 showed an IC50 of 4.8 nM, which is >10 -fold more potent than Vemurafenib (IC50 = 58.5 nM). In addition, EBI-907 showed a broader kinase selectivity profile, with potent activity against a number of important oncogenic kinases including FGFR1-3, RET, c-Kit, and PDGFRb. Concomitant with such properties, EBI-907 exhibits potent and selective cytotoxicity against a broader range of BRAF(V600E)-dependent cell lines including certain colorectal cancer cell lines with innate resistance to Vemurafenib. In BRAF(V600E)-dependent human Colo-205 and A375 tumor xenograft mouse models, EBI-907 caused a marked tumor regression in a dose-dependent manner, with superior efficacy to Vemurafenib. Our results also showed that combination with EGFR or MEK inhibitor enhanced the potency of EBI-907 in cell lines with innate or acquired resistance to BRAF inhibition alone. Our findings present EBI-907 as a potent and promising BRAF inhibitor, which might be useful in broader indications. PMID:26810733

  11. EBI-907, a novel BRAF(V600E) inhibitor, has potent oral anti-tumor activity and a broad kinase selectivity profile.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiayin; Lu, Biao; Liu, Dong; Shen, Ru; Yan, Yinfa; Yang, Liuqing; Zhang, Minsheng; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Guoqing; Cao, Hu; Fu, Beibei; Gong, Aishen; Sun, Qiming; Wan, Hong; Zhang, Lianshan; Tao, Weikang; Cao, Jingsong

    2016-01-01

    The oncogenic mutation of BRAF(V600E) has been found in approximately 8% of all human cancers, including more than 60% of melanoma and 10% of colorectal cancers. The clinical proof of concept in treating BRAF(V600E)-driving melanoma patients with the BRAF inhibitors has been well established. We have sought to identify and develop novel BRAF(V600E) inhibitors with more favorable profiles. Our chemistry effort has led to the discovery of EBI-907 as a novel BRAF(V600E) inhibitor with potent anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. In a LanthaScreen BRAF(V600E) kinase assay, EBI-907 showed an IC50 of 4.8 nM, which is >10 -fold more potent than Vemurafenib (IC50 = 58.5 nM). In addition, EBI-907 showed a broader kinase selectivity profile, with potent activity against a number of important oncogenic kinases including FGFR1-3, RET, c-Kit, and PDGFRb. Concomitant with such properties, EBI-907 exhibits potent and selective cytotoxicity against a broader range of BRAF(V600E)-dependent cell lines including certain colorectal cancer cell lines with innate resistance to Vemurafenib. In BRAF(V600E)-dependent human Colo-205 and A375 tumor xenograft mouse models, EBI-907 caused a marked tumor regression in a dose-dependent manner, with superior efficacy to Vemurafenib. Our results also showed that combination with EGFR or MEK inhibitor enhanced the potency of EBI-907 in cell lines with innate or acquired resistance to BRAF inhibition alone. Our findings present EBI-907 as a potent and promising BRAF inhibitor, which might be useful in broader indications.

  12. Antitumor activity of a 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde 2-pyridinecarboxylic acid hydrazone copper complex and the related mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yingli; Huang, Tengfei; Zhou, Sufeng; Fu, Yun; Liu, Youxun; Yuan, Yanbin; Zhang, Qiongqing; Li, Shaoshan; Li, Changzheng

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde 2-pyridinecarboxylic acid hydrazone (PPAH) was prepared and its antitumor activity was evaluated. The inhibition of proliferation of PPAH against the HepG2 and HCT-116 cell lines was less effective, yet in the presence of copper ions, the mixture demonstrated excellent antitumor activity (IC50 at 2.75±0.30 µM for the HepG2 cell line, and 1.90±0.20 µM for the HCT-116 cell line, respectively) and the new active species was confirmed to be a PPAH copper complex with a 1:1 ratio by spectral analysis. The excellent antitumor activity of the copper complex prompted us to investigate the underlying mechanism. RT-PCR was performed to detect the changes in the expression of apoptotic genes induced by PPAH and its copper complex. However, no changes were observed when the cells were treated by the agents for 24 or 48 h, indicating that ROS were unlikely involved. Cell cycle analysis showed that both PPAH and its copper complex led to S phase arrest of the cells. The sDNA relaxation assay revealed that the PPAH-copper complex displayed dual topoisomerase inhibition for type I and II. The data suggest that the inhibition of proliferation exhibited by the PPAH copper complex may stem from its dual topoisomerase inhibition, which is rarely observed for a metal complex.

  13. Supramolecular assembly and antitumor activity of multiwalled carbon nanotube-camptothecin complexes.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhong; Yin, Min; Ma, Hongmei; Zhu, Longzhang; Shen, Hebei; Jia, Nengqin

    2011-02-01

    The novel supramolecular complexes were prepared with a water-insoluble anticancer drug camptothecin (CPT) loading onto functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes via pi-stacking, in order to improve their solubility and antitumor activity. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes were firstly coated with the tri-block copolymer (Pluronic P123) to render high aqueous solubility. The copolymer-coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes can effectively form non-covalent supramolecular complexes with camptothecin. The supramolecular assembly of the complexes (f-MWNTs-CPT) were systematically characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis spectrophotometry (UV), fluorescence spectrophotometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Furthermore, in vitro cytotoxicity studies of f-MWNTs-CPT supramolecular complexes using the MTT assay exhibit enhanced antitumor activity, suggesting that the functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes can facilitate intracellular delivery of anticancer drug and improve drug activity.

  14. Vaccination with Irradiated Autologous Melanoma Cells Engineered to Secrete Human Granulocyte--Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Generates Potent Antitumor Immunity in Patients with Metastatic Melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soiffer, Robert; Lynch, Thomas; Mihm, Martin; Jung, Ken; Rhuda, Catherine; Schmollinger, Jan C.; Hodi, F. Stephen; Liebster, Laura; Lam, Prudence; Mentzer, Steven; Singer, Samuel; Tanabe, Kenneth K.; Benedict Cosimi, A.; Duda, Rosemary; Sober, Arthur; Bhan, Atul; Daley, John; Neuberg, Donna; Parry, Gordon; Rokovich, Joseph; Richards, Laurie; Drayer, Jan; Berns, Anton; Clift, Shirley; Cohen, Lawrence K.; Mulligan, Richard C.; Dranoff, Glenn

    1998-10-01

    We conducted a Phase I clinical trial investigating the biologic activity of vaccination with irradiated autologous melanoma cells engineered to secrete human granulocyte--macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with metastatic melanoma. Immunization sites were intensely infiltrated with T lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages, and eosinophils in all 21 evaluable patients. Although metastatic lesions resected before vaccination were minimally infiltrated with cells of the immune system in all patients, metastatic lesions resected after vaccination were densely infiltrated with T lymphocytes and plasma cells and showed extensive tumor destruction (at least 80%), fibrosis, and edema in 11 of 16 patients examined. Antimelanoma cytotoxic T cell and antibody responses were associated with tumor destruction. These results demonstrate that vaccination with irradiated autologous melanoma cells engineered to secrete granulocyte--macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulates potent antitumor immunity in humans with metastatic melanoma.

  15. Antidisialoganglioside ricin A-chain immunotoxins show potent antitumor effects in vitro and in a disseminated human neuroblastoma severe combined immunodeficiency mouse model.

    PubMed

    Gottstein, C; Schön, G; Tawadros, S; Kube, D; Wargalla-Plate, U C; Hansmann, M L; Wacker, H H; Berthold, F; Diehl, V; Engert, A

    1994-12-01

    Several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were screened on different neuroblastoma cell lines to evaluate ricin A-chain immunotoxins for possible use against human neuroblastoma. Four mAbs were identified that exhibited high antitumor activity against neuroblastoma cell lines as measured in an indirect cytotoxicity assay. These mAbs, including 14G2a (antidisialoganglioside), ch14.18 (a humanized switch variant), BW704 (antidisialoganglioside), and chCE7 (anti-glycoprotein of M(r) 190,000), were subsequently linked via the bivalent linker N-succinimidyloxycarbonyl-alpha-methyl-alpha-(2-piridyldithio++ +)toluene to deglycosylated ricin A chain. The most potent immunotoxin, 14G2a.dgA, inhibited the protein synthesis of neuroblastoma cell lines IMR5 and NMB by 50% at concentrations of 6 x 10(-12) M. To test the antitumor efficacy of these immunotoxins in vivo, we developed a disseminated human neuroblastoma model in severe combined immunodeficiency mice. Treatment of tumor-bearing mice with 14G2a.dgA 12 days after tumor challenge resulted in a significant prolongation of survival as compared with phosphate-buffered saline-treated controls (16.8 versus 6.5 weeks). We conclude that ricin A-chain immunotoxins might be of potential use in the treatment of human neuroblastoma. PMID:7954465

  16. Novel thiosemicarbazones of the ApT and DpT series and their copper complexes: identification of pronounced redox activity and characterization of their antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Patric J; Sharpe, Philip C; Bernhardt, Paul V; Richardson, Des R

    2010-08-12

    The novel chelators 2-acetylpyridine-4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (HAp44mT) and di-2-pyridylketone-4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (HDp44mT) have been examined to elucidate the structure-activity relationships necessary to form copper (Cu) complexes with pronounced antitumor activity. Electrochemical studies demonstrated that the Cu complexes of these ligands had lower redox potentials than their iron complexes. Moreover, the Cu complexes where the ligand/metal ratio was 1:1 rather than 2:1 had significantly higher intracellular oxidative properties and antitumor efficacy. Interestingly, the 2:1 complex was shown to dissociate to give significant amounts of the 1:1 complex that could be the major cytotoxic effector. Both types of Cu complex showed significantly more antiproliferative activity than the ligand alone. We also demonstrate the importance of the inductive effects of substituents on the carbonyl group of the parent ketone, which influence the Cu(II/I) redox potentials because of their proximity to the metal center. The structure-activity relationships described are important for the design of potent thiosemicarbazone Cu complexes.

  17. Epitope diversification driven by non-tumor epitope-specific Th1 and Th17 mediates potent antitumor reactivity.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Kosuke; Kagamu, Hiroshi; Koyama, Kenichi; Miyabayashi, Takao; Koshio, Jun; Miura, Satoru; Watanabe, Satoshi; Yoshizawa, Hirohisa; Narita, Ichiei

    2012-09-21

    MHC class I-restricted peptide-based vaccination therapies have been conducted to treat cancer patients, because CD8⁺ CTL can efficiently induce apoptosis of tumor cells in an MHC class I-restricted epitope-specific manner. Interestingly, clinical responders are known to demonstrate reactivity to epitopes other than those used for vaccination; however, the mechanism underlying how antitumor T cells with diverse specificity are induced is unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that dendritic cells (DCs) that engulfed apoptotic tumor cells in the presence of non-tumor MHC class II-restricted epitope peptides, OVA(323-339), efficiently presented tumor-associated antigens upon effector-dominant CD4⁺ T cell balance against regulatory T cells (Treg) for the OVA(323-339) epitope. Th1 and Th17 induced tumor-associated antigens presentation of DC, while Th2 ameliorated tumor-antigen presentation for CD8⁺ T cells. Blocking experiments with anti-IL-23p19 antibody and anti-IL-23 receptor indicated that an autocrine mechanism of IL-23 likely mediated the diverted tumor-associated antigens presentation of DC. Tumor-associated antigens presentation of DC induced by OVA(323-339) epitope-specific CD4⁺ T cells resulted in facilitated antitumor immunity in both priming and effector phase in vivo. Notably, this immunotherapy did not require pretreatment to reduce Treg induced by tumor. This strategy may have clinical implications for designing effective antitumor immunotherapies.

  18. Discovery of a potent class I selective ketone histone deacetylase inhibitor with antitumor activity in vivo and optimized pharmacokinetic properties.

    PubMed

    Kinzel, Olaf; Llauger-Bufi, Laura; Pescatore, Giovanna; Rowley, Michael; Schultz-Fademrecht, Carsten; Monteagudo, Edith; Fonsi, Massimiliano; Gonzalez Paz, Odalys; Fiore, Fabrizio; Steinkühler, Christian; Jones, Philip

    2009-06-11

    The optimization of a potent, class I selective ketone HDAC inhibitor is shown. It possesses optimized pharmacokinetic properties in preclinical species, has a clean off-target profile, and is negative in a microbial mutagenicity (Ames) test. In a mouse xenograft model it shows efficacy comparable to that of vorinostat at a 10-fold reduced dose.

  19. Cryo-thermal therapy elicits potent anti-tumor immunity by inducing extracellular Hsp70-dependent MDSC differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Aili; He, Kun; Liu, Ping; Xu, Lisa X

    2016-01-01

    Achieving control of metastatic disease is a long-sought goal in cancer therapy. Treatments that encourage a patient's own immune system are bringing new hopes in reaching such a goal. In clinic, local hyperthermia and cryoablation have been explored to induce anti-tumor immune responses against tumors. We have also developed a novel therapeutic modality of cryo-thermal treatment by alternating liquid nitrogen (LN2) cooling and radio frequency (RF) heating, and better therapeutic effect was achieved in treating metastatic cancer in animal model. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of systemic immune response elicited by cryo-thermal therapy. In the 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma model, we found that local cryo-thermal therapy resulted in a considerable reduction of distant lung metastases, and improved long-term survival. Moreover, results of tumor re-challenge experiments indicated generation of a strong tumor-specific immune memory after the local treatment of primary tumors. Our further study indicated that cryo-thermal therapy caused an elevated extracellular release of Hsp70. Subsequently, Hsp70 induced differentiation of MDSCs into mature DCs, contributing to the relief of MDSCs-mediated immunosuppression and ultimately the activation of strong anti-tumor immune response. Our findings reveal new insight into the mechanism of robust therapeutic effects of cryo-thermal therapy against metastatic cancers. PMID:27256519

  20. Cryo-thermal therapy elicits potent anti-tumor immunity by inducing extracellular Hsp70-dependent MDSC differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Aili; He, Kun; Liu, Ping; Xu, Lisa X.

    2016-01-01

    Achieving control of metastatic disease is a long-sought goal in cancer therapy. Treatments that encourage a patient’s own immune system are bringing new hopes in reaching such a goal. In clinic, local hyperthermia and cryoablation have been explored to induce anti-tumor immune responses against tumors. We have also developed a novel therapeutic modality of cryo-thermal treatment by alternating liquid nitrogen (LN2) cooling and radio frequency (RF) heating, and better therapeutic effect was achieved in treating metastatic cancer in animal model. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of systemic immune response elicited by cryo-thermal therapy. In the 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma model, we found that local cryo-thermal therapy resulted in a considerable reduction of distant lung metastases, and improved long-term survival. Moreover, results of tumor re-challenge experiments indicated generation of a strong tumor-specific immune memory after the local treatment of primary tumors. Our further study indicated that cryo-thermal therapy caused an elevated extracellular release of Hsp70. Subsequently, Hsp70 induced differentiation of MDSCs into mature DCs, contributing to the relief of MDSCs-mediated immunosuppression and ultimately the activation of strong anti-tumor immune response. Our findings reveal new insight into the mechanism of robust therapeutic effects of cryo-thermal therapy against metastatic cancers. PMID:27256519

  1. Folate-associated lipoplexes mediate efficient gene delivery and potent antitumoral activity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Sónia; Faneca, Henrique; Lima, Maria C Pedroso de

    2012-02-28

    The lack of suitable vectors for efficient nucleic acid delivery into target cells represents a major hurdle for the successful application of gene therapy. Cationic liposomes exhibit attractive features for gene delivery, but their efficacy is still unsatisfactory, particularly for in vivo applications, which justifies the drive to further improve their performance by developing novel and efficient formulations. In the present study, we generated a new formulation of lipoplexes through electrostatic association of folate (FA) to 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (EPOPC):cholesterol (Chol) liposomes, prepared at different lipid/DNA charge ratios, and explored their potential to mediate gene delivery. The optimal FA-lipoplex formulation was evaluated for its efficacy to mediate antitumoral activity upon application of HSV-tk suicide gene therapy, both in vitro and in an animal model of oral cancer. Our results demonstrate that FA-EPOPC:Chol/DNA lipoplexes were able to promote a great enhancement of transfection and high in vitro antitumoral activity compared to plain lipoplexes in two different cancer cell lines. Most importantly, a considerable reduction of tumor growth was achieved with the developed FA-lipoplexes as compared to that observed for control FA-lipoplexes or plain lipoplexes. Overall, our study shows that FA-EPOPC:Chol/DNA lipoplexes constitute a promising system for the successful application of suicide gene therapy aiming at treating solid tumors. PMID:22209825

  2. Cryo-thermal therapy elicits potent anti-tumor immunity by inducing extracellular Hsp70-dependent MDSC differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Aili; He, Kun; Liu, Ping; Xu, Lisa X

    2016-06-03

    Achieving control of metastatic disease is a long-sought goal in cancer therapy. Treatments that encourage a patient's own immune system are bringing new hopes in reaching such a goal. In clinic, local hyperthermia and cryoablation have been explored to induce anti-tumor immune responses against tumors. We have also developed a novel therapeutic modality of cryo-thermal treatment by alternating liquid nitrogen (LN2) cooling and radio frequency (RF) heating, and better therapeutic effect was achieved in treating metastatic cancer in animal model. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of systemic immune response elicited by cryo-thermal therapy. In the 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma model, we found that local cryo-thermal therapy resulted in a considerable reduction of distant lung metastases, and improved long-term survival. Moreover, results of tumor re-challenge experiments indicated generation of a strong tumor-specific immune memory after the local treatment of primary tumors. Our further study indicated that cryo-thermal therapy caused an elevated extracellular release of Hsp70. Subsequently, Hsp70 induced differentiation of MDSCs into mature DCs, contributing to the relief of MDSCs-mediated immunosuppression and ultimately the activation of strong anti-tumor immune response. Our findings reveal new insight into the mechanism of robust therapeutic effects of cryo-thermal therapy against metastatic cancers.

  3. Cryo-thermal therapy elicits potent anti-tumor immunity by inducing extracellular Hsp70-dependent MDSC differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Aili; He, Kun; Liu, Ping; Xu, Lisa X.

    2016-06-01

    Achieving control of metastatic disease is a long-sought goal in cancer therapy. Treatments that encourage a patient’s own immune system are bringing new hopes in reaching such a goal. In clinic, local hyperthermia and cryoablation have been explored to induce anti-tumor immune responses against tumors. We have also developed a novel therapeutic modality of cryo-thermal treatment by alternating liquid nitrogen (LN2) cooling and radio frequency (RF) heating, and better therapeutic effect was achieved in treating metastatic cancer in animal model. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of systemic immune response elicited by cryo-thermal therapy. In the 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma model, we found that local cryo-thermal therapy resulted in a considerable reduction of distant lung metastases, and improved long-term survival. Moreover, results of tumor re-challenge experiments indicated generation of a strong tumor-specific immune memory after the local treatment of primary tumors. Our further study indicated that cryo-thermal therapy caused an elevated extracellular release of Hsp70. Subsequently, Hsp70 induced differentiation of MDSCs into mature DCs, contributing to the relief of MDSCs-mediated immunosuppression and ultimately the activation of strong anti-tumor immune response. Our findings reveal new insight into the mechanism of robust therapeutic effects of cryo-thermal therapy against metastatic cancers.

  4. The CDK9 Inhibitor Dinaciclib Exerts Potent Apoptotic and Antitumor Effects in Preclinical Models of MLL-Rearranged Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Baker, Adele; Gregory, Gareth P; Verbrugge, Inge; Kats, Lev; Hilton, Joshua J; Vidacs, Eva; Lee, Erwin M; Lock, Richard B; Zuber, Johannes; Shortt, Jake; Johnstone, Ricky W

    2016-03-01

    Translocations of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene occur in 60% to 80% of all infant acute leukemias and are markers of poor prognosis. MLL-AF9 and other MLL fusion proteins aberrantly recruit epigenetic regulatory proteins, including histone deacetylases (HDAC), histone methyltransferases, bromodomain-containing proteins, and transcription elongation factors to mediate chromatin remodeling and regulate tumorigenic gene expression programs. We conducted a small-molecule inhibitor screen to test the ability of candidate pharmacologic agents targeting epigenetic and transcriptional regulatory proteins to induce apoptosis in leukemic cells derived from genetically engineered mouse models of MLL-AF9-driven acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We found that the CDK inhibitor dinaciclib and HDAC inhibitor panobinostat were the most potent inducers of apoptosis in short-term in vitro assays. Treatment of MLL-rearranged leukemic cells with dinaciclib resulted in rapidly decreased expression of the prosurvival protein Mcl-1, and accordingly, overexpression of Mcl-1 protected AML cells from dinaciclib-induced apoptosis. Administration of dinaciclib to mice bearing MLL-AF9-driven human and mouse leukemias elicited potent antitumor responses and significantly prolonged survival. Collectively, these studies highlight a new therapeutic approach to potentially overcome the resistance of MLL-rearranged AML to conventional chemotherapies and prompt further clinical evaluation of CDK inhibitors in AML patients harboring MLL fusion proteins. PMID:26627013

  5. Potent antitumor 9-anilinoacridines and acridines bearing an alkylating N-mustard residue on the acridine chromophore: synthesis and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Su, Tsann-Long; Lin, Yi-Wen; Chou, Ting-Chao; Zhang, Xiuguo; Bacherikov, Valeriy A; Chen, Ching-Huang; Liu, Leroy F; Tsai, Tsong-Jen

    2006-06-15

    A series of 9-anilinoacridine and acridine derivatives bearing an alkylating N-mustard residue at C4 of the acridine chromophore were synthesized. The N-mustard pharmacophore was linked to the C4 of the acridine ring with an O-ethyl (O-C(2)), O-propyl (O-C(3)), or O-butyl (O-C(4)) spacer. It revealed that all newly synthesized compounds were very potent cytotoxic agents against human leukemia and various solid tumors in vitro. These agents did not exhibit cross-resistance against vinblastine-resistant (CCRF-CEM/VBL) or taxol-resistant (CCRF-CEM/taxol) cells. It also showed that these agents were DNA cross-linking agents rather than topoisomerase II inhibitors. Of these agents, compounds 27a and 27c were shown to have potent antitumor activity in nude mice bearing the human breast carcinoma MX-1 xenograft. The therapeutic efficacies of these two agents are comparable to that of taxol.

  6. Synthesis and Biological Activities of Organotin(IV) Complexes as Antitumoral and Antimicrobial Agents. A Review.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed Shoaib Ahmad; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Waseem, Amir; Ahmed, M Mehboob; Najam, Tayyaba; Shaheen, Salma; Rivera, Gildardo

    2015-01-01

    Advances in the use of organotin(IV) compounds have gained relevant interest in both the chemical and pharmaceutical industry. Tin(IV) form stable complexes with a unique structure and physicochemical properties that are used in organic synthesis as heat stabilizers and catalysts, in drug development as biologically active agents, and in other areas. This review focuses on recent progress in the classical and convenient synthesis procedure, on their mechanism of action, and biological activities as antitumoral and antimicrobial agents.

  7. Synthesis of a Potent Vinblastine: Rationally Designed Added Benign Complexity.

    PubMed

    Allemann, Oliver; Brutsch, Manuela; Lukesh, John C; Brody, Daniel M; Boger, Dale L

    2016-07-13

    Many natural products, including vinblastine, have not been easily subjected to simplifications in their structures by synthetic means or modifications by late-stage semisynthetic derivatization in ways that enhance their biological potency. Herein, we detail a synthetic vinblastine that incorporates added benign complexity (ABC), which improves activity 10-fold, and is now accessible as a result of advances in the total synthesis of the natural product. The compound incorporates designed added molecular complexity but no new functional groups and maintains all existing structural and conformational features of the natural product. It constitutes a member of an analogue class presently inaccessible by semisynthetic derivatization of the natural product, by its late-stage functionalization, or by biosynthetic means. Rather, it was accessed by synthetic means, using an appropriately modified powerful penultimate single-step vindoline-catharanthine coupling strategy that proceeds with a higher diastereoselectivity than found for the natural product itself. PMID:27356080

  8. Design and synthesis of new 2-arylnaphthyridin-4-ones as potent antitumor agents targeting tumorigenic cell lines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chin-Yu; Cheng, Yung-Yi; Chang, Ling-Chu; Huang, Li-Jiau; Chou, Li-Chen; Huang, Chi-Hung; Tsai, Meng-Tung; Liao, Chih-Chang; Hsu, Mei-Hua; Lin, Hui-Yi; Wu, Tian-Shung; Wen, Yen-Fang; Zhao, Yu; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2015-01-27

    To develop new anticancer drug candidates from 2-arylnaphthyridin-4-one (AN), we have designed and synthesized a series of 3'-hydroxy and 6-hydroxy derivatives of AN. The results of cytotoxicity screening indicated that the replacement of the 3'-methoxy moiety on the C-ring phenyl group of AN (6a-e) with 3'-hydroxy (7a-e) made no significant effect on the inhibitory activity against HL-60, Hep3B and NCI-H460 cancer cell lines. On the other hand, replacing the 6-methoxy group on the A-ring of AN (6g-i) with a 6-hydroxy group (7g-i) resulted in reduced inhibitory activity against the above three cancer cell lines. Among the above-mentioned target compounds, 2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-5-methyl-1,8-naphthyridin-4(1H)-one (7a) demonstrated the greatest potency and the best selectivity toward tumorigenic cancer cell lines. In a 7a preliminary mechanism of action study in Hep3B hepatoma cells, 7a showed the effects on microtubules followed by cell cycle arrest and sequentially led to apoptosis. In addition, a phosphate prodrug (11) of 7a exhibited significant antitumor activity when tested in a Hep3B xenograft nude mice model. Since compound 11 has demonstrated good development potential, it is recommended for further preclinical studies.

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Bis-Pyrazolyl-Thiazoles Incorporating the Thiophene Moiety as Potent Anti-Tumor Agents

    PubMed Central

    Gomha, Sobhi M.; Edrees, Mastoura M.; Altalbawy, Farag M. A.

    2016-01-01

    A new series of 1,4-bis(1-(5-(aryldiazenyl)thiazol-2-yl)-5-(thiophen-2-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)benzenes 3a–i were synthesized via reaction of 5,5′-(1,4-phenylene)bis(3-(thiophen-2-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carbothioamide) (1) with hydrazonoyl halides 2a–i. In addition, reaction of 1 with ethyl chloroacetate afforded bis-thiazolone derivative 8 as the end product. Reaction of compound 8 with methyl glyoxalate gave bis-thiazolone derivative 10. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic evidences and their alternative syntheses. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anti-tumor activities against hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines, and the results revealed promising activities of compounds 3g, 5e, 3e, 10, 5f, 3i, and 3f with IC50 equal 1.37 ± 0.15, 1.41 ± 0.17, 1.62 ± 0.20, 1.86 ± 0.20, 1.93 ± 0.08, 2.03 ± 0.25, and 2.09 ± 0.19 μM, respectively. PMID:27618013

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Bis-Pyrazolyl-Thiazoles Incorporating the Thiophene Moiety as Potent Anti-Tumor Agents.

    PubMed

    Gomha, Sobhi M; Edrees, Mastoura M; Altalbawy, Farag M A

    2016-01-01

    A new series of 1,4-bis(1-(5-(aryldiazenyl)thiazol-2-yl)-5-(thiophen-2-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)benzenes 3a-i were synthesized via reaction of 5,5'-(1,4-phenylene)bis(3-(thiophen-2-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carbothioamide) (1) with hydrazonoyl halides 2a-i. In addition, reaction of 1 with ethyl chloroacetate afforded bis-thiazolone derivative 8 as the end product. Reaction of compound 8 with methyl glyoxalate gave bis-thiazolone derivative 10. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic evidences and their alternative syntheses. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anti-tumor activities against hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines, and the results revealed promising activities of compounds 3g, 5e, 3e, 10, 5f, 3i, and 3f with IC50 equal 1.37 ± 0.15, 1.41 ± 0.17, 1.62 ± 0.20, 1.86 ± 0.20, 1.93 ± 0.08, 2.03 ± 0.25, and 2.09 ± 0.19 μM, respectively. PMID:27618013

  11. Single-domain antibody-based and linker-free bispecific antibodies targeting FcγRIII induce potent antitumor activity without recruiting regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Rozan, Caroline; Cornillon, Amélie; Pétiard, Corinne; Chartier, Martine; Behar, Ghislaine; Boix, Charlotte; Kerfelec, Brigitte; Robert, Bruno; Pèlegrin, André; Chames, Patrick; Teillaud, Jean-Luc; Baty, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, one of the most prominent modes of action of antitumor antibodies, suffers from important limitations due to the need for optimal interactions with Fcγ receptors. In this work, we report the design of a new bispecific antibody format, compact and linker-free, based on the use of llama single-domain antibodies that are capable of circumventing most of these limitations. This bispecific antibody format was created by fusing single-domain antibodies directed against the carcinoembryonic antigen and the activating FcγRIIIa receptor to human Cκ and CH1 immunoglobulin G1 domains, acting as a natural dimerization motif. In vitro and in vivo characterization of these Fab-like bispecific molecules revealed favorable features for further development as a therapeutic molecule. They are easy to produce in Escherichia coli, very stable, and elicit potent lysis of tumor cells by human natural killer cells at picomolar concentrations. Unlike conventional antibodies, they do not engage inhibitory FcγRIIb receptor, do not compete with serum immunoglobulins G for receptor binding, and their cytotoxic activity is independent of Fc glycosylation and FcγRIIIa polymorphism. As opposed to anti-CD3 bispecific antitumor antibodies, they do not engage regulatory T cells as these latter cells do not express FcγRIII. Studies in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient gamma mice xenografted with carcinoembryonic antigen-positive tumor cells showed that Fab-like bispecific molecules in the presence of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells significantly slow down tumor growth. This new compact, linker-free bispecific antibody format offers a promising approach for optimizing antibody-based therapies.

  12. Azido- and chlorido-cobalt complex as carrier-prototypes for antitumoral prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Pires, Bianca M; Giacomin, Letícia C; Castro, Frederico A V; Cavalcanti, Amanda dos S; Pereira, Marcos D; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J; Faria, Roberto B; Scarpellini, Marciela

    2016-04-01

    Cobalt(III) complexes are well-suited systems for cytotoxic drug release under hypoxic conditions. Here, we investigate the effect of cytotoxic azide release by cobalt-containing carrier-prototypes for antitumoral prodrugs. In addition, we study the species formed after reduction of Co(3+) → Co(2+) in the proposed models for these prodrugs. Three new complexes, [Co(III)(L)(N3)2]BF4(1), [{Co(II)(L)(N3)}2](ClO4)2(2), and [Co(II)(L)Cl]PF6(3), L=[(bis(1-methylimidazol-2-yl)methyl)(2-(pyridyl-2-yl)ethyl)amine], were synthesized and studied by several spectroscopic, spectrometric, electrochemical, and crystallographic methods. Reactivity and spectroscopic data reveal that complex 1 is able to release N3(-) either after reduction with ascorbic acid, or by ambient light irradiation, in aqueous phosphate buffer (pH6.2, 7.0 and 7.4) and acetonitrile solutions. The antitumoral activities of compounds 1-3 were tested in normoxia on MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), PC-3 (human prostate) and A-549 (human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial) cell lines, after 24h of exposure. Either complexes or NaN3 presented IC50 values higher than 200 μM, showing lower cytotoxicity than the clinical standard antitumoral complex cisplatin, under the same conditions. Complexes 1-3 were also evaluated in hypoxia on A-549 and results indicate high IC50 data (>200 μM) after 24h of exposure. However, an increase of cancer cell susceptibility to 1 and 2 was observed at 300 μM. Regarding complex 3, no cytotoxic activity was observed in the same conditions. The data presented here indicate that the tridentate ligand L is able to stabilize both oxidation states of cobalt (+3 and +2). In addition, the cobalt(III) complex generates the low cytotoxic cobalt(II) species after reduction, which supports their use as as carrier prototypes for antitumoral prodrugs.

  13. Synthesis, cytostatic, and antitumor properties of new rh(i) thiazole complexes.

    PubMed

    Craciunescu, D G; Furlani, A; Scarcia, V; Doadrio, A

    1985-12-01

    Six new organometallic derivatives of Rh(I), belonging to the general structure [Rh(CO)2(L)(Cl)], were synthesized and characterized by chemical analysis and IR determinations. The following ligands (L) were employed: 2-aminothiazole, thiazole, 2-amino-6-bromobenzothiazole, 5-chloro-2-methylthiobenzothiazole, 2-bromo-thiazole, and 2-isopropylthiazole. These new complexes were assayed in vitro with KB cells and in vivo with mice bearing established P388 and L1210 leukemias. Assays against S180 and Ehrlich ascitic tumors were also performed. Two complexes displayed antitumor activity against ascitic tumors.

  14. In situ expression of soluble B7-1 in the context of oncolytic herpes simplex virus induces potent antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Todo, T; Martuza, R L; Dallman, M J; Rabkin, S D

    2001-01-01

    In vivo delivery of immunomodulatory genes is a promising strategy for solid tumor vaccination. A drawback is that it necessitates induction of a large effect from transgene expression in a small percentage of tumor cells. Although the B7 family is known to be the most potent of the costimulatory molecules, gene transduction of B7 alone has not been effective in inducing antitumor immunity in nonimmunogenic tumors by ex vivo methods, much less in vivo. We have developed a novel approach where a gene encoding soluble B7-1, a fusion protein of the extracellular domain of murine B7-1 and the Fc portion of human IgG1, is delivered to tumor cells in vivo in the context of an oncolytic replication-competent herpes simplex virus, and the gene product is secreted by tumor cells rather than expressed on the cell surface. Defective herpes simplex virus vectors containing the B7-1-immunoglobulin (B7-1-Ig) fusion transgene (dvB7Ig) were generated using G207 as a helper virus and tested in the poorly immunogenic murine neuroblastoma, Neuro2a, in syngeneic A/J mice. Intraneoplastic inoculation of dvB7Ig/G207 at a low titer successfully inhibited the growth of established s.c. tumors, despite the expression of B7-1-Ig being detected in only 1% or fewer of tumor cells at the inoculation site, and prolonged the survival of mice bearing intracerebral tumors. Immunohistochemistry of dvB7Ig/G207-inoculated tumors revealed a significant increase in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell infiltration compared with control tumors inoculated with defective vector expressing alkaline phosphatase (dvAP/G207). The antitumor effect of dvB7Ig/G207 was not manifested in athymic mice. In vivo depletion of immune cell subsets in A/J mice further revealed that CD8+ T cells, but not CD4+ T cells, were required. Animals cured of their tumors by dvB7Ig/G207 treatment were protected against rechallenge with a lethal dose of Neuro2a cells but not SaI/N cells. The results demonstrate that the use of soluble B7-1 for

  15. 2,9-Dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (neocuproine): a potent, copper-dependent cytotoxin with anti-tumor activity.

    PubMed

    Mohindru, A; Fisher, J M; Rabinovitz, M

    1983-12-01

    2,9-Dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (2,9-DMP), a copper-specific chelator, was a potent cytotoxin against L1210 cells in vitro; its activity was dependent upon available Cu2+ in the medium. Other divalent ions, Fe2+ and Zn2+, were ineffective as promoters of growth inhibition. As the copper chelate, a 4 microM solution produced a 4 log kill after a 1-hr incubation. This was in marked contrast to 1,10-phenanthroline, whose inhibition of cell growth was overcome by added Cu2+, Fe2+ and Zn2+. Cellular uptake of labeled 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline also required added Cu2+ in the medium. This transport was energy dependent, and the drug was concentrated over 200-fold by the cells. In preliminary evaluations, copper-2,9-DMP showed significant chemotherapeutic activity against the P388 murine lymphoma in vivo.

  16. The pro-apoptotic protein, Bik, exhibits potent antitumor activity that is dependent on its BH3 domain.

    PubMed

    Tong, Y; Yang, Q; Vater, C; Venkatesh, L K; Custeau, D; Chittenden, T; Chinnadurai, G; Gourdeau, H

    2001-12-01

    The Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3) domain is present in most members of the Bcl-2 protein family and is required to confer the death-inducing properties of pro-apoptotic members, including Bax, Bak, Bad, and Bik, in cell-based assay systems. To determine whether the BH3 domain possesses a similar role in tumor tissues in vivo, we overexpressed the wild-type Bik protein and its BH3-deleted counterpart, using adenoviral technology, in chemoresistant human tumor prostate (PC-3) and colon (HT-29) cell lines growing in vitro and in vivo. Bik caused apoptosis in both PC-3 and HT-29 cells in vitro by inducing the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytoplasm, resulting in the catalytic activation of caspases 9, 7, and 3 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and DNA fragmentation. When the BH3 domain was deleted from the Bik protein, no effect on mitochondrial activity or cell morphology could be observed. Furthermore, intratumoral injection of an adenovirus vector expressing the Bik gene, but not the deleted BH3 Bik gene, suppressed the growth of PC-3 and HT-29 xenografts established in nude mice. Histological examination of tumors from mice treated with the wild-type Bik adenoviral construct demonstrated cellular debris, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling positive staining, and morphological changes associated with apoptosis. In contrast, tissue sections obtained from tumors treated with the BH3-deleted Bik adenoviral construct showed no evidence of apoptosis. Thus, our results suggest that the BH3 domain is required for the antitumor activity of the Bik protein and provides a novel therapeutic approach for cancer therapy.

  17. DNA Binding and Antitumor Activity of α-Diimineplatinum(II) and Palladium(II) Dithiocarbamate Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri-Torshizi, Hassan; Saeidifar, Maryam; Khosravi, Fatemeh; Divsalar, Adeleh; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Hassani, Fatemeh

    2011-01-01

    The two water-soluble designed platinum(II) complex, [Pt(Oct-dtc)(bpy)]NO3 (Oct-dtc = Octyldithiocarbamate and bpy = 2,2′ -bipyridine) and palladium(II) complex, [Pd(Oct-dtc)(bpy)]NO3, have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductivity measurements, IR, 1H NMR, and electronic spectra studies. Studies of antitumor activity of these complexes against human cell tumor lines (K562) have been carried out. They show Ic50 values lower than that of cisplatin. The complexes have been investigated for their interaction with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) by utilizing the electronic absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectra, and ethidium bromide displacement and gel filtration techniques. Both of these water-soluble complexes bound cooperatively and intercalatively to the CT-DNA at very low concentrations. Several binding and thermodynamic parameters are also described. PMID:22110410

  18. Leiodermatolide, a novel marine natural product, has potent cytotoxic and antimitotic activity against cancer cells, appears to affect microtubule dynamics, and exhibits antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Esther A; Xu, Qunli; Pitts, Tara P; Mitsuhashi, Kaoru Ogawa; Baker, Cheryl; Linley, Patricia A; Oestreicher, Judy; Tendyke, Karen; Winder, Priscilla L; Suh, Edward M; Wright, Amy E

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer, the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States, has a negative prognosis because metastasis occurs before symptoms manifest. Leiodermatolide, a polyketide macrolide with antimitotic activity isolated from a deep water sponge of the genus Leiodermatium, exhibits potent and selective cytotoxicity toward the pancreatic cancer cell lines AsPC-1, PANC-1, BxPC-3, and MIA PaCa-2, and potent cytotoxicity against skin, breast and colon cancer cell lines. Induction of apoptosis by leiodermatolide was confirmed in the AsPC-1, BxPC-3 and MIA PaCa-2 cells. Leiodermatolide induces cell cycle arrest but has no effects on in vitro polymerization or depolymerization of tubulin alone, while it enhances polymerization of tubulin containing microtubule associated proteins (MAPs). Observations through confocal microscopy show that leiodermatolide, at low concentrations, causes minimal effects on polymerization or depolymerization of the microtubule network in interphase cells, but disruption of spindle formation in mitotic cells. At higher concentrations, depolymerization of the microtubule network is observed. Visualization of the growing microtubule in HeLa cells expressing GFP-tagged plus end binding protein EB-1 showed that leiodermatolide stopped the polymerization of tubulin. These results suggest that leiodermatolide may affect tubulin dynamics without directly interacting with tubulin and hint at a unique mechanism of action. In a mouse model of metastatic pancreatic cancer, leiodermatolide exhibited significant tumor reduction when compared to gemcitabine and controls. The antitumor activities of leiodermatolide, as well as the proven utility of antimitotic compounds against cancer, make leiodermatolide an interesting compound with potential chemotherapeutic effects that may merit further research. PMID:27376928

  19. A novel, selective inhibitor of fibroblast growth factor receptors that shows a potent broad spectrum of antitumor activity in several tumor xenograft models.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Genshi; Li, Wei-Ying; Chen, Daohong; Henry, James R; Li, Hong-Yu; Chen, Zhaogen; Zia-Ebrahimi, Mohammad; Bloem, Laura; Zhai, Yan; Huss, Karen; Peng, Sheng-Bin; McCann, Denis J

    2011-11-01

    The fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) are tyrosine kinases that are present in many types of endothelial and tumor cells and play an important role in tumor cell growth, survival, and migration as well as in maintaining tumor angiogenesis. Overexpression of FGFRs or aberrant regulation of their activities has been implicated in many forms of human malignancies. Therefore, targeting FGFRs represents an attractive strategy for development of cancer treatment options by simultaneously inhibiting tumor cell growth, survival, and migration as well as tumor angiogenesis. Here, we describe a potent, selective, small-molecule FGFR inhibitor, (R)-(E)-2-(4-(2-(5-(1-(3,5-Dichloropyridin-4-yl)ethoxy)-1H-indazol-3yl)vinyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)ethanol, designated as LY2874455. This molecule is active against all 4 FGFRs, with a similar potency in biochemical assays. It exhibits a potent activity against FGF/FGFR-mediated signaling in several cancer cell lines and shows an excellent broad spectrum of antitumor activity in several tumor xenograft models representing the major FGF/FGFR relevant tumor histologies including lung, gastric, and bladder cancers and multiple myeloma, and with a well-defined pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship. LY2874455 also exhibits a 6- to 9-fold in vitro and in vivo selectivity on inhibition of FGF- over VEGF-mediated target signaling in mice. Furthermore, LY2874455 did not show VEGF receptor 2-mediated toxicities such as hypertension at efficacious doses. Currently, this molecule is being evaluated for its potential use in the clinic.

  20. Leiodermatolide, a novel marine natural product, has potent cytotoxic and antimitotic activity against cancer cells, appears to affect microtubule dynamics, and exhibits antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Esther A; Xu, Qunli; Pitts, Tara P; Mitsuhashi, Kaoru Ogawa; Baker, Cheryl; Linley, Patricia A; Oestreicher, Judy; Tendyke, Karen; Winder, Priscilla L; Suh, Edward M; Wright, Amy E

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer, the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States, has a negative prognosis because metastasis occurs before symptoms manifest. Leiodermatolide, a polyketide macrolide with antimitotic activity isolated from a deep water sponge of the genus Leiodermatium, exhibits potent and selective cytotoxicity toward the pancreatic cancer cell lines AsPC-1, PANC-1, BxPC-3, and MIA PaCa-2, and potent cytotoxicity against skin, breast and colon cancer cell lines. Induction of apoptosis by leiodermatolide was confirmed in the AsPC-1, BxPC-3 and MIA PaCa-2 cells. Leiodermatolide induces cell cycle arrest but has no effects on in vitro polymerization or depolymerization of tubulin alone, while it enhances polymerization of tubulin containing microtubule associated proteins (MAPs). Observations through confocal microscopy show that leiodermatolide, at low concentrations, causes minimal effects on polymerization or depolymerization of the microtubule network in interphase cells, but disruption of spindle formation in mitotic cells. At higher concentrations, depolymerization of the microtubule network is observed. Visualization of the growing microtubule in HeLa cells expressing GFP-tagged plus end binding protein EB-1 showed that leiodermatolide stopped the polymerization of tubulin. These results suggest that leiodermatolide may affect tubulin dynamics without directly interacting with tubulin and hint at a unique mechanism of action. In a mouse model of metastatic pancreatic cancer, leiodermatolide exhibited significant tumor reduction when compared to gemcitabine and controls. The antitumor activities of leiodermatolide, as well as the proven utility of antimitotic compounds against cancer, make leiodermatolide an interesting compound with potential chemotherapeutic effects that may merit further research.

  1. Ciprofloxacin containing Mannich base and its copper complex induce antitumor activity via different mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yun; Yang, Yingli; Zhou, Sufeng; Liu, Youxun; Yuan, Yanbin; Li, Shaoshan; Li, Changzheng

    2014-11-01

    The Mannich base containing ciprofloxacin and kojic acid structural units was prepared and evaluated in antitumor activity. The enhancement in antitumor activity was observed both from the Mannich base (IC(50): 103.3±5.0 µM for HepG2, 87.9±8.0 µM for HCT-116 cell) and its copper complex (IC(50): 11.5±1.8 µM for HepG2, 44.4±2.5 µM for HCT-116 cell) compared to the ciprofloxacin and kojic acid. The mechanistic studies via RT-PCR, cell cycle analysis, mitochondrial membrane potential measurement, inhibition of topoisomerase and molecular docking indicated that there is a different molecular mechanism between the Mannich base and its copper complex. The cytotoxicity of the Mannich base was involved in apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane and weaker topoisomerase II inhibition, but the copper complex exerted its cytotoxicity mainly through dual topoisomerase inhibition, especially stabilizing the intermediate of cleavage DNA-topoisomerase complex.

  2. Synthesis and potent antitumor activity of new arylamino derivatives of nor-beta-lapachone and nor-alpha-lapachone.

    PubMed

    da Silva Júnior, Eufrânio N; de Souza, Maria Cecília B V; Pinto, Antônio V; Pinto, Maria do Carmo F R; Goulart, Marilia O F; Barros, Francisco W A; Pessoa, Claudia; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V; Montenegro, Raquel C; de Moraes, Manoel O; Ferreira, Vitor F

    2007-11-15

    Several arylamino derivatives of nor-beta-lapachone were synthesized in moderate to high yields and found to show very potent cytotoxicity against six neoplastic cancer cells: SF-295 (central nervous system), HCT-8 (colon), MDAMB-435 (breast), HL-60 (leukaemia), PC-3 (prostate), and B-16 (murine melanoma), with IC(50) below 1 microg/mL. Their cytotoxicities were compared to doxorubicin and with their synthetic precursors, beta-lapachone and nor-beta-lapachone. The activity against a normal murine fibroblast L-929 showed that some of the compounds were selective against cancer cells. The absence of hemolytic activity (EC(50)>200 microg/mL), performed with erythrocyte suspensions, suggests that the cytotoxicity of the compounds was not related to membrane damage of mouse erythrocytes. For comparison purposes, one isomeric compound based on nor-alpha-lapachone was also synthesized and showed lower activity than the related ortho-derivative. The modified arylamino quinones appear as interesting new lead compounds in anti-cancer drug development.

  3. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Some Quinoxaline Derivatives: A Promising and Potent New Class of Antitumor and Antimicrobial Agents.

    PubMed

    Al-Marhabi, Aisha R; Abbas, Hebat-Allah S; Ammar, Yousry A

    2015-11-03

    In continuation of our endeavor towards the development of potent and effective anticancer and antimicrobial agents; the present work deals with the synthesis of some novel tetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxalines, N-pyrazoloquinoxalines, the corresponding Schiff bases, 1,2,4-triazinoquinoxalines and 1,2,4-triazoloquinoxalines. These compounds were synthesized via the reaction of the key intermediate hydrazinoquinoxalines with various reagents and evaluated for anticancer and antimicrobial activity. The results indicated that tetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline derivatives showed the best result, with the highest inhibitory effects towards the three tested tumor cell lines, which were higher than that of the reference doxorubicin and these compounds were non-cytotoxic to normal cells (IC50 values > 100 μg/mL). Also, most of synthesized compounds exhibited the highest degrees of inhibition against the tested strains of Gram positive and negative bacteria, so tetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline derivatives show dual activity as anticancer and antimicrobial agents.

  4. Identification of a red-pigmented bacterium producing a potent anti-tumor N-alkylated prodigiosin as Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Deorukhkar, Amit A; Chander, Ramesh; Ghosh, Sukhendu B; Sainis, Krishna B

    2007-06-01

    A bacterial strain producing a novel prodigiosin analogue 2,2'-[3-methoxy-1'amyl-5'-methyl-4-(1''-pyrryl)] dipyrrylmethene (MAMPDM) possessing potent cytotoxic activity towards cancer cells was isolated and identified. The bacterial cells were spherical and occurred singly, and some of the biochemical tests matched with Micrococcus. Therefore, the isolate was earlier tentatively reported to be Micrococcus sp. In the present studies, analytical profile index (API) suggested this organism to be Klebsiella. However, Klebsiella is not known to produce the red pigment prodigiosin, which is produced by Serratia species and some other bacteria. Based on other biochemical characteristics, particularly DNase, gelatinase, lipase, ornithine decarboxylase, presence of a cell-associated N-alkylated prodigiosin (MAMPDM) and organic solvent tolerance, the strain has now been identified as a variant of Serratia marcescens. 16S rRNA gene analysis conclusively established this organism as S. marcescens ost3. The red pigment (MAMPDM) of this organism showed selective cytotoxic activity in cancer cell lines of different origin (LS-A and U937) and reduced toxicity to non-malignant cells. The LC50 of MAMPDM was 1.59 microM and 0.176 microM for U937 and LS-A cells, respectively, while there was no effect on the viability of L929, a non-malignant cell line, at these concentrations. Thus, S. marcescens ost3 may serve as a source of a new anti-cancer compound.

  5. ESR of copper and iron complexes with antitumor and cytotoxic properties.

    PubMed

    Antholine, W E; Kalyanaraman, B; Petering, D H

    1985-12-01

    The relatively few iron and copper metal complexes which have been examined in cells and tissues for their redox properties, radical generation properties, and antitumor activity are discussed for studies which utilized electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). A common property of a number of metal complexes, which include bleomycin, adriamycin, and thiosemicarbazones described in this review, is that they are readily reduced by thiol compounds and oxidized by oxygen or reduced species of oxygen to produce radicals. Structural features of these reactions are identified by ESR spectroscopy in model systems and often in cells. Furthermore, ESR spectroscopy has been most useful to probe the environment of the complexes in cells and to measure the rate of reduction of their oxidized forms. As a result of these studies, it is anticipated that more attention will be given to the exploration of redox-active metal complexes as drugs.

  6. ESR of copper and iron complexes with antitumor and cytotoxic properties.

    PubMed Central

    Antholine, W E; Kalyanaraman, B; Petering, D H

    1985-01-01

    The relatively few iron and copper metal complexes which have been examined in cells and tissues for their redox properties, radical generation properties, and antitumor activity are discussed for studies which utilized electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). A common property of a number of metal complexes, which include bleomycin, adriamycin, and thiosemicarbazones described in this review, is that they are readily reduced by thiol compounds and oxidized by oxygen or reduced species of oxygen to produce radicals. Structural features of these reactions are identified by ESR spectroscopy in model systems and often in cells. Furthermore, ESR spectroscopy has been most useful to probe the environment of the complexes in cells and to measure the rate of reduction of their oxidized forms. As a result of these studies, it is anticipated that more attention will be given to the exploration of redox-active metal complexes as drugs. PMID:2420582

  7. Bovine lactoferrin binds oleic acid to form an anti-tumor complex similar to HAMLET.

    PubMed

    Fang, Bing; Zhang, Ming; Tian, Mai; Jiang, Lu; Guo, Hui Yuan; Ren, Fa Zheng

    2014-04-01

    α-Lactalbumin (α-LA) can bind oleic acid (OA) to form HAMLET-like complexes, which exhibited highly selective anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Considering the structural similarity to α-LA, we conjectured that lactoferrin (LF) could also bind OA to obtain a complex with anti-tumor activity. In this study, LF-OA was prepared and its activity and structural changes were compared with α-LA-OA. The anti-tumor activity was evaluated by methylene blue assay, while the apoptosis mechanism was analyzed using flow cytometry and Western blot. Structural changes of LF-OA were measured by fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism. The interactions of OA with LF and α-LA were evaluated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). LF-OA was obtained by heat-treatment at pH8.0 with LD50 of 4.88, 4.95 and 4.62μM for HepG2, HT29, and MCF-7 cells, respectively, all of which were 10 times higher than those of α-LA-OA. Similar to HAMLET, LF-OA induced apoptosis in tumor cells through both death receptor- and mitochondrial-mediated pathways. Exposure of tryptophan residues and the hydrophobic regions as well as the loss of tertiary structure were observed in LF-OA. Besides these similarities, LF showed different secondary structure changes when compared with α-LA, with a decrease of α-helix and β-turn and an increase of β-sheet and random coil. ITC results showed that there was a higher binding number of OA to LF than to α-LA, while both of the proteins interacted with OA through van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds. This study provides a theoretical basis for further exploration of protein-OA complexes.

  8. Laser-assisted intradermal delivery of adjuvant-free vaccines targeting XCR1+ dendritic cells induces potent antitumoral responses.

    PubMed

    Terhorst, Dorothea; Fossum, Even; Baranska, Anna; Tamoutounour, Samira; Malosse, Camille; Garbani, Mattia; Braun, Reinhard; Lechat, Elmira; Crameri, Reto; Bogen, Bjarne; Henri, Sandrine; Malissen, Bernard

    2015-06-15

    The development of vaccines inducing efficient CD8(+) T cell responses is the focus of intense research. Dendritic cells (DCs) expressing the XCR1 chemokine receptor, also known as CD103(+) or CD8α(+) DCs, excel in the presentation of extracellular Ags to CD8(+) T cells. Because of its high numbers of DCs, including XCR1(+) DCs, the skin dermis is an attractive site for vaccine administration. By creating laser-generated micropores through the epidermis, we targeted a model protein Ag fused to XCL1, the ligand of XCR1, to dermal XCR1(+) DCs and induced Ag-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cell responses. Efficient immunization required the emigration of XCR1(+) dermal DCs to draining lymph nodes and occurred irrespective of TLR signaling. Moreover, a single intradermal immunization protected mice against melanoma tumor growth in prophylactic and therapeutic settings, in the absence of exogenous adjuvant. The mild inflammatory milieu created in the dermis by skin laser microporation itself most likely favored the development of potent T cell responses in the absence of exogenous adjuvants. The existence of functionally equivalent XCR1(+) dermal DCs in humans should permit the translation of laser-assisted intradermal delivery of a tumor-specific vaccine targeting XCR1(+) DCs to human cancer immunotherapy. Moreover, considering that the use of adjuvants in vaccines is often associated with safety issues, the possibility of inducing protective responses against melanoma tumor growth independently of the administration of exogenous adjuvants should facilitate the development of safer vaccines. PMID:25941327

  9. Antitumor properties of five-coordinate gold(III) complexes bearing substituted polypyridyl ligands.

    PubMed

    Sanghvi, Chinar D; Olsen, Pauline M; Elix, Catherine; Peng, Shifang Bruce; Wang, Dongsheng; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Shin, Dong M; Hardcastle, Kenneth I; MacBeth, Cora E; Eichler, Jack F

    2013-11-01

    In an on-going effort to discover metallotherapeutic alternatives to the chemotherapy drug cisplatin, neutral distorted square pyramidal gold(III) coordination complexes possessing 2,9-disubstituted-1,10-phenanthroline ligands {[((R)phen)AuCl3]; R = n-butyl, sec-butyl} have been previously synthesized and characterized. A structurally analogous gold(III) complex bearing a 6,6'-di-methylbipyridine ligand ([((methyl)bipy)AuCl3]) has been synthesized and fully characterized to probe the effect of differing aromatic character of the ligand on solution stability and tumor cell cytotoxicity. The two compounds [((sec-butyl)phen)AuCl3] and [((methyl)bipy)AuCl3]) were subsequently assessed for their stability against the biological reductant glutathione, and it was found that the [((sec-butyl)phen)AuCl3] complex exhibits slightly enhanced stability compared to the [((methyl)bipy)AuCl3] complex and significantly higher stability than previously reported square planar gold(III) complex ions. Furthermore, these complexes were tested for cytotoxic effects against existing lung and head and neck cancer cell lines in vitro. The [((sec-butyl)phen)AuCl3] complex was found to be more cytotoxic than cisplatin against five different tumor cell lines, whereas [((methyl)bipy)AuCl3] had more limited in vitro antitumor activity. Given that [((sec-butyl)phen)AuCl3] had significantly higher antitumor activity, it was tested against an in vivo tumor model. It was found that this complex did not significantly reduce the growth of xenograft tumors in mice and initial model binding studies with bovine serum albumin indicate that interactions with serum albumin proteins may be the cause for the limited in vivo activity of this potential metallotherapeutic. PMID:23948576

  10. Antitumor properties of five-coordinate gold(III) complexes bearing substituted polypyridyl ligands.

    PubMed

    Sanghvi, Chinar D; Olsen, Pauline M; Elix, Catherine; Peng, Shifang Bruce; Wang, Dongsheng; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Shin, Dong M; Hardcastle, Kenneth I; MacBeth, Cora E; Eichler, Jack F

    2013-11-01

    In an on-going effort to discover metallotherapeutic alternatives to the chemotherapy drug cisplatin, neutral distorted square pyramidal gold(III) coordination complexes possessing 2,9-disubstituted-1,10-phenanthroline ligands {[((R)phen)AuCl3]; R = n-butyl, sec-butyl} have been previously synthesized and characterized. A structurally analogous gold(III) complex bearing a 6,6'-di-methylbipyridine ligand ([((methyl)bipy)AuCl3]) has been synthesized and fully characterized to probe the effect of differing aromatic character of the ligand on solution stability and tumor cell cytotoxicity. The two compounds [((sec-butyl)phen)AuCl3] and [((methyl)bipy)AuCl3]) were subsequently assessed for their stability against the biological reductant glutathione, and it was found that the [((sec-butyl)phen)AuCl3] complex exhibits slightly enhanced stability compared to the [((methyl)bipy)AuCl3] complex and significantly higher stability than previously reported square planar gold(III) complex ions. Furthermore, these complexes were tested for cytotoxic effects against existing lung and head and neck cancer cell lines in vitro. The [((sec-butyl)phen)AuCl3] complex was found to be more cytotoxic than cisplatin against five different tumor cell lines, whereas [((methyl)bipy)AuCl3] had more limited in vitro antitumor activity. Given that [((sec-butyl)phen)AuCl3] had significantly higher antitumor activity, it was tested against an in vivo tumor model. It was found that this complex did not significantly reduce the growth of xenograft tumors in mice and initial model binding studies with bovine serum albumin indicate that interactions with serum albumin proteins may be the cause for the limited in vivo activity of this potential metallotherapeutic.

  11. Determination of tissue distribution of potent antitumor agent ureidomustin (BO-1055) by HPLC and its pharmacokinetic application in rats.

    PubMed

    Chien, Shin-I; Yen, Jiin-Cherng; Kakadiya, Rajesh; Chen, Ching-Huang; Lee, Te-Chang; Su, Tsann-Long; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2013-02-15

    Ureidomustin hydrochloride (BO-1055) was designed as a water-soluble nitrogen-mustard, which exhibited potent anticancer activity and was selected as a candidate for preclinical studies. However, up to date, there is rarely an easy and economic method to quantize ureidomustin in the biological samples. The aim of this study is to develop a simple yet valid quantization method to tackle this challenge. Here we present a combined high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array (HPLC-PDA) method in quantizing the ureidomustin in the plasma and various organs of Sprague-Dawley rats. The method was validated in terms of precision, accuracy, and extraction recovery. Furthermore, the established method was applied to study pharmacokinetics of ureidomustin in the rat's plasma and verified via a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Calibration curves of the plasma and organ samples were falling at the range between 0.5-50μg/mL and 0.1-50μg/mL (r(2)≥0.999 and CV≤±15%), respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) were 0.1μg/mL for plasma samples and 0.05μg/mL for organ samples, while the detection limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.5μg/mL for plasma samples and 0.1μg/mL for organ samples. The average recovery of ureidomustin was about 83%. These results demonstrated a linear pharmacokinetic pattern at dosages of 10 and 30mg/kg. The pharmacokinetic data revealed that ureidomustin was best fitted to a two-compartment model with a rapid distribution phase and a slow elimination phase. Besides, after a short intravenous administration time at the dose of 10mg/kg, ureidomustin was found to be quickly distributed to all organs in rats, accumulated mainly in the kidney, and only a limited amount was detected in the brain. PMID:23353940

  12. Griseorubins, a new family of antibiotics with antimicrobial and antitumor activity. II. Biological properties and antitumor activity of the antibiotic complex griseorubin.

    PubMed

    Dornberger, K; Berger, U; Gutsche, W; Jungstand, W; Wohlrabe, K; Härtl, A; Knöll, H

    1980-01-01

    The antibiotic complex griseorubin has antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive as well as -negative bacteria, mycobacteria, mycoplasma and protozoa in vitro but it is not active against yeast and fungi. Tests with transplantable rodent tumors indicate that griseorubin is inhibitory to the growth of lymphatic leukemia L1210 in mice and Zajdela ascites hepatoma in rats. The acute LD50 of griseorubin in mice is 50 mg/kg of body weight when given intraperitoneally. Attempts to potentiate the antitumor activity by complexing with DNA proved to be unsuccessful.

  13. Melphalan-induced enhancement of tumor cell immunostimulatory capacity as a mechanism for the appearance of potent antitumor immunity in the spleen of mice bearing a large metastatic MOPC-315 tumor.

    PubMed

    Bocian, R C; Dray, S; Ben-Efraim, S; Mokyr, M B

    1985-01-01

    Exposure of MOPC-315 cells from the primary tumor nodule to a low concentration (0.5 nmol/ml) of melphalan (L-phenylalanine mustard; L-PAM) rendered the tumor cells capable of bringing about the generation of a potent primary antitumor cytotoxic response. Accordingly, the level of antitumor cytotoxicity generated by normal spleen cells immunized in vitro with L-PAm-treated tumor cells was at least five-fold greater than the level generated in response to untreated tumor cells. The marked superiority of L-PAM-treated tumor cells over untreated tumor cells in bringing about the generation of antitumor cytotoxicity was evident over a wide range of responder to stimulator cell ratios. The higher level of antitumor cytotoxicity exhibited by normal spleen cells immunized with L-PAM-treated tumor cells as compared with untreated tumor cells was not merely the result of direct drug-mediated tumoricidal activity, thereby reducing the number of tumor cells present which can act as cold target cell inhibitors during the 51Cr release assay. This is apparent from the observation that the level of antitumor cytotoxicity generated in response to a given percentage of stimulator tumor cells pretreated with 0.5 nmol L-PAM/ml, a drug concentration associated with retention of 60% tumor cell proliferative capacity, is substantially greater than that generated in response to less than half that percentage of untreated stimulator tumor cells. Moreover, stimulator tumor cells exposed to a fully antiproliferative concentration of L-PAM brought about the generation of a higher level of antitumor cytotoxicity than stimulator tumor cells exposed to mitomycin C at a concentration which inhibited the proliferation of the tumor cells to the same extent as the L-PAM. A low concentration of L-PAM which was effective in rendering isolated tumor cells from the primary tumor nodule capable of bringing about the generation of antitumor cytotoxicity was also effective in inducing the appearance of

  14. Anti-CCR7 therapy exerts a potent anti-tumor activity in a xenograft model of human mantle cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The chemokine receptor CCR7 mediates lymphoid dissemination of many cancers, including lymphomas and epithelial carcinomas, thus representing an attractive therapeutic target. Previous results have highlighted the potential of the anti-CCR7 monoclonal antibodies to inhibit migration in transwell assays. The present study aimed to evaluate the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of an anti-CCR7 antibody in a xenografted human mantle cell lymphoma model. Methods NOD/SCID mice were either subcutaneously or intravenously inoculated with Granta-519 cells, a human cell line derived from a leukemic mantle cell lymphoma. The anti-CCR7 mAb treatment (3 × 200 μg) was started on day 2 or 7 to target lymphoma cells in either a peri-implantation or a post-implantation stage, respectively. Results The anti-CCR7 therapy significantly delayed the tumor appearance and also reduced the volumes of tumors in the subcutaneous model. Moreover, an increased number of apoptotic tumor cells was detected in mice treated with the anti-CCR7 mAb compared to the untreated animals. In addition, significantly reduced number of Granta-519 cells migrated from subcutaneous tumors to distant lymphoid organs, such as bone marrow and spleen in the anti-CCR7 treated mice. In the intravenous models, the anti-CCR7 mAb drastically increased survival of the mice. Accordingly, dissemination and infiltration of tumor cells in lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs, including lungs and central nervous system, was almost abrogated. Conclusions The anti-CCR7 mAb exerts a potent anti-tumor activity and might represent an interesting therapeutic alternative to conventional therapies. PMID:24305507

  15. Novel and potent anti-tumor and anti-metastatic di-2-pyridylketone thiosemicarbazones demonstrate marked differences in pharmacology between the first and second generation lead agents

    PubMed Central

    Sestak, Vit; Stariat, Jan; Cermanova, Jolana; Potuckova, Eliska; Chladek, Jaroslav; Roh, Jaroslav; Bures, Jan; Jansova, Hana; Prusa, Petr; Sterba, Martin; Micuda, Stanislav; Simunek, Tomas; Kalinowski, Danuta S.; Richardson, Des R.; Kovarikova, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Di(2-pyridyl)ketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT) and di(2-pyridyl)ketone 4-cyclohexyl-4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (DpC) are novel, highly potent and selective anti-tumor and anti-metastatic drugs. Despite their structural similarity, these agents differ in their efficacy and toxicity in-vivo. Considering this, a comparison of their pharmacokinetic and pharmaco/toxico-dynamic properties was conducted to reveal if these factors are involved in their differential activity. Both compounds were administered to Wistar rats intravenously (2 mg/kg) and their metabolism and disposition were studied using UHPLC-MS/MS. The cytotoxicity of both thiosemicarbazones and their metabolites was also examined using MCF-7, HL-60 and HCT116 tumor cells and 3T3 fibroblasts and H9c2 cardiac myoblasts. Their intracellular iron-binding ability was characterized by the Calcein-AM assay and their iron mobilization efficacy was evaluated. In contrast to DpC, Dp44mT undergoes rapid demethylation in-vivo, which may be related to its markedly faster elimination (T1/2 = 1.7 h for Dp44mT vs. 10.7 h for DpC) and lower exposure. Incubation of these compounds with cancer cells or cardiac myoblasts did not result in any significant metabolism in-vitro. The metabolism of Dp44mT in-vivo resulted in decreased anti-cancer activity and toxicity. In conclusion, marked differences in the pharmacology of Dp44mT and DpC were observed and highlight the favorable pharmacokinetics of DpC for cancer treatment. PMID:26623727

  16. Glucose conjugated platinum(II) complex: antitumor superiority to oxaliplatin, combination effect and mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Gao, Xiangqian; Liu, Ran; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Menghua; Fu, Zheng; Mi, Yi; Wang, Yiqiang; Yao, Zhi; Gao, Qingzhi

    2015-08-28

    A glucose-conjugate of (trans-R,R-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine)-2-fluoromalonato-platinum(II) complex (Glu-Pt) is designed to target tumor-specific active glucose transporters (GLUTs). Despite of very high water solubility, Glu-Pt exhibits improved cytotoxicity as compared to oxaliplatin. In this study, we investigated the in vivo toxicity profiles with the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) evaluation followed by antitumor efficacy study in leukemia-bearing DBA/2 mice. Glu-Pt showed 6-fold increase in the MTD and was more efficacious against mouse L1210 ascetic leukemia than oxaliplatin at equitoxic doses. To explore the combination effect of Glu-Pt and compare with oxaliplatin-based FOLFOX chemotherapy, we investigated the two-component synergistic antitumor activity of Glu-Pt with folinic acid (FA) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) respectively in five human cancer cell lines followed by a comparison study with oxaliplatin in a fixed three-component in vitro FOFLOX combination. As the result, Glu-Pt exhibited superior synergistic cytotoxicity compared to oxaliplatin. Flow cytometry-based cell cycle and apoptosis study demonstrated that Glu-Pt follows the same mechanistic principles as of oxaliplatin. Glu-Pt monotherapy and its combination with FA and 5-FU may result in improved efficacy over oxaliplatin and FOLFOX regimen. The study provides fundamental data supporting the potential of Glu-Pt as a drug candidate for further (pre)clinical development.

  17. Bacteriophage T4 Mutants Hypersensitive to an Antitumor Agent That Induces Topoisomerase-DNA Cleavage Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Woodworth, D. L.; Kreuzer, K. N.

    1996-01-01

    Many antitumor agents and antibiotics affect cells by interacting with type II topoisomerases, stabilizing a covalent enzyme-DNA complex. A pathway of recombination can apparently repair this DNA damage. In this study, transposon mutagenesis was used to identify possible components of the repair pathway in bacteriophage T4. Substantial increases in sensitivity to the antitumor agent m-AMSA [4'-(9-acridinyl-amino) methanesulfon-m-anisidide] were found with transposon insertion mutations that inactivate any of six T4-encoded proteins: UvsY (DNA synaptase accessory protein), UvsW (unknown function), Rnh (RNase H and 5' to 3' DNA exonuclease), α-gt (α-glucosyl transferase), gp47.1 (uncharacterized), and NrdB (β subunit of ribonucleotide reductase). The role of the rnh gene in drug sensitivity was further characterized. First, an in-frame rnh deletion mutation was constructed and analyzed, providing evidence that the absence of Rnh protein causes hypersensitivity to m-AMSA. Second, the m-AMSA sensitivity of the rnh-deletion mutant was shown to require a drug-sensitive T4 topoisomerase. Third, analysis of double mutants suggested that uvsW and rnh mutations impair a common step in the recombinational repair pathway for m-AMSA-induced damage. Finally, the rnh-deletion mutant was found to be hypersensitive to UV, implicating Rnh in recombinational repair of UV-induced damage. PMID:8807283

  18. Antitumor cell-complex vaccines employing genetically modified tumor cells and fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Antonio; Herrero, María José; Sendra, Luis; Botella, Rafael; Diaz, Ana; Algás, Rosa; Aliño, Salvador F

    2014-02-19

    The present study evaluates the immune response mediated by vaccination with cell complexes composed of irradiated B16 tumor cells and mouse fibroblasts genetically modified to produce GM-CSF. The animals were vaccinated with free B16 cells or cell complexes. We employed two gene plasmid constructions: one high producer (pMok) and a low producer (p2F). Tumor transplant was performed by injection of B16 tumor cells. Plasma levels of total IgG and its subtypes were measured by ELISA. Tumor volumes were measured and survival curves were obtained. The study resulted in a cell complex vaccine able to stimulate the immune system to produce specific anti-tumor membrane proteins (TMP) IgG. In the groups vaccinated with cells transfected with the low producer plasmid, IgG production was higher when we used free B16 cell rather than cell complexes. Nonspecific autoimmune response caused by cell complex was not greater than that induced by the tumor cells alone. Groups vaccinated with B16 transfected with low producer plasmid reached a tumor growth delay of 92% (p ≤ 0.01). When vaccinated with cell complex, the best group was that transfected with high producer plasmid, reaching a tumor growth inhibition of 56% (p ≤ 0.05). Significant survival (40%) was only observed in the groups vaccinated with free transfected B16 cells.

  19. Antitumor Cell-Complex Vaccines Employing Genetically Modified Tumor Cells and Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Antonio; Herrero, María José; Sendra, Luis; Botella, Rafael; Diaz, Ana; Algás, Rosa; Aliño, Salvador F.

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluates the immune response mediated by vaccination with cell complexes composed of irradiated B16 tumor cells and mouse fibroblasts genetically modified to produce GM-CSF. The animals were vaccinated with free B16 cells or cell complexes. We employed two gene plasmid constructions: one high producer (pMok) and a low producer (p2F). Tumor transplant was performed by injection of B16 tumor cells. Plasma levels of total IgG and its subtypes were measured by ELISA. Tumor volumes were measured and survival curves were obtained. The study resulted in a cell complex vaccine able to stimulate the immune system to produce specific anti-tumor membrane proteins (TMP) IgG. In the groups vaccinated with cells transfected with the low producer plasmid, IgG production was higher when we used free B16 cell rather than cell complexes. Nonspecific autoimmune response caused by cell complex was not greater than that induced by the tumor cells alone. Groups vaccinated with B16 transfected with low producer plasmid reached a tumor growth delay of 92% (p ≤ 0.01). When vaccinated with cell complex, the best group was that transfected with high producer plasmid, reaching a tumor growth inhibition of 56% (p ≤ 0.05). Significant survival (40%) was only observed in the groups vaccinated with free transfected B16 cells. PMID:24556729

  20. Complex of C60 Fullerene with Doxorubicin as a Promising Agent in Antitumor Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prylutska, Svitlana V.; Skivka, Larysa M.; Didenko, Gennadiy V.; Prylutskyy, Yuriy I.; Evstigneev, Maxim P.; Potebnya, Grygoriy P.; Panchuk, Rostyslav R.; Stoika, Rostyslav S.; Ritter, Uwe; Scharff, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The main aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of doxorubicin in complex with C60 fullerene (C60 + Dox) on the growth and metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice and to perform a primary screening of the potential mechanisms of C60 + Dox complex action. We found that volume of tumor from mice treated with the C60 + Dox complex was 1.4 times less than that in control untreated animals. The number of metastatic foci in lungs of animals treated with C60 + Dox complex was two times less than that in control untreated animals. Western blot analysis of tumor lysates revealed a significant decrease in the level of heat-shock protein 70 in animals treated with C60 + Dox complex. Moreover, the treatment of tumor-bearing mice was accompanied by the increase of cytotoxic activity of immune cells. Thus, the potential mechanisms of antitumor effect of C60 + Dox complex include both its direct action on tumor cells by inducing cell death and increasing of stress sensitivity and an immunomodulating effect. The obtained results provide a scientific basis for further application of C60 + Dox nanocomplexes as treatment agents in cancer chemotherapy.

  1. Gold(I) Complexes of 9-Deazahypoxanthine as Selective Antitumor and Anti-Inflammatory Agents

    PubMed Central

    Vančo, Ján; Gáliková, Jana; Hošek, Jan; Dvořák, Zdeněk; Paráková, Lenka; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    The gold(I) mixed-ligand complexes involving O-substituted derivatives of 9-deazahypoxanthine (HLn) and triphenylphosphine (PPh3) with the general formula [Au(Ln)(PPh3)] (1–5) were prepared and thoroughly characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, ESI+ mass spectrometry, single crystal X-ray (HL5 and complex 2) and TG/DTA analyses. Complexes 1–5 were evaluated for their in vitro antitumor activity against nine human cancer lines, i.e. MCF7 (breast carcinoma), HOS (osteosarcoma), A549 (adenocarcinoma), G361 (melanoma), HeLa (cervical cancer), A2780 (ovarian carcinoma), A2780R (ovarian carcinoma resistant to cisplatin), 22Rv1 (prostate cancer) and THP-1 (monocytic leukaemia), for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity using a model of LPS-activated macrophages, and for their in vivo antiedematous activity by λ-carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model on rats. The results showed that the complexes 1–5 exhibit selective in vitro cytotoxicity against MCF7, HOS, 22Rv1, A2780 and A2780R, with submicromolar IC50 values for 2 against the MCF7 (0.6 µM) and HOS (0.9 µM). The results of in vitro cytotoxicity screening on primary culture of human hepatocytes (HEP220) revealed up to 30-times lower toxicity of compounds against healthy cells as compared with cancer cells. Additionally, the complexes 1–5 significantly influence the secretion and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β by a similar manner as a commercially used anti-arthritic drug Auranofin. The tested complexes also significantly influence the rate and overall volume of the edema, caused by the intraplantar application of λ-carrageenan polysaccharide to rats. Based on these promising results, the presented compounds could qualify to become feasible candidates for advanced testing as potential antitumor and anti-inflammatory drug-like compounds. PMID:25333949

  2. Gold(I) complexes of 9-deazahypoxanthine as selective antitumor and anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Vančo, Ján; Gáliková, Jana; Hošek, Jan; Dvořák, Zdeněk; Paráková, Lenka; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    The gold(I) mixed-ligand complexes involving O-substituted derivatives of 9-deazahypoxanthine (HLn) and triphenylphosphine (PPh3) with the general formula [Au(Ln)(PPh3)] (1-5) were prepared and thoroughly characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, ESI+ mass spectrometry, single crystal X-ray (HL5 and complex 2) and TG/DTA analyses. Complexes 1-5 were evaluated for their in vitro antitumor activity against nine human cancer lines, i.e. MCF7 (breast carcinoma), HOS (osteosarcoma), A549 (adenocarcinoma), G361 (melanoma), HeLa (cervical cancer), A2780 (ovarian carcinoma), A2780R (ovarian carcinoma resistant to cisplatin), 22Rv1 (prostate cancer) and THP-1 (monocytic leukaemia), for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity using a model of LPS-activated macrophages, and for their in vivo antiedematous activity by λ-carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model on rats. The results showed that the complexes 1-5 exhibit selective in vitro cytotoxicity against MCF7, HOS, 22Rv1, A2780 and A2780R, with submicromolar IC50 values for 2 against the MCF7 (0.6 µM) and HOS (0.9 µM). The results of in vitro cytotoxicity screening on primary culture of human hepatocytes (HEP220) revealed up to 30-times lower toxicity of compounds against healthy cells as compared with cancer cells. Additionally, the complexes 1-5 significantly influence the secretion and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β by a similar manner as a commercially used anti-arthritic drug Auranofin. The tested complexes also significantly influence the rate and overall volume of the edema, caused by the intraplantar application of λ-carrageenan polysaccharide to rats. Based on these promising results, the presented compounds could qualify to become feasible candidates for advanced testing as potential antitumor and anti-inflammatory drug-like compounds. PMID:25333949

  3. A Human ErbB2-Specific T-Cell Receptor Confers Potent Antitumor Effector Functions in Genetically Engineered Primary Cytotoxic Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lanitis, Evripidis; Smith, Jenessa B.; Dangaj, Denarda; Flingai, Seleeke; Poussin, Mathilde; Xu, Shuwen; Czerniecki, Brian J.; Li, Yong F.; Robbins, Paul F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The ErbB2 protein is a member of the tyrosine kinase family of growth factor receptors that is overexpressed in cancers of the breast, ovary, stomach, kidney, colon, and lung, and therefore represents an attractive candidate antigen for targeted cancer immunotherapy. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for various immunogenic ErbB2 peptides have been described, but they often exhibit both poor functional avidity and tumor reactivity. In order to generate potent CD8+ T cells with specificity for the ErbB2369–377 peptide, we performed one round of in vitro peptide stimulation of CD8+ T cells isolated from an HLA-A2+ patient who was previously vaccinated with autologous dendritic cells pulsed with HLA class I ErbB2 peptides. Using this approach, we enriched highly avid ErbB2-reactive T cells with strong ErbB2-specific, antitumor effector functions. We then stimulated these ErbB2-reactive T cells with ErbB2+ HLA-A2+ tumor cells in vitro and sorted tumor-activated ErbB2369–377 peptide T cells, which allowed for the isolation of a novel T-cell receptor (TCR) with ErbB2369–377 peptide specificity. Primary human CD8+ T cells genetically modified to express this ErbB2-specific TCR specifically bound ErbB2369–377 peptide containing HLA-A2 tetramers, and efficiently recognized target cells pulsed with low nanomolar concentrations of ErbB2369–377 peptide as well as nonpulsed ErbB2+ HLA-A2+ tumor cell lines in vitro. In a novel xenograft model, ErbB2-redirected T cells also significantly delayed progression of ErbB2+ HLA-A2+ human tumor in vivo. Together, these results support the notion that redirection of normal T-cell specificity by TCR gene transfer can have potential applications in the adoptive immunotherapy of ErbB2-expressing malignancies. PMID:25003657

  4. Anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activity of iron hepta-tungsten phosphate oxygen clusters complex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bisong; Qiu, Jianping; Wu, Changsheng; Li, Yunxia; Liu, Zhenxiang

    2015-12-01

    Polyoxometalates (POMs) have attracted a considerable attention due to their unique structural characteristics, physicochemical properties and biological activities. In this study, iron hepta-tungsten phosphate oxygen clusters complex Na12H[Fe(HPW7O28)2]·44H2O (IHTPO) was synthesized and evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic activities on human hepatoma HepG2, leukemia K562, lung carcinoma A549, and large cell lung cancer NCI-H460 cells, therapeutic efficacies on mice transplantable tumor, and immunomodulatory potentials on the immune response in tumor-bearing mice. IHTPO exhibited lower in vitro cytotoxic activities against four human tumor cell lines, with the IC50 values being higher than 62.5μM (ca. 300μg/ml). IHTPO, however, significantly inhibited the growth of S180 sarcoma transplanted in mice. It was further showed that IHTPO could not only significantly promote splenocytes proliferation, NK cell and CTL activity from splenocytes, but remarkably enhance serum antigen-specific IgG, IgG2a and IgG2b antibody levels in S180-bearing mice. IHTPO also significantly promoted Th1 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-2 production, and up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of IFN-γ, IL-2 and Th1 transcription factors T-bet and STAT-4 in splenocytes from the S180-bearing mice. These results suggested that IHTPO significantly inhibited the growth of mice transplantable tumor, and that its in vivo antitumor activity might be achieved by improving Th1 protective cell-mediated immunity. IHTPO could act as antitumor agent with immunomodulatory activity.

  5. Novel antitumor adamantane-azole gold(I) complexes as potential inhibitors of thioredoxin reductase.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Adriana; Machado, Rafael Carvalhaes; Grazul, Richard Michael; Lopes, Miriam Teresa Paz; Corrêa, Charlane Cimini; Dos Santos, Hélio F; de Almeida, Mauro Vieira; Silva, Heveline

    2016-04-01

    Gold complexes that could act as antitumor agents have attracted great attention. Heterocyclic compounds and their metal complexes display a broad spectrum of pharmacological properties. The present study reports the preparation and characterization of four novel gold(I) complexes containing tertiary phosphine and new ligands 5-adamantyl-1,3-thiazolidine-2-thione, 3-methyladamantane-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thione. Spectroscopic data suggest that gold is coordinated to the exocyclic sulfur atom in all cases, as confirmed by X-ray crystallographic data obtained for complex (1) and supported by quantum-mechanical calculations. The cytotoxicity of the compounds has been evaluated in comparison to cisplatin and auranofin in three different tumor cell lines, colon cancer (CT26WT), metastatic skin melanoma (B16F10), mammary adenocarcinoma (4T1) and kidney normal cell (BHK-21). The gold complexes were more active than their respective free ligands and able to inhibit the thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) enzyme, even in the presence of albumin. Molecular modeling studies were carried out to understand the interaction between the compounds and the TrxR enzyme, considered as a potential target for new compounds in cancer treatment. The docking results show that the adamantane ring is essential to stabilize the ligand-enzyme complex prior the formation of covalent bond with gold center. The structure of the new gold compounds was established on the basis of spectroscopic data, DFT calculations and X-ray diffraction. TrxR inhibition was evaluated and the results correlated with the assays in tumor cells, suggesting the TrxR as possible target for these compounds. PMID:26841791

  6. Understanding the interaction of an antitumoral platinum(II) 7-azaindolate complex with proteins and DNA.

    PubMed

    Samper, Katia G; Rodríguez, Venancio; Ortega-Carrasco, Elisabeth; Atrian, Sílvia; Maréchal, Jean Didier; Cutillas, Natalia; Zamora, Ana; de Haro, Concepción; Capdevila, Mercè; Ruiz, José; Palacios, Òscar

    2014-12-01

    The reactivity of the [Pt(dmba)(aza-N1)(dmso)] complex 1, (a potential antitumoral drug with lower IC50 than cisplatin in several tumoral cell lines) with different proteins and oligonucleotides is investigated by means of mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF MS). The results obtained show a particular binding behaviour of this platinum(II) complex. The interaction of 1 with the assayed proteins apparently takes place by Pt-binding to the most accessible coordinating amino acids, presumably at the surface of the protein -this avoiding protein denaturation or degradation- with the subsequent release of one or two ligands of 1. The specific reactivity of 1 with distinct proteins allows to conclude that the substituted initial ligand (dmso or azaindolate) is indicative of the nature of the protein donor atom finally bound to the platinum(II) centre, i.e. N- or S-donor amino acid. Molecular modeling calculations suggest that the release of the azaindolate ligand is promoted by a proton transfer to the non-coordinating N present in the azaindolate ring, while the release of the dmso ligand is mainly favoured by the binding of a deprotonated Cys. The interaction of complex 1 with DNA takes always place through the release of the azaindolate ligand. Interestingly, the interaction of 1 with DNA only proceeds when the oligonucleotides are annealed forming a double strand. Complex 1 is also capable to displace ethidium bromide from DNA and it also weakly binds to DNA at the minor groove, as shown by Hoechst 33258 displacement experiments. Furthermore, complex 1 is also a good inhibitor of cathepsin B (an enzyme implicated in a number of cancer related events). Therefore, although compound 1 is definitely able to bind proteins that can hamper its arrival to the nuclear target, it should be taken into consideration as a putative anticancer drug due to its strong interaction with oligonucleotides and its effective inhibition of cat B. PMID:25106460

  7. Behavior of the potential antitumor V(IV)O complexes formed by flavonoid ligands. 1. Coordination modes and geometry in solution and at the physiological pH.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Daniele; Ugone, Valeria; Lubinu, Giuseppe; Micera, Giovanni; Garribba, Eugenio

    2014-11-01

    The coordination modes and geometry assumed in solution by the potent antitumor oxidovanadium(IV) complexes formed by different flavonoids were studied by spectroscopic (Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, EPR) and computational (Density Functional Theory, DFT) methods. A series of bidentate flavonoid ligands (L) with increasing structural complexity was examined, which can involve (CO, O(-)) donors and formation of five- and six-membered chelate rings, or (O(-), O(-)) donors and five-membered chelate rings. The geometry corresponding to these coordination modes can be penta-coordinated, [VOL2], or cis-octahedral, cis-[VOL2(H2O)]. The results show that, at physiological pH, ligands provided with (CO, O(-)) donor set yield cis-octahedral species with "maltol-like" coordination when five-membered chelate rings are formed (as with 3-hydroxyflavone), while penta-coordinated structures with "acetylacetone-like" coordination are preferred when the chelate rings are six-membered (as with chrysin). When both the binding modes are possible, as with morin, the "acetylacetone-like" coordination is observed. For the ligands containing a catecholic donor set, such as 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, baicalein, fisetin, quercetin and rutin, the formation of square pyramidal complexes with (O(-), O(-)) "catechol-like" coordination and five-membered chelate rings is preferred at physiological pH. The determination of the different coordination modes and geometry is important to define the biotransformation in the blood and the interaction of these complexes with the biological membranes.

  8. New transition metal ion complexes with benzimidazole-5-carboxylic acid hydrazides with antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Galal, Shadia A; Hegab, Khaled H; Kassab, Ahmed S; Rodriguez, Mireya L; Kerwin, Sean M; el-Khamry, Abdel-Mo'men A; el-Diwani, Hoda I

    2009-04-01

    Metal complexes of 2-methyl-1H-benzimidazole-5-carboxylic acid hydrazide (4a; L(1)) and its Schiff base 2-methyl-N-(propan-2-ylidene)-1H-benzimidazole-5-carbohydrazide (5a; L(2)) with transition metal ions e.g., copper, silver, nickel, iron and manganese were prepared. The complexes formed were 1:1 or 1:2 M:L complexes and have the structural formulae [Cu(L(1))Cl(H(2)O)]Cl x 3 H(2)O (6), [Ag(L(1))NO(3)(H(2)O)] (7), [Ni(L(1))Cl(2)(H(2)O)(2)] x H(2)O (8), [Fe(L(1))Cl(3)(H(2)O)] x 3 H(2)O (9) and [Mn(L(1))(2)Cl(H(2)O)]Cl x 3 H(2)O (10) for ligand L(1), and [Cu(L(2))Cl(2)(H(2)O)(2)] x H(2)O (11), [Ag(L(2))(2)]NO(3) x H(2)O (12), [Ni(L(2))(2)Cl(2)] x 5 H(2)O (13), [Fe(L(2))(2)Cl(2)]Cl x 2 H(2)O (14) and [Mn(L(2))Cl(2)(H(2)O)(2)] x H(2)O (15) for ligand L(2). The antitumor activity of the synthesized compounds has been studied. The silver complex 7 was found to display cytotoxicity (IC(50)=2 microM) against both human lung cancer cell line A549 and human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. PMID:18752870

  9. Mirror-image organometallic osmium arene iminopyridine halido complexes exhibit similar potent anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ying; Soni, Rina; Romero, María J; Pizarro, Ana M; Salassa, Luca; Clarkson, Guy J; Hearn, Jessica M; Habtemariam, Abraha; Wills, Martin; Sadler, Peter J

    2013-11-01

    Four chiral Os(II) arene anticancer complexes have been isolated by fractional crystallization. The two iodido complexes, (S(Os),S(C))-[Os(η(6)-p-cym)(ImpyMe)I]PF6 (complex 2, (S)-ImpyMe: N-(2-pyridylmethylene)-(S)-1-phenylethylamine) and (R(Os),R(C))-[Os(η(6)-p-cym)(ImpyMe)I]PF6 (complex 4, (R)-ImpyMe: N-(2-pyridylmethylene)-(R)-1-phenylethylamine), showed higher anticancer activity (lower IC50 values) towards A2780 human ovarian cancer cells than cisplatin and were more active than the two chlorido derivatives, (S(Os),S(C))-[Os(η(6)-p-cym)(ImpyMe)Cl]PF6, 1, and (R(Os),R(C))-[Os(η(6)-p-cym)(ImpyMe)Cl]PF6, 3. The two iodido complexes were evaluated in the National Cancer Institute 60-cell-line screen, by using the COMPARE algorithm. This showed that the two potent iodido complexes, 2 (NSC: D-758116/1) and 4 (NSC: D-758118/1), share surprisingly similar cancer cell selectivity patterns with the anti-microtubule drug, vinblastine sulfate. However, no direct effect on tubulin polymerization was found for 2 and 4, an observation that appears to indicate a novel mechanism of action. In addition, complexes 2 and 4 demonstrated potential as transfer-hydrogenation catalysts for imine reduction.

  10. Synthesis and In Vitro Antitumor Activity of Two Mixed-Ligand Oxovanadium(IV) Complexes of Schiff Base and Phenanthroline

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongli; Wang, Xiangsheng; Fang, Wei; Cai, Xiaoyan; Chu, Fujiang; Liao, Xiangwen; Lu, Jiazheng

    2013-01-01

    Two oxovanadium(IV) complexes of [VO(msatsc)(phen)], (1) (msatsc = methoxylsalicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone, phen = phenanthroline) and its novel derivative [VO (4-chlorosatsc)(phen)], (2) (4-chlorosatsc = 4-chlorosalicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, ES-MS, 1H NMR, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Their antitumor effects on BEL-7402, HUH-7, and HepG2 cells were studied by MTT assay. The antitumor biological mechanism of these two complexes was studied in BEL-7402 cells by cell cycle analysis, Hoechst 33342 staining, Annexin V-FITC/PI assay, and detection of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). The results showed that the growth of cancer cells was inhibited significantly, and complexes 1 and 2 mainly caused in BEL-7402 cells G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis. Both 1 and 2 decreased significantly the ΔΨm, causing the depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane. Complex 2 showed greater antitumor efficiency than that of complex 1. PMID:23424390

  11. Redox cycling of a copper complex with benzaldehyde nitrogen mustard-2-pyridine carboxylic acid hydrazone contributes to its enhanced antitumor activity, but no change in the mechanism of action occurs after chelation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yinli; Li, Cuiping; Fu, Yun; Liu, Youxun; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yanfang; Zhou, Pingxin; Yuan, Yanbin; Zhou, Sufeng; Li, Shaoshan; Li, Changzheng

    2016-03-01

    Many anticancer drugs used in the clinical have potent metal chelating ability. The formed metal complex(es) may exhibit improved (or antagonistic) antitumor activity. However, the underlying mechanism has received limited attention. Therefore, investigation of the mechanism involved in the change upon chelation is required to extend our understanding of the effects of various drugs. In the present study, the proliferation inhibition effect of benzaldehyde nitrogen mustard-2-pyridine carboxylic acid hydrazone (BNMPH) and its copper complex on tumor cell lines was investigated. The copper chelate exhibited almost a 10-fold increase in antitumor activity (with IC50 <5 µM). The results showed that both BNMPH and its copper complex induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and caused upregulation of caspase 8 and Bax as well as the downregulation of Bcl-2, indicating that apoptosis was involved in the cytotoxic effects. DNA fragmentation noted in the comet assay further supported ROS involvement. The present study indicated that BNMPH and its copper complex effectively induced S phase arrest and the cell cycle arrest was associated with the downregulation of cyclin D1. The formation of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) and an increase in cleaved LC3-II demonstrated that autophagy occurred in the HepG2 cells treated with the agents. Taken together, BNMPH and its copper complex exhibited proliferation inhibition via apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and autophagy, which was dependent on ROS. The enhanced antitumor activity of the copper complex was due to its redox-cycling ability, but the mechanism was not altered compared to BNMPH. Our findings may significantly contribute to the understanding of the anti-proliferative effect of BNMPH and its copper complex.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro antitumor activity of platinum(II) oxalato complexes involving 7-azaindole derivatives as coligands.

    PubMed

    Štarha, Pavel; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Popa, Igor; Dvořák, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    The platinum(II) oxalato complexes [Pt(ox)(naza)2] (1-3) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis (C, H, N), multinuclear NMR spectroscopy ((1)H, (13)C, (15)N, (195)Pt) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS); naza = 4-chloro-7-azaindole (4Claza; 1), 3-bromo-7-azaindole (3Braza; 2) or 4-bromo-7-azaindole (4Braza; 3). The prepared substances were screened for their in vitro antitumor activity on the osteosarcoma (HOS) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) human cancer cell lines, where 2 showed moderate antitumor effect (IC50 = 27.5 μM, and 18.3 μM, respectively). The complex 2 was further tested on a panel of six others human cancer cell lines, including the malignant melanoma (G361), cervix carcinoma (HeLa), ovarian carcinoma (A2780), cisplatin-resistant ovarian carcinoma (A2780R), lung carcinoma (A549) and prostate adenocarcinoma (LNCaP). This substance was found to be moderate antitumor effective against G361 (IC50 = 17.3 μM), HeLa (IC50 = 31.8 μM) and A2780 (IC50 = 19.2 μM) cell lines. The complex 2 was also studied by NMR for its solution stability and by ESI-MS experiments for its ability to interact with biomolecules, such as cysteine, glutathione or guanosine 5'-monophosphate. PMID:25068781

  13. Antitumor activity of a rhenium (I)-diselenoether complex in experimental models of human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Collery, Philippe; Mohsen, Ahmed; Kermagoret, Anthony; Corre, Samantha; Bastian, Gérard; Tomas, Alain; Wei, Ming; Santoni, François; Guerra, Nadia; Desmaële, Didier; d'Angelo, Jean

    2015-08-01

    Rhenium (I)-diselenother (Re-diselenoether) is a water soluble metal-based compound, combining one atom of rhenium and two atoms of selenium. This compound has been reported to exhibit marked activities against several solid tumor cell lines. We now disclose an improved synthesis of this complex. The Re-diselenoether showed a potent inhibitory effect on MDA-MB231 cell division in vitro, which lasted when the complex was no longer present in the culture. Re-diselenoether induced a remarkable reduction of the volume of the primitive breast tumors and of the pulmonary metastases without clinical signs of toxicity, in mice-bearing a MDA-MB231 Luc+ tumor, orthotopically transplanted, after a daily oral administration at the dose of 10 mg/kg/d. Interestingly, an antagonism was observed when cisplatin was administered as a single i.p. injection 1 week after the end of the Re-diselenoether administration. In an effort to gain insight of the mechanisms of action of Re-diselenoether complex, interaction with 9-methylguanine as a nucleic acid base model was studied. We have shown that Re-diselenoether gave both mono- and bis-guanine Re adducts, the species assumed to be responsible for the DNA intrastrand lesions.

  14. An antitumor drug-induced topoisomerase cleavage complex blocks a bacteriophage T4 replication fork in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hong, G; Kreuzer, K N

    2000-01-01

    Many antitumor and antibacterial drugs inhibit DNA topoisomerases by trapping covalent enzyme-DNA cleavage complexes. Formation of cleavage complexes is important for cytotoxicity, but evidence suggests that cleavage complexes themselves are not sufficient to cause cell death. Rather, active cellular processes such as transcription and/or replication are probably necessary to transform cleavage complexes into cytotoxic lesions. Using defined plasmid substrates and two-dimensional agarose gel analysis, we examined the collision of an active replication fork with an antitumor drug-trapped cleavage complex. Discrete DNA molecules accumulated on the simple Y arc, with branch points very close to the topoisomerase cleavage site. Accumulation of the Y-form DNA required the presence of a topoisomerase cleavage site, the antitumor drug, the type II topoisomerase, and a T4 replication origin on the plasmid. Furthermore, all three arms of the Y-form DNA were replicated, arguing strongly that these are trapped replication intermediates. The Y-form DNA appeared even in the absence of two important phage recombination proteins, implying that Y-form DNA is the result of replication rather than recombination. This is the first direct evidence that a drug-induced topoisomerase cleavage complex blocks the replication fork in vivo. Surprisingly, these blocked replication forks do not contain DNA breaks at the topoisomerase cleavage site, implying that the replication complex was inactivated (at least temporarily) and that topoisomerase resealed the drug-induced DNA breaks. The replication fork may behave similarly at other types of DNA lesions, and thus cleavage complexes could represent a useful (site-specific) model for chemical- and radiation-induced DNA damage.

  15. Enhanced antitumor immunity of nanoliposome-encapsulated heat shock protein 70 peptide complex derived from dendritic tumor fusion cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunfei; Luo, Wen; Wang, Yucai; Chen, Jun; Liu, Yunyan; Zhang, Yong

    2015-06-01

    Tumor-derived heat shock proteins peptide complex (HSP.PC-Tu) has been regarded as a promising antitumor agent. However, inadequate immunogenicity and low bioavailability limit the clinical uses of this agent. In a previous study, we first produced an improved HSP70.PC-based vaccine purified from dendritic cell (DC)-tumor fusion cells (HSP70.PC-Fc) which had increased immunogenicity due to enhanced antigenic tumor peptides compared to HSP70.PC-Tu. In order to increase the bioavailability of HSP70.PC-Fc, the peptide complex was encapsulated with nanoliposomes (NL-HSP70.PC-Fc) in this study. After encapsulation, the tumor immunogenicity was observed using various assays. It was demonstrated that the NL-HSP70.PC-Fc has acceptable stability. The in vivo antitumor immune response was increased with regard to T-cell activation, CTL response and tumor therapy efficiency compared to that of HSP70.PC-Fc. In addition, it was shown that DC maturation was improved by NL-HSP70.PC-Fc, which added to the antitumor immunity. The results obtained for NL-HSP70.PC-Fc, which improved immunogenicity and increases the bioavailability of HSP70.PC, may represent superior heat shock proteins (HSPs)-based tumor vaccines. Such vaccines deserve further investigation and may provide a preclinical rationale to translate findings into early phase trials for patients with breast tumors.

  16. The Elastin Receptor Complex: A Unique Matricellular Receptor with High Anti-tumoral Potential

    PubMed Central

    Scandolera, Amandine; Odoul, Ludivine; Salesse, Stéphanie; Guillot, Alexandre; Blaise, Sébastien; Kawecki, Charlotte; Maurice, Pascal; El Btaouri, Hassan; Romier-Crouzet, Béatrice; Martiny, Laurent; Debelle, Laurent; Duca, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Elastin, one of the longest-lived proteins, confers elasticity to tissues with high mechanical constraints. During aging or pathophysiological conditions such as cancer progression, this insoluble polymer of tropoelastin undergoes an important degradation leading to the release of bioactive elastin-derived peptides (EDPs), named elastokines. EDP exhibit several biological functions able to drive tumor development by regulating cell proliferation, invasion, survival, angiogenesis, and matrix metalloproteinase expression in various tumor and stromal cells. Although, several receptors have been suggested to bind elastokines (αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins, galectin-3), their main receptor remains the elastin receptor complex (ERC). This heterotrimer comprises a peripheral subunit, named elastin binding protein (EBP), associated to the protective protein/cathepsin A (PPCA). The latter is bound to a membrane-associated protein called Neuraminidase-1 (Neu-1). The pro-tumoral effects of elastokines have been linked to their binding onto EBP. Additionally, Neu-1 sialidase activity is essential for their signal transduction. Consistently, EDP-EBP interaction and Neu-1 activity emerge as original anti-tumoral targets. Interestingly, besides its direct involvement in cancer progression, the ERC also regulates diabetes outcome and thrombosis, an important risk factor for cancer development and a vascular process highly increased in patients suffering from cancer. In this review, we will describe ERC and elastokines involvement in cancer development suggesting that this unique receptor would be a promising therapeutic target. We will also discuss the pharmacological concepts aiming at blocking its pro-tumoral activities. Finally, its emerging role in cancer-associated complications and pathologies such as diabetes and thrombotic events will be also considered. PMID:26973522

  17. Liposomes Encapsulating 10-Hydroxycamptothecin-Cyclodextrin Complexes and Their In Vitro Anti-Tumor Activities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Chen, Cheng; Xiao, Yiyun; Zhang, Xiuzhen; Chen, Yuxiang

    2015-05-01

    Manufacturing and characterizing hydroxycamptothecin inclusion liposomes, establishing their quality standard and testing their in vitro anti-tumor activity is of significance for potential application. The neutralization agitation method was used to prepare hydroxycamptothecin inclusion and film evaporation method was utilized to manufacture hydroxycamptothecin inclusion liposomes. The phase solubility method, differential scanning calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy were used to identify the prepared inclusion complex. The hydroxycamptothecin inclusion liposomes were characterized for particle morphology, size, in vitro release and stability. The hepatoma (HepG-2), lung cancer (A549), and gastric cancer (SGC-7901) cell lines were used as models for preliminary evaluation of anti-cancer effect from the hydroxycamptothecin inclusion liposomes, done by MTT colorimetry, cytometer experiments, and apoptosis staining. The anti-cancer evaluation was compared with commercially available hydroxycamptothecin. The results showed the hydroxycamptothecin inclusion was successfully prepared by neutralization agitation method. Phase solubility method, differential scanning calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy proved the formation of the hydroxycamptothecin inclusion. The hydroxycamptothecin inclusion liposomes were successfully prepared by film evaporation method. (2) The inclusions were found to be spherical, with average particle size of 119.7 nm, zeta potential of - 45.6 mV, average inclusion rate of 70.55%, and drug-loading was 14.60%. The inclusions were also found to have a sustained release effect, when compared to the commercially available hydroxyccamptothecine. The hydroxyccamptothecine inclusion liposomes had better stability at 4 degrees. (3) The hydroxycamptothecin inclusion liposomes also exhibited better inhibition effect for the three kinds of cancer cell lines above, when compared to the commercially available hydroxycamptothecin the anti-cancer effect being

  18. The Elastin Receptor Complex: A Unique Matricellular Receptor with High Anti-tumoral Potential.

    PubMed

    Scandolera, Amandine; Odoul, Ludivine; Salesse, Stéphanie; Guillot, Alexandre; Blaise, Sébastien; Kawecki, Charlotte; Maurice, Pascal; El Btaouri, Hassan; Romier-Crouzet, Béatrice; Martiny, Laurent; Debelle, Laurent; Duca, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Elastin, one of the longest-lived proteins, confers elasticity to tissues with high mechanical constraints. During aging or pathophysiological conditions such as cancer progression, this insoluble polymer of tropoelastin undergoes an important degradation leading to the release of bioactive elastin-derived peptides (EDPs), named elastokines. EDP exhibit several biological functions able to drive tumor development by regulating cell proliferation, invasion, survival, angiogenesis, and matrix metalloproteinase expression in various tumor and stromal cells. Although, several receptors have been suggested to bind elastokines (αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins, galectin-3), their main receptor remains the elastin receptor complex (ERC). This heterotrimer comprises a peripheral subunit, named elastin binding protein (EBP), associated to the protective protein/cathepsin A (PPCA). The latter is bound to a membrane-associated protein called Neuraminidase-1 (Neu-1). The pro-tumoral effects of elastokines have been linked to their binding onto EBP. Additionally, Neu-1 sialidase activity is essential for their signal transduction. Consistently, EDP-EBP interaction and Neu-1 activity emerge as original anti-tumoral targets. Interestingly, besides its direct involvement in cancer progression, the ERC also regulates diabetes outcome and thrombosis, an important risk factor for cancer development and a vascular process highly increased in patients suffering from cancer. In this review, we will describe ERC and elastokines involvement in cancer development suggesting that this unique receptor would be a promising therapeutic target. We will also discuss the pharmacological concepts aiming at blocking its pro-tumoral activities. Finally, its emerging role in cancer-associated complications and pathologies such as diabetes and thrombotic events will be also considered.

  19. SKLB-287, a novel oral multikinase inhibitor of EGFR and VEGFR2, exhibits potent antitumor activity in LoVo colorectal tumor model.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Liu, Y; Yang, H-W; Zhou, S; Cheng, C; Zheng, M-W; Zhong, L; Fu, X-Y; Pan, Y-L; Ma, S; Tang, Y; Chen, Y-Z; Li, L-L; Yang, S-Y

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third common cancer and most of the chemotherapies of CRC currently used often suffer limited efficacy and large side effects. Targeted small-molecule by anti-tumor drugs are thought a promising strategy for improving the efficacy and reducing the side effects. In this investigation, we report a novel multikinase inhibitor, termed SKLB-287, which was discovered by us recently. SKLB-287 could efficiently inhibit the activation of endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2). It displayed very good anti-proliferative activity against LoVo CRC cells and considerable antiangiogenic potency in transgenic zebrafish embryos. Oral administration of SKLB-287 resulted in dose-dependent suppression of tumor growth in LoVo xenograft mouse model. Immunohistochemistry was adopted to examine the in vivo anti-tumor mechanism of action of SKLB-287.

  20. Design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationships of novel benzothiazole derivatives bearing the ortho-hydroxy N-carbamoylhydrazone moiety as potent antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junjie; Chen, Dong; Lu, Kuan; Wang, Lihui; Han, Xiaoqi; Zhao, Yanfang; Gong, Ping

    2014-10-30

    A series of novel benzothiazole derivatives bearing the ortho-hydroxy N-carbamoylhydrazone moiety were designed and synthesized and their cytotoxic activities against five cancer cell lines (NCI-H226, SK-N-SH, HT29, MKN45, and MDA-MB-231) were screened in vitro. Most of them showed moderate to excellent activity against all the tested cell lines. Among them, compounds 15g (procaspase-3 EC50 = 1.42 μM) and 16b (procaspase-3 EC50 = 0.25 μM) exhibited excellent antitumor activity with IC50 values ranging from 0.14 μM to 0.98 μM against all cancer cell lines, which were 1.8-8.7 times more active than the first procaspase activating compound (PAC-1) (procaspase-3 EC50 = 4.08 μM). The structure-activity relationship (SAR) analyses indicated that the introduction of a lipophilic group (a benzyloxy or heteroaryloxy group) at the 4-position of the 2-hydroxy phenyl ring was beneficial to antitumor activity, and the presence of substituents containing nitrogen that are positively charged at physiological pH could also improve antitumor activity. It was also confirmed that the steric effect of the 4-position substituent of the benzyloxy group had a significant influence on cytotoxic activity. PMID:25171780

  1. Diorganotin (IV) complexes with 4-nitro-N-phthaloyl-glycine: Synthesis, characterization, antitumor activity and DNA-binding studies.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chaoqun; Zhang, Jiali; Liang, Taigang; Li, Qingshan

    2015-04-01

    Two novel diorganotin (IV) complexes, based on 4-nitro-N-phthaloyl-glycine (HL), namely {4-NO2C6H3(CO)2NCH2COO}2Sn(n-Bu)2 (1) and {4-NO2C6H3(CO)2NCH2COO}2SnMe2 (2), were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectroscopic techniques. In vitro antitumor activities of both complexes were evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazoly-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay against three human cancer cell lines: HepG-2 (human liver carcinoma), SGC-7901 (human gastric carcinoma) and LS174T (human colon carcinoma). Complex 1 exhibited strong antitumor activity with IC50 values of 1.51±0.41, 1.80±0.63, and 2.48±0.96 μM, respectively; while complex 2 had no obvious effects on the three selected cancer cell lines at high concentrations up to 100 μM. Complex 1-induced apoptosis was further confirmed by morphological observations and annexin V-FITC/PI staining flow cytometry analysis in HepG-2 cells. Cell cycle analysis revealed that complex 1 caused cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. Molecular mechanism studies suggested that the apoptosis was mediated through the mitochondrial pathway with intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) promotion and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) disruption by finally activating effector caspase-3/9 to trigger cell apoptosis. Moreover, the interactions of both complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were investigated by using UV-Vis titration and fluorometric competition measurements. The DNA-binding constants Kb (intrinsic binding constant) and K(sv) (quenching constant) had been obtained in the order: 1>2, consisted with the antitumor activity results. Taken together, complex 1 exhibited excellent antitumor activity suggesting that it may be a potential candidate for further chemical optimization and cancer therapy.

  2. Crystal Structure of HIV-1 Primary Receptor CD4 i Complex with a Potent Antiviral Antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, M.M.; Hong, X.; Seaman, M.S.; Rits-Vollock, S.p Kao, C.Y.; Ho, D.D.; Chen, B.

    2010-06-18

    Ibalizumab is a humanized, anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody. It potently blocks HIV-1 infection and targets an epitope in the second domain of CD4 without interfering with immune functions mediated by interaction of CD4 with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. We report here the crystal structure of ibalizumab Fab fragment in complex with the first two domains (D1-D2) of CD4 at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution. Ibalizumab grips CD4 primarily by the BC-loop (residues 121125) of D2, sitting on the opposite side of gp120 and MHC-II binding sites. No major conformational change in CD4 accompanies binding to ibalizumab. Both monovalent and bivalent forms of ibalizumab effectively block viral infection, suggesting that it does not need to crosslink CD4 to exert antiviral activity. While gp120-induced structural rearrangements in CD4 are probably minimal, CD4 structural rigidity is dispensable for ibalizumab inhibition. These results could guide CD4-based immunogen design and lead to a better understanding of HIV-1 entry.

  3. Evaluation of antitumor, immunomodulatory and free radical scavenging effects of a new herbal prescription seaweed complex preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Shao, Changlun; Kong, Wenwen; Fang, Yuchun; Wang, Changyun

    2013-09-01

    Seaweed Complex Preparation (SCP) is a clinical traditional Chinese medicine preparation which is composed of seven traditional Chinese herbs, and it has been used for treatment of lung cancer, liver cancer and digestive cancer. However, little information is available about the pharmacodynamic basis. The antitumor, immunomodulatory and free radical scavenging effects of SCP were evaluated in this study. Transplanted tumor in vivo method was used to determine the antitumor effect. The effects on splenocyte proliferation and phagocytosis of macrophages in tumor-bearing mice were measured by the MTT method and the phagocytizing cock red blood cell (CRBC) method respectively. The scavenging activities of SCP on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals in vitro were investigated. It was found that the medium-dose and high-dose of SCP could significantly inhibit the growth of transplanted hepatic tumor of murine hepatocarcinoma cell line H22, and promote proliferation of splenocytes and phagocytosis of macrophages. SCP possessed noticeable scavenging activities on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. The antitumor effects of SCP might be achieved by improving immune system and scavenging free radicals, which is in accordance with the viewpoint of traditional Chinese medicine in promoting the body resistance and eliminating pathogenic factors for cancer treatment.

  4. Self-assembled β-lactoglobulin-oleic acid and β-lactoglobulin-linoleic acid complexes with antitumor activities.

    PubMed

    Fang, B; Zhang, M; Tian, M; Ren, F Z

    2015-05-01

    β-Lactoglobulin (β-LG) can bind to fatty acids such as oleic acid (OA) and linoleic acid (LA). Another whey protein, α-lactalbumin (α-LA), can also bind to OA to give the complex α-LA-OA, which has antitumor properties. Based on reports that the activity of α-LA-OA is highly dependent on OA, as well as the acquisition of similar complexes using other proteins, such as lysozyme and lactoferrin, we speculated whether β-LG could also kill tumor cells after binding to other fatty acids. Therefore, we prepared complexes of β-LG with OA (β-LG-OA) and LA (β-LG-LA) in the current study and evaluated them in terms of antitumor activity and thermostability using the methylene blue method and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. The structural features of these complexes were also evaluated using fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism. The binding dynamics of OA and LA to β-LG were studied using isothermal titration calorimetry. Cell viability results revealed that β-LG-LA and β-LG-OA exhibited similar antitumor activities. Interestingly, the binding of β-LG to LA led to an increase in its thermostability, whereas its binding to OA had very little effect. The environments of the tryptophan residues in the β-LG-OA and β-LG-LA complexes were very different, with the residues being blue- and red-shifted, respectively. Furthermore, the hydrophobic regions in β-LG were buried after binding of OA, which was slightly changed in β-LG-LA. Circular dichroism results showed that β-LG-OA enhanced the tertiary structure, which was partially lost in β-LG-LA. There were more binding sites for OA than for LA on β-LG, although the binding constants of the 2 fatty acids were similar, with both acids interacting with the protein though van der Waals and hydrogen bonding interactions. This study could help provide a deeper understanding of the structural basis for formation of antitumor protein-fatty acid complexes.

  5. Akbu-LAAO exhibits potent anti-tumor activity to HepG2 cells partially through produced H2O2 via TGF-β signal pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chunmei; Liu, Shuqing; Dong, Panpan; Zhao, Dongting; Wang, Chengyi; Tao, Zhiwei; Sun, Ming-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we characterized the biological properties of Akbu-LAAO, a novel L-amino acid oxidase from Agkistrodon blomhoffii ussurensis snake venom (SV). Current work investigated its in vitro anti-tumor activity and underlying mechanism on HepG2 cells. Akbu-LAAO inhibited HepG2 growth time and dose-dependently with an IC50 of ~38.82 μg/mL. It could induce the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Akbu-LAAO exhibited cytotoxicity by inhibiting growth and inducing apoptosis of HepG2 as it showed no effect on its cell cycle. The inhibition of Akbu-LAAO to HepG2 growth partially relied on enzymatic-released H2O2 as catalase only partially antagonized this effect. cDNA microarray results indicated TGF-β signaling pathway was linked to the cytotoxicity of Akbu-LAAO on HepG2. TGF-β pathway related molecules CYR61, p53, GDF15, TOB1, BTG2, BMP2, BMP6, SMAD9, JUN, JUNB, LOX, CCND1, CDK6, GADD45A, CDKN1A were deregulated in HepG2 following Akbu-LAAO stimulation. The presence of catalase only slightly restored the mRNA changes induced by Akbu-LAAO for differentially expressed genes. Meanwhile, LDN-193189, a TGF-β pathway inhibitor reduced Akbu-LAAO cytotoxicity on HepG2. Collectively, we reported, for the first time, SV-LAAO showed anti-tumor cell activity via TGF-β pathway. It provides new insight of SV-LAAO exhibiting anti-tumor effect via a novel signaling pathway. PMID:26655928

  6. Akbu-LAAO exhibits potent anti-tumor activity to HepG2 cells partially through produced H2O2 via TGF-β signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chunmei; Liu, Shuqing; Dong, Panpan; Zhao, Dongting; Wang, Chengyi; Tao, Zhiwei; Sun, Ming-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we characterized the biological properties of Akbu-LAAO, a novel L-amino acid oxidase from Agkistrodon blomhoffii ussurensis snake venom (SV). Current work investigated its in vitro anti-tumor activity and underlying mechanism on HepG2 cells. Akbu-LAAO inhibited HepG2 growth time and dose-dependently with an IC50 of ~38.82 μg/mL. It could induce the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Akbu-LAAO exhibited cytotoxicity by inhibiting growth and inducing apoptosis of HepG2 as it showed no effect on its cell cycle. The inhibition of Akbu-LAAO to HepG2 growth partially relied on enzymatic-released H2O2 as catalase only partially antagonized this effect. cDNA microarray results indicated TGF-β signaling pathway was linked to the cytotoxicity of Akbu-LAAO on HepG2. TGF-β pathway related molecules CYR61, p53, GDF15, TOB1, BTG2, BMP2, BMP6, SMAD9, JUN, JUNB, LOX, CCND1, CDK6, GADD45A, CDKN1A were deregulated in HepG2 following Akbu-LAAO stimulation. The presence of catalase only slightly restored the mRNA changes induced by Akbu-LAAO for differentially expressed genes. Meanwhile, LDN-193189, a TGF-β pathway inhibitor reduced Akbu-LAAO cytotoxicity on HepG2. Collectively, we reported, for the first time, SV-LAAO showed anti-tumor cell activity via TGF-β pathway. It provides new insight of SV-LAAO exhibiting anti-tumor effect via a novel signaling pathway. PMID:26655928

  7. Trichlorobenzene-substituted azaaryl compounds as novel FGFR inhibitors exhibiting potent antitumor activity in bladder cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Han; Liu, Yi-Min; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Liu, Yun-Ru

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the antitumor activity of a series of trichlorobenzene-substituted azaaryl compounds and identified MPT0L145 as a novel FGFR inhibitor with better selectivity for FGFR1, 2 and 3. It was preferentially effective in FGFR-activated cancer cells, including bladder cancer cell lines expressing FGFR3-TACC3 fusion proteins (RT-112, RT-4). MPT0L145 decreased the phosphorylation of FGFR1, FGFR3 and their downstream proteins (FRS2, ERK and Akt). Mechanistically, cDNA microarray analysis revealed that MPT0L145 decreased genes associated cell cycle progression, and increased genes associated with autophagy pathway. Accordingly, the data revealed that MPT0L145 induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and decreased protein levels of cyclin E. Moreover, we provided the evidence that autophagy contributes to FGFR inhibitor-related cell death. Finally, MPT0L145 exhibited comparable antitumor activity to cisplatin with better safety in a RT-112 xenograft model. Taken together, these findings support the utility of MPT0L145 as a novel FGFR inhibitor, providing a strong rationale for further evaluation of this compound as a therapeutic agent for bladder cancers. PMID:27029060

  8. A Monoclonal Antibody to O-Acetyl-GD2 Ganglioside and Not to GD2 Shows Potent Anti-Tumor Activity without Peripheral Nervous System Cross-Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Cochonneau, Denis; Chaumette, Tanguy; Clemenceau, Béatrice; Leprieur, Stéphanie; Bougras, Gwenola; Supiot, Stéphane; Mussini, Jean-Marie; Barbet, Jacques; Saba, Julie; Paris, François; Aubry, Jacques; Birklé, Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    Background Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against GD2 ganglioside have been shown to be effective for the treatment of neuroblastoma. Beneficial actions are, however, associated with generalized pain due to the binding of anti- GD2 mAbs to peripheral nerve fibers followed by complement activation. Neuroblastoma cells that express GD2 also express its O-acetyl derivative, O-acetyl- GD2 ganglioside (OAcGD2). Hence, we investigated the distribution of OAcGD2 in human tissues using mAb 8B6 to study the cross-reactivity of mAb 8B6 with human tissues. Methodology/Principal Findings The distribution of OAcGD2 was performed in normal and malignant tissues using an immunoperoxydase technique. Anti-tumor properties of mAb 8B6 were studied in vitro and in vivo in a transplanted tumor model in mice. We found that OAcGD2 is not expressed by peripheral nerve fibers. Furthermore, we demonstrated that mAb 8B6 was very effective in the in vitro and in vivo suppression of the growth of tumor cells. Importantly, mAb 8B6 anti-tumor efficacy was comparable to that of mAb 14G2a specific to GD2. Conclusion/Significance Development of therapeutic antibodies specific to OAcGD2 may offer treatment options with reduced adverse side effects, thereby allowing dose escalation of antibodies. PMID:21966461

  9. VEGFR2 targeted antibody fused with MICA stimulates NKG2D mediated immunosurveillance and exhibits potent anti-tumor activity against breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei; Liu, Fang; Wang, Youfu; Ren, Xueyan; Wang, Tong; Chen, Zhiguo; Tang, Mingying; Sun, Fumou; Li, Zhaoting; Wang, Min; Zhang, Juan

    2016-03-29

    Binding of MHC class I-related chain molecules A and B (MICA/B) to the natural killer (NK) cell receptor NK group 2, member D (NKG2D) is thought critical for activating NK-mediated immunosurveillance. Angiogenesis is important for tumor growth and interfering with angiogenesis using the fully human IgG1 anti-VEGFR2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2) antibody (mAb04) can be effective in treating malignancy. In an effort to make mAb04 more effective we have generated a novel antibody fusion protein (mAb04-MICA) consisting of mAb04 and MICA. We found that mAb04-MICA maintained the anti-angiogenic and antineoplastic activities of mAb04, and also enhanced immunosurveillance activated by the NKG2D pathway. Moreover, in human breast tumor-bearing nude mice, mAb04-MICA demonstrated superior anti-tumor efficacy compared to combination therapy of mAb04 + Docetaxel or Avastin + Docetaxel, highlighting the immunostimulatory effect of MICA. In conclusion, mAb04-MICA provided new inspiration for anti-tumor treatment and had prospects for clinical application.

  10. Crystal structure of LpxC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa complexed with the potent BB-78485 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Mochalkin, Igor; Knafels, John D; Lightle, Sandra

    2008-03-01

    The cell wall in Gram-negative bacteria is surrounded by an outer membrane comprised of charged lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules that prevent entry of hydrophobic agents into the cell and protect the bacterium from many antibiotics. The hydrophobic anchor of LPS is lipid A, the biosynthesis of which is essential for bacterial growth and viability. UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC) is an essential zinc-dependant enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine to UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)glucosamine and acetate in the biosynthesis of lipid A, and for this reason, LpxC is an attractive target for antibacterial drug discovery. Here we disclose a 1.9 A resolution crystal structure of LpxC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (paLpxC) in a complex with the potent BB-78485 inhibitor. To our knowledge, this is the first crystal structure of LpxC with a small-molecule inhibitor that shows antibacterial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative pathogens. Accordingly, this structure can provide important information for lead optimization and rational design of the effective small-molecule LpxC inhibitors for successful treatment of Gram-negative infections. PMID:18287278

  11. Crystal structure of LpxC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa complexed with the potent BB-78485 inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Mochalkin, Igor; Knafels, John D.; Lightle, Sandra

    2008-04-02

    The cell wall in Gram-negative bacteria is surrounded by an outer membrane comprised of charged lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules that prevent entry of hydrophobic agents into the cell and protect the bacterium from many antibiotics. The hydrophobic anchor of LPS is lipid A, the biosynthesis of which is essential for bacterial growth and viability. UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC) is an essential zinc-dependant enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine to UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)glucosamine and acetate in the biosynthesis of lipid A, and for this reason, LpxC is an attractive target for antibacterial drug discovery. Here we disclose a 1.9 A resolution crystal structure of LpxC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (paLpxC) in a complex with the potent BB-78485 inhibitor. To our knowledge, this is the first crystal structure of LpxC with a small-molecule inhibitor that shows antibacterial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative pathogens. Accordingly, this structure can provide important information for lead optimization and rational design of the effective small-molecule LpxC inhibitors for successful treatment of Gram-negative infections.

  12. Crystal structure of LpxC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa complexed with the potent BB-78485 inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Mochalkin, Igor; Knafels, John D.; Lightle, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The cell wall in Gram-negative bacteria is surrounded by an outer membrane comprised of charged lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules that prevent entry of hydrophobic agents into the cell and protect the bacterium from many antibiotics. The hydrophobic anchor of LPS is lipid A, the biosynthesis of which is essential for bacterial growth and viability. UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC) is an essential zinc-dependant enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine to UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)glucosamine and acetate in the biosynthesis of lipid A, and for this reason, LpxC is an attractive target for antibacterial drug discovery. Here we disclose a 1.9 Å resolution crystal structure of LpxC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (paLpxC) in a complex with the potent BB-78485 inhibitor. To our knowledge, this is the first crystal structure of LpxC with a small-molecule inhibitor that shows antibacterial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative pathogens. Accordingly, this structure can provide important information for lead optimization and rational design of the effective small-molecule LpxC inhibitors for successful treatment of Gram-negative infections. PMID:18287278

  13. Copper Complexation Screen Reveals Compounds with Potent Antibiotic Properties against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Haeili, Mehri; Moore, Casey; Davis, Christopher J. C.; Cochran, James B.; Shah, Santosh; Shrestha, Tej B.; Zhang, Yaofang; Bossmann, Stefan H.; Benjamin, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages take advantage of the antibacterial properties of copper ions in the killing of bacterial intruders. However, despite the importance of copper for innate immune functions, coordinated efforts to exploit copper ions for therapeutic interventions against bacterial infections are not yet in place. Here we report a novel high-throughput screening platform specifically developed for the discovery and characterization of compounds with copper-dependent antibacterial properties toward methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We detail how one of the identified compounds, glyoxal-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (GTSM), exerts its potent strictly copper-dependent antibacterial properties on MRSA. Our data indicate that the activity of the GTSM-copper complex goes beyond the general antibacterial effects of accumulated copper ions and suggest that, in contrast to prevailing opinion, copper complexes can indeed exhibit species- and target-specific activities. Based on experimental evidence, we propose that copper ions impose structural changes upon binding to the otherwise inactive GTSM ligand and transfer antibacterial properties to the chelate. In turn, GTSM determines target specificity and utilizes a redox-sensitive release mechanism through which copper ions are deployed at or in close proximity to a putative target. According to our proof-of-concept screen, copper activation is not a rare event and even extends to already established drugs. Thus, copper-activated compounds could define a novel class of anti-MRSA agents that amplify copper-dependent innate immune functions of the host. To this end, we provide a blueprint for a high-throughput drug screening campaign which considers the antibacterial properties of copper ions at the host-pathogen interface. PMID:24752262

  14. Synthesis and Evaluation of 1,5-Disubstituted Tetrazoles as Rigid Analogues of Combretastatin A-4 with Potent Antiproliferative and Antitumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Romagnoli, Romeo; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Salvador, Maria Kimatrai; Preti, Delia; Tabrizi, Mojgan Aghazadeh; Brancale, Andrea; Fu, Xian-Hua; Li, Jun; Zhang, Su-Zhan; Hamel, Ernest; Bortolozzi, Roberta; Basso, Giuseppe; Viola, Giampietro

    2012-01-01

    Tubulin, the major structural component of microtubules, is a target for the development of anticancer agents. Two series of 1,5-diaryl substituted 1,2,3,4-tetrazoles were concisely synthesized, using a palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction, and identified as potent antiproliferative agents and novel tubulin polymerization inhibitors that act at the colchicine site. SAR analysis indicated that compounds with a 4-ethoxyphenyl group at the N-1 or C-5 position of the 1,2,3,4-tetrazole ring exhibited maximal activity. Several of these compounds also had potent activity in inhibiting the growth of multidrug resistant cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein. Active compounds induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway with activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Furthermore, compound 4l significantly reduced in vivo the growth of the HT-29 xenograft in a nude mouse model, suggesting that 4l is a promising new antimitotic agent with clinical potential. PMID:22136312

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of 1,5-disubstituted tetrazoles as rigid analogues of combretastatin A-4 with potent antiproliferative and antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Romeo; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Salvador, Maria Kimatrai; Preti, Delia; Aghazadeh Tabrizi, Mojgan; Brancale, Andrea; Fu, Xian-Hua; Li, Jun; Zhang, Su-Zhan; Hamel, Ernest; Bortolozzi, Roberta; Basso, Giuseppe; Viola, Giampietro

    2012-01-12

    Tubulin, the major structural component of microtubules, is a target for the development of anticancer agents. Two series of 1,5-diaryl substituted 1,2,3,4-tetrazoles were concisely synthesized, using a palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction, and identified as potent antiproliferative agents and novel tubulin polymerization inhibitors that act at the colchicine site. SAR analysis indicated that compounds with a 4-ethoxyphenyl group at the N-1 or C-5 position of the 1,2,3,4-tetrazole ring exhibited maximal activity. Several of these compounds also had potent activity in inhibiting the growth of multidrug resistant cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein. Active compounds induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway with activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Furthermore, compound 4l significantly reduced in vivo the growth of the HT-29 xenograft in a nude mouse model, suggesting that 4l is a promising new antimitotic agent with clinical potential.

  16. Activation of antigen-exposed iMC-DCs at the "right place" and "right time" promotes potent anti-tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Spencer, David M

    2012-05-01

    To better control the "licensing" of pro-Th1 dendritic cells (DCs), Spencer and colleagues have developed a synthetic ligand-inducible chimeric receptor, iMyD88/CD40 (iMC), incorporating synergistic Toll-like receptor (TLR) and costimulatory signaling elements, permitting DC regulation in vivo within the context of an immunological synapse. This novel technology results in potent anti-cancer activity.

  17. Development and Characterization of a Humanized Anti-HER2 Antibody HuA21 with Potent Anti-Tumor Properties in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruilin; Hu, Siyi; Chang, Yan; Zhang, Zhihui; Zha, Zhao; Huang, Hui; Shen, Guodong; Liu, Jing; Song, Lihua; Wei, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is one of the most studied tumor-associated antigens for cancer immunotherapy. An engineered anti-HER-2 chimeric A21 antibody (chA21) is a chimeric antibody targeted to subdomain I of the HER2 extracellular domain. Here, we report the anti-tumor activity of the novel engineered monoclonal antibody humanized chA21 (HuA21) that targets HER2 on the basis of chA21, and we describe the underlying mechanisms. Our results reveal that HuA21 markedly inhibits the proliferation and migration of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells and causes enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity potency against HER2-overexpressing tumor cells. In particular, HuA21, but not trastuzumab (Tra), markedly suppresses growth and enhances the internalization of the antibody in Tra-resistant BT-474 breast cancer cells. These characteristics are highly associated with the intrinsic ability of HuA21 to down-regulate HER2 activation and inhibit the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathways. Furthermore, the combination of HuA21 with Tra synergistically enhances the anti-tumor effects in vitro and in vivo and inhibits HER2 activation and the ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways. Altogether, our results suggest that HuA21 may represent a unique anti-HER2 antibody with potential as a therapeutic candidate alone or in combination with other anti-HER2 reagents in cancer therapy. PMID:27092488

  18. Synthesis, cellular uptake and structure-activity relationships for potent cytotoxic trichloridoiridium(III) polypyridyl complexes.

    PubMed

    Scharwitz, Michael A; Ott, Ingo; Gust, Ronald; Kromm, Anna; Sheldrick, William S

    2008-08-01

    The complexes fac-[IrCl(3)(DMSO)(pp)] 1a-5a may be prepared by stepwise reaction of IrCl(3) x 3H(2)O with the appropriate polypyridyl ligand (pp=bpy, phen, dpq, dppz, dppn) and DMSO in CH(3)OH solution in the dark. The fac isomers of 1a-5a are stable in light-protected CD(2)Cl(2) solution but, with the exception of 5a, isomerize rapidly to a mixture of the fac and mer isomers in the presence of light. In contrast, solutions of the fac isomers in the polar solvents D(2)O and CD(3)OD are stable under such conditions. The isomer mer-[IrCl(3)(DMSO-kappa S)(phen)] 2b was, however, isolated by slow evaporation of an H(2)O/CH(3)OH solution of 2a and characterized by X-ray structural analysis. UV/Vis and CD studies of the interaction of 1a-5a with calf thymus DNA are in accordance with an effective absence of intercalation. (1)H NMR studies indicate that the complexes react slowly with compounds containing soft S donor atoms (e. g. N-acetylmethionine) but do not react with the guanine base of 5'-GMP(2-). The complexes 2a-5a are potent in vitro cytotoxic agents toward the human cell lines MCF-7 and HT-29 and their IC(50) values are dependent on the size of the polypyridyl ligand in the order phen, dpq>dppz>dppn. For instance IC(50) values of 5.5 (0.9), 0.8 (0.3) and 0.21 (0.11)microM were established for 3a-5a against MCF-7 cells and 6.1 (0.7), 1.5 (0.2) and 1.3 (0.4)microM against HT-29 cells. These values correlate with the cellular uptake efficiency which, on exposure to 10 microM solutions, reaches its highest levels (19.3(0.8) and 37.4(8.9) ng Ir/mg protein for MCF-7 and HT-29, respectively) for the dppn compound 5a. PMID:18472166

  19. Synthesis, spectroscopic studies, antimicrobial activities and antitumor of a new monodentate V-shaped Schiff base and its transition metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Ramadan M; Abu Al-Nasr, Ahmad K; Noureldeen, Amani F H

    2014-11-11

    Reaction of 4-aminoacetophenone and 4-bromobenzaldehyde in ethanol resulted in the formation of the monodentate V-shaped Schiff base (E)-1-(4-((4-bromo-benzylidene)amino)phenyl)ethanone (L). Interaction of L with different di- and trivalent metal ions revealed disubstituted derivatives. The ligand and its complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, mass, IR and NMR spectrometry. Biological activities of the ligand and complexes against the Escherchia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacterias, and the two fungus Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans were screened. The cytotoxicity of the compounds were checked as antitumor agents on liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2). They exhibited in vitro broad range of antitumor activities towards the cell line; the [ZnL2(H2O)2](NO3)2 complex was stronger antitumor towards HepG2 cell line as well as two breast cancer cell lines (MCF7 and T47D) relative to cis-platin.

  20. Synthesis, spectroscopic studies, antimicrobial activities and antitumor of a new monodentate V-shaped Schiff base and its transition metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, Ramadan M.; Abu Al-Nasr, Ahmad K.; Noureldeen, Amani F. H.

    2014-11-01

    Reaction of 4-aminoacetophenone and 4-bromobenzaldehyde in ethanol resulted in the formation of the monodentate V-shaped Schiff base (E)-1-(4-((4-bromo-benzylidene)amino)phenyl)ethanone (L). Interaction of L with different di- and trivalent metal ions revealed disubstituted derivatives. The ligand and its complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, mass, IR and NMR spectrometry. Biological activities of the ligand and complexes against the Escherchia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacterias, and the two fungus Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans were screened. The cytotoxicity of the compounds were checked as antitumor agents on liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2). They exhibited in vitro broad range of antitumor activities towards the cell line; the [ZnL2(H2O)2](NO3)2 complex was stronger antitumor towards HepG2 cell line as well as two breast cancer cell lines (MCF7 and T47D) relative to cis-platin.

  1. Tumor-associated macrophages and anti-tumor therapies: complex links.

    PubMed

    Belgiovine, Cristina; D'Incalci, Maurizio; Allavena, Paola; Frapolli, Roberta

    2016-07-01

    Myeloid cells infiltrating the tumor microenvironment, especially tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), are essential providers of cancer-related inflammation, a condition known to accelerate tumor progression and limit the response to anti-tumor therapies. As a matter of fact, TAMs may have a dual role while interfering with cancer treatments, as they can either promote or impair their functionality. Here we review the connection between macrophages and anticancer therapies; moreover, we provide an overview of the different strategies to target or re-program TAMs for therapeutic purposes. PMID:26956893

  2. In vivo antitumor activity of NVP-AEW541-A novel, potent, and selective inhibitor of the IGF-IR kinase.

    PubMed

    García-Echeverría, Carlos; Pearson, Mark A; Marti, Andreas; Meyer, Thomas; Mestan, Juergen; Zimmermann, Johann; Gao, Jiaping; Brueggen, Josef; Capraro, Hans-Georg; Cozens, Robert; Evans, Dean B; Fabbro, Doriano; Furet, Pascal; Porta, Diana Graus; Liebetanz, Janis; Martiny-Baron, Georg; Ruetz, Stephan; Hofmann, Francesco

    2004-03-01

    IGF-IR-mediated signaling promotes survival, anchorage-independent growth, and oncogenic transformation, as well as tumor growth and metastasis formation in vivo. NVP-AEW541 is a pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivative small molecular weight kinase inhibitor of the IGF-IR, capable of distinguishing between the IGF-IR (IC50 = 0.086 microM) and the closely related InsR (IC50 = 2.3 microM) in cells. As expected for a specific IGF-IR kinase inhibitor, NVP-AEW541 abrogates IGF-I-mediated survival and colony formation in soft agar at concentrations that are consistent with inhibition of IGF-IR autophosphorylation. In vivo, this orally bioavailable compound inhibits IGF-IR signaling in tumor xenografts and significantly reduces the growth of IGF-IR-driven fibrosarcomas. Thus, NVP-AEW541 represents a class of selective, small molecule IGF-IR kinase inhibitors with proven in vivo antitumor activity and potential therapeutic application.

  3. SCIB2, an antibody DNA vaccine encoding NY-ESO-1 epitopes, induces potent antitumor immunity which is further enhanced by checkpoint blockade.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wei; Metheringham, Rachael L; Brentville, Victoria A; Gunn, Barbara; Symonds, Peter; Yagita, Hideo; Ramage, Judith M; Durrant, Lindy G

    2016-06-01

    Checkpoint blockade has demonstrated promising antitumor responses in approximately 10-40% of patients. However, the majority of patients do not make a productive immune response to their tumors and do not respond to checkpoint blockade. These patients may benefit from an effective vaccine that stimulates high-avidity T cell responses in combination with checkpoint blockade. We have previously shown that incorporating TRP-2 and gp100 epitopes into the CDR regions of a human IgG1 DNA (ImmunoBody®: IB) results in significant tumor regression both in animal models and patients. This vaccination strategy is superior to others as it targets antigen to antigen-presenting cells and stimulates high-avidity T cell responses. To broaden the application of this vaccination strategy, 16 NY-ESO-1 epitopes, covering over 80% of HLA phenotypes, were incorporated into the IB (SCIB2). They produced higher frequency and avidity T cell responses than peptide vaccination. These T cells were of sufficient avidity to kill NY-ESO-1-expressing tumor cells, and in vivo controlled the growth of established B16-NY-ESO-1 tumors, resulting in long-term survival (35%). When SCIB2 was given in combination with Treg depletion, CTLA-4 blockade or PD-1 blockade, long-term survival from established tumors was significantly enhanced to 56, 67 and 100%, respectively. Translating these responses into the clinic by using a combination of SCIB2 vaccination and checkpoint blockade can only further improve clinical responses.

  4. Allorestricted T lymphocytes with a high avidity T-cell receptor towards NY-ESO-1 have potent anti-tumor activity.

    PubMed

    Krönig, Holger; Hofer, Kathrin; Conrad, Heinke; Guilaume, Philippe; Müller, Julia; Schiemann, Matthias; Lennerz, Volker; Cosma, Antonio; Peschel, Christian; Busch, Dirk H; Romero, Pedro; Bernhard, Helga

    2009-08-01

    The cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 has been targeted as a tumor-associated antigen by immunotherapeutical strategies, such as cancer vaccines. The prerequisite for a T-cell-based therapy is the induction of T cells capable of recognizing the NY-ESO-1-expressing tumor cells. In this study, we generated human T lymphocytes directed against the immunodominant NY-ESO-1(157-165) epitope known to be naturally presented with HLA-A*0201. We succeeded to isolate autorestricted and allorestricted T lymphocytes with low, intermediate or high avidity TCRs against the NY-ESO-1 peptide. The avidity of the established CTL populations correlated with their capacity of lysing HLA-A2-positive, NY-ESO-1-expressing tumor cell lines derived from different origins, e.g. melanoma and myeloma. The allorestricted NY-ESO-1-specific T lymphocytes displayed TCRs with the highest avidity and best anti-tumor recognition activity. TCRs derived from allorestricted, NY-ESO-1-specific T cells may be useful reagents for redirecting primary T cells by TCR gene transfer and, therefore, may facilitate the development of adoptive transfer regimens based on TCR-transduced T cells for the treatment of NY-ESO-1-expressing hematological malignancies and solid tumors.

  5. A sensitive postcolumn derivatization/UV detection system for HPLC determination of antitumor divalent and quadrivalent platinum complexes.

    PubMed

    Kizu, R; Yamamoto, T; Yokoyama, T; Tanaka, M; Miyazaki, M

    1995-01-01

    A sensitive postcolumn derivatization/UV detection system has been developed for HPLC analysis of antitumor divalent and quadrivalent platinum complexes. It is based on the derivatization of platinum complexes by reaction with sodium bisulfite to corresponding product(s) which has enhanced absorptivity at 280-300 nm. Platinum complexes examined in this study were cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin (divalent platinum complexes) and oxoplatin and tetraplatin (quadrivalent ones). The proposed detection system was sensitive to all these complexes. Under the detection conditions optimized for individual complexes, the HPLC gave linear relationships between the complex concentration and the peak height. Detection limits at 290 nm with 100 microliters injection were 20 nM for cisplatin, 40 nM for oxoplatin, 60 nM for carboplatin and tetraplatin and 100 nM for oxaliplatin (S/N = 3 at 0.005 AUFS). The proposed system was successfully applied for the determination of cisplatin and oxoplatin in plasma and urine. Pharmacokinetic behavior of oxoplatin and its reduced product cisplatin following a single intravenous injection of oxoplatin in rabbits has been discussed.

  6. Regorafenib (BAY 73-4506): a new oral multikinase inhibitor of angiogenic, stromal and oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases with potent preclinical antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Scott M; Dumas, Jacques; Adnane, Lila; Lynch, Mark; Carter, Christopher A; Schütz, Gunnar; Thierauch, Karl-Heinz; Zopf, Dieter

    2011-07-01

    Angiogenesis, a critical driver of tumor development, is controlled by interconnected signaling pathways. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 2 and tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin and epidermal growth factor homology domain 2 play crucial roles in the biology of normal and tumor vasculature. Regorafenib (BAY 73-4506), a novel oral multikinase inhibitor, potently inhibits these endothelial cell kinases in biochemical and cellular kinase phosphorylation assays. Furthermore, regorafenib inhibits additional angiogenic kinases (VEGFR1/3, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1) and the mutant oncogenic kinases KIT, RET and B-RAF. The antiangiogenic effect of regorafenib was demonstrated in vivo by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Regorafenib administered once orally at 10 mg/kg significantly decreased the extravasation of Gadomer in the vasculature of rat GS9L glioblastoma tumor xenografts. In a daily (qd)×4 dosing study, the pharmacodynamic effects persisted for 48 hr after the last dosing and correlated with tumor growth inhibition (TGI). A significant reduction in tumor microvessel area was observed in a human colorectal xenograft after qd×5 dosing at 10 and 30 mg/kg. Regorafenib exhibited potent dose-dependent TGI in various preclinical human xenograft models in mice, with tumor shrinkages observed in breast MDA-MB-231 and renal 786-O carcinoma models. Pharmacodynamic analyses of the breast model revealed strong reduction in staining of proliferation marker Ki-67 and phosphorylated extracellular regulated kinases 1/2. These data demonstrate that regorafenib is a well-tolerated, orally active multikinase inhibitor with a distinct target profile that may have therapeutic benefit in human malignancies.

  7. Investigational drug MLN0128, a novel TORC1/2 inhibitor, demonstrates potent oral antitumor activity in human breast cancer xenograft models.

    PubMed

    Gökmen-Polar, Yesim; Liu, Yi; Toroni, Rachel A; Sanders, Kerry L; Mehta, Rutika; Badve, Sunil; Rommel, Christian; Sledge, George W

    2012-12-01

    Aberrant activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling plays an important role in breast cancer progression and represents a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer. In this study, we report the impact of the investigational drug MLN0128, a potent and selective small molecule active-site TORC1/2 kinase inhibitor, on tumor growth and metastasis using human breast cancer xenograft models. We assessed in vitro antiproliferative activity of MLN0128 in a panel of breast cancer cell lines. We next evaluated the impact of MLN0128 on tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis using mammary fat pad xenograft models of a non-VEGF (ML20) and a VEGF-driven (MV165) MCF-7 sublines harboring PIK3CA mutations. MLN0128 potently inhibited cell proliferation in various breast cancer cell lines harboring PIK3CA (IC(50): 1.5-53 nM), PTEN (IC(50): 1-149 nM), KRAS, and/or BRAF mutations (IC(50): 13-162 nM), and in human endothelial cells (IC(50): 33-40 nM) in vitro. In vivo, MLN0128 decreased primary tumor growth significantly in both non-VEGF (ML20; p = 0.05) and VEGF-driven MCF-7 (MV165; p = 0.014) xenograft models. MLN0128 decreased the phosphorylation of Akt, S6, 4E-BP1, and NDRG1 in both models. In contrast, rapamycin increased Akt activity and failed to reduce the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1, PRAS40, and NDRG1. VEGF-induced lung metastasis in MV165 is inhibited by MLN0128 and rapamycin. In conclusion, MLN0128 inhibits TORC1/2-dependent signaling in preclinical models of breast cancer. MLN0128 appears to be superior in blocking mTORC1/2 signaling in contrast to rapamycin. Our findings support the clinical research of MLN0128 in patients with breast cancer and metastasis.

  8. New binary and ternary platinum(II) formamidine complexes: Synthesis, characterization, structural studies and in-vitro antitumor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliman, Ahmed A.; Alajrawy, Othman I.; Attaby, Fawzy A.; Linert, W.

    2016-07-01

    A series of new binary and ternary platinum(II) complexes of the type [Pt(L1-4)Cl2].xH2O and [Pt(L1-4)ox].xH2O where L = formamidine ligands and ox = oxalate, have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility, UV-vis, infrared (IR), mass spectroscopy, thermal analysis and theoretical calculations. The spectroscopic data indicated that the formamidine ligands act as bidentate N2 donors. The complexes (1-8) are diamagnetic and the optimization of their structures indicated that the geometry is distorted square planar with Cl-Pt-Cl, O-Pt-O and N-Pt-N bond angles ranged 81.73°-95.82° which is acceptable for the heteroleptic complexes. The electronic energies (a.u.) of the complexes (-893.53 to -1989.84) indicate that the complexes are more stable than the ligands. The energies of the HOMO (-0.218 to -0.244) and LUMO (-.0111to -0.134) orbitals of the complexes were negative which indicates that the complexes are stable compounds. The dipole moment of the complexes (6.23-19.89 Debye) indicates that the complexes are polarized. The complexes are thermally stable as shown from their relatively higher overall activation energies (889-2066 kJ mol-1). The complexes are proved to have a good cytotoxicity with IC50 (μM) against MCF-7 (0.040-0.117), HCT-116 (0.085-0.119) and HepG-2 (0.058-0.131) cell lines, which open the field for further application as antitumor compounds.

  9. Biomarkers of sensitivity to potent and selective antitumor 2-(4-amino-3-methylphenyl)-5-fluorobenzothiazole (5F203) in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Callero, Mariana A; Luzzani, Gabriela A; De Dios, Diana O; Bradshaw, Tracey D; Perez, Andrea I Loaiza

    2013-10-01

    2-(4-Amino-3-methylphenyl)-5-fluorobenzothiazole (5F203, NSC 703786) lysylamide belongs to a novel mechanistic class of antitumor agents. It elicits activity against ovarian, breast, kidney and colorectal cancer models. In sensitive breast cancer cells, 5F203 activates aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling. Herein, we evaluate the role of AhR in 5F203 activity in two ovarian cancer cell lines: IGROV-1 (sensitive to 5F203), SKOV-3 (resistant to this agent). In addition, cancer cells have been isolated from ascites fluid of ovarian cancer patients; sensitivity to 5F203 and concurrent AhR signal transduction has been examined in ascites-isolated ovarian cancer patients' cells. 5F203 induced enhanced CYP1A1 expression, AhR translocation and ROS formation in IGROV-1 cells and ascites-isolated ovarian cancer cells that were sensitive to 5F203. In IGROV-1 cells 5F203-induced ROS formation was accompanied by JNK, ERK and P38MAPK phosphorylation, DNA damage and cell cycle arrest prior to apoptosis. In contrast, 5F203 failed to induce CYP1A1 expression, AhR translocation or oxidative stress in 5F203-resistant SKOV-3 cells, or in ovarian cancer ascites cells inherently resistant to this agent. We propose that AhR may represent a new molecular target in the treatment of ovarian tumors and 5F203 may exemplify a potential novel treatment. Furthermore, putative biomarkers of sensitivity to this agent have been identified.

  10. SCIB2, an antibody DNA vaccine encoding NY-ESO-1 epitopes, induces potent antitumor immunity which is further enhanced by checkpoint blockade

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Wei; Metheringham, Rachael L.; Brentville, Victoria A.; Gunn, Barbara; Symonds, Peter; Yagita, Hideo; Ramage, Judith M.; Durrant, Lindy G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Checkpoint blockade has demonstrated promising antitumor responses in approximately 10–40% of patients. However, the majority of patients do not make a productive immune response to their tumors and do not respond to checkpoint blockade. These patients may benefit from an effective vaccine that stimulates high-avidity T cell responses in combination with checkpoint blockade. We have previously shown that incorporating TRP-2 and gp100 epitopes into the CDR regions of a human IgG1 DNA (ImmunoBody®: IB) results in significant tumor regression both in animal models and patients. This vaccination strategy is superior to others as it targets antigen to antigen-presenting cells and stimulates high-avidity T cell responses. To broaden the application of this vaccination strategy, 16 NY-ESO-1 epitopes, covering over 80% of HLA phenotypes, were incorporated into the IB (SCIB2). They produced higher frequency and avidity T cell responses than peptide vaccination. These T cells were of sufficient avidity to kill NY-ESO-1-expressing tumor cells, and in vivo controlled the growth of established B16-NY-ESO-1 tumors, resulting in long-term survival (35%). When SCIB2 was given in combination with Treg depletion, CTLA-4 blockade or PD-1 blockade, long-term survival from established tumors was significantly enhanced to 56, 67 and 100%, respectively. Translating these responses into the clinic by using a combination of SCIB2 vaccination and checkpoint blockade can only further improve clinical responses. PMID:27471648

  11. Design, Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of Novel link-bridge and B-Ring Modified Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) Analogues as Potent Antitubulin Agents.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yong-Tao; Man, Ruo-Jun; Tang, Dan-Jie; Yao, Yong-Fang; Tao, Xiang-Xiang; Yu, Chen; Liang, Xin-Yi; Makawana, Jigar A; Zou, Mei-Juan; Wang, Zhong-Chang; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2016-01-01

    A series of 12 novel acylhydrazone, chalcone and amide-bridged analogues of combretastatin A-4 were designed and synthesized toward tubulin. All these compounds were determined by elemental analysis, (1)H NMR, and MS. Among them, compound 7 with acylhydrazone-bridge, bearing a benzyl at the indole-N position, was identified as a potent antiproliferative agent against a panel of cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 0.08 to 35.6 μM. In contrast, its cytotoxic effects on three normal human cells were minimal. Cellular studies have revealed that the induction of apoptosis by compound 7 was associated with a collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, alterations in the expression of some cell cycle-related proteins (Cyclin B1, Cdc25c, Cdc2, P21) and some apoptosis-related proteins (Bax, PARP, Bcl-2, Caspase3). The docking mode showed the binding posture of CA-4 and compound 7 are similar in the colchicine-binding pocket of tubulin, as confirmed by colchicine-tubulin competitive binding assay, tubulin polymerization inhibitory activity, extracellular protein expression determination assay and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. In vivo study, compound 7 effectively inhibited A549 xenograft tumor growth without causing significant loss of body weight suggesting that compound 7 is a promising new antimitotic agent with clinical potential.

  12. Design, Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of Novel link-bridge and B-Ring Modified Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) Analogues as Potent Antitubulin Agents

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Yong-Tao; Man, Ruo-Jun; Tang, Dan-Jie; Yao, Yong-Fang; Tao, Xiang-Xiang; Yu, Chen; Liang, Xin-Yi; Makawana, Jigar A.; Zou, Mei-Juan; Wang, Zhong-Chang; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2016-01-01

    A series of 12 novel acylhydrazone, chalcone and amide–bridged analogues of combretastatin A-4 were designed and synthesized toward tubulin. All these compounds were determined by elemental analysis, 1H NMR, and MS. Among them, compound 7 with acylhydrazone-bridge, bearing a benzyl at the indole-N position, was identified as a potent antiproliferative agent against a panel of cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 0.08 to 35.6 μM. In contrast, its cytotoxic effects on three normal human cells were minimal. Cellular studies have revealed that the induction of apoptosis by compound 7 was associated with a collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, alterations in the expression of some cell cycle-related proteins (Cyclin B1, Cdc25c, Cdc2, P21) and some apoptosis-related proteins (Bax, PARP, Bcl-2, Caspase3). The docking mode showed the binding posture of CA-4 and compound 7 are similar in the colchicine-binding pocket of tubulin, as confirmed by colchicine-tubulin competitive binding assay, tubulin polymerization inhibitory activity, extracellular protein expression determination assay and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. In vivo study, compound 7 effectively inhibited A549 xenograft tumor growth without causing significant loss of body weight suggesting that compound 7 is a promising new antimitotic agent with clinical potential. PMID:27138035

  13. Selective inhibition of EZH2 by ZLD1039 blocks H3K27methylation and leads to potent anti-tumor activity in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xuejiao; Gao, Tiantao; Wang, Ningyu; Feng, Qiang; You, Xinyu; Ye, Tinghong; Lei, Qian; Zhu, Yongxia; Xiong, Menghua; Xia, Yong; Yang, Fangfang; Shi, Yaojie; Wei, Yuquan; Zhang, Lidan; Yu, Luoting

    2016-01-01

    Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a candidate oncogenic driver due to its prevalent overexpression and aberrant repression of tumor suppressor genes in diverse cancers. Therefore, blocking EZH2 enzyme activity may present a valid therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancers with EZH2 overexpression including breast cancers. Here, we described ZLD1039 a potent, highly selective, and orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitor of EZH2, which inhibited breast tumor growth and metastasis. ZLD1039 considerably inhibited EZH2 methyltransferase activity with nanomolar potency, decreased global histone-3 lysine-27 (H3K27) methylation, and reactivated silenced tumor suppressors connected to increased survival of patients with breast cancer. Comparable to conditional silencing of EZH2, its inhibition by ZLD1039 decreased cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest, and induced apoptosis. Comparably, treatment of xenograft-bearing mice with ZLD1039 led to tumor growth regression and metastasis inhibition. These data confirmed the dependency of breast cancer progression on EZH2 activity and the usefulness of ZLD1039 as a promising treatment for breast cancer. PMID:26868841

  14. Design, Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of Novel link-bridge and B-Ring Modified Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) Analogues as Potent Antitubulin Agents.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yong-Tao; Man, Ruo-Jun; Tang, Dan-Jie; Yao, Yong-Fang; Tao, Xiang-Xiang; Yu, Chen; Liang, Xin-Yi; Makawana, Jigar A; Zou, Mei-Juan; Wang, Zhong-Chang; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2016-01-01

    A series of 12 novel acylhydrazone, chalcone and amide-bridged analogues of combretastatin A-4 were designed and synthesized toward tubulin. All these compounds were determined by elemental analysis, (1)H NMR, and MS. Among them, compound 7 with acylhydrazone-bridge, bearing a benzyl at the indole-N position, was identified as a potent antiproliferative agent against a panel of cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 0.08 to 35.6 μM. In contrast, its cytotoxic effects on three normal human cells were minimal. Cellular studies have revealed that the induction of apoptosis by compound 7 was associated with a collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, alterations in the expression of some cell cycle-related proteins (Cyclin B1, Cdc25c, Cdc2, P21) and some apoptosis-related proteins (Bax, PARP, Bcl-2, Caspase3). The docking mode showed the binding posture of CA-4 and compound 7 are similar in the colchicine-binding pocket of tubulin, as confirmed by colchicine-tubulin competitive binding assay, tubulin polymerization inhibitory activity, extracellular protein expression determination assay and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. In vivo study, compound 7 effectively inhibited A549 xenograft tumor growth without causing significant loss of body weight suggesting that compound 7 is a promising new antimitotic agent with clinical potential. PMID:27138035

  15. Synthesis, crystal structure and antitumor effect of a novel copper(II) complex bearing zoledronic acid derivative.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ling; Lv, Gaochao; Guo, Liubin; Chen, Liping; Luo, Shineng; Zou, Meifen; Lin, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    A great majority of Cu(II) complexes currently studied in the anticancer research field exert their antiproliferative activities through ligand exchange. In this work, we present the synthesis and structural characterization of two novel Cu(II) complexes, {[Cu3(ZL)2(H2O)6]·6H2O}n (1) (ZL = 1-hydroxy-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethane-1,1-diyldiphosphonic acid) and [Cu(IPrDP)2]·3H2O (2) (IPrDP = 1-hydroxy-3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propane-1,1-diyldiphosphonic acid). Due to the insolubility of polymer 1 in common solvents, only the biological activities of complex 2 were investigated. The antitumor activity of complex 2 was evaluated against a panel of human cancer cell lines, including U2OS, A549, HCT116, MDA-MB-231 and HepG2. Complex 2 exhibited comparable cytotoxic effect to cisplatin (CDDP) against the human colon carcinoma cells HCT116, and superior selectivity for inhibiting human hepatocarcinoma cells rather than normal liver cells. The cell cycle distribution analysis indicates that complex 2 inhibits human carcinoma cells by inducing the cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, showing a similar mechanism of action to that of CDDP. The binding interaction of complex 2 with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) has been explored by UV-vis absorption and circular dichroism (CD), demonstrating complex 2 has a moderate binding affinity for DNA through intercalation.

  16. Synthesis, spectral, antimicrobial and antitumor assessment of Schiff base derived from 2-aminobenzothiazole and its transition metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etaiw, Safaa Eldin H.; Abd El-Aziz, Dina M.; Abd El-Zaher, Eman H.; Ali, Elham A.

    2011-09-01

    N-(thiophen-2-ylmethylene)benzo[ d]thiazol-2-amine Schiff base (L) derived from 2-aminobenzothiazole and 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde was synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis, IR, mass spectra, 1H NMR and UV-vis spectra. Its complexes with Cu(II), Fe(III), Ni(II) and Zn(II) were prepared and isolated as solid products and characterized by elemental and thermal analyses, spectral techniques as well as magnetic susceptibility. The IR spectra showed that the Schiff base under investigation behaves as bidentate ligand. The UV-vis spectra and magnetic moment data suggested octahedral geometry around Cu(II) and Fe(III) and tetrahedral geometry around Ni(II) and Zn(II). In view of the biological activity of the Schiff base and its complexes, it has been observed that the antimicrobial activity of the Schiff base increased on complexation with the metal ion. In vitro antitumor activity assayed against five human tumor cell lines furnished the significant toxicities of the Schiff base and its complexes.

  17. Real-time in situ monitoring via europium emission of the photo-release of antitumor cisplatin from a Eu-Pt complex.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongguang; Lan, Rongfeng; Chan, Chi-Fai; Jiang, Lijun; Dai, Lixiong; Kwong, Daniel W J; Lam, Michael Hon-Wah; Wong, Ka-Leung

    2015-09-25

    A water-soluble light-responsive antitumor agent, PtEuL, based on a cisplatin-linked europium-cyclen complex has been synthesized and evaluated for controlled cisplatin release by linear/two-photon excitation in vitro with concomitant turn-on and long-lived europium emission as a responsive traceable signal.

  18. Synthesis and antitumor mechanisms of a copper(II) complex of anthracene-9-imidazoline hydrazone (9-AIH).

    PubMed

    Qin, Qi-Pin; Liu, Yan-Cheng; Wang, Hai-Lu; Qin, Jiao-Lan; Cheng, Feng-Jie; Tang, Shang-Feng; Liang, Hong

    2015-07-01

    A new anthracycline derivative, anthracene-9-imidazoline hydrazone (9-AIH), was synthesized and selected as an antitumor ligand to afford a copper(II) complex of 9-AIH, cis-[Cu(II)Cl2(9-AIH)] (1). Complex 1 was structurally characterized by IR, elemental analysis, ESI-MS and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. By MTT assay, it was revealed that 1 showed overall a higher in vitro cytotoxicity than 9-AIH towards a panel of human tumour cell lines, with IC50 values from 0.94–3.68 μM, in which the BEL-7404 cell line was the most sensitive to 1. By spectral analyses and gel electrophoresis, the DNA binding affinity of 9-AIH and 1 was determined. 9-AIH was suggested to bind with DNA in an intercalative mode, with a quenching constant of 1.04 × 10(4) M(−1) on the EB–DNA complex. While for 1, both intercalative and covalent binding modes were suggested. By flow cytometry, 1 was found to block the cell cycle of BEL-7404 cells in a dose-dependent mode, in which it induced the G2/M phase arrest at 0.5 μM and induced the S phase arrest at higher concentrations of 1.0 or 2.0 μM. From the cellular morphological observations under different fluorescence probe staining, a dose-dependent manner of 1 to induce cell apoptosis in the late stage was suggested. Comparatively, equivalent apoptotic cells, respectively, in the early and late stages were found when incubated with 2.0 μM of 9-AIH. The mitochondrial membrane potential measured by JC-1 staining and the ROS generation in cells detected using a DCFH-DA probe suggested that the cell apoptosis induced by 1 might undergo the ROS-related mitochondrial pathway. Accordingly, the mutant p53 expression was found to be suppressed and the caspase cascade (caspase-9/3) was consequently activated by 1. This action mechanism for 1 in the BEL-7404 cells was unique and was not found in the presence of 9-AIH under the same conditions, indicating their different antitumor mechanism. Furthermore, the in vivo acute toxicity of 1

  19. Humanized Affinity-matured Monoclonal Antibody 8H9 Has Potent Antitumor Activity and Binds to FG Loop of Tumor Antigen B7-H3.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mahiuddin; Cheng, Ming; Zhao, Qi; Goldgur, Yehuda; Cheal, Sarah M; Guo, Hong-fen; Larson, Steven M; Cheung, Nai-kong V

    2015-12-11

    B7-H3 (CD276) is both an inhibitory ligand for natural killer cells and T cells and a tumor antigen that is widely expressed among human solid tumors. Anti-B7-H3 mouse monoclonal antibody 8H9 has been successfully used for radioimmunotherapy for patients with B7-H3(+) tumors. We present the humanization, affinity maturation, and epitope mapping of 8H9 based on structure determination, modeling, and yeast display methods. The crystal structure of ch8H9 Fab fragment was solved to 2.5-Å resolution and used as a template for humanization. By displaying the humanized 8H9 single chain Fv (scFv) on the surface of yeast, the affinity was matured by sequential random mutagenesis and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Six mutations (three in the complementarity-determining region and three in the framework regions) were identified and incorporated into an affinity-matured humanized 8H9 construct (hu8H9-6m) and an affinity-matured chimeric 8H9 construct (ch8H9-6m). The hu8H9-6m scFv had a 160-fold improvement in affinity (0.9 nm KD) compared with parental hu8H9 scFv (144 nm KD). The IgG formats of ch8H9-6m and hu8H9-6m (nanomolar to subnanomolar KD) had 2-9-fold enhancements in affinity compared with their parental forms, potent in vitro antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (0.1-0.3 μg/ml EC50), and high tumor uptake in mouse xenografts. Based on in silico docking studies and experimental validation, the molecular epitope of 8H9 was determined to be dependent on the FG loop of B7-H3, a region critical to its function in immunologic blockade and unique among anti-B7-H3 antibodies published to date. PMID:26487718

  20. Synthesis and characterisation of thiosemicarbazonato molybdenum(VI) complexes and their in vitro antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Vrdoljak, Visnja; Dilović, Ivica; Rubcić, Mirta; Kraljević Pavelić, Sandra; Kralj, Marijeta; Matković-Calogović, Dubravka; Piantanida, Ivo; Novak, Predrag; Rozman, Andrea; Cindrić, Marina

    2010-01-01

    New dioxomolybdenum(VI) complexes were obtained by the reaction of [MoO2(acac)2] with thiosemicarbazone ligands derived from 3-thiosemicarbazide and 4-(diethylamino)salicylaldehyde (H2L1), 2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (H2L2) or 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde (H2L3). In all complexes thiosemicarbazonato ligands are coordinated to molybdenum as tridentate ONS-donors. Octahedral coordination of each molybdenum atom is completed by methanol molecule (in 1a-3a) or by oxygen atom of Mo=O unit from the neighbouring molecule (in 1-3). All complexes were characterized by means of chemical analyses, IR spectroscopy, TG and NMR measurements. The molecular structures of the ligand H2L2 and complex [MoO2L2(CH3OH)].CH3OH (2a) have been determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. The characterisation of thiosemicarbazonato molybdenum(VI) complexes (1-4) as well as of the 4-phenylthisemicarbazonato molybdenum(VI) complexes (5-8) in aqueous medium revealed that upon dissolving complexes in water, most likely to some extent dissociation took place, although experimental data didn't allow exact quantification of dissociation. The antiproliferative effects of studied molybdenum(VI) complexes (1-8) on the human cell lines were identical to the activity of their corresponding ligands.

  1. Complex secondary metabolites from Ludwigia leptocarpa with potent antibacterial and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Mabou, Florence Déclaire; Tamokou, Jean-de-Dieu; Ngnokam, David; Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Laurence; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Bag, Prasanta Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Diarrhea continues to be one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality among infants and children in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of extracts and compounds from Ludwigia leptocarpa, a plant traditionally used for its vermifugal, anti-dysenteric, and antimicrobial properties. A methanol extract was prepared by maceration of the dried plant and this was successively extracted with ethyl acetate to obtain an EtOAc extract and with n-butanol to obtain an n-BuOH extract. Column chromatography of the EtOAc and n-BuOH extracts was followed by purification of different fractions, leading to the isolation of 10 known compounds. Structures of isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of spectral analysis and by comparison to structures of compounds described in the literature. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and gallic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (GAEAC) assays. Antibacterial activity was assessed with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) with respect to strains of a Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus (a major cause of community and hospital-associated infection), and Gram-negative multi-drug-resistant bacteria, Vibrio cholerae (a cause of cholera) and Shigella flexneri (a cause of shigellosis). All of the extracts showed different degrees of antioxidant and antibacterial activities. 2β-hydroxyoleanolic acid, (2R,3S,2''S)-3''',4',4''',5,5'',7,7''-heptahydroxy-3,8"-biflavanone, and luteolin-8-C-glucoside displayed the most potent antibacterial and antioxidant properties, and these properties were in some cases equal to or more potent than those of reference drugs. Overall, the present results show that L. leptocarpa has the potential to be a natural source of anti-diarrheal and antioxidant products, so further investigation is warranted. PMID:27431270

  2. Group 11 complexes with amino acid derivatives: Synthesis and antitumoral studies.

    PubMed

    Ortego, Lourdes; Meireles, Margarida; Kasper, Cornelia; Laguna, Antonio; Villacampa, M Dolores; Gimeno, M Concepción

    2016-03-01

    Gold(I), gold(III), silver(I) and copper(I) complexes with modified amino acid esters and phosphine ligands have been prepared in order to test their cytotoxic activity. Two different phosphine fragments, PPh3 and PPh2py (py=pyridine), have been used. The amino acid esters have been modified by introducing an aromatic amine as pyridine that coordinates metal fragments through the nitrogen atom, giving complexes of the type [M(L)(PR3)](+) or [AuCl3(L)] (L=l-valine-N-(4-pyridylcarbonyl) methyl ester (L1), l-alanine-N-(4-pyridylcarbonyl) methyl ester (L2), l-phenylalanine-N-(4-pyridylcarbonyl) methyl-ester) (L3); M=Au(I), Ag(I), Cu(I), PR3=PPh3, PPh2py). The in vitro cytotoxic activity of metal complexes was tested against four tumor human cell lines and one tumor mouse cell line. A metabolic activity test (3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, MTT) was used and IC50 values were compared with those obtained for cisplatin. Several complexes displayed significant cytotoxic activities. In order to determine whether antiproliferation and cell death are associated with apoptosis, NIH-3T3 cells were exposed to five selected complexes (Annexin V+ FITC, PI) and analyzed by flow cytometry. These experiments showed that the mechanism by which the complexes inhibit cell proliferation inducing cell death in NIH-3T3 cells is mainly apoptotic.

  3. Endoplasmic reticulum chaperone glucose regulated protein 170-Pokemon complexes elicit a robust antitumor immune response in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bangqing; Xian, Ronghua; Wu, Xianqu; Jing, Junjie; Chen, Kangning; Liu, Guojun; Zhou, Zhenhua

    2012-07-01

    Previous evidence suggested that the stress protein grp170 can function as a highly efficient molecular chaperone, binding to large protein substrates and acting as a potent vaccine against specific tumors when purified from the same tumor. In addition, Pokemon can be found in almost all malignant tumor cells and is regarded to be a promising candidate for the treatment of tumors. However, the potential of the grp170-Pokemon chaperone complex has not been well described. In the present study, the natural chaperone complex between grp170 and the Pokemon was formed by heat shock, and its immunogenicity was detected by ELISPOT and (51)Cr-release assays in vitro and by tumor bearing models in vivo. Our results demonstrated that the grp170-Pokemon chaperone complex could elicit T cell responses as determined by ELISPOT and (51)Cr-release assays. In addition, immunized C57BL/6 mice were challenged with subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of Lewis cancer cells to induce primary tumors. Treatment of mice with the grp170-Pokemon chaperone complex also significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the life span of tumor-bearing mice. Our results indicated that the grp170-Pokemon chaperone complex might represent a powerful approach to tumor immunotherapy and have significant potential for clinical application. PMID:22317751

  4. Endoplasmic reticulum chaperone glucose regulated protein 170-Pokemon complexes elicit a robust antitumor immune response in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bangqing; Xian, Ronghua; Wu, Xianqu; Jing, Junjie; Chen, Kangning; Liu, Guojun; Zhou, Zhenhua

    2012-07-01

    Previous evidence suggested that the stress protein grp170 can function as a highly efficient molecular chaperone, binding to large protein substrates and acting as a potent vaccine against specific tumors when purified from the same tumor. In addition, Pokemon can be found in almost all malignant tumor cells and is regarded to be a promising candidate for the treatment of tumors. However, the potential of the grp170-Pokemon chaperone complex has not been well described. In the present study, the natural chaperone complex between grp170 and the Pokemon was formed by heat shock, and its immunogenicity was detected by ELISPOT and (51)Cr-release assays in vitro and by tumor bearing models in vivo. Our results demonstrated that the grp170-Pokemon chaperone complex could elicit T cell responses as determined by ELISPOT and (51)Cr-release assays. In addition, immunized C57BL/6 mice were challenged with subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of Lewis cancer cells to induce primary tumors. Treatment of mice with the grp170-Pokemon chaperone complex also significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the life span of tumor-bearing mice. Our results indicated that the grp170-Pokemon chaperone complex might represent a powerful approach to tumor immunotherapy and have significant potential for clinical application.

  5. Synthesis and antitumor activity of a series of osmium(VI) nitrido complexes bearing quinolinolato ligands.

    PubMed

    Tang, Quan; Ni, Wen-Xiu; Leung, Chi-Fai; Man, Wai-Lun; Lau, Kenneth King-Kwan; Liang, Yimin; Lam, Yun-Wah; Wong, Wai-Yeung; Peng, Shie-Ming; Liu, Gui-Jian; Lau, Tai-Chu

    2013-11-01

    A series of osmium(VI) nitrido complexes supported by quinolinolato ligands have been prepared and they exhibit promising in vitro anti-cancer activities. These results establish that Os(VI)≡N is a potentially versatile and promising platform for the design of a variety of high-valent anti-cancer drugs.

  6. Interaction of antitumor alpha-lactalbumin-oleic acid complexes with artificial and natural membranes.

    PubMed

    Zherelova, Olga M; Kataev, Anatoly A; Grishchenko, Valery M; Knyazeva, Ekaterina L; Permyakov, Sergei E; Permyakov, Eugene A

    2009-06-01

    The specific complexes of human alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA) with oleic acid (OA), HAMLET and LA-OA-17 (OA-complexes), possess cytotoxic activity against tumor cells but the mechanism of their cell penetration remains unclear. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying interaction of the OA-complexes with the cell membrane, their interactions with small unilamellar dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) vesicles and electroexcitable plasma membrane of internodal native and perfused cells of the green alga Chara corallina have been studied. The fractionation (Sephadex G-200) of mixtures of the OA-complexes with the vesicles shows that OA-binding increases the affinity of alpha-LA to DPPC vesicles. Calcium association decreases protein affinity to the vesicles; the effect being less pronounced for LA-OA-17. The voltage clamp technique studies show that LA-OA-17, HAMLET, and their constituents produce different modifying effects on the plasmalemmal ionic channels of the Chara corallina cells. The irreversible binding of OA-complexes to the plasmalemma is accompanied by changes in the activation-inactivation kinetics of developing integral transmembrane currents, suppression of the Ca(2+) current and Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current, and by increase in the nonspecific K(+) leakage currents. The latter reflects development of nonselective permeability of the plasma membrane. The HAMLET-induced effects on the plasmalemmal currents are less pronounced and potentiated by LA-OA-17. The control experiments with OA and intact alpha-LA show their qualitatively different and much less pronounced effects on the transmembrane ionic currents. Thus, the modification of alpha-LA by OA results in an increase in the protein association with the model lipid bilayer and in drastic irreversible changes in permeability of several types of the plasmalemmal ionic channels.

  7. Interaction of antitumor alpha-lactalbumin-oleic acid complexes with artificial and natural membranes.

    PubMed

    Zherelova, Olga M; Kataev, Anatoly A; Grishchenko, Valery M; Knyazeva, Ekaterina L; Permyakov, Sergei E; Permyakov, Eugene A

    2009-06-01

    The specific complexes of human alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA) with oleic acid (OA), HAMLET and LA-OA-17 (OA-complexes), possess cytotoxic activity against tumor cells but the mechanism of their cell penetration remains unclear. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying interaction of the OA-complexes with the cell membrane, their interactions with small unilamellar dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) vesicles and electroexcitable plasma membrane of internodal native and perfused cells of the green alga Chara corallina have been studied. The fractionation (Sephadex G-200) of mixtures of the OA-complexes with the vesicles shows that OA-binding increases the affinity of alpha-LA to DPPC vesicles. Calcium association decreases protein affinity to the vesicles; the effect being less pronounced for LA-OA-17. The voltage clamp technique studies show that LA-OA-17, HAMLET, and their constituents produce different modifying effects on the plasmalemmal ionic channels of the Chara corallina cells. The irreversible binding of OA-complexes to the plasmalemma is accompanied by changes in the activation-inactivation kinetics of developing integral transmembrane currents, suppression of the Ca(2+) current and Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current, and by increase in the nonspecific K(+) leakage currents. The latter reflects development of nonselective permeability of the plasma membrane. The HAMLET-induced effects on the plasmalemmal currents are less pronounced and potentiated by LA-OA-17. The control experiments with OA and intact alpha-LA show their qualitatively different and much less pronounced effects on the transmembrane ionic currents. Thus, the modification of alpha-LA by OA results in an increase in the protein association with the model lipid bilayer and in drastic irreversible changes in permeability of several types of the plasmalemmal ionic channels. PMID:19588235

  8. Conjugates of ferrocene with biological compounds. Coordination to gold complexes and antitumoral properties.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, M Concepción; Goitia, Helen; Laguna, Antonio; Luque, M Elvira; Villacampa, M Dolores; Sepúlveda, Catarina; Meireles, Margarida

    2011-11-01

    Several bioconjugates of ferrocene with biological compounds such as aminoacid esters and related species have been prepared by reaction of chlorocarbonyl ferrocene with the corresponding amino acid ester (histidine methyl ester, tryptophan methyl ester, methionine methyl ester and lysine ethyl ester) or histamine or prolinamide in the presence of NEt(3). The reaction of the tryptophan or prolinamide ferrocene conjugates with [Au(acac)(PR(3))] (acac=acetylacetonate) results in the substitution of the proton of the cyclic NH groups by the fragment AuPR(3)(+) affording the complexes [Au(FcCO-tryptophan-OMe)(PR(3))] or [Au(FcCO-prolinamide)(PR(3))] (Fc=ferrocenyl group). The reaction of FcCO-Met-OMe with [Au(OTf)(PR(3))] (OTF=trifluoromethysulfonate) or [Au(C(6)F(5))(3)(OEt(2))] yields the gold(I) or gold(III) derivatives [Au(FcCO-Met-OMe)(PR(3))]OTf or [Au(C(6)F(5))(3)(FcCO-Met-OMe)], respectively. Cytotoxicity studies towards several cancer lines such as MCF-7, HeLa or NIE-115 have been performed. The ferrocene bioconjugates show no activity whereas the gold complexes exhibit antiproliferative effect. Preliminary studies of interaction of compounds with cells were carried out with the goal of increasing our knowledge on the mechanism of action of these potential drugs.

  9. Verteporfin, a suppressor of YAP–TEAD complex, presents promising antitumor properties on ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Juntao; Gou, Jinhai; Jia, Jia; Yi, Tao; Cui, Tao; Li, Zhengyu

    2016-01-01

    Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a key transcriptional coactivator of Hippo pathway and has been shown to be an oncoprotein in ovarian cancer (OC). Verteporfin (VP), clinically used in photodynamic therapy for neovascular macular degeneration, has been recently proven to be a suppressor of YAP–TEAD complex and has shown potential in anticancer treatment. In this study, we aimed to explore the potential effect of VP in the treatment of OC. Our results showed that VP led to inhibition of proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner and to the suppression of migratory and invasive capacities of OC cells. Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that VP induced YAP cytoplasmic retention and deregulated inducible YAP and CCNs in OC cells. In vivo, VP exerted a significant effect on tumor growth in OVCAR8 xenograft mice, resulting in tumor nodules with lower average weight and reduced volume of gross ascites. In addition, VP treatment remarkably upregulated cytoplasmic YAP and phosphorylation YAP and downregulated CCN1 and CCN2, but exerted little effect on YAP-upstream components in Hippo pathway. In conclusion, our results suggested that VP may be a promising agent for OC, acting by suppressing YAP–TEAD complex.

  10. Verteporfin, a suppressor of YAP-TEAD complex, presents promising antitumor properties on ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Feng, Juntao; Gou, Jinhai; Jia, Jia; Yi, Tao; Cui, Tao; Li, Zhengyu

    2016-01-01

    Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a key transcriptional coactivator of Hippo pathway and has been shown to be an oncoprotein in ovarian cancer (OC). Verteporfin (VP), clinically used in photodynamic therapy for neovascular macular degeneration, has been recently proven to be a suppressor of YAP-TEAD complex and has shown potential in anticancer treatment. In this study, we aimed to explore the potential effect of VP in the treatment of OC. Our results showed that VP led to inhibition of proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner and to the suppression of migratory and invasive capacities of OC cells. Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that VP induced YAP cytoplasmic retention and deregulated inducible YAP and CCNs in OC cells. In vivo, VP exerted a significant effect on tumor growth in OVCAR8 xenograft mice, resulting in tumor nodules with lower average weight and reduced volume of gross ascites. In addition, VP treatment remarkably upregulated cytoplasmic YAP and phosphorylation YAP and downregulated CCN1 and CCN2, but exerted little effect on YAP-upstream components in Hippo pathway. In conclusion, our results suggested that VP may be a promising agent for OC, acting by suppressing YAP-TEAD complex. PMID:27621651

  11. Verteporfin, a suppressor of YAP–TEAD complex, presents promising antitumor properties on ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Juntao; Gou, Jinhai; Jia, Jia; Yi, Tao; Cui, Tao; Li, Zhengyu

    2016-01-01

    Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a key transcriptional coactivator of Hippo pathway and has been shown to be an oncoprotein in ovarian cancer (OC). Verteporfin (VP), clinically used in photodynamic therapy for neovascular macular degeneration, has been recently proven to be a suppressor of YAP–TEAD complex and has shown potential in anticancer treatment. In this study, we aimed to explore the potential effect of VP in the treatment of OC. Our results showed that VP led to inhibition of proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner and to the suppression of migratory and invasive capacities of OC cells. Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that VP induced YAP cytoplasmic retention and deregulated inducible YAP and CCNs in OC cells. In vivo, VP exerted a significant effect on tumor growth in OVCAR8 xenograft mice, resulting in tumor nodules with lower average weight and reduced volume of gross ascites. In addition, VP treatment remarkably upregulated cytoplasmic YAP and phosphorylation YAP and downregulated CCN1 and CCN2, but exerted little effect on YAP-upstream components in Hippo pathway. In conclusion, our results suggested that VP may be a promising agent for OC, acting by suppressing YAP–TEAD complex. PMID:27621651

  12. Structure-activity relationships for organometallic osmium arene phenylazopyridine complexes with potent anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ying; Habtemariam, Abraha; Basri, Aida M B H; Braddick, Darren; Clarkson, Guy J; Sadler, Peter J

    2011-10-28

    We report the synthesis and characterisation of 32 half sandwich phenylazopyridine Os(II) arene complexes [Os(η(6)-arene)(phenylazopyridine)X](+) in which X is chloride or iodide, the arene is p-cymene or biphenyl and the pyridine and phenyl rings contain a variety of substituents (F, Cl, Br, I, CF(3), OH or NO(2)). Ten X-ray crystal structures have been determined. Cytotoxicity towards A2780 human ovarian cancer cells ranges from high potency at nanomolar concentrations to inactivity. In general the introduction of an electron-withdrawing group (e.g. F, Cl, Br or I) at specific positions on the pyridine ring significantly increases cytotoxic activity and aqueous solubility. Changing the arene from p-cymene to biphenyl and the monodentate ligand X from chloride to iodide also increases the activity significantly. Activation by hydrolysis and DNA binding appears not to be the major mechanism of action since both the highly active complex [Os(η(6)-bip)(2-F-azpy)I]PF(6) (9) and the moderately active complex [Os(η(6)-bip)(3-Cl-azpy)I]PF(6) (23) are very stable and inert towards aquation. Studies of octanol-water partition coefficients (log P) and subcellular distributions of osmium in A2780 human ovarian cancer cells suggested that cell uptake and targeting to cellular organelles play important roles in determining activity. Although complex 9 induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in A2780 cells, the ROS level did not appear to play a role in the mechanism of anticancer activity. This class of organometallic osmium complexes has new and unusual features worthy of further exploration for the design of novel anticancer drugs.

  13. Structural basis of sialidase in complex with geranylated flavonoids as potent natural inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youngjin; Ryu, Young Bae; Youn, Hyung-Seop; Cho, Jung Keun; Kim, Young Min; Park, Ji-Young; Lee, Woo Song; Park, Ki Hun; Eom, Soo Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Sialidase catalyzes the removal of a terminal sialic acid from glycoconjugates and plays a pivotal role in nutrition, cellular interactions and pathogenesis mediating various infectious diseases including cholera, influenza and sepsis. An array of antiviral sialidase agents have been developed and are commercially available, such as zanamivir and oseltamivir for treating influenza. However, the development of bacterial sialidase inhibitors has been much less successful. Here, natural polyphenolic geranylated flavonoids which show significant inhibitory effects against Cp-NanI, a sialidase from Clostridium perfringens, are reported. This bacterium causes various gastrointestinal diseases. The crystal structure of the Cp-NanI catalytic domain in complex with the best inhibitor, diplacone, is also presented. This structure explains how diplacone generates a stable enzyme–inhibitor complex. These results provide a structural framework for understanding the interaction between sialidase and natural flavonoids, which are promising scaffolds on which to discover new anti-sialidase agents. PMID:24816104

  14. Breast Cancer Stem Cell Potent Copper(II)-Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Complexes.

    PubMed

    Boodram, Janine N; Mcgregor, Iain J; Bruno, Peter M; Cressey, Paul B; Hemann, Michael T; Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan

    2016-02-18

    The breast cancer stem cell (CSC) potency of a series of copper(II)-phenanthroline complexes containing the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), indomethacin, is reported. The most effective copper(II) complex in this series, 4, selectivity kills breast CSC-enriched HMLER-shEcad cells over breast CSC-depleted HMLER cells. Furthermore, 4 reduces the formation, size, and viability of mammospheres, to a greater extent than salinomycin, a potassium ionophore known to selectively inhibit CSCs. Mechanistic studies revealed that the CSC-specificity observed for 4 arises from its ability to generate intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an enzyme that is overexpressed in breast CSCs. The former induces DNA damage, activates JNK and p38 pathways, and leads to apoptosis.

  15. A breast cancer stem cell-selective, mammospheres-potent osmium(VI) nitrido complex.

    PubMed

    Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan; Lin, Wei; Johnstone, Timothy C; Bruno, Peter M; Zheng, Yao-Rong; Hemann, Michael T; Lippard, Stephen J

    2014-10-15

    The effect of a newly developed osmium(VI) nitrido complex, 1, on breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) is reported. The complex displays selective toxicity for HMLER breast cancer cells enriched with CD44-positive, CSC-like cells over the same cells having reduced CSC character. Remarkably, 1 also reduces the proportion of CSCs within a heterogeneous breast cancer cell population and irreversibly inhibits the formation of free-floating mammospheres to an extent similar to that of salinomycin, a natural product that targets CSCs. Detailed mechanistic studies reveal that in breast cancer cells 1 induces DNA damage and endoplasmic reticulum stress, the latter being responsible for the CSC selectivity. The anti-CSC properties of 1 provide a strong impetus for the development of new metal-based compounds to target CSCs and to treat chemotherapy-resistant and relapsed tumors.

  16. Human transthyretin in complex with iododiflunisal: structural features associated with a potent amyloid inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Ex vivo and in vitro studies have revealed the remarkable amyloid inhibitory potency and specificity of iododiflunisal in relation to transthyretin [Almeida, Macedo, Cardoso, Alves, Valencia, Arsequell, Planas and Saraiva (2004) Biochem. J. 381, 351–356], a protein implicated in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy. In the present paper, the crystal structure of transthyretin complexed with this diflunisal derivative is reported, which enables a detailed analysis of the protein–ligand interactions. Iododiflunisal binds very deep in the hormone-binding channel. The iodine substituent is tightly anchored into a pocket of the binding site and the fluorine atoms provide extra hydrophobic contacts with the protein. The carboxylate substituent is involved in an electrostatic interaction with the Nζ of a lysine residue. Moreover, ligand-induced conformational alterations in the side chain of some residues result in the formation of new intersubunit hydrogen bonds. All these new interactions, induced by iododiflunisal, increase the stability of the tetramer impairing the formation of amyloid fibrils. The crystal structure of this complex opens perspectives for the design of more specific and effective drugs for familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy patients. PMID:15689188

  17. Crystal Structure of Checkpoint Kinase 2 in Complex with Nsc 109555, a Potent and Selective Inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Lountos, George T.; Tropea, Joseph E.; Zhang, Di; Jobson, Andrew G.; Pommier, Yves; Shoemaker, Robert H.; Waugh, David S.

    2009-03-05

    Checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2), a ser/thr kinase involved in the ATM-Chk2 checkpoint pathway, is activated by genomic instability and DNA damage and results in either arrest of the cell cycle to allow DNA repair to occur or apoptosis if the DNA damage is severe. Drugs that specifically target Chk2 could be beneficial when administered in combination with current DNA-damaging agents used in cancer therapy. Recently, a novel inhibitor of Chk2, NSC 109555, was identified that exhibited high potency (IC{sub 50} = 240 nM) and selectivity. This compound represents a new chemotype and lead for the development of novel Chk2 inhibitors that could be used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer. To facilitate the discovery of new analogs of NSC 109555 with even greater potency and selectivity, we have solved the crystal structure of this inhibitor in complex with the catalytic domain of Chk2. The structure confirms that the compound is an ATP-competitive inhibitor, as the electron density clearly reveals that it occupies the ATP-binding pocket. However, the mode of inhibition differs from that of the previously studied structure of Chk2 in complex with debromohymenialdisine, a compound that inhibits both Chk1 and Chk2. A unique hydrophobic pocket in Chk2, located very close to the bound inhibitor, presents an opportunity for the rational design of compounds with higher binding affinity and greater selectivity.

  18. Structural characterization of more potent alternatives to HAMLET, a tumoricidal complex of α-lactalbumin and oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Nemashkalova, Ekaterina L; Kazakov, Alexei S; Khasanova, Leysan M; Permyakov, Eugene A; Permyakov, Sergei E

    2013-09-10

    HAMLET is a complex of human α-lactalbumin (hLA) with oleic acid (OA) that kills various tumor cells and strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. More potent protein-OA complexes were previously reported for bovine α-lactalbumin (bLA) and β-lactoglobulin (bLG), and pike parvalbumin (pPA), and here we explore their structural features. The concentration dependencies of the tryptophan fluorescence of hLA, bLA, and bLG complexes with OA reveal their disintegration at protein concentrations below the micromolar level. Chemical cross-linking experiments provide evidence that association with OA shifts the distribution of oligomeric forms of hLA, bLA, bLG, and pPA toward higher-order oligomers. This effect is confirmed for bLA and bLG using the dynamic light scattering method, while pPA is shown to associate with OA vesicles. Like hLA binding, OA binding increases the affinity of bLG for small unilamellar dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles, while pPA efficiently binds to the vesicles irrespective of OA binding. The association of OA with bLG and pPA increases their α-helix and cross-β-sheet content and resistance to enzymatic proteolysis, which is indicative of OA-induced protein structuring. The lack of excess heat sorption during melting of bLG and pPA in complex with OA and the presence of a cooperative thermal transition at the level of their secondary structure suggest that the OA-bound forms of bLG and pPA lack a fixed tertiary structure but exhibit a continuous thermal transition. Overall, despite marked differences, the HAMLET-like complexes that were studied exhibit a common feature: a tendency toward protein oligomerization. Because OA-induced oligomerization has been reported for other proteins, this phenomenon is inherent to many proteins.

  19. Structure-activity relationship for Fe(III)-salen-like complexes as potent anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Ghanbari, Zahra; Housaindokht, Mohammad R; Izadyar, Mohammad; Bozorgmehr, Mohammad R; Eshtiagh-Hosseini, Hossein; Bahrami, Ahmad R; Matin, Maryam M; Khoshkholgh, Maliheh Javan

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) for the anticancer activity of Fe(III)-salen and salen-like complexes was studied. The methods of density function theory (B3LYP/LANL2DZ) were used to optimize the structures. A pool of descriptors was calculated: 1497 theoretical descriptors and quantum-chemical parameters, shielding NMR, and electronic descriptors. The study of structure and activity relationship was performed with multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN). In nonlinear method, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was applied in order to choose the most effective descriptors. The ANN-ANFIS model with high statistical significance (R (2) train = 0.99, RMSE = 0.138, and Q (2) LOO = 0.82) has better capability to predict the anticancer activity of the new compounds series of this family. Based on this study, anticancer activity of this compound is mainly dependent on the geometrical parameters, position, and the nature of the substituent of salen ligand. PMID:24955417

  20. Structure-Activity Relationship for Fe(III)-Salen-Like Complexes as Potent Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Zahra; Housaindokht, Mohammad R.; Izadyar, Mohammad; Bozorgmehr, Mohammad R.; Eshtiagh-Hosseini, Hossein; Bahrami, Ahmad R.; Matin, Maryam M.; Khoshkholgh, Maliheh Javan

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) for the anticancer activity of Fe(III)-salen and salen-like complexes was studied. The methods of density function theory (B3LYP/LANL2DZ) were used to optimize the structures. A pool of descriptors was calculated: 1497 theoretical descriptors and quantum-chemical parameters, shielding NMR, and electronic descriptors. The study of structure and activity relationship was performed with multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN). In nonlinear method, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was applied in order to choose the most effective descriptors. The ANN-ANFIS model with high statistical significance (R2train = 0.99, RMSE = 0.138, and Q2LOO = 0.82) has better capability to predict the anticancer activity of the new compounds series of this family. Based on this study, anticancer activity of this compound is mainly dependent on the geometrical parameters, position, and the nature of the substituent of salen ligand. PMID:24955417

  1. Hydrolysis Mechanism of the NAMI-A-type Antitumor Complex (HL)[trans-RuCl4L(dmso-S)] (L=1-methyl-1,2,4-triazole)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lan-mei; Chen, Jin-can; Liao, Si-yan; Liu, Jiang-qin; Luo, Hui; Zheng, Kang-cheng

    2011-08-01

    The hydrolysis process of Ru(III) complex (HL)[trans-RuCl4L(dmso-S)] (L=1-methyl-1,2,4-triazole and dmso-S=S-dimethyl sulfoxide) (1), a potential antitumor complex similar to the well-known antitumor agent (Him)[trans-RuCl4(dmso-S)(im)] (NAMI-A, im=imidazole), was investigated using density functional theory combined with the conductor-like polarizable continuum model approach. The structural characteristics and the detailed energy profiles for the hydrolysis processes of this complex were obtained. For the first hydrolysis step, complex 1 has slightly higher barrier energies than the reported anticancer drug NAMI-A, and the result is in accordance with the experimental evidence indicating larger half-life for complex 1. For the second hydrolysis step, the formation of cis-diaqua species is thermodynamic preferred to that of trans isomers. In addition, on the basis of the analysis of electronic characteristics of species in the hydrolysis process, the trend in nucleophilic attack abilities of hydrolysis products by pertinent biomolecules is revealed and predicted.

  2. Optogenetic excitation of preBötzinger complex neurons potently drives inspiratory activity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Alsahafi, Zaki; Dickson, Clayton T; Pagliardini, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the sites and mechanisms underlying respiratory rhythmogenesis is of fundamental interest in the field of respiratory neurophysiology. Previous studies demonstrated the necessary and sufficient role of preBötzinger complex (preBötC) in generating inspiratory rhythms in vitro and in vivo. However, the influence of timed activation of the preBötC network in vivo is as yet unknown given the experimental approaches previously used. By unilaterally infecting preBötC neurons using an adeno-associated virus expressing channelrhodopsin we photo-activated the network in order to assess how excitation delivered in a spatially and temporally precise manner to the inspiratory oscillator influences ongoing breathing rhythms and related muscular activity in urethane-anaesthetized rats. We hypothesized that if an excitatory drive is necessary for rhythmogenesis and burst initiation, photo-activation of preBötC not only will increase respiratory rate, but also entrain it over a wide range of frequencies with fast onset, and have little effect on ongoing respiratory rhythm if a stimulus is delivered during inspiration. Stimulation of preBötC neurons consistently increased respiratory rate and entrained respiration up to fourfold baseline conditions. Furthermore, brief pulses of photostimulation delivered at random phases between inspiratory events robustly and consistently induced phase-independent (Type 0) respiratory reset and recruited inspiratory muscle activity at very short delays (∼100 ms). A 200 ms refractory period following inspiration was also identified. These data provide strong evidence for a fine control of inspiratory activity in the preBötC and provide further evidence that the preBötC network constitutes the fundamental oscillator of inspiratory rhythms. PMID:26010654

  3. Interaction of Di-2-pyridylketone 2-pyridine Carboxylic Acid Hydrazone and Its Copper Complex with BSA: Effect on Antitumor Activity as Revealed by Spectroscopic Studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Cuiping; Huang, Tengfei; Fu, Yun; Liu, Youxun; Zhou, Sufeng; Qi, Zhangyang; Li, Changzheng

    2016-04-28

    The drug, di-2-pyridylketone-2-pyridine carboxylic acid hydrazone (DPPCAH) and its copper complex (DPPCAH-Cu) exhibit significant antitumor activity. However, the mechanism of their pharmacological interaction with the biological molecule bovine serum albumin (BSA) remains poorly understood. The present study elucidates the interactions between the drug and BSA through MTT assays, spectroscopic methods and molecular docking analysis. Our results indicate that BSA could attenuate effect on the cytotoxicity of DPPCAH, but not DPPCAH-Cu. Data from fluorescence quenching measurements demonstrated that both DPPCAH and DPPCAH-Cu could bind to BSA, with a reversed effect on the environment of tryptophan residues in polarity. CD spectra revealed that the DPPCAH-Cu exerted a slightly stronger effect on the secondary structure of BSA than DPPCAH. The association constant of DPPCAH with BSA was greater than that of DPPCAH-Cu. Docking studies indicated that the binding of DPPCAH to BSA involved a greater number of hydrogen bonds compared to DPPCAH-Cu. The calculated distances between bound ligands and tryptophans in BSA were in agreement with fluorescence resonance energy transfer results. Thus, the binding affinity of the drug (DPPCAH or DPPCAH-Cu) with BSA partially contributes to its antitumor activity; the greater the drug affinity is to BSA, the less is its antitumor activity.

  4. Interaction of Di-2-pyridylketone 2-pyridine Carboxylic Acid Hydrazone and Its Copper Complex with BSA: Effect on Antitumor Activity as Revealed by Spectroscopic Studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Cuiping; Huang, Tengfei; Fu, Yun; Liu, Youxun; Zhou, Sufeng; Qi, Zhangyang; Li, Changzheng

    2016-01-01

    The drug, di-2-pyridylketone-2-pyridine carboxylic acid hydrazone (DPPCAH) and its copper complex (DPPCAH-Cu) exhibit significant antitumor activity. However, the mechanism of their pharmacological interaction with the biological molecule bovine serum albumin (BSA) remains poorly understood. The present study elucidates the interactions between the drug and BSA through MTT assays, spectroscopic methods and molecular docking analysis. Our results indicate that BSA could attenuate effect on the cytotoxicity of DPPCAH, but not DPPCAH-Cu. Data from fluorescence quenching measurements demonstrated that both DPPCAH and DPPCAH-Cu could bind to BSA, with a reversed effect on the environment of tryptophan residues in polarity. CD spectra revealed that the DPPCAH-Cu exerted a slightly stronger effect on the secondary structure of BSA than DPPCAH. The association constant of DPPCAH with BSA was greater than that of DPPCAH-Cu. Docking studies indicated that the binding of DPPCAH to BSA involved a greater number of hydrogen bonds compared to DPPCAH-Cu. The calculated distances between bound ligands and tryptophans in BSA were in agreement with fluorescence resonance energy transfer results. Thus, the binding affinity of the drug (DPPCAH or DPPCAH-Cu) with BSA partially contributes to its antitumor activity; the greater the drug affinity is to BSA, the less is its antitumor activity. PMID:27136517

  5. [Platinum antitumor complexes].

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Andrea; Giuliani, Jacopo; Muggia, Franco

    2015-12-01

    In the last 50 years the oncology has experienced remarkable changes resulting in transforming malignant germ-cell testicular tumors from highly fatal to nearly uniformly cured neoplasms. This clinical landmark was justly attributed to the identification of cisplatin by Barnett Rosenberg in his experiments dating to 1965. On this 50th anniversary of this discovery, one is reminded of the following key aspects in cancer therapeutics: 1) the life-story of Barnett Rosenberg and his legacy that included organizing nearly quadrennial "platinum" meetings incorporating advances in cancer biology into evolving therapeutic strategies; 2) the search for less toxic analogs of cisplatin leading to the development of carboplatin; 3) clinical research into attenuation of cisplatin toxicities; 4) oxaliplatin and the expansion of the therapeutic spectrum of platinum compounds; and 5) the ongoing multifaceted investigations into the problem of "platinum resistance".

  6. Crystal structures of multidrug-resistant HIV-1 protease in complex with two potent anti-malarial compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Yong; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Kovari, Iulia A.; Woster, Patrick M.; Kovari, Ladislau C.; Gupta, Deepak

    2012-06-19

    Two potent inhibitors (compounds 1 and 2) of malarial aspartyl protease, plasmepsin-II, were evaluated against wild type (NL4-3) and multidrug-resistant clinical isolate 769 (MDR) variants of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) aspartyl protease. Enzyme inhibition assays showed that both 1 and 2 have better potency against NL4-3 than against MDR protease. Crystal structures of MDR protease in complex with 1 and 2 were solved and analyzed. Crystallographic analysis revealed that the MDR protease exhibits a typical wide-open conformation of the flaps (Gly48 to Gly52) causing an overall expansion in the active site cavity, which, in turn caused unstable binding of the inhibitors. Due to the expansion of the active site cavity, both compounds showed loss of direct contacts with the MDR protease compared to the docking models of NL4-3. Multiple water molecules showed a rich network of hydrogen bonds contributing to the stability of the ligand binding in the distorted binding pockets of the MDR protease in both crystal structures. Docking analysis of 1 and 2 showed a decrease in the binding affinity for both compounds against MDR supporting our structure-function studies. Thus, compounds 1 and 2 show promising inhibitory activity against HIV-1 protease variants and hence are good candidates for further development to enhance their potency against NL4-3 as well as MDR HIV-1 protease variants.

  7. Structure-function relationships within Keppler-type antitumor ruthenium(III) complexes: the case of 2-aminothiazolium[trans-tetrachlorobis(2-aminothiazole)ruthenate(III)].

    PubMed

    Mura, Pasquale; Piccioli, Francesca; Gabbiani, Chiara; Camalli, Mercedes; Messori, Luigi

    2005-07-11

    Keppler-type ruthenium(III) complexes exhibit promising antitumor properties. We report here a study of 2-aminothiazolium[trans-tetrachlorobis(2-aminothiazole)ruthenate(III)], both in the solid state and in solution. The crystal structure has been solved and found to exhibit classical features. Important solvatochromic effects were revealed. Notably, we observed that introduction of an amino group in position 2 greatly accelerates chloride hydrolysis compared to the thiazole analogue; this latter finding may be of interest for a fine-tuning of the reactivity of these novel metallodrugs.

  8. Highly potent anti-proliferative effects of a gallium(III) complex with 7-chloroquinoline thiosemicarbazone as a ligand: synthesis, cytotoxic and antimalarial evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kewal; Schniper, Sarah; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Holder, Alvin A; Sanders, Natalie; Sullivan, David; Jarrett, William L; Davis, Krystyn; Bai, Fengwei; Seeram, Navindra P; Kumar, Vipan

    2014-10-30

    A gallium(III) complex with 7-chloroquinoline thiosemicarbazone was synthesized and characterized. The complex proved to be thirty-one times more potent on colon cancer cell line, HCT-116, with considerably less cytotoxicity on non-cancerous colon fibroblast, CCD-18Co, when compared to etoposide. Its anti-malarial potential on 3D7 isolate of Plasmodium falciparum was better than lumefantrine.

  9. Highly potent anti-proliferative effects of a gallium(III) complex with 7-chloroquinoline thiosemicarbazone as a ligand: synthesis, cytotoxic and antimalarial evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kewal; Schniper, Sarah; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Holder, Alvin A; Sanders, Natalie; Sullivan, David; Jarrett, William L; Davis, Krystyn; Bai, Fengwei; Seeram, Navindra P; Kumar, Vipan

    2014-10-30

    A gallium(III) complex with 7-chloroquinoline thiosemicarbazone was synthesized and characterized. The complex proved to be thirty-one times more potent on colon cancer cell line, HCT-116, with considerably less cytotoxicity on non-cancerous colon fibroblast, CCD-18Co, when compared to etoposide. Its anti-malarial potential on 3D7 isolate of Plasmodium falciparum was better than lumefantrine. PMID:25147149

  10. Improved systemic pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and antitumor activity of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides complexed to endogenous antibodies in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Enzo; Cho, Moo J.

    2007-01-01

    CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODNs) fail to elicit antitumor immunity after intravenous administration presumably due to their rapid renal clearance and low tumor accumulation. To address this issue, we tested the hypothesis that endogenous IgG can be used as systemic drug carriers to improve the pharmacokinetics, tumor accumulation, and antitumor activity of intravenously administered CpG-ODNs. To this end, tritium-labeled CpG-ODNs conjugated with one or two dinitrophenyl (DNP) haptens (DNP- and DNP2-[3H]-CpG-ODN) were intravenously dosed into DNP-immunized Balb/c mice bearing subcutaneous CT26 colorectal tumors. Serum and tissue samples for pharmacokinetic and biodistribution profiling were collected at predetermined timepoints and analyzed by liquid scintillation. In antitumor efficacy studies, DNP-immunized, CT26 tumor-bearing mice were intravenously dosed with PBS, CpG-ODN, or DNP-CpG-ODN every five days. Tumor volumes and macroscopic and histological examination of resected solid tumors were used to quantitatively and qualitatively assess tumor growth inhibition. Relative to [3H]-CpG-ODN, dinitrophenylated [3H]-CpG-ODNs displayed substantial increases in systemic exposure (900–1650 fold) and half-life (100–300 fold), marked decreases in systemic clearance (750–1500 fold) and volume of tissue distribution (13–37 fold), as well as substantial and sustained tumor accumulation (~30% vs. <2% injected dose/g). Antitumor efficacy studies demonstrated that DNP-CpG-ODN inhibited tumor growth by up to 60% relative to PBS control whereas CpG-ODN treatment had no apparent effect. Macroscopic and histological examination of harvested tumors at various timepoints revealed the presence of regions of necrotic tissue only in tumors from mice treated with DNP-CpG-ODN. Collectively, these results show the potential of endogenous IgG to mediate the systemic delivery of CpG-ODN to solid tumors and to enhance their antitumor activity following intravenous administration

  11. Highly Effective Non-Viral Antitumor Gene Therapy System Comprised of Biocompatible Small Plasmid Complex Particles Consisting of pDNA, Anionic Polysaccharide, and Fully Deprotected Linear Polyethylenimine.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Yoshiyuki; Sugiura, Kikuya; Yoshihara, Chieko; Inaba, Toshio; Ito, Tomoko

    2015-07-23

    We have reported that ternary complexes of plasmid DNA with conventional linear polyethylenimine (l-PEI) and certain polyanions were very stably dispersed, and, with no cryoprotectant, they could be freeze-dried and re-hydrated without the loss of transfection ability. These properties enabled the preparation of a concentrated suspension of very small pDNA complex, by preparing the complexes at highly diluted conditions, followed by condensation via lyophilization-and-rehydration procedure. Recently, a high potency linear polyethylenimine having no residual protective groups, i.e., Polyethylenimine "Max" (PEI "Max"), is available, which has been reported to induce much higher gene expression than conventional l-PEI. We tried to prepare the small DNA/PEI "Max"/polyanion complexes by a similar freeze-drying method. Small complex particles could be obtained without apparent aggregation, but transfection activity of the rehydrated complexes was severely reduced. Complex-preparation conditions were investigated in details to achieve the freeze-dried DNA/PEI "Max"/polyanion small ternary complexes with high transfection efficiency. DNA/PEI "Max"/polyanion complexes containing cytokine-coding plasmids were then prepared, and their anti-tumor therapeutic efficacy was examined in tumor-bearing mice.

  12. Highly Effective Non-Viral Antitumor Gene Therapy System Comprised of Biocompatible Small Plasmid Complex Particles Consisting of pDNA, Anionic Polysaccharide, and Fully Deprotected Linear Polyethylenimine

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Yoshiyuki; Sugiura, Kikuya; Yoshihara, Chieko; Inaba, Toshio; Ito, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    We have reported that ternary complexes of plasmid DNA with conventional linear polyethylenimine (l-PEI) and certain polyanions were very stably dispersed, and, with no cryoprotectant, they could be freeze-dried and re-hydrated without the loss of transfection ability. These properties enabled the preparation of a concentrated suspension of very small pDNA complex, by preparing the complexes at highly diluted conditions, followed by condensation via lyophilization-and-rehydration procedure. Recently, a high potency linear polyethylenimine having no residual protective groups, i.e., Polyethylenimine “Max” (PEI “Max”), is available, which has been reported to induce much higher gene expression than conventional l-PEI. We tried to prepare the small DNA/PEI “Max”/polyanion complexes by a similar freeze-drying method. Small complex particles could be obtained without apparent aggregation, but transfection activity of the rehydrated complexes was severely reduced. Complex-preparation conditions were investigated in details to achieve the freeze-dried DNA/PEI “Max”/polyanion small ternary complexes with high transfection efficiency. DNA/PEI “Max”/polyanion complexes containing cytokine-coding plasmids were then prepared, and their anti-tumor therapeutic efficacy was examined in tumor-bearing mice. PMID:26213961

  13. Evaluation of a Schiff base copper complex compound as potent anticancer molecule with multiple targets of action.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Ajanta; Kumar, Pramod; Ghosh, Kaushik; Roy, Partha

    2010-11-25

    Copper is a biologically relevant metal as it is associated with various biomolecules related to essential physiological activities. Anticancer compounds with copper as a metal center is hypothesized to be less toxic and more potent. In the present study we have tested the efficacy of a family of Schiff base copper complexes of which the best compound was [Cu(Pyimpy)Cl(2)] where Pyimpy is a tridentate ligand containing two pyridine and one imine nitrogen donor. [Cu(Pyimpy)Cl(2)], represented as CuP1, was checked for its anticancer potential. The IC(50) value of CuP1 was found to be 4.29±0.42, 6.34±0.58 and 5.32±0.38 μM in MCF-7, PC3 and HEK 293 cells respectively. It was found to cause in vitro DNA fragmentation in comet assays and acridine orange staining of MCF 7 cells. CuP1 was further tested on rat breast tumor models and was found to inhibit tumor growth. It caused apoptosis within the tumor by the up regulation of caspase pathway and inhibition of the Akt, matrix metalloproteinase 9 and α-methyl acyl CoA racemase. Antioxidant enzymes which in general results in drug resistant condition in tumor tissues were significantly inhibited by this copper compound (P<0.05). Further, CuP1 did not show any prominent systemic toxicity. These results indicate that CuP1 can be a potential anticancer agent and further investigation will reveal more about its mode of action. PMID:20797395

  14. Cellular response to antitumor cis-Dichlorido platinum(II) complexes of CDK inhibitor Bohemine and its analogues.

    PubMed

    Liskova, Barbora; Zerzankova, Lenka; Novakova, Olga; Kostrhunova, Hana; Travnicek, Zdenek; Brabec, Viktor

    2012-02-20

    The cellular and molecular pharmacology of the new class of anticancer drugs, in which the CDK inhibitor bohemine and its analogues are coordinated to Pt(II) to form cisplatin derivatives, was investigated. The results revealed the unique anticancer profile of a cisplatin-derived platinum(II) dichlorido complex involving N(7)-coordinated bohemine (C1). Although the IC(50) values were ∼6-fold higher for C1 than for cisplatin in cisplatin-sensitive tumor cells, the tumor cells in which C1 was also active are those which acquired resistance to cisplatin. In addition, among the novel conjugates of bohemine and its analogues with cisplatin, marked selectivity of C1 for tumor cells relative to the nontumorigenic, normal cells was observed. However, coordination of bohemine to platinum in C1 considerably reduced one of the dual functionalities anticipated to be effective after C1 reaches the nucleus. Further studies performed in the cells with wt p53 status show differences between cisplatin and C1 at the level of cell cycle regulation. Impedance-based real-time monitoring of the effects of C1 and cisplatin on cell growth supported the thesis that critical differences exist in the rate and mechanisms of cell kill caused by the two agents and that C1 was a more potent inducer of apoptosis and/or necrosis than cisplatin. The results also showed that the distinct differences in cell killing observed for C1 and cisplatin might be associated with processes at the DNA level. The DNA binding experiments carried out in a cell-free medium demonstrated that modification reactions resulting in the irreversible coordination of C1 to DNA were slower than that of cisplatin. Transcription mapping experiments and determination of interstrand cross-linking efficiency of C1 suggested that several aspects of DNA binding mode of C1 and cisplatin were similar. It was concluded that C1 remains a promising prototype of compounds for the generation of novel drug candidates with cytotoxicity

  15. Synthesis and antitumor activity evaluation of lamiridosin A derivatives.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan-Xia; Yan, Jian-Wei; Yan, Fu-Lin; Yin, Yan-Yan; Zhuang, Fang-Fang; Ji, Zi-Yang

    2016-01-01

    A series of lamiridosin A derivatives were synthesized through simple procedures. Their antitumor activities were evaluated against EC9706, MGC803, and B16 cell lines in vitro. Several compounds showed potent antitumor activity, especially compound 10, with IC50 value of 2.36 μmol/L against MGC803 cell lines, is more potent than marketed positive drug 5-fluorouridine (5-FU).

  16. New non-toxic transition metal nanocomplexes and Zn complex-silica xerogel nanohybrid: Synthesis, spectral studies, antibacterial, and antitumor activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebl, Magdy; Saif, M.; Nabeel, Asmaa I.; Shokry, R.

    2016-08-01

    A new chromone Schiff base and its complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Fe(III), Zn(II), Cd(II), and UO2(VI) as well as Zn(II) complex-silica xerogel nanohybrid were successfully prepared in a nano domain with crystalline or amorphous structures. Structures of the Schiff base and its complexes were investigated by elemental and thermal analyses, IR, 1H NMR, electronic, ESR, mass spectra, XRD, and TEM, as well as conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The spectroscopic data revealed that the Schiff base ligand behaves as a monobasic tridentate ligand. The coordination sites with metal ions are γ-pyrone oxygen, azomethine nitrogen, and oxygen of the carboxylic group. The metal complexes exhibited octahedral geometry, except Cu(II) complex, which has a square planar geometry and UO2(VI) complex, in which uranium ion is hepta-coordinated. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis showed that Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes have aggregated spheres and rod morphologies, respectively. TEM images of Zn(II) complex-silica xerogel nanohybrid showed a nanosheet morphology with 46 nm average size and confirmed that the complex was uniformly distributed into the silica pores. The obtained nanocomplexes were tested as antimicrobial and antitumor agents. The results showed that Zn(II) nanocomplex and Zn(II) complex-silica xerogel nanohybrid have high activity. The toxicity test on mice showed that Zn(II) complex and Zn(II) complex-silica xerogel nanohybrid have lower toxicity than cisplatin.

  17. Pharmacokinetic Study of Di-Phenyl-Di-(2,4-Difluobenzohydroxamato)Tin(IV): Novel Metal-Based Complex with Promising Antitumor Potential.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunlan; Gao, Zhuyan; Guo, Pu; Li, Qingshan

    2012-01-01

    Di-phenyl-di-(2,4-difluobenzohydroxamato)tin(IV)(DPDFT), a new metal-based arylhydroxamate antitumor complex, showed high in vivo and in vitro antitumor activity with relative low toxicity, but no data was reported regarding its pharmacokinetics and dependent toxicity. In this paper, a rapid, sensitive, and reproducible HPLC method in vivo using Diamonsil ODS column with a mixture of methanol and phosphoric acid in water (30 : 70, V/V, pH 3.0) as mobile phase was developed and validated for the determination of DPDFT. The plasma was deproteinized with methanol that contained acetanilide as the internal standard (I.S.). The photodiode array detector was set at a wavelength of 228 nm at room temperature and a linear curve over the concentration range 0.1~25 μg·mL(-1) (r = 0.9993) was obtained. The method was used to determine the concentration-time profiles for DPDFT in the plasma after single intravenous administration with doses of 5, 10, 15 mg·kg(-1) to rats. The pharmacokinetics parameter calculations and modeling were carried out using the 3p97 software. The results showed that the concentration-time curves of DPDFT in rat plasma could be fitted to two-compartment model. PMID:22400014

  18. Synthesis, antitumor activity, and chemical properties of silaplatin and related platinum (II) and platinum (IV) complexes derived from beta-silyl amines.

    PubMed

    Anderson, W K; Kasliwal, R; Houston, D M; Wang, Y S; Narayanan, V L; Haugwitz, R D; Plowman, J

    1995-09-15

    Platinum (II) and platinum (IV) coordination complexes derived from beta-silyl-substituted amines were prepared. The solubility of selected complexes in water and physiological saline was measured, and the effect of the beta-silicon on the reactivity of the complex in aqueous solution was determined by HPLC. The stabilities of selected silyl complexes were compared to the carbon analogues. The cyclic complexes 2a ("silaplatin") and its Pt(IV) analogue, 2b, were very active against L1210 leukemia in vivo. Both the platinum (II) complex 2a and the platinum (IV) complex 2b produced a significant number of cures over the dose range 10-40 mg/kg. The platinum (II) complex 2a, silaplatin, was very active in vivo against an L1210 leukemia subline that was resistant to cisplatin; 2a was also active, when given ip, against ic implanted L1210. The cyclobutanedicarboxylic acid complex 3c was synthesized; this complex was active against both cisplatin sensitive and resistant L1210 leukemia but was less potent than the analogous dichloro compound 2a. The acyclic platinum (II) and platinum (IV) complexes 1a,b were synthesized and unexpectedly found to be inactive in vivo against L1210 leukemia. More lipophilic silaplatin analogues were prepared--Pt(II) complex 2c and Pt(IV) complex 2d have one additional methylene carbon compared to 2a,b, whereas Pt(II) complex 2e and Pt(IV) complex 2f have two additional methylene carbons. Cyclization of the alkyl groups attached to the silicon gave the spiro bicyclic Pt(II) complexes 10a and 11a and the Pt(IV) complexes 10b and 11b.

  19. Synthesis, structural characterization, DNA binding studies and antitumor properties of tin(II)-oxydiacetate complexes containing α-diimine as auxiliary ligand.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Zafar A; Sharma, Prashant K; Shahid, M; Khalid, Mohd

    2013-08-01

    Metal directed supra molecular assemblies with interesting topologies have been widely used as models for metallo-enzymes and in development of metallo-pharmaceuticals. Two novel tin(II)-oxydiacetate complexes with α-diimine (1,10-phenanthroline or 2,2'-bipyridine) as auxiliary ligand were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, (1)H-, (13)C- and (119)Sn-NMR and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The spectral investigations and X-ray data show that {Sn} is hepta coordinated with pentagonal bipyramidal (pbp) geometry of the complexes. The in vitro binding and cleavage studies using CT DNA by UV-visible, fluorescence and agarose gel electrophoresis techniques revealed that both complexes bind DNA via intercalation. The observed magnitudes of Kb for complexes (1) and (2) are 2.517×10(4) and 5.35×10(3), respectively, which suggest that (1) has strong binding affinity for CT DNA as compared to (2). The complexes were tested for antitumor properties and found highly active at 10(-4)M concentration against P388, HL-60 and A-549 cell lines.

  20. The Anti-Tumor Activity of Succinyl Macrolactin A Is Mediated through the β-Catenin Destruction Complex via the Suppression of Tankyrase and PI3K/Akt

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Joo; Banskota, Suhrid; Shah, Sajita; Kim, Jung-Ae

    2015-01-01

    Accumulated gene mutations in cancer suggest that multi-targeted suppression of affected signaling networks is a promising strategy for cancer treatment. In the present study, we report that 7-O-succinyl macrolactin A (SMA) suppresses tumor growth by stabilizing the β-catenin destruction complex, which was achieved through inhibition of regulatory components associated with the complex. SMA significantly reduced the activities of PI3K/Akt, which corresponded with a decrease in GSK3β phosphorylation, an increase in β-catenin phosphorylation, and a reduction in nuclear β-catenin content in HT29 human colon cancer cells. At the same time, the activity of tankyrase, which inhibits the β-catenin destruction complex by destabilizing the axin level, was suppressed by SMA. Despite the low potency of SMA against tankyrase activity (IC50 of 50.1 μM and 15.5 μM for tankyrase 1 and 2, respectively) compared to XAV939 (IC50 of 11 nM for tankyrase 1), a selective and potent tankyrase inhibitor, SMA had strong inhibitory effects on β-catenin-dependent TCF/LEF1 transcriptional activity (IC50 of 39.8 nM), which were similar to that of XAV939 (IC50 of 28.1 nM). In addition to suppressing the colony forming ability of colon cancer cells in vitro, SMA significantly inhibited tumor growth in CT26 syngenic and HT29 xenograft mouse tumor models. Furthermore, treating mice with SMA in combination with 5-FU in a colon cancer xenograft model or with cisplatin in an A549 lung cancer xenograft model resulted in greater anti-tumor activity than did treatment with the drugs alone. In the xenograft tumor tissues, SMA dose-dependently inhibited nuclear β-catenin along with reductions in GSK3β phosphorylation and increases in axin levels. These results suggest that SMA is a possible candidate as an effective anti-cancer agent alone or in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs, such as 5-FU and cisplatin, and that the mode of action for SMA involves stabilization of the

  1. Synthesis, characterization, and antitumor activity of three ternary dinuclear copper (II) complexes with a reduced Schiff base ligand and diimine coligands in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lei; Xu, Jun; Zhao, Xiaolei; Shen, Shanshan; Zhou, Tao; Xu, Zhouqing; Zhu, Taofeng; Chen, Ruhua; Ma, Tieliang; Xie, Jing; Dong, Kun; Huang, Jiancui

    2016-06-01

    Three ternary copper (II) complexes containing 1,10-phenanthroline (phen, 1), dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline (dpq, 2) and dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz, 3), with the formulation [Cu2(NCL)2(H4PASP)]·4.5H2O (1-3) (where NCL=the diimine coligand, H4PASP=N,N'-(p-xylylene)di-2-aminosuccinic acid), were isolated and characterized. The binding of these complexes with calf thymus DNA was studied using UV-visible absorption titration, emission, and circular dichroism spectroscopy, among other methods. The changes in physicochemical properties that occurred upon binding of these complexes with DNA indicate that binding occurs primarily through intercalative interactions. Human tumor cell lines HeLa, PC3, and HepG2 were treated with the copper(II) complexes in vitro and cell survival rate was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and crystal violet survival assay. Flow cytometry was performed on treated cells labeled with AnnexinV/Propidium Iodide staining to determine rates of apoptosis. Western blot was performed to determine the expression levels of the apoptotic markers p53, Bax, and Bcl-2. The complexes reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in cells of human tumor cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, using a nude mouse xenograft model, we found that the three ternary copper (II) complexes inhibited human tumor cell growth in vivo. In conclusion, these novel synthetic copper complexes have profound antitumor effects on human tumor cells and are promising therapeutic agents for human tumors.

  2. Synthesis, characterization, and antitumor activity of three ternary dinuclear copper (II) complexes with a reduced Schiff base ligand and diimine coligands in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lei; Xu, Jun; Zhao, Xiaolei; Shen, Shanshan; Zhou, Tao; Xu, Zhouqing; Zhu, Taofeng; Chen, Ruhua; Ma, Tieliang; Xie, Jing; Dong, Kun; Huang, Jiancui

    2016-06-01

    Three ternary copper (II) complexes containing 1,10-phenanthroline (phen, 1), dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline (dpq, 2) and dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz, 3), with the formulation [Cu2(NCL)2(H4PASP)]·4.5H2O (1-3) (where NCL=the diimine coligand, H4PASP=N,N'-(p-xylylene)di-2-aminosuccinic acid), were isolated and characterized. The binding of these complexes with calf thymus DNA was studied using UV-visible absorption titration, emission, and circular dichroism spectroscopy, among other methods. The changes in physicochemical properties that occurred upon binding of these complexes with DNA indicate that binding occurs primarily through intercalative interactions. Human tumor cell lines HeLa, PC3, and HepG2 were treated with the copper(II) complexes in vitro and cell survival rate was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and crystal violet survival assay. Flow cytometry was performed on treated cells labeled with AnnexinV/Propidium Iodide staining to determine rates of apoptosis. Western blot was performed to determine the expression levels of the apoptotic markers p53, Bax, and Bcl-2. The complexes reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in cells of human tumor cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, using a nude mouse xenograft model, we found that the three ternary copper (II) complexes inhibited human tumor cell growth in vivo. In conclusion, these novel synthetic copper complexes have profound antitumor effects on human tumor cells and are promising therapeutic agents for human tumors. PMID:26974885

  3. Synthesis, biological and antitumor activity of a highly potent 6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine thienoyl antifolate inhibitor with proton-coupled folate transporter and folate receptor selectivity over the reduced folate carrier that inhibits β-glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Desmoulin, Sita Kugel; Cherian, Christina; Polin, Lisa; White, Kathryn; Kushner, Juiwanna; Fulterer, Andreas; Chang, Min-Hwang; Mitchell, Shermaine; Stout, Mark; Romero, Michael F.; Hou, Zhanjun; Matherly, Larry H.; Gangjee, Aleem

    2011-01-01

    2-Amino-4-oxo-6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine antifolates with a thienoyl side chain (compounds 1–3, respectively) were synthesized for comparison with compound 4, the previous lead compound of this series. Conversion of hydroxyl acetylen-thiophene carboxylic esters to thiophenyl-α-bromomethylketones and condensation with 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine afforded the 6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine compounds of type 18 and 19. Coupling with L-glutamate diethyl ester, followed by saponification, afforded 1–3. Compound 3 selectively inhibited proliferation of cells expressing folate receptors (FRs) α or β, or the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT), including human tumor cells KB and IGROV1 much more potently than 4. Compound 3 was more inhibitory than 4 toward β-glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GARFTase). Both 3 and 4 depleted cellular ATP pools. In SCID mice with IGROV1 tumors, 3 was more efficacious than 4. Collectively, our results show potent antitumor activity for 3 in vitro and in vivo, associated with its selective membrane transport by FRs and PCFT over RFC and inhibition of GARFTase, clearly establishing the 3-atom bridge as superior to the 1, 2 and 4-atom bridge lengths for the activity of this series. PMID:21879757

  4. Design and optimization of (3-aryl-1H-indazol-6-yl)spiro[cyclopropane-1,3'-indolin]-2'-ones as potent PLK4 inhibitors with oral antitumor efficacy.

    PubMed

    Li, Sze-Wan; Liu, Yong; Sampson, Peter B; Patel, Narendra Kumar; Forrest, Bryan T; Edwards, Louise; Laufer, Radoslaw; Feher, Miklos; Ban, Fuqiang; Awrey, Donald E; Hodgson, Richard; Beletskaya, Irina; Mao, Guodong; Mason, Jacqueline M; Wei, Xin; Luo, Xunyi; Kiarash, Reza; Green, Erin; Mak, Tak W; Pan, Guohua; Pauls, Henry W

    2016-10-01

    Previous efforts from our laboratory demonstrated that (E)-3-((3-(E)-vinylaryl)-1H-indazol-6-yl)methylene)-indolin-2-ones are potent PLK4 inhibitors with in vivo anticancer efficacy upon IP dosing. As part of a continued effort to develop selective and orally efficacious inhibitors, we examined variations on this theme wherein 'directly-linked' aromatics, pendant from the indazole core, replace the arylvinyl moiety. Herein, we describe the design and optimization of this series which was ultimately superseded by (3-aryl-1H-indazol-6-yl)spiro[cyclopropane-1,3'-indolin]-2'-ones. The latter compounds are potent and selective inhibitors of PLK4 with oral exposure in rodents and in vivo anticancer activity. Compound 13b, in particular, has a bioavailability of 22% and achieved a 96% tumor growth inhibition in an MDA-MB-468 xenograft study. PMID:27592744

  5. Iron-salophen complexes involving azole-derived ligands: A new group of compounds with high-level and broad-spectrum in vitro antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Vančo, Ján; Šindelář, Zdeněk; Dvořák, Zdeněk; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    A series of iron(II/III) salophen (salph) complexes involving monodentate azole-derived ligands, having the composition [Fe(II)(salph)(HL1)] (1) and [Fe(III)(salph)(L)] (2-6), where HL1=imidazole, L=1,2,4-triazol-1-ido (L2), benzo[d][1,2,3]triazol-1-ido (L3), 5-aminotetrazol-1-ido (L4), 5-phenyltetrazol-1-ido (L5), and 5-methyltetrazol-1-ido (L6) ligand, was prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, infrared, Mössbauer and X-ray photolelectron spectroscopy, magnetic data and electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. X-ray structure of 1 revealed a distorted square-pyramidal geometry in the vicinity of the iron(II) atom. The complexes were evaluated for their in vitro antitumor activity against the panel of six human cancer cell lines (HOS, MCF7, A549, HeLa, A2780 and G-361) and were found to be highly cytotoxic, showing the best IC50 value of 58nM for [Fe(III)(salph)(L6)] (6) against the ovarian carcinoma A2780 cell line, being 200-times more effective than cisplatin. In vitro cytotoxicity of complexes 1-6 on primary culture of human hepatocytes and calf-thymus DNA (CT-DNA) binding studies using the fluorescence titration were also performed. PMID:25450023

  6. Potent dual inhibitors of TORC1 and TORC2 complexes (KU-0063794 and KU-0068650) demonstrate in vitro and ex vivo anti-keloid scar activity.

    PubMed

    Syed, Farhatullah; Sanganee, Hitesh J; Singh, Subir; Bahl, Ashwani; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2013-05-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is essential in controlling several cellular functions. This pathway is dysregulated in keloid disease (KD). KD is a common fibroproliferative dermal lesion with an ill-defined treatment strategy. KD demonstrates excessive matrix deposition, angiogenesis, and inflammatory cell infiltration. In KD, both total and phosphorylated forms of mTOR and p70(S6K)(Thr421/Ser424) are upregulated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate adenosine triphosphate-competitive inhibitors of mTOR kinase previously unreported in keloid and their comparative efficacy with Rapamycin. Here, we present two mTOR kinase inhibitors, KU-0063794 and KU-0068650, that target both mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling. Treatment with either KU-0063794 or KU-0068650 resulted in complete suppression of Akt, mTORC1, and mTORC2, and inhibition of keloid cell spreading, proliferation, migration, and invasive properties at a very low concentration (2.5 μmol  l(-1)). Both KU-0063794 and KU-0068650 significantly (P<0.05) inhibited cell cycle regulation and HIF1-α expression compared with that achieved with Rapamycin alone. In addition, both compounds induced shrinkage and growth arrest in KD, associated with the inhibition of angiogenesis, induction of apoptosis, and reduction in keloid phenotype-associated markers. In contrast, Rapamycin induced minimal antitumor activity. In conclusion, potent dual mTORC1 and mTORC2 inhibitors display therapeutic potential for the treatment of KD.

  7. A Fluorescence Polarization Assay for Binding to Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and Crystal Structures for Complexes of Two Potent Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is both a keto–enol tautomerase and a cytokine associated with numerous inflammatory diseases and cancer. Consistent with observed correlations between inhibition of the enzymatic and biological activities, discovery of MIF inhibitors has focused on monitoring the tautomerase activity using l-dopachrome methyl ester or 4-hydroxyphenyl pyruvic acid as substrates. The accuracy of these assays is compromised by several issues including substrate instability, spectral interference, and short linear periods for product formation. In this work, we report the syntheses of fluorescently labeled MIF inhibitors and their use in the first fluorescence polarization-based assay to measure the direct binding of inhibitors to the active site. The assay allows the accurate and efficient identification of competitive, noncompetitive, and covalent inhibitors of MIF in a manner that can be scaled for high-throughput screening. The results for 22 compounds show that the most potent MIF inhibitors bind with Kd values of ca. 50 nM; two are from our laboratory, and the other is a compound from the patent literature. X-ray crystal structures for two of the most potent compounds bound to MIF are also reported here. Striking combinations of protein–ligand hydrogen bonding, aryl–aryl, and cation−π interactions are responsible for the high affinities. A new chemical series was then designed using this knowledge to yield two more strong MIF inhibitors/binders. PMID:27299179

  8. A Fluorescence Polarization Assay for Binding to Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and Crystal Structures for Complexes of Two Potent Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cisneros, José A; Robertson, Michael J; Valhondo, Margarita; Jorgensen, William L

    2016-07-13

    Human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is both a keto-enol tautomerase and a cytokine associated with numerous inflammatory diseases and cancer. Consistent with observed correlations between inhibition of the enzymatic and biological activities, discovery of MIF inhibitors has focused on monitoring the tautomerase activity using l-dopachrome methyl ester or 4-hydroxyphenyl pyruvic acid as substrates. The accuracy of these assays is compromised by several issues including substrate instability, spectral interference, and short linear periods for product formation. In this work, we report the syntheses of fluorescently labeled MIF inhibitors and their use in the first fluorescence polarization-based assay to measure the direct binding of inhibitors to the active site. The assay allows the accurate and efficient identification of competitive, noncompetitive, and covalent inhibitors of MIF in a manner that can be scaled for high-throughput screening. The results for 22 compounds show that the most potent MIF inhibitors bind with Kd values of ca. 50 nM; two are from our laboratory, and the other is a compound from the patent literature. X-ray crystal structures for two of the most potent compounds bound to MIF are also reported here. Striking combinations of protein-ligand hydrogen bonding, aryl-aryl, and cation-π interactions are responsible for the high affinities. A new chemical series was then designed using this knowledge to yield two more strong MIF inhibitors/binders. PMID:27299179

  9. New Insights into Human 17β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 14: First Crystal Structures in Complex with a Steroidal Ligand and with a Potent Nonsteroidal Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Bertoletti, Nicole; Braun, Florian; Lepage, Mahalia; Möller, Gabriele; Adamski, Jerzy; Heine, Andreas; Klebe, Gerhard; Marchais-Oberwinkler, Sandrine

    2016-07-28

    17β-HSD14 is a SDR enzyme able to oxidize estradiol and 5-androstenediol using NAD(+). We determined the crystal structure of this human enzyme as the holo form and as ternary complexes with estrone and with the first potent, nonsteroidal inhibitor. The structures reveal a conical, rather large and lipophilic binding site and are the starting point for structure-based inhibitor design. The two natural variants (S205 and T205) were characterized and adopt a similar structure. PMID:27362750

  10. Behavior of the potential antitumor V(IV)O complexes formed by flavonoid ligands. 3. Antioxidant properties and radical production capability.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Daniele; Ugone, Valeria; Fadda, Angela; Micera, Giovanni; Garribba, Eugenio

    2016-08-01

    The radical production capability and the antioxidant properties of some V(IV)O complexes formed by flavonoid ligands were examined. In particular, the bis-chelated species of quercetin (que), [VO(que)2](2-), and morin (mor), [VO(mor)2], were evaluated for their capability to reduce the stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and produce the hydroxyl radical (•)OH by Fenton-like reactions, where the reducing agent is V(IV)O(2+). The results were compared with those displayed by other V(IV)O complexes, such as [VO(H2O)5](2+), [VO(acac)2] (acac=acetylacetonate) and [VO(cat)2](2-) (cat=catecholate). The capability of the V(IV)O flavonoids complexes to reduce DPPH is much larger than that of the V(IV)O species formed by non-antioxidant ligands and it is due mainly to the flavonoid molecule. Through the 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) spin trapping assay of the hydroxyl radical it was possible to demonstrate that in acidic solution V(IV)O(2+) has an effectiveness in producing (•)OH radicals comparable to that of Fe(2+). When V(IV)O complexes of flavonoids were taken into account, the amount of hydroxyl radicals produced in Fenton-like reactions depends on the specific structure of the ligand and on their capability to reduce H2O2 to give (•)OH. Both the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under physiological conditions by V(IV)O complexes of flavonoid ligands and their radical scavenging capability can be put in relationship with their antitumor effectiveness and it could be possible to modulate these actions by changing the features of the flavonoid coordinated to the V(IV)O(2+) ion, such as the entity, nature and position of the substituents and the number of phenolic groups.

  11. Mononuclear dioxomolybdenum(VI) thiosemicarbazonato complexes: Synthesis, characterization, structural illustration, in vitro DNA binding, cleavage, and antitumor properties.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Mouayed A; Guan, Teoh S; Haque, Rosenani A; Khadeer Ahamed, Mohamed B; Abdul Majid, Amin M S

    2015-02-01

    Four dioxomolybdenum(VI) complexes were synthesized by reacting [MoO2(acac)2] with N-ethyl-2-(5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide (1), N-ethyl-2-(5-allyl-3-methoxy-2-hydroxybenzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide (2), N-methyl-2-(3-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide (3), and N-ethyl-2-(3-methyl-2-hydroxybenzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide (4). The molecular structures of 1, 2, and all the synthesized complexes were determined using single crystal X-ray crystallography. The binding properties of the ligand and complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were investigated via UV, fluorescence titrations, and viscosity measurement. Gel electrophoresis revealed that all the complexes cleave pBR 322 plasmid DNA. The cytotoxicity of the complexes were studied against the HCT 116 human colorectal cell line. All the complexes exhibited more pronounced activity than the standard reference drug 5-fluorouracil (IC50 7.3μM). These studies show that dioxomolybdenum(VI) complexes could be potentially useful in chemotherapy.

  12. Mononuclear dioxomolybdenum(VI) thiosemicarbazonato complexes: Synthesis, characterization, structural illustration, in vitro DNA binding, cleavage, and antitumor properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Mouayed A.; Guan, Teoh S.; Haque, Rosenani A.; Khadeer Ahamed, Mohamed B.; Abdul Majid, Amin M. S.

    2015-02-01

    Four dioxomolybdenum(VI) complexes were synthesized by reacting [MoO2(acac)2] with N-ethyl-2-(5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide (1), N-ethyl-2-(5-allyl-3-methoxy-2-hydroxybenzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide (2), N-methyl-2-(3-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide (3), and N-ethyl-2-(3-methyl-2-hydroxybenzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide (4). The molecular structures of 1, 2, and all the synthesized complexes were determined using single crystal X-ray crystallography. The binding properties of the ligand and complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were investigated via UV, fluorescence titrations, and viscosity measurement. Gel electrophoresis revealed that all the complexes cleave pBR 322 plasmid DNA. The cytotoxicity of the complexes were studied against the HCT 116 human colorectal cell line. All the complexes exhibited more pronounced activity than the standard reference drug 5-fluorouracil (IC50 7.3 μM). These studies show that dioxomolybdenum(VI) complexes could be potentially useful in chemotherapy.

  13. Synthesis, spectral, antitumor and antimicrobial studies on Cu(II) complexes of purine and triazole Schiff base derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amer, Said; El-Wakiel, Nadia; El-Ghamry, Hoda

    2013-10-01

    A series of copper (II) complexes of Schiff bases derived from 7H-2,6-diaminopurine and 4H-3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole with 2-pyridinecarbaldehyde, salicylaldehyde, 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde have been prepared. The donor atoms and the possible geometry of the complexes were investigated by means of elemental and thermal analyses, molar conductance, magnetic moment, UV-Vis, IR, ESR and mass spectra. The ligands behaved as tetradentate, coordinating through the nitrogen atom of the azomethine group and the nearest nitrogen atom to it or oxygen atom of α-hydroxyl group. The results of simultaneous DTA & TGA analyses of the complexes showed the final degradation product for these complexes is CuO. The spectral studies confirmed a four coordinate environment around the metal ion. The obtained results were supported by 3D molecular modeling of complexes using molecular mechanics (MM+) and semiempirical molecular orbital calculations (PM3). These complexes were also tested for their in vitro antimicrobial activities against some bacterial and fungal strains. Complex 2 was investigated for its cyctotoxic effect against human breast cancer (MCF7), liver carcinoma (HEPG2) and colon carcinoma cell lines (HCT116). This compound exhibited a moderate activity against the tested cell lines with IC50 of 10.3, 9.8 and 8.7 μg/ml against MCF7, HCT116 and HEPG2, respectively.

  14. A silver complex with tryptophan: Synthesis, structural characterization, DFT studies and antibacterial and antitumor assays in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Marcos A.; de Paiva, Raphael E. F.; Bergamini, Fernando R. G.; Gomes, Alexandre F.; Gozzo, Fábio C.; Lustri, Wilton R.; Formiga, André L. B.; Shishido, Silvia M.; Ferreira, Carmen V.; Corbi, Pedro P.

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and biological assays of a new silver(I) complex with L-tryptophan (TRP) are presented. Elemental and thermal analyses and ESI-QTOF mass spectrometric measurements of the solid compound suggest the composition AgC11H11N2O2. Infrared and solid-state NMR analyses indicate coordination of TRP to Ag(I) ion through the nitrogen of the NH2 group and also through the oxygen of carboxylate group. Theoretical (DFT) calculations permit proposing an optimized geometry for the complex. Antibacterial assays indicated that the Ag-TRP complex is effective against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis (Gram-positive), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) bacterial strains. The complex was also cytotoxic against Panc-1 (human pancreatic carcinoma) and SK-Mel 103 (human melanoma) cells.

  15. Platinum(II) complexes with antitumoral/antiviral aromatic heterocycles: effect of glutathione upon in vitro cell growth inhibition.

    PubMed

    Papadia, Paride; Margiotta, Nicola; Bergamo, Alberta; Sava, Gianni; Natile, Giovanni

    2005-05-01

    The compounds [Pt(Me(2)phen)(acy)(2)](NO(3))(2) (1), [Pt(Me(2)phen)(pen)(2)](NO(3))(2), [Pt(phen)(acy)(2)](NO(3))(2) (2), and [Pt(phen)(pen)(2)](NO(3))(2), containing the bidentate 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) or 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Me(2)phen, neocuproine) and the antiviral agents acyclovir (acy) or penciclovir (pen), show different in vitro toxicity, the Me(2)phen complexes being appreciably more toxic than the phen complexes. To explain the different behavior, we investigated the reaction of complexes 1 and 2 with glutathione (gamma-glutamylcysteinylglycine, GSH), a peptide believed to play an important role in driving the cellular effects of platinum drugs. The reaction led to different products, the phen complexes forming a stable binuclear mu-thiol-bridged species still containing the phenanthroline and the Me(2)phen complexes releasing the neocuproine ligand and forming an insoluble material. In vitro tests confirmed that the greater cell toxicity of complex 1 is due to the displacement of the neocuproine ligand by GSH. The results highlight the great dependence of the glutathione reactivity upon relatively small changes in the platinum coordination sphere.

  16. Structural analysis of a holoenzyme complex of mouse dihydrofolate reductase with NADPH and a ternary complex with the potent and selective inhibitor 2, 4-diamino-6-(2′-hydroxydibenz[b, f]azepin-5-yl)methylpteridine

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, Vivian; Pace, Jim; Rosowsky, Andre

    2008-09-01

    The structures of mouse DHFR holo enzyme and a ternary complex with NADPH and a potent inhibitor are described. It has been shown that 2, 4-diamino-6-arylmethylpteridines and 2, 4-diamino-5-arylmethylpyrimidines containing an O-carboxylalkyloxy group in the aryl moiety are potent and selective inhibitors of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from opportunistic pathogens such as Pneumocystis carinii, the causative agent of Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV/AIDS patients. In order to understand the structure–activity profile observed for a series of substituted dibenz[b, f]azepine antifolates, the crystal structures of mouse DHFR (mDHFR; a mammalian homologue) holo and ternary complexes with NADPH and the inhibitor 2, 4-diamino-6-(2′-hydroxydibenz[b, f]azepin-5-yl)methylpteridine were determined to 1.9 and 1.4 Å resolution, respectively. Structural data for the ternary complex with the potent O-(3-carboxypropyl) inhibitor PT684 revealed no electron density for the O-carboxylalkyloxy side chain. The side chain was either cleaved or completely disordered. The electron density fitted the less potent hydroxyl compound PT684a. Additionally, cocrystallization of mDHFR with NADPH and the less potent 2′-(4-carboxybenzyl) inhibitor PT682 showed no electron density for the inhibitor and resulted in the first report of a holoenzyme complex despite several attempts at crystallization of a ternary complex. Modeling data of PT682 in the active site of mDHFR and P. carinii DHFR (pcDHFR) indicate that binding would require ligand-induced conformational changes to the enzyme for the inhibitor to fit into the active site or that the inhibitor side chain would have to adopt an alternative binding mode to that observed for other carboxyalkyloxy inhibitors. These data also show that the mDHFR complexes have a decreased active-site volume as reflected in the relative shift of helix C (residues 59–64) by 0.6 Å compared with pcDHFR ternary complexes. These data are consistent with the

  17. Study of antitumor effect of selected vanadium and molybdenum organometallic complexes in human leukemic T-cells.

    PubMed

    Šebestová, Lucie; Havelek, Radim; Řezáčová, Martina; Honzíček, Jan; Kročová, Zuzana; Vinklárek, Jaromír

    2015-12-01

    This work describes cytotoxic effect of non-platinum metal-based compounds on the human T-leukemic cells with different p53 status (p53 wild-type MOLT-4 and p53-deficient Jurkat cells). The cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing effect of the vanadium complex [(η(5)-C5H5)2V(5-NH2-phen)]OTf (V1) and molybdenum complex [(η(3)-C3H5)Mo(CO)2(phen)Cl] (Mo1) were studied using flow cytometry, spectrophotometry and Western blotting. We found that the cytotoxic effect of both tested complexes after 24 h is higher against the both examined cell lines than that of cis-platin (cis-DDP). At later investigated time intervals of 48 and 72 h, the cytotoxic effect of the cis-DDP increased but the values of the cytotoxicity of the tested V1 and Mo1 complexes remained unchanged, with the cytotoxicity of V1 comparable to that of cis-DDP. Furthermore we observed that the apoptotic process was induced by the activation of the caspases 9 (intrinsic pathway) and 8 (extrinsic pathway) in cells exposed to evaluated complexes. In case of the p53 wild-type MOLT-4 cells, the expression of the tumor-suppressor protein p53 and its form phosphorylated at the serine 15 increased after both V1 and Mo1 treatment, similar to the effect of cis-DDP.

  18. Study of antitumor effect of selected vanadium and molybdenum organometallic complexes in human leukemic T-cells.

    PubMed

    Šebestová, Lucie; Havelek, Radim; Řezáčová, Martina; Honzíček, Jan; Kročová, Zuzana; Vinklárek, Jaromír

    2015-12-01

    This work describes cytotoxic effect of non-platinum metal-based compounds on the human T-leukemic cells with different p53 status (p53 wild-type MOLT-4 and p53-deficient Jurkat cells). The cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing effect of the vanadium complex [(η(5)-C5H5)2V(5-NH2-phen)]OTf (V1) and molybdenum complex [(η(3)-C3H5)Mo(CO)2(phen)Cl] (Mo1) were studied using flow cytometry, spectrophotometry and Western blotting. We found that the cytotoxic effect of both tested complexes after 24 h is higher against the both examined cell lines than that of cis-platin (cis-DDP). At later investigated time intervals of 48 and 72 h, the cytotoxic effect of the cis-DDP increased but the values of the cytotoxicity of the tested V1 and Mo1 complexes remained unchanged, with the cytotoxicity of V1 comparable to that of cis-DDP. Furthermore we observed that the apoptotic process was induced by the activation of the caspases 9 (intrinsic pathway) and 8 (extrinsic pathway) in cells exposed to evaluated complexes. In case of the p53 wild-type MOLT-4 cells, the expression of the tumor-suppressor protein p53 and its form phosphorylated at the serine 15 increased after both V1 and Mo1 treatment, similar to the effect of cis-DDP. PMID:26391003

  19. Discovery of [4-Amino-2-(1-methanesulfonylpiperidin-4-ylamino)pyrimidin-5-yl](2,3-difluoro-6-methoxyphenyl)methanone (R547), A Potent and Selective Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor with Significiant in Vivo Antitumor Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Chu,X.; DePinto, W.; Bartkovitz, D.; So, S.; Vu, B.; Packman, K.; Lukacs, C.; Ding, Q.; Jiang, N.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and their cyclin partners are key regulators of the cell cycle. Since deregulation of CDKs is found with high frequency in many human cancer cells, pharmacological inhibition of CDKs with small molecules has the potential to provide an effective strategy for the treatment of cancer. The 2,4-diamino-5-ketopyrimidines 6 reported here represent a novel class of potent and ATP-competitive inhibitors that selectively target the cyclin-dependent kinase family. This diaminopyrimidine core with a substituted 4-piperidine moiety on the C2-amino position and 2-methoxybenzoyl at the C5 position has been identified as the critical structure responsible for the CDK inhibitory activity. Further optimization has led to a good number of analogues that show potent inhibitory activities against CDK1, CDK2, and CDK4 but are inactive against a large panel of serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases (K{sub i} > 10 {mu}M). As one of these representative analogues, compound 39 (R547) has the best CDK inhibitory activities (K{sub i} = 0.001, 0.003, and 0.001 M for CDK1, CDK2, and CDK4, respectively) and excellent in vitro cellular potency, inhibiting the growth of various human tumor cell lines including an HCT116 cell line (IC{sub 50} = 0.08 {mu}M). An X-ray crystal structure of 39 bound to CDK2 has been determined in this study, revealing a binding mode that is consistent with our SAR. Compound 39 demonstrates significant in vivo efficacy in the HCT116 human colorectal tumor xenograft model in nude mice with up to 95% tumor growth inhibition. On the basis of its superior overall profile, 39 was chosen for further evaluation and has progressed into Phase I clinical trial for the treatment of cancer.

  20. Immunization with antigenic peptides complexed with β-glucan induces potent cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity in combination with CpG-ODNs.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Shinichi; Morishita, Hiromi; Kobiyama, Kouji; Aoshi, Taiki; Ishii, Ken J; Sakurai, Kazuo

    2015-12-28

    The induction of antigen-specific immune responses requires immunization with not only antigens, but also adjuvants. CpG oligonucleotides (CpG-ODNs) are well-known ligands for Toll-like receptor 9 and a potent adjuvant that induces both Th1-type humoral and cellular immune responses including cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses. We previously demonstrated that β-glucan schizophyllan (SPG) can form complexes with CpG-ODNs with attached dA40 (CpG-dA/SPG), which can accumulate in macrophages in the draining inguinal lymph nodes and induce strong immune responses by co-administration of antigenic proteins, namely ovalbumin (OVA). Immunization with antigenic peptides, OVA257-264, did not induce these antigen-specific immune responses even in combination with CpG-dA/SPG, indicating that peptides require a carrier to antigen presenting cells. In this study, we prepared conjugates comprising OVA257-264 and dA40, and made complexes with SPG. Immunization with OVA257-264-dA/SPG induced peptide-specific immune responses in combination with CpG-dA regardless of complexation with SPG both in vitro and in vivo. When splenocytes from immunized mice were incubated with E.G7-OVA tumor model cells presenting OVA peptides, the number of cells drastically decreased after 24h. Furthermore, mice pre-immunized with OVA257-264-dA/SPG and CpG-ODNs exhibited a long delay in tumor growth after tumor inoculation. Therefore, these peptide-dA/SPG and CpG-dA/SPG complexes could be used as a potent vaccine for the treatment of cancers and infectious diseases. PMID:26562685

  1. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) secreted by cDNA-transfected tumor cells induces a more potent antitumor response than exogenous GM-CSF.

    PubMed

    Shi, F S; Weber, S; Gan, J; Rakhmilevich, A L; Mahvi, D M

    1999-01-01

    Clinical cancer gene therapy trials have generally focused on the transfer of cytokine cDNA to tumor cells ex vivo and with the subsequent vaccination of the patient with these genetically altered tumor cells. This approach results in high local cytokine concentrations that may account for the efficacy of this technique in animal models. We hypothesized that the expression of certain cytokines by tumor cells would be a superior immune stimulant when compared with local delivery of exogenous cytokines. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) cDNA in a nonviral expression vector was inserted into MDA-MB-231 (human breast cancer), M21 (human melanoma), B16 (murine melanoma), and P815 (mastocytoma) cells by particle-mediated gene transfer. The ability of transfected tumor cells to generate a tumor-specific immune response was evaluated in an in vitro mixed lymphocyte-tumor cell assay and in an in vivo murine tumor protection model. Peripheral blood lymphocytes cocultured with human GM-CSF-transfected tumor cells were 3- to 5-fold more effective at lysis of the parental tumor cells than were peripheral blood lymphocytes incubated with irradiated tumor cells and exogenous human GM-CSF. Mice immunized with murine GM-CSF-transfected irradiated B16 murine melanoma cells or P815 mastocytoma cells were protected from subsequent tumor challenge, whereas mice immunized with the nontransfected tumors and cutaneous transfection of murine GM-CSF cDNA at the vaccination site developed tumors more frequently. The results indicate that GM-CSF protein expressed in human and murine tumor cells is a superior antitumor immune stimulant compared with exogenous GM-CSF in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:10078967

  2. DNA vaccine encoding HPV-16 E7 with mutation in L-Y-C-Y-E pRb-binding motif induces potent anti-tumor responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Armina Alagheband; Ghaemi, Amir; Tabarraei, Alijan; Sajadian, Azadeh; Gorji, Ali; Soleimanjahi, Hoorieh

    2014-09-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide and remains a clinical problem despite improvements in early detection and therapy. The human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 (HPV16) E7 oncoprotein expressed in cervical carcinoma cells are considered as attractive tumor-specific antigen targets for immunotherapy. Since the transformation potential of the oncogenes, vaccination based of these oncogenes is not safe. In present study, DNA vaccine expressing the modified variant with mutation in pRb-binding motif of the HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein was generated. A novel modified E7 gene with mutation in LYCYE motif was designed and constructed and the immunogenicity and antitumor effect of therapeutic DNA vaccines encoding the mutant and wild type of E7 gene were investigated. The L-Y-C-Y-E pRb-binding motif of E7 proteins has been involved in the immortalization and transformation of the host cell. The results showed that the mutant and wild type HPV-16 E7 vectors expressed the desired protein. Furthermore, the immunological mechanism behind mutant E7 DNA vaccine can be attributed at least partially to increased cytotoxic T lymphocyte, accompanied by the up-regulation of Th1-cytokine IFN-γ and TNF-β and down-regulation of Th3-cytokine TGF-β. Immunized mice with mutant plasmid demonstrated significantly stronger cell immune responses and higher levels of tumor protection than wild-type E7 DNA vaccine. The results exhibit that modified E7 DNA vaccine may be a promising candidate for development of therapeutic vaccine against HPV-16 cancers.

  3. Highly and Broad-Spectrum In Vitro Antitumor Active cis-Dichloridoplatinum(II) Complexes with 7-Azaindoles

    PubMed Central

    Štarha, Pavel; Dvořák, Zdeněk; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    The cis-[PtCl2(naza)2] complexes (1–3) containing monosubstituted 7-azaindole halogeno-derivatives (naza), showed significantly higher activity than cisplatin towards ovarian carcinoma A2780, its cisplatin-resistant variant A2780R, osteosarcoma HOS, breast carcinoma MCF7 and cervix carcinoma HeLa cell lines, with the IC50 values of 3.8, 3.5, 4.5, 2.7, and 9.2 μM, respectively, obtained for the most active complex 3. As for 4 and 5 having disubstituted 7-azaindoles in their molecule, the significant cytotoxicity was detected only for 4 against A2780 (IC50 = 4.8 μM), A2780R (IC50 = 3.8 μM) and HOS (IC50 = 4.3 μM), while 5 was evaluated as having only moderate antiproliferative effect against the mentioned cancer cell lines with IC50 = 33.4, 24.7 and 46.7 μM, respectively. All the studied complexes 1–5 effectively avoided the acquired resistance of ovarian carcinoma cell line. On the other hand, the complexes did not reveal any inhibition activity on the purified 20S proteasome from the A2780 cells. The representative complexes 3 and 5 showed low ability to be hydrolysed, but their stability was markedly lowered in the presence of physiological sulphur-containing biomolecule glutathione (GSH), as proved by the 1H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry studies. A rate of interaction of the studied complexes with GSH was affected by an addition of another mechanistically relevant biomolecule guanosine monophosphate. The differences in interactions of 3 and 5 with GSH correlate well with their different cytotoxicity profiles. PMID:26309251

  4. Structural and functional effects of benzimidazole/thioether-copper complexes with antitumor activity on cell membranes and molecular models.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Ivan; Suwalsky, Mario; Gallardo, María José; Troncoso, Valentina; Sánchez-Eguía, Brenda N; Santiago-Osorio, Edelmiro; Aguiñiga, Itzen; González-Ugarte, Ana K

    2016-03-01

    Two cytotoxic copper(II) complexes with N-H and N-methylated benzimidazole-derived ligands (Cu-L(2) and Cu-L(2Me)) were synthesized and made to interact with human erythrocytes and molecular models of their plasmatic membranes. The latter consisted in lipid bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE), lipids of the types present in the outer and inner monolayers of the human erythrocyte membrane, respectively. Initial assessment of the interaction of the complexes with DMPC and DMPE consisted of X-ray diffraction studies, which showed preferential interactions with the former. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of erythrocytes incubated with solutions of the Cu(II) complexes evidenced deformation of the cells to stomatocytes and knizocytes by Cu-L(2) and Cu-L(2Me) due to interactions with the inner and outer leaflets of the cell membranes, respectively. This was further confirmed by real-time observation of the dose-dependent effects of the complexes on live erythrocytes by defocusing microscopy (DM). The combined observations, including the increased antiproliferative activity of the N-methylated complex Cu-L(2Me) over that of Cu-L(2) is rationalized based on the higher lipophilicity of the former. This property would facilitate passive diffusion of Cu-L(2Me) through the cell membrane, particularly in the initial stages when the DMPC-rich outer leaflet is involved. In contrast, the benzimidazole N-H groups of Cu-L(2) may participate in hydrogen bonding with DMPE polar groups; this result is consistent with the formation of stomatocyte induced by the latter complex. PMID:26775279

  5. Highly and Broad-Spectrum In Vitro Antitumor Active cis-Dichloridoplatinum(II) Complexes with 7-Azaindoles.

    PubMed

    Štarha, Pavel; Dvořák, Zdeněk; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    The cis-[PtCl2(naza)2] complexes (1-3) containing monosubstituted 7-azaindole halogeno-derivatives (naza), showed significantly higher activity than cisplatin towards ovarian carcinoma A2780, its cisplatin-resistant variant A2780R, osteosarcoma HOS, breast carcinoma MCF7 and cervix carcinoma HeLa cell lines, with the IC50 values of 3.8, 3.5, 4.5, 2.7, and 9.2 μM, respectively, obtained for the most active complex 3. As for 4 and 5 having disubstituted 7-azaindoles in their molecule, the significant cytotoxicity was detected only for 4 against A2780 (IC50 = 4.8 μM), A2780R (IC50 = 3.8 μM) and HOS (IC50 = 4.3 μM), while 5 was evaluated as having only moderate antiproliferative effect against the mentioned cancer cell lines with IC50 = 33.4, 24.7 and 46.7 μM, respectively. All the studied complexes 1-5 effectively avoided the acquired resistance of ovarian carcinoma cell line. On the other hand, the complexes did not reveal any inhibition activity on the purified 20S proteasome from the A2780 cells. The representative complexes 3 and 5 showed low ability to be hydrolysed, but their stability was markedly lowered in the presence of physiological sulphur-containing biomolecule glutathione (GSH), as proved by the 1H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry studies. A rate of interaction of the studied complexes with GSH was affected by an addition of another mechanistically relevant biomolecule guanosine monophosphate. The differences in interactions of 3 and 5 with GSH correlate well with their different cytotoxicity profiles. PMID:26309251

  6. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, structural studies and antibacterial and antitumor activities of diorganotin complexes with 3-methoxysalicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandani, Marzieh; Sedaghat, Tahereh; Erfani, Nasrollah; Haghshenas, Mohammad Reza; Khavasi, Hamid Reza

    2013-04-01

    Three organotin(IV) complexes, Ph2Sn(mstsc) (1), Me2Sn(mstsc) (2) and Bu2Sn(mstsc) (3), have been synthesized from reaction of R2SnCl2 (R = Ph, Me and Bu) with 3-methoxysalicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (H2mstsc). The synthesized complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis and FT-IR, 1H, 13C and 119Sn NMR spectroscopy. The structures of 2 and 3 have been also confirmed by X-ray crystallography. On the basis of spectral and structural data thiosemicarbazone acts as a tridentate dianionic ligand and coordinates to tin through phenolic oxygen, the azomethine nitrogen and thiolate sulfur atoms. The metal coordination geometry for 2 and 3 is described as distorted square pyramid and the crystal lattices are stabilized by intermolecular hydrogen bands. On the basis of 119Sn NMR data, coordination number of tin retains five in solution. The in vitro antibacterial activity of ligand and its complexes has been evaluated against one Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria. Complex 2 exhibited good activity along with the standard antibacterial drugs. The in vitro cytotoxicities of the synthesized compounds against Jurkat cells were evaluated by the standard WST-1 assay. The activity decreases in the order 3 > 1 > 2 = H2mstsc.

  7. Antigenic Characterization of the HCMV gH/gL/gO and Pentamer Cell Entry Complexes Reveals Binding Sites for Potently Neutralizing Human Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ciferri, Claudio; Chandramouli, Sumana; Leitner, Alexander; Donnarumma, Danilo; Cianfrocco, Michael A.; Gerrein, Rachel; Friedrich, Kristian; Aggarwal, Yukti; Palladino, Giuseppe; Aebersold, Ruedi; Norais, Nathalie; Settembre, Ethan C.; Carfi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in transplant patients and in fetuses following congenital infection. The glycoprotein complexes gH/gL/gO and gH/gL/UL128/UL130/UL131A (Pentamer) are required for HCMV entry in fibroblasts and endothelial/epithelial cells, respectively, and are targeted by potently neutralizing antibodies in the infected host. Using purified soluble forms of gH/gL/gO and Pentamer as well as a panel of naturally elicited human monoclonal antibodies, we determined the location of key neutralizing epitopes on the gH/gL/gO and Pentamer surfaces. Mass Spectrometry (MS) coupled to Chemical Crosslinking or to Hydrogen Deuterium Exchange was used to define residues that are either in proximity or part of neutralizing epitopes on the glycoprotein complexes. We also determined the molecular architecture of the gH/gL/gO- and Pentamer-antibody complexes by Electron Microscopy (EM) and 3D reconstructions. The EM analysis revealed that the Pentamer specific neutralizing antibodies bind to two opposite surfaces of the complex, suggesting that they may neutralize infection by different mechanisms. Together, our data identify the location of neutralizing antibodies binding sites on the gH/gL/gO and Pentamer complexes and provide a framework for the development of antibodies and vaccines against HCMV. PMID:26485028

  8. Antigenic Characterization of the HCMV gH/gL/gO and Pentamer Cell Entry Complexes Reveals Binding Sites for Potently Neutralizing Human Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ciferri, Claudio; Chandramouli, Sumana; Leitner, Alexander; Donnarumma, Danilo; Cianfrocco, Michael A; Gerrein, Rachel; Friedrich, Kristian; Aggarwal, Yukti; Palladino, Giuseppe; Aebersold, Ruedi; Norais, Nathalie; Settembre, Ethan C; Carfi, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in transplant patients and in fetuses following congenital infection. The glycoprotein complexes gH/gL/gO and gH/gL/UL128/UL130/UL131A (Pentamer) are required for HCMV entry in fibroblasts and endothelial/epithelial cells, respectively, and are targeted by potently neutralizing antibodies in the infected host. Using purified soluble forms of gH/gL/gO and Pentamer as well as a panel of naturally elicited human monoclonal antibodies, we determined the location of key neutralizing epitopes on the gH/gL/gO and Pentamer surfaces. Mass Spectrometry (MS) coupled to Chemical Crosslinking or to Hydrogen Deuterium Exchange was used to define residues that are either in proximity or part of neutralizing epitopes on the glycoprotein complexes. We also determined the molecular architecture of the gH/gL/gO- and Pentamer-antibody complexes by Electron Microscopy (EM) and 3D reconstructions. The EM analysis revealed that the Pentamer specific neutralizing antibodies bind to two opposite surfaces of the complex, suggesting that they may neutralize infection by different mechanisms. Together, our data identify the location of neutralizing antibodies binding sites on the gH/gL/gO and Pentamer complexes and provide a framework for the development of antibodies and vaccines against HCMV. PMID:26485028

  9. Structural diversity of copper(II) complexes with N-(2-pyridyl)imidazolidin-2-ones(thiones) and their in vitro antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Balewski, Łukasz; Sączewski, Franciszek; Bednarski, Patrick J; Gdaniec, Maria; Borys, Ewa; Makowska, Anna

    2014-10-23

    Six series of structurally different mono- and binuclear copper(II) complexes 5-10 were obtained by reacting N-(2-pyridyl)imidazolidin-2-ones (1a-l), N,N'-bis(2-pyridyl)imidazolidin-2-ones (2a,b), N-acyl-N'(2-pyridyl)imidazolodin-2-ones (3a-j) and N-(2-pyridyl)imidazolidine-2-thiones (4a-g) with copper(II) chloride at an ambient temperature. The coordination modes of the complexes obtained were established by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopic data and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The in vitro cytotoxic activities of both the free ligands and copper(II) complexes were evaluated using a crystal violet microtiter plate assay on five human tumor cell lines: LCLC-103H, A-427, SISO, RT-4 and DAN-G. The free ligands 1-4 at concentration attainable in cancer cells of 20 μM showed no meaningful cytotoxic effect with cell viability in the range of 88%-100%. The most potent copper(II) complex of 1-(6-ethoxy-2-pyridyl)imidazolidin-2-one (6b) exhibited selective cytotoxicity against A-427 lung cancer cell line, while the complexes of 1-(5-methyl-2-pyridyl)imidazolidine-2-thione (5h) and 1-(4-tert-butyl-2-pyridyl)imidazolidine-2-thione (5j) showed cytostatic effect against a whole panel of five human tumor cell lines. In conclusion, the only complexes that showed remarkably increased activity in comparison to the free ligands were those obtained from N-(2-pyridyl)imidazolidine-2-thiones 4c and 4e substituted with alkyl group at position 4 or 5 of pyridine ring.

  10. Behavior of the potential antitumor V(IV)O complexes formed by flavonoid ligands. 3. Antioxidant properties and radical production capability.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Daniele; Ugone, Valeria; Fadda, Angela; Micera, Giovanni; Garribba, Eugenio

    2016-08-01

    The radical production capability and the antioxidant properties of some V(IV)O complexes formed by flavonoid ligands were examined. In particular, the bis-chelated species of quercetin (que), [VO(que)2](2-), and morin (mor), [VO(mor)2], were evaluated for their capability to reduce the stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and produce the hydroxyl radical (•)OH by Fenton-like reactions, where the reducing agent is V(IV)O(2+). The results were compared with those displayed by other V(IV)O complexes, such as [VO(H2O)5](2+), [VO(acac)2] (acac=acetylacetonate) and [VO(cat)2](2-) (cat=catecholate). The capability of the V(IV)O flavonoids complexes to reduce DPPH is much larger than that of the V(IV)O species formed by non-antioxidant ligands and it is due mainly to the flavonoid molecule. Through the 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) spin trapping assay of the hydroxyl radical it was possible to demonstrate that in acidic solution V(IV)O(2+) has an effectiveness in producing (•)OH radicals comparable to that of Fe(2+). When V(IV)O complexes of flavonoids were taken into account, the amount of hydroxyl radicals produced in Fenton-like reactions depends on the specific structure of the ligand and on their capability to reduce H2O2 to give (•)OH. Both the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under physiological conditions by V(IV)O complexes of flavonoid ligands and their radical scavenging capability can be put in relationship with their antitumor effectiveness and it could be possible to modulate these actions by changing the features of the flavonoid coordinated to the V(IV)O(2+) ion, such as the entity, nature and position of the substituents and the number of phenolic groups. PMID:27184413

  11. A Schiff base-derived copper (II) complex is a potent inducer of apoptosis in colon cancer cells by activating the intrinsic pathway.

    PubMed

    Hajrezaie, Maryam; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Gwaram, Nura Suleiman; Zahedifard, Maryam; Rouhollahi, Elham; Karimian, Hamed; Looi, Chung Yeng; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdul Majid, Nazia; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    Metal-based drugs with extensive clinical applications hold great promise for the development of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. In the last few decades, Schiff bases and their complexes have become well known for their extensive biological potential. In the present study, we examined the antiproliferative effect of a copper (II) complex on HT-29 colon cancer cells. The Cu(BrHAP)2 Schiff base compound demonstrated a potent antiproliferative effect in HT-29 cells, with an IC50 value of 2.87  μg/ml after 72 h of treatment. HT-29 cells treated with Cu (II) complexes underwent apoptosis death, as exhibited by a progressive elevation in the proportion of the G1 cell population. At a concentration of 6.25  μg/ml, the Cu(BrHAP)2 compound caused significant elevation in ROS production following perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release, as assessed by the measurement of fluorescence intensity in stained cells. Furthermore, the activation of caspases 3/7 and 9 was part of the Cu (II) complex-induced apoptosis, which confirmed the involvement of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. Meanwhile, there was no significant activation of caspase-8. Taken together, these results imply that the Cu(BrHAP)2 compound is a potential candidate for further in vivo and clinical colon cancer studies to develop novel chemotherapeutic agents derived from metal-based agents.

  12. A Schiff Base-Derived Copper (II) Complex Is a Potent Inducer of Apoptosis in Colon Cancer Cells by Activating the Intrinsic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hajrezaie, Maryam; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Gwaram, Nura Suleiman; Zahedifard, Maryam; Rouhollahi, Elham; Karimian, Hamed; Looi, Chung Yeng; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdul Majid, Nazia; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    Metal-based drugs with extensive clinical applications hold great promise for the development of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. In the last few decades, Schiff bases and their complexes have become well known for their extensive biological potential. In the present study, we examined the antiproliferative effect of a copper (II) complex on HT-29 colon cancer cells. The Cu(BrHAP)2 Schiff base compound demonstrated a potent antiproliferative effect in HT-29 cells, with an IC50 value of 2.87 μg/ml after 72 h of treatment. HT-29 cells treated with Cu (II) complexes underwent apoptosis death, as exhibited by a progressive elevation in the proportion of the G1 cell population. At a concentration of 6.25 μg/ml, the Cu(BrHAP)2 compound caused significant elevation in ROS production following perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release, as assessed by the measurement of fluorescence intensity in stained cells. Furthermore, the activation of caspases 3/7 and 9 was part of the Cu (II) complex-induced apoptosis, which confirmed the involvement of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. Meanwhile, there was no significant activation of caspase-8. Taken together, these results imply that the Cu(BrHAP)2 compound is a potential candidate for further in vivo and clinical colon cancer studies to develop novel chemotherapeutic agents derived from metal-based agents. PMID:24737979

  13. Imino-phosphine palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes: synthesis, molecular structures and evaluation as antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Motswainyana, William M; Onani, Martin O; Madiehe, Abram M; Saibu, Morounke; Thovhogi, Ntevheleni; Lalancette, Roger A

    2013-12-01

    The imino-phosphine ligands L1 and L2 were prepared via condensation reaction of 2-(diphenylphosphino)benzaldehyde with substituted anilines and obtained in very good yields. An equimolar reaction of L1 and L2 with either PdCl2(cod) or PtCl2(cod) gave new palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes 1-4. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, (1)H and (31)P NMR spectroscopy. The molecular structures of 2, 3 and 4 were confirmed by X-ray crystallography. All the three molecular structures crystallized in monoclinic C2/c space system. The coordination geometry around the palladium and platinum atoms in respective structures exhibited distorted square planar geometry at the metal centers. The complexes were evaluated in vitro for their cytotoxic activity against human breast (MCF-7) and human colon (HT-29) cancer cells, and they exhibited growth inhibitory activities and selectivity that were superior to the standard compound cisplatin.

  14. A Novel Angiopoietin-2 Selective Fully Human Antibody with Potent Anti-Tumoral and Anti-Angiogenic Efficacy and Superior Side Effect Profile Compared to Pan-Angiopoietin-1/-2 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Markus; Kienast, Yvonne; Scheuer, Werner; Bähner, Monika; Kaluza, Klaus; Gassner, Christian; Herting, Frank; Brinkmann, Ulrich; Seeber, Stefan; Kavlie, Anita; Welschof, Martin; Ries, Stefan; Weidner, K. Michael; Regula, Jörg T.; Klein, Christian

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing experimental evidence for an important role of Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) in tumor angiogenesis and progression. In addition, Ang-2 is up-regulated in many cancer types and correlated with poor prognosis. To investigate the functional role of Ang-2 inhibition in tumor development and progression, we generated novel fully human antibodies that neutralize specifically the binding of Ang-2 to its receptor Tie2. The selected antibodies LC06 and LC08 recognize both rodent and human Ang-2 with high affinity, but LC06 shows a higher selectivity for Ang-2 over Ang-1 compared to LC08 which can be considered an Ang-2/Ang-1 cross-reactive antibody. Our data demonstrate that Ang-2 blockade results in potent tumor growth inhibition and pronounced tumor necrosis in subcutaneous and orthotopic tumor models. These effects are attended with a reduction of intratumoral microvessel density and tumor vessels characterized by fewer branches and increased pericyte coverage. Furthermore, anti-Ang-2 treatment strongly inhibits the dissemination of tumor cells to the lungs. Interestingly, in contrast to the Ang-2/Ang-1 cross-reactive antibody LC08 that leads to a regression of physiological vessels in the mouse trachea, the inhibition with the selective anti-Ang-2 antibody LC06 appears to be largely restricted to tumor vasculature without obvious effects on normal vasculature. Taken together, these data provide strong evidence for the selective Ang-2 antibody LC06 as promising new therapeutic agent for the treatment of various cancers. PMID:23405099

  15. A novel angiopoietin-2 selective fully human antibody with potent anti-tumoral and anti-angiogenic efficacy and superior side effect profile compared to Pan-Angiopoietin-1/-2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Markus; Kienast, Yvonne; Scheuer, Werner; Bähner, Monika; Kaluza, Klaus; Gassner, Christian; Herting, Frank; Brinkmann, Ulrich; Seeber, Stefan; Kavlie, Anita; Welschof, Martin; Ries, Stefan; Weidner, K Michael; Regula, Jörg T; Klein, Christian

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing experimental evidence for an important role of Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) in tumor angiogenesis and progression. In addition, Ang-2 is up-regulated in many cancer types and correlated with poor prognosis. To investigate the functional role of Ang-2 inhibition in tumor development and progression, we generated novel fully human antibodies that neutralize specifically the binding of Ang-2 to its receptor Tie2. The selected antibodies LC06 and LC08 recognize both rodent and human Ang-2 with high affinity, but LC06 shows a higher selectivity for Ang-2 over Ang-1 compared to LC08 which can be considered an Ang-2/Ang-1 cross-reactive antibody. Our data demonstrate that Ang-2 blockade results in potent tumor growth inhibition and pronounced tumor necrosis in subcutaneous and orthotopic tumor models. These effects are attended with a reduction of intratumoral microvessel density and tumor vessels characterized by fewer branches and increased pericyte coverage. Furthermore, anti-Ang-2 treatment strongly inhibits the dissemination of tumor cells to the lungs. Interestingly, in contrast to the Ang-2/Ang-1 cross-reactive antibody LC08 that leads to a regression of physiological vessels in the mouse trachea, the inhibition with the selective anti-Ang-2 antibody LC06 appears to be largely restricted to tumor vasculature without obvious effects on normal vasculature. Taken together, these data provide strong evidence for the selective Ang-2 antibody LC06 as promising new therapeutic agent for the treatment of various cancers.

  16. Iron-Targeting Antitumor Activity of Gallium Compounds and Novel Insights Into Triapine®-Metal Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Antholine, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Despite advances made in the treatment of cancer, a significant number of patients succumb to this disease every year. Hence, there is a great need to develop new anticancer agents. Recent Advances: Emerging data show that malignant cells have a greater requirement for iron than normal cells do and that proteins involved in iron import, export, and storage may be altered in cancer cells. Therefore, strategies to perturb these iron-dependent steps in malignant cells hold promise for the treatment of cancer. Recent studies show that gallium compounds and metal-thiosemicarbazone complexes inhibit tumor cell growth by targeting iron homeostasis, including iron-dependent ribonucleotide reductase. Chemical similarities of gallium(III) with iron(III) enable the former to mimic the latter and interpose itself in critical iron-dependent steps in cellular proliferation. Newer gallium compounds have emerged with additional mechanisms of action. In clinical trials, the first-generation-compound gallium nitrate has exhibited activity against bladder cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, while the thiosemicarbazone Triapine® has demonstrated activity against other tumors. Critical Issues: Novel gallium compounds with greater cytotoxicity and a broader spectrum of antineoplastic activity than gallium nitrate should continue to be developed. Future Directions: The antineoplastic activity and toxicity of the existing novel gallium compounds and thiosemicarbazone-metal complexes should be tested in animal tumor models and advanced to Phase I and II clinical trials. Future research should identify biologic markers that predict tumor sensitivity to gallium compounds. This will help direct gallium-based therapy to cancer patients who are most likely to benefit from it. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000–000. PMID:22900955

  17. Structural Analysis of a Holoenzyme Complex of Mouse Dihydrofolate Reductase With NADPH And a Ternary Complex With the Potent And Selective Inhibitor 2,4-Diamino-6-(2'-Hydroxydibenz[b,F]azepin-5-YI)

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, V.; Pace, J.; Rosowsky, A.

    2009-05-12

    It has been shown that 2,4-diamino-6-arylmethylpteridines and 2,4-diamino-5-arylmethylpyrimidines containing an O-carboxylalkyloxy group in the aryl moiety are potent and selective inhibitors of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from opportunistic pathogens such as Pneumocystis carinii, the causative agent of Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV/AIDS patients. In order to understand the structure-activity profile observed for a series of substituted dibenz[b,f]azepine antifolates, the crystal structures of mouse DHFR (mDHFR; a mammalian homologue) holo and ternary complexes with NADPH and the inhibitor 2,4-diamino-6-(2{prime}-hydroxydibenz[b,f]azepin-5-yl)methylpteridine were determined to 1.9 and 1.4 A resolution, respectively. Structural data for the ternary complex with the potent O-(3-carboxypropyl) inhibitor PT684 revealed no electron density for the O-carboxylalkyloxy side chain. The side chain was either cleaved or completely disordered. The electron density fitted the less potent hydroxyl compound PT684a. Additionally, cocrystallization of mDHFR with NADPH and the less potent 2{prime}-(4-carboxybenzyl) inhibitor PT682 showed no electron density for the inhibitor and resulted in the first report of a holoenzyme complex despite several attempts at crystallization of a ternary complex. Modeling data of PT682 in the active site of mDHFR and P. carinii DHFR (pcDHFR) indicate that binding would require ligand-induced conformational changes to the enzyme for the inhibitor to fit into the active site or that the inhibitor side chain would have to adopt an alternative binding mode to that observed for other carboxyalkyloxy inhibitors. These data also show that the mDHFR complexes have a decreased active-site volume as reflected in the relative shift of helix C (residues 59-64) by 0.6 A compared with pcDHFR ternary complexes. These data are consistent with the greater inhibitory potency against pcDHFR.

  18. Cyclometalated Palladium(II) N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes: Anticancer Agents for Potent In Vitro Cytotoxicity and In Vivo Tumor Growth Suppression.

    PubMed

    Fong, Tommy Tsz-Him; Lok, Chun-Nam; Chung, Clive Yik-Sham; Fung, Yi-Man Eva; Chow, Pui-Keong; Wan, Pui-Ki; Che, Chi-Ming

    2016-09-19

    Palladium(II) complexes are generally reactive toward substitution/reduction, and their biological applications are seldom explored. A new series of palladium(II) N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes that are stable in the presence of biological thiols are reported. A representative complex, [Pd(C^N^N)(N,N'-nBu2 NHC)](CF3 SO3 ) (Pd1 d, HC^N^N=6-phenyl-2,2'-bipyridine, N,N'-nBu2 NHC=N,N'-di-n-butylimidazolylidene), displays potent killing activity toward cancer cell lines (IC50 =0.09-0.5 μm) but is less cytotoxic toward a normal human fibroblast cell line (CCD-19Lu, IC50 =11.8 μm). In vivo anticancer studies revealed that Pd1 d significantly inhibited tumor growth in a nude mice model. Proteomics data and in vitro biochemical assays reveal that Pd1 d exerts anticancer effects, including inhibition of an epidermal growth factor receptor pathway, induction of mitochondrial dysfunction, and antiangiogenic activity to endothelial cells.

  19. Closely Related Mycobacterial Strains Demonstrate Contrasting Levels of Efficacy as Antitumor Vaccines and Are Processed for Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Presentation by Multiple Routes in Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheadle, Eleanor J.; O'Donnell, Dearbhaile; Selby, Peter J.; Jackson, Andrew M.

    2005-01-01

    Mycobacteria expressing recombinant antigens are already being developed as vaccines against both infections and tumors. Little is known about how dendritic cells might process such antigens. Two different mycobacterial species, the fast-growing Mycobacterium smegmatis and the slow-growing M. bovis M. bovis BCG, were engineered to express a model tumor antigen, the Kb-restricted dominant cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope OVA257-264. Recombinant M. bovis BCG but not recombinant M. smegmatis conferred protection to mice challenged with the B16-OVA tumor cell line. We went on to investigate whether the contrast in antitumor efficacy could be due to differences in how dendritic cells process antigen from the two mycobacterial strains for class I presentation. Both strains of mycobacteria caused phenotypic maturation of dendritic cells, but recombinant M. smegmatis infection led to a greater degree of dendritic cell maturation than recombinant M. bovis BCG infection. Antigen from recombinant M. smegmatis was processed and presented as OVA257-264 on Kb molecules by the dendritic cell line DC2.4 but not by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) or splenic dendritic cells. In contrast, antigen from recombinant M. bovis BCG was presented by all three dendritic cell types as long as the mycobacteria were viable. Such presentation was dependent on proteasome function and nascent major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules in DC2.4 cells but independent of the proteasome and transporter associated with antigen processings (TAP) in BMDC and splenic dendritic cells. These data demonstrate for the first time that antigen vectored by the slow-growing M. bovis BCG but not that vectored by fast-growing, readily destroyed M. smegmatis is processed and presented on MHC class I by in vitro-generated dendritic cells, which has implications for recombinant microbial vaccine development. PMID:15664917

  20. The antitumor mechanism of di-2-pyridylketone 2-pyridine carboxylic acid hydrazone and its copper complex in ROS generation and topoisomerase inhibition, and hydrazone involvement in oxygen-catalytic iron mobilization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tengfei; Li, Cuiping; Sun, Xingzhi; Zhu, Zhenfu; Fu, Yun; Liu, Youxun; Yuan, Yanbin; Li, Shaoshan; Li, Changzheng

    2015-11-01

    Iron depletion and stimulation of iron-dependent free radical damage is a rapidly developing field for chelation therapy, but the iron mobilization from ferritin by chelators has received less attention. In this study, the di-2-pyridylketone 2-pyridine carboxylic acid hydrazone (DPPCAH) and its copper complex was prepared and characterized by NMR and MS spectra. The proliferation inhibition assay showed that both DPPCAH and its copper complex exhibited selectively proliferation inhibition for HepG2 (IC50, 4.6 ± 0.2 µM for DPPACH and 1.3 ± 0.2 µM for its copper complex), but less inhibition for HCT-116 cell line (IC50, >100 µM for DPPACH and 7.8 ± 0.4 µM for its copper complex). The mechanistic studies revealed that DPPACH could remove iron from ferritin in a oxygen-catalytic manner, and contributed to redox activity of labile iron pool (LIP), that is less reported for the chelators that possess significant biological activity. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA cleavage assay in vitro and in vivo showed that both DPPACH-Fe(II) and DPPACH-Cu were redox-active species, indicating that ROS may mediate their antitumor activity. Further study revealed that both DPPACH and its copper complex displayed certain degree of inhibition of type II topoisomerase (Top) which contributed to their antitumor activity. Thus, the mechanism that iron mobilization by DPPACH from ferritin contributed to LIP was proposed, and both DPPACH and its copper complex were involved in ROS generation and Top II inhibition for their antitumor activities.

  1. Structural comparison of chromosomal and exogenous dihydrofolate reductase from Staphylococcus aureus in complex with the potent inhibitor trimethoprim

    SciTech Connect

    Heaslet, Holly; Harris, Melissa; Fahnoe, Kelly; Sarver, Ronald; Putz, Henry; Chang, Jeanne; Subramanyam, Chakrapani; Barreiro, Gabriela; Miller, J. Richard; Pfizer

    2010-09-02

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is the enzyme responsible for the NADPH-dependent reduction of 5,6-dihydrofolate to 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate, an essential cofactor in the synthesis of purines, thymidylate, methionine, and other key metabolites. Because of its importance in multiple cellular functions, DHFR has been the subject of much research targeting the enzyme with anticancer, antibacterial, and antimicrobial agents. Clinically used compounds targeting DHFR include methotrexate for the treatment of cancer and diaminopyrimidines (DAPs) such as trimethoprim (TMP) for the treatment of bacterial infections. DAP inhibitors of DHFR have been used clinically for >30 years and resistance to these agents has become widespread. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the causative agent of many serious nosocomial and community acquired infections, and other gram-positive organisms can show resistance to DAPs through mutation of the chromosomal gene or acquisition of an alternative DHFR termed 'S1 DHFR.' To develop new therapies for health threats such as MRSA, it is important to understand the molecular basis of DAP resistance. Here, we report the crystal structure of the wild-type chromosomal DHFR from S. aureus in complex with NADPH and TMP. We have also solved the structure of the exogenous, TMP resistant S1 DHFR, apo and in complex with TMP. The structural and thermodynamic data point to important molecular differences between the two enzymes that lead to dramatically reduced affinity of DAPs to S1 DHFR. These differences in enzyme binding affinity translate into reduced antibacterial activity against strains of S. aureus that express S1 DHFR.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and antitumoral activity of new cobalt(II)complexes: Effect of the ligand isomerism on the biological activity of the complexes.

    PubMed

    Morcelli, Samila R; Bull, Érika S; Terra, Wagner S; Moreira, Rafaela O; Borges, Franz V; Kanashiro, Milton M; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J; Maciel, Leide L F; de A Almeida, João Carlos; Júnior, Adolfo Horn; Fernandes, Christiane

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis, physico-chemical characterization and cytotoxicity against five human tumoral cell lines (THP-1, U937, Molt-4, Colo205 and H460) of three new cobalt(II) coordination compounds are reported (i.e. Co(HL1)Cl (1), Co(HL2)Cl (2) and [Co(HL3)Cl]0.0.5 (CH3)2CHOH (3)). H2L2 (2-{[[2-hydroxy-3-(1-naphthyloxy)propyl](pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino]methyl}phenol) and H2L3 (2-{[[2-hydroxy-3-(2-naphthyloxy)propyl](pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino]methyl}phenol) present α and β-naphthyl groups respectively, which is absent in H2L1 (N-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-N-(2-pyridylmethyl)[(3-chloro)(2-hydroxy)]propylamine. These compounds were characterized by a range of physico-chemical methods. X-ray diffraction studies were performed for complex (3), indicating the formation of a mononuclear complex. Complexes (2) and (3), which contain α and β-naphthyl groups respectively, have presented lower IC50 values than those exhibited by complex (1). Complex (3) presents IC50 values lower than cisplatin against Colo205 (90 and 196μmolL(-1), respectively) and H460 (147 and 197μmolL(-1), respectively). These human neoplastic cells under investigation were also more susceptible toward complex (3) than peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Transmission electron microscopy investigations are in agreement with the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) observed by JC-1 mitochondrial potential sensor and indicate that the activity of complex (3) against leukemic cell line (U937) is mediated by an apoptotic mechanism associated with mitochondrial dysfunction (intrinsic pathway).

  3. Antitumor and antiparasitic activity of novel ruthenium compounds with polycyclic aromatic ligands.

    PubMed

    Miserachs, Helena Guiset; Cipriani, Micaella; Grau, Jordi; Vilaseca, Marta; Lorenzo, Julia; Medeiros, Andrea; Comini, Marcelo A; Gambino, Dinorah; Otero, Lucía; Moreno, Virtudes

    2015-09-01

    Five novel ruthenium(II)-arene complexes with polycyclic aromatic ligands were synthesized, comprising three compounds of the formula [RuCl(η(6)-p-cym)(L)][PF6], where p-cym = 1-isopropyl-4-methylbenzene and L are the bidentate aromatic ligands 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione, 1, 5-amine-1,10-phenanthroline, 4, or 5,6-epoxy-5,6-dihydro-phenanthroline, 5. In the other two complexes [RuCl2(η(6)-p-cym)(L')], the metal is coordinated to a monodentate ligand L', where L' is phenanthridine, 2, or 9-carbonylanthracene, 3. All compounds were fully characterized by mass spectrometry and elemental analysis, as well as NMR and IR spectroscopic techniques. Obtained ruthenium compounds as well as their respective ligands were tested for their antiparasitic and antitumoral activities. Even though all compounds showed lower Trypanosoma brucei activity than the free ligands, they also resulted less toxic on mammalian cells. Cytotoxicity assays on HL60 cells showed a moderate antitumoral activity for all ruthenium compounds. Compound 1 was the most potent antitumoral (IC50 = 1.26±0.78 μM) and antiparasitic (IC50 = 0.19 ± 0.05 μM) agent, showing high selectivity towards the parasites (selectivity index >100). As complex 1 was the most promising antitumoral compound, its interaction with ubiquitin as potential target was also studied. In addition, obtained ruthenium compounds were found to bind DNA, and they are thought to interact with this macromolecule mainly through intercalation of the aromatic ligand.

  4. Bioactivity of pyridine-2-thiolato-1-oxide metal complexes: Bi(III), Fe(III) and Ga(III) complexes as potent anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis prospective agents.

    PubMed

    Machado, Ignacio; Marino, Leonardo Biancolino; Demoro, Bruno; Echeverría, Gustavo A; Piro, Oscar E; Leite, Clarice Q F; Pavan, Fernando R; Gambino, Dinorah

    2014-11-24

    In the search for new therapeutic tools against tuberculosis and to further address the therapeutic potential of pyridine-2-thiol 1-oxide (Hmpo) metal complexes, two new octahedral [M(III)(mpo)3] complexes, with M = Ga or Bi, were synthesized and characterized in the solid state and in solution. Attempts to crystallize [Ga(III)(mpo)3] in CH2Cl2 led to single crystals of the reaction product [GaCl(mpo)2], where the gallium(III) ion is in a square basis pyramidal environment, trans-coordinated at the basis to two pyridine-2-thiolato 1-oxide anions acting as bidentate ligands through their oxygen and sulfur atoms. The biological activity of the new [M(III)(mpo)3] complexes together with that of the previously reported Fe(III) analogous compound and the pyridine-2-thiol 1-oxide sodium salt (Na mpo) was evaluated on Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The compounds showed excellent activity, both in the standard strain H37Rv ATCC 27294 (pan-susceptible) and in five clinical isolates that are resistant to the standard first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs isoniazid and rifampicin. These pyridine-2-thiol 1-oxide derivatives are promising compounds for the treatment of resistant tuberculosis.

  5. Bioactivity of pyridine-2-thiolato-1-oxide metal complexes: Bi(III), Fe(III) and Ga(III) complexes as potent anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis prospective agents.

    PubMed

    Machado, Ignacio; Marino, Leonardo Biancolino; Demoro, Bruno; Echeverría, Gustavo A; Piro, Oscar E; Leite, Clarice Q F; Pavan, Fernando R; Gambino, Dinorah

    2014-11-24

    In the search for new therapeutic tools against tuberculosis and to further address the therapeutic potential of pyridine-2-thiol 1-oxide (Hmpo) metal complexes, two new octahedral [M(III)(mpo)3] complexes, with M = Ga or Bi, were synthesized and characterized in the solid state and in solution. Attempts to crystallize [Ga(III)(mpo)3] in CH2Cl2 led to single crystals of the reaction product [GaCl(mpo)2], where the gallium(III) ion is in a square basis pyramidal environment, trans-coordinated at the basis to two pyridine-2-thiolato 1-oxide anions acting as bidentate ligands through their oxygen and sulfur atoms. The biological activity of the new [M(III)(mpo)3] complexes together with that of the previously reported Fe(III) analogous compound and the pyridine-2-thiol 1-oxide sodium salt (Na mpo) was evaluated on Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The compounds showed excellent activity, both in the standard strain H37Rv ATCC 27294 (pan-susceptible) and in five clinical isolates that are resistant to the standard first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs isoniazid and rifampicin. These pyridine-2-thiol 1-oxide derivatives are promising compounds for the treatment of resistant tuberculosis. PMID:25261824

  6. Synthesis, Characterization And Antitumor Activity Of Copper(II) Complexes, [CuL2] [HL1-3=N,N-Diethyl-N'-(R-Benzoyl)Thiourea (R=H, o-Cl and p-NO2)

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Wilfredo; Beyer, Lothar; Schröder, Uwe; Richter, Rainer; Ferreira, Jorge; Pavani, Mario

    2005-01-01

    The copper (II) complexes (CuL2) were prepared by reaction of Cu(CH3COO)2 with the corresponding derivatives of acylthioureas in a Cu:HL molar ratio of 1:2. Acylthiourea ligands, N,N-diethyl-N'-(R-benzoyl) thiourea (HL1-3) [R=H, o-Cl and p-NO2] were synthesized in high yield (78-83%) and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The complexes CuL2 were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, FAB(+)-MS, magnetic susceptibility measurements, EPR and cyclic voltammetry. The crystal structure of the complex Cu(L2)2 shows a nearly square-planar geometry with two deprotonated ligands (L) coordinated to CuII through the oxygen and sulfur atoms in a cis arrangement. The antitumor activity of the copper(II) complexes with acylthiourea ligands was evaluated in vitro against the mouse mammary adenocarcinoma TA3 cell line. These complexes exhibited much higher cytotoxic activity (IC50 values in the range of 3.9-6.9 μM) than their corresponding ligands (40-240 μM), which indicates that the coordination of the chelate ligands around the CuII enhances the antitumor activity and, furthermore, this result confirmed that the participation of the nitro and chloro substituent groups in the complex activities is slightly relevant. The high accumulation of the complexes Cu(L2)2 and Cu(L3)2 in TA3 tumor cells and the much faster binding to cellular DNA than Cu(L1)2 are consistent with the in vitro cytotoxic activities found for these copper complexes. PMID:18365106

  7. Treatment with targeted Vesicular Stomatitis Virus generates therapeutic multifunctional anti-tumor memory CD4 T-cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yanhua; Whitaker-Dowling, Patricia; Griffin, Judith A.; Bergman, Ira

    2011-01-01

    A generally applicable, easy-to-use method of focusing a patient's immune system to eradicate or prevent cancer has been elusive. We are attempting to develop a targeted virus to accomplish these aims. We previously created a recombinant replicating Vesicular Stomatitis Virus that preferentially infected Her2/neu expressing breast cancer cells and showed therapeutic efficacy in an implanted Balb/c mouse tumor model. The current work shows that this therapy generated therapeutic anti-tumor CD4 T-cells against multiple tumor antigens. CD4 T-cells transferred directly from cured donor mice could eradicate established tumors in host mice. T-cells were transferred directly from donor mice and were not stimulated ex vivo. Both tumors that expressed Her2/neu and those that did not were cured by transferred T-cells. Analysis of cytokines secreted by anti-tumor memory CD4 T-cells displayed a multifunctional pattern with high levels of IFNγ, IL-4 and IL-17. Anti-tumor memory CD4 T-cells traveled to the mesenteric lymph nodes and were activated there. Treatment with targeted rrVSV is a potent immune adjuvant that generates therapeutic, multifunctional anti-tumor memory CD4 T-cells that recognize multiple tumor antigens. Immunity elicited by viral therapy is independent of host major histocompatibility complex (MHC) or knowledge of tumor antigens. Virus-induced tumor immunity could have great benefit in the prevention and treatment of tumor metastases. PMID:22240921

  8. Novel Mps1 Kinase Inhibitors with Potent Antitumor Activity.

    PubMed

    Wengner, Antje M; Siemeister, Gerhard; Koppitz, Marcus; Schulze, Volker; Kosemund, Dirk; Klar, Ulrich; Stoeckigt, Detlef; Neuhaus, Roland; Lienau, Philip; Bader, Benjamin; Prechtl, Stefan; Raschke, Marian; Frisk, Anna-Lena; von Ahsen, Oliver; Michels, Martin; Kreft, Bertolt; von Nussbaum, Franz; Brands, Michael; Mumberg, Dominik; Ziegelbauer, Karl

    2016-04-01

    Monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1) has been shown to function as the key kinase that activates the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) to secure proper distribution of chromosomes to daughter cells. Here, we report the structure and functional characterization of two novel selective Mps1 inhibitors, BAY 1161909 and BAY 1217389, derived from structurally distinct chemical classes. BAY 1161909 and BAY 1217389 inhibited Mps1 kinase activity with IC50 values below 10 nmol/L while showing an excellent selectivity profile. In cellular mechanistic assays, both Mps1 inhibitors abrogated nocodazole-induced SAC activity and induced premature exit from mitosis ("mitotic breakthrough"), resulting in multinuclearity and tumor cell death. Both compounds efficiently inhibited tumor cell proliferation in vitro (IC50 nmol/L range). In vivo, BAY 1161909 and BAY 1217389 achieved moderate efficacy in monotherapy in tumor xenograft studies. However, in line with its unique mode of action, when combined with paclitaxel, low doses of Mps1 inhibitor reduced paclitaxel-induced mitotic arrest by the weakening of SAC activity. As a result, combination therapy strongly improved efficacy over paclitaxel or Mps1 inhibitor monotreatment at the respective MTDs in a broad range of xenograft models, including those showing acquired or intrinsic paclitaxel resistance. Both Mps1 inhibitors showed good tolerability without adding toxicity to paclitaxel monotherapy. These preclinical findings validate the innovative concept of SAC abrogation for cancer therapy and justify clinical proof-of-concept studies evaluating the Mps1 inhibitors BAY 1161909 and BAY 1217389 in combination with antimitotic cancer drugs to enhance their efficacy and potentially overcome resistance. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(4); 583-92. ©2016 AACR.

  9. Antitumor Activities of Kushen: Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Mingyu; Cao, Hongyan; Sun, Lin; Dong, Shu; Bian, Yanqin; Han, Jun; Zhang, Lijun; Ren, Shuang; Hu, Yiyang; Liu, Chenghai; Xu, Lieming; Liu, Ping

    2012-01-01

    To discover and develop novel natural compounds with therapeutic selectivity or that can preferentially kill cancer cells without significant toxicity to normal cells is an important area in cancer chemotherapy. Kushen, the dried roots of Sophora flavescens Aiton, has a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine to treat inflammatory diseases and cancer. Kushen alkaloids (KS-As) and kushen flavonoids (KS-Fs) are well-characterized components in kushen. KS-As containing oxymatrine, matrine, and total alkaloids have been developed in China as anticancer drugs. More potent antitumor activities were identified in KS-Fs than in KS-As in vitro and in vivo. KS-Fs may be developed as novel antitumor agents. PMID:22969826

  10. pH-sensitive polymeric cisplatin-ion complex with styrene-maleic acid copolymer exhibits tumor-selective drug delivery and antitumor activity as a result of the enhanced permeability and retention effect.

    PubMed

    Saisyo, Atsuyuki; Nakamura, Hideaki; Fang, Jun; Tsukigawa, Kenji; Greish, Khaled; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) is widely used to treat various cancers. However, its distribution to normal tissues causes serious adverse effects. For this study, we synthesized a complex of styrene-maleic acid copolymer (SMA) and CDDP (SMA-CDDP), which formed polymeric micelles, to achieve tumor-selective drug delivery based on the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. SMA-CDDP is obtained by regulating the pH of the reaction solution of SMA and CDDP. The mean SMA-CDDP particle size was 102.5 nm in PBS according to electrophoretic light scattering, and the CDDP content was 20.1% (w/w). The release rate of free CDDP derivatives from the SMA-CDDP complex at physiological pH was quite slow (0.75%/day), whereas it was much faster at pH 5.5 (4.4%/day). SMA-CDDP thus had weaker in vitro toxicity at pH 7.4 but higher cytotoxicity at pH 5.5. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies showed a 5-fold higher tumor concentration of SMA-CDDP than of free CDDP. SMA-CDDP had more effective antitumor potential but lower toxicity than did free CDDP in mice after i.v. administration. Administration of parental free CDDP at 4 mg/kg×3 caused a weight loss of more than 5%; SMA-CDDP at 60 mg/kg (CDDP equivalent)×3 caused no significant weight change but markedly suppressed S-180 tumor growth. These findings together suggested using micelles of the SMA-CDDP complex as a cancer chemotherapeutic agent because of beneficial properties-tumor-selective accumulation and relatively rapid drug release at the acidic pH of the tumor-which resulted in superior antitumor effects and fewer side effects compared with free CDDP. PMID:26674841

  11. Novel spirobicyclic artemisinin analogues (artemalogues): Synthesis and antitumor activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Song, Shanshan; Shu, Shiqi; Miao, Zehong; Zhang, Ao; Ding, Chunyong

    2015-10-20

    The sesquiterpene lactone framework of artemisinin was used as a drug repositioning prototype for the development of novel antitumor drugs. Several series of novel artemisinin analogues (artemalogues) were designed and synthesized through 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of artemisitene with nitrile oxides or nitrones. The isoxazolidine-containing spirobicyclic artemalogue 11b turns out to be the most potent with low micromolar IC₅₀ values against all three tumor cells, which were at least 4- to 14-fold more potent than the parent artemisinin. PMID:26318055

  12. Utility of Clostridium difficile toxin B for inducing anti-tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tuxiong; Li, Shan; Li, Guangchao; Tian, Yuan; Wang, Haiying; Shi, Lianfa; Perez-Cordon, Gregorio; Mao, Li; Wang, Xiaoning; Wang, Jufang; Feng, Hanping

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile toxin B (TcdB) is a key virulence factor of bacterium and induces intestinal inflammatory disease. Because of its potent cytotoxic and proinflammatory activities, we investigated the utility of TcdB in developing anti-tumor immunity. TcdB induced cell death in mouse colorectal cancer CT26 cells, and the intoxicated cells stimulated the activation of mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and subsequent T cell activation in vitro. Immunization of BALB/c mice with toxin-treated CT26 cells elicited potent anti-tumor immunity that protected mice from a lethal challenge of the same tumor cells and rejected pre-injected tumors. The anti-tumor immunity generated was cell-mediated, long-term, and tumor-specific. Further experiments demonstrated that the intact cell bodies were important for the immunogenicity since lysing the toxin-treated tumor cells reduced their ability to induce antitumor immunity. Finally, we showed that TcdB is able to induce potent anti-tumor immunity in B16-F10 melanoma model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the utility of C. difficile toxin B for developing anti-tumor immunity.

  13. Dithiocarbamate-based coordination compounds as potent proteasome inhibitors in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Buac, Daniela; Schmitt, Sara; Ventro, George; Kona, Fathima Rani; Dou, Q Ping

    2012-10-01

    Dithiocarbamates are a class of metal-chelating compounds with various applications in medicine. They have been used for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections, possible treatment of AIDS, and most recently cancer. Their anti-tumor effects can in part be attributed to their ability to complex tumor cellular copper, leading to binding to and inhibition of the proteasome and in turn initiating tumor cell-specific apoptosis. Current chemotherapeutic agents are highly toxic and therefore their efficacy in the eradication of tumors is greatly limited. As a result many scientists have joined the quest for novel targeted therapies in hopes of reducing toxicity while maximizing potency and proteasome inhibition has become an attractive therapy in this regard. Here we discuss the origins, mechanism, and evolution of dithiocarbamates as potent proteasome inhibitors and therefore anti-cancer agents. PMID:22931591

  14. Dithiocarbamate-Based Coordination Compounds as Potent Proteasome Inhibitors in Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Buac, Daniela; Schmitt, Sara; Ventro, George; Kona, Fathima Rani; Dou, Q. Ping

    2013-01-01

    Dithiocarbamates are a class of metal-chelating compounds with various applications in medicine. They have been used for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections, possible treatment of AIDS, and most recently cancer. Their anti-tumor effects can in part be attributed to their ability to complex tumor cellular copper, leading to binding to and inhibition of the proteasome and in turn initiating tumor cell-specific apoptosis. Current chemotherapeutic agents are highly toxic and therefore their efficacy in the eradication of tumors is greatly limited. As a result many scientists have joined the quest for novel targeted therapies in hopes of reducing toxicity while maximizing potency and proteasome inhibition has become an attractive therapy in this regard. Here we discuss the origins, mechanism, and evolution of dithiocarbamates as potent proteasome inhibitors and therefore anti-cancer agents. PMID:22931591

  15. Novel securinine derivatives as topoisomerase I based antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wen; Wang, Zhen-Ya; Peng, Cheng-Kang; Lin, Jing; Liu, Xin; Chang, Yi-Qun; Xu, Jun; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Lin, Hui; Sun, Ping-Hua; Chen, Wei-Min

    2016-10-21

    DNA topoisomerase I (Topo I) has been validated as a target for anticancer agents. In this study, a series of novel securinine derivatives bearing β'-hydroxy-α,β-unsaturated ketone moiety were designed and synthesized via a Baylis-Hillman reaction for screening as Topo I inhibitors and antitumor agents. Their topoisomerase I inhibitory activity as well as their cytotoxicity against four human cancer cell lines (A549, HeLa, HepG2, SH-SY5Y) were evaluated, and two pairs of diastereomers 4a-1 and 4a-6 with significant Topo I inhibitory activity and potent anti-proliferative activity against cancer cell lines were identified. The diastereomers were separated, and absolute configurations of five pairs of diastereomers were identified based on X-ray crystallographic analysis and circular dichroism (CD) spectra analysis. Further mechanism studies of the most active compounds 4a-1-R and 4a-1-S indicated that this kind of securinine derivative exhibits a different inhibitory mechanism from that of camptothecin, an established Topo I inhibitor. Unlike camptothecin, compounds 4a-1-R and 4a-1-S specifically inhibits the combination of Topo I and DNA rather than forming the drug-enzyme-DNA covalent ternary complex. In addition, molecular docking and molecular dynamic studies revealed the binding patterns of these compounds with Topo I. PMID:27344492

  16. Design and synthesis of new tetrandrine derivatives and their antitumor activities.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao; Qu, Ting-Li; Yang, Yi-Fang; Xu, Jin-Fang; Li, Xu-Wen; Zhao, Zheng-Bao; Guo, Yue-Wei

    2016-10-01

    A series of tetrandrine derivatives were designed and synthesized using Suzuki coupling reaction. Eleven targeted compounds with over 50% inhibition against HL60 and A549 human cancer cell lines at 10 μM were further evaluated for the in vitro antitumor activities by MTT or SRB assay. The biological results revealed that some compounds exhibited potent antitumor activities. Thiophene derivative 6 and acetylphenyl derivative 5 were the most active ones against HL60 and A549 cell lines, with IC50 values less than 5 μM, which thus could be considered as useful candidate for further development of new antitumor agents.

  17. Design and synthesis of new tetrandrine derivatives and their antitumor activities.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao; Qu, Ting-Li; Yang, Yi-Fang; Xu, Jin-Fang; Li, Xu-Wen; Zhao, Zheng-Bao; Guo, Yue-Wei

    2016-10-01

    A series of tetrandrine derivatives were designed and synthesized using Suzuki coupling reaction. Eleven targeted compounds with over 50% inhibition against HL60 and A549 human cancer cell lines at 10 μM were further evaluated for the in vitro antitumor activities by MTT or SRB assay. The biological results revealed that some compounds exhibited potent antitumor activities. Thiophene derivative 6 and acetylphenyl derivative 5 were the most active ones against HL60 and A549 cell lines, with IC50 values less than 5 μM, which thus could be considered as useful candidate for further development of new antitumor agents. PMID:27244089

  18. Preexisting antitumor immunity augments the antitumor effects of chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingbing; Feng, Dongdong; Yu, Lynda X; Tsung, Kangla; Norton, Jeffrey A

    2013-06-01

    Efficacy of cancer chemotherapy is generally believed to be the result of direct drug killing of tumor cells. However, increased tumor cell killing does not always lead to improved efficacy. Herein, we demonstrate that the status of antitumor immunity at the time of chemotherapy treatment is a critical factor affecting the therapeutic outcome in that tumor-bearing mice that possess preexisting antitumor immunity respond to chemotherapy much better than those that do not. Enhancing antitumor immunity before or at the time of chemotherapy-induced antigen release increases subsequent response to chemotherapy significantly. By in vitro and in vivo measurements of antitumor immunity, we found a close correlation between the intensity of antitumor immunity activated by chemotherapy and the efficacy of treatment. Immune intervention with interleukin-12 during the early phase of chemotherapy-induced immune activation greatly amplifies the antitumor response, often resulting in complete tumor eradication not only at the chemo-treated local site, but also systemically. These findings provide additional evidence for an immune-mediated antitumor response to chemotherapy. Further, our results show that timely immune modification of chemotherapy-activated antitumor immunity can result in enhanced antitumor-immune response and complete tumor eradication.

  19. Preexisting antitumor immunity augments the antitumor effects of chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingbing; Feng, Dongdong; Yu, Lynda X; Tsung, Kangla; Norton, Jeffrey A

    2013-06-01

    Efficacy of cancer chemotherapy is generally believed to be the result of direct drug killing of tumor cells. However, increased tumor cell killing does not always lead to improved efficacy. Herein, we demonstrate that the status of antitumor immunity at the time of chemotherapy treatment is a critical factor affecting the therapeutic outcome in that tumor-bearing mice that possess preexisting antitumor immunity respond to chemotherapy much better than those that do not. Enhancing antitumor immunity before or at the time of chemotherapy-induced antigen release increases subsequent response to chemotherapy significantly. By in vitro and in vivo measurements of antitumor immunity, we found a close correlation between the intensity of antitumor immunity activated by chemotherapy and the efficacy of treatment. Immune intervention with interleukin-12 during the early phase of chemotherapy-induced immune activation greatly amplifies the antitumor response, often resulting in complete tumor eradication not only at the chemo-treated local site, but also systemically. These findings provide additional evidence for an immune-mediated antitumor response to chemotherapy. Further, our results show that timely immune modification of chemotherapy-activated antitumor immunity can result in enhanced antitumor-immune response and complete tumor eradication. PMID:23595208

  20. Crystal Structures of mPGES-1 Inhibitor Complexes Form a Basis for the Rational Design of Potent Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Luz, John Gately; Antonysamy, Stephen; Kuklish, Steven L; Condon, Bradley; Lee, Matthew R; Allison, Dagart; Yu, Xiao-Peng; Chandrasekhar, Srinivasan; Backer, Ryan; Zhang, Aiping; Russell, Marijane; Chang, Shawn S; Harvey, Anita; Sloan, Ashley V; Fisher, Matthew J

    2015-06-11

    Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES-1) is an α-helical homotrimeric integral membrane inducible enzyme that catalyzes the formation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) from prostaglandin H2 (PGH2). Inhibition of mPGES-1 has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pain, inflammation, and some cancers. Interest in mPGES-1 inhibition can, in part, be attributed to the potential circumvention of cardiovascular risks associated with anti-inflammatory cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors (coxibs) by targeting the prostaglandin pathway downstream of PGH2 synthesis and avoiding suppression of antithrombotic prostacyclin production. We determined the crystal structure of mPGES-1 bound to four potent inhibitors in order to understand their structure-activity relationships and provide a framework for the rational design of improved molecules. In addition, we developed a light-scattering-based thermal stability assay to identify molecules for crystallographic studies. PMID:25961169

  1. Synthesis and Evaluation of In Vitro DNA/Protein Binding Affinity, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Antitumor Activity of Mononuclear Ru(II) Mixed Polypyridyl Complexes.

    PubMed

    Putta, Venkat Reddy; Chintakuntla, Nagamani; Mallepally, Rajender Reddy; Avudoddi, Srishailam; K, Nagasuryaprasad; Nancherla, Deepika; V V N, Yaswanth; R S, Prakasham; Surya, Satyanarayana Singh; Sirasani, Satyanarayana

    2016-01-01

    The four novel Ru(II) complexes [Ru(phen)2MAFIP](2+) (1) [MAFIP = 2-(5-(methylacetate)furan-2-yl)-1 H-imidazo[4,5-f] [1, 10]phenanthroline, phen = 1,10-Phenanthroline], [Ru(bpy)2MAFIP](2+) (2) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) and [Ru(dmb)2MAFIP](2+) (3) (dmb = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine) and [Ru(hdpa)2MAFIP](2+) (4) (hdpa = 2,2-dipyridylamine) have been synthesized and fully characterized via elemental analysis, NMR spectroscopy, EI-MS and FT-IR spectroscopy. In addition, the DNA-binding behaviors of the complexes 1-4 with calf thymus DNA were investigated by UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence studies and viscosity measurement. The DNA-binding experiments showed that the complexes 1-4 interact with CT-DNA through an intercalative mode. BSA protein binding affinity of synthesized complexes was determined by UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence emission titrations. The binding affinity of ruthenium complexes was supported by molecular docking. The photoactivated cleavage of plasmid pBR322 DNA by ruthenium complexes 1-4 was investigated. All the synthesized compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity by using three Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and three Gram-positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus megaterium) organisms, these results indicated that complex 3 was more activity compared to other complexes against all tested microbial strains while moderate antimicrobial activity profile was noticed for complex 4. The antioxidant activity experiments show that the complexes exhibit moderate antioxidant activity. The cytotoxicity of synthesized complexes on HeLa cell lines has been examined by MTT assay. The apoptosis assay was carried out with Acridine Orange (AO) staining methods and the results indicate that complexes can induce the apoptosis of HeLa cells. The cell cycle arrest investigated by flow cytometry and these results indicate that complexes 1-4 induce the cell cycle arrest at G0/G1

  2. Env-2dCD4 S60C complexes act as super immunogens and elicit potent, broadly neutralizing antibodies against clinically relevant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1).

    PubMed

    Killick, Mark A; Grant, Michelle L; Cerutti, Nichole M; Capovilla, Alexio; Papathanasopoulos, Maria A

    2015-11-17

    The ability to induce a broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) response following vaccination is regarded as a crucial aspect in developing an effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The bNAbs target the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) which is exposed on the virus surface, thereby preventing cell entry. To date, conventional vaccine approaches such as the use of Env-based immunogens have been unsuccessful. We expressed, purified, characterized and evaluated the immunogenicity of several unique HIV-1 subtype C Env immunogens in small animals. Here we report that vaccine immunogens based on Env liganded to a two domain CD4 variant, 2dCD4(S60C) are capable of consistently eliciting potent, broadly neutralizing antibody responses in New Zealand white rabbits against a panel of clinically relevant HIV-1 pseudoviruses. This was irrespective of the Env protein subtype and context. Importantly, depletion of the anti-CD4 antibodies appeared to abrogate the neutralization activity in the rabbit sera. Taken together, this data suggests that the Env-2dCD4(S60C) complexes described here are "super" immunogens, and potentially immunofocus antibody responses to a unique epitope spanning the 2dCD4(60C). Recent data from the two available anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies, Ibalizumab and CD4-Ig (and bispecific variants thereof) have highlighted that the use of these broad and potent entry inhibitors could circumvent the need for a conventional vaccine targeting HIV-1. Overall, the ability of the unique Env-2dCD4(S60C) complexes to elicit potent bNAb responses has not been described previously, reinforcing that further investigation for their utility in preventing and controlling HIV-1/SIV infection is warranted. PMID:26432912

  3. Cu(II)-dipeptide complexes of 2-(4'-thiazolyl)benzimidazole: synthesis, DNA oxidative damage, antioxidant and in vitro antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xia-Bing; Zhang, Jia-Jia; Liu, Dan-Dan; Gan, Qian; Gao, Hong-Wei; Mao, Zong-Wan; Le, Xue-Yi

    2015-02-01

    Two new Cu(II)-dipeptide complexes of 2-(4'-thiazolyl)benzimidazole, [Cu(Gly-Gly)(TBZ)(Cl)]·4H2O (1) and [Cu(Gly-l-Leu)(TBZ)(Cl)]·H2O (2) (Gly-Gly=glycyl-glycine anion, Gly-l-Leu=glycyl-l-leucine anion and TBZ=2-(4'-thiazolyl)benzimidazole) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements and spectroscopy methods (IR, UV-visible, electrospray ionization mass spectra (ESI-MS) and EPR). The DNA binding and cleavage properties of the complexes monitored by multi-spectroscopic techniques (UV absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism), viscosity determination and agarose gel electrophoresis indicated that the complexes bound to calf thymus (CT)-DNA via a partial intercalative mode with considerable intrinsic binding constants (Kb=1.64×10(5)M(-1) for 1 and 2.59×10(5)M(-1) for 2), and cleaved pBR322 DNA efficiently in the mediation of ascorbic acid (AA), probably via an oxidative damage mechanism induced by OH. The antioxidant activities of the complexes have been evaluated by means of modified nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) photoreduction and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays using HepG2 cells as a model, and it was found that IC50 values of 1 and 2 for dismutation of O2(-) were 0.172 and 0.247μM, respectively, and the CAA50 values were 10.57 and 10.74μM. In addition, the complexes were subjected to in vitro cytotoxicity against three human carcinoma cell lines (HeLa, A549 and HepG2), which revealed that the complexes exhibited effective cytotoxicity (IC50 values varying from 33.17 to 100μM) and selective inhibition toward HeLa cell lines. These findings indicate that the complexes have the potential to act as effective metallopeptide chemotherapeutic agents.

  4. Hydroxyquinoline derived vanadium(IV and V) and copper(II) complexes as potential anti-tuberculosis and anti-tumor agents.

    PubMed

    Correia, Isabel; Adão, Pedro; Roy, Somnath; Wahba, Mohamed; Matos, Cristina; Maurya, Mannar R; Marques, Fernanda; Pavan, Fernando R; Leite, Clarice Q F; Avecilla, Fernando; Costa Pessoa, João

    2014-12-01

    Several mixed ligand vanadium and copper complexes were synthesized containing 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) and a ligand such as picolinato (pic(-)), dipicolinato (dipic(2-)) or a Schiff base. The complexes were characterized by spectroscopic techniques and by single-crystal X-ray diffraction in the case of [V(V)O(L-pheolnaph-im)(5-Cl-8HQ)] and [V(V)O(OMe)(8HQ)2], which evidenced the distorted octahedral geometry of the complexes. The electronic absorption data showed the presence of strong ligand to metal charge transfer bands, significant solvent effects, and methoxido species in methanol, which was further confirmed by (51)V-NMR spectroscopy. The structures of [Cu(II)(dipic)(8HQ)]Na and [V(IV)O(pic)(8HQ)] were confirmed by EPR spectroscopy, showing only one species in solution. The biological activity of the compounds was assessed through the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the compounds against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and the cytotoxic activity against the cisplatin sensitive/resistant ovarian cells A2780/A2780cisR and the non-tumorigenic HEK cells (IC50 values). Almost all tested vanadium complexes were very active against Mtb and the MICs were comparable to, or better than, the MICs of drugs, such as streptomycin. The activity of the complexes against the A2780 cell line was dependent on incubation time presenting IC50 values in the 3-14 μM (at 48 h) range. In these conditions, the complexes were significantly (*P<0.05-**P<0.001) more active than cisplatin (22 μM), in the A2780 cells and even surpassing its activity in the cisplatin-resistant cells A2780cisR (2.4-8 μM vs. 75.4; **P<0.001). In the non-tumorigenic HEK cells poor selectivity toward cancer cells for most of the complexes was observed, as well as for cisplatin.

  5. Allogeneic IgG combined with dendritic cell stimuli induces anti-tumor T cell immunity

    PubMed Central

    Carmi, Yaron; Spitzer, Matthew H.; Linde, Ian L.; Burt, Bryan M; Prestwood, Tyler R.; Perlman, Nikola; Davidson, Matthew G.; Kenkel, Justin A.; Segal, Ehud; Pusapati, Ganesh V.; Bhattacharya, Nupur; Engleman, Edgar G.

    2015-01-01

    While cancers grow in their hosts and evade host immunity through immunoediting and immunosuppression1–5, tumors are rarely transmissible between individuals. Much like transplanted allogeneic organs, allogeneic tumors are reliably rejected by host T cells, even when the tumor and host share the same major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles, the most potent determinants of transplant rejection6–10. How such tumor-eradicating immunity is initiated remains unknown, though elucidating this process could provide a roadmap for inducing similar responses against naturally arising tumors. We found that allogeneic tumor rejection is initiated by naturally occurring tumor-binding IgG antibodies, which enable dendritic cells (DC) to internalize tumor antigens and subsequently activate tumor-reactive T cells. We exploited this mechanism to successfully treat autologous and autochthonous tumors. Either systemic administration of DC loaded with allogeneic IgG (alloIgG)-coated tumor cells or intratumoral injection of alloIgG in combination with DC stimuli induced potent T cell mediated anti-tumor immune responses, resulting in tumor eradication in mouse models of melanoma, pancreas, lung and breast cancer. Moreover, this strategy led to eradication of distant tumors and metastases, as well as the injected primary tumors. To assess the clinical relevance of these findings, we studied antibodies and cells from patients with lung cancer. T cells from these patients responded vigorously to autologous tumor antigens after culture with alloIgG-loaded DC, recapitulating our findings in mice. These results reveal that tumor-binding alloIgG can induce powerful anti-tumor immunity that can be exploited for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:25924063

  6. Ruthenium-Arene-β-Carboline Complexes as Potent Inhibitors of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 1: Synthesis, Characterization and Anticancer Mechanism Studies.

    PubMed

    He, Liang; Liao, Si-Yan; Tan, Cai-Ping; Ye, Rui-Rong; Xu, Yu-Wen; Zhao, Meng; Ji, Liang-Nian; Mao, Zong-Wan

    2013-09-01

    A series of Ru(II)-arene complexes (1-6) of the general formula [(η(6)-arene)Ru(L)Cl]PF6 (arene=benzene or p-cymene; L=bidentate β-carboline derivative, an indole alkaloid with potential cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) inhibitory activities) is reported. All the complexes were fully characterized by classical analytical methods, and three were characterized by X-ray crystallography. Hydrolytic studies show that β-carboline ligands play a vital role in their aqueous behaviour. These complexes are highly active in vitro, with the most active complex 6 displaying a 3- to 12-fold higher anticancer activity than cisplatin against several cancer cell lines. Interestingly, the complexes are able to overcome cross-resistance to cisplatin, and show much lower cytotoxicity against normal cells. Complexes 1-6 may directly target CDK1, because they can block cells in the G2M phase, down-regulate the expression of CDK1 and cyclin B1, and inhibit CDK1/cyclin B in vitro. Further mechanism studies show that the complexes can effectively induce apoptosis through mitochondrial-related pathways and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) elevation.

  7. Interaction of ferrocene appended Ru(II), Rh(III) and Ir(III) dipyrrinato complexes with DNA/protein, molecular docking and antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Paitandi, Rajendra Prasad; Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Singh, Roop Shikha; Sharma, Gunjan; Koch, Biplob; Pandey, Daya Shankar

    2014-09-12

    Efficacy of the ferrocene appended piano-stool dipyrrinato complexes [(η(6)-C6H6)RuCl(fcdpm)] (1), [(η(6)-C10H14)RuCl(fcdpm)] (2), [(η(6)-C12H18)RuCl(fcdpm)] (3) [(η(5)-C5Me5)RhCl(fcdpm)] (4) and [(η(5)-C5Me5)IrCl(fcdpm)] (5) [fcdpm = 5-ferrocenyldipyrromethene] toward anticancer activity have been described. Binding of the complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) and BSA (bovine serum albumin) have been thoroughly investigated by UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. Binding constants for 1-5 (range, 10(4)-10(5) M(-1)) validated their efficient binding with CT-DNA. Molecular docking studies revealed interaction through minor groove of the DNA, on the other hand these also interact through hydrophobic residues of the protein, particularly cavity in the subdomain IIA. In vitro anticancer activity have been scrutinized by MTT assay, acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EtBr) fluorescence staining, and DNA ladder (fragmentation) assay against Dalton's Lymphoma (DL) cells. Present study revealed that rhodium complex (4) is more effective relative to ruthenium (1-3) and iridium (5) complexes.

  8. Synthesis, crystal structure and biological activities of a novel amidrazone derivative and its copper(II) complex--a potential antitumor drug.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Liliana; Modzelewska-Banachiewicz, Bożena; Paprocka, Renata; Zimecki, Michał; Wawrzyniak, Urszula E; Kutkowska, Jolanta; Ziółkowska, Grażyna

    2012-09-01

    A new linear amidrazone derivative, 6-acetyl-cyclohex-3-enecarboxylic acid [1-pyridin-2-yl-1-(pyridyn-2-yloamin)meth-(Z)-ylidene] hydrazide, H(2)L (2) and its Cu(II) complex, [Cu(2)L(2)]·4H(2)O (3) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Compound 2 was synthesized in the equimolar reaction of N(3)-substituted amidrazone with cis-1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalic anhydride. The Cu complex of 2 was obtained in the reaction with copper(II) acetate. The molecular structures of 2 and 3 were determined by X-ray crystallography. The parent ligand exists in its amide-hydrazone form in the solid state. The central amidrazone moiety has a Z configuration with respect to the double C=N bond. Coordination to the metal center promotes Z/E isomerization of the hydrazone group of the ligand. Compound 3 is a dinuclear four-coordinated Cu(II) complex with the amidrazone ligand behaving as a tetradentate double deprotonated chelating one. Several biological activities of 2 and 3 were examined in vitro; they were: antimicrobial properties against selected bacterial and fungal strains, suppression of phytohemagglutinin A (PHA)-induced proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and their effects on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) production. The cytotoxic activity of Cu(II) complex was determined with respect to the four carcinoma cell lines (SW 984, CX-1, L-1210, A-431). The studied complex exhibited significant cytotoxic effects (particularly against CX-1 colon carcinoma), comparable to those reported for cisplatin. Both compounds have shown a relatively low antibacterial activity and were devoid of antifungal properties.

  9. Recent advances in understanding antitumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Munhoz, Rodrigo Ramella; Postow, Michael Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The term “antitumor immunity” refers to innate and adaptive immune responses which lead to tumor control. Turning the immune system into a destructive force against tumors has been achieved in a broad range of human cancers with the use of non-specific immunotherapies, vaccines, adoptive-cell therapy, and, more recently with significant success, through blockade of immune checkpoints. Nevertheless, the efficacy of these approaches is not universal, and tools to identify long-term responders and primarily refractory patients are warranted. In this article, we review recent advances in understanding the complex mechanisms of antitumor immunity and how these developments can be used to address open questions in a setting of growing clinical indications for the use of immunotherapy. PMID:27803807

  10. New indolizine-chalcones as potent inhibitors of human farnesyltransferase: Design, synthesis and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Moise, Iuliana-Monica; Ghinet, Alina; Belei, Dalila; Dubois, Joëlle; Farce, Amaury; Bîcu, Elena

    2016-08-01

    A new family of indolizine-chalcones was designed, synthesized and screened for the inhibitory potential on human farnesyltransferase in vitro to identify potent antitumor agents. The most active compound was phenothiazine 2a, exhibiting an IC50 value in the low nanomolar range, similar to that of known FTI-276, highly potent farnesyltransferase inhibitor. The newly synthesized indolizine-chalcones 2a-d constitute the most efficient inhibitors of farnesyltransferase bearing a phenothiazine unit known to date. PMID:27282741

  11. Synthesis and in vitro antitumor activity of water soluble sulfonate- and ester-functionalized silver(I) N-heterocyclic carbene complexes.

    PubMed

    Gandin, Valentina; Pellei, Maura; Marinelli, Marika; Marzano, Cristina; Dolmella, Alessandro; Giorgetti, Marco; Santini, Carlo

    2013-12-01

    The novel N-heterocyclic carbene ligand precursor NaHIm(PrSO3) (sodium 3,3'-(1H-imidazole-3-ium-1,3-diyl)dipropane-1-sulfonate) and the related silver carbene complex [Na4(Im(PrSO3))2]AgCl have been synthesized and characterized. Recrystallization of the analogous [Im(AcEt)]AgCl complex allowed the development of X-ray analysis which led to achieve relevant structural information concerning this silver(I) derivative. Both sulfonate- and ester-functionalized silver(I) N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) were evaluated for their antiproliferative activities in a wide panel of human cancer cells. Complex [Na4(Im(PrSO3))2]AgCl showed a significant in vitro antiproliferative activity that was correlated with its strong ability to inhibit thioredoxin reductase. The inhibition of this selenoenzyme determined an alteration of the cellular redox environment thus leading to the induction of the apoptotic cell death through the activation of the ASK-1 pathway. PMID:24121303

  12. Hydramycin, a new antitumor antibiotic. Taxonomy, isolation, physico-chemical properties, structure and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Hanada, M; Kaneta, K; Nishiyama, Y; Hoshino, Y; Konishi, M; Oki, T

    1991-08-01

    A new antitumor antibiotic hydramycin was isolated from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces violaceus P950-4 (ATCC 53807). It showed potent antibacterial and cytotoxic activity and increased the survival time of mice inoculated with P388 leukemia. A new structure related to the pluramycin group antibiotics was assigned by its spectroscopic experiments. PMID:1833366

  13. Chromatin folding and DNA replication inhibition mediated by a highly antitumor-active tetrazolato-bridged dinuclear platinum(II) complex

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Ryosuke; Komeda, Seiji; Shimura, Mari; Tamura, Sachiko; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Nishimura, Kohei; Rogge, Ryan; Matsunaga, Akihiro; Hiratani, Ichiro; Takata, Hideaki; Uemura, Masako; Iida, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Hansen, Jeffrey C.; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Kanemaki, Masato T.; Maeshima, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin DNA must be read out for various cellular functions, and copied for the next cell division. These processes are targets of many anticancer agents. Platinum-based drugs, such as cisplatin, have been used extensively in cancer chemotherapy. The drug–DNA interaction causes DNA crosslinks and subsequent cytotoxicity. Recently, it was reported that an azolato-bridged dinuclear platinum(II) complex, 5-H-Y, exhibits a different anticancer spectrum from cisplatin. Here, using an interdisciplinary approach, we reveal that the cytotoxic mechanism of 5-H-Y is distinct from that of cisplatin. 5-H-Y inhibits DNA replication and also RNA transcription, arresting cells in the S/G2 phase, and are effective against cisplatin-resistant cancer cells. Moreover, it causes much less DNA crosslinking than cisplatin, and induces chromatin folding. 5-H-Y will expand the clinical applications for the treatment of chemotherapy-insensitive cancers. PMID:27094881

  14. pH sensitive polymeric complex of cisplatin with hyaluronic acid exhibits tumor-targeted delivery and improved in vivo antitumor effect.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaohong; Zhao, Xuesong; Qu, Xinkai; Fang, Jun

    2015-12-30

    Cisplatin (CDDP) is widely used anticancer drug for various solid tumors including lung cancer. However, its indiscriminate distribution causes serious adverse effects and limits its therapeutic effect. In this study, by using hyaluronic acid (HA) we synthesized a complex of CDDP (HA-CDDP), by utilizing ionic interaction between Pt(2+) of CDDP with carboxyl group of HA. The mean HA-CDDP particle size was 208.5nm in PBS according to dynamic light scattering which was also confirmed by TEM, which could exert tumor-targeting property by enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. The CDDP loading in this preparation was 13% (w/w), and release rate of free CDDP from the HA-CDDP complex at physiological pH (7.4) was ∼20%/day. However, in acidic pH the release was much faster, i.e., ∼95% of CDDP was released in 72h at pH 5.5. Moreover, HA-CDDP showed a 2.5-fold higher tumor accumulation than free CDDP whereas no increase of distribution was found in most normal tissues. In addition, because HA receptor CD44 is overexpressed in many tumor cells, we also observed CD44-based endocytosis of HA-CDDP in mouse lung carcinoma LCC cells. These findings together suggest that HA-CDDP may show tumor-selective cytotoxicity by taking advantage of EPR effect, weak acidic environment of tumor tissues (e.g., pH 6∼7), as well as CD44-based intracellular uptake. As expected, HA-CDDP exhibited much improved therapeutic effect than free CDDP in mouse LCC tumor model, whereas no apparent side effect was found. These findings may shed some light on the potential utility of HA for development of tumor-targeted polymeric CDDP drugs, which need further investigations. PMID:26529576

  15. Equipotent generation of protective antitumor immunity by various methods of dendritic cell loading with whole cell tumor antigens.

    PubMed

    Lambert, L A; Gibson, G R; Maloney, M; Barth, R J

    2001-01-01

    Multiple clinically applicable methods have been used to induce dendritic cells (DCs) to express whole cell tumor antigens, including pulsing DCs with tumor lysate, and mixing DCs with apoptotic or live tumor cells. Herein we demonstrate, using two different tumor systems, that these methods are equipotent inducers of systemic antitumor immunity. Furthermore, tumor lysate pulsed DC vaccines generate more potent antitumor immunity than immunization with irradiated tumor cells plus the classic adjuvant, Corynebacterium parvum. PMID:11394500

  16. Antibacterial and Antitumor Activities of Biscoumarin and Dihydropyran Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sui, Yun-Peng; Huo, Hai-Ru; Xin, Jia-Jia; Li, Jing; Li, Xiao-Jun; Du, Xin-Liang; Ma, Hai; Zhou, Hai-Yu; Zhan, Hong-Dan; Wang, Zhu-Ju; Li, Chun; Sui, Feng; Li, Ming-Kai

    2015-09-23

    A novel series of biscoumarin (1-4) and dihydropyran (5-13) derivatives were synthesized via a one-pot multicomponent condensation reaction and evaluated for antibacterial and antitumor activity in vitro. The X-ray crystal structure analysis of four representative compounds, 3, 7, 9 and 11, confirmed the structures of these compounds. Compounds 1-4 showed the most potent antitumor activity among the total 13 derivatives; especially for compounds 1 and 2, they also emerged as promising antibacterial members with better antibacterial activity. In addition, the results of density functional theory (DFT) showed that compared with compounds 3 and 4, biscoumarins 1 and 2 had lower intramolecular hydrogen bonds (HB) energy in their structures.

  17. Antitumor effects of electrochemical treatment

    PubMed Central

    González, Maraelys Morales; Zamora, Lisset Ortíz; Cabrales, Luis Enrique Bergues; Sierra González, Gustavo Victoriano; de Oliveira, Luciana Oliveira; Zanella, Rodrigo; Buzaid, Antonio Carlos; Parise, Orlando; Brito, Luciana Macedo; Teixeira, Cesar Augusto Antunes; Gomes, Marina das Neves; Moreno, Gleyce; Feo da Veiga, Venicio; Telló, Marcos; Holandino, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical treatment is an alternative modality for tumor treatment based on the application of a low intensity direct electric current to the tumor tissue through two or more platinum electrodes placed within the tumor zone or in the surrounding areas. This treatment is noted for its great effectiveness, minimal invasiveness and local effect. Several studies have been conducted worldwide to evaluate the antitumoral effect of this therapy. In all these studies a variety of biochemical and physiological responses of tumors to the applied treatment have been obtained. By this reason, researchers have suggested various mechanisms to explain how direct electric current destroys tumor cells. Although, it is generally accepted this treatment induces electrolysis, electroosmosis and electroporation in tumoral tissues. However, action mechanism of this alternative modality on the tumor tissue is not well understood. Although the principle of Electrochemical treatment is simple, a standardized method is not yet available. The mechanism by which Electrochemical treatment affects tumor growth and survival may represent more complex process. The present work analyzes the latest and most important research done on the electrochemical treatment of tumors. We conclude with our point of view about the destruction mechanism features of this alternative therapy. Also, we suggest some mechanisms and strategies from the thermodynamic point of view for this therapy. In the area of Electrochemical treatment of cancer this tool has been exploited very little and much work remains to be done. Electrochemical treatment constitutes a good therapeutic option for patients that have failed the conventional oncology methods. PMID:23592904

  18. Antitumor effect of a copper (II) complex of a coumarin derivative and phenanthroline on lung adenocarcinoma cells and the mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Taofeng; Chen, Ruhua; Yu, Hao; Feng, Yan; Chen, Jianqiang; Lu, Qin; Xie, Jing; Ding, Weiliang; Ma, Tieliang

    2014-11-01

    In order to investigate the effect of a copper (II) complexes of a coumarin derivative and phenanthroline (hereinafter referred to as the coumarin-copper drug) on lung adenocarcinoma cells in vivo and in vitro, along with the mechanism of action, LA795 lung adenocarcinoma cells were treated with different concentrations of coumarin-copper drug. An MTT assay was performed to determine the cell proliferation ratio, cell apoptosis was detected by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining with flow cytometric analysis and western blot analysis was employed to evaluate the expression levels of apoptosis-associated proteins. In addition, an LA795 cell xenograft tumor model was established in nude mice, with mice receiving intraperitoneal injection once a week for three weeks of either 2 or 4 mg/kg in three divided doses coumarin‑copper drug, or phosphate‑buffered saline. The tumor growth curves were drawn and the tumor growth inhibition rates were calculated. The apoptotic index of subcutaneously transplanted tumor cells was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl‑transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end‑labeling assay. The coumarin-copper drug effectively inhibited the proliferation of LA795 cells in a dose‑ and time‑dependent manner, with the half maximal inhibitory concentration equaling 2.0 µmol/l. The coumarin-copper drug also significantly induced LA795 cell apoptosis in a time-dependent manner (P<0.05), which was accompanied by upregulation p35 and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein (Bax), and downregulation of Bcl-2. Furthermore, the coumarin‑copper drug significantly inhibited the growth of LA795 tumors in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05), in accordance with the apoptotic index. In conclusion, the coumarin-copper drug may inhibit the proliferation of LA795 cells through the induction of cell apoptosis, which may be associated with the upregulation of p53 and Bax, with concurrent downregulation of Bcl-2.

  19. Optimization of Potent and Selective Quinazolinediones: Inhibitors of Respiratory Syncytial Virus That Block RNA-Dependent RNA-Polymerase Complex Activity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A quinazolinedione-derived screening hit 2 was discovered with cellular antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus (CPE EC50 = 2.1 μM), moderate efficacy in reducing viral progeny (4.2 log at 10 μM), and marginal cytotoxic liability (selectivity index, SI ∼ 24). Scaffold optimization delivered analogs with improved potency and selectivity profiles. Most notable were compounds 15 and 19 (EC50 = 300–500 nM, CC50 > 50 μM, SI > 100), which significantly reduced viral titer (>400,000-fold), and several analogs were shown to block the activity of the RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase complex of RSV. PMID:25399509

  20. Transloading of tumor cells with foreign major histocompatibility complex class I peptide ligand: a novel general strategy for the generation of potent cancer vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, W; Steinlein, P; Buschle, M; Schweighoffer, T; Herbst, E; Mechtler, K; Kirlappos, H; Birnstiel, M L

    1996-01-01

    The major hurdle to be cleared in active immunotherapy of cancer is the poor immunogenicity of cancer cells. In previous attempts to overcome this problem, whole tumor cells have been used as vaccines, either admixed with adjuvant(s) or genetically engineered to express nonself proteins or immunomodulatory factors before application. We have developed a novel approach to generate an immunogeneic, highly effective vaccine: major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-positive cancer cells are administered together with MHC class I-matched peptide ligands of foreign, nonself origin, generated by a procedure we term transloading. Murine tumor lines of the H2-Kd or the H2-Db haplotype, melanoma M-3 and B16-F10, respectively, as well as colon carcinoma CT-26 (H2-Kd), were transloaded with MHC-matched influenza virus-derived peptides and applied as irradiated vaccines. Mice bearing a deposit of live M-3 melanoma cells were efficiently cured by this treatment. In the CT-26 colon carcinoma and the B16-F10 melanoma, high efficacies were obtained against tumor challenge, suggesting the universal applicability of this new type of vaccine. With foreign peptide ligands adapted to the requirements of a desired MHC class I haplotype, this concept may be used for the treatment of human cancers. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8790404

  1. Peptide-β2-microglobulin-major histocompatibility complex expressing cells are potent antigen-presenting cells that can generate specific T cells

    PubMed Central

    Obermann, Sonja; Petrykowska, Susanne; Manns, Michael P; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F

    2007-01-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy represents a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancer. Successful adoptive immunotherapy depends on the ex vivo priming and expansion of antigen-specific T cells. However, the in vitro generation of adequate numbers of functional antigen-specific T cell remains a major obstacle. It is important to develop efficient and reproducible methods to generate high numbers of antigen-specific T cells for adoptive T-cell transfer. We have developed a new artificial antigen-presenting cell (aAPC) by transfection of major histocompatibility (MHC) class I negative Daudi cells with a peptide-β2-microglobulin–MHC fusion construct (single-chain aAPC) ensuring presentation of the peptide–MHC complex of interest. Using this artificial antigen-presenting cell, we could generate up to 9·2 × 108 antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cells from 10 ml blood. In vitro generated T cells lysed endogenously presented antigens. Direct comparison of the single-chain aAPC with autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells demonstrated that these cells were equally efficient in stimulation of T cells. Finally, we were able to generate antigen-specific T cell lines from perpheral blood mononuclear cells of patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy. The use of single-chain aAPC represent a promising option for the generation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells, which could be used for adoptive T-cell therapy. PMID:17472719

  2. Peptide-beta2-microglobulin-major histocompatibility complex expressing cells are potent antigen-presenting cells that can generate specific T cells.

    PubMed

    Obermann, Sonja; Petrykowska, Susanne; Manns, Michael P; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F

    2007-09-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy represents a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancer. Successful adoptive immunotherapy depends on the ex vivo priming and expansion of antigen-specific T cells. However, the in vitro generation of adequate numbers of functional antigen-specific T cell remains a major obstacle. It is important to develop efficient and reproducible methods to generate high numbers of antigen-specific T cells for adoptive T-cell transfer. We have developed a new artificial antigen-presenting cell (aAPC) by transfection of major histocompatibility (MHC) class I negative Daudi cells with a peptide-beta2-microglobulin-MHC fusion construct (single-chain aAPC) ensuring presentation of the peptide-MHC complex of interest. Using this artificial antigen-presenting cell, we could generate up to 9.2 x 10(8) antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells from 10 ml blood. In vitro generated T cells lysed endogenously presented antigens. Direct comparison of the single-chain aAPC with autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells demonstrated that these cells were equally efficient in stimulation of T cells. Finally, we were able to generate antigen-specific T cell lines from perpheral blood mononuclear cells of patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy. The use of single-chain aAPC represent a promising option for the generation of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells, which could be used for adoptive T-cell therapy.

  3. The potent opioid agonist, (+)-cis-3-methylfentanyl binds pseudoirreversibly to the opioid receptor complex in vitro and in vivo: Evidence for a novel mechanism of action

    SciTech Connect

    Band, L.; Xu, Heng; Bykov, V.; Rothman, R.B.; Kim, Chongho; Newman, A.; Jacobson, A.E.; Rice, K.C. ); Greig, N. )

    1990-01-01

    The present study demonstrates that pretreatment of rat brain membranes with (+)-cis-3-methylfentanyl ((+)-cis-MF), followed by extensive washing of the membranes, produces a wash-resistant decreasing in the binding of ({sup 3}H)-(D-ala{sup 2}, D-leu{sup 5})enkephalin to the d binding site of the opioid receptor complex ({delta}{sub cx} binding site). Intravenous administration of (+)-cis-MF (50 {mu}g/kg) to rats produced a pronounced catalepsy and also produced a wash-resistant masking of {delta}{sub cx} and {mu} binding sites in membranes prepared 120 min post-injection. Administration of 1 mg/kg i.v. of the opioid antagonist, 6-desoxy-6{beta}-fluoronaltrexone (cycloFOXY), 100 min after the injection of (+)-cis-MF (20 min prior to the preparation of membranes) completely reversed the catatonia and restored masked {delta}{sub cx} binding sites to control levels. This was not observed with (+)-cycloFOXY. The implications of these and other findings for the mechanism of action of (+)-cis-MF and models of the opioid receptors are discussed.

  4. Synthesis and antitumor activity of tetrahydrocarbazole hybridized with dithioate derivatives.

    PubMed

    El-Nassan, Hala Bakr

    2015-04-01

    The present study reported the synthesis of tetrahydrocarbazoles hybridized with dithioate derivatives. Three series were synthesized namely alkyl dithiocarbonates (4a-d), heterocyclic dithiocarbamates (6a-g) and dialkyl dithiocarbamate (7). The synthesized compounds were tested in vitro on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7) and the human colon tumor cell line (HCT116). Most of the synthesized compounds exploited potent antitumor activity, especially compound 6f [4-chlorophenylpiperazine derivative], which showed cytotoxic activity against MCF7 superior to doxorubicin with IC50 value of 7.24 nM/mL. PMID:24899376

  5. Structural analysis of human dihydrofolate reductase as a binary complex with the potent and selective inhibitor 2,4-diamino-6-{2'-O-(3-carboxypropyl)oxydibenz[b,f]-azepin-5-yl}methylpteridine reveals an unusual binding mode.

    PubMed

    Cody, Vivian; Pace, Jim; Nowak, Jessica

    2011-10-01

    In order to understand the structure-activity profile observed for a series of substituted dibenz[b,f]azepine antifolates, the crystal structure of the binary complex of human dihydrofolate reductase (hDHFR) with the potent and selective inhibitor 2,4-diamino-6-{2'-O-(3-carboxypropyl)oxydibenz[b,f]-azepin-5-yl}methylpteridine (PT684) was determined to 1.8 Å resolution. These data revealed that the carboxylate side chain of PT684 occupies two alternate positions, neither of which interacts with the conserved Arg70 in the active-site pocket, which in turn hydrogen bonds to water. These observations are in contrast to those reported for the ternary complex of mouse DHFR (mDHFR) with NADPH [Cody et al. (2008), Acta Cryst. D64, 977-984], in which the 3-carboxypropyl side chain of PT684 was hydrolyzed to its hydroxyl derivative, PT684a. The crystallization conditions differed for the human and mouse DHFR crystals (100 mM K2HPO4 pH 6.9, 30% ammonium sulfate for hDHFR; 15 mM Tris pH 8.3, 75 mM sodium cacodylate, PEG 4K for mDHFR). Additionally, the side chains of Phe31 and Gln35 in the hDHFR complex have a single conformation, whereas in the mDHFR complex they occupied two alternative conformations. These data show that the hDHFR complex has a decreased active-site volume compared with the mDHFR complex, as reflected in a relative shift of helix C (residues 59-64) of 1.2 Å, and a shift of 1.5 Å compared with the ternary complex of Pneumocystis carinii DHFR (pcDHFR) with the parent dibenz[b,f]azepine PT653. These data suggest that the greater inhibitory potency of PT684 against pcDHFR is consistent with the larger active-site volume of pcDHFR and the predicted interactions of the carboxylate side chain with Arg75.

  6. Synthesis of novel diterpenoid analogs with in-vivo antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Ying; He, Yuan; Yang, Lian-Fang; Peng, Shi-Hong; He, Xiao-Long; Wang, Jin-Hua; Lv, Fang; Hao, Yun; Liu, Ming-Yao; Yi, Zhengfang; Qiu, Wen-Wei

    2016-09-14

    A lead compound 7 has antitumor effect, which was discovered by screening our small synthetic natural product-like compound (NPL) library. Based on the lead compound, a series of novel tricyclic diterpene analogs were synthesized and investigated for their activity against the growth of various tumor cell lines using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. To our delight, most aromatic amide compounds exhibited more potent antitumor activity than the lead compound. The most active compound 19 (QW30) showed an average IC50 0.33 μM, which was 15-fold more potent than the lead compound. Most of the compounds with potent antitumor activity displayed less toxic on normal human fibroblasts (HAF) in comparison with the tumor cell lines. Especially 19, its selectivity indexes (SI) between HAF and cancer cell lines was 17.3 times better than the positive control compound podophyllotoxin. The apoptosis, colony formation and transwell migration assays of 7 and 19 were performed on T47D cell line. The in-vivo antitumor effect of 19 was also observed in T47D tumor-bearing mice without obvious toxicity.

  7. Discovery of a novel class of highly potent, selective, ATP-competitive, and orally bioavailable inhibitors of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR).

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Craig S; Kim, Byung Gyu; Blazey, Charles M; Ma, Sunghoon; Johnson, Henry W B; Anand, Neel K; Arcalas, Arlyn; Baik, Tae Gon; Buhr, Chris A; Cannoy, Jonah; Epshteyn, Sergey; Joshi, Anagha; Lara, Katherine; Lee, Matthew S; Wang, Longcheng; Leahy, James W; Nuss, John M; Aay, Naing; Aoyama, Ron; Foster, Paul; Lee, Jae; Lehoux, Isabelle; Munagala, Narsimha; Plonowski, Arthur; Rajan, Sharmila; Woolfrey, John; Yamaguchi, Kyoko; Lamb, Peter; Miller, Nicole

    2013-03-28

    A series of novel, highly potent, selective, and ATP-competitive mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors based on a benzoxazepine scaffold have been identified. Lead optimization resulted in the discovery of inhibitors with low nanomolar activity and greater than 1000-fold selectivity over the closely related PI3K kinases. Compound 28 (XL388) inhibited cellular phosphorylation of mTOR complex 1 (p-p70S6K, pS6, and p-4E-BP1) and mTOR complex 2 (pAKT (S473)) substrates. Furthermore, this compound displayed good pharmacokinetics and oral exposure in multiple species with moderate bioavailability. Oral administration of compound 28 to athymic nude mice implanted with human tumor xenografts afforded significant and dose-dependent antitumor activity. PMID:23394126

  8. Discovery of a novel class of highly potent, selective, ATP-competitive, and orally bioavailable inhibitors of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR).

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Craig S; Kim, Byung Gyu; Blazey, Charles M; Ma, Sunghoon; Johnson, Henry W B; Anand, Neel K; Arcalas, Arlyn; Baik, Tae Gon; Buhr, Chris A; Cannoy, Jonah; Epshteyn, Sergey; Joshi, Anagha; Lara, Katherine; Lee, Matthew S; Wang, Longcheng; Leahy, James W; Nuss, John M; Aay, Naing; Aoyama, Ron; Foster, Paul; Lee, Jae; Lehoux, Isabelle; Munagala, Narsimha; Plonowski, Arthur; Rajan, Sharmila; Woolfrey, John; Yamaguchi, Kyoko; Lamb, Peter; Miller, Nicole

    2013-03-28

    A series of novel, highly potent, selective, and ATP-competitive mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors based on a benzoxazepine scaffold have been identified. Lead optimization resulted in the discovery of inhibitors with low nanomolar activity and greater than 1000-fold selectivity over the closely related PI3K kinases. Compound 28 (XL388) inhibited cellular phosphorylation of mTOR complex 1 (p-p70S6K, pS6, and p-4E-BP1) and mTOR complex 2 (pAKT (S473)) substrates. Furthermore, this compound displayed good pharmacokinetics and oral exposure in multiple species with moderate bioavailability. Oral administration of compound 28 to athymic nude mice implanted with human tumor xenografts afforded significant and dose-dependent antitumor activity.

  9. A multifunctional drug combination shows highly potent therapeutic efficacy against human cancer xenografts in athymic mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiu-Jun; Zheng, Yan-Bo; Li, Yi; Wu, Shu-Ying; Zhen, Yong-Su

    2014-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment plays a crucial role during tumor development. Integrated combination of drugs that target tumor microenvironment is a promising approach to anticancer therapy. Here, we report a multifunctional combination of low-cytotoxic drugs composed of dipyridamole, bestatin and dexamethasone (DBDx) which mainly acts on the tumor microenvironment shows highly potent antitumor efficacy in vivo. In mouse hepatoma H22 model, the triple drug combination showed synergistic and highly potent antitumor efficacy. The combination indices of various combinations of the triple drugs were between 0.2 and 0.5. DBDx inhibited the growth of a panel of human tumor xenografts and showed no obvious systemic toxicity. At tolerated doses, DBDx suppressed the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7402, HepG2, and lung adenocarcinoma A549 xenografts by 94.5%, 93.7% and 96.9%, respectively. Clonogenic assay demonstrated that DBDx showed weak cytotoxicity. Western blot showed that Flk1 and Nos3 were down-regulated in the DBDx-treated group. Proteomic analysis showed that DBDx mainly affected the metabolic process and immune system process; in addition, the angiogenesis and VEGF signaling pathway were also affected. Conclusively, DBDx, a multifunctional drug combination of three low-cytotoxic drugs, shows synergistic and highly potent antitumor efficacy evidently mediated by the modulation of tumor microenvironment. Based on its low-cytotoxic attributes and its broad-spectrum antitumor therapeutic efficacy, this multifunctional combination might be useful in the treatment of cancers, especially those refractory to conventional chemotherapeutics.

  10. Identification and characterization of thiosemicarbazones with antifungal and antitumor effects: cellular iron chelation mediating cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Opletalová, Veronika; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Vejsová, Marcela; Kunes, Jirí; Pour, Milan; Jampílek, Josef; Buchta, Vladimír; Richardson, Des R

    2008-09-01

    Thiosemicarbazones derived from acetylpyrazines were prepared by condensing an acetylpyrazine or a ring-substituted acetylpyrazine with thiosemicarbazide. Using the same procedure, N, N-dimethylthiosemicarbazones were synthesized from acetylpyrazines and N, N-dimethylthiosemicarbazide. A total of 20 compounds (16 novel) were chemically characterized and then tested for antifungal effects on eight strains of fungi and also for antitumor activity against SK-N-MC neuroepithelioma cells. The most effective compound identified in terms of both antifungal and antitumor activity was N, N-dimethyl-2-(1-pyrazin-2-ylethylidene)hydrazinecarbothioamide (5a). The mechanism of action of this and its related thiosemicarbazones was due, at least in part, to its ability to act as a tridentate ligand that binds metal ions. This was deduced from preparation of the related thiosemicarbazones [acetophenone thiosemicarbazone (6) and acetophenone N, N-dimethylthiosemicarbazone (7)] that do not possess a coordinating ring-N, which plays a vital role in metal ion chelation. Furthermore, 5a and several other thiosemicarbazones that showed high antiproliferative activity were demonstrated to have marked iron (Fe) chelation efficacy. In fact, these agents were highly effective at mobilizing (59)Fe from prelabeled SK-N-MC cells and preventing (59)Fe uptake from the serum Fe transport protein, transferrin. In contrast, compounds 6 and 7 that do not possess a tridentate metal-binding site showed little activity. Further studies examining ascorbate oxidation demonstrated that the Fe complexes of the most effective compounds were redox-inactive. Thus, in contrast to other thiosemicarbazones with potent antiproliferative activity, Fe chelation and mobilization rather than free radical generation played a significant role in the cytotoxic effects of the current ligands. PMID:18698850

  11. Jungle honey enhances immune function and antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Miki; Kobayashi, Kengo; Hirono, Yuriko; Miyagawa, Mayuko; Ishida, Takahiro; Ejiogu, Emenike C; Sawai, Masaharu; Pinkerton, Kent E; Takeuchi, Minoru

    2011-01-01

    Jungle honey (JH) is collected from timber and blossom by wild honey bees that live in the tropical forest of Nigeria. JH is used as a traditional medicine for colds, skin inflammation and burn wounds as well as general health care. However, the effects of JH on immune functions are not clearly known. Therefore, we investigated the effects of JH on immune functions and antitumor activity in mice. Female C57BL/6 mice were injected with JH (1 mg/mouse/day, seven times intra-peritoneal). After seven injections, peritoneal cells (PC) were obtained. Antitumor activity was assessed by growth of Lewis Lung Carcinoma/2 (LL/2) cells. PC numbers were increased in JH-injected mice compared to control mice. In Dot Plot analysis by FACS, a new cell population appeared in JH-injected mice. The percent of Gr-1 surface antigen and the intensity of Gr-1 antigen expression of PC were increased in JH-injected mice. The new cell population was neutrophils. JH possessed chemotactic activity for neutrophils. Tumor incidence and weight were decreased in JH-injected mice. The ratio of reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing cells was increased in JH-injected mice. The effective component in JH was fractionized by gel filtration using HPLC and had an approximate molecular weight (MW) of 261. These results suggest that neutrophils induced by JH possess potent antitumor activity mediated by ROS and the effective immune component of JH is substrate of MW 261. PMID:19141489

  12. The anti-tumor potential of zoledronic acid.

    PubMed

    Croucher, P; Jagdev, S; Coleman, R

    2003-08-01

    Bone is a favorable microenvironment for tumor cell colonization because of abundant growth factors released during active bone resorption. Bisphosphonates can dramatically affect the ability of tumor cells to grow in bone by inhibiting osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and by depriving tumors of growth-promoting signals. Moreover, bisphosphonates have direct anti-tumor effects in vitro via induction of apoptosis. Zoledronic acid is a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate that has demonstrated potent anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies have provided important clues as to the molecular mechanisms by which zoledronic acid induces apoptosis of human breast cancer cell lines. Studies in multiple myeloma and breast cancer models have shed further light on the possible mechanisms underlying the in vivo anti-tumor effects of zoledronic acid. These studies have led to the development of novel strategies to target specific molecular pathways involved in osteoclast maturation and activity, tumor cell metastasis, and tumor growth and survival. The clinical application of these strategies may ultimately prevent bone metastasis.

  13. Antitumor Effects of Synthetic 6,7-Annulated-4-substituted Indole Compounds in L1210 Leukemic Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    PERCHELLET, JEAN-PIERRE H.; WATERS, ANDREW M.; PERCHELLET, ELISABETH M.; THORNTON, PAUL D.; BROWN, NEIL; HILL, DAVID; NEUENSWANDER, BEN; LUSHINGTON, GERALD H.; SANTINI, CONRAD; CHANDRASOMA, NALIN; BUSZEK, KEITH R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Because annulated indoles have almost no representation in the PubChem or MLSMR databases, an unprecedented class of an indole-based library was constructed, using the indole aryne methodology, and screened for antitumor activity. Sixty-six novel 6,7-annulated-4-substituted indole compounds were synthesized, using a strategic combination of 6,7-indolyne cycloaddition and cross-coupling reactions under both Suzuki-Miyaura and Buchwald-Hartwig conditions, and tested for their effectiveness against murine L1210 tumor cell proliferation in vitro. Materials and Methods Various markers of tumor cell metabolism, DNA degradation, mitotic disruption, cytokinesis and apoptosis were assayed in vitro to evaluate drug cytotoxicity. Results Most compounds inhibited the metabolic activity of leukemic cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner but only 9 of them were sufficiently potent to inhibit L1210 tumor cell proliferation by 50% in the low-μM range after 2 (IC50: 4.5–20.4 μM) and 4 days (0.5–4.0 μM) in culture. However, the antiproliferative compounds that were the most effective at day 4 were not necessarily the most potent at day 2, suggesting different speeds of action. A 3-h treatment with antiproliferative annulated indole was sufficient to inhibit, in a concentration-dependent manner, the rate of DNA synthesis measured in L1210 cells over a 0.5-h period of pulse-labeling with 3H-thymidine. Four of the antiproliferative compounds had weak DNA-binding activities but one compound reduced the fluorescence of the ethidium bromide-DNA complex by up to 53%, suggesting that some annulated indoles might directly interact with double-stranded DNA to disrupt its integrity and prevent the dye from intercalating into DNA base pairs. However, all 9 antiproliferative compounds induced DNA cleavage at 24 h in L1210 cells, containing 3H-thymidine-prelabeled DNA, suggesting that these antitumor annulated indoles might trigger an apoptotic pathway of DNA

  14. Involvement of nitric oxide in anti-tumor effects of OK-432, a streptococcal anti-tumor immunotherapeutic agent.

    PubMed

    Oshikawa, Tetsuya; Okamoto, Masato; Tano, Tomoyuki; Uddin Ahmed, Sharif; Sasai, Akiko; Kan, Shin; Moriya, Yoichiro; Ryoma, Yoshiki; Saito, Motoo; Sato, Mitsunobu

    2006-05-01

    We examined the role of nitric oxide (NO) induced by OK-432, a streptococcal immunotherapeutic agent, in anti-tumor effects of the OK-432 by in vitro and in vivo experiments using an NO synthase inhibitor, N-monomethyl-l-arginine acetate (NMA). The in vitro treatment of mouse splenocytes with OK-432 increased the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) gene and NO production in a dose-dependent manner. Although it is well known that OK-432 induces cytokines such as interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, both of which are known to be potent NO inducers, we observed only a partial reduction of OK-432-induced NO production with the addition of anti-IFN-gamma and/or anti-TNF-alpha neutralizing antibodies. The cytotoxicity of the splenocytes increased by in vitro OK-432 stimulation was almost completely inhibited by the treatment with NMA. OK-432 administration resulted in a marked prolongation of survival and a significant inhibition of tumor growth in syngeneic tumor-bearing mice, whereas NMA significantly inhibited the anti-tumor effects of OK-432. Although the increased cytotoxicity of adherent splenocytes derived from OK-432-treated tumor-bearing mice was almost completely inhibited by NMA, only partial inhibition by NMA was observed in the cytotoxicity of the nonadherent splenocytes. These findings strongly suggest that the iNOS/NO induced by OK-432 is intimately involved in the anti-tumor effects of OK-432.

  15. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides potentiate the antitumor activity of anti-BST2 antibody.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Kosuke; Serada, Satoshi; Kobiyama, Kouji; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Morimoto, Akiko; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Ueda, Yutaka; Fujimoto, Minoru; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Ishii, Ken J; Enomoto, Takayuki; Kimura, Tadashi; Naka, Tetsuji

    2015-10-01

    Numerous monoclonal antibodies (mAb) targeting tumor antigens have recently been developed. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) via effector cells such as tumor-infiltrating natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages are often involved in mediating the antitumor activity of mAb. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) have a potent antitumor activity and are considered to increase tumor infiltration of NK cells and macrophages. Our group previously reported significant antitumor activity of anti-bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST2) mAb against BST2-positive endometrial cancer cells through ADCC. In this study, we evaluated the synergistic antitumor activity of combination therapy with anti-BST-2 mAb and CpG ODN using SCID mice and elucidated the mechanisms underlying this activity. Anti-BST2 mAb and CpG ODN monotherapy had a significant dose-dependent antitumor activity (P = 0.0135 and P = 0.0196, respectively). Combination therapy with anti-BST2 mAb and CpG ODN had a significant antitumor activity in SCID mice (P < 0.01), but not in NOG mice. FACS analysis revealed significantly increased numbers of NK cells and macrophages in tumors treated with a combination of anti-BST2 mAb and CpG ODN and with CpG ODN alone in SCID mice (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). These results suggested that the combination therapy with anti-BST2 mAb and CpG ODN has a significant antitumor activity and induces tumor infiltration of NK cells and macrophages. Combination therapy with CpG ODN and anti-BST2 mAb or other antitumor mAb depending on ADCC may represent a new treatment option for cancer. PMID:26498112

  16. Navigating into the binding pockets of the HER family protein kinases: discovery of novel EGFR inhibitor as antitumor agent

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Ning, Jin-Feng; Meng, Qing-Wei; Hu, Jing; Zhao, Yan-Bin; Liu, Chao; Cai, Li

    2015-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family has been validated as a successful antitumor drug target for decades. Known EGFR inhibitors were exposed to distinct drug resistance against the various EGFR mutants within non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), particularly the T790M mutation. Although so far a number of studies have been reported on the development of third-generation EGFR inhibitors for overcoming the resistance issue, the design procedure largely depends on the intuition of medicinal chemists. Here we retrospectively make a detailed analysis of the 42 EGFR family protein crystal complexes deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Based on the analysis of inhibitor binding modes in the kinase catalytic cleft, we identified a potent EGFR inhibitor (compound A-10) against drug-resistant EGFR through fragment-based drug design. This compound showed at least 30-fold more potency against EGFR T790M than the two control molecules erlotinib and gefitinib in vitro. Moreover, it could exhibit potent HER2 inhibitory activities as well as tumor growth inhibitory activity. Molecular docking studies revealed a structural basis for the increased potency and mutant selectivity of this compound. Compound A-10 may be selected as a promising candidate in further preclinical studies. In addition, our findings could provide a powerful strategy to identify novel selective kinase inhibitors on the basis of detailed kinase–ligand interaction space in the PDB. PMID:26229444

  17. Navigating into the binding pockets of the HER family protein kinases: discovery of novel EGFR inhibitor as antitumor agent.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Ning, Jin-Feng; Meng, Qing-Wei; Hu, Jing; Zhao, Yan-Bin; Liu, Chao; Cai, Li

    2015-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family has been validated as a successful antitumor drug target for decades. Known EGFR inhibitors were exposed to distinct drug resistance against the various EGFR mutants within non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), particularly the T790M mutation. Although so far a number of studies have been reported on the development of third-generation EGFR inhibitors for overcoming the resistance issue, the design procedure largely depends on the intuition of medicinal chemists. Here we retrospectively make a detailed analysis of the 42 EGFR family protein crystal complexes deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Based on the analysis of inhibitor binding modes in the kinase catalytic cleft, we identified a potent EGFR inhibitor (compound A-10) against drug-resistant EGFR through fragment-based drug design. This compound showed at least 30-fold more potency against EGFR T790M than the two control molecules erlotinib and gefitinib in vitro. Moreover, it could exhibit potent HER2 inhibitory activities as well as tumor growth inhibitory activity. Molecular docking studies revealed a structural basis for the increased potency and mutant selectivity of this compound. Compound A-10 may be selected as a promising candidate in further preclinical studies. In addition, our findings could provide a powerful strategy to identify novel selective kinase inhibitors on the basis of detailed kinase-ligand interaction space in the PDB. PMID:26229444

  18. Total Synthesis of the Antitumor Antibiotic (±)-Streptonigrin: First- and Second-Generation Routes for de Novo Pyridine Formation Using Ring-Closing Metathesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The total synthesis of (±)-streptonigrin, a potent tetracyclic aminoquinoline-5,8-dione antitumor antibiotic that reached phase II clinical trials in the 1970s, is described. Two routes to construct a key pentasubstituted pyridine fragment are depicted, both relying on ring-closing metathesis but differing in the substitution and complexity of the precursor to cyclization. Both routes are short and high yielding, with the second-generation approach ultimately furnishing (±)-streptonigrin in 14 linear steps and 11% overall yield from inexpensive ethyl glyoxalate. This synthesis will allow for the design and creation of druglike late-stage natural product analogues to address pharmacological limitations. Furthermore, assessment of a number of chiral ligands in a challenging asymmetric Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reaction has enabled enantioenriched (up to 42% ee) synthetic streptonigrin intermediates to be prepared for the first time. PMID:24328139

  19. Systems Biology Modeling of Five Pathways for Regulation and Potent Inhibition of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex (APC/C): Pivotal Roles for MCC and BubR1

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Correct DNA segregation is a fundamental process that ensures the precise and reliable inheritance of genomic information for the propagation of cell life. Eukaryotic cells have evolved a conserved surveillance control mechanism for DNA segregation named the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC).The SAC ensures that the sister chromatids of the duplicated genome are not separated and distributed to the spindle poles before all chromosomes have been properly linked to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle. Biochemically, the SAC delays cell cycle progression by preventing activation of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) or cyclosome whose activation by Cdc20 is required for sister-chromatid separation; this marks the transition into anaphase. In response to activation of the checkpoint, various species control the activity of both APC/C and Cdc20. However, the underlying regulatory pathways remain largely elusive. In this study, five possible model variants of APC/C regulation were constructed, namely BubR1, Mad2, MCC, MCF2, and an all-pathways model variant. These models were validated with experimental data from the literature. A wide range of parameter values has been tested to find the critical values of the APC/C binding rate. The results show that all variants are able to capture the wild-type behavior of the APC/C. However, only one model variant, which included both MCC as well as BubR1 as potent inhibitors of the APC/C, was able to reproduce both wild-type and mutant type behavior of APC/C regulation. In conclusion, the presented work informs the regulation of fundamental processes such as SAC and APC/C in cell biology and has successfully distinguished between five competing dynamical models using a systems biology approach. The results attest that systems-level approaches are vital for molecular and cell biology. PMID:25871779

  20. Cytotoxic and anti-tumor activities of lignans from the seeds of Vietnamese nutmeg Myristica fragrans.

    PubMed

    Thuong, Phuong Thien; Hung, Tran Manh; Khoi, Nguyen Minh; Nhung, Hoang Thi My; Chinh, Nguyen Thi; Quy, Nguyen Thi; Jang, Tae Su; Na, Minkyun

    2014-03-01

    Four lignans, meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid (DHGA), macelignan, fragransin A2 and nectandrin B, were isolated from the seeds of Myristica fragrans (Vietnamese nutmeg) and investigated for their cytotoxic activity against eight cancer cell lines. Of these, DHGA exhibited potent cytotoxicity against H358 with IC50 value of 10.1 μM. In addition, DHGA showed antitumor activity in allogeneic tumor-bearing mice model.

  1. Cytotoxic and anti-tumor activities of lignans from the seeds of Vietnamese nutmeg Myristica fragrans.

    PubMed

    Thuong, Phuong Thien; Hung, Tran Manh; Khoi, Nguyen Minh; Nhung, Hoang Thi My; Chinh, Nguyen Thi; Quy, Nguyen Thi; Jang, Tae Su; Na, Minkyun

    2014-03-01

    Four lignans, meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid (DHGA), macelignan, fragransin A2 and nectandrin B, were isolated from the seeds of Myristica fragrans (Vietnamese nutmeg) and investigated for their cytotoxic activity against eight cancer cell lines. Of these, DHGA exhibited potent cytotoxicity against H358 with IC50 value of 10.1 μM. In addition, DHGA showed antitumor activity in allogeneic tumor-bearing mice model. PMID:23877238

  2. Eudistomin C, an Antitumor and Antiviral Natural Product, Targets 40S Ribosome and Inhibits Protein Translation.

    PubMed

    Ota, Yu; Chinen, Takumi; Yoshida, Keisuke; Kudo, Shun; Nagumo, Yoko; Shiwa, Yuh; Yamada, Ryosuke; Umihara, Hirotatsu; Iwasaki, Kotaro; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Yokoshima, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Fukuyama, Tohru; Kobayashi, Junichi; Usui, Takeo

    2016-09-01

    Eudistomin C (EudiC), a natural product, shows potent antitumor and antiviral activities, but the target molecule and the mechanism of action remain to be revealed. Here, we show that the 40S ribosome is the target in EudiC cytotoxicity. We isolated EudiC-resistant mutants from a multidrug-sensitive yeast strain, and a genetic analysis classified these YER (yeast EudiC resistance) mutants into three complementation groups. A genome-wide study revealed that the YER1-6 mutation is in the uS11 gene (RPS14A). Biotinylated EudiC pulled down Rps14p-containing complexes from 40S and 80S ribosomes, but not from the 60S ribosome. EudiC strongly inhibited translation of the wild-type strain but not of YER1-6 in cells and in vitro. These results indicate that EudiC is a protein synthesis inhibitor targeting the uS11-containing ribosomal subunit, and shows cytotoxicity by inhibiting protein translation. PMID:27304596

  3. Jacalin-Activated Macrophages Exhibit an Antitumor Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Danella Polli, Cláudia; Pereira Ruas, Luciana; Chain Veronez, Luciana; Herrero Geraldino, Thais; Rossetto de Morais, Fabiana; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina; Pereira-da-Silva, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have an ambiguous and complex role in the carcinogenic process, since these cells can be polarized into different phenotypes (proinflammatory, antitumor cells or anti-inflammatory, protumor cells) by the tumor microenvironment. Given that the interactions between tumor cells and TAMs involve several players, a better understanding of the function and regulation of TAMs is crucial to interfere with their differentiation in attempts to skew TAM polarization into cells with a proinflammatory antitumor phenotype. In this study, we investigated the modulation of macrophage tumoricidal activities by the lectin jacalin. Jacalin bound to macrophage surface and induced the expression and/or release of mainly proinflammatory cytokines via NF-κB signaling, as well as increased iNOS mRNA expression, suggesting that the lectin polarizes macrophages toward the antitumor phenotype. Therefore, tumoricidal activities of jacalin-stimulated macrophages were evaluated. High rates of tumor cell (human colon, HT-29, and breast, MCF-7, cells) apoptosis were observed upon incubation with supernatants from jacalin-stimulated macrophages. Taken together, these results indicate that jacalin, by exerting a proinflammatory activity, can direct macrophages to an antitumor phenotype. Deep knowledge of the regulation of TAM functions is essential for the development of innovative anticancer strategies. PMID:27119077

  4. Bortezomib as an antitumor agent.

    PubMed

    Roccaro, A M; Hideshima, T; Richardson, P G; Russo, D; Ribatti, D; Vacca, A; Dammacco, F; Anderson, K C

    2006-12-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) is the major non-lysosomal proteolytic system in the cytosol and nucleus of all eukaryotic cells. Bortezomib (also known as PS-341 and Velcade) is a proteasome inhibitor, a novel class of cancer therapies. Bortezomib blocks multi-ubiquitinated protein degradation by inhibiting 26S proteasome activity, including regulating cell cycle, anti-apoptosis, and inflammation, as well as immune surveillance. In multiple myeloma (MM) cells, bortezomib directly induces cell stress response followed by activation of c-Jun NH(2) terminal kinase (JNK)/stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK), and triggers caspase-dependent apoptosis of tumor cells. Recent clinical studies demonstrated that bortezomib had remarkable anti-tumor activity in refractory and relapsed MM, providing the basis to approval by FDA. Its anti-tumor activities earlier in the course, in combination therapies, and in other malignancies is ongoing. PMID:17168660

  5. Ten metal complexes of vitamin B3/niacin: Spectroscopic, thermal, antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxicity and antitumor studies of Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Pd(II), Cd(II), Pt(IV) and Au(III) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saif, Foziah A.; Refat, Moamen S.

    2012-08-01

    Ten coordination compounds, namely Mn(NA)2Cl2·4H2O (1), Fe(NA)Cl3(H2O)2 (2), Co(NA)2(NO3)2·6H2O (3), Ni(NA)Cl2·5H2O (4), Cu(NA)Cl2·3H2O (5), Zn(NA)(NO3)2·H2O (6), Pd(NA)2Cl2·H2O (7), Cd(NA)Cl2·H2O (8), Pt(NA)2Cl4·5H2O (9) and Au(NA)Cl3 (10) were obtained by the reactions of the corresponding transition metal salts with vitamin B3/niacin (NA) in the presence of 1:4 (v:v) distilled water: methanol solvent at 70 °C for about 30 min, and their suggested structures were determined by elemental analyses, molar conductivity, (infrared, UV-vis) spectra, effective magnetic moment in Bohr magnetons, electron spin resonance (ESR), thermal analysis (TG), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results revealed that in complexes 1, 3, 7, and 9 both of two NA ligand coordinates one metal ion to form four or six coordinated structures, while in compound 10, one NA ligand coordinate to Au+++ ion to form a square-planar geometry with N-bonded pyridine ligand is suggested, and (2, 4, 5, 6 and, 8) complexes have 1:1 structures. Antimicrobial and antitumor activities were assessment against some kind of (G+ and G-) bacteria, fungi and breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7-cell line).

  6. A new antitumor antibiotic, kazusamycin.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, I; Komiyama, K; Oka, H; Okada, K; Tomisaka, S; Miyano, T; Takano, S

    1984-07-01

    A new antibiotic kazusamycin, was isolated from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. No. 81-484, which shows antitumor activity against experimental murine tumors. This antibiotic did not possess antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, but showed strong cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells in vitro. The chemical and physico-chemical properties of kazusamycin suggest that the molecular formula of this antibiotic is C33H48O7 (MW 556). PMID:6432763

  7. Molecular design, synthesis and biological research of novel pyridyl acridones as potent DNA-binding and apoptosis-inducing agents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Chen, Kang; Wang, Ning; Gao, Chunmei; Sun, Qinsheng; Li, Lulu; Chen, Yuzong; Tan, Chunyan; Liu, Hongxia; Jiang, Yuyang

    2015-03-26

    A series of novel pyridyl acridone derivatives comprised of a pseudo-five-cyclic system to extend the π-conjugated acridone chromophore, were designed and synthesized as potent DNA binding antitumor compounds. Most synthesized compounds displayed good activity against human leukemia K562 cells in MTT tests, with compound 6d exhibiting the highest activity with IC50 value at 0.46 μM. Moreover, 6d showed potent activities against solid tumor cell lines (0.16-3.79 μM). Several experimental studies demonstrated that the antitumor mode of action of compound 6d involves DNA intercalation, topoisomerase I inhibition, and apoptosis induction through the mitochondrial pathway. In summary, compound 6d represents a novel and promising lead structure for the development of new potent anticancer DNA-binding agents.

  8. Antitumor Activity of Monoterpenes Found in Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Sobral, Marianna Vieira; Xavier, Aline Lira; Lima, Tamires Cardoso; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a complex genetic disease that is a major public health problem worldwide, accounting for about 7 million deaths each year. Many anticancer drugs currently used clinically have been isolated from plant species or are based on such substances. Accumulating data has revealed anticancer activity in plant-derived monoterpenes. In this review the antitumor activity of 37 monoterpenes found in essential oils is discussed. Chemical structures, experimental models, and mechanisms of action for bioactive substances are presented. PMID:25401162

  9. Secretion of Rhoptry and Dense Granule Effector Proteins by Nonreplicating Toxoplasma gondii Uracil Auxotrophs Controls the Development of Antitumor Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Barbara A.; Sanders, Kiah L.; Rommereim, Leah M.; Bzik, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Nonreplicating type I uracil auxotrophic mutants of Toxoplasma gondii possess a potent ability to activate therapeutic immunity to established solid tumors by reversing immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment. Here we engineered targeted deletions of parasite secreted effector proteins using a genetically tractable Δku80 vaccine strain to show that the secretion of specific rhoptry (ROP) and dense granule (GRA) proteins by uracil auxotrophic mutants of T. gondii in conjunction with host cell invasion activates antitumor immunity through host responses involving CD8α+ dendritic cells, the IL-12/interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) TH1 axis, as well as CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Deletion of parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) associated proteins ROP5, ROP17, ROP18, ROP35 or ROP38, intravacuolar network associated dense granule proteins GRA2 or GRA12, and GRA24 which traffics past the PVM to the host cell nucleus severely abrogated the antitumor response. In contrast, deletion of other secreted effector molecules such as GRA15, GRA16, or ROP16 that manipulate host cell signaling and transcriptional pathways, or deletion of PVM associated ROP21 or GRA3 molecules did not affect the antitumor activity. Association of ROP18 with the PVM was found to be essential for the development of the antitumor responses. Surprisingly, the ROP18 kinase activity required for resistance to IFN-γ activated host innate immunity related GTPases and virulence was not essential for the antitumor response. These data show that PVM functions of parasite secreted effector molecules, including ROP18, manipulate host cell responses through ROP18 kinase virulence independent mechanisms to activate potent antitumor responses. Our results demonstrate that PVM associated rhoptry effector proteins secreted prior to host cell invasion and dense granule effector proteins localized to the intravacuolar network and host nucleus that are secreted after host cell invasion coordinately control the

  10. IL-12 induces T helper 1-directed antitumor response.

    PubMed

    Tsung, K; Meko, J B; Peplinski, G R; Tsung, Y L; Norton, J A

    1997-04-01

    Although IL-12 possesses the most potent single-cytokine antitumor efficacy, the mechanism by which IL-12 exerts its antitumor activities remains unclear. Using a complete tumor regression model induced by IL-12 treatment, we demonstrate that the antitumor response induced by IL-12 is mediated by a Th1 cell-directed process, with the macrophage as the effector cell and nitric oxide produced by the activated macrophage as the effector molecule. The induction of the Th1 response by IL-12 depends on the existence of a host T cell response to the tumor before IL-12 administration. IL-12 treatment causes the complete regression of 10-day established s.c. tumors (4-8 mm). Associated with the induction of tumor necrosis, activated macrophages expressing high levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase were found surrounding the tumor. The importance of nitric oxide as the effector molecule was further confirmed by the delay and loss of tumor regression in the presence of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in vivo. Examination of tumor-associated T cells indicates that IL-12 induces production of the Th1 cytokine IFN-gamma and suppresses production of IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 at the tumor site, where these are found to be the predominant cytokines produced by tumor-associated T cells before IL-12 treatment. These findings demonstrate that IL-12 plays an essential role in the induction of an effective Th1 type of cell-mediated immune response against established tumors.

  11. Antitumor and antimetastatic activity of interleukin 12 against murine tumors

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that in vivo administration of murine interleukin 12 (IL-12) to mice results in augmentation of cytotoxic natural killer (NK)/lymphocyte-activated killer cell activity, enhancement of cytolytic T cell generation, and induction of interferon gamma secretion. In this study, the in vivo activity of murine IL-12 against a number of murine tumors has been evaluated. Experimental pulmonary metastases or subcutaneous growth of the B16F10 melanoma were markedly reduced in mice treated intraperitoneally with IL-12, resulting in an increase in survival time. The therapeutic effectiveness of IL-12 was dose dependent and treatment of subcutaneous tumors could be initiated up to 14 d after injection of tumor cells. Likewise, established experimental hepatic metastases and established subcutaneous M5076 reticulum cell sarcoma and Renca renal cell adenocarcinoma tumors were effectively treated by IL-12 at doses which resulted in no gross toxicity. Local peritumoral injection of IL-12 into established subcutaneous Renca tumors resulted in regression and complete disappearance of these tumors. IL-12 was as effective in NK cell-deficient beige mice or in mice depleted of NK cell activity by treatment with antiasialo GM1, suggesting that NK cells are not the primary cell type mediating the antitumor effects of this cytokine. However, the efficacy of IL-12 was greatly reduced in nude mice suggesting the involvement of T cells. Furthermore, depletion of CD8+ but not CD4+ T cells significantly reduced the efficacy of IL-12. These results demonstrate that IL-12 has potent in vivo antitumor and antimetastatic effects against murine tumors and demonstrate as well the critical role of CD8+ T cells in mediating the antitumor effects against subcutaneous tumors. PMID:8104230

  12. Potential clinical application of interleukin-27 as an antitumor agent.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Takayuki; Chiba, Yukino; Furusawa, Jun-Ichi; Xu, Mingli; Tsunoda, Ren; Higuchi, Kaname; Mizoguchi, Izuru

    2015-09-01

    Cancer immunotherapies such as sipuleucel-T and ipilimumab are promising new treatments that harness the power of the immune system to fight cancer and achieve long-lasting remission. Interleukin (IL)-27, a member of the IL-12 heterodimeric cytokine family, has pleiotropic functions in the regulation of immune responses with both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Evidence obtained using a variety of preclinical mouse models indicates that IL-27 possesses potent antitumor activity against various types of tumors through multiple mechanisms without apparent adverse effects. These mechanisms include those mediated not only by CD8(+) T cells, natural killer cells and macrophages, but also by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, antiangiogenesis, direct antiproliferative effects, inhibition of expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 , and suppression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, depending on the characteristics of individual tumors. However, the endogenous role of IL-27 subunits and one of its receptor subunits, WSX-1, in the susceptibility to tumor development after transplantation of tumor cell lines or endogenously arising tumors seems to be more complicated. IL-27 functions as a double-edged sword: IL-27 increases IL-10 production and the expression of programmed death ligand 1 and T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-3, and promotes the generation of regulatory T cells, and IL-27 receptor α singling enhances transformation; IL-27 may augment protumor effects as well. Here, we review both facets of IL-27, antitumor effects and protumor effects, and discuss the potential clinical application of IL-27 as an antitumor agent.

  13. Optimization of Antitumor Modulators of Pre-mRNA Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Lagisetti, Chandraiah; Palacios, Gustavo; Goronga, Tinopiwa; Freeman, Burgess; Caufield, William; Webb, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    The spliceosome regulates pre-mRNA splicing, which is a critical process in normal mammalian cells. Recently recurrent mutations in numerous spliceosomal proteins have been associated with a number of cancers. Previously natural product antitumor agents have been shown to interact with one of the proteins that is subject to recurrent mutations (SF3B1). We report the optimization of a class of tumor-selective spliceosome modulators, which demonstrate significant in vivo antitumor activity. This optimization culminated in the discovery of sudemycin D6, which shows potent cytotoxic activity in the melanoma line SK-MEL-2 (IC50= 39 nM) and other tumor lines, including: JeKo-1 (IC50= 26 nM), HeLa (IC50= 50 nM), and SK-N-AS (IC50= 81 nM). We also report improved processes for the synthesis of these compounds. Our work supports the idea that sudemycin D6 is worthy of further investigation as a novel preclinical anticancer agent with application in the treatment of numerous human cancers. PMID:24325474

  14. In silico study of subtilisin-like protease 1 (SUB1) from different Plasmodium species in complex with peptidyl-difluorostatones and characterization of potent pan-SUB1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Brogi, Simone; Giovani, Simone; Brindisi, Margherita; Gemma, Sandra; Novellino, Ettore; Campiani, Giuseppe; Blackman, Michael J; Butini, Stefania

    2016-03-01

    Plasmodium falciparum subtilisin-like protease 1 (SUB1) is a novel target for the development of innovative antimalarials. We recently described the first potent difluorostatone-based inhibitors of the enzyme ((4S)-(N-((N-acetyl-l-lysyl)-l-isoleucyl-l-threonyl-l-alanyl)-2,2-difluoro-3-oxo-4-aminopentanoyl)glycine (1) and (4S)-(N-((N-acetyl-l-isoleucyl)-l-threonyl-l-alanylamino)-2,2-difluoro-3-oxo-4-aminopentanoyl)glycine (2)). As a continuation of our efforts towards the definition of the molecular determinants of enzyme-inhibitor interaction, we herein propose the first comprehensive computational investigation of the SUB1 catalytic core from six different Plasmodium species, using homology modeling and molecular docking approaches. Investigation of the differences in the binding sites as well as the interactions of our inhibitors 1,2 with all SUB1 orthologues, allowed us to highlight the structurally relevant regions of the enzyme that could be targeted for developing pan-SUB1 inhibitors. According to our in silico predictions, compounds 1,2 have been demonstrated to be potent inhibitors of SUB1 from all three major clinically relevant Plasmodium species (P. falciparum, P. vivax, and P. knowlesi). We next derived multiple structure-based pharmacophore models that were combined in an inclusive pan-SUB1 pharmacophore (SUB1-PHA). This latter was validated by applying in silico methods, showing that it may be useful for the future development of potent antimalarial agents. PMID:26826801

  15. STING activation of tumor endothelial cells initiates spontaneous and therapeutic antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Demaria, Olivier; De Gassart, Aude; Coso, Sanja; Gestermann, Nicolas; Di Domizio, Jeremy; Flatz, Lukas; Gaide, Olivier; Michielin, Olivier; Hwu, Patrick; Petrova, Tatiana V; Martinon, Fabio; Modlin, Robert L; Speiser, Daniel E; Gilliet, Michel

    2015-12-15

    Spontaneous CD8 T-cell responses occur in growing tumors but are usually poorly effective. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms that drive these responses is of major interest as they could be exploited to generate a more efficacious antitumor immunity. As such, stimulator of IFN genes (STING), an adaptor molecule involved in cytosolic DNA sensing, is required for the induction of antitumor CD8 T responses in mouse models of cancer. Here, we find that enforced activation of STING by intratumoral injection of cyclic dinucleotide GMP-AMP (cGAMP), potently enhanced antitumor CD8 T responses leading to growth control of injected and contralateral tumors in mouse models of melanoma and colon cancer. The ability of cGAMP to trigger antitumor immunity was further enhanced by the blockade of both PD1 and CTLA4. The STING-dependent antitumor immunity, either induced spontaneously in growing tumors or induced by intratumoral cGAMP injection was dependent on type I IFNs produced in the tumor microenvironment. In response to cGAMP injection, both in the mouse melanoma model and an ex vivo model of cultured human melanoma explants, the principal source of type I IFN was not dendritic cells, but instead endothelial cells. Similarly, endothelial cells but not dendritic cells were found to be the principal source of spontaneously induced type I IFNs in growing tumors. These data identify an unexpected role of the tumor vasculature in the initiation of CD8 T-cell antitumor immunity and demonstrate that tumor endothelial cells can be targeted for immunotherapy of melanoma.

  16. STING activation of tumor endothelial cells initiates spontaneous and therapeutic antitumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Demaria, Olivier; De Gassart, Aude; Coso, Sanja; Gestermann, Nicolas; Di Domizio, Jeremy; Flatz, Lukas; Gaide, Olivier; Michielin, Olivier; Hwu, Patrick; Petrova, Tatiana V.; Martinon, Fabio; Modlin, Robert L.; Speiser, Daniel E.; Gilliet, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous CD8 T-cell responses occur in growing tumors but are usually poorly effective. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms that drive these responses is of major interest as they could be exploited to generate a more efficacious antitumor immunity. As such, stimulator of IFN genes (STING), an adaptor molecule involved in cytosolic DNA sensing, is required for the induction of antitumor CD8 T responses in mouse models of cancer. Here, we find that enforced activation of STING by intratumoral injection of cyclic dinucleotide GMP-AMP (cGAMP), potently enhanced antitumor CD8 T responses leading to growth control of injected and contralateral tumors in mouse models of melanoma and colon cancer. The ability of cGAMP to trigger antitumor immunity was further enhanced by the blockade of both PD1 and CTLA4. The STING-dependent antitumor immunity, either induced spontaneously in growing tumors or induced by intratumoral cGAMP injection was dependent on type I IFNs produced in the tumor microenvironment. In response to cGAMP injection, both in the mouse melanoma model and an ex vivo model of cultured human melanoma explants, the principal source of type I IFN was not dendritic cells, but instead endothelial cells. Similarly, endothelial cells but not dendritic cells were found to be the principal source of spontaneously induced type I IFNs in growing tumors. These data identify an unexpected role of the tumor vasculature in the initiation of CD8 T-cell antitumor immunity and demonstrate that tumor endothelial cells can be targeted for immunotherapy of melanoma. PMID:26607445

  17. Increased anti-tumor effects using IL2 with anti-TGFβ reveals competition between mouse NK and CD8 T cells

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Maite; Bouchlaka, Myriam N.; Sckisel, Gail D.; Sungur, Can M.; Chen, Mingyi; Murphy, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Due to increasing interest in the removal of immunosuppressive pathways in cancer, the combination of IL2 with antibodies to neutralize TGFβ, a potent immunosuppressive cytokine, was assessed. Combination immunotherapy resulted in significantly greater anti-tumor effects. These were correlated with significant increases in the numbers and functionality of NK cells, NK progenitors and activated CD8 T cells resulting in the observed anti-tumor effects. Combination immunotherapy was also accompanied with lesser toxicities than IL2 therapy alone. Additionally, we observed a dual competition between NK and activated CD8 T cells such that after immunotherapy, the depletion of either effector population resulted in the increased total expansion of the other population and compensatory anti-tumor effects. This study demonstrates the efficacy of this combination immunotherapeutic regimen as a promising cancer therapy and illustrates the existence of potent competitive regulatory pathways between NK and CD8 T cells in response to systemic activation. PMID:25000978

  18. Ley specific antibody with potent anti-tumor activity is internalized and degraded in lysosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Garrigues, J.; Garrigues, U.; Hellström, I.; Hellström, K. E.

    1993-01-01

    BR96 is a monoclonal antibody (MAb) that recognizes many human carcinomas and can kill antigen-positive tumor cells in vitro. Using both gold and radiolabeled MAb, the distribution and cellular processing of BR96 during cytolysis has been determined. After a brief (< 3 minutes) MAb treatment, cells in suspension are stained by the nuclear viability dye propidium iodide. Whole MAb and F(ab')2 fragments are equally cytotoxic; monovalent F(ab) fragments, however, have no effect on dye uptake unless cross-linked with goat anti-mouse IgG. The level of toxicity is dependent on both MAb dose and on cell surface receptor density. Cell contact may regulate receptor expression. BR96 receptors are more abundant on cells migrating into the open areas of a scratch wounded confluent culture than on the adjacent contact-inhibited cells. BR96 can also inhibit the anchorage-independent growth of tumor cells in soft agar showing that its effects on propidium iodide staining are not due to transient changes in membrane permeability. Immunogold electron microscopy reveals that, after a 1-minute treatment, BR96 induces significant infolding of the plasma membrane and that internalized MAb is localized to these structures. Immediately thereafter, large cell surface and intracellular vesicles form, mitochondria are swollen, and membrane integrity is lost. Therefore, BR96 seems to cause morphological changes characteristic of necrosis rather than apoptosis. When bound to adherent carcinoma cells, BR96 is distributed uniformly on the apical surface of cells labeled at 4 C and is enriched at points of cell substratum contact. Upon warming of the cells to 37 C, BR96 localizes in small perinuclear clusters and the cell margin is now devoid of label. Immunogold electron microscopy reveals that BR96 undergoes receptor mediated internalization and is localized within the same coated pits, endosomes, and lysosomes as the transferrin receptor. Quantitative studies using iodinated BR96 show that after 6 hours of chase, a maximum of 53% of the radiolabel is located within the intracellular pool. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicates that 84% of this fraction is nondegraded. BR96 probably cycles between the medium and intracellular pools because the remainder of the radiolabel is in the medium as intact MAb. By 24 hours of chase, the intracellular fraction drops to 30%, while the remaining 70% is present in the culture medium, mostly as low molecular weight degradation products. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 p614-a Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:8434651

  19. Inflammatory monocytes are potent antitumor effectors controlled by regulatory CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Pommier, Arnaud; Audemard, Alexandra; Durand, Aurélie; Lengagne, Renée; Delpoux, Arnaud; Martin, Bruno; Douguet, Laetitia; Le Campion, Armelle; Kato, Masashi; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Auffray, Cédric; Lucas, Bruno; Prévost-Blondel, Armelle

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluates the impact of immune cell populations on metastatic development in a model of spontaneous melanoma [mice expressing the human RET oncogene under the control of the metallothionein promoter (MT/ret mice)]. In this model, cancer cells disseminate early but remain dormant for several weeks. Then, MT/ret mice develop cutaneous metastases and, finally, distant metastases. A total of 35% of MT/ret mice develop a vitiligo, a skin depigmentation attributable to the lysis of normal melanocytes, associated with a delay in tumor progression. Here, we find that regulatory CD4+ T cells accumulate in the skin, the spleen, and tumor-draining lymph nodes of MT/ret mice not developing vitiligo. Regulatory T-cell depletion and IL-10 neutralization led to increased occurrence of vitiligo that correlated with a decreased incidence of melanoma metastases. In contrast, inflammatory monocytes/dendritic cells accumulate in the skin of MT/ret mice with active vitiligo. Moreover, they inhibit tumor cell proliferation in vitro through a reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism, and both their depletion and reactive oxygen species neutralization in vivo increased tumor cell dissemination. Altogether, our data suggest that regulatory CD4+ T cells favor tumor progression, in part, by inhibiting recruitment and/or differentiation of inflammatory monocytes in the skin. PMID:23878221

  20. HPLC method development, validation, and impurity characterization of a potent antitumor indenoisoquinoline, LMP776 (NSC 725776).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jennie; Liu, Mingtao; Yang, Chun; Wu, Xiaogang; Wang, Euphemia; Liu, Paul

    2016-05-30

    An HPLC method for the assay of a DNA topoisomerase inhibitor, LMP776 (NSC 725776), has been developed and validated. The stress testing of LMP776 was carried out in accordance with International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines Q1A (R2) under acidic, alkaline, oxidative, thermolytic, and photolytic conditions. The separation of LMP776 from its impurities and degradation products was achieved within 40 min on a Supelco Discovery HS F5 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm) with a gradient mobile phase comprising 38-80% acetonitrile in water, with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid in both phases. LC/MS was used to obtain mass data for characterization of impurities and degradation products. One major impurity was isolated through chloroform extraction and identified by NMR. The proposed HPLC assay method was validated for specificity, linearity (concentration range 0.25-0.75 mg/mL, r = 0.9999), accuracy (recovery 98.6-100.4%), precision (RSD ≤ 1.4%), and sensitivity (LOD 0.13 μg/mL). The validated method was used in the stability study of the LMP776 drug substance in conformance with the ICH Q1A (R2) guideline. PMID:26970596

  1. Dendritic cell based immunotherapy using tumor stem cells mediates potent antitumor immune responses.

    PubMed

    Dashti, Amir; Ebrahimi, Marzieh; Hadjati, Jamshid; Memarnejadian, Arash; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-04-28

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are demonstrated to be usually less sensitive to conventional methods of cancer therapies, resulting in tumor relapse. It is well-known that an ideal treatment would be able to selectively target and kill CSCs, so as to avoid the tumor reversion. The aim of our present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a dendritic cell (DC) based vaccine against CSCs in a mouse model of malignant melanoma. C57BL/6 mouse bone marrow derived DCs pulsed with a murine melanoma cell line (B16F10) or CSC lysates were used as a vaccine. Immunization of mice with CSC lysate-pulsed DCs was able to induce a significant prophylactic effect by a higher increase in lifespan and obvious depression of tumor growth in tumor bearing mice. The mice vaccinated with DCs loaded with CSC-lysate were revealed to produce specific cytotoxic responses to CSCs. The proliferation assay and cytokine (IFN-γ and IL-4) secretion of mice vaccinated with CSC lysate-pulsed DCs also showed more favorable results, when compared to those receiving B16F10 lysate-pulsed DCs. These findings suggest a potential strategy to improve the efficacy of DC-based immunotherapy of cancers. PMID:26803056

  2. Rhamnazin, a novel inhibitor of VEGFR2 signaling with potent antiangiogenic activity and antitumor efficacy

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Yao; Cai, Wei; Pei, Chong-gang; Shao, Yi

    2015-03-20

    Anti-angiogenesis targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) has emerged as an important tool for cancer therapy. The identification of new drugs from natural products has a long and successful history. In this study, we described a novel VEGFR2 inhibitor, rhamnazin, which inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth. Rhamnazin significantly inhibited proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro as well as inhibited sprouts formation of rat aorta ring. In addition, it inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and its downstream signaling regulator in HUVECs. Moreover, rhamnazin could directly inhibit proliferation of breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 in vitro and in vivo. Oral administration of rhamnazin at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day could markedly inhibited human tumor xenograft growth and decreased microvessel densities (MVD) in tumor sections. Taken together, these preclinical evaluations suggest that rhamnazin inhibits angiogenesis and may be a promising anticancer drug candidate. - Highlights: • Rhamnazin inhibits the response of HUVECs to VEGF in vitro. • Rhamnazin inhibits VEGFR2 kinase activity and its downstream signaling. • Rhamnazin prevents the growth of MDA-MB-231 tumor and reduces micro-vessel density in vivo.

  3. Pharmacological exploitation of the phenothiazine antipsychotics to develop novel antitumor agents–A drug repurposing strategy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Hsien; Bai, Li-Yuan; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chu, Po-Chen; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Chen, Michael Yuanchien; Chiu, Shih-Jiuan; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Weng, Jing-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Phenothiazines (PTZs) have been used for the antipsychotic drugs for centuries. However, some of these PTZs have been reported to exhibit antitumor effects by targeting various signaling pathways in vitro and in vivo. Thus, this study was aimed at exploiting trifluoperazine, one of PTZs, to develop potent antitumor agents. This effort culminated in A4 [10-(3-(piperazin-1-yl)propyl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)-10H-phenothiazine] which exhibited multi-fold higher apoptosis-inducing activity than the parent compound in oral cancer cells. Compared to trifluoperazine, A4 demonstrated similar regulation on the phosphorylation or expression of multiple molecular targets including Akt, p38, and ERK. In addition, A4 induced autophagy, as evidenced by increased expression of the autophagy biomarkers LC3B-II and Atg5, and autophagosomes formation. The antitumor activity of A4 also related to production of reactive oxygen species and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase. Importantly, the antitumor utility of A4 was extended in vivo as it, administrated at 10 and 20 mg/kg intraperitoneally, suppressed the growth of Ca922 xenograft tumors. In conclusion, the ability of A4 to target diverse aspects of cancer cell growth suggests its value in oral cancer therapy. PMID:27277973

  4. Curcuma increasing antitumor effect of Rhizoma paridis saponins through absorptive enhancement of paridis saponins.

    PubMed

    Man, Shuli; Li, Yuanyuan; Fan, Wei; Gao, Wenyuan; Liu, Zhen; Li, Nan; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Changxiao

    2013-09-15

    Rhizoma paridis saponins (RPS) played a good antitumor role in many clinical applications. However, low oral bioavailability limited its application. In this research, water extract of Curcuma (CW) significantly increased antitumor effect of Rhizoma paridis saponins (RPS). GC-MS was used to identify its polar composition. HPLC was applied for determination of the content of curcuminoids in CW. As a result, 47 analytes with 0.65% of curcuminoids were identified in CW. According to the in vivo anti-tumor data, the best proportion of curcuminoids in CW with RPS was 16:500 (w/w). Using this ratio, curcuminoids significantly increased absorption of RPS in the everted rat duodenum sac system. In addition, curcuminoids decreased the promotion of RPS on rhodamine 123 efflux. The effect of curcuminoids was similar to that of the P-gp inhibitor, cyclosporin A in combination with RPS. In conclusion, drug combination of water extract of Curcuma with RPS was a good method to increase the antitumor effect of RPS. This combination would be a potent anticancer agent used in the prospective application.

  5. Antitumor effects of the benzophenanthridine alkaloid sanguinarine: Evidence and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Gaziano, Roberta; Moroni, Gabriella; Buè, Cristina; Miele, Martino Tony; Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Paola; Pica, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Historically, natural products have represented a significant source of anticancer agents, with plant-derived drugs becoming increasingly explored. In particular, sanguinarine is a benzophenanthridine alkaloid obtained from the root of Sanguinaria canadensis, and from other poppy Fumaria species, with recognized anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Recently, increasing evidence that sanguinarine exibits anticancer potential through its capability of inducing apoptosis and/or antiproliferative effects on tumor cells, has been proved. Moreover, its antitumor seems to be due not only to its pro-apoptotic and inhibitory effects on tumor growth, but also to its antiangiogenic and anti-invasive properties. Although the precise mechanisms underlying the antitumor activity of this compound remain not fully understood, in this review we will focus on the most recent findings about the cellular and molecular pathways affected by sanguinarine, together with the rationale of its potential application in clinic. The complex of data currently available suggest the potential application of sanguinarine as an adjuvant in the therapy of cancer, but further pre-clinical studies are needed before such an antitumor strategy can be effectively translated in the clinical practice. PMID:26798435

  6. Antitumor effects of the benzophenanthridine alkaloid sanguinarine: Evidence and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Gaziano, Roberta; Moroni, Gabriella; Buè, Cristina; Miele, Martino Tony; Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Paola; Pica, Francesca

    2016-01-15

    Historically, natural products have represented a significant source of anticancer agents, with plant-derived drugs becoming increasingly explored. In particular, sanguinarine is a benzophenanthridine alkaloid obtained from the root of Sanguinaria canadensis, and from other poppy Fumaria species, with recognized anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Recently, increasing evidence that sanguinarine exibits anticancer potential through its capability of inducing apoptosis and/or antiproliferative effects on tumor cells, has been proved. Moreover, its antitumor seems to be due not only to its pro-apoptotic and inhibitory effects on tumor growth, but also to its antiangiogenic and anti-invasive properties. Although the precise mechanisms underlying the antitumor activity of this compound remain not fully understood, in this review we will focus on the most recent findings about the cellular and molecular pathways affected by sanguinarine, together with the rationale of its potential application in clinic. The complex of data currently available suggest the potential application of sanguinarine as an adjuvant in the therapy of cancer, but further pre-clinical studies are needed before such an antitumor strategy can be effectively translated in the clinical practice.

  7. Antitumor effects of the benzophenanthridine alkaloid sanguinarine: Evidence and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Gaziano, Roberta; Moroni, Gabriella; Buè, Cristina; Miele, Martino Tony; Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Paola; Pica, Francesca

    2016-01-15

    Historically, natural products have represented a significant source of anticancer agents, with plant-derived drugs becoming increasingly explored. In particular, sanguinarine is a benzophenanthridine alkaloid obtained from the root of Sanguinaria canadensis, and from other poppy Fumaria species, with recognized anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Recently, increasing evidence that sanguinarine exibits anticancer potential through its capability of inducing apoptosis and/or antiproliferative effects on tumor cells, has been proved. Moreover, its antitumor seems to be due not only to its pro-apoptotic and inhibitory effects on tumor growth, but also to its antiangiogenic and anti-invasive properties. Although the precise mechanisms underlying the antitumor activity of this compound remain not fully understood, in this review we will focus on the most recent findings about the cellular and molecular pathways affected by sanguinarine, together with the rationale of its potential application in clinic. The complex of data currently available suggest the potential application of sanguinarine as an adjuvant in the therapy of cancer, but further pre-clinical studies are needed before such an antitumor strategy can be effectively translated in the clinical practice. PMID:26798435

  8. [Novel derivatives of diosgenin: design, synthesis and anti-tumor activity].

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiao-Yong; He, Gu; Jiang, Hong-Ping; Wan, Jian-Fei; Fan, Ju-Zheng

    2012-04-01

    Diosgenin can inhibit the growth of A375 and K562 cell lines and induce their apoptosis with an effect on pro-apoptotic members of Bcl-2 family. To study the SAR of diosgenin derivatives, and to improve the anti-tumor activity of diosgenin, a series of novel diosgenin derivatives were designed and synthesized. Their anti-tumor activities in vitro were evaluated. The results revealed that most of the new derivatives had potent effects against K562, A375 and A549 (three tumor cell lines) in vitro, and had no or less effect against H293 and L02 (two normal cell lines). Particularly, some compounds (e.g. 1, 6-8) showed excellent activities on K562 with IC50 values ranging from 1.96 to 4.35 micromol x L(-1).

  9. Synthesis of biscoumarin and dihydropyran derivatives with promising antitumor and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Sui, Yun-Peng; Xin, Jia-Jia; Du, Xin-Liang; Li, Jiang-Tao; Huo, Hai-Ru; Ma, Hai; Wang, Wei-Hao; Zhou, Hai-Yu; Zhan, Hong-Dan; Wang, Zhu-Ju; Li, Chun; Sui, Feng; Li, Xia

    2015-12-01

    Two series of biscoumarin (1-3) and dihydropyran (4-12) derivatives were successfully synthesized as new antitumor and antibacterial agents. The molecular structures of four representative compounds 2, 4, 7 and 10 were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction study. The synthesized compounds (1-12) were evaluated for their antitumor activities against human intestinal epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line (HuTu80), mammary adenocarcinoma cell line (4T1) and pancreatic cancer cell line (PANC1) and antibacterial activities against one drug-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus ATCC 29213) strain and three MRSA strains (MRSA XJ 75302, Mu50, USA 300 LAC). The further mechanism study demonstrated that the most potent compound 1 could obviously inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells via the mechanism to induce apoptosis.

  10. A new cell counting method to evaluate anti-tumor compound activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Jian; Zhang, Xiu-Rong; Zhang, Lei; Li, Qing-Hua; Wang, Lin; Shi, Li-Hong; Fang, Chun-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Determining cell quantity is a common problem in cytology research and anti-tumor drug development. A simple and low-cost method was developed to determine monolayer and adherent-growth cell quantities. The cell nucleus is located in the cytoplasm, and is independent. Thus, the nucleus cannot make contact even if the cell density is heavy. This phenomenon is the foundation of accurate cell-nucleus recognition. The cell nucleus is easily recognizable in images after fluorescent staining because it is independent. A one-to-one relationship exists between the nucleus and the cell; therefore, this method can be used to determine the quantity of proliferating cells. Results indicated that the activity of the histone deacetylase inhibitor Z1 was effective after this method was used. The nude-mouse xenograft model also revealed the potent anti-tumor activity of Z1. This research presents a new anti-tumor-drug evaluation method.

  11. Glycans as targets for therapeutic antitumor antibodies.

    PubMed

    Rabu, Catherine; McIntosh, Richard; Jurasova, Zuzana; Durrant, Lindy

    2012-08-01

    Glycans represent a vast class of molecules that modify either proteins or lipids. They exert and regulate important and complex functions in both normal and cancer cell metabolism. As such, the most immunogenic glycans have been targeted in passive and active immunotherapy in human cancer for the past 25 years but it is only recently that techniques have become available to uncover novel glycan targets. The main focus of this review article is to highlight why and how monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing glycans, and in particular the glycans expressed on glycolipids, are being used in various strategies to target and kill cancer cells. The article reports on the historical use of mAbs and on very recent progress made in antitumor therapy using the anti-GD2 mAb and the antiganglioside mAbs, anti-N-glycolylneuraminic acid mAb and anti-Lewis mAb. Anti-GD2 is showing great promise in Phase III clinical trials in adjuvant treatment of neuroblastoma. Racotumomab, an anti-idiotypic mAb mimicking N-glycolylneuraminic acid-containing gangliosides, is currently being tested in a randomized, controlled Phase II/III clinical trial. This article also presents various strategies used by different groups to develop mAbs against these naturally poorly immunogenic glycans.

  12. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Dehydroabietic Acid Derivatives Conjugated with Acyl-Thiourea Peptide Moiety as Antitumor Agents

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Le; Qu, Hong-En; Huang, Xiao-Chao; Pan, Ying-Ming; Liang, Dong; Chen, Zhen-Feng; Wang, Heng-Shan; Zhang, Ye

    2015-01-01

    A series of dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) acyl-thiourea derivatives were designed and synthesized as potent antitumor agents. The in vitro pharmacological screening results revealed that the target compounds exhibited potent cytotoxicity against HeLa, SK-OV-3 and MGC-803 tumor cell lines, while they showed lower cytotoxicity against HL-7702 normal human river cells. Compound 9n (IC50 = 6.58 ± 1.11 μM) exhibited the best antitumor activity against the HeLa cell line and even displayed more potent inhibitory activity than commercial antitumor drug 5-FU (IC50 = 36.58 ± 1.55 μM). The mechanism of representative compound 9n was then studied by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, Hoechst 33,258 staining, JC-1 mitochondrial membrane potential staining, TUNEL assay and flow cytometry, which illustrated that this compound could induce apoptosis in HeLa cells. Cell cycle analysis indicated that compound 9n mainly arrested HeLa cells in the S phase stage. Further investigation demonstrated that compound 9n induced apoptosis of HeLa cells through a mitochondrial pathway. PMID:26132564

  13. Aptamer-targeted inhibition of mTOR in T cells enhances antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Berezhnoy, Alexey; Castro, Iris; Levay, Agata; Malek, Thomas R; Gilboa, Eli

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have underscored the importance of memory T cells in mediating protective immunity against pathogens and cancer. Pharmacological inhibition of regulators that mediate T cell differentiation promotes the differentiation of activated CD8(+) T cells into memory cells. Nonetheless, pharmacological agents have broad targets and can induce undesirable immunosuppressive effects. Here, we tested the hypothesis that aptamer-targeted siRNA inhibition of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) function in CD8(+) T cells can enhance their differentiation into memory T cells and potentiate antitumor immunity more effectively than the pharmacologic inhibitor rapamycin. To specifically target activated cells, we conjugated an siRNA targeting the mTORC1 component raptor to an aptamer that binds 4-1BB, a costimulatory molecule that is expressed on CD8(+) T cells following TCR stimulation. We found that systemic administration of the 4-1BB aptamer-raptor siRNA to mice downregulated mTORC1 activity in the majority of CD8(+) T cells, leading to the generation of a potent memory response that exhibited cytotoxic effector functions and enhanced vaccine-induced protective immunity in tumor-bearing mice. In contrast, while treatment with the general mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin also enhanced antigen-activated CD8(+) T cell persistence, the cytotoxic effector functions of the reactivated memory cells were reduced and the alloreactivity of DCs was diminished. Consistent with the immunological findings, mice treated with rapamycin, but not with 4-1BB aptamer-raptor siRNA, failed to reject a subsequent tumor challenge.

  14. Aptamer-targeted inhibition of mTOR in T cells enhances antitumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Berezhnoy, Alexey; Castro, Iris; Levay, Agata; Malek, Thomas R.; Gilboa, Eli

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have underscored the importance of memory T cells in mediating protective immunity against pathogens and cancer. Pharmacological inhibition of regulators that mediate T cell differentiation promotes the differentiation of activated CD8+ T cells into memory cells. Nonetheless, pharmacological agents have broad targets and can induce undesirable immunosuppressive effects. Here, we tested the hypothesis that aptamer-targeted siRNA inhibition of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) function in CD8+ T cells can enhance their differentiation into memory T cells and potentiate antitumor immunity more effectively than the pharmacologic inhibitor rapamycin. To specifically target activated cells, we conjugated an siRNA targeting the mTORC1 component raptor to an aptamer that binds 4-1BB, a costimulatory molecule that is expressed on CD8+ T cells following TCR stimulation. We found that systemic administration of the 4-1BB aptamer-raptor siRNA to mice downregulated mTORC1 activity in the majority of CD8+ T cells, leading to the generation of a potent memory response that exhibited cytotoxic effector functions and enhanced vaccine-induced protective immunity in tumor-bearing mice. In contrast, while treatment with the general mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin also enhanced antigen-activated CD8+ T cell persistence, the cytotoxic effector functions of the reactivated memory cells were reduced and the alloreactivity of DCs was diminished. Consistent with the immunological findings, mice treated with rapamycin, but not with 4-1BB aptamer-raptor siRNA, failed to reject a subsequent tumor challenge. PMID:24292708

  15. Synthesis and crystal structure of new dicopper(II) complexes with N,N'-bis-(dipropylenetriamine)oxamide as bridging ligand: effects of the counterions on DNA/protein-binding property and in vitro antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng-Jia; Zhao, Hong-Qin; Liu, Fang; Li, Yan-Tuan; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Yan, Cui-Wei

    2015-02-01

    Two new dicopper(II) complexes bridged by N,N'-bis(dipropylenetriamine)oxamide (H2oxdipn), namely, [Cu2(oxdipn)](pic)2(1) and [Cu2(oxdipn)(ClO4)2] (2), where pic represents picrate ion, have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, IR and electronic spectral studies, and X-ray single crystal diffraction. In both dicopper(II) complexes, the two copper(II) ions are bridged by trans-oxdipn ligand with the Cu⋯Cu separations of 5.2536(15) and 5.231(2)Å, respectively. The copper(II) ion in complex 1 has a square-planar coordination geometry, while that in 2, a square-pyramidal. Linked with classical hydrogen bonds, the molecules of complex 1 consist of a one-dimensional chain, while complex 2 molecules result in a two-dimensional structure. Numerous hydrogen bonds link complex 1 or 2 into a 2-D infinite network. In vitro cytotoxicity experiment shows that the two dicopper(II) complexes exhibit cytotoxic effects against the selected tumor cell lines. The reactivity towards herring sperm DNA (HS-DNA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) reveals that the two dicopper(II) complexes can interact with the DNA in the mode of intercalation, and effectively quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA via a static mechanism. The influence of different counterions in this kind of dicopper(II) complexes on DNA/BSA-binding properties, and the in vitro cytotoxic activities was investigated.

  16. A new antitumor antibiotic, chounghwamycin A. I. Taxonomy, isolation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y T; Ho, T I; Lee, A R; Chen, C F; Chen, H Y; Chen, C J

    1986-04-01

    Chounghwamycin A, a new antitumor antibiotic produced by a strain of Streptomyces sp. No. PL-D-5, was isolated and characterized. It appeared to belong to the actinomycin group of antibiotics from physico-chemical studies and has an empirical formula of C63H88N11O21. The antibiotic is extractable into an organic solvent from the fermentation broth, possessing potent antileukemic activity against P388 mouse leukemia in mice and antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria with MIC values about 0.1-0.4 microgram/ml, but showed no activity on Gram-negative bacteria, yeast and fungi tested. PMID:2428073

  17. Human Vδ2 versus non-Vδ2 γδ T cells in antitumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Kabelitz, Dieter; Kalyan, Shirin; Oberg, Hans-Heinrich; Wesch, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    The Vδ2 and non-Vδ2 (mainly Vδ1) subsets of human γδ T cells have distinct homing patterns and recognize different types of ligands, yet both exert potent antitumor effects. While the T-cell receptor of Vδ2 T cells primarily recognizes tumor cell-derived pyrophosphates, non-Vδ2 γδ T cells preferentially recognize stress-associated surface antigens. Here, we discuss the pros and cons of Vδ2 versus non-Vδ2 γδ T cells as tools for future immunotherapeutic interventions against cancer. PMID:23802074

  18. Synthesis, spectral, antitumor, antioxidant and antimicrobial studies on Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes of 4-[(1H-Benzoimidazol-2-ylimino)-methyl]-benzene-1,3-diol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-wakiel, Nadia; El-keiy, Mai; Gaber, Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    A new Schiff base of 2-aminobenzimidazole with 2,4-dihydroybezaldehyde (H3L), and its Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance, thermal analysis (TGA), inductive coupled plasma (ICP), magnetic moment measurements, IR, EI-mass, UV-Vis. and ESR spectral studies. On the basis of spectral studies and analytical data, it is evident that the Schiff base acts as dibasic tridentate ligand coordinating via deprotonated OH, NH and azomethine nitrogen atom. The results showed that Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes have tetrahedral structure while Cu(II) complexes has octahedral geometry. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the thermal decomposition stages have been evaluated. The studied complexes were tested for their in vitro antimicrobial activities against some bacterial strains. The anticancer activity of the ligand and its metal complexes is evaluated against human liver Carcinoma (HEPG2) cell. These compounds exhibited a moderate and weak activity against the tested HEPG2 cell lines with IC50 of 9.08, 18.2 and 19.7 μg/ml for ligand, Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes, respectively. In vitro antioxidant activity of the newly synthesized compounds has also been evaluated.

  19. 9-Benzoyl 9-deazaguanines as potent xanthine oxidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Marili V N; Barbosa, Alexandre F; da Silva, Júlia F; dos Santos, Deborah A; Vanzolini, Kenia L; de Moraes, Marcela C; Corrêa, Arlene G; Cass, Quezia B

    2016-01-15

    A novel potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor, 3-nitrobenzoyl 9-deazaguanine (LSPN451), was selected from a series of 10 synthetic derivatives. The enzymatic assays were carried out using an on-flow bidimensional liquid chromatography (2D LC) system, which allowed the screening¸ the measurement of the kinetic inhibition constant and the characterization of the inhibition mode. This compound showed a non-competitive inhibition mechanism with more affinity for the enzyme-substrate complex than for the free enzyme, and inhibition constant of 55.1±9.80 nM, about thirty times more potent than allopurinol. Further details of synthesis and enzymatic studies are presented herein.

  20. Synthesis, characterization, and antioxidant/cytotoxic activity of new chromone Schiff base nano-complexes of Zn(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saif, M.; El-Shafiy, Hoda F.; Mashaly, Mahmoud M.; Eid, Mohamed F.; Nabeel, A. I.; Fouad, R.

    2016-08-01

    A chromone Schiff base complexes of Zn(II) (1), Cu(II) (2), Ni(II) (3) and Co(II) (4) were successfully prepared in nano domain with crystalline or amorphous structures. The spectroscopic data revealed that the Schiff base ligand behaves as a monoanionic tridentate ligand. The metal complexes exhibited octahedral geometry. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis showed that Cu(II) complex have aggregated nanospheres morphology. The obtained nano-complexes were tested as antioxidant and antitumor agents. The H2L and its Cu(II) complex (2) were found to be more potent antioxidant (IC50(H2L) = 0.93 μM; IC50(Cu(II) complex) = 1.1 μM than standard ascorbic acid (IC50 = 2.1 μM) as evaluated by DPPH• method. The H2L and its complexes (1-4) were tested for their in vitro cytotoxicity against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma cell line (EAC). The Cu(II) nano-complex (2) effectively inhibited EAC growth with IC50 value of 47 μM in comparison with its parent compound and other prepared complexes. The high antioxidant activity and antitumor activity of Cu(II) nano-complex (2) were attributed to their chemical structure, Cu(II) reducing capacity, and nanosize property. The toxicity test on mice showed that Zn(II) (1) and Cu(II) (2) nano-complex have lower toxicity than the standard cis-platin.

  1. Tumor localization and antitumor efficacy of novel sapphyrin compounds.

    PubMed

    Naumovski, Louie; Sirisawad, Mint; Lecane, Philip; Chen, Jun; Ramos, Jason; Wang, Zhong; Cortez, Cecilia; Magda, Darren; Thiemann, Patti; Boswell, Garry; Miles, Dale; Cho, Dong Gyu; Sessler, Jonathan L; Miller, Richard

    2006-11-01

    Sapphyrins are pentapyrrolic metal-free expanded porphyrins with potential medical use as anticancer agents. The novel sapphyrin derivative, PCI-2050, functionalized with 2-[2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy groups to enhance solubility and a modified bipyrrole moiety was found to be more potent in inducing apoptosis than the previously described sapphyrin PCI-2000. Because some sapphyrins may localize to tumors, we took advantage of the intrinsic fluorescence of these compounds to develop a flow cytometry-based assay to track sapphyrin biodistribution in tumor-bearing mice. Ex vivo analysis of sapphyrin-injected animals revealed that PCI-2050 preferentially localized to tumor, whereas PCI-2000 distributed into normal tissues rather than tumor. PCI-2050 uptake in xenograft tumor cells and resultant tumor cell cytotoxicity was dose dependent. To investigate structure-activity relationships, we focused on PCI-2050 and three derivatives that differ by their alkyl substituents on the bipyrrole moiety: PCI-2051, PCI-2052, and PCI-2053. Treatment of Ramos cells in culture or treatment of Ramos xenograft-bearing animals with each of the sapphyrins followed by ex vivo growth of tumor cells revealed the same pattern of cytotoxicity: PCI-2050 > PCI-2052 > PCI-2051 > PCI-2053. Thus, subtle changes in the alkyl substituents on the bipyrrole moiety result in significant changes in antitumor activity. PCI-2050 displayed significant antitumor efficacy in both Ramos and RKO xenograft models without hematologic, hepatic, or renal abnormalities as assessed by complete blood counts and serum chemistries. On the basis of these findings, it is concluded that the sapphyrin PCI-2050 warrants further evaluation as a potential anticancer agent due to its intrinsic proapoptotic activity and tumor localization ability.

  2. Antioxidant and antitumor effects of ferula sinkiangensis K. M. Shen

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiying; Lu, Jun; Zhou, Longlong; Jiang, Lin; Zhou, Mingxin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study is to investigate the antioxidant and antitumor effects of the extract fractions of the Ferula sinkiangensis K. M. Shen. Methods: Four different fractions of the Ferula sinkiangensis K. M. Shen were obtained by the extraction with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and methanol, respectively, which were used to treat the HCT116, Caco-2, HepG2, and MFC cells. Free radical scavenging effects of the ferula fractions were deteced with the DPPH assay. Effects of the ferula fractions on the peroliferatoin of the tumor cells were assessed with the SRB assay. Apoptosis was detected with flow cytometry. Results: The DPPH assay showed that the petroleum ether fraction hardly showed any antioxidant activity, while the ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and methanol fractions exhibited free radical-scavenging capacities, in a dose dependent manner. The SRB assay showed that, the proliferation of the tumor cells could be inhibited by the ferula fractions, in a dose dependent manner. However, differential effects were observed for the different fractions in different model cells. Particularly, the ethyl acetate fraction exerted the most efficient inhibiting effects on the tumor cell proliferation. In addition, the flow cytometry showed that, all the ferula fractions significantly enhanced the apoptotic process in the tumor cells, with differential enhancing capacities in different model cells. Conclusion: Extract fractions of the Ferula sinkiangensis K. M. Shen could exert antioxidant, proliferation-inhibiting, and apoptosis-enhancing effects in tumor cells. Particularly, the ethyl acetate fraction exhibits the most potent antioxidant and antitumor effects. PMID:26885009

  3. Interferon-γ-Induced Necrosis: An Antitumor Biotherapeutic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-γ—like the well-known antitumor biotherapeutic IFN-α—is a powerful antiproliferative and immune modulatory cytokine, but mixed results from clinical trials, together with issues of systemic toxicity, have dampened enthusiasm for its use in the treatment of cancer. We suggest that at least 2 factors reduce the antitumor efficacy of IFN-γ: (1) poorly understood survival mechanisms that protect most tumor cells from IFN-γ-induced direct cytotoxicity, and (2) the short half-life of IFN-γ in serum. In this review, we outline avenues to overcome both these limitations. First, we have identified the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) as a protective mechanism against IFN-γ-induced necrosis, and disabling NF-κB allows IFN-γ to trigger RIP1 kinase-dependent programmed necrosis (or necroptosis) in otherwise resistant cells. Second, we propose that fusing IFN-γ to tumor-specific antibodies will stabilize IFN-γ in serum and target this cytokine to tumor cells. We expect that such IFN-γ–antibody chimeras (called immunocytokines), when combined with agents that neutralize tumor-intrinsic survival signals such as NF-κB, will exert potent tumoricidal activity with minimized systemic side effects. Although this review will focus on exploiting IFN-γ-induced necrosis for treatment of renal cell carcinoma, these approaches are also directly applicable to several human cancers in which IFNs have shown therapeutic potential. PMID:23570383

  4. Discovery of Pyridinyl Acetamide Derivatives as Potent, Selective, and Orally Bioavailable Porcupine Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dai; Liu, Jun; Han, Dong; Zhang, Guobao; Gao, Wenqi; Hsieh, Mindy H; Ng, Nicholas; Kasibhatla, Shailaja; Tompkins, Celin; Li, Jie; Steffy, Auzon; Sun, Fangxian; Li, Chun; Seidel, H Martin; Harris, Jennifer L; Pan, Shifeng

    2016-07-14

    Blockade of aberrant Wnt signaling is an attractive therapeutic approach in multiple cancers. We developed and performed a cellular high-throughput screen for inhibitors of Wnt secretion and pathway activation. A lead structure (GNF-1331) was identified from the screen. Further studies identified the molecular target of GNF-1331 as Porcupine, a membrane bound O-acyl transferase. Structure-activity relationship studies led to the discovery of a novel series of potent and selective Porcupine inhibitors. Compound 19, GNF-6231, demonstrated excellent pathway inhibition and induced robust antitumor efficacy in a mouse MMTV-WNT1 xenograft tumor model. PMID:27437076

  5. Hederagenin as a triterpene template for the development of new antitumor compounds.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Hernández, Diego; Demuner, Antonio J; Barbosa, Luiz C A; Csuk, René; Heller, Lucie

    2015-11-13

    In this study, a series of novel C-28 esters and amides derivatives of hederagenin (He) were designed and synthesized in attempt to develop potent antitumor agents. Their structures were confirmed by MS, IR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analyses and their cytotoxic activities were screened in SRB assays using a panel of six human cancer cell lines. Although most of the compounds displayed moderate to high levels of cytotoxic activity they were all more potent than the natural product He. The most active compounds had either an ethylpyrimidinyl (27) or an ethylpyrrolidinyl (28) substituent, with EC50 in the range of 1.1-6.5 μM for six human cancer cell lines. Notably, this corresponds to an approximately 30-fold times greater potency than He.

  6. Hederagenin as a triterpene template for the development of new antitumor compounds.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Hernández, Diego; Demuner, Antonio J; Barbosa, Luiz C A; Csuk, René; Heller, Lucie

    2015-11-13

    In this study, a series of novel C-28 esters and amides derivatives of hederagenin (He) were designed and synthesized in attempt to develop potent antitumor agents. Their structures were confirmed by MS, IR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analyses and their cytotoxic activities were screened in SRB assays using a panel of six human cancer cell lines. Although most of the compounds displayed moderate to high levels of cytotoxic activity they were all more potent than the natural product He. The most active compounds had either an ethylpyrimidinyl (27) or an ethylpyrrolidinyl (28) substituent, with EC50 in the range of 1.1-6.5 μM for six human cancer cell lines. Notably, this corresponds to an approximately 30-fold times greater potency than He. PMID:26476750

  7. Transition metal complexes of a new 15-membered [N5] penta-azamacrocyclic ligand with their spectral and anticancer studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Boraey, Hanaa A.; Serag El-Din, Azza A.

    2014-11-01

    Novel penta-azamacrocyclic 15-membered [N5] ligand [L] i.e. 1,5,8,12-tetetraaza-3,4: 9,10-dibenzo-6-ethyl-7-methyl-1,12-(2,6-pyrido)cyclopentadecan-5,7 diene-2,11-dione and its transition metal complexes with Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Ru(III) and Pd(II) have been synthesized and structurally characterized by elemental analysis, spectral, thermal as well as magnetic and molar conductivity measurements. On basis of IR, MS, UV-Vis 1H NMR and EPR spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been proposed for all complexes except Co(II), Cu(II) nitrate complexes and Pd(II) chloride complex that adopt tetrahedral, square pyramidal and square planar geometries, respectively. The antitumor activity of the synthesized ligand and some complexes against human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) and human hepatocarcinoma cell lines (HepG2) has been studied. The complexes (IC50 = 2.04-9.7, 2.5-3.7 μg/mL) showed potent antitumor activity comparable with their ligand (IC50 = 11.7, 3.45 μg/mL) against the above mentioned cell lines, respectively. The results evidently show that the activity of the ligand becomes more pronounced and significant when coordinated to the metal ion.

  8. In vitro DNA binding, pBR322 plasmid cleavage and molecular modeling study of chiral benzothiazole Schiff-base-valine Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes to evaluate their enantiomeric biological disposition for molecular target DNA.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Rahman; Afzal, Mohd; Arjmand, Farukh

    2014-10-15

    Bicyclic heterocyclic compounds viz. benzothiazoles are key components of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules and participate directly in the encoding of genetic information. Benzothiazoles, therefore, represent a potent and selective class of antitumor compounds. The design and synthesis of chiral antitumor chemotherapeutic agents of Cu(II) and Zn(II), L- and -D benzothiazole Schiff base-valine complexes 1a &b and 2a &b, respectively were carried out and thoroughly characterized by spectroscopic and analytical techniques. Interaction of 1a and b and 2a and b with CT DNA by employing UV-vis, florescence, circular dichroic methods and cleavage studies of 1a with pBR322 plasmid, molecular docking were done in order to demonstrate their enantiomeric disposition toward the molecular drug target DNA. Interestingly, these studies unambiguously demonstrated the greater potency of L-enantiomer in comparison to D-enantiomer.

  9. In vitro DNA binding, pBR322 plasmid cleavage and molecular modeling study of chiral benzothiazole Schiff-base-valine Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes to evaluate their enantiomeric biological disposition for molecular target DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, Rahman; Afzal, Mohd; Arjmand, Farukh

    2014-10-01

    Bicyclic heterocyclic compounds viz. benzothiazoles are key components of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules and participate directly in the encoding of genetic information. Benzothiazoles, therefore, represent a potent and selective class of antitumor compounds. The design and synthesis of chiral antitumor chemotherapeutic agents of Cu(II) and Zn(II), L- and -D benzothiazole Schiff base-valine complexes 1a &b and 2a &b, respectively were carried out and thoroughly characterized by spectroscopic and analytical techniques. Interaction of 1a and b and 2a and b with CT DNA by employing UV-vis, florescence, circular dichroic methods and cleavage studies of 1a with pBR322 plasmid, molecular docking were done in order to demonstrate their enantiomeric disposition toward the molecular drug target DNA. Interestingly, these studies unambiguously demonstrated the greater potency of L-enantiomer in comparison to D-enantiomer.

  10. Discovery of antitumor anthra[2,3-b]furan-3-carboxamides: Optimization of synthesis and evaluation of antitumor properties.

    PubMed

    Shchekotikhin, Andrey E; Dezhenkova, Lyubov G; Tsvetkov, Vladimir B; Luzikov, Yuri N; Volodina, Yulia L; Tatarskiy, Victor V; Kalinina, Anastasia A; Treshalin, Michael I; Treshalina, Helen M; Romanenko, Vladimir I; Kaluzhny, Dmitry N; Kubbutat, Michael; Schols, Dominique; Pommier, Yves; Shtil, Alexander A; Preobrazhenskaya, Maria N

    2016-04-13

    Anthraquinones and their analogues, in particular heteroarene-fused anthracendiones, are prospective scaffolds for new compounds with improved antitumor characteristics. We herein report the use of a 'scaffold hopping' approach for the replacement of the core structure in the previously discovered hit compound naphtho[2,3-f]indole-5,10-dione 2 with an alternative anthra[2,3-b]furan-5,10-dione scaffold. Among 13 newly synthesized derivatives the majority of 4,11-dihydroxy-2-methyl-5,10-dioxoanthra[2,3-b]furan-3-carboxamides demonstrated a high antiproliferative potency against a panel of wild type and drug resistant tumor cell lines, a property superior over the reference drug doxorubicin or lead naphtho[2,3-f]indole-5,10-dione 2. At low micromolar concentrations the selected derivative of (R)-3-aminopyrrolidine 3c and its stereoisomer (S)-3-aminopyrrolidine 3d caused an apoptotic cell death preceded by an arrest in the G2/M phase. Studies of intracellular targets showed that 3c and 3d formed stable intercalative complexes with the duplex DNA as determined by spectral analysis and molecular docking. Both 3c and 3d attenuated topoisomerase 1 and 2 mediated unwinding of the supercoiled DNA via a mechanism different from conventional DNA-enzyme tertiary complex formation. Furthermore, 3d decreased the activity of selected human protein kinases in vitro, indicating multiple targeting by the new chemotype. Finally, 3d demonstrated an antitumor activity in a model of murine intraperitoneally transplanted P388 leukemia, achieving the increase of animal life span up to 262% at tolerable doses. Altogether, the 'scaffold hopping' demonstrated its productivity for obtaining new perspective antitumor drug candidates.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and equilibrium studies of some potential antimicrobial and antitumor complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) ions involving 2-aminomethylbenzimidazole and glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljahdali, M.

    2013-08-01

    The ternary complexes of Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II) and Cd(II) with 2-aminomethylbenzimidazole (AMBI) and glycine as a representative example of amino acids have been isolated and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, ESR, UV-vis, magnetic moment, molar conductance and 1H NMR spectra. AMBI behaves as neutral bidentate ligands with coordination through imidazole and amino group nitrogens while the glycine amino acid behaves as a monodenate anion with coordination involving the amino group and carboxylate oxygen after deprotonation. The magnetic and spectral data indicates a square planar geometry for both Cu2+ and Ni2+ complexes and a tetrahedral geometry for both Zn2+ and Cd2+ complexes. The isolated chelates have been screened for their antifungal and antibacterial activities using the disc diffusion method. A cytotoxicity of the compounds against colon (HCT116) and larynx (HEP2) cancer cells have been studied. The stability constants of ternary M-AMBI-Gly complexes were determined potentiometrically in aqueous solution at I = 0.1 mol dm-3 NaCl.

  12. Preparation of a nanosized as(2)o(3)/mn(0.5)zn(0.5)fe(2)o(4) complex and its anti-tumor effect on hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2009-01-01

    Manganese-zinc-ferrite nanoparticles (Mn(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe(2)O(4), MZF-NPs) prepared by an improved co-precipitation method and were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Then thermodynamic testing of various doses of MZF-NPs was performed in vitro. The cytotoxicity of the Mn(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe(2)O(4) nanoparticles in vitro was tested by the MTT assay. A nanosized As(2)O(3)/Mn(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe(2)O(4) complex was made by an impregnation process. The complex's shape, component, envelop rate and release rate of As(2)O(3) were measured by SEM, EDS and atom fluorescence spectrometry, respectively. The therapeutic effect of nanosized As(2)O(3)/Mn(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe(2)O(4) complex combined with magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) on human hepatocelluar cells were evaluated in vitro by an MTT assay and flow cytometry. The results indicated that Mn(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe(2)O(4) and nanosized As(2)O(3)/Mn(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe(2)O(4) complex were both prepared successfully. The Mn(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe(2)O(4) nanoparticles had powerful absorption capabilities in a high-frequency alternating electromagnetic field, and had strong magnetic responsiveness. Moreover, Mn(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe(2)O(4) didn't show cytotoxicity in vitro. The therapeutic result reveals that the nanosized As(2)O(3)/Mn(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe(2)O(4) complex can significantly inhibit the growth of hepatoma carcinoma cells.

  13. Celebrity Patients, VIPs, and Potentates

    PubMed Central

    Groves, James E.; Dunderdale, Barbara A.; Stern, Theodore A.

    2002-01-01

    Background: During the second half of the 20th century, the literature on the doctor-patient relationship mainly dealt with the management of “difficult” (personality-disordered) patients. Similar problems, however, surround other types of “special” patients. Method: An overview and analysis of the literature were conducted. As a result, such patients can be subcategorized by their main presentations; each requires a specific management strategy. Results: Three types of “special” patients stir up irrational feelings in their caregivers. Sick celebrities threaten to focus public scrutiny on the private world of medical caregivers. VIPs generate awe in caregivers, with loss of the objectivity essential to the practice of scientific medicine. Potentates unearth narcissism in the caregiver-patient relationship, which triggers a struggle between power and shame. Pride, privacy, and the staff's need to be in control are all threatened by introduction of the special patient into medicine's closed culture. Conclusion: The privacy that is owed to sick celebrities should be extended to protect overexposed staff. The awe and loss of medical objectivity that VIPs generate are counteracted by team leadership dedicated to avoiding any deviation from standard clinical procedure. Moreover, the collective ill will surrounding potentates can be neutralized by reassuring them that they are “special”—and by caregivers mending their own vulnerable self-esteem. PMID:15014712

  14. CC-223, a Potent and Selective Inhibitor of mTOR Kinase: In Vitro and In Vivo Characterization.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Deborah S; Fultz, Kimberly E; Xu, Shuichan; Xu, Weiming; Packard, Garrick; Khambatta, Godrej; Gamez, James C; Leisten, Jim; Zhao, Jingjing; Apuy, Julius; Ghoreishi, Kamran; Hickman, Matt; Narla, Rama Krishna; Bissonette, Rene; Richardson, Samantha; Peng, Sophie X; Perrin-Ninkovic, Sophie; Tran, Tam; Shi, Tao; Yang, Wen Qing; Tong, Zeen; Cathers, Brian E; Moghaddam, Mehran F; Canan, Stacie S; Worland, Peter; Sankar, Sabita; Raymon, Heather K

    2015-06-01

    mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates cell growth, metabolism, proliferation, and survival. mTOR complex-1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex-2 (mTORC2) are critical mediators of the PI3K-AKT pathway, which is frequently mutated in many cancers, leading to hyperactivation of mTOR signaling. Although rapamycin analogues, allosteric inhibitors that target only the mTORC1 complex, have shown some clinical activity, it is hypothesized that mTOR kinase inhibitors, blocking both mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling, will have expanded therapeutic potential. Here, we describe the preclinical characterization of CC-223. CC-223 is a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable inhibitor of mTOR kinase, demonstrating inhibition of mTORC1 (pS6RP and p4EBP1) and mTORC2 [pAKT(S473)] in cellular systems. Growth inhibitory activity was demonstrated in hematologic and solid tumor cell lines. mTOR kinase inhibition in cells, by CC-223, resulted in more complete inhibition of the mTOR pathway biomarkers and improved antiproliferative activity as compared with rapamycin. Growth inhibitory activity and apoptosis was demonstrated in a panel of hematologic cancer cell lines. Correlative analysis revealed that IRF4 expression level associates with resistance, whereas mTOR pathway activation seems to associate with sensitivity. Treatment with CC-223 afforded in vivo tumor biomarker inhibition in tumor-bearing mice, after a single oral dose. CC-223 exhibited dose-dependent tumor growth inhibition in multiple solid tumor xenografts. Significant inhibition of mTOR pathway markers pS6RP and pAKT in CC-223-treated tumors suggests that the observed antitumor activity of CC-223 was mediated through inhibition of both mTORC1 and mTORC2. CC-223 is currently in phase I clinical trials.

  15. Preparation of a Nanosized As2O3/Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 Complex and Its Anti-Tumor Effect on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2009-01-01

    Manganese-zinc-ferrite nanoparticles (Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4, MZF-NPs) prepared by an improved co-precipitation method and were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Then thermodynamic testing of various doses of MZF-NPs was performed in vitro. The cytotoxicity of the Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles in vitro was tested by the MTT assay. A nanosized As2O3/Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 complex was made by an impregnation process. The complex’s shape, component, envelop rate and release rate of As2O3 were measured by SEM, EDS and atom fluorescence spectrometry, respectively. The therapeutic effect of nanosized As2O3/Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 complex combined with magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) on human hepatocelluar cells were evaluated in vitro by an MTT assay and flow cytometry. The results indicated that Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 and nanosized As2O3/Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 complex were both prepared successfully. The Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles had powerful absorption capabilities in a high-frequency alternating electromagnetic field, and had strong magnetic responsiveness. Moreover, Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 didn’t show cytotoxicity in vitro. The therapeutic result reveals that the nanosized As2O3/Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 complex can significantly inhibit the growth of hepatoma carcinoma cells. PMID:22399986

  16. Folate-conjugated nanoparticles as a potent therapeutic approach in targeted cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Behdokht; Mohammadnia-Afrouzi, Mousa; Bakhshaei, Peyman; Yazdani, Yaghoub; Ghalamfarsa, Ghasem; Yousefi, Mehdi; Sadreddini, Sanam; Jadidi-Niaragh, Farhad; Hojjat-Farsangi, Mohammad

    2015-08-01

    The selective and efficient drug delivery to tumor cells can remarkably improve different cancer therapeutic approaches. There are several nanoparticles (NPs) which can act as a potent drug carrier for cancer therapy. However, the specific drug delivery to cancer cells is an important issue which should be considered before designing new NPs for in vivo application. It has been shown that cancer cells over-express folate receptor (FR) in order to improve their growth. As normal cells express a significantly lower levels of FR compared to tumor cells, it seems that folate molecules can be used as potent targeting moieties in different nanocarrier-based therapeutic approaches. Moreover, there is evidence which implies folate-conjugated NPs can selectively deliver anti-tumor drugs into cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we will discuss about the efficiency of different folate-conjugated NPs in cancer therapy.

  17. Development of novel ferulic acid derivatives as potent histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Lu, Wen; Zhang, Tao; Dong, Jinyun; Gao, Hongping; Li, Pengfei; Wang, Sicen; Zhang, Jie

    2013-11-15

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) offer a promising strategy for cancer therapy. The discovery of potent ferulic acid-based HDACIs with hydroxamic acid or 2-aminobenzamide group as zinc binding group was reported. The halogeno-acetanilide was introduced as novel surface recognition moiety (SRM). The majority of title compounds displayed potent HDAC inhibitory activity. In particular, FA6 and FA16 exhibited significant enzymatic inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 3.94 and 2.82 μM, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds showed moderate antiproliferative activity against a panel of human cancer cells. FA17 displayed promising profile as an antitumor candidate. The results indicated that these ferulic acid derivatives could serve as promising lead compounds for further optimization. PMID:24095016

  18. A novel approach to the discovery of anti-tumor pharmaceuticals: searching for activators of liponecrosis

    PubMed Central

    Arlia-Ciommo, Anthony; Svistkova, Veronika; Mohtashami, Sadaf; Titorenko, Vladimir I.

    2016-01-01

    A recently conducted chemical genetic screen for pharmaceuticals that can extend longevity of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has identified lithocholic acid as a potent anti-aging molecule. It was found that this hydrophobic bile acid is also a selective anti-tumor chemical compound; it kills different types of cultured cancer cells if used at concentrations that do not compromise the viability of non-cancerous cells. These studies have revealed that yeast can be successfully used as a model organism for high-throughput screens aimed at the discovery of selectively acting anti-tumor small molecules. Two metabolic traits of rapidly proliferating fermenting yeast, namely aerobic glycolysis and lipogenesis, are known to be similar to those of cancer cells. The mechanisms underlying these key metabolic features of cancer cells and fermenting yeast have been established; such mechanisms are discussed in this review. We also suggest how a yeast-based chemical genetic screen can be used for the high-throughput development of selective anti-tumor pharmaceuticals that kill only cancer cells. This screen consists of searching for chemical compounds capable of increasing the abundance of membrane lipids enriched in unsaturated fatty acids that would therefore be toxic only to rapidly proliferating cells, such as cancer cells and fermenting yeast. PMID:26636650

  19. Beyond topoisomerase inhibition: antitumor 1,4-naphthoquinones as potential inhibitors of human monoamine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Coelho-Cerqueira, Eduardo; Netz, Paulo A; do Canto, Vanessa P; Pinto, Angelo C; Follmer, Cristian

    2014-04-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) action has been involved in the regulation of neurotransmitters levels, cell signaling, cellular growth, and differentiation as well as in the balance of the intracellular polyamine levels. Although so far obscure, MAO inhibitors are believed to have some effect on tumors progression. 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4-NQ) has been pointed out as a potential pharmacophore for inhibition of both MAO and DNA topoisomerase activities, this latter associated with antitumor activity. Herein, we demonstrated that certain antitumor 1,4-NQs, including spermidine-1,4-NQ, lapachol, and nor-lapachol display inhibitory activity on human MAO-A and MAO-B. Kinetic studies indicated that these compounds are reversible and competitive MAO inhibitors, being the enzyme selectivity greatly affected by substitutions on 1,4-NQ ring. Molecular docking studies suggested that the most potent MAO inhibitors are capable to bind to the MAO active site in close proximity of flavin moiety. Furthermore, ability to inhibit both MAO-A and MAO-B can be potentialized by the formation of hydrogen bonds between these compounds and FAD and/or the residues in the active site. Although spermidine-1,4-NQs exhibit antitumor action primarily by inhibiting topoisomerase via DNA intercalation, our findings suggest that their effect on MAO activity should be taken into account when their application in cancer therapy is considered.

  20. Lasing the DNA fragments through β-diketimine framed Knoevenagel condensed Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes - An in vitro and in vivo approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Natarajan; Pravin, Narayanaperumal

    2014-01-01

    The syntheses, structures and spectroscopic properties of Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes having Knoevenagel condensate β-diketimine Schiff base ligands have been investigated in this paper. Characterization of these complexes was carried out using FTIR, NMR, UV-Vis, elemental analysis, mass and EPR techniques. Absorption titration, electrochemical analyses and viscosity measurements have also been carried out to determine the mode of binding. The shift in ΔEp, E1/2 and Ipc values explores the interaction of CT DNA with the above metal complexes. Interaction of ligands and their complexes with DNA revealed an intercalative mode of binding between them. Antimicrobial studies showed an effective antimicrobial activity of the metal ions after coordination with the ligands. The antioxidant properties of the Schiff base ligands and their complexes were evaluated in a series of in vitro tests by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPHrad ) and H2O2 free radical scavengers. In vivo and in vitro antitumor functions of the complexes against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma tumor model have also been investigated. All the results support that β-diketone derived Knoevenagel condensate Schiff base complexes may act as novel antitumor drugs and suggest that their potent cell life inhibition may contribute to their anti-cancer efficacy.

  1. Antitumor Activity of Ionic Liquids Based on Ampicillin.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Ricardo; Costa-Rodrigues, João; Fernandes, Maria H; Santos, Miguel M; Marrucho, Isabel M; Rebelo, Luís Paulo N; Prudêncio, Cristina; Noronha, João Paulo; Petrovski, Željko; Branco, Luís C

    2015-09-01

    Significant antiproliferative effects against various tumor cell lines were observed with novel ampicillin salts as ionic liquids. The combination of anionic ampicillin with appropriate ammonium, imidazolium, phosphonium, and pyridinium cations yielded active pharmaceutical ingredient ionic liquids (API-ILs) that show potent antiproliferative activities against five different human cancer cell lines: T47D (breast), PC3 (prostate), HepG2 (liver), MG63 (osteosarcoma), and RKO (colon). Some API-ILs showed IC50 values between 5 and 42 nM, activities that stand in dramatic contrast to the negligible cytotoxic activity level shown by the ampicillin sodium salt. Moreover, very low cytotoxicity against two primary cell lines-skin (SF) and gingival fibroblasts (GF)-indicates that the majority of these API-ILs are nontoxic to normal human cell lines. The most promising combination of antitumor activity and low toxicity toward healthy cells was observed for the 1-hydroxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium-ampicillin pair ([C2 OHMIM][Amp]), making this the most suitable lead API-IL for future studies.

  2. Antitumor Lipids--Structure, Functions, and Medical Applications.

    PubMed

    Kostadinova, Aneliya; Topouzova-Hristova, Tanya; Momchilova, Albena; Tzoneva, Rumiana; Berger, Martin R

    2015-01-01

    Cell proliferation and metastasis are considered hallmarks of tumor progression. Therefore, efforts have been made to develop novel anticancer drugs that inhibit both the proliferation and the motility of tumor cells. Synthetic antitumor lipids (ATLs), which are chemically divided into two main classes, comprise (i) alkylphospholipids (APLs) and (ii) alkylphosphocholines (APCs). They represent a new entity of drugs with distinct antiproliferative properties in tumor cells. These compounds do not interfere with the DNA or mitotic spindle apparatus of the cell, instead, they incorporate into cell membranes, where they accumulate and interfere with lipid metabolism and lipid-dependent signaling pathways. Recently, it has been shown that the most commonly studied APLs inhibit proliferation by inducing apoptosis in malignant cells while leaving normal cells unaffected and are potent sensitizers of conventional chemo- and radiotherapy, as well as of electrical field therapy. APLs resist catabolic degradation to a large extent, therefore accumulate in the cell and interfere with lipid-dependent survival signaling pathways, notably PI3K-Akt and Raf-Erk1/2, and de novo phospholipid biosynthesis. They are internalized in the cell membrane via raft domains and cause downstream reactions as inhibition of cell growth and migration, cell cycle arrest, actin stress fibers collapse, and apoptosis. This review summarizes the in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trials of most common ATLs and their mode of action at molecular and biochemical levels.

  3. Synthesis, characterization, DNA binding, DNA cleavage, protein binding and cytotoxic activities of Ru(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Thota, Sreekanth; Vallala, Srujana; Yerra, Rajeshwar; Rodrigues, Daniel Alencar; Raghavendra, Nulgumnalli Manjunathaiah; Barreiro, Eliezer J

    2016-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of novel Ru(II) compounds (Ru-1 to Ru-8) bearing R-pdc, 4-Cl-pbinh ligands (where R=4-CF3, 4-F, 4-OH pdc=3-phenyl-5-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carbothioamide, pbinh=phenoxybenzylidene isonicotinyl hydrazides) and their in vitro antitumor activity toward the cell lines murine leukemia L1210, human lymphocyte CEM, human epithelial cervical carcinoma HeLa, BEL-7402 and Molt4/C8. Some of the complexes exhibited more potent antiproliferative activity against cell lines than the standard drug cisplatin. Ruthenium complex Ru-2 displayed potent cytotoxicity with than that of cisplatin. DNA-binding, DNA cleavage and protein binding properties of ruthenium complexes with these ligands are reported. Interactions of these ruthenium complexes with DNA revealed an intercalative mode of binding between them. Synchronous fluorescence spectra proved that the interaction of ruthenium complexes with bovine serum albumin (BSA) resulted in a conformational change of the latter.

  4. X-ray structure of the V301L aldo-keto reductase 1B10 complexed with NADP(+) and the potent aldose reductase inhibitor fidarestat: implications for inhibitor binding and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Francesc Xavier; Cousido-Siah, Alexandra; Mitschler, André; Farrés, Jaume; Parés, Xavier; Podjarny, Alberto

    2013-02-25

    Only one crystal structure is currently available for tumor marker AKR1B10, complexed with NADP(+) and tolrestat, which is an aldose reductase inhibitor (ARI) of the carboxylic acid type. Here, the X-ray structure of the complex of the V301L substituted AKR1B10 holoenzyme with fidarestat, an ARI of the cyclic imide type, was obtained at 1.60Å resolution by replacement soaking of crystals containing tolrestat. Previously, fidarestat was found to be safe in phase III trials for diabetic neuropathy and, consistent with its low in vivo side effects, was highly selective for aldose reductase (AR or AKR1B1) versus aldehyde reductase (AKR1A1). Now, inhibition studies showed that fidarestat was indeed 1300-fold more selective for AR as compared to AKR1B10, while the change of Val to Leu (found in AR) caused a 20-fold decrease in the IC50 value with fidarestat. Structural analysis of the V301L AKR1B10-fidarestat complex displayed enzyme-inhibitor interactions similar to those of the AR-fidarestat complex. However, a close inspection of both the new crystal structure and a computer model of the wild-type AKR1B10 complex with fidarestat revealed subtle changes that could affect fidarestat binding. In the crystal structure, a significant motion of loop A was observed between AR and V301L AKR1B10, linked to a Phe-122/Phe-123 side chain displacement. This was due to the presence of the more voluminous Gln-303 side chain (Ser-302 in AR) and of a water molecule buried in a subpocket located at the base of flexible loop A. In the wild-type AKR1B10 model, a short contact was predicted between the Val-301 side chain and fidarestat, but would not be present in AR or in V301L AKR1B10. Overall, these changes could contribute to the difference in inhibitory potency of fidarestat between AR and AKR1B10.

  5. The antitumor effect of bromophenol derivatives in vitro and Leathesia nana extract in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Dayong; Li, Jing; Guo, Shuju; Su, Hua; Fan, Xiao

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the antitumor effect of bromophenol derivatives in vitro and Leathesia nana extract in vivo, six bromophenol derivatives 6-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl)-2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxy benzyl methyl ether (1), (+)-3-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-4-bromo-5,6-dihydroxy-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran (2), 3-bromo-4-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl)-5-methoxymethyl-pyrocatechol (3), 2,2',3,3'-tetrabromo-4,4',5,5'-tetrahydroxy-diphenylmethane (4), bis(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl) ether (5), 2,2',3-tribromo-3',4,4',5-tetrahydroxy-6'-ethyloxymethyldiphenylmethane (6) were isolated from brown alga Leathesia nana, and their cytotoxicity were tested by MTT assays in human cancer cell lines A549, BGC-823, MCF-7, B16-BL6, HT-1080, A2780, Bel7402 and HCT-8. Their inhibitory activity against protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) with over-expression of c-kit was analyzed also by ELISA. The antitumor activity of ethanolic extraction of Leathesia nana (EELN) was evaluated on S180-bearing mice. All compounds showed very potent cytotoxicity against all of the eight cancer cell lines with IC50 below 10 μg/mL. In PTK inhibition study, all bromophenol derivatives showed moderate inhibitory activity and compounds 2, 5 and 6 showed significant bioactivity with the inhibition ratio of 77.5%, 80.1% and 71.4%, respectively. Pharmacological studies reveal that EELN could inhibit the growth of Sarcoma 180 tumor and increase the indices of thymus and spleen to improve the immune system remarkably in vivo. Results indicated that the bromophenol derivatives and EELN can be used as potent antitumor agents for PTK over-expression of c-kit and considered in a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of cancer.

  6. Transarterial oily chemoembolization with lidamycin shows potent therapeutic efficacy in VX2 rabbit liver tumor

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Genshen; Qi, Jinsong; Huo, Shuhua; Xue, Huichao; Xu, Zhishan; Li, Jinsong; Zhou, Yanjun; Wu, Minna; Li, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Transarterial oily chemoembolization (TOCE) is one of the most effective approaches for the treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), who are not suitable for surgical therapy. Lidamycin (LDM), a potent antitumor antibiotic, demonstrates good antitumor efficacy in various tumor types, both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, the antitumor efficacy of LDM combined with TOCE against the rabbit VX2 tumor was assessed. A toxicity assay with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) demonstrated that a combination of LDM with lipiodol did not impair the cytotoxicity of LDM against HepG2 cells in vitro. Using TOCE in rabbit VX2 tumor models, LDM showed a more powerful inhibitory effect against the tumor and lowered the expression levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) compared to Adriamycin (ADM); moreover, this improvement was not accompanied by an increase of hepatotoxicity as shown by alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels. These results suggested that LDM combined with TOCE may be a feasible strategy in HCC therapy in the future. PMID:26543376

  7. Differential pathways regulating innate and adaptive antitumor immune responses by particulate and soluble yeast-derived β-glucans

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Chunjian; Cai, Yihua; Gunn, Lacey; Ding, Chuanlin; Li, Bing; Kloecker, Goetz; Qian, Keqing; Vasilakos, John; Saijo, Shinobu; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Yannelli, John R.

    2011-01-01

    β-glucans have been reported to function as a potent adjuvant to stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses. However, β-glucans from different sources are differential in their structure, conformation, and thus biologic activity. Different preparations of β-glucans, soluble versus particulate, further complicate their mechanism of action. Here we show that yeast-derived particulate β-glucan activated dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages via a C-type lectin receptor dectin-1 pathway. Activated DCs by particulate β-glucan promoted Th1 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte priming and differentiation in vitro. Treatment of orally administered yeast-derived particulate β-glucan elicited potent antitumor immune responses and drastically down-regulated immunosuppressive cells, leading to the delayed tumor progression. Deficiency of the dectin-1 receptor completely abrogated particulate β-glucan–mediated antitumor effects. In contrast, yeast-derived soluble β-glucan bound to DCs and macrophages independent of the dectin-1 receptor and did not activate DCs. Soluble β-glucan alone had no therapeutic effect but significantly augmented antitumor monoclonal antibody-mediated therapeutic efficacy via a complement activation pathway but independent of dectin-1 receptor. These findings reveal the importance of different preparations of β-glucans in the adjuvant therapy and allow for the rational design of immunotherapeutic protocols usable in clinical trials. PMID:21531981

  8. Differential pathways regulating innate and adaptive antitumor immune responses by particulate and soluble yeast-derived β-glucans.

    PubMed

    Qi, Chunjian; Cai, Yihua; Gunn, Lacey; Ding, Chuanlin; Li, Bing; Kloecker, Goetz; Qian, Keqing; Vasilakos, John; Saijo, Shinobu; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Yannelli, John R; Yan, Jun

    2011-06-23

    β-glucans have been reported to function as a potent adjuvant to stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses. However, β-glucans from different sources are differential in their structure, conformation, and thus biologic activity. Different preparations of β-glucans, soluble versus particulate, further complicate their mechanism of action. Here we show that yeast-derived particulate β-glucan activated dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages via a C-type lectin receptor dectin-1 pathway. Activated DCs by particulate β-glucan promoted Th1 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte priming and differentiation in vitro. Treatment of orally administered yeast-derived particulate β-glucan elicited potent antitumor immune responses and drastically down-regulated immunosuppressive cells, leading to the delayed tumor progression. Deficiency of the dectin-1 receptor completely abrogated particulate β-glucan-mediated antitumor effects. In contrast, yeast-derived soluble β-glucan bound to DCs and macrophages independent of the dectin-1 receptor and did not activate DCs. Soluble β-glucan alone had no therapeutic effect but significantly augmented antitumor monoclonal antibody-mediated therapeutic efficacy via a complement activation pathway but independent of dectin-1 receptor. These findings reveal the importance of different preparations of β-glucans in the adjuvant therapy and allow for the rational design of immunotherapeutic protocols usable in clinical trials.

  9. Structural characterization and antitumor and mitogenic activity of a lectin from the gill of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis).

    PubMed

    Yao, Dongrui; Pan, Saikun; Zhou, Mingqian

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the gross structure, secondary structure, and antitumor and mitogenic activity of GANL, a lectin from the gill of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis). We used infrared spectroscopy, β-elimination, and circular dichroism spectroscopy to determine the structure of GANL. We measured antiproliferation activity against six human tumor cell lines and mitogenic activity against murine splenocytes using the MTT assay. Based on infrared spectroscopy and β-elimination, we conclude that GANL is a glycoprotein. The protein and carbohydrate moieties are joined by O-glycosidic linkage. A circular dichroism spectroscopic analysis revealed that the secondary structure of GANL consists of α-helices (34.8 %), β-sheets (12.1 %), β-turns (24.5 %), and unordered structures (33.0 %). GANL exerted potent antitumor activity against the HeLa cell line (IC(50) = 11.86 μg/mL) and a mitogenic effect on murine splenocytes in the MTT assay. GANL, a lectin that is isolated from the gills of bighead carp, is a glycoprotein with potent antitumor and mitogenic activity. PMID:22714932

  10. Combination strategies to enhance antitumor ADCC

    PubMed Central

    Kohrt, Holbrook E; Houot, Roch; Marabelle, Aurélien; Cho, Hearn Jay; Osman, Keren; Goldstein, Matthew; Levy, Ronald; Brody, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of monoclonal antibodies as cancer therapeutics is largely dependent upon their ability to target the tumor and induce a functional antitumor immune response. This two-step process of ADCC utilizes the response of innate immune cells to provide antitumor cytotoxicity triggered by the interaction of the Fc portion of the antibody with the Fc receptor on the immune cell. Immunotherapeutics that target NK cells, γδ T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells can, by augmenting the function of the immune response, enhance the antitumor activity of the antibodies. Advantages of such combination strategies include: the application to multiple existing antibodies (even across multiple diseases), the feasibility (from a regulatory perspective) of combining with previously approved agents and the assurance (to physicians and trial participants) that one of the ingredients – the antitumor antibody – has proven efficacy on its own. Here we discuss current strategies, including biologic rationale and clinical results, which enhance ADCC in the following ways: strategies that increase total target–monoclonal antibody–effector binding, strategies that trigger effector cell ‘activating’ signals and strategies that block effector cell ‘inhibitory’ signals. PMID:22642334

  11. Antitumor activity of methylan polysaccharide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Priyadharshini; Jeya, Marimuthu; Moon, Hee-Jung; Lee, Kyoung-Mi; Kim, In-Won; Kim, Jung-Hoe; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2010-07-01

    Methylan polysaccharide derivatives were prepared by dialkylaminoalkylation and reductive amination followed by quaternization. Their antitumor activity was investigated and a relationship between structure and activity is suggested. For quaternized DEAE-methylan at only 75 mug ml(-1), tumor cell proliferation was suppressed by 58-84% in three cell lines tested in the order Colo < Hela < HepG2. PMID:20349111

  12. Antitumor activity of methylan polysaccharide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Priyadharshini; Jeya, Marimuthu; Moon, Hee-Jung; Lee, Kyoung-Mi; Kim, In-Won; Kim, Jung-Hoe; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2010-07-01

    Methylan polysaccharide derivatives were prepared by dialkylaminoalkylation and reductive amination followed by quaternization. Their antitumor activity was investigated and a relationship between structure and activity is suggested. For quaternized DEAE-methylan at only 75 mug ml(-1), tumor cell proliferation was suppressed by 58-84% in three cell lines tested in the order Colo < Hela < HepG2.

  13. Marine Antitumor Drugs: Status, Shortfalls and Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Ira; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Cancer is considered as one of the deadliest diseases in the medical field. Apart from the preventive therapies, it is important to find a curative measure which holds no loopholes and acts accurately and precisely to curb cancer. Over the past few decades, there have been advances in this field and there are many antitumor compounds available on the market, which are of natural as well as synthetic origin. Marine chemotherapy is well recognized nowadays and profound development has been achieved by researchers to deal with different molecular pathways of tumors. However, the marine environment has been less explored for the production of safe and novel antitumor compounds. The reason is a number of shortfalls in this field. Though ample reviews cover the importance and applications of various anticancerous compounds from marine natural products, in the present review, we have tried to bring the current status of antitumor research based on marine inhibitors of cancer signaling pathways. In addition, focus has been placed on the shortfalls and probable strategies in the arena of marine antitumor drug discovery. PMID:21116415

  14. Taccalonolide binding to tubulin imparts microtubule stability and potent in vivo activity

    PubMed Central

    Risinger, AL; Li, J; Bennett, MJ; Rohena, CC; Peng, J; Schriemer, DC; Mooberry, SL

    2013-01-01

    The taccalonolides are highly acetylated steroids that stabilize cellular microtubules and overcome multiple mechanisms of taxane resistance. Recently, two potent taccalonolides, AF and AJ, were identified that bind tubulin directly and enhance microtubule polymerization. Extensive studies were conducted to characterize these new taccalonolides. AF and AJ caused aberrant mitotic spindles and bundling of interphase microtubules that differed from the effects of either paclitaxel or laulimalide. AJ also distinctly affected microtubule polymerization in that it enhanced the rate and extent of polymerization in the absence of any noticeable effect on microtubule nucleation. Additionally, the resulting microtubules were found to be profoundly cold stable. These data, along with studies showing synergistic antiproliferative effects between AJ and either paclitaxel or laulimalide, suggest a distinct binding site. Direct binding studies demonstrated that AJ could not be displaced from microtubules by paclitaxel, laulimalide or denaturing conditions, suggesting irreversible binding of AJ to microtubules. Mass spectrometry confirmed a covalent interaction of AJ with a peptide of β-tubulin containing the cyclostreptin binding sites. Importantly, AJ imparts strong inter-protofilament stability in a manner different from other microtubule stabilizers that covalently bind tubulin, consistent with the distinct effects of the taccalonolides as compared to other stabilizers. AF was found to be a potent and effective antitumor agent that caused tumor regression in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model. The antitumor efficacy of some taccalonolides, which stabilize microtubules in a manner different from other microtubule stabilizers, provides the impetus to explore the therapeutic potential of this site. PMID:24048820

  15. [Immunomodulatory and antitumor properties of polysaccharide peptide (PSP)].

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Jakub; Jędrzejewski, Tomasz; Kozak, Wiesław

    2015-01-01

    Modern medicine successfully uses multiple immunomodulators of natural origin, that can affect biological reactions and support body's natural defense mechanisms including antitumor activities. Among them is a group of products derived from fungi, including schizophyllan, lentinan, polysaccharide Krestin (PSK), and polysaccharidepeptide (PSP). Present paper is focused on polysaccharidepeptide, which due to the negligible toxicity and numerous benefits for health, is increasingly used in China and Japan as an adjuvant in the treatment of cancer. PSP is a protein-polisaccharide complex with a molecular weight 100 kDa derived from Coriolus versicolor mushroom. The results of numerous studies and clinical trials confirm that it inhibits the growth of cancer cells in in vitro and in vivo settings as well as decreases cancer treatment-related adverse side effects such as fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and pain. PSP is able to restore weakened immune response observed in patients with cancer during chemotherapy. Its anti-tumor effects seemed to be mediated through immunomodulatory regulation. PSP stimulates cells of the immune system, induces synthesis of cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), eicosanoids including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), histamine, reactive oxygen species and nitrogen mediators. There is a growing interest in understanding the mechanisms of PSP action. Because of its unique properties and safety, PSP may become a widely used therapeutic agent in the near future. PMID:25614677

  16. The Targeted-liposome Delivery System of Antitumor Drugs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei-dang; Yi, Xiu-lin; Jiang, Li-xin; Li, Ya-zhuo; Gao, Jing; Zeng, Yong; Yi, Rong-da; Dai, Li-peng; Li, Wei; Ci, Xiao-yan; Si, Duan-yun; Liu, Chang-xiao

    2015-01-01

    The liposome delivery system has been intensively explored as novel drug delivery system (DDS) for antitumor drugs, due to its safety, selective cytotoxicity, long circulation and slow elimination in blood, which is favorable for cancer therapy. The liposome-based chemotherapeutics are used to treat a variety of cancers to enhance the therapeutic index of antitumor drugs. Here, the author reviewed the important targets for cancer therapy and the pharmacokinetic behavior of liposomal drugs in vivo, as well as the application of the targeting liposomal system in cancer therapy. Considering further application for clinical use, the great challenges of the liposome-based delivery system were also proposed as follows: 1) prepare stealth liposome with steric stabilization and further enhance the therapeutic effects and safety; 2) explore more safe clinical targets and complementary or different types of targeting liposome; 3) thirdly, more investment is needed on the research of pharmacokinetics of the elements such as the ligands (antibody), PEG and lipids of liposome delivery system as well as safety evaluation. Considering the complex process of the liposomal encapsulation drugs in vivo, the author inferred that there are maybe different forms of the encapsulation drug to be internalized by the tumor tissues at the same time and space, although there are little reports on it. PMID:26652257

  17. Anti-tumor activity of calcitriol: pre-clinical and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Trump, Donald L; Hershberger, Pamela A; Bernardi, Ronald J; Ahmed, Sharmilla; Muindi, Josephia; Fakih, Marwan; Yu, Wei-Dong; Johnson, Candace S

    2004-05-01

    1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol) is recognized widely for its effects on bone and mineral metabolism. Epidemiological data suggest that low Vitamin D levels may play a role in the genesis of prostate cancer and perhaps other tumors. Calcitriol is a potent anti-proliferative agent in a wide variety of malignant cell types. In prostate, breast, colorectal, head/neck and lung cancer as well as lymphoma, leukemia and myeloma model systems calcitriol has significant anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Calcitriol effects are associated with an increase in G0/G1 arrest, induction of apoptosis and differentiation, modulation of expression of growth factor receptors. Glucocorticoids potentiate the anti-tumor effect of calcitriol and decrease calcitriol-induced hypercalcemia. Calcitriol potentiates the antitumor effects of many cytotoxic agents and inhibits motility and invasiveness of tumor cells and formation of new blood vessels. Phase I and II trials of calcitriol either alone or in combination with carboplatin, taxanes or dexamethasone have been initiated in patients with androgen dependent and independent prostate cancer and advanced cancer. Data indicate that high-dose calcitriol is feasible on an intermittent schedule, no dose-limiting toxicity has been encountered and optimal dose and schedule are being delineated. Clinical responses have been seen with the combination of high dose calcitriol+dexamethasone in androgen independent prostate cancer (AIPC) and apparent potentiation of the antitumor effects of docetaxel have been seen in AIPC. These results demonstrate that high intermittent doses of calcitriol can be administered to patients without toxicity, that the MTD is yet to be determined and that calcitriol has potential as an anti-cancer agent. PMID:15225831

  18. Anti-tumor activity of calcitriol: pre-clinical and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Trump, Donald L; Hershberger, Pamela A; Bernardi, Ronald J; Ahmed, Sharmilla; Muindi, Josephia; Fakih, Marwan; Yu, Wei-Dong; Johnson, Candace S

    2004-05-01

    1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol) is recognized widely for its effects on bone and mineral metabolism. Epidemiological data suggest that low Vitamin D levels may play a role in the genesis of prostate cancer and perhaps other tumors. Calcitriol is a potent anti-proliferative agent in a wide variety of malignant cell types. In prostate, breast, colorectal, head/neck and lung cancer as well as lymphoma, leukemia and myeloma model systems calcitriol has significant anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Calcitriol effects are associated with an increase in G0/G1 arrest, induction of apoptosis and differentiation, modulation of expression of growth factor receptors. Glucocorticoids potentiate the anti-tumor effect of calcitriol and decrease calcitriol-induced hypercalcemia. Calcitriol potentiates the antitumor effects of many cytotoxic agents and inhibits motility and invasiveness of tumor cells and formation of new blood vessels. Phase I and II trials of calcitriol either alone or in combination with carboplatin, taxanes or dexamethasone have been initiated in patients with androgen dependent and independent prostate cancer and advanced cancer. Data indicate that high-dose calcitriol is feasible on an intermittent schedule, no dose-limiting toxicity has been encountered and optimal dose and schedule are being delineated. Clinical responses have been seen with the combination of high dose calcitriol+dexamethasone in androgen independent prostate cancer (AIPC) and apparent potentiation of the antitumor effects of docetaxel have been seen in AIPC. These results demonstrate that high intermittent doses of calcitriol can be administered to patients without toxicity, that the MTD is yet to be determined and that calcitriol has potential as an anti-cancer agent.

  19. CpG Oligodeoxynucleotide1826 combined with radioresistant cancer cell vaccine confers significant antitumor effects.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, X B; Xing, N; Zhang, Q; Yuan, S J; Chen, W; Qiao, T K

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy is a hot issue in cancer research over the years and tumor cell vaccine is one of the increasing number of studies. Although the whole tumor cell vaccine can provide the best source of immunizing antigens, there is still a limitation that most tumors are not naturally immunogenic. CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs), synthetic oligonucleotides containing a cytosine-phosphate-guanine(CpG) motif, was shown to enhance immune responses to a wide variety of antigens. In this study, we generated the radioresistant Lewis lung cancer cell by repeated X-ray radiation and inactivated it as a whole tumor cell vaccine to enhance the immunogenicity of tumor cell vaccine. Mice were subcutaneously immunized with this inactivated vaccine combined with CpG ODN1826 and then inoculated with autologous Lewis lung cancer (LLC) to estimate the antitumor efficacy. The results showed that the radioresistant tumor cell vaccine combined with CpG ODN1826 could significantly inhibit tumor growth, increased survival of the mice and with 20% of the mice surviving tumor free in vivo compared with the unimmunized mice bearing LLC tumor. A significant increase of apoptosis was also observed in the tumor prophylactically immunized with vaccine of inactivated radioresistant tumor cell plus CpG ODN1826. The potent antitumor effect correlated with higher secretion levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α) and lower levels of interleukin-10(IL-10) concentration in serum. Furthermore, the results suggested that the antitumor mechanism was probably depended on the decreased level of programmed death ligand-1(PD-L1) which plays an important role in the negative regulation of immune response by the inhibition of tumor antigen-specific T cell activation. These findings clearly demonstrated that the radioresistant tumor cell vaccine combined with CpG ODN1826 as an appropriate adjuvant could induce effective antitumor immunity in vivo. PMID:26458317

  20. Airway administration of a highly versatile peptide-based liposomal construct for local and distant antitumoral vaccination.

    PubMed

    Kakhi, Zahra; Frisch, Benoît; Bourel-Bonnet, Line; Hemmerlé, Joseph; Pons, Françoise; Heurtault, Béatrice

    2015-12-30

    With the discovery of tumor-associated antigens such as ErbB2, vaccination is considered as a promising strategy to prevent the development of cancer or treat the existing disease. Among routes of immunization, the respiratory route provides the opportunity to develop non-invasive approach for vaccine delivery. In the current study, this administration route was used in order to investigate the potency of a highly versatile di-epitopic liposomal construct to exhibit local or distant antitumoral efficiency after prophylactic or therapeutic vaccination in mice. Well-characterized liposomes, containing the ErbB2 (p63-71) TCD8(+) and HA (p307-319) TCD4(+) peptide epitopes and the Pam2CAG adjuvant, were formulated and administered into the airway of naïve BALB/c mice. The nanoparticle vaccine candidate induced local and specific systemic immune response, as measured by immune cell infiltration and chemokine and cytokine production in BALF or lung tissue, and by spleen T-cell activation ex vivo, respectively. This potent immune response resulted in an efficient antitumor activity against both lung and solid s.c. tumors. Interestingly, the antitumor efficacy was observed after both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccinations, which are the most judicious ones to fight cancer. Our data showed an undeniable interest of liposomal peptide-based vaccines in antitumor vaccination by the respiratory route, opening new perspectives for cancer treatment.

  1. Antitumor effect of Deoxypodophyllotoxin on human breast cancer xenograft transplanted in BALB/c nude mice model.

    PubMed

    Khaled, Meyada; Belaaloui, Ghania; Jiang, Zhen-Zhou; Zhu, Xiong; Zhang, Lu-Yong

    2016-10-01

    Recently, biologically active compounds isolated from plants used in herbal medicine have been the center of interest. Deoxypodophyllotoxin (DPT), structurally closely related to the lignan podophyllotoxin, was found to be a potent antitumor and antiproliferative agent, in several tumor cells, in vitro. However, DPT has not been used clinically yet because of the lack of in vivo studies. This study is the first report demonstrating the antitumor effect of DPT on MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts in nude mice. DPT, significantly, inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 xenograft in BALB/c nude mice. The T/C value (the value of the relative tumor volume of treatment group compared to the control group) of groups treated with 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg of intravenous DPT-HP-β-CD was 42.87%, 34.04% and 9.63%, respectively, suggesting the positive antitumor activity of DPT. In addition, the antitumor effect of DPT-HP-β-CD (20 mg/kg) in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 xenograft was more effective than etoposide (VP-16) (20 mg/kg) and docetaxel (20 mg/kg). These findings suggest that this drug is a promising chemotherapy candidate against human breast carcinoma. PMID:27578026

  2. Anti-tumor activity and cytotoxicity in vitro of novel 4,5-dialkylimidazolium surfactants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Da; Richter, Christian; Rühling, Andreas; Hüwel, Sabine; Glorius, Frank; Galla, Hans-Joachim

    2015-11-27

    Natural monoalkylated imidazolium derivatives exhibit significant anti-tumor activity as well as general cytotoxicity. In the present study, we used a series of newly synthesized imidazolium derivatives bearing two alkyl chains in the backbone of the imidazolium core in 4- and 5-position and either dimethyl- or dibenzyl-substituents at 1- and 3-position. Their anti-tumor activity and cytotoxicity were determined in vitro using the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. The tumor cell line C6 from rat glioma, the non-tumor MDCK cell line (Madin-Darby canine kidney) as well as the mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line (NIH3T3) were used as cellular targets. Surface activity measurements were performed leading to the determination of their critical micelle concentration (CMC) of these new lipid analogues to evaluate the molecular mechanism of the observed cellular effects. We found that 4,5-dialkylation of the imidazole ring enhances the anti-tumor activity compared to simple 1-alkylated imidazoles. The corresponding C7 homologues are found to be the most potent compounds. Furthermore dibenzyl-substituted imidazolium surfactants exhibit higher surface activity and increased toxicity against tumor cells compared to dimethyl-substituted imidazolium surfactants. In summary the dibenzyl-derivative carrying the two C7 chains was found to exhibit a drastically increased anti-tumor activity especially compared to so far known monoalkylated species.

  3. Application of capillary electrophoresis-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to comparative studying of the reactivity of antitumor ruthenium(III) complexes differing in the nature of counter-ion toward human serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Połeć-Pawlak, Kasia; Abramski, Jan K; Ferenc, Julia; Foteeva, Lidia S; Timerbaev, Andrei R; Keppler, Bernhard K; Jarosz, Maciej

    2008-05-30

    Varying the counter-ion is a highly supportive practice in tackling the problem of poor water-solubility of metal complexes of pharmaceutical importance. As a matter of fact, the relevant structural modification may alter the metabolic pathways and possibly the mode of action of a drug. To prove that this does not take place for one of the lead anticancer metal-based developmental compounds, indazolium trans-[RuCl(4)(1H-indazole)(2)] (KP1019), its reactivity toward human serum proteins was assessed under simulated physiological conditions and compared to that of a much more soluble analogue, sodium trans-[RuCl(4)(1H-indazole)(2)] (KP1339). For such kinetic assaying, capillary electrophoresis (CE) interfaced online with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to specifically monitor changes in the metal speciation following the formation of ruthenium-protein adducts was applied. The rate constants of interaction with albumin and transferrin were determined at pharmacologically fitting drug-to-protein ratios as on average 0.0319+/-0.0021 min(-1) and 0.0931+/-0.0019 min(-1) (KP1019) and 0.0316+/-0.0018 min(-1) and 0.0935+/-0.0053 min(-1) (KP1339), respectively. The results of this brief study showed that changing from organic to inorganic counter-ion at the stage of formulation could commonly be recommended for improving ruthenium-based drug solubility and bioavailability.

  4. Synthesis and antitumor activity of some 2, 3-disubstituted quinazolin-4(3H)-ones and 4, 6- disubstituted- 1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydroquinazolin-2H-ones.

    PubMed

    Abdel Gawad, Nagwa M; Georgey, Hanan H; Youssef, Riham M; El-Sayed, Nehad A

    2010-12-01

    The synthesis of some new 3-substituted quinazolin-4(3H)-ones and 3,4-dihydro-quinazolin-2(1H)-one derivatives and their biological evaluation as antitumor agents using the National Cancer Institute (NCI), disease oriented antitumor screening protocol are investigated. Compounds 2-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-oxo-ethylthio]-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (3b), and 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-[2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-oxo-ethylthio]quinazolin-4(3H)-one (3d), are broad-spectrum antitumors showing effectiveness toward numerous cell lines that belong to different tumor subpanels, Compounds 3b, 3d are the most active members in this study. Those two quinazoline analogues could be considered as useful templates for future development to obtain more potent antitumor agent(s).

  5. New 15-membered tetraaza (N4) macrocyclic ligand and its transition metal complexes: Spectral, magnetic, thermal and anticancer activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Boraey, Hanaa A.; EL-Gammal, Ohyla A.

    2015-03-01

    Novel tetraamidemacrocyclic 15-membered ligand [L] i.e. naphthyl-dibenzo[1,5,9,12]tetraazacyclopentadecine-6,10,11,15-tetraoneand its transition metal complexes with Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Ru(III) and Pd(II) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral, thermal as well as magnetic and molar conductivity measurements. On the basis of analytical, spectral (IR, MS, UV-Vis, 1H NMR and EPR) and thermal studies distorted octahedral or square planar geometry has been proposed for the complexes. The antitumor activity of the synthesized ligand and some complexes against human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) and human hepatocarcinoma cell lines (HepG2) has been studied. The complexes (IC50 = 2.27-2.7, 8.33-31.1 μg/mL, respectively) showed potent antitumor activity, towards the former cell lines comparable with their ligand (IC50 = 13, 26 μg/mL, respectively). The results show that the activity of the ligand towards breast cancer cell line becomes more pronounced and significant when coordinated to the metal ion.

  6. Direct and immune-mediated cytotoxicity of interleukin-21 contributes to antitumor effects in mantle cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Shruti; Matthews, Julie; Parvin, Salma; Sarosiek, Kristopher A.; Zhao, Dekuang; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Isik, Elif; Letai, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a distinct subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by overexpression of cyclin D1 in 95% of patients. MCL patients experience frequent relapses resulting in median survival of 3 to 5 years, requiring more efficient therapeutic regimens. Interleukin (IL)-21, a member of the IL-2 cytokine family, possesses potent antitumor activity against a variety of cancers not expressing the IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) through immune activation. Previously, we established that IL-21 exerts direct cytotoxicity on IL-21R–expressing diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells. Herein, we demonstrate that IL-21 possesses potent cytotoxicity against MCL cell lines and primary tumors. We identify that IL-21–induced direct cytotoxicity is mediated through signal transducer and activator of transcription 3-dependent cMyc upregulation, resulting in activation of Bax and inhibition of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. IL-21–mediated cMyc upregulation is only observed in IL-21–sensitive cells. Further, we demonstrate that IL-21 leads to natural killer (NK)-cell–dependent lysis of MCL cell lines that were resistant to direct cytotoxicity. In vivo treatment with IL-21 results in complete FC-muMCL1 tumor regression in syngeneic mice via NK- and T-cell–dependent mechanisms. Together, these data indicate that IL-21 has potent antitumor activity against MCL cells via direct cytotoxic and indirect, immune-mediated effects. PMID:26194763

  7. Beyond rapalog therapy: preclinical pharmacology and antitumor activity of WYE-125132, an ATP-competitive and specific inhibitor of mTORC1 and mTORC2.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ker; Shi, Celine; Toral-Barza, Lourdes; Lucas, Judy; Shor, Boris; Kim, Jae Eun; Zhang, Wei-Guo; Mahoney, Robert; Gaydos, Christine; Tardio, Luanna; Kim, Sung Kyoo; Conant, Roger; Curran, Kevin; Kaplan, Joshua; Verheijen, Jeroen; Ayral-Kaloustian, Semiramis; Mansour, Tarek S; Abraham, Robert T; Zask, Arie; Gibbons, James J

    2010-01-15

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a major component of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway that is dysregulated in 50% of all human malignancies. Rapamycin and its analogues (rapalogs) partially inhibit mTOR through allosteric binding to mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) but not mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), an emerging player in cancer. Here, we report WYE-125132 (WYE-132), a highly potent, ATP-competitive, and specific mTOR kinase inhibitor (IC(50): 0.19 +/- 0.07 nmol/L; >5,000-fold selective versus PI3Ks). WYE-132 inhibited mTORC1 and mTORC2 in diverse cancer models in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, consistent with genetic ablation of mTORC2, WYE-132 targeted P-AKT(S473) and AKT function without significantly reducing the steady-state level of the PI3K/PDK1 activity biomarker P-AKT(T308), highlighting a prominent and direct regulation of AKT by mTORC2 in cancer cells. Compared with the rapalog temsirolimus/CCI-779, WYE-132 elicited a substantially stronger inhibition of cancer cell growth and survival, protein synthesis, cell size, bioenergetic metabolism, and adaptation to hypoxia. Oral administration of WYE-132 to tumor-bearing mice showed potent single-agent antitumor activity against MDA361 breast, U87MG glioma, A549 and H1975 lung, as well as A498 and 786-O renal tumors. An optimal dose of WYE-132 achieved a substantial regression of MDA361 and A549 large tumors and caused complete regression of A498 large tumors when coadministered with bevacizumab. Our results further validate mTOR as a critical driver for tumor growth, establish WYE-132 as a potent and profound anticancer agent, and provide a strong rationale for clinical development of specific mTOR kinase inhibitors as new cancer therapy.

  8. Comparative toxicity and efficacy of engineered anthrax lethal toxin variants with broad anti-tumor activities

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Diane E.; Hoover, Benjamin; Cloud, Loretta Grey; Liu, Shihui; Molinolo, Alfredo A.; Leppla, Stephen H.; Bugge, Thomas H.

    2014-09-01

    We have previously designed and characterized versions of anthrax lethal toxin that are selectively cytotoxic in the tumor microenvironment and which display broad and potent anti-tumor activities in vivo. Here, we have performed the first direct comparison of the safety and efficacy of three engineered anthrax lethal toxin variants requiring activation by either matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs), urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) or co-localized MMP/uPA activities. C57BL/6J mice were challenged with six doses of engineered toxins via intraperitoneal (I.P.) or intravenous (I.V.) dose routes to determine the maximum tolerated dose for six administrations (MTD6) and dose-limiting toxicities. Efficacy was evaluated using the B16-BL6 syngraft model of melanoma; mice bearing established tumors were treated with six I.P. doses of toxin and tumor measurements and immunohistochemistry, paired with terminal blood work, were used to elaborate upon the anti-tumor mechanism and relative efficacy of each variant. We found that MMP-, uPA- and dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxins exhibited the same dose-limiting toxicity; dose-dependent GI toxicity. In terms of efficacy, all three toxins significantly reduced primary B16-BL6 tumor burden, ranging from 32% to 87% reduction, and they also delayed disease progression as evidenced by dose-dependent normalization of blood work values. While target organ toxicity and effective doses were similar amongst the variants, the dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxin exhibited the highest I.P. MTD6 and was 1.5–3-fold better tolerated than the single MMP- and uPA-activated toxins. Overall, we demonstrate that this dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxin can be administered safely and is highly effective in a preclinical model of melanoma. This modified bacterial cytotoxin is thus a promising candidate for further clinical development and evaluation for use in treating human cancers. - Highlights: • Toxicity and anti-tumor

  9. Recent progress in antitumoral synthetic vaccines.

    PubMed

    Nativi, Cristina; Renaudet, Olivier

    2014-11-13

    Antitumoral synthetic vaccines offer a promising alternative to overcome problems associated with traditional treatments. Numerous vaccine prototypes have been described in the last two decades; however, none of them have been revealed satisfactory in clinical trials due to side effects, low bioavailability, uncertain molecular composition, and/or reproducibility. Here we highlight major advances in carbohydrate-based vaccines, which open new perspectives in cancer immunotherapy.

  10. Impact of antitumor therapy on nutrition

    SciTech Connect

    Kokal, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    The treatment of the cancer patient by surgery, chemotherapy or radiation therapy can impose significant nutritional disabilities on the host. The nutritional disabilities seen in the tumor-bearing host from antitumor therapy are produced by factors which either limit oral intake or cause malabsorption of nutrients. The host malnutrition caused as a consequence of surgery, chemotherapy or radiation therapy assumes even more importance when one realizes that many cancer patients are already debilitated from their disease.

  11. The Eltrombopag antitumor effect on hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Tomohiro; Murata, Soichiro; Zheng, Yun-Wen; Iwasaki, Kenichi; Kohno, Keisuke; Fukunaga, Kiyoshi; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2015-11-01

    Currently, sorafenib is the only available chemotherapeutic agent for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but it cannot be used in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) or thrombocytopenia. In these cases, sorafenib is likely effective if given in combination with treatments that increase the number of platelets, such as thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor agonists. Increasing the platelet count via TPO treatment resulted in reduction of LC. Eltrombopag (EP), a TPO receptor agonist, has been reported to have antitumor effects against certain cancers, despite their lack of TPO receptor expression. We hypothesized that EP may possess antitumor activity against HCC in addition to its ability to suppress hepatic fibrosis by increasing the platelet count. In the present study, the antitumor activity of EP was examined by assessing the inhibition of cell proliferation and then ascertaining the ability of iron supplementation to reverse these effects in HepG2, Hep3B and Huh7 cells. In addition, a cell cycle assay was performed using flow cytometry, and signal transduction was evaluated by analyzing cell cycle-related protein expression. The results of EP were compared with those of the most common iron chelator, deferoxamine (DFO). The combined effect of EP and sorafenib was also assessed. The results revealed that EP exerts antitumor activity in HCC that is mediated by the modulation of intracellular iron content. EP suppressed the expression of the cell cycle-related protein cyclin D1 and elicited cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. The activity of EP was comparable to that of DFO in HCC, and EP did not compete with sorafenib at low concentrations. In conclusion, our findings suggest that EP is a good candidate chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of HCC in patients with LC and thrombocytopenia. PMID:26397763

  12. The Eltrombopag antitumor effect on hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    KUROKAWA, TOMOHIRO; MURATA, SOICHIRO; ZHENG, YUN-WEN; IWASAKI, KENICHI; KOHNO, KEISUKE; FUKUNAGA, KIYOSHI; OHKOHCHI, NOBUHIRO

    2015-01-01

    Currently, sorafenib is the only available chemotherapeutic agent for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but it cannot be used in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) or thrombocytopenia. In these cases, sorafenib is likely effective if given in combination with treatments that increase the number of platelets, such as thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor agonists. Increasing the platelet count via TPO treatment resulted in reduction of LC. Eltrombopag (EP), a TPO receptor agonist, has been reported to have antitumor effects against certain cancers, despite their lack of TPO receptor expression. We hypothesized that EP may possess antitumor activity against HCC in addition to its ability to suppress hepatic fibrosis by increasing the platelet count. In the present study, the antitumor activity of EP was examined by assessing the inhibition of cell proliferation and then ascertaining the ability of iron supplementation to reverse these effects in HepG2, Hep3B and Huh7 cells. In addition, a cell cycle assay was performed using flow cytometry, and signal transduction was evaluated by analyzing cell cycle-related protein expression. The results of EP were compared with those of the most common iron chelator, deferoxamine (DFO). The combined effect of EP and sorafenib was also assessed. The results revealed that EP exerts antitumor activity in HCC that is mediated by the modulation of intracellular iron content. EP suppressed the expression of the cell cycle-related protein cyclin D1 and elicited cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. The activity of EP was comparable to that of DFO in HCC, and EP did not compete with sorafenib at low concentrations. In conclusion, our findings suggest that EP is a good candidate chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of HCC in patients with LC and thrombocytopenia. PMID:26397763

  13. Comparison of two self-assembled macromolecular prodrug micelles with different conjugate positions of SN38 for enhancing antitumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Piao, Hongyu; Gao, Ying; Xu, Caihong; Tian, Ye; Wang, Lihong; Liu, Jinwen; Tang, Bo; Zou, Meijuan; Cheng, Gang

    2015-01-01

    7-Ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN38), an active metabolite of irinotecan (CPT-11), is a remarkably potent antitumor agent. The clinical application of SN38 has been extremely restricted by its insolubility in water. In this study, we successfully synthesized two macromolecular prodrugs of SN38 with different conjugate positions (chitosan-(C10-OH)SN38 and chitosan-(C20-OH)SN38) to improve the water solubility and antitumor activity of SN38. These prodrugs can self-assemble into micelles in aqueous medium. The particle size, morphology, zeta potential, and in vitro drug release of SN38 and its derivatives, as well as their cytotoxicity, pharmacokinetics, and in vivo antitumor activity in a xenograft BALB/c mouse model were studied. In vitro, chitosan-(C10-OH)SN38 (CS-(10s)SN38) and chitosan-(C20-OH) SN38 (CS-(20s)SN38) were 13.3- and 25.9-fold more potent than CPT-11 in the murine colon adenocarcinoma cell line CT26, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC)0–24 of SN38 after intravenously administering CS-(10s)SN38 and CS-(20s)SN38 to Sprague Dawley rats was greatly improved when compared with CPT-11 (both P<0.01). A larger AUC0–24 of CS-(20s)SN38 was observed when compared to CS-(10s)SN38 (P<0.05). Both of the novel self-assembled chitosan-SN38 prodrugs demonstrated superior anticancer activity to CPT-11 in the CT26 xenograft BALB/c mouse model. We have also investigated the differences between these macromolecular prodrug micelles with regards to enhancing the antitumor activity of SN38. CS-(20s)SN38 exhibited better in vivo antitumor activity than CS-(10s)SN38 at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg (P<0.05). In conclusion, both macromolecular prodrug micelles improved the in vivo conversion rate and antitumor activity of SN38, but the prodrug in which C20-OH was conjugated to macromolecular materials could be a more promising platform for SN38 delivery. PMID:25848251

  14. Synthesis, antitumor, and antibacterial activity of bis[4,5-diarylimidazol-2-ylidene]methane derivatives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wukun; Chen, Xiaohua; Gust, Ronald

    2012-07-01

    Cationic [bis(1,3-diethyl-4,5-diarylimidazol-2-ylidene)]Au(I) bromide complexes have demonstrated considerable potential as new antitumor agents. In order to investigate whether the gold is crucial for the antitumor activity, the imidazole ligands were connected by a methylene bridge. Biological evaluation revealed that bis[1,3-diethyl-4,5-diarylimidazol-2-ylidene]methane compounds exhibited growth inhibition effects against mammary (MCF-7 and MDA-MB 231) and colon (HT-29) carcinoma cell lines. In comparison with gold complexes, the methylene derivatives showed drastically reduced cell growth inhibitory properties. However, the growth of bacteria was significantly inhibited by bis[1,3-diethyl-4,5-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene]methane dibromide (4) and opens a new application of this compound type.

  15. Potential antitumor mechanisms of phenothiazine drugs.

    PubMed

    Qi, Lu; Ding, Yanqing

    2013-11-01

    In this study, three kinds of phenothiazine drugs were analyzed to explore their potential antitumor mechanisms. First, target proteins that could interact with chlorpromazine, fluphenazine and trifluoperazine were predicted. Then, the target proteins of the three drugs were intersected. Cell signaling pathway enrichment and related disease enrichment were conducted for the intersected proteins to extract the enrichment categories associated with tumors. By regulation network analysis of the protein interactions, the mechanisms of action of these target proteins in tumor tissue were clarified, thus confirming the potential antitumor mechanisms of the phenothiazine drugs. The final results of cell signaling pathway enrichment and related disease enrichment showed that the categories with the highest score were all found in tumors. Target proteins belonging to the tumor category included signaling pathway members such as Wnt, MAPK and retinoic acid receptor. Moreover, another target protein, MAPK8, could indirectly act on target proteins CDK2, IGF1R, GSK3B, RARA, FGFR2 and MAPK10, thereby affecting tumor cell division and proliferation. Therefore, phenothiazine drugs may have potential antitumor effects, and tumor-associated target proteins play important roles in the process of cell signaling transduction cascades.

  16. Synthesis of heterocycle-modified betulinic acid derivatives as antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hai-Wei; He, Yuan; Wang, Jinhua; Gao, Wei; Liu, Ting; Qin, Min; Wang, Xue; Gao, Cheng; Wang, Yan; Liu, Ming-Yao; Yi, Zhengfang; Qiu, Wen-Wei

    2015-05-01

    A series of novel heterocycle-modified betulinic acid (BA) derivatives were synthesized and investigated for their activity against the growth of eight non-drug resistant and one multidrug-resistant tumor cell line using a sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The most active compound 17 showed an average IC50 1.19 μM, which was about 20 times more potent than the lead compound BA. It is amazing that for most synthetic saturated N-heterocycle derivatives, MCF-7/ADR was the most sensitive tumor cells, especially 17 showed the most potent antitumor activity (IC50 = 0.33 μM) on this multidrug-resistant tumor cell line, that was 117 times more potent than BA. Most of the tested compounds displayed less toxic on human fibroblasts (HAF) in comparison with the tumor cell lines. The cytometry and transwell migration assays were used to test the ability of 17 to induce apoptosis and inhibit metastasis on tumor cell lines respectively.

  17. Monoclonal antibody-targeted superantigens: a different class of anti-tumor agents.

    PubMed Central

    Dohlsten, M; Hedlund, G; Akerblom, E; Lando, P A; Kalland, T

    1991-01-01

    The bacterial superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) A (SEA) directs cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) expressing particular sequences of the T-cell receptor (TCR) beta chain to lyse tumor cells expressing major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, which serve as receptors for SEs. We now report that chemical conjugates of SEA and the colon carcinoma-reactive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) C215 or C242 mediate T cell-dependent destruction of colon carcinoma cells lacking MHC class II molecules. SEA was covalently linked to the mAbs C215 and C242 via a PEG-based hydrophilic spacer. The C215-SEA conjugate targeted CD4+ as well as CD8+ CTLs to lyse a panel of colon carcinoma cells lacking MHC class II molecules. T-cell recognition of mAb-SEA conjugates was SEA specific, since SEB-selective T-cell lines with potent cytotoxic activity towards Raji cells coated with SEB did not respond to the C215-SEA conjugate. Unconjugated SEA did not induce T-cell lysis of MHC class II- colon carcinoma cells but efficiently directed CTLs against MHC class II+ Raji cells and certain interferon-treated MHC class II+ colon carcinoma cells. These results suggest that SEA-mAb conjugates retain the SEA-related selectivity for certain TCR beta-chain variable region (V beta) sequences but, in contrast to unconjugated SEA, mediate the TCR interaction in a MHC class II-independent manner. The cytotoxic activity mediated by C215-SEA and C242-SEA conjugates was blocked by excess of C215 mAb and C242 mAb, respectively, showing that the specificity in the targeting of mAb-SEA conjugates is defined by the antigen reactivity of the mAb. These results demonstrate that bacterial superantigens may be successfully conjugated to mAb with preserved T cell-activating capacity. The circumvention of MHC class II binding of SEs by conjugation to mAb suggests that such conjugates may find general application as antitumor agents, taking advantage of the extreme T cell-activating potency of

  18. CpG-loaded multifunctional cationic nanohydrogel particles as self-adjuvanting glycopeptide antitumor vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Sebastian; Nuhn, Lutz; Palitzsch, Björn; Glaffig, Markus; Stergiou, Natascha; Gerlitzki, Bastian; Schmitt, Edgar; Kunz, Horst; Zentel, Rudolf

    2015-03-11

    Self-adjuvanting antitumor vaccines by multifunctional cationic nanohydrogels loaded with CpG. A conjugate consisting of tumor-associated MUC1-glycopeptide B-cell epitope and tetanus toxin T-cell epitope P2 is linked to cationic nanogels. Oligonucleotide CpG complexation enhances toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulated T-cell proliferation and rapid immune activation. This co-delivery promotes induction of specific MUC1-antibodies binding to human breast tumor cells without external adjuvant.

  19. Antitumor polysaccharides from mushrooms: a review on the structural characteristics, antitumor mechanisms and immunomodulating activities.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xin; Liang, Hebin; Luo, Lixin

    2016-04-01

    Mushrooms are popular folk medicines that have attracted considerable attention because of their efficient antitumor activities. This review covers existing research achievements on the mechanisms of isolated mushroom polysaccharides, particularly (1→3)-β-D-glucans. Our review also describes the function in modulating the immune system and potential tumor-inhibitory effects of polysaccharides. The antitumor mechanisms of mushroom polysaccharides are mediated by stimulated T cells or other immune cells. These polysaccharides are able to trigger various cellular responses, such as the expression of cytokines and nitric oxide. Most polysaccharides could bind other conjugate molecules, such as polypeptides and proteins, whose conjugation always possess strong antitumor activities. The purpose of this review is to summarize available information, and to reflect the present situation of polysaccharide research filed with a view for future direction. PMID:26974354

  20. Synthesis and antitumor activity of 5-(5-halogenated-2-oxo-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-(3Z)-ylidenemethyl)-2,4-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxamides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minghua; Ye, Cheng; Liu, Mingliang; Wu, Zhaoyang; Li, Linhu; Wang, Chunlan; Liu, Xiujun; Guo, Huiyuan

    2015-07-15

    We report herein the design and synthesis of a series of novel 5-halogenated-7-azaindolin-2-one derivatives containing a 2,4-dimethylpyrrole moiety. Nine target compounds with ⩾70% inhibition against MCF-7 at 30 μM were further evaluated for their in vitro antitumor activity against seven human cancer cell lines by SRB assay. Results reveal that some compounds have potent antitumor activity, and the most active 13c7 (IC50s: 4.49-15.39 μM) was found to be more active than Sunitinib (IC50s: 4.70->30 μM) against all of the tested cancer cell lines.

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of thalidomide and phthalimide esters as antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Magdy A H; Abdin, Yasmin G; Osman, Amany M A; Gamal-Eldeen, Amira M; Talaat, Roba M; Pedersen, Erik B

    2014-09-01

    A series of thalidomide and phthalimide ester analogs were efficiently synthesized from N-chloromethylthalidomide, N-chloromethylphthalimide, and N-(2-bromoethyl)phthalimide derivatives with various biologically important carboxylic acids. The synthesized compounds were purified and characterized by various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The antitumor activity of all the synthesized compounds was screened against human liver and breast cancer cells, which showed that phthalimide ester 6a was the best cytotoxic compound against MCF7 cells, while all of the tested compounds showed a non-cytotoxic effect against HepG2 cells. Compounds 5a, 6a, and 7a possess immunosuppressant effect, while compounds 5c, 5d, 6c, 6d, 7c, and 7d showed an immunostimmulatory effect. Meanwhile, estimation of the binding affinity for all the synthesized compounds toward the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) showed that compounds 5a, 5b, and 7d were the most potent inhibitors.

  2. Antinociceptive and antitumor activity of novel synthetic mononuclear Ruthenium (II) compounds

    PubMed Central

    Sunder A, Shyam; Dhulipala, Satyavati; Thota, Sreekanth; Yerra, Rajeshwar; Balzarini, Jan; De Clercq, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Background: From the thousands of years, metal compounds have been used in medicine for treatment of various diseases including various types of cancers. Ruthenium was seen as a promising metal due to its similar kinetics to platinum and its lower toxicity. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the newer mononuclear ruthenium (II) compounds for antinociceptive and antitumor activities. Materials and Methods: Ruthenium (II) compounds were evaluated for antinociceptive and antitumor activity using the various in vitro and in vivo models. The compounds were injected to mice at concentrations of 1 and 2 mg kg-1 intraperitoneally and were screened for antinociceptive activity, and the antiproliferative effect was evaluated against murine leukemia cells (L1210), human T-lymphocyte cells (CEM) and human cervix carcinoma cells (HeLa) using MTT assay. Results: The results for antitumor activity clearly indicated that compound R1 was potent cytotoxic agent than R2 with IC50 values ranging from 4-6 μM for R1, whereas IC50 values for compound R2 ranging from 65-103 μM. The compounds have shown a significant anti-inflammatory effect in carrageenan and dextran models but do not having the central analgesic activity, this indicating that the antinociceptive activity is related to the peripheral nervous system. The results for 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) activity showed that both R1 and R2 compounds were found to be significant 5-LOX inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 14.35 μg ml-1 and 29.24 μg ml-1 respectively. Conclusion: These findings concluded that the new ruthenium compounds might be the promising antiproliferative agents as these compounds showing significant 5-LOX inhibitory activity and potential agents in the management of pain related disorders. PMID:23930118

  3. Models for anti-tumor activity of bisphosphonates using refined topochemical descriptors.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Rakesh K; Singh, G; Madan, A K

    2011-10-01

    An in silico approach comprising of decision tree (DT), random forest (RF) and moving average analysis (MAA) was successfully employed for development of models for prediction of anti-tumor activity of bisphosphonates. A dataset consisting of 65 analogues of both nitrogen-containing and non-nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates was selected for the present study. Four refinements of eccentric distance sum topochemical index termed as augmented eccentric distance sum topochemical indices 1-4 [formula: see text] have been proposed so as to significantly augment discriminating power. Proposed topological indices (TIs) along with the exiting TIs (>1,400) were subsequently utilized for development of models for prediction of anti-tumor activity of bisphosphonates. A total of 43 descriptors of diverse nature, from a large pool of molecular descriptors, calculated through E-Dragon software (version 1.0) and an in-house computer program were selected for development of suitable models by employing DT, RF and MAA. DT identified two TIs as most important and classified the analogues of the dataset with an accuracy of 97% in training set and 90.7% in tenfold cross-validated set. Random forest correctly classified the analogues with an accuracy of 89.2%. Four independent models developed through MAA predicted the activity of analogues of the dataset with an accuracy of 87.6% to 89%. The statistical significance of proposed models was assessed through intercorrelation analysis, specificity, sensitivity and Matthew's correlation coefficient. The proposed models offer a vast potential for providing lead structures for development of potent anti-tumor agents for treatment of cancer that has spread to the bone.

  4. Models for anti-tumor activity of bisphosphonates using refined topochemical descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Rakesh K.; Singh, G.; Madan, A. K.

    2011-10-01

    An in silico approach comprising of decision tree (DT), random forest (RF) and moving average analysis (MAA) was successfully employed for development of models for prediction of anti-tumor activity of bisphosphonates. A dataset consisting of 65 analogues of both nitrogen-containing and non-nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates was selected for the present study. Four refinements of eccentric distance sum topochemical index termed as augmented eccentric distance sum topochemical indices 1-4 ( {ξ_{{1c}}^{{ADS}},ξ_{{2c}}^{{ADS}},ξ_{{3c}}^{{ADS}},ξ_{{4c}}^{{ADS}}} ) have been proposed so as to significantly augment discriminating power. Proposed topological indices (TIs) along with the exiting TIs (>1,400) were subsequently utilized for development of models for prediction of anti-tumor activity of bisphosphonates. A total of 43 descriptors of diverse nature, from a large pool of molecular descriptors, calculated through E-Dragon software (version 1.0) and an in-house computer program were selected for development of suitable models by employing DT, RF and MAA. DT identified two TIs as most important and classified the analogues of the dataset with an accuracy of 97% in training set and 90.7% in tenfold cross-validated set. Random forest correctly classified the analogues with an accuracy of 89.2%. Four independent models developed through MAA predicted the activity of analogues of the dataset with an accuracy of 87.6% to 89%. The statistical significance of proposed models was assessed through intercorrelation analysis, specificity, sensitivity and Matthew's correlation coefficient. The proposed models offer a vast potential for providing lead structures for development of potent anti-tumor agents for treatment of cancer that has spread to the bone.

  5. Antitumor Immunity Induced after α Irradiation123

    PubMed Central

    Gorin, Jean-Baptiste; Ménager, Jérémie; Gouard, Sébastien; Maurel, Catherine; Guilloux, Yannick; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Morgenstern, Alfred; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Chérel, Michel; Davodeau, François; Gaschet, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a therapeutic modality that allows delivering of ionizing radiation directly to targeted cancer cells. Conventional RIT uses β-emitting radioisotopes, but recently, a growing interest has emerged for the clinical development of α particles. α emitters are ideal for killing isolated or small clusters of tumor cells, thanks to their specific characteristics (high linear energy transfer and short path in the tissue), and their effect is less dependent on dose rate, tissue oxygenation, or cell cycle status than γ and X rays. Several studies have been performed to describe α emitter radiobiology and cell death mechanisms induced after α irradiation. But so far, no investigation has been undertaken to analyze the impact of α particles on the immune system, when several studies have shown that external irradiation, using γ and X rays, can foster an antitumor immune response. Therefore, we decided to evaluate the immunogenicity of murine adenocarcinoma MC-38 after bismuth-213 (213Bi) irradiation using a vaccination approach. In vivo studies performed in immunocompetent C57Bl/6 mice induced a protective antitumor response that is mediated by tumor-specific T cells. The molecular mechanisms potentially involved in the activation of adaptative immunity were also investigated by in vitro studies. We observed that 213Bi-treated MC-38 cells release “danger signals” and activate dendritic cells. Our results demonstrate that α irradiation can stimulate adaptive immunity, elicits an efficient antitumor protection, and therefore is an immunogenic cell death inducer, which provides an attractive complement to its direct cytolytic effect on tumor cells. PMID:24862758

  6. Mouse model of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma validates FIG-ROS as a potent fusion oncogene and therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Saborowski, Anna; Saborowski, Michael; Davare, Monika A; Druker, Brian J; Klimstra, David S; Lowe, Scott W

    2013-11-26

    Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common primary liver cancer and responds poorly to existing therapies. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) likely originates from the biliary tree and develops within the hepatic parenchyma. We have generated a flexible orthotopic allograft mouse model of ICC that incorporates common genetic alterations identified in human ICC and histologically resembles the human disease. We examined the utility of this model to validate driver alterations in ICC and tested their suitability as therapeutic targets. Specifically, we showed that the fused-in-glioblastoma-c-ros-oncogene1 (FIG-ROS1(S); FIG-ROS) fusion gene dramatically accelerates ICC development and that its inactivation in established tumors has a potent antitumor effect. Our studies establish a versatile model of ICC that will be a useful preclinical tool and validate ROS1 fusions as potent oncoproteins and therapeutic targets in ICC and potentially other tumor types.

  7. Saffron and natural carotenoids: Biochemical activities and anti-tumor effects.

    PubMed

    Bolhassani, Azam; Khavari, Afshin; Bathaie, S Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Saffron, a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, is rich in carotenoids. Two main natural carotenoids of saffron, crocin and crocetin, are responsible for its color. Preclinical studies have shown that dietary intake of some carotenoids have potent anti-tumor effects both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting their potential preventive and/or therapeutic roles in several tissues. The reports represent that the use of carotenoids without the potential for conversion to vitamin A may provide further protection and avoid toxicity. The mechanisms underlying cancer chemo-preventive activities of carotenoids include modulation of carcinogen metabolism, regulation of cell growth and cell cycle progression, inhibition of cell proliferation, anti-oxidant activity, immune modulation, enhancement of cell differentiation, stimulation of cell-to-cell gap junction communication, apoptosis and retinoid-dependent signaling. Taken together, different hypotheses for the antitumor actions of saffron and its components have been proposed such as a) the inhibitory effect on cellular DNA and RNA synthesis, but not on protein synthesis; b) the inhibitory effect on free radical chain reactions; c) the metabolic conversion of naturally occurring carotenoids to retinoids; d) the interaction of carotenoids with topoisomerase II, an enzyme involved in cellular DNA-protein interaction. Furthermore, the immunomodulatory activity of saffron was studied on driving toward Th1 and Th2 limbs of the immune system. In this mini-review, we briefly describe biochemical and immunological activities and chemo-preventive properties of saffron and natural carotenoids as an anticancer drug.

  8. Synthesis and antitumor evaluation of arctigenin derivatives based on antiausterity strategy.

    PubMed

    Kudou, Naoki; Taniguchi, Akira; Sugimoto, Kenji; Matsuya, Yuji; Kawasaki, Masashi; Toyooka, Naoki; Miyoshi, Chika; Awale, Suresh; Dibwe, Dya Fita; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2013-02-01

    A series of new (-)-arctigenin derivatives with variably modified O-alkyl groups were synthesized and their preferential cytotoxicity was evaluated against human pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 under nutrient-deprived conditions. The results showed that monoethoxy derivative 4i (PC(50), 0.49 μM), diethoxy derivative 4h (PC(50), 0.66 μM), and triethoxy derivative 4m (PC(50), 0.78 μM) showed the preferential cytotoxicities under nutrient-deprived conditions, which were identical to or more potent than (-)-arctigenin (1) (PC(50), 0.80 μM). Among them, we selected the triethoxy derivative 4m and examined its in vivo antitumor activity using a mouse xenograft model. Triethoxy derivative 4m exhibited also in vivo antitumor activity with the potency identical to or slightly more than (-)-arctigenin (1). These results would suggest that a modification of (-)-arctigenin structure could lead to a new drug based on the antiausterity strategy.

  9. High in Vitro Anti-Tumor Efficacy of Dimeric Rituximab/Saporin-S6 Immunotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Bortolotti, Massimo; Bolognesi, Andrea; Battelli, Maria Giulia; Polito, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    The anti-CD20 mAb Rituximab has revolutionized lymphoma therapy, in spite of a number of unresponsive or relapsing patients. Immunotoxins, consisting of toxins coupled to antibodies, are being investigated for their potential ability to augment Rituximab efficacy. Here, we compare the anti-tumor effect of high- and low-molecular-weight Rituximab/saporin-S6 immunotoxins, named HMW-IT and LMW-IT, respectively. Saporin-S6 is a potent and stable plant enzyme belonging to ribosome-inactivating proteins that causes protein synthesis arrest and consequent cell death. Saporin-S6 was conjugated to Rituximab through an artificial disulfide bond. The inhibitory activity of HMW-IT and LMW-IT was evaluated on cell-free protein synthesis and in two CD20+ lymphoma cell lines, Raji and D430B. Two different conjugates were separated on the basis of their molecular weight and further characterized. Both HMW-IT (dimeric) and LMW-IT (monomeric) maintained a high level of enzymatic activity in a cell-free system. HMW-IT, thanks to a higher toxin payload and more efficient antigen capping, showed stronger in vitro anti-tumor efficacy than LMW-IT against lymphoma cells. Dimeric HMW-IT can be used for lymphoma therapy at least for ex vivo treatments. The possibility of using HMW-IT augments the yield in immunotoxin preparation and allows the targeting of antigens with low internalization rates. PMID:27338475

  10. Synthesis and in vitro antitumor evaluation of dihydroartemisinin-cinnamic acid ester derivatives.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cang-Cang; Deng, Ting; Fan, Meng-Lin; Lv, Wen-Bo; Liu, Ji-Hua; Yu, Bo-Yang

    2016-01-01

    To explore novel high efficiency and low toxicity antitumor agents, a series of dihydroartemisinin-cinnamic acid ester derivatives modified on C-12 and/or C-9 position (s) were synthesized and the in vitro antitumor activities against PC-3, SGC-7901, A549 and MDA-MB-435s cancer cell lines were assessed. The hybrids (3-36) were prepared by esterification of 9α-hydroxyl-dihydroartemisinin (9α-OH DHA), the biotransformation product of dihydroartemisinin (DHA), and cinnamic acid derivatives. Compound 17 (IC50 = 0.20 μM) was the most potent anti-proliferative agent against the human lung carcinoma A549 cells, although it displayed low cytotoxicity on normal hepatic L-02 cells. The mechanism of action of compound 17 was further investigated by analysis of cell apoptosis and intracellular ROS generation. The results indicated that both ROS and ferrous ion contributed to the compound 17-induced cell death. Meanwhile, high intracellular ferrous ion and endogenous oxidative stress in A549 cells made them easier to suffer to compound 17-induced apoptosis. Our promising findings indicated the compound 17 could stand as drug candidate against lung cancer for further investigation.

  11. High in Vitro Anti-Tumor Efficacy of Dimeric Rituximab/Saporin-S6 Immunotoxin.

    PubMed

    Bortolotti, Massimo; Bolognesi, Andrea; Battelli, Maria Giulia; Polito, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    The anti-CD20 mAb Rituximab has revolutionized lymphoma therapy, in spite of a number of unresponsive or relapsing patients. Immunotoxins, consisting of toxins coupled to antibodies, are being investigated for their potential ability to augment Rituximab efficacy. Here, we compare the anti-tumor effect of high- and low-molecular-weight Rituximab/saporin-S6 immunotoxins, named HMW-IT and LMW-IT, respectively. Saporin-S6 is a potent and stable plant enzyme belonging to ribosome-inactivating proteins that causes protein synthesis arrest and consequent cell death. Saporin-S6 was conjugated to Rituximab through an artificial disulfide bond. The inhibitory activity of HMW-IT and LMW-IT was evaluated on cell-free protein synthesis and in two CD20⁺ lymphoma cell lines, Raji and D430B. Two different conjugates were separated on the basis of their molecular weight and further characterized. Both HMW-IT (dimeric) and LMW-IT (monomeric) maintained a high level of enzymatic activity in a cell-free system. HMW-IT, thanks to a higher toxin payload and more efficient antigen capping, showed stronger in vitro anti-tumor efficacy than LMW-IT against lymphoma cells. Dimeric HMW-IT can be used for lymphoma therapy at least for ex vivo treatments. The possibility of using HMW-IT augments the yield in immunotoxin preparation and allows the targeting of antigens with low internalization rates. PMID:27338475

  12. Dll4 Blockade in Stromal Cells Mediates Antitumor Effects in Preclinical Models of Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kuhnert, Frank; Chen, Guoying; Coetzee, Sandra; Thambi, Nithya; Hickey, Carlos; Shan, Jing; Kovalenko, Pavel; Noguera-Troise, Irene; Smith, Eric; Fairhurst, Jeanette; Andreev, Julian; Kirshner, Jessica R; Papadopoulos, Nicholas; Thurston, Gavin

    2015-10-01

    The Notch ligand delta-like 4 (Dll4) has been identified as a promising target in tumor angiogenesis in preclinical studies, and Dll4 inhibitors have recently entered clinical trials for solid tumors, including ovarian cancers. In this study, we report the development of REGN421 (enoticumab), a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that binds human Dll4 with sub-nanomolar affinity and inhibits Notch signaling. Administering REGN421 to immunodeficient mice engineered to express human Dll4 inhibited the growth of several human tumor xenografts in association with the formation of nonfunctional tumor blood vessels. In ovarian tumor xenograft models, Dll4 was expressed specifically by the tumor endothelium, and Dll4 blockade by human-specific or mouse-specific Dll4 antibodies exerted potent antitumor activity, which relied entirely on targeting Dll4 expressed by tumor stromal cells but not by the tumor cells themselves. However, Dll4 blockade reduced Notch signaling in both blood vessels and tumor cells surrounding the blood vessels, suggesting that endothelial-expressed Dll4 might induce Notch signaling in adjacent ovarian tumor cells. The antitumor effects of targeting Dll4 were augmented significantly by simultaneous inhibition of VEGF signaling, whereas this combined blockade reversed normal organ vascular changes induced by Dll4 blockade alone. Overall, our findings deepen the rationale for antibody-based strategies to target Dll4 in ovarian cancers, especially in combination with VEGF blockade.

  13. Saffron and natural carotenoids: Biochemical activities and anti-tumor effects.

    PubMed

    Bolhassani, Azam; Khavari, Afshin; Bathaie, S Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Saffron, a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, is rich in carotenoids. Two main natural carotenoids of saffron, crocin and crocetin, are responsible for its color. Preclinical studies have shown that dietary intake of some carotenoids have potent anti-tumor effects both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting their potential preventive and/or therapeutic roles in several tissues. The reports represent that the use of carotenoids without the potential for conversion to vitamin A may provide further protection and avoid toxicity. The mechanisms underlying cancer chemo-preventive activities of carotenoids include modulation of carcinogen metabolism, regulation of cell growth and cell cycle progression, inhibition of cell proliferation, anti-oxidant activity, immune modulation, enhancement of cell differentiation, stimulation of cell-to-cell gap junction communication, apoptosis and retinoid-dependent signaling. Taken together, different hypotheses for the antitumor actions of saffron and its components have been proposed such as a) the inhibitory effect on cellular DNA and RNA synthesis, but not on protein synthesis; b) the inhibitory effect on free radical chain reactions; c) the metabolic conversion of naturally occurring carotenoids to retinoids; d) the interaction of carotenoids with topoisomerase II, an enzyme involved in cellular DNA-protein interaction. Furthermore, the immunomodulatory activity of saffron was studied on driving toward Th1 and Th2 limbs of the immune system. In this mini-review, we briefly describe biochemical and immunological activities and chemo-preventive properties of saffron and natural carotenoids as an anticancer drug. PMID:24269582

  14. Syntheses, molecular targets and antitumor activities of novel triptycene bisquinones and 1,4-anthracenedione analogs.

    PubMed

    Hua, Duy H; Lou, Kaiyan; Battina, Srinivas K; Zhao, Huiping; Perchellet, Elisabeth M; Wang, Yang; Perchellet, Jean-Pierre H

    2006-07-01

    Novel substituted triptycene bisquinones and 1, 4-anthracenediones were synthesized and screened for their anti-cancer activities. A number of analogs were synthesized utilizing various synthetic transformations and found to elicit interesting antitumor effects. Analogs included water-soluble pro-drugs and ammonium salts. These potent antitumor drugs are DNA topoisomerase inhibitors that induce DNA strand breaks, inhibit DNA, RNA and protein syntheses and reduce tumor cell proliferation in the nanomolar range in vitro. They induce cytochrome c release, caspase-9, -3 and -8 activities, poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP) cleavage, and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation by a mechanism which involves caspase-2 activation but not Fas signaling. Moreover, these drugs remain effective in multidrug-resistant tumor cells and have the advantage of blocking nucleoside transport and inducing a rapid loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Based on their effects in tumor cells and isolated mitochondria, it is hypothesized that these drugs might, directly and indirectly, target components of the permeability transition pore to induce mitochondrial permeability transition and the release of proapoptotic factors. This review provides a summary of synthetic efforts and mechanistic endeavor. PMID:16842233

  15. Anti-tumor activity of benzylideneacetophenone derivatives via proteasomal inhibition in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-hee; Yun, Jaesuk; Jung, Jae-Chul; Oh, Seikwan; Jung, Young-Suk

    2016-05-01

    A number of some chalcone derivatives possess promising biological properties including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant, and anti-tumor activity. Although it has been shown that some derivatives of chalcone induce apoptosis in different kinds of cancer cells, the involved mechanism of action is not well defined. The purpose of this study is to investigate the primary target of a benzylideneacetophenone derivative (JC3), which is a synthetic compound derived from the chalcone family, in human cancer, using prostate cancer cells as a working model. Herein, we show that JC3 inhibits proteasomal activity as indicated by both in vitro and in cell-based assays. Especially, the JC3-dimer was more potent than monomer in the aspect of proteasome inhibition, which induced apoptosis significantly in the prostate cancer cells. Owing to the critical roles of the proteasome in the biology of human tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis, these findings give an important clue for the development of novel anti-tumor agents. PMID:27348972

  16. In vitro anticancer activities of Schiff base and its lanthanum complex.

    PubMed

    Neelima; Poonia, Kavita; Siddiqui, Sahabjada; Arshad, Md; Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-02-15

    Schiff base metal complexes are well-known to intercalate DNA. The La(III) complexes have been synthesized such that they hinder with the role of the topoisomerases, which control the topology of DNA during the cell-division cycle. Although several promising chemotherapeutics have been developed, on the basis of Schiff base metal complex DNA intercalating system they did not proceed past clinical trials due to their dose-limiting toxicity. Herein, we discuss an alternative compound, the La(III) complex, [La(L(1))2Cl3]·7H2O based on a Schiff base ligand 2,3-dihydro-1H-indolo-[2,3-b]-phenazin-4(5H)-ylidene)benzothiazole-2-amine (L(1)), and report in vitro cell studies. Results of antitumor activity using cell viability assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and nuclear condensation in PC-3 (Human, prostate carcinoma) cells show that the metal complex is more potent than ligand. La(III) complexes have been synthesized by reaction of lanthanum(III) salt in 1:2M ratio with ligands L(1) and 3-(ethoxymethylene)-2,3-dihydro-1H-indolo[2,3-b]-phenazin-4(5H)-ylidene)benzathiazole-2-amine (L(2)) in methanol. The ligands and their La(III) complexes were characterized by molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility, elemental analyses, FT-IR, UV-Vis, (1)H/(13)C NMR, thermogravimetric, XRD, and SEM analysis.

  17. In vitro anticancer activities of Schiff base and its lanthanum complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neelima; Poonia, Kavita; Siddiqui, Sahabjada; Arshad, Md; Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-02-01

    Schiff base metal complexes are well-known to intercalate DNA. The La(III) complexes have been synthesized such that they hinder with the role of the topoisomerases, which control the topology of DNA during the cell-division cycle. Although several promising chemotherapeutics have been developed, on the basis of Schiff base metal complex DNA intercalating system they did not proceed past clinical trials due to their dose-limiting toxicity. Herein, we discuss an alternative compound, the La(III) complex, [La(L1)2Cl3]·7H2O based on a Schiff base ligand 2,3-dihydro-1H-indolo-[2,3-b]-phenazin-4(5H)-ylidene)benzothiazole-2-amine (L1), and report in vitro cell studies. Results of antitumor activity using cell viability assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and nuclear condensation in PC-3 (Human, prostate carcinoma) cells show that the metal complex is more potent than ligand. La(III) complexes have been synthesized by reaction of lanthanum(III) salt in 1:2 M ratio with ligands L1 and 3-(ethoxymethylene)-2,3-dihydro-1H-indolo[2,3-b]-phenazin-4(5H)-ylidene)benzathiazole-2-amine (L2) in methanol. The ligands and their La(III) complexes were characterized by molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility, elemental analyses, FT-IR, UV-Vis, 1H/13C NMR, thermogravimetric, XRD, and SEM analysis.

  18. DNA binding studies of new valine derived chiral complexes of tin(IV) and zirconium(IV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjmand, Farukh; Jamsheera, A.

    2011-01-01

    Valine derived chiral complexes of SnCl 4 ( 1) and ZrCl 4 ( 2) were designed as potent antitumor agents. These complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, 119Sn NMR and ESI mass spectroscopy. In vitro binding studies of complexes 1 and 2 under physiological conditions at room temperature with CT-DNA were carried out employing UV-vis absorption titration, fluorescence studies and viscosity measurements. The extent of binding was quantified by Kb values of complexes 1 and 2 which were found to be 1.97 × 10 4 and 1.17 × 10 3 M -1, respectively, suggesting that complex 1 has significantly greater DNA binding propensity in contrast to the complex 2. The mode of action at the molecular level was ascertained by the interaction of complex 1 with 5'GMP and 5'TMP which revealed that complex 1 binds via electrostatic mode with the oxygen of the negatively charged surface phosphate group of the DNA helix. The supercoiled pBR322 plasmid DNA cleavage activity of complex 1 was ascertained by gel electrophoresis assay.

  19. Enhanced antitumor reactivity of tumor-sensitized T cells by interferon alfa

    SciTech Connect

    Vander Woude, D.L.; Wagner, P.D.; Shu, S.; Chang, A.E. )

    1991-03-01

    Tumor-draining lymph node cells from mice bearing the methylcholanthrene-induced MCA 106 tumors can be sensitized in vitro to acquire antitumor reactivity. We examined the effect of interferon alfa on the function of cells that underwent in vitro sensitization in adoptive immunotherapy. Interferon alfa increased the antitumor reactivity of in vitro sensitized cells in the treatment of MCA 106 pulmonary metastases. This effect was evident in irradiated mice, indicating that a host response to the interferon alfa was not required. Interferon alfa treatment increased class I major histocompatibility complex antigen expression on tumor cells and increased their susceptibility to lysis by in vitro sensitized cells. These results suggest that interferon alfa enhancement of adoptive immunotherapy was mediated by its effect on tumor cells. Interferon alfa may be a useful adjunct to the adoptive immunotherapy of human cancer.

  20. Redesigning nature's poisons to create anti-tumor reagents.

    PubMed

    Vitetta, E S; Fulton, R J; May, R D; Till, M; Uhr, J W

    1987-11-20

    Immunotoxins are conjugates of cell-reactive antibodies and toxins or their subunits. In this report, the chemistry, biology, pharmacokinetics, and anti-tumor effects of first generation immunotoxins; the preparation of improved second generation immunotoxins that display greater anti-tumor efficacy; and the role of genetic engineering in creating third-generation immunotoxins are discussed.

  1. Vicenistatin, a novel 20-membered macrocyclic lactam antitumor antibiotic.

    PubMed

    Shindo, K; Kamishohara, M; Odagawa, A; Matsuoka, M; Kawai, H

    1993-07-01

    A new antitumor antibiotic vicenistatin was isolated from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. HC34. The structure of vicenistatin was elucidated by NMR spectral analysis. Vicenistatin exhibited antitumor activity against human colon carcinoma Co-3 in the xenograft model. PMID:8360102

  2. Redesigning Nature's Poisons to Create Anti-Tumor Reagents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitetta, Ellen S.; Jerrold Fulton, R.; May, Richard D.; Till, Mark; Uhr, Jonathan W.

    1987-11-01

    Immunotoxins are conjugates of cell-reactive antibodies and toxins or their subunits. In this report, the chemistry, biology, pharmacokinetics, and anti-tumor effects of first generation immunotoxins; the preparation of improved second generation immunotoxins that display greater anti-tumor efficacy; and the role of genetic engineering in creating third-generation immunotoxins are discussed.

  3. TLR agonist–Stat3 siRNA conjugates: cell-specific gene silencing and enhanced antitumor immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Kortylewski, Marcin; Swiderski, Piotr; Herrmann, Andreas; Wang, Lin; Kowolik, Claudia; Kujawski, Maciej; Lee, Heehyoung; Scuto, Anna; Liu, Yong; Yang, Chunmei; Deng, Jiehui; Soifer, Harris S.; Raubitschek, Andrew; Forman, Stephen; Rossi, John J.; Pardoll, Drew M.; Jove, Richard; Yu, Hua

    2010-01-01

    Efficient delivery of siRNA to specific cell populations in vivo remains a formidable challenge to its successful therapeutic application. We describe a novel siRNA-based approach – synthetically linking siRNA to an oligonucleotide TLR9 agonist – that targets and silences genes in TLR9+ myeloid cells and B cells, both of which are key components of the tumor microenvironment. Because Stat3 in tumor-associated immune cells suppresses antitumor immune responses and hinders TLR9-induced immune stimulation, we tested CpG-Stat3siRNA conjugates for anti-tumor effects. When injected locally at the tumor site or systemically through an intravenous route, the CpG-Stat3siRNA conjugates access tumor-associated dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells, inhibit Stat3 expression, leading to activation of tumor-associated immune cells, and ultimately potent anti-tumor immune responses. Our findings demonstrate the potential of TLR agonist-siRNA conjugates for targeted gene silencing coupled with TLR stimulation and immune activation in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:19749770

  4. Discovery of highly potent acid ceramidase inhibitors with in vitro tumor chemosensitizing activity

    PubMed Central

    Realini, Natalia; Solorzano, Carlos; Pagliuca, Chiara; Pizzirani, Daniela; Armirotti, Andrea; Luciani, Rosaria; Costi, Maria Paola; Bandiera, Tiziano; Piomelli, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    The expression of acid ceramidase (AC) – a cysteine amidase that hydrolyses the proapoptotic lipid ceramide – is abnormally high in several human tumors, which is suggestive of a role in chemoresistance. Available AC inhibitors lack, however, the potency and drug-likeness necessary to test this idea. Here we show that the antineoplastic drug carmofur, which is used in the clinic to treat colorectal cancers, is a potent AC inhibitor and that this property is essential to its anti-proliferative effects. Modifications in the chemical scaffold of carmofur yield new AC inhibitors that act synergistically with standard antitumoral drugs to prevent cancer cell proliferation. These findings identify AC as an unexpected target for carmofur, and suggest that this molecule can be used as starting point for the design of novel chemosensitizing agents. PMID:23301156

  5. Interleukin-35 Limits Anti-Tumor Immunity.

    PubMed

    Turnis, Meghan E; Sawant, Deepali V; Szymczak-Workman, Andrea L; Andrews, Lawrence P; Delgoffe, Greg M; Yano, Hiroshi; Beres, Amy J; Vogel, Peter; Workman, Creg J; Vignali, Dario A A

    2016-02-16

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells pose a major barrier to effective anti-tumor immunity. Although Treg cell depletion enhances tumor rejection, the ensuing autoimmune sequelae limits its utility in the clinic and highlights the need for limiting Treg cell activity within the tumor microenvironment. Interleukin-35 (IL-35) is a Treg cell-secreted cytokine that inhibits T cell proliferation and function. Using an IL-35 reporter mouse, we observed substantial enrichment of IL-35(+) Treg cells in tumors. Neutralization with an IL-35-specific antibody or Treg cell-restricted deletion of IL-35 production limited tumor growth in multiple murine models of human cancer. Limiting intratumoral IL-35 enhanced T cell proliferation, effector function, antigen-specific responses, and long-term T cell memory. Treg cell-derived IL-35 promoted the expression of multiple inhibitory receptors (PD1, TIM3, LAG3), thereby facilitating intratumoral T cell exhaustion. These findings reveal previously unappreciated roles for IL-35 in limiting anti-tumor immunity and contributing to T cell dysfunction in the tumor microenvironment.

  6. The antitumor activity of the fungicide ciclopirox.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongyu; Shen, Tao; Luo, Yan; Liu, Lei; Chen, Wenxing; Xu, Baoshan; Han, Xiuzhen; Pang, Jia; Rivera, Chantal A; Huang, Shile

    2010-11-15

    Ciclopirox olamine (CPX) is a synthetic antifungal agent clinically used to treat mycoses of the skin and nails. Here, we show that CPX inhibited tumor growth in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 xenografts. To unveil the underlying mechanism, we further studied the antitumor activity of CPX in cell culture. The results indicate that CPX inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in human rhabdomyosarcoma (Rh30), breast carcinoma (MDA-MB231) and colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells in a concentration-dependent manner. By cell cycle analysis, CPX induced accumulation of cells in G(1)/G(0) phase of the cell cycle. Concurrently, CPX downregulated cellular protein expression of cyclins (A, B1, D1 and E) and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK2 and CDK4) and upregulated expression of the CDK inhibitor p21(Cip1), leading to hypophosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. CPX also downregulated protein expression of Bcl-xL and survivin and enhanced cleavages of Bcl-2. Z-VAD-FMK, a pan-caspase inhibitor, partially prevented CPX-induced cell death, suggesting that CPX-induced apoptosis of cancer cells is mediated at least in part through caspase-dependent mechanism. The results indicate that CPX is a potential antitumor agent. PMID:20225320

  7. The antitumor activity of the fungicide ciclopirox

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hongyu; Shen, Tao; Luo, Yan; Liu, Lei; Chen, Wenxing; Xu, Baoshan; Han, Xiuzhen; Pang, Jia; Rivera, Chantal A.; Huang, Shile

    2010-01-01

    Ciclopirox olamine (CPX) is a synthetic antifungal agent clinically used to treat mycoses of the skin and nails. Here we show that CPX inhibited tumor growth in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 xenografts. To unveil the underlying mechanism, we further studied the antitumor activity of CPX in cell culture. The results indicate that CPX inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in human rhabdomyosarcoma (Rh30), breast carcinoma (MDA-MB231), and colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells in a concentration-dependent manner. By cell cycle analysis, CPX induced accumulation of cells in G1/G0 phase of the cell cycle. Concurrently, CPX downregulated cellular protein expression of cyclins (A, B1, D1 and E) and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK2 and CDK4), and upregulated expression of the CDK inhibitor p21Cip1, leading to hypophosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (Rb). CPX also downregulated protein expression of Bcl-xL and survivin, and enhanced cleavages of Bcl-2. Z-VAD-FMK, a pan-caspase inhibitor, partially prevented CPX-induced cell death, suggesting that CPX-induced apoptosis of cancer cells is mediated at least in part through caspase-dependent mechanism. The results indicate that CPX is a potential antitumor agent. PMID:20225320

  8. Sangivamycin, a nucleoside analogue, is a potent inhibitor of protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Loomis, C R; Bell, R M

    1988-02-01

    Protein kinase C functions prominently in cell regulation via its pleiotropic role in signal transduction processes. Certain oncogene products resemble elements involved in transmembrane signaling, elevate cellular sn-1,2-diacylglycerol second messenger levels, and activate protein kinase C. Sangivamycin was unique among the nucleoside compounds tested in its ability to potently inhibit protein kinase C activity. Inhibition was competitive with respect to ATP for both protein kinase C and the catalytic fragment of protein kinase C prepared by trypsin digestion. Sangivamycin was a noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to histone and lipid cofactors (phosphatidylserine and diacylglycerol). Sangivamycin inhibited native protein kinase C and the catalytic fragment identically, with apparent Ki values of 11 and 15 microM, respectively. Sangivamycin was an effective an inhibitor of protein kinase C as H-7, an isoquinolinsulfonamide. Sangivamycin did not inhibit [3H]phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate binding to protein kinase C. Sangivamycin did not exert its action through the lipid binding/regulatory domain; inhibition was not affected by the presence of lipid or detergent. Unlike H-7, sangivamycin selectively inhibited protein kinase C compared to cAMP-dependent protein kinase. The discovery that protein kinase C is inhibited by sangivamycin and other antitumor agents suggests that protein kinase C may be a target for rational design of antitumor compounds. PMID:3338987

  9. Generation of Potent T-cell Immunotherapy for Cancer Using DAP12-Based, Multichain, Chimeric Immunoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Enxiu; Wang, Liang-Chuan; Tsai, Ching-Yi; Bhoj, Vijay; Gershenson, Zack; Moon, Edmund; Newick, Kheng; Sun, Jing; Lo, Albert; Baradet, Timothy; Feldman, Michael D; Barrett, David; Puré, Ellen; Albelda, Steven; Milone, Michael C

    2015-07-01

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) bearing an antigen-binding domain linked in cis to the cytoplasmic domains of CD3ζ and costimulatory receptors have provided a potent method for engineering T-cell cytotoxicity toward B-cell leukemia and lymphoma. However, resistance to immunotherapy due to loss of T-cell effector function remains a significant barrier, especially in solid malignancies. We describe an alternative chimeric immunoreceptor design in which we have fused a single-chain variable fragment for antigen recognition to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of KIR2DS2, a stimulatory killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR). We show that this simple, KIR-based CAR (KIR-CAR) triggers robust antigen-specific proliferation and effector function in vitro when introduced into human T cells with DAP12, an immunotyrosine-based activation motifs-containing adaptor. T cells modified to express a KIR-CAR and DAP12 exhibit superior antitumor activity compared with standard first- and second-generation CD3ζ-based CARs in a xenograft model of mesothelioma highly resistant to immunotherapy. The enhanced antitumor activity is associated with improved retention of chimeric immunoreceptor expression and improved effector function of isolated tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. These results support the exploration of KIR-CARs for adoptive T-cell immunotherapy, particularly in immunotherapy-resistant solid tumors.

  10. Expression of microRNA-15b and the glycosyltransferase GCNT3 correlates with antitumor efficacy of Rosemary diterpenes in colon and pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    González-Vallinas, Margarita; Molina, Susana; Vicente, Gonzalo; Zarza, Virginia; Martín-Hernández, Roberto; García-Risco, Mónica R; Fornari, Tiziana; Reglero, Guillermo; Ramírez de Molina, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal and pancreatic cancers remain important contributors to cancer mortality burden and, therefore, new therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts and its components have been reported as natural potent antiproliferative agents against cancer cells. However, to potentially apply rosemary as a complementary approach for cancer therapy, additional information regarding the most effective composition, its antitumor effect in vivo and its main molecular mediators is still needed. In this work, five carnosic acid-rich supercritical rosemary extracts with different chemical compositions have been assayed for their antitumor activity both in vivo (in nude mice) and in vitro against colon and pancreatic cancer cells. We found that the antitumor effect of carnosic acid together with carnosol was higher than the sum of their effects separately, which supports the use of the rosemary extract as a whole. In addition, gene and microRNA expression analyses have been performed to ascertain its antitumor mechanism, revealing that up-regulation of the metabolic-related gene GCNT3 and down-regulation of its potential epigenetic modulator miR-15b correlate with the antitumor effect of rosemary. Moreover, plasmatic miR-15b down-regulation was detected after in vivo treatment with rosemary. Our results support the use of carnosic acid-rich rosemary extract as a complementary approach in colon and pancreatic cancer and indicate that GCNT3 expression may be involved in its antitumor mechanism and that miR-15b might be used as a non-invasive biomarker to monitor rosemary anticancer effect.

  11. Quantitative parameters of complexes of tris(1-alkylindol-3-yl)methylium salts with serum albumin: Relevance for the design of drug candidates.

    PubMed

    Durandin, Nikita A; Tsvetkov, Vladimir B; Bykov, Evgeny E; Kaluzhny, Dmitry N; Lavrenov, Sergey N; Tevyashova, Anna N; Preobrazhenskaya, Maria N

    2016-09-01

    Triarylmethane derivatives are extensively investigated as antitumor and antibacterial drug candidates alone and as photoactivatable compounds. In the series of tris(1-alkylindol-3-yl)methylium salts (TIMs) these two activities differed depending on the length of N-alkyl chain, with C4-5 derivatives being the most potent compared to the shorter or longer chain analogs and to the natural compound turbomycin A (no N-substituent). Given that the human serum albumin (HSA) is a major transporter protein with which TIMs can form stable complexes, and that the formation of these complexes might be advantageous for phototoxicity of TIMs we determined the quantitative parameters of TIMs-HSA binding using spectroscopic methods and molecular docking. TIMs bound to HSA (1:1 stoichiometry) altered the protein's secondary structure by changing the α-helix/β-turn ratio. The IIa subdomain (Sudlow site I) is the preferred TIM binding site in HSA as determined in competition experiments with reference drugs ibuprofen and warfarin. The values of binding constants increased with the number of CH2 groups from 0 to 6 and then dropped down for C10 compound, a dependence similar to the one observed for cytocidal potency of TIMs. We tend to attribute this non-linear dependence to an interplay between hydrophobicity and steric hindrance, the two key characteristics of TIMs-HSA complexes calculated in the molecular docking procedure. These structure-activity relationships provide evidence for rational design of TIMs-based antitumor and antimicrobial drugs. PMID:27475780

  12. Intravaginal HPV DNA vaccination with electroporation induces local CD8+ T-cell immune responses and antitumor effects against cervicovaginal tumors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Peng, S; Qiu, J; Miao, J; Yang, B; Jeang, J; Hung, C-F; Wu, T-C

    2015-07-01

    Therapeutic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have the potential to inhibit the progression of an established HPV infection to precancer and cancer lesions by targeting HPV oncoproteins. We have previously developed a therapeutic DNA vaccine encoding calreticulin (CRT) linked to E7, CRT/E7 DNA vaccine, for use in the treatment of HPV-associated lesions. Since the transfection efficiency of DNA vaccines administered in vivo is typically low, we examined the use of electroporation as well as different routes of administration to enhance antigen-specific tumor control. We tested the effects of the CRT/E7 DNA vaccine administered intramuscularly or intravaginally, with or without electroporation, on the generation of CD8+ T-cell immunity and therapeutic antitumor effects in HPV16 E7-expressing cervicovaginal tumor-bearing mice. We found that intravaginal vaccination of CRT/E7 DNA followed by electroporation-induced potent E7-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses in the cervicovaginal tract, compared with intramuscular injection followed by electroporation. Furthermore, tumor-bearing mice vaccinated intravaginally followed by electroporation had an enhanced survival, antitumor effects and local production of IFN-γ+CD8+ T cells compared with those vaccinated intramuscularly with electroporation. Thus, we show that intravaginal CRT/E7 DNA vaccination followed by electroporation generates the most potent therapeutic antitumor effects against an orthotopic E7-expressing tumor model. The current study will have significant clinical implications once a clinically applicable electroporation device for intravaginal use becomes available.

  13. Core assembly mechanism of quinocarcin/SF-1739: bimodular complex nonribosomal peptide synthetases for sequential mannich-type reactions.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, Tomoshige; Koketsu, Kento; Minami, Atsushi; Kaneko, Shunsuke; Yamazaki, Chiaki; Watanabe, Kenji; Oguri, Hiroki; Oikawa, Hideaki

    2013-12-19

    Quinocarcin and SF-1739, potent antitumor antibiotics, share a common tetracyclic tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ)-pyrrolidine core scaffold. Herein, we describe the identification of their biosynthetic gene clusters and biochemical analysis of Qcn18/Cya18 generating the previously unidentified extender unit dehydroarginine, which is a component of the pyrrolidine ring. ATP-inorganic pyrophosphate exchange experiments with five nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) enabled us to identify their substrates. On the basis of these data, we propose that a biosynthetic pathway comprising a three-component NRPS/MbtH family protein complex, Qcn16/17/19, plays a key role in the construction of tetracyclic THIQ-pyrrolidine core scaffold involving sequential Pictet-Spengler and intramolecular Mannich reactions. Furthermore, data derived from gene inactivation experiments led us to propose late-modification steps of quinocarcin.

  14. Modification of sPD1 with CRT induces potent anti-tumor immune responses in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gongze; Li, Zhiying; Tian, Huiqun; Wu, Wei; Liu, Chaoqi

    2015-12-01

    As a key factor for tumor occurrence and development, tumor cells escape immune surveillance and inhibit the body immune killer effect through negative signaling pathways. In this research, we designed and expressed the fusion protein CRT-sPD1 to block PD1/PDL1 negative signal pathway, indirectly bind CRT to the tumor cell surface and to increase the cell immunogenicity activity. Results from western blotting, flow cytometry (FCM) and ELISA showed that the cell lines that stably express CRT, PD1 and CRT-sPD1 protein were obtained and the transfected cellular supernatant contained PD1 and CRT-sPD1 could bind to PDL1 on the surface of EL4 cells. Vitro experiments indicated the secreted mCRT-sPD1 protein could bind to PDL1 and enhance lymphocyte proliferation and CTL activity. We also found that fusion protein CRT-sPD1 could activate and induce the immune system to kill the tumor cells, specifically inhibit the tumor growth and prolong the survival period in mouse tumor model. And all these suggested that CRT-sPD1 could be used as drug development and utilization of cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26653551

  15. Nanogel-based immunologically stealth vaccine targets macrophages in the medulla of lymph node and induces potent antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Muraoka, Daisuke; Harada, Naozumi; Hayashi, Tae; Tahara, Yoshiro; Momose, Fumiyasu; Sawada, Shin-ichi; Mukai, Sada-atsu; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Shiku, Hiroshi

    2014-09-23

    Because existing therapeutic cancer vaccines provide only a limited clinical benefit, a different vaccination strategy is necessary to improve vaccine efficacy. We developed a nanoparticulate cancer vaccine by encapsulating a synthetic long peptide antigen within an immunologically inert nanoparticulate hydrogel (nanogel) of cholesteryl pullulan (CHP). After subcutaneous injection to mice, the nanogel-based vaccine was efficiently transported to the draining lymph node, and was preferentially engulfed by medullary macrophages but was not sensed by other macrophages and dendritic cells (so-called "immunologically stealth mode"). Although the function of medullary macrophages in T cell immunity has been unexplored so far, these macrophages effectively cross-primed the vaccine-specific CD8(+) T cells in the presence of a Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist as an adjuvant. The nanogel-based vaccine significantly inhibited in vivo tumor growth in the prophylactic and therapeutic settings, compared to another vaccine formulation using a conventional delivery system, incomplete Freund's adjuvant. We also revealed that lymph node macrophages were highly responsive to TLR stimulation, which may underlie the potency of the macrophage-oriented, nanogel-based vaccine. These results indicate that targeting medullary macrophages using the immunologically stealth nanoparticulate delivery system is an effective vaccine strategy.

  16. Tuning sensitivity of CAR to EGFR density limits recognition of normal tissue while maintaining potent anti-tumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Hillary G.; Hurton, Lenka V.; Najjar, Amer; Rushworth, David; Ang, Sonny; Olivares, Simon; Mi, Tiejuan; Switzer, Kirsten; Singh, Harjeet; Huls, Helen; Lee, Dean A.; Heimberger, Amy B.; Champlin, Richard E.; Cooper, Laurence J. N.

    2015-01-01

    Many tumors over express tumor-associated antigens relative to normal tissue, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This limits targeting by human T cells modified to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) due to potential for deleterious recognition of normal cells. We sought to generate CAR+ T cells capable of distinguishing malignant from normal cells based on the disparate density of EGFR expression by generating two CARs from monoclonal antibodies which differ in affinity. T cells with low affinity Nimo-CAR selectively targeted cells over-expressing EGFR, but exhibited diminished effector function as the density of EGFR decreased. In contrast, the activation of T cells bearing high affinity Cetux-CAR was not impacted by the density of EGFR. In summary, we describe the generation of CARs able to tune T-cell activity to the level of EGFR expression in which a CAR with reduced affinity enabled T cells to distinguish malignant from non-malignant cells. PMID:26330164

  17. Potent antitumor activity of oncolytic adenovirus expressing Beclin-1 via induction of autophagic cell death in leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Li, Lu; Meng, Haitao; Qian, Qijun

    2013-01-01

    An attractive strategy among adenovirus-based oncolytic systems is to design adenoviral vectors to express pro-apoptotic genes, in which this gene-virotherapy approach significantly enhances tumor cell death by activating apoptotic pathways. However, the existence of cancer cells with apoptotic defects is one of the major obstacles in gene-virotherapy. Here, we investigated whether a strategy that combines the oncolytic effects of an adenoviral vector with simultaneous expression of Beclin-1, an autophagy gene, offers a therapeutic advantage for leukemia. A Beclin-1 cDNA was cloned in an oncolytic adenovirus with chimeric Ad5/11 fiber (SG511-BECN). SG511-BECN treatment induced significant autophagic cell death, and resulted in enhanced cell killing in a variety of leukemic cell lines and primary leukemic blasts. SG511-BECN effects were seen in chronic myeloid leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia with resistance to imatinib or chemotherapy, but exhibited much less cytotoxicity on normal cells. The SG511-BECN-induced autophagic cell death could be partially reversed by RNA interference knockdown of UVRAG, ATG5, and ATG7. We also showed that SG511-BECN strongly inhibited the growth of leukemic progenitors in vitro. In murine leukemia models, SG511-BECN prolonged the survival and decreased the xenograft tumor size by inducing autophagic cell death. Our results suggest that infection of leukemia cells with an oncolytic adenovirus overexpressing Beclin-1 can induce significant autophagic cell death and provide a new strategy for the elimination of leukemic cells via a unique mechanism of action distinct from apoptosis. PMID:23765161

  18. Human Genetic Relevance and Potent Antitumor Activity of Heat Shock Protein 90 Inhibition in Canine Lung Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Clemente-Vicario, Francisco; Alvarez, Carlos E.; Rowell, Jennie L.; Roy, Satavisha; London, Cheryl A.; Kisseberth, William C.; Lorch, Gwendolen

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been an open question how similar human and canine lung cancers are. This has major implications in availability of human treatments for dogs and in establishing translational models to test new therapies in pet dogs. The prognosis for canine advanced lung cancer is poor and new treatments are needed. Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is an ATPase-dependent molecular chaperone ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotic cells. HSP90 is essential for posttranslational conformational maturation and stability of client proteins including protein kinases and transcription factors, many of which are important for the proliferation and survival of cancer cells. We investigated the activity of STA-1474, a HSP90 inhibitor, in two canine lung cancer cell lines, BACA and CLAC. Results Comparative genomic hybridization analysis of both cell lines revealed genetic relevance to human non-small cell lung cancer. STA-1474 inhibited growth and induced apoptosis of both cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The ICs50 after 72 h treatment with STA-1474 were 0.08 and 0.11 μM for BACA and CLAC, respectively. When grown as spheroids, the IC50 of STA-1474 for BACA cells was approximately two-fold higher than when grown as a monolayer (0.348 μM vs. 0.168 μM), whereas CLAC spheroids were relatively drug resistant. Treatment of tumor-stromal fibroblasts with STA-1474 resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in their relative cell viability with a low IC50 of 0.28 μM. Conclusions Here we first established that lung adenocarcinoma in people and dogs are genetically and biochemically similar. STA1474 demonstrated biological activity in both canine lung cancer cell lines and tumor-stromal fibroblasts. As significant decreases in relative cell viability can be achieved with nanomolar concentrations of STA-1474, investigation into the clinical efficacy of this drug in canine lung cancer patients is warranted. PMID:26560147

  19. Antitumor Effects of a Sirtuin Inhibitor, Tenovin-6, against Gastric Cancer Cells via Death Receptor 5 Up-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Sachiko; Endo, Shinji; Saito, Rie; Hirose, Mitsuaki; Ueno, Takunori; Suzuki, Hideo; Yamato, Kenji; Abei, Masato; Hyodo, Ichinosuke

    2014-01-01

    Up-regulated sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an NAD+-dependent class III histone deacetylase, deacetylates p53 and inhibits its transcriptional activity, leading to cell survival. SIRT1 overexpression has been reported to predict poor survival in some malignancies, including gastric cancer. However, the antitumor effect of SIRT1 inhibition remains elusive in gastric cancer. Here, we investigated the antitumor mechanisms of a sirtuin inhibitor, tenovin-6, in seven human gastric cancer cell lines (four cell lines with wild-type TP53, two with mutant-type TP53, and one with null TP53). Interestingly, tenovin-6 induced apoptosis in all cell lines, not only those with wild-type TP53, but also mutant-type and null versions, accompanied by up-regulation of death receptor 5 (DR5). In the KatoIII cell line (TP53-null), DR5 silencing markedly attenuated tenovin-6-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the pivotal mechanism behind its antitumor effects is based on activation of the death receptor signal pathway. Although endoplasmic reticulum stress caused by sirtuin inhibitors was reported to induce DR5 up-regulation in other cancer cell lines, we could not find marked activation of its related molecules, such as ATF6, PERK, and CHOP, in gastric cancer cells treated with tenovin-6. Tenovin-6 in combination with docetaxel or SN-38 exerted a slight to moderate synergistic cytotoxicity against gastric cancer cells. In conclusion, tenovin-6 has potent antitumor activity against human gastric cancer cells via DR5 up-regulation. Our results should be helpful for the future clinical development of sirtuin inhibitors. PMID:25033286

  20. Antitumor effects of a sirtuin inhibitor, tenovin-6, against gastric cancer cells via death receptor 5 up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Sachiko; Endo, Shinji; Saito, Rie; Hirose, Mitsuaki; Ueno, Takunori; Suzuki, Hideo; Yamato, Kenji; Abei, Masato; Hyodo, Ichinosuke

    2014-01-01

    Up-regulated sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an NAD+-dependent class III histone deacetylase, deacetylates p53 and inhibits its transcriptional activity, leading to cell survival. SIRT1 overexpression has been reported to predict poor survival in some malignancies, including gastric cancer. However, the antitumor effect of SIRT1 inhibition remains elusive in gastric cancer. Here, we investigated the antitumor mechanisms of a sirtuin inhibitor, tenovin-6, in seven human gastric cancer cell lines (four cell lines with wild-type TP53, two with mutant-type TP53, and one with null TP53). Interestingly, tenovin-6 induced apoptosis in all cell lines, not only those with wild-type TP53, but also mutant-type and null versions, accompanied by up-regulation of death receptor 5 (DR5). In the KatoIII cell line (TP53-null), DR5 silencing markedly attenuated tenovin-6-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the pivotal mechanism behind its antitumor effects is based on activation of the death receptor signal pathway. Although endoplasmic reticulum stress caused by sirtuin inhibitors was reported to induce DR5 up-regulation in other cancer cell lines, we could not find marked activation of its related molecules, such as ATF6, PERK, and CHOP, in gastric cancer cells treated with tenovin-6. Tenovin-6 in combination with docetaxel or SN-38 exerted a slight to moderate synergistic cytotoxicity against gastric cancer cells. In conclusion, tenovin-6 has potent antitumor activity against human gastric cancer cells via DR5 up-regulation. Our results should be helpful for the future clinical development of sirtuin inhibitors. PMID:25033286

  1. QS-21: a potent vaccine adjuvant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    QS-21 is an potent adjuvant derived from the bark of a Chilean tree, Quillaja saponaria. One of the advantages of this adjuvant is that it promotes a balanced humoral and cell-mediaed immune response and can be widely applicable to a variety of vaccines. This adjuvant has used for some veterinary va...

  2. Antitumor triptycene analogs induce a rapid collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential in HL-60 cells and isolated mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Perchellet, Elisabeth M; Ward, Mary M; Lou, Kaiyan; Zhao, Huiping; Battina, Srinivas K; Wiredu, Bernard; Hua, Duy H; Perchellet, Jean-Pierre H

    2006-01-01

    Since synthetic analogs of triptycene (TT code number), such as bisquinones TT2 and TT13, can trigger cytochrome c release without caspase activation and retain their ability to induce apoptosis in multidrug-resistant (MDR) tumor cells, fluorescent probes of transmembrane potential have been used to determine whether these antitumor compounds might directly target mitochondria in cell and cell-free systems to cause the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential ( downward arrow Deltapsim) that is linked to permeability transition pore (PTP) opening. Using JC-1 dye, the abilities of various TT analogs to induce the downward arrow Deltapsim in wild-type and MDR HL-60 cells are rapid (within 5-20 min), irreversible after drug removal, concentration dependent in the 0.64-25 microM range, and generally related to their antitumor activities in vitro. The downward arrow Deltapsim caused by TT2 and TT13, which are more potent than mitoxantrone, staurosporine and the reference depolarizing agent, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), in HL-60 cells, are not prevented by caspase-2 or -8 inhibitors, suggesting that activation of these apical caspases upstream of mitochondria is not involved in this process. Antitumor TT analogs (0.64-25 microM) also mimic the abilities of the known depolarizing agents, CCCP, alamethicin, gramicidin A and 100 microM CaCl(2), to directly induce within 20 min the downward arrow Deltapsim in isolated mitochondria prepared from mouse liver and loaded with rhodamine 123 dye. The fact that 20 microM Ca(2+), which is insufficient to trigger depolarization on its own, is required to reveal the depolarizing effect of TT2 in isolated mitochondria suggests that antitumor TT analogs might interact with the PTP to alter its conformation and increase its Ca(2+) sensitivity. Indeed, such Ca(2+)-dependent downward arrowDeltapsim of isolated mitochondria treated with 25 microM TT2 or 100 microM Ca(2+) are blocked by ruthenium red. Daunorubicin

  3. Artificial cytokine storm combined with hyperthermia induces significant anti-tumor effect in mice inoculated with lewis lung carcinoma and B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kushida, Shigeki; Ohmae, Hiroshi; Kamma, Hiroshi; Totsuka, Rumiko; Matsumura, Masayuki; Takeuchi, Akira; Saiki, Ikuo; Yanagawa, Toru; Onizawa, Kojiro; Ishii, Tetsuro; Ohn, Tadao

    2006-12-01

    In cancer immunotherapies combined with hyperthermia, one or two cytokines have been tested to augment the anti-tumor effect. However, the therapies have not shown sufficient improvement. The aim of this study is to find a new potent tumor immunotherapy in order to augment antitumor effect of hyperthermia by the cytokine cocktails in vivo. We used a combination therapy of local hyperthermia (LH) and various cytokine cocktails composed of IFNs (IFN-alpha, -beta, and -gamma), Thl cytokines (IL-2, -12, -15, and -18), a Th2 cytokine (IL-4), inflammatory cytokines (IL-lalpha and TNF-alpha), and dendritic cell-inducible cytokines (IL-3 and GM-CSF). These cytokines in a proper combination augmented the anti-tumor effect of LH and prolonged survival time in Lewis lung carcinoma or B16 melanoma significantly. Moreover, the 12-cytokine cocktail suppressed B 16 metastasis to the lung and lymph nodes, and complete regression of the tumors without regrowth occurred in 3 of 5 mice. In the cured three B16 mice, there was hyperplasia of lymphatic organs with many CD3-positive T lymphocytes. The most effective cytokine combination should be able to augment the anti-tumor effect of other therapies besides hyperthermia that induce the necrosis of tumor cells.

  4. Substituted quinazolines, part 3. Synthesis, in vitro antitumor activity and molecular modeling study of certain 2-thieno-4(3H)-quinazolinone analogs.

    PubMed

    Al-Obaid, Abdulrahman M; Abdel-Hamide, Sami G; El-Kashef, Hassan A; Abdel-Aziz, Alaa A-M; El-Azab, Adel S; Al-Khamees, Hamad A; El-Subbagh, Hussein I

    2009-06-01

    The synthesis of some new 2-thieno-4(3H)-quinazolinone derivatives and their biological evaluation as antitumor agents using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) disease oriented antitumor screen protocol are investigated. Compounds 2-(2-thienylcarbonylamino)-5-iodo-N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-benzamide (16), 2-(2-thieno)-6-iodo-3-phenylamino-3,4-dihydro-quina-zolin-4-one (26), and 2-(2-thieno)-4-[4-sulfonamidobenzylamino]-6-iodo-quinazoline (42), with GI(50) values of 12.7, 10.3, 16.9 microM, respectively, proved to be the most active members in this study, as compared to the known drug 5-FU. Conformational analysis of the most active molecules using molecular modeling and QSAR techniques enabled the understanding of the pharmacophoric requirements for 2-thieno-quinzolinone derivatives as antitumor agents. These three quinazolinone analogs (16, 26, 42) could be considered as useful templates for future development to obtain more potent antitumor agents.

  5. Curcumin enhances the antitumor effect of ABT-737 via activation of the ROS-ASK1-JNK pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ruinian; You, Zhijian; Jia, Jun; Lin, Shunhuan; Han, Shuai; Liu, Aixue; Long, Huidong; Wang, Senming

    2016-02-01

    At present, the therapeutic treatment strategies for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unsatisfactory, and novel methods are urgently required to treat this disease. Members of the B cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 family are anti‑apoptotic proteins, which are commonly expressed at high levels in certain HCC tissues and positively correlate with the treatment resistance of patients with HCC. ABT-737, an inhibitor of Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic proteins, has been demonstrated to exhibit potent antitumor effects in several types of tumor, including HCC. However, treatment with ABT-737 alone also activates certain pro-survival signaling pathways, which attenuate the antitumor validity of ABT-737. Curcumin, which is obtained from Curcuma longa, is also an antitumor potentiator in multiple types of cancer. In the present study, the synergistic effect of curcumin and ABT-737 on HCC cells was investigated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. It was found that curcumin markedly enhanced the antitumor effects of ABT-737 on HepG2 cells, which was partially dependent on the induction of apoptosis, according to western blot analysis and flow cytometric apoptosis analysis. In addition, the sustained activation of the ROS-ASK1-c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway may be an important mediator of the synergistic effect of curcumin and ABT-737. Collectively, these results indicated that the combination of curcumin and ABT-737 can efficaciously induce the death of HCC cells, and may offer a potential treatment strategy for patients with HCC. PMID:26707143

  6. Absence of LTB4/BLT1 axis facilitates generation of mouse GM-CSF-induced long-lasting antitumor immunologic memory by enhancing innate and adaptive immune systems.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Yosuke; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Yumiko; Nabeta, Haruka; Narusawa, Megumi; Watanabe, Ayumi; Sakamoto, Chika; Hijikata, Yasuki; Iga-Murahashi, Mutsunori; Takayama, Koichi; Sasaki, Fumiyuki; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Yokomizo, Takehiko; Tani, Kenzaburo

    2012-10-25

    BLT1 is a high-affinity receptor for leukotriene B4 (LTB4) that is a potent lipid chemoattractant for myeloid leukocytes. The role of LTB4/BLT1 axis in tumor immunology, including cytokine-based tumor vaccine, however, remains unknown. We here demonstrated that BLT1-deficient mice rejected subcutaneous tumor challenge of GM-CSF gene-transduced WEHI3B (WGM) leukemia cells (KO/WGM) and elicited robust antitumor responses against second tumor challenge with WEHI3B cells. During GM-CSF-induced tumor regression, the defective LTB4/BLT1 signaling significantly reduced tumor-infiltrating myeloid-derived suppressor cells, increased the maturation status of dendritic cells in tumor tissues, enhanced their CD4(+) T-cell stimulation capacity and migration rate of dendritic cells that had phagocytosed tumor-associated antigens into tumor-draining lymph nodes, suggesting a positive impact on GM-CSF-sensitized innate immunity. Furthermore, KO/WGM mice displayed activated adaptive immunity by attenuating regulatory CD4(+) T subsets and increasing numbers of Th17 and memory CD44(hi)CD4(+) T subsets, both of which elicited superior antitumor effects as evidenced by adoptive cell transfer. In vivo depletion assays also revealed that CD4(+) T cells were the main effectors of the persistent antitumor immunity. Our data collectively underscore a negative role of LTB4/BLT1 signaling in effective generation and maintenance of GM-CSF-induced antitumor memory CD4(+) T cells.

  7. Comparative Antitumor Activity of Different Solvent Fractions from an Auricularia auricula-judae Ethanol Extract in P388D1 and Sarcoma 180 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Reza, Ahsanur; Choi, Myung-Jin; Damte, Dereje; Jo, Woo-Sik; Lee, Seung-Jin; Lee, Joong-Su

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the antitumor activity of different solvent fractions (ethanol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol and water) of the Auricularia auricula-judae 70% ethanol extract on the P388D1 macrophage and sarcoma 180 cells. A dose-dependent antitumor activity of each solvent fraction (from 0.01 mg/ml to 0.3 mg/ml) was shown against both cell types. These cytotoxic effects of all the tested fractions were confirmed on the MTT and SRB assays, without statistical differences each other. IC50 value of dichloromethane fraction was 94.2 μg/ml against sarcoma 180 cells lower than any other solvent fractions. The potent antitumor effect of the dichloromethane (DCM) fraction was also found against solid tumor in BALB/c mice. The splenomegaly and higher splenic index were found in tumor-bearing mice, with the DCM fraction returning to the negative control values. Thus, the results indicated the dichloromethane fraction may have potential ingredients as antitumor candidates. PMID:24278555

  8. Cdk5 disruption attenuates tumor PD-L1 expression and promotes antitumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Dorand, R. Dixon; Nthale, Joseph; Myers, Jay T.; Barkauskas, Deborah S.; Avril, Stefanie; Chirieleison, Steven M.; Pareek, Tej K.; Abbott, Derek W.; Stearns, Duncan S.; Letterio, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Cancers often evade immune surveillance by adopting peripheral tissue–tolerance mechanisms, such as the expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), the inhibition of which results in potent antitumor immunity. Here, we show that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), a serine-threonine kinase that is highly active in postmitotic neurons and in many cancers, allows medulloblastoma (MB) to evade immune elimination. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-induced PD-L1 up-regulation on MB requires Cdk5, and disruption of Cdk5 expression in a mouse model of MB results in potent CD4+ T cell–mediated tumor rejection. Loss of Cdk5 results in persistent expression of the PD-L1 transcriptional repressors, the interferon regulatory factors IRF2 and IRF2BP2, which likely leads to reduced PD-L1 expression on tumors. Our finding highlights a central role for Cdk5 in immune checkpoint regulation by tumor cells. PMID:27463676

  9. Synthesis, antitumor activity, and mechanism of action of 6-acrylic phenethyl ester-2-pyranone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Fang, Sai; Chen, Lei; Yu, Miao; Cheng, Bao; Lin, Yongsheng; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Gu, Qiong; Xu, Jun

    2015-04-28

    Based on the scaffolds of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) as well as bioactive lactone-containing compounds, 6-acrylic phenethyl ester-2-pyranone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated against five tumor cell lines (HeLa, C6, MCF-7, A549, and HSC-2). Most of the new derivatives exhibited moderate to potent cytotoxic activity. Moreover, HeLa cell lines showed higher sensitivity to these compounds. In particular, compound showed potent cytotoxic activity (IC50 = 0.50-3.45 μM) against the five cell lines. Further investigation on the mechanism of action showed that induced apoptosis, arrested the cell cycle at G2/M phases in HeLa cells, and inhibited migration through disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. In addition, ADMET properties were also calculated in silico, and compound showed good ADMET properties with good absorption, low hepatotoxicity, and good solubility, and thus, could easily be bound to carrier proteins, without inhibition of CYP2D6. A structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis indicated that compounds with ortho-substitution on the benzene ring exhibited obviously increased cytotoxic potency. This study indicated that compound is a promising compound as an antitumor agent. PMID:25800703

  10. Cdk5 disruption attenuates tumor PD-L1 expression and promotes antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Dorand, R Dixon; Nthale, Joseph; Myers, Jay T; Barkauskas, Deborah S; Avril, Stefanie; Chirieleison, Steven M; Pareek, Tej K; Abbott, Derek W; Stearns, Duncan S; Letterio, John J; Huang, Alex Y; Petrosiute, Agne

    2016-07-22

    Cancers often evade immune surveillance by adopting peripheral tissue- tolerance mechanisms, such as the expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), the inhibition of which results in potent antitumor immunity. Here, we show that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), a serine-threonine kinase that is highly active in postmitotic neurons and in many cancers, allows medulloblastoma (MB) to evade immune elimination. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-induced PD-L1 up-regulation on MB requires Cdk5, and disruption of Cdk5 expression in a mouse model of MB results in potent CD4(+) T cell-mediated tumor rejection. Loss of Cdk5 results in persistent expression of the PD-L1 transcriptional repressors, the interferon regulatory factors IRF2 and IRF2BP2, which likely leads to reduced PD-L1 expression on tumors. Our finding highlights a central role for Cdk5 in immune checkpoint regulation by tumor cells. PMID:27463676

  11. Design, synthesis, and antitumor evaluation of histone deacetylase inhibitors with l-phenylglycine scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingjie; Li, Xiaoguang; Hou, Jinning; Huang, Yongxue; Xu, Wenfang

    2015-01-01

    In our previous research, a novel series of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors with l-phenylglycine scaffold were designed and synthesized, among which amides D3 and D7 and ureido D18 were far superior to the positive control (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid [SAHA]) in HDAC inhibition, but were only comparable to SAHA in antiproliferation on tumor cell lines. Herein, further structural derivation of lead compounds D3, D7, and D18 was carried out to improve their cellular activities. Most of our newly synthesized compounds exhibited more potent HDAC inhibitory activities than the positive control SAHA, and several derivatives were even better than their parent compounds. However, compared with SAHA and our lead compounds, only secondary amine series compounds exhibited improved antiproliferative activities, likely due to their appropriate topological polar surface area values and cell permeabilities. In a human histiocytic lymphoma (U937) xenograft model, the most potent secondary amine 9d exhibited similar in vivo antitumor activity to that of SAHA. PMID:26504374

  12. Synthesis, Antitumor Activity, and Mechanism of Action of 6-Acrylic Phenethyl Ester-2-pyranone Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Sai; Chen, Lei; Yu, Miao; Cheng, Bao; Lin, Yongsheng; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Gu, Qiong; Xu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Based on the scaffolds of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) as well as bioactive lactone-containing compounds, 6-acrylic phenethyl ester-2-pyranone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated against five tumor cell lines (HeLa, C6, MCF-7, A549, and HSC-2). Most of the new derivatives exhibited moderate to potent cytotoxic activity. Moreover, HeLa cell lines showed higher sensitivity to these compounds. Particularly, compound 5o showed potent cytotoxic activity (IC50 = 0.50 – 3.45 μM) against the five cell lines. Further investigation on the mechanism of action showed that 5o induced apoptosis, arrested the cell cycle at G2/M phases in HeLa cells, and inhibited migration through disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. In addition, ADME properties were also calculated in silico, and compound 5o showed good ADMET properties with good absorption, low hepatotoxicity, and good solubility, and thus, could easily be bound to carrier proteins, without inhibition of CYP2D6. A structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis indicated that compounds with ortho-substitution on the benzene ring exhibited obviously increased cytotoxic potency. This study indicated that compound 5o is a promising compound as an antitumor agent. PMID:25800703

  13. Cdk5 disruption attenuates tumor PD-L1 expression and promotes antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Dorand, R Dixon; Nthale, Joseph; Myers, Jay T; Barkauskas, Deborah S; Avril, Stefanie; Chirieleison, Steven M; Pareek, Tej K; Abbott, Derek W; Stearns, Duncan S; Letterio, John J; Huang, Alex Y; Petrosiute, Agne

    2016-07-22

    Cancers often evade immune surveillance by adopting peripheral tissue- tolerance mechanisms, such as the expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), the inhibition of which results in potent antitumor immunity. Here, we show that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), a serine-threonine kinase that is highly active in postmitotic neurons and in many cancers, allows medulloblastoma (MB) to evade immune elimination. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-induced PD-L1 up-regulation on MB requires Cdk5, and disruption of Cdk5 expression in a mouse model of MB results in potent CD4(+) T cell-mediated tumor rejection. Loss of Cdk5 results in persistent expression of the PD-L1 transcriptional repressors, the interferon regulatory factors IRF2 and IRF2BP2, which likely leads to reduced PD-L1 expression on tumors. Our finding highlights a central role for Cdk5 in immune checkpoint regulation by tumor cells.

  14. Oleuropein, a non-toxic olive iridoid, is an anti-tumor agent and cytoskeleton disruptor

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdi, Hamdi K. . E-mail: hkhamdi@gmail.com; Castellon, Raquel

    2005-09-02

    Oleuropein, a non-toxic secoiridoid derived from the olive tree, is a powerful antioxidant and anti-angiogenic agent. Here, we show it to be a potent anti-cancer compound, directly disrupting actin filaments in cells and in a cell-free assay. Oleuropein inhibited the proliferation and migration of advanced-grade tumor cell lines in a dose-responsive manner. In a novel tube-disruption assay, Oleuropein irreversibly rounded cancer cells, preventing their replication, motility, and invasiveness; these effects were reversible in normal cells. When administered orally to mice that developed spontaneous tumors, Oleuropein completely regressed tumors in 9-12 days. When tumors were resected prior to complete regression, they lacked cohesiveness and had a crumbly consistency. No viable cells could be recovered from these tumors. These observations elevate Oleuropein from a non-toxic antioxidant into a potent anti-tumor agent with direct effects against tumor cells. Our data may also explain the cancer-protective effects of the olive-rich Mediterranean diet.

  15. Comparison of the Superagonist Complex, ALT-803, to IL15 as Cancer Immunotherapeutics in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Rhode, Peter R; Egan, Jack O; Xu, Wenxin; Hong, Hao; Webb, Gabriela M; Chen, Xiaoyue; Liu, Bai; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Wen, Jinghai; You, Lijing; Kong, Lin; Edwards, Ana C; Han, Kaiping; Shi, Sixiang; Alter, Sarah; Sacha, Jonah B; Jeng, Emily K; Cai, Weibo; Wong, Hing C

    2016-01-01

    IL15, a potent stimulant of CD8(+) T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, is a promising cancer immunotherapeutic. ALT-803 is a complex of an IL15 superagonist mutant and a dimeric IL15 receptor αSu/Fc fusion protein that was found to exhibit enhanced biologic activity in vivo, with a substantially longer serum half-life than recombinant IL15. A single intravenous dose of ALT-803, but not IL15, eliminated well-established tumors and prolonged survival of mice bearing multiple myeloma. In this study, we extended these findings to demonstrate the superior antitumor activity of ALT-803 over IL15 in mice bearing subcutaneous B16F10 melanoma tumors and CT26 colon carcinoma metastases. Tissue biodistribution studies in mice also showed much greater retention of ALT-803 in the lymphoid organs compared with IL15, consistent with its highly potent immunostimulatory and antitumor activities in vivo. Weekly dosing with 1 mg/kg ALT-803 in C57BL/6 mice was well tolerated, yet capable of increasing peripheral blood lymphocyte, neutrophil, and monocyte counts by >8-fold. ALT-803 dose-dependent stimulation of immune cell infiltration into the lymphoid organs was also observed. Similarly, cynomolgus monkeys treated weekly with ALT-803 showed dose-dependent increases of peripheral blood lymphocyte counts, including NK, CD4(+), and CD8(+) memory T-cell subsets. In vitro studies demonstrated ALT-803-mediated stimulation of mouse and human immune cell proliferation and IFNγ production without inducing a broad-based release of other proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., cytokine storm). Based on these results, a weekly dosing regimen of ALT-803 has been implemented in multiple clinical studies to evaluate the dose required for effective immune cell stimulation in humans. PMID:26511282

  16. Comparison of the Superagonist Complex, ALT-803, to IL15 as Cancer Immunotherapeutics in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Rhode, Peter R; Egan, Jack O; Xu, Wenxin; Hong, Hao; Webb, Gabriela M; Chen, Xiaoyue; Liu, Bai; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Wen, Jinghai; You, Lijing; Kong, Lin; Edwards, Ana C; Han, Kaiping; Shi, Sixiang; Alter, Sarah; Sacha, Jonah B; Jeng, Emily K; Cai, Weibo; Wong, Hing C

    2016-01-01

    IL15, a potent stimulant of CD8(+) T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, is a promising cancer immunotherapeutic. ALT-803 is a complex of an IL15 superagonist mutant and a dimeric IL15 receptor αSu/Fc fusion protein that was found to exhibit enhanced biologic activity in vivo, with a substantially longer serum half-life than recombinant IL15. A single intravenous dose of ALT-803, but not IL15, eliminated well-established tumors and prolonged survival of mice bearing multiple myeloma. In this study, we extended these findings to demonstrate the superior antitumor activity of ALT-803 over IL15 in mice bearing subcutaneous B16F10 melanoma tumors and CT26 colon carcinoma metastases. Tissue biodistribution studies in mice also showed much greater retention of ALT-803 in the lymphoid organs compared with IL15, consistent with its highly potent immunostimulatory and antitumor activities in vivo. Weekly dosing with 1 mg/kg ALT-803 in C57BL/6 mice was well tolerated, yet capable of increasing peripheral blood lymphocyte, neutrophil, and monocyte counts by >8-fold. ALT-803 dose-dependent stimulation of immune cell infiltration into the lymphoid organs was also observed. Similarly, cynomolgus monkeys treated weekly with ALT-803 showed dose-dependent increases of peripheral blood lymphocyte counts, including NK, CD4(+), and CD8(+) memory T-cell subsets. In vitro studies demonstrated ALT-803-mediated stimulation of mouse and human immune cell proliferation and IFNγ production without inducing a broad-based release of other proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., cytokine storm). Based on these results, a weekly dosing regimen of ALT-803 has been implemented in multiple clinical studies to evaluate the dose required for effective immune cell stimulation in humans.

  17. Potentiation of antitumor drug action by centrophenoxine: specificity.

    PubMed

    Sladek, N E

    1977-05-01

    The cytotoxic action of certain antitumor agents is potentiated by centrophenoxine although centrophenoxine itself is not an antitumor agent. Previous investigations have suggested that centrophenoxine might potentiate the cytotoxicity produced by antitumor drugs that alkylate, and other modalities that damage, DNA, but that it would not potentiate the cytotoxicity produced by antitumor drugs that inflict cellular damage in other ways. To test this hypothesis, the antitumor effects of X-irradiation UV-irradiation, alkylating agents and antitumor drugs that are not ordinarily considered to be alkylating agents were determined in the presence and absence of centrophenoxine. Mouse P388 lymphoma cells growing in static suspension culture were used as the experimental tumor. The cytotoxic action of most alkylating agents was found to be potentiated by centrophenoxine; Included in this group were several difunctional nitrogen mustards, two ethylenimines, a nitrosourea and mitomycin C. Greatest enhancement, 7-fold, was of chlorambucil antitumor activity. Centrophenoxine did not potentiate the lethality of X- or UV-irradiation or the cytotoxicity of several antineoplastic drugs that are not alkylating agents.

  18. Classifications for carcinogenesis of antitumoral drugs.

    PubMed

    Binetti, R; Costamagna, F M; Marcello, I

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this review is to support the medical staff engaged in tumor therapy with the carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, developmental toxicity classification of a large number of chemiotherapic drugs by national and international Agencies; it also gives their rationale and the few cases for which the classification varies among, for example, the European Union and the United States of America. A large list of such drugs, producers, commercial names, CAS numbers and chemical names is reported. This list is subject to changes for the quick development in this field: many drugs are retired and many more are introduced in clinical practice. The list is updated to the summer 2003 and retains many drugs which have more than one use or have limited use. The protection of the medical personnel using antitumor chemiotherapics can need retrospective epidemiological investigations and obsolete drugs are of importance for some of the past exposures.

  19. Antitumor Activity of Bis-Indole Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Andreani, Aldo; Burnelli, Silvia; Granaiola, Massimiliano; Leoni, Alberto; Locatelli, Alessandra; Morigi, Rita; Rambaldi, Mirella; Varoli, Lucilla; Landi, Laura; Prata, Cecilia; Berridge, Michael V.; Grasso, Carole; Fiebig, Heinz-Herbert; Kelter, Gerhard; Burger, Angelika M.; Kunkel, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of compounds formed by two indole systems separated by a heterocycle (pyridine or piperazine). As a primary screening, the new compounds were submitted to the National Cancer Institute for evaluation of antitumor activity in the human cell line screen. The pyridine derivatives were far more active than the piperazine derivatives. For the study of the mechanism of action, the most active compounds were subjected to COMPARE analysis and to further biological tests including proteasome inhibition and inhibition of plasma membrane electron transport. The compound bearing the 5-methoxy-2-indolinone moiety was subjected to the first in vivo experiment (hollow fiber assay) and was active. It was therefore selected for the second in vivo experiment (human tumor xenograft in mice). In conclusion we demonstrated that this approach was successful since some of the compounds described are much more active than the numerous, so far prepared and tested 3-indolylmethylene-2-indolinones. PMID:18598018

  20. Biosynthesis of Antitumoral and Bactericidal Sanguinarine

    PubMed Central

    García, Víctor P.; Valdés, F.; Martín, R.; Luis, J. C.; Afonso, A. M.; Ayala, J. H.

    2006-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and reliable TLC method for the separation and determination of sanguinarine has been established. This intensively studied biologically active alkaloid has a wide range of potentially useful medicinal properties, such as antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, and antitumoral activities. Sanguinarine has also been incorporated into expectorant mixtures and has a strong bactericidal effect upon gram-positive bacteria, particularly Bacillus anthracis and staphylococci. These medicinal properties are due to the interaction of sanguinarine with DNA. A fibre-optic-based fluorescence instrument for in situ scanning was used for quantitative measurements. The sanguinarine was determined over the range 5–40 ng and a detection limit of 1.60 ng. The method was applied to the quantification of sanguinarine in tissue culture extracts of Chelidonium majus L. PMID:16883053

  1. Inhibition of transcription by platinum antitumor compounds

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Ryan C.; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin are three FDA-approved members of the platinum anticancer drug family. These compounds induce apoptosis in tumor cells by binding to nuclear DNA, forming a variety of structural adducts and triggering cellular responses, one of which is the inhibition of transcription. In this report we present (i) a detailed review of the structural investigations of various Pt-DNA adducts and the effects of these lesions on global DNA geometry; (ii) research detailing inhibition of cellular transcription by Pt-DNA adducts; and (iii) a mechanistic analysis of how DNA structural distortions induced by platinum damage may inhibit RNA synthesis in vivo. A thorough understanding of the molecular mechanism of action of platinum antitumor agents will aid in the development of new compounds in the family. PMID:20046924

  2. Immunostimulatory properties and antitumor activities of glucans

    PubMed Central

    VANNUCCI, LUCA; KRIZAN, JIRI; SIMA, PETR; STAKHEEV, DMITRY; CAJA, FABIAN; RAJSIGLOVA, LENKA; HORAK, VRATISLAV; SAIEH, MUSTAFA

    2013-01-01

    New foods and natural biological modulators have recently become of scientific interest in the investigation of the value of traditional medical therapeutics. Glucans have an important part in this renewed interest. These fungal wall components are claimed to be useful for various medical purposes and they are obtained from medicinal mushrooms commonly used in traditional Oriental medicine. The immunotherapeutic properties of fungi extracts have been reported, including the enhancement of anticancer immunity responses. These properties are principally related to the stimulation of cells of the innate immune system. The discovery of specific receptors for glucans on dendritic cells (dectin-1), as well as interactions with other receptors, mainly expressed by innate immune cells (e.g., Toll-like receptors, complement receptor-3), have raised new attention toward these products as suitable therapeutic agents. We briefly review the characteristics of the glucans from mycelial walls as modulators of the immunity and their possible use as antitumor treatments. PMID:23739801

  3. CCL21/IL21-armed oncolytic adenovirus enhances antitumor activity against TERT-positive tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Li, Yi-Fei; Si, Chong-Zhan; Zhu, Yu-Hui; Jin, Yan; Zhu, Tong-Tong; Liu, Ming-Yuan; Liu, Guang-Yao

    2016-07-15

    Multigene-armed oncolytic adenoviruses are capable of efficiently generating a productive antitumor immune response. The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21) binds to CCR7 on naïve T cells and dendritic cells (DCs) to promote their chemoattraction to the tumor and resultant antitumor activity. Interleukin 21 (IL21) promotes survival of naïve T cells while maintaining their CCR7 surface expression, which increases their capacity to transmigrate in response to CCL21 chemoattraction. IL21 is also involved in NK cell differentiation and B cell activation and proliferation. The generation of effective antitumor immune responses is a complex process dependent upon coordinated interactions of various subsets of effector cells. Using the AdEasy system, we aimed to construct an oncolytic adenovirus co-expressing CCL21 and IL21 that could selectively replicate in TERTp-positive tumor cells (Ad-CCL21-IL21 virus). The E1A promoter of these oncolytic adenoviruses was replaced by telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter (TERTp). Ad-CCL21-IL21 was constructed from three plasmids, pGTE-IL21, pShuttle-CMV-CCL21 and AdEasy-1 and was homologously recombined and propagated in the Escherichia coli strain BJ5183 and the packaging cell line HEK-293, respectively. Our results showed that our targeted and armed oncolytic adenoviruses Ad-CCL21-IL21 can induce apoptosis in TERTp-positive tumor cells to give rise to viral propagation, in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, we confirm that these modified oncolytic adenoviruses do not replicate efficiently in normal cells even under high viral loads. Additionally, we investigate the role of Ad-CCL21-IL21 in inducing antitumor activity and tumor specific cytotoxicity of CTLs in vitro. This study suggests that Ad-CCL21-IL21 is a promising targeted tumor-specific oncolytic adenovirus. PMID:27157859

  4. SYNTHESIS, ANTI-HEPATITIS B AND C VIRUS ACTIVITY AND ANTITUMOR SCREENING OF NOVEL THIAZOLO[4,5-D]-PYRIMIDINE DERIVATIVES.

    PubMed

    Becan, Lilianna; Wójcicka, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the synthesis, antivirus and antitumor evaluation of novel thiazolo[4,5-d]pyrim- idine derivatives. The target compounds 3a-h were synthesized by cyclocondensation of 4-amino-N'-(phenyl- methylidene)-3-phenyl-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydrothiazole-5-carbohydrazides 2a-d with aromatic aldehydes. The structures of new compounds were determined by IR, ¹H-NMR and elemental analysis. Thiazolopyrimidines 3a and 3d-h were screened by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases against various viruses. Four compounds 3e-h showed in vitro anti-HCV activity. One (3e) demonstrated significant activity against HBV and was submitted to an anti-HBV in vivo assay but had a low bioavailability. As a result of antitumor study, compound 3h was found to be most potent against leukemia SR. PMID:27008805

  5. [Procedure for determination of individual sensitivity to antitumor drugs].

    PubMed

    Abduvaliev, A A; Gil'dieva, M S; Tatarskiĭ, V P

    2006-05-01

    The present paper proposes to employ the cultured tumor cells of the breast and chick fibroblasts after long-term cultivation (for above 24 days) to determine their individual drug sensitivity and, as a criterion of cell damage, to use the percent of destruction of the cell layer formed in the wells 24 hours after drug insertion. It also presents the comparative results of tests of 2 cellular models that have been used to determine the in vitro sensitivity of the cells of breast cancer and chick fibroblasts to melfalan and its complex compound with copper acetylacetonate - MOK*M. At the same time, the cytotoxic activity of MOK*M and melfalan against tumor cells has been not shown to differ greatly (16.02+/-1.85 and 15.71+/-0.65% cell layer destruction, respectively), but the same activity of MOK*M against the model of intact cells (chick fibroblasts) was much less (15.23+/-1.97%) than that of melfalan (95.39+/-1.11%). The test system proposed by the authors is of certain informative value and it may be used for the determination of the individual sensitivity of tumor cells to antitumor drugs.

  6. Total synthesis of antimicrobial and antitumor cyclic depsipeptides.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhua; Schlecker, Andreas; Ma, Dawei

    2010-08-14

    The total synthesis of natural products "has to be viewed as an art and a science that needs to be advanced for its own sake" (K. C. Nicolaou) and indeed, the achievements within this field of chemistry during the last decades are astonishing. However, besides its inherent beauty, total synthesis also opens the gates widely to a better understanding of biological processes and the development of pharmaceutical interesting substances. Cyclic depsipeptides form one of the compound classes that have attracted tremendous attention from synthetic chemists. They often feature non-proteinogenic amino acids and various types of structural unique building blocks, which make them challenging targets for synthetic efforts. Their total synthesis offers the chance to implement the use of newly developed synthetic tools in a complex environment. Synthetic dead-ends have shown the limitations of today's chemistry as well as triggering the development of new methodologies to circumvent the observed problems. Cyclic depsipeptides also often possess biological properties, especially antimicrobial and antitumor activity, that make them promising candidates for further pharmaceutical investigations and thus have a value at their own. Furthermore, through construction from scratch, ambiguities regarding the structure of several members of that compound class could be successfully clarified and derivatives for structure-activity-relationship (SAR) studies obtained. PMID:20544117

  7. Augmented anti-tumor effect of dendritic cells genetically engineered by interleukin-12 plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Masataka; Jo, Jun-Ichiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to genetically engineer dendritic cells (DC) for biological activation and evaluate their anti-tumor activity in a tumor-bearing mouse model. Mouse DC were incubated on the surface of culture dishes which had been coated with the complexes of a cationized dextran and luciferase plasmid DNA complexes plus a cell adhesion protein, Pronectin, for gene transfection (reverse transfection). When compared with the conventional transfection where DC were transfected in the medium containing the complexes, the level of gene expression by the reverse method was significantly higher and the time period of gene expression was prolonged. Following the reverse transfection of DC by a plasmid DNA of mouse interleukin-12 (mIL-12) complexed with the cationized dextran, the mIL-12 protein was secreted at higher amounts for a longer time period. When injected intratumorally into mice carrying a mass of B16 tumor cells, the DC genetically activated showed significant anti-tumor activity. PMID:20338099

  8. Dmt and opioid peptides: a potent alliance.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Sharon D; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Salvadori, Severo; Okada, Yoshio; Lazarus, Lawrence H

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of the Dmt (2',6'-dimethyl-L-tyrosine)-Tic pharmacophore into the design of opioid ligands produced an extraordinary family of potent delta-opioid receptor antagonists and heralded a new phase in opioid research. First reviewed extensively in 1998, the incorporation of Dmt into a diverse group of opioid molecules stimulated the opioid field leading to the development of unique analogues with remarkable properties. This overview will document the crucial role played by this residue in the proliferation of opioid peptides with high receptor affinity (K(i) equal to or less than 1 nM) and potent bioactivity. The discussion will include the metamorphosis between delta-opioid receptor antagonists to delta-agonists based solely on subtle structural changes at the C-terminal region of the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore as well as their behavior in vivo. Dmt may be considered promiscuous due to the acquisition of potent mu-agonism by dermorphin and endomorphin derivatives as well as by a unique class of opioidmimetics containing two Dmt residues separated by alkyl or pyrazinone linkers. Structural studies on the Dmt-Tic compounds were enhanced tremendously by x-ray diffraction data for three potent and biologically diverse Dmt-Tic opioidmimetics that led to the development of pharmacophores for both delta-opioid receptor agonists and antagonists. Molecular modeling studies of other unique Dmt opioid analogues illuminated structural differences between delta- and mu-receptor ligand interactions. The future of these compounds as therapeutic applications for various medical syndromes including the control of cancer-associated pain is only a matter of time and perseverance.

  9. Antitumoral activity of trisubstituted dihydrobenzo(a)carbazoles. Part III.

    PubMed

    Segall, A; Pizzorno, M T

    2000-10-01

    Two recently synthesized, trisubstituted dihydrobenzo(a)carbazoles were investigated regarding their anti-HIV and antitumoral activity. The compounds showed some activity against melanoma, renal cancer and breast cancer cell lines.

  10. 1,3-Dimethyl Benzimidazolones Are Potent, Selective Inhibitors of the BRPF1 Bromodomain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The BRPF (bromodomain and PHD finger-containing) protein family are important scaffolding proteins for assembly of MYST histone acetyltransferase complexes. Here, we report the discovery, binding mode, and structure–activity relationship (SAR) of the first potent, selective series of inhibitors of the BRPF1 bromodomain. PMID:25408830

  11. Ruthenium Polypyridyl Complex Inhibits Growth and Metastasis of Breast Cancer Cells by Suppressing FAK signaling with Enhancement of TRAIL-induced Apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wenqiang; Zheng, Wenjie; Chen, Tianfeng

    2015-03-01

    Ruthenium-based complexes have emerged as promising antitumor and antimetastatic agents during the past decades. However, the limited understanding of the antimetastatic mechanisms of these agents is a roadblock to their clinical application. Herein, we reported that, RuPOP, a ruthenium polypyridyl complex with potent antitumor activity, was able to effectively inhibit growth and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells and synergistically enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The selective intracellular uptake and cytotoxic effect of RuPOP was found associated with transferring receptor (TfR)-mediated endocytosis. Further investigation on intracellular mechanisms reveled that RuPOP notably suppressed FAK-mediated ERK and Akt activation. Pretreatment of cells with ERK inhibitor (U0126) and PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) significantly potentiated the inhibitory effect of RuPOP on cell growth, migration and invasion. Moreover, the alternation in the expression levels of metastatic regulatory proteins, including uPA, MMP-2/-9, and inhibition of VEGF secretion were also observed after RuPOP treatment. These results demonstrate the inhibitory effect of RuPOP on the growth and metastasis of cancer cells and the enhancement of TRAIL-induced apoptosis though suppression of FAK-mediated signaling. Furthermore, RuPOP exhibits the potential to be developed as a metal-based antimetastatic agent and chemosensitizer of TRAIL for the treatment of human metastatic cancers.

  12. New Potential Antitumor Pyrazole Derivatives: Synthesis and Cytotoxic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Nitulescu, George Mihai; Draghici, Constantin; Olaru, Octavian Tudorel

    2013-01-01

    New pyrazole derivatives were designed and synthesized as potential protein kinase inhibitors in the view to develop specific antitumor therapies. The structures of the compounds were elucidated using spectral and elemental analyses. The antitumor potential was estimated using wheat seeds and the general toxicity was evaluated by alternative methods, using invertebrate animals. One 3-aminopyrazole derivative emerged as a potential candidate for the development of future cytotoxic compounds. PMID:24192822

  13. Potent, Reversible, and Specific Chemical Inhibitors of Eukaryotic Ribosome Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Shigehiro A; Chen, Zhen; Aoi, Yuki; Patgiri, Anupam; Kobayashi, Yuki; Nurse, Paul; Kapoor, Tarun M

    2016-10-01

    All cellular proteins are synthesized by ribosomes, whose biogenesis in eukaryotes is a complex multi-step process completed within minutes. Several chemical inhibitors of ribosome function are available and used as tools or drugs. By contrast, we lack potent validated chemical probes to analyze the dynamics of eukaryotic ribosome assembly. Here, we combine chemical and genetic approaches to discover ribozinoindoles (or Rbins), potent and reversible triazinoindole-based inhibitors of eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis. Analyses of Rbin sensitivity and resistance conferring mutations in fission yeast, along with biochemical assays with recombinant proteins, provide evidence that Rbins' physiological target is Midasin, an essential ∼540-kDa AAA+ (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) protein. Using Rbins to acutely inhibit or activate Midasin function, in parallel experiments with inhibitor-sensitive or inhibitor-resistant cells, we uncover Midasin's role in assembling Nsa1 particles, nucleolar precursors of the 60S subunit. Together, our findings demonstrate that Rbins are powerful probes for eukaryotic ribosome assembly.

  14. Induction of tumor cell apoptosis by taurine Schiff base copper complex is associated the with inhibition of proteasomal activity

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, XIA; BI, CAIFENG; FAN, YUHUA; CUI, QIUZHI; CHEN, DI; XIAO, YAN; DOU, Q. PING

    2013-01-01

    Schiff bases have been intensively investigated due to their antibacterial and antitumor properties. Copper is a cofactor essential for the tumor angiogenesis processes, whereas other transition metals are not. Consistently, high serum or tissue levels of copper were found in many types of human cancer including breast, prostate, colon, lung, and brain, supporting the idea that copper could be used as a novel selective target for cancer therapies. In the current study we hypothesize that a synthetic taurine Schiff base copper complex (Compound 1) could suppress tumor cell growth via the direct inhibition of proteasome activity. Compound 1 potently inhibits the activity of purified 20S and 26S proteasome in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and leukemia Jurkat T cells. Inhibition of tumor cellular proteasomal activity by Compound 1 results in the accumulation of ubiquitinated protein and the proteasome target proteins p27 and Bax, followed by the induction of apoptosis. Our results strongly suggest that taurine Schiff base copper complexes, as potent proteasome inhibitors, have great potential to be developed into novel anticancer drugs. PMID:18949390

  15. Inhibition of rhotekin exhibits antitumor effects in lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, WEIZHEN; LIANG, ZHENYU; LI, JING

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause for cancer-related death, however, the pathogenesis mechanism is poorly understood. Although the rhotekin (RTKN) gene has been reported to encode an effector for the Rho protein that has critical roles in regulating cell growth, the role of RTKN in lung cancer has not been investigated. In clinical lung cancer patient tumor samples, we identified that the RTKN gene expression level was significantly higher in tumor tissues compared to that of the adjacent normal tissues. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of RTKN in lung cancer, we established RTKN stable knock-down A549 and SPC-A-1 lung adenocarcinoma cell lines using lentiviral transfection of RTKN shRNA and evaluated the antitumor effects. The results showed that RTKN knock-down inhibited lung adenocarcinoma cell viability, induced S phase arrest and increased cell apoptosis. In addition, RTKN knock-down inhibited lung cancer cell invasion and adhesion. Further analysis showed that the S phase promoting factors cyclindependent kinase (CDK)1 and CDK2 levels were decreased in RTKN knock-down cells, and that the DNA replication initiation complex proteins Minichromosome maintenance protein complex (MCM)2 and MCM6 were decreased as well in RTKN knock-down cells. These results indicated that the RTKN protein was associated with lung cancer in clinic samples and exerted anticancer activity in lung adenocarcinoma cells through inhibiting cell cycle progression and the DNA replication machinery. These findings suggest that RTKN inhibition may be a novel therapeutic strategy for lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:26935528

  16. Autophagy inhibitor Lys05 has single-agent antitumor activity and reproduces the phenotype of a genetic autophagy deficiency.

    PubMed

    McAfee, Quentin; Zhang, Zhihui; Samanta, Arabinda; Levi, Samuel M; Ma, Xiao-Hong; Piao, Shengfu; Lynch, John P; Uehara, Takeshi; Sepulveda, Antonia R; Davis, Lisa E; Winkler, Jeffrey D; Amaravadi, Ravi K

    2012-05-22

    Autophagy is a lysosome-dependent degradative process that protects cancer cells from multiple stresses. In preclinical models, autophagy inhibition with chloroquine (CQ) derivatives augments the efficacy of many anticancer therapies, but CQ has limited activity as a single agent. Clinical trials are underway combining anticancer agents with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), but concentrations of HCQ required to inhibit autophagy are not consistently achievable in the clinic. We report the synthesis and characterization of bisaminoquinoline autophagy inhibitors that potently inhibit autophagy and impair tumor growth in vivo. The structural motifs that are necessary for improved autophagy inhibition compared with CQ include the presence of two aminoquinoline rings and a triamine linker and C-7 chlorine. The lead compound, Lys01, is a 10-fold more potent autophagy inhibitor than HCQ. Compared with HCQ, Lys05, a water-soluble salt of Lys01, more potently accumulates within and deacidifies the lysosome, resulting in impaired autophagy and tumor growth. At the highest dose administered, some mice develop Paneth cell dysfunction that resembles the intestinal phenotype of mice and humans with genetic defects in the autophagy gene ATG16L1, providing in vivo evidence that Lys05 targets autophagy. Unlike HCQ, significant single-agent antitumor activity is observed without toxicity in mice treated with lower doses of Lys05, establishing the therapeutic potential of this compound in cancer. PMID:22566612

  17. Zinc(II)-Thiosemicarbazone Complexes Are Localized to the Lysosomal Compartment Where They Transmetallate with Copper Ions to Induce Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Stacy, Alexandra E; Palanimuthu, Duraippandi; Bernhardt, Paul V; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Jansson, Patric J; Richardson, Des R

    2016-05-26

    As the di-2-pyridylketone thiosemicarbazone (DpT) and 2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazone (ApT) series show potent antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo, we synthesized their fluorescent zinc(II) complexes to assess their intracellular distribution. The Zn(II) complexes generally showed significantly greater cytotoxicity than the thiosemicarbazones alone in several tumor cell-types. Notably, specific structure-activity relationships demonstrated the importance of the di-2-pyridyl pharmacophore in their activity. Confocal fluorescence imaging and live cell microscopy showed that the Zn(II) complex of our lead compound, di-2-pyridylketone 4-cyclohexyl-4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (DpC), which is scheduled to enter clinical trials, was localized to lysosomes. Under lysosomal conditions, the Zn(II) complexes were shown to transmetallate with copper ions, leading to redox-active copper complexes that induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and cytotoxicity. This is the first study to demonstrate direct lysosomal targeting of our novel Zn(II)-thiosemicarbazone complexes that mediate their activity via transmetalation with copper ions and LMP. PMID:27023111

  18. Structure-Activity Relationship and in Vivo Anti-Tumor Evaluations of Dictyoceratin-A and -C, Hypoxia-Selective Growth Inhibitors from Marine Sponge.

    PubMed

    Sumii, Yuji; Kotoku, Naoyuki; Fukuda, Akinori; Kawachi, Takashi; Arai, Masayoshi; Kobayashi, Motomasa

    2015-12-01

    Oral dictyoceratin-C (1) and A (2), hypoxia-selective growth inhibitors, showed potent in vivo antitumor effects in mice subcutaneously inoculated with sarcoma S180 cells. Structurally modified analogs were synthesized to assess the structure-activity relationship of the natural compounds 1 and 2 isolated from a marine sponge. Biological evaluation of these analogs showed that the exo-olefin and hydroxyl and methyl ester moieties were important for the hypoxia-selective growth inhibitory activities of 1 and 2. Thus far, only substitution of the methyl ester with propargyl amide in 1 was found to be effective for the synthesis of probe molecules for target identification.

  19. Structure-Activity Relationship and in Vivo Anti-Tumor Evaluations of Dictyoceratin-A and -C, Hypoxia-Selective Growth Inhibitors from Marine Sponge.

    PubMed

    Sumii, Yuji; Kotoku, Naoyuki; Fukuda, Akinori; Kawachi, Takashi; Arai, Masayoshi; Kobayashi, Motomasa

    2015-12-01

    Oral dictyoceratin-C (1) and A (2), hypoxia-selective growth inhibitors, showed potent in vivo antitumor effects in mice subcutaneously inoculated with sarcoma S180 cells. Structurally modified analogs were synthesized to assess the structure-activity relationship of the natural compounds 1 and 2 isolated from a marine sponge. Biological evaluation of these analogs showed that the exo-olefin and hydroxyl and methyl ester moieties were important for the hypoxia-selective growth inhibitory activities of 1 and 2. Thus far, only substitution of the methyl ester with propargyl amide in 1 was found to be effective for the synthesis of probe molecules for target identification. PMID:26694423

  20. Topoisomerase I-mediated DNA cleavage as a guide to the development of antitumor agents derived from the marine alkaloid lamellarin D: triester derivatives incorporating amino acid residues.

    PubMed

    Tardy, Christelle; Facompré, Michaël; Laine, William; Baldeyrou, Brigitte; García-Gravalos, Dolores; Francesch, Andrés; Mateo, Cristina; Pastor, Alfredo; Jiménez, José A; Manzanares, Ignacio; Cuevas, Carmen; Bailly, Christian

    2004-04-01

    The marine alkaloid lamellarin D (LAM-D) has been recently characterized as a potent poison of human topoisomerase I endowed with remarkable cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. We report here the first structure-activity relationship study in the LAM-D series. Two groups of triester compounds incorporating various substituents on the three phenolic OH at positions 8, 14 and 20 of 6H-[1]benzopyrano[4',3':4,5]pyrrolo[2,1-a]isoquinolin-6-one pentacyclic planar chromophore typical of the parent alkaloid were tested as topoisomerase I inhibitors. The non-amino compounds in group A showed no activity against topoisomerase I and were essentially non cytotoxic. In sharp contrast, compounds in group B incorporating amino acid residues strongly promoted DNA cleavage by human topoisomerase I. LAM-D derivatives tri-substituted with leucine, valine, proline, phenylalanine or alanine residues, or a related amino side chain, stabilize topoisomerase I-DNA complexes. The DNA cleavage sites detected at T downward arrow G or C downward arrow G dinucleotides with these molecules were identical to that of LAM-D but slightly different from those seen with camptothecin which stimulates topoisomerase I-mediated cleavage at T downward arrow G only. In the DNA relaxation and cleavage assays, the corresponding Boc-protected compounds and the analogues of the non-planar LAM-501 derivative lacking the 5-6 double bond in the quinoline B-ring showed no effect on topoisomerase I and were considerably less cytotoxic than the corresponding cationic compounds in the LAM-D series. The presence of positive charges on the molecules enhances DNA interaction but melting temperature studies indicate that DNA binding is not correlated with topoisomerase I inhibition or cytotoxicity. Cell growth inhibition by the 41 lamellarin derivatives was evaluated with a panel of tumor cells lines. With prostate (DU-145 and LN-CaP), ovarian (IGROV and IGROV-ET resistant to ecteinascidin-743) and colon (LoVo and