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Sample records for complexity tier development

  1. Development of a Tiered Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for Members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Padmini; Lacher, David W.; Pfeiler, Erika A.

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus complex are associated with functional foods and dietary supplements because of purported health benefits they impart to the consumer. Many characteristics of these microorganisms are reported to be strain specific. Therefore, proper strain typing is essential for safety assessment and product labeling, and also for monitoring strain integrity for industrial production purposes. Fifty-two strains of the L. acidophilus complex (L. acidophilus, L. amylovorus, L. crispatus, L. gallinarum, L. gasseri, and L. johnsonii) were genotyped using two established methods and compared to a novel multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme. PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the hsp60 gene with AluI and TaqI successfully clustered 51 of the 52 strains into the six species examined, but it lacked strain-level discrimination. Random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR) targeting the M13 sequence resulted in highly discriminatory profiles but lacked reproducibility. In this study, an MLST scheme was developed using the conserved housekeeping genes fusA, gpmA, gyrA, gyrB, lepA, pyrG, and recA, which identified 40 sequence types that successfully clustered all of the strains into the six species. Analysis of the observed alleles suggests that nucleotide substitutions within five of the seven MLST loci have reached saturation, a finding that emphasizes the highly diverse nature of the L. acidophilus complex and our unconventional application of a typically intraspecies molecular typing tool. Our MLST results indicate that this method could be useful for characterization and strain discrimination of a multispecies complex, with the potential for taxonomic expansion to a broader collection of Lactobacillus species. PMID:24038697

  2. Development of a tiered multilocus sequence typing scheme for members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus complex.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Padmini; Lacher, David W; Pfeiler, Erika A; Elkins, Christopher A

    2013-12-01

    Members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus complex are associated with functional foods and dietary supplements because of purported health benefits they impart to the consumer. Many characteristics of these microorganisms are reported to be strain specific. Therefore, proper strain typing is essential for safety assessment and product labeling, and also for monitoring strain integrity for industrial production purposes. Fifty-two strains of the L. acidophilus complex (L. acidophilus, L. amylovorus, L. crispatus, L. gallinarum, L. gasseri, and L. johnsonii) were genotyped using two established methods and compared to a novel multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme. PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the hsp60 gene with AluI and TaqI successfully clustered 51 of the 52 strains into the six species examined, but it lacked strain-level discrimination. Random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR) targeting the M13 sequence resulted in highly discriminatory profiles but lacked reproducibility. In this study, an MLST scheme was developed using the conserved housekeeping genes fusA, gpmA, gyrA, gyrB, lepA, pyrG, and recA, which identified 40 sequence types that successfully clustered all of the strains into the six species. Analysis of the observed alleles suggests that nucleotide substitutions within five of the seven MLST loci have reached saturation, a finding that emphasizes the highly diverse nature of the L. acidophilus complex and our unconventional application of a typically intraspecies molecular typing tool. Our MLST results indicate that this method could be useful for characterization and strain discrimination of a multispecies complex, with the potential for taxonomic expansion to a broader collection of Lactobacillus species.

  3. Development and Application of a Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Secondary Students' Understanding of Waves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caleon, Imelda; Subramaniam, R.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the development and application of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test (or three-tier test) on the nature and propagation of waves. A question in a three-tier test comprises the "content tier", which measures content knowledge; the "reason tier", which measures explanatory knowledge; and the…

  4. Development and Application of a Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Secondary Students' Understanding of Waves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caleon, Imelda; Subramaniam, R.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the development and application of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test (or three-tier test) on the nature and propagation of waves. A question in a three-tier test comprises the "content tier", which measures content knowledge; the "reason tier", which measures explanatory knowledge; and the…

  5. Development and Evaluation of a Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Undergraduate Primary Teachers' Understanding of Ecological Footprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liampa, Vasiliki; Malandrakis, George N.; Papadopoulou, Penelope; Pnevmatikos, Dimitrios

    2017-08-01

    This study focused on the development and validation of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic instrument about the ecological footprint. Each question in the three-tier test comprised by; (a) the content tier, assessing content knowledge; (b) the reason tier, assessing explanatory knowledge; and (c) the confidence tier that differentiates lack of knowledge from misconception through the use of a certainty response index. Based on the literature, the propositional knowledge statements and the identified misconceptions of 97 student-teachers, a first version of the test was developed and subsequently administered to another group of 219 student-teachers from Primary and Early Childhood Education Departments. Due to the complexity of the ecological footprint concept, and that it is a newly introduced concept, unknown to the public, both groups have been previously exposed to relevant instruction. Experts in the field established face and content validity. The reliability, in terms of Cronbach's alpha, was found adequate (α = 0.839), and the test-retest reliability, as indicated by Pearson r, was also satisfactory (0.554). The mean performance of the students was 56.24% in total score, 59.75% in content tiers and 48.05% in reason tiers. A variety of concepts about the ecological footprint were also observed. The test can help educators to understand the alternative views that students hold about the ecological footprint concept and assist them in developing the concept through appropriately designed teaching methods and materials.

  6. Professional Development to Differentiate Kindergarten Tier 1 Instruction: Can Already Effective Teachers Improve Student Outcomes by Differentiating Tier 1 Instruction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Folsom, Jessica S.; Wanzek, Jeanne; Greulich, Luana; Waesche, Jessica; Schatschneider, Christopher; Connor, Carol M.

    2016-01-01

    Two primary purposes guided this quasi-experimental within-teacher study: (a) to examine changes from baseline through 2 years of professional development (Individualizing Student Instruction) in kindergarten teachers' differentiation of Tier 1 literacy instruction; and (b) to examine changes in reading and vocabulary of 3 cohorts of the teachers'…

  7. Re-visiting protein-centric two-tier classification of existing DNA-protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Precise DNA-protein interactions play most important and vital role in maintaining the normal physiological functioning of the cell, as it controls many high fidelity cellular processes. Detailed study of the nature of these interactions has paved the way for understanding the mechanisms behind the biological processes in which they are involved. Earlier in 2000, a systematic classification of DNA-protein complexes based on the structural analysis of the proteins was proposed at two tiers, namely groups and families. With the advancement in the number and resolution of structures of DNA-protein complexes deposited in the Protein Data Bank, it is important to revisit the existing classification. Results On the basis of the sequence analysis of DNA binding proteins, we have built upon the protein centric, two-tier classification of DNA-protein complexes by adding new members to existing families and making new families and groups. While classifying the new complexes, we also realised the emergence of new groups and families. The new group observed was where β-propeller was seen to interact with DNA. There were 34 SCOP folds which were observed to be present in the complexes of both old and new classifications, whereas 28 folds are present exclusively in the new complexes. Some new families noticed were NarL transcription factor, Z-α DNA binding proteins, Forkhead transcription factor, AP2 protein, Methyl CpG binding protein etc. Conclusions Our results suggest that with the increasing number of availability of DNA-protein complexes in Protein Data Bank, the number of families in the classification increased by approximately three fold. The folds present exclusively in newly classified complexes is suggestive of inclusion of proteins with new function in new classification, the most populated of which are the folds responsible for DNA damage repair. The proposed re-visited classification can be used to perform genome-wide surveys in the genomes of

  8. Re-visiting protein-centric two-tier classification of existing DNA-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Sony; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2012-07-16

    Precise DNA-protein interactions play most important and vital role in maintaining the normal physiological functioning of the cell, as it controls many high fidelity cellular processes. Detailed study of the nature of these interactions has paved the way for understanding the mechanisms behind the biological processes in which they are involved. Earlier in 2000, a systematic classification of DNA-protein complexes based on the structural analysis of the proteins was proposed at two tiers, namely groups and families. With the advancement in the number and resolution of structures of DNA-protein complexes deposited in the Protein Data Bank, it is important to revisit the existing classification. On the basis of the sequence analysis of DNA binding proteins, we have built upon the protein centric, two-tier classification of DNA-protein complexes by adding new members to existing families and making new families and groups. While classifying the new complexes, we also realised the emergence of new groups and families. The new group observed was where β-propeller was seen to interact with DNA. There were 34 SCOP folds which were observed to be present in the complexes of both old and new classifications, whereas 28 folds are present exclusively in the new complexes. Some new families noticed were NarL transcription factor, Z-α DNA binding proteins, Forkhead transcription factor, AP2 protein, Methyl CpG binding protein etc. Our results suggest that with the increasing number of availability of DNA-protein complexes in Protein Data Bank, the number of families in the classification increased by approximately three fold. The folds present exclusively in newly classified complexes is suggestive of inclusion of proteins with new function in new classification, the most populated of which are the folds responsible for DNA damage repair. The proposed re-visited classification can be used to perform genome-wide surveys in the genomes of interest for the presence of DNA

  9. Development of Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment System for Tier II Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, R. C.; Cole, A. S., Stroia, B. J.; Huang, S. C.; Howden, Kenneth C.; Chalk, Steven

    2002-06-01

    Due to their excellent fuel efficiency, reliability, and durability, compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engines have been used extensively to power almost all highway trucks, urban buses, off-road vehicles, marine carriers, and industrial equipment. CIDI engines burn 35 to 50% less fuel than gasoline engines of comparable size, and they emit far less greenhouse gases (Carbon Dioxides), which have been implicated in global warming. Although the emissions of CIDI engines have been reduced significantly over the last decade, there remains concern with the Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) and Particulate Matter (PM) emission levels. In 2000, the US EPA proposed very stringent emissions standards to be introduced in 2007 along with low sulfur (< 15ppm) diesel fuel. The California Air Resource Board (CARB) has also established the principle that future diesel fueled vehicles should meet the same emissions standards as gasoline fueled vehicles and the EPA followed suit with its Tier II emissions regulations. Meeting the Tier II standards requires NOX and PM emissions to be reduced dramatically. Achieving such low emissions while minimizing fuel economy penalty cannot be done through engine development and fuel reformulation alone, and requires application of NOX and PM aftertreatment control devices. A joint effort was made between Cummins Inc. and the Department of Energy to develop the generic aftertreatment subsystem technologies applicable for Light-Duty Vehicle (LDV) and Light-Duty Truck (LDT) engines. This paper provides an update on the progress of this joint development program. Three NOX reduction technologies including plasmaassisted catalytic NOX reduction (PACR), active lean NOX catalyst (LNC), and adsorber catalyst (AC) technology using intermittent rich conditions for NOX reduction were investigated in parallel in an attempt to select the best NOX control approach for light-duty aftertreatment subsystem integration and development. Investigations included

  10. An Application Model of Reality Therapy to Develop Effective Achievement Goals in Tier Three Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunawan; Xiong, Junmei

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an application of reality therapy to developing effective achievement goals for students in tier three of a tiered response to intervention approach. The roles of teachers and school counselors, to improve effective achievement goals, are briefly discussed as a frame for applying reality therapy. The application model…

  11. The Development and Validation of a Three-Tier Diagnostic Test Measuring Pre-Service Elementary Education and Secondary Science Teachers' Understanding of the Water Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Dannah Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this research study was to develop and validate a three-tier diagnostic test to determine pre-service teachers' (PSTs) conceptual knowledge of the water cycle. For a three-tier diagnostic test, the first tier assesses content knowledge; in the second tier, a reason is selected for the content answer; and the third tier allows…

  12. The Development and Validation of a Three-Tier Diagnostic Test Measuring Pre-Service Elementary Education and Secondary Science Teachers' Understanding of the Water Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Dannah Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this research study was to develop and validate a three-tier diagnostic test to determine pre-service teachers' (PSTs) conceptual knowledge of the water cycle. For a three-tier diagnostic test, the first tier assesses content knowledge; in the second tier, a reason is selected for the content answer; and the third tier allows…

  13. Professional development to differentiate kindergarten Tier 1 instruction: Can already effective teachers improve student outcomes by differentiating Tier 1 instruction?

    PubMed

    Otaiba, Stephanie Al; Folsom, Jessica S; Wanzek, Jeannie; Greulich, Luana; Wasche, Jessica; Schatschneider, Christopher; Connor, Carol

    Two primary purposes guided this quasi-experimental within-teacher study: (1) to examine changes from baseline through two years of professional development (Individualizing Student Instruction) in kindergarten teachers' differentiation of Tier 1 literacy instruction; (2) to examine changes in reading and vocabulary of three cohorts of the teachers' students (n = 416). Teachers' instruction was observed and students were assessed on standardized measures of vocabulary and word reading. Results suggested that teachers significantly increased their differentiation and students showed significantly greater word reading outcomes relative to baseline. No change was observed for vocabulary. Results have implications for supporting teacher effectiveness through technology-supported professional development.

  14. Professional development to differentiate kindergarten Tier 1 instruction: Can already effective teachers improve student outcomes by differentiating Tier 1 instruction?

    PubMed Central

    Otaiba, Stephanie Al; Folsom, Jessica S.; Wanzek, Jeannie; Greulich, Luana; Wasche, Jessica; Schatschneider, Christopher; Connor, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Two primary purposes guided this quasi-experimental within-teacher study: (1) to examine changes from baseline through two years of professional development (Individualizing Student Instruction) in kindergarten teachers’ differentiation of Tier 1 literacy instruction; (2) to examine changes in reading and vocabulary of three cohorts of the teachers’ students (n = 416). Teachers’ instruction was observed and students were assessed on standardized measures of vocabulary and word reading. Results suggested that teachers significantly increased their differentiation and students showed significantly greater word reading outcomes relative to baseline. No change was observed for vocabulary. Results have implications for supporting teacher effectiveness through technology-supported professional development. PMID:27346927

  15. The JINR Tier1 Site Simulation for Research and Development Purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenkov, V.; Nechaevskiy, A.; Ososkov, G.; Pryahina, D.; Trofimov, V.; Uzhinskiy, A.; Voytishin, N.

    2016-02-01

    Distributed complex computing systems for data storage and processing are in common use in the majority of modern scientific centers. The design of such systems is usually based on recommendations obtained via a preliminary simulated model used and executed only once. However big experiments last for years and decades, and the development of their computing system is going on, not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. Even with the substantial efforts invested in the design phase to understand the systems configuration, it would be hard enough to develop a system without additional research of its future evolution. The developers and operators face the problem of the system behaviour predicting after the planned modifications. A system for grid and cloud services simulation is developed at LIT (JINR, Dubna). This simulation system is focused on improving the effciency of the grid/cloud structures development by using the work quality indicators of some real system. The development of such kind of software is very important for making a new grid/cloud infrastructure for such big scientific experiments like the JINR Tier1 site for WLCG. The simulation of some processes of the Tier1 site is considered as an example of our application approach.

  16. Development of two tier test to assess conceptual understanding in heat and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winarti; Cari; Suparmi; Sunarno, Widha; Istiyono, Edi

    2017-01-01

    Heat and temperature is a concept that has been learnt from primary school to undergraduate levels. One problem about heat and temperature is that they are presented abstractly, theoretical concept. A student conceptual frameworks develop from their daily experiences. The purpose of this research was to develop a two-tier test of heat and temperature concept and measure conceptual understanding of heat and temperature of the student. This study consist of two method is qualitative and quantitative method. The two-tier test was developed using procedures defined by Borg and Gall. The two-tier test consisted of 20 question and was tested for 137 students for collecting data. The result of the study showed that the two-tier test was effective in determining the students’ conceptual understanding and also it might be used as an alternative for assessment and evaluation of students’ achievement

  17. Development of three-tier heat, temperature and internal energy diagnostic test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurcay, Deniz; Gulbas, Etna

    2015-05-01

    Background:Misconceptions are major obstacles to learning physics, and the concepts of heat and temperature are some of the common misconceptions that are encountered in daily life. Therefore, it is important to develop valid and reliable tools to determine students' misconceptions about basic thermodynamics concepts. Three-tier tests are effective assessment tools to determine misconceptions in physics. Although a limited number of three-tier tests about heat and temperature are discussed in the literature, no reports discuss three-tier tests that simultaneously consider heat, temperature and internal energy. Purpose:The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable three-tier test to determine students' misconceptions about heat, temperature and internal energy. Sample:The sample consists of 462 11th-grade Anatolian high school students. Of the participants, 46.8% were female and 53.2% were male. Design and methods:This research takes the form of a survey study. Initially, a multiple-choice test was developed. To each multiple-choice question was added one open-ended question asking the students to explain their answers. This test was then administered to 259 high school students and the data were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The students' answers for each open-ended question were analyzed and used to create the choices for the second-tier questions of the test. Depending on those results, a three-tier Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Diagnostic Test (HTIEDT) was developed by adding a second-tier and certainty response index to each item. This three-tier test was administered to the sample of 462 high school students. Results:The Cronbach alpha reliability for the test was estimated for correct and misconception scores as .75 and .68, respectively. The results of the study suggested that HTIEDT could be used as a valid and reliable test in determining misconceptions about heat, temperature and internal energy concepts.

  18. Developing a Viable Approach for Effective Tiered Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-17

    release of CBR materials are exacerbated in the urban “canyon” where topographical variations affect the dispersion of the particles , droplets, or gases...other detectors. Transmission through the atmosphere and channels with small and large particles is very good at 1550 nm. The wavelength is...RF Communications for a Tiered Sensor System.” Hardy, D., 2006, “Sustainable Naval Forces (SNF).” Higgins, E., Higgs , R., Parkins, G

  19. Regulatory Compliance in Multi-Tier Supplier Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goossen, Emray R.; Buster, Duke A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, avionics systems have increased in complexity to the point where 1st tier suppliers to an aircraft OEM find it financially beneficial to outsource designs of subsystems to 2nd tier and at times to 3rd tier suppliers. Combined with challenging schedule and budgetary pressures, the environment in which safety-critical systems are being developed introduces new hurdles for regulatory agencies and industry. This new environment of both complex systems and tiered development has raised concerns in the ability of the designers to ensure safety considerations are fully addressed throughout the tier levels. This has also raised questions about the sufficiency of current regulatory guidance to ensure: proper flow down of safety awareness, avionics application understanding at the lower tiers, OEM and 1st tier oversight practices, and capabilities of lower tier suppliers. Therefore, NASA established a research project to address Regulatory Compliance in a Multi-tier Supplier Network. This research was divided into three major study efforts: 1. Describe Modern Multi-tier Avionics Development 2. Identify Current Issues in Achieving Safety and Regulatory Compliance 3. Short-term/Long-term Recommendations Toward Higher Assurance Confidence This report presents our findings of the risks, weaknesses, and our recommendations. It also includes a collection of industry-identified risks, an assessment of guideline weaknesses related to multi-tier development of complex avionics systems, and a postulation of potential modifications to guidelines to close the identified risks and weaknesses.

  20. CarD stabilizes mycobacterial open complexes via a two-tiered kinetic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Rammohan, Jayan; Ruiz Manzano, Ana; Garner, Ashley L; Stallings, Christina L; Galburt, Eric A

    2015-03-31

    CarD is an essential and global transcriptional regulator in mycobacteria. While its biological role is unclear, CarD functions by interacting directly with RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme promoter complexes. Here, using a fluorescent reporter of open complex, we quantitate RPo formation in real time and show that Mycobacterium tuberculosis CarD has a dramatic effect on the energetics of RNAP bound complexes on the M. tuberculosis rrnAP3 ribosomal RNA promoter. The data reveal that Mycobacterium bovis RNAP exhibits an unstable RPo that is stabilized by CarD and suggest that CarD uses a two-tiered, concentration-dependent mechanism by associating with open and closed complexes with different affinities. Specifically, the kinetics of open-complex formation can be explained by a model where, at saturating concentrations of CarD, the rate of bubble collapse is slowed and the rate of opening is accelerated. The kinetics and open-complex stabilities of CarD mutants further clarify the roles played by the key residues W85, K90 and R25 previously shown to affect CarD-dependent gene regulation in vivo. In contrast to M. bovis RNAP, Escherichia coli RNAP efficiently forms RPo on rrnAP3, suggesting an important difference between the polymerases themselves and highlighting how transcriptional machinery can vary across bacterial genera. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Development of a Three-Tier Test to Assess Misconceptions about Simple Electric Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesman, Haki; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The authors aimed to propose a valid and reliable diagnostic instrument by developing a three-tier test on simple electric circuits. Based on findings from the interviews, open-ended questions, and the related literature, the test was developed and administered to 124 high school students. In addition to some qualitative techniques for…

  2. Capacity Development and Multi-Tiered Systems of Support: Guiding Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugai, George; Simonsen, Brandi; Freeman, Jennifer; La Salle, Tamika

    2016-01-01

    Implementation of multi-tiered systems of support is occurring within and across a number of countries with an increased recent focus on the development of local system capacity to maintain high levels of practice implementation fidelity. The purpose of this paper is to describe the importance of local capacity development in the high fidelity and…

  3. Development of a Three-Tier Test to Assess Misconceptions about Simple Electric Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesman, Haki; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The authors aimed to propose a valid and reliable diagnostic instrument by developing a three-tier test on simple electric circuits. Based on findings from the interviews, open-ended questions, and the related literature, the test was developed and administered to 124 high school students. In addition to some qualitative techniques for…

  4. Capacity Development and Multi-Tiered Systems of Support: Guiding Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugai, George; Simonsen, Brandi; Freeman, Jennifer; La Salle, Tamika

    2016-01-01

    Implementation of multi-tiered systems of support is occurring within and across a number of countries with an increased recent focus on the development of local system capacity to maintain high levels of practice implementation fidelity. The purpose of this paper is to describe the importance of local capacity development in the high fidelity and…

  5. Developing energy and momentum conceptual survey (EMCS) with four-tier diagnostic test items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afif, Nur Faadhilah; Nugraha, Muhammad Gina; Samsudin, Achmad

    2017-05-01

    Students' conceptions of work and energy are important to support the learning process in the classroom. For that reason, a diagnostic test instrument is needed to diagnose students' conception of work and energy. As a result, the researcher decided to develop Energy and Momentum Conceptual Survey (EMCS) instrument test into four-tier test diagnostic items. The purpose of this research is organized as the first step of four-tier test-formatted EMCS development as one of diagnostic test instruments on work and Energy. The research method used the 4D model (Defining, Designing, Developing and Disseminating). The instrument developed has been tested to 39 students in one of Senior High Schools. The resulting research showed that four-tier test-formatted EMCS is able to diagnose students' conception level of work and energy concept. It can be concluded that the development of four-tier test-formatted EMCS is one of potential diagnostic test instruments that able to obtain the category of students who understand concepts, misconceptions and do not understand about Work and Energy concept at all.

  6. Development and Evaluation of the Diagnostic Power for a Computer-Based Two-Tier Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jing-Wen

    2016-01-01

    This study adopted a quasi-experimental design with follow-up interview to develop a computer-based two-tier assessment (CBA) regarding the science topic of electric circuits and to evaluate the diagnostic power of the assessment. Three assessment formats (i.e., paper-and-pencil, static computer-based, and dynamic computer-based tests) using…

  7. Development of Three-Tier Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Diagnostic Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurcay, Deniz; Gulbas, Etna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Misconceptions are major obstacles to learning physics, and the concepts of heat and temperature are some of the common misconceptions that are encountered in daily life. Therefore, it is important to develop valid and reliable tools to determine students' misconceptions about basic thermodynamics concepts. Three-tier tests are…

  8. Development and Evaluation of the Diagnostic Power for a Computer-Based Two-Tier Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jing-Wen

    2016-01-01

    This study adopted a quasi-experimental design with follow-up interview to develop a computer-based two-tier assessment (CBA) regarding the science topic of electric circuits and to evaluate the diagnostic power of the assessment. Three assessment formats (i.e., paper-and-pencil, static computer-based, and dynamic computer-based tests) using…

  9. Development of a Tier 3 Curriculum to Teach Early Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski, Ruth A.; Powell-Smith, Kelly A.; Hommel, Annie; McMahon, Rose; Aguayo, Katherine Bravo

    2014-01-01

    Children with the lowest oral language and early literacy skills at entry to kindergarten are the most vulnerable to poor literacy outcomes. This article describes the programmatic development of a Tier 3 early literacy intervention for preschool children who are most in need of intensive support to achieve early literacy outcomes. The…

  10. Development of Three-Tier Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Diagnostic Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurcay, Deniz; Gulbas, Etna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Misconceptions are major obstacles to learning physics, and the concepts of heat and temperature are some of the common misconceptions that are encountered in daily life. Therefore, it is important to develop valid and reliable tools to determine students' misconceptions about basic thermodynamics concepts. Three-tier tests are…

  11. Development and Application of a Four-Tier Test to Assess Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Misconceptions about Geometrical Optics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltakci-Gurel, Derya; Eryilmaz, Ali; McDermott, Lillian Christie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Correct identification of misconceptions is an important first step in order to gain an understanding of student learning. More recently, four-tier multiple choice tests have been found to be effective in assessing misconceptions. Purpose: The purposes of this study are (1) to develop and validate a four-tier misconception test to…

  12. Tiered analytics for purity assessment of macrocyclic peptides in drug discovery: Analytical consideration and method development.

    PubMed

    Qian Cutrone, Jingfang Jenny; Huang, Xiaohua Stella; Kozlowski, Edward S; Bao, Ye; Wang, Yingzi; Poronsky, Christopher S; Drexler, Dieter M; Tymiak, Adrienne A

    2017-05-10

    Synthetic macrocyclic peptides with natural and unnatural amino acids have gained considerable attention from a number of pharmaceutical/biopharmaceutical companies in recent years as a promising approach to drug discovery, particularly for targets involving protein-protein or protein-peptide interactions. Analytical scientists charged with characterizing these leads face multiple challenges including dealing with a class of complex molecules with the potential for multiple isomers and variable charge states and no established standards for acceptable analytical characterization of materials used in drug discovery. In addition, due to the lack of intermediate purification during solid phase peptide synthesis, the final products usually contain a complex profile of impurities. In this paper, practical analytical strategies and methodologies were developed to address these challenges, including a tiered approach to assessing the purity of macrocyclic peptides at different stages of drug discovery. Our results also showed that successful progression and characterization of a new drug discovery modality benefited from active analytical engagement, focusing on fit-for-purpose analyses and leveraging a broad palette of analytical technologies and resources. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Development and Evaluation of the Diagnostic Power for a Computer-Based Two-Tier Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jing-Wen

    2016-06-01

    This study adopted a quasi-experimental design with follow-up interview to develop a computer-based two-tier assessment (CBA) regarding the science topic of electric circuits and to evaluate the diagnostic power of the assessment. Three assessment formats (i.e., paper-and-pencil, static computer-based, and dynamic computer-based tests) using two-tier items were conducted on Grade 4 ( n = 90) and Grade 5 ( n = 86) students, respectively. One-way ANCOVA was conducted to investigate whether the different assessment formats affected these students' posttest scores on both the phenomenon and reason tiers, and confidence rating for an answer was assessed to diagnose the nature of students' responses (i.e., scientific answer, guessing, alternative conceptions, or knowledge deficiency). Follow-up interview was adopted to explore whether and how the various CBA representations influenced both graders' responses. Results showed that the CBA, in particular the dynamic representation format, allowed students who lacked prior knowledge (Grade 4) to easily understand the question stems. The various CBA representations also potentially encouraged students who already had learning experience (Grade 5) to enhance the metacognitive judgment of their responses. Therefore, CBA could reduce students' use of test-taking strategies and provide better diagnostic power for a two-tier instrument than the traditional paper-based version.

  14. Developing Integrated Taxonomies for a Tiered Information Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutra, Jayne E.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of developing taxonomies for an information architecture. In order to assist people in accessing information required to access information and retrieval, including cross repository searching, a system of nested taxonomies is being developed. Another facet of this developmental project is collecting and documenting attributes about people, to allow for several uses: access management, i.e., who are you and what can you see?; targeted content delivery i.e., what content helps you get your work done?; w ork force planning i.e., what skill sets do you have that we can appl y to work?; and IT Services i.e., How can we provision you with the proper IT services?

  15. Developing Integrated Taxonomies for a Tiered Information Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutra, Jayne E.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of developing taxonomies for an information architecture. In order to assist people in accessing information required to access information and retrieval, including cross repository searching, a system of nested taxonomies is being developed. Another facet of this developmental project is collecting and documenting attributes about people, to allow for several uses: access management, i.e., who are you and what can you see?; targeted content delivery i.e., what content helps you get your work done?; w ork force planning i.e., what skill sets do you have that we can appl y to work?; and IT Services i.e., How can we provision you with the proper IT services?

  16. Two Studies of Tier II Literacy Development: Throwing Sixth Graders a Lifeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Anne W.; Duesbery, Luke; Pyle, Nicole B.; Brandon, Regina R.; McIntosh, Angela S.

    2011-01-01

    Two experimental studies at one urban middle school investigated the effects of the combination of Tier I and Tier II evidence-based reading instruction compared to Tier I alone on struggling sixth-grade readers (N = 109). All participants received free or reduced-price lunch, and 95% were considered English learners at some point in their school…

  17. Two Studies of Tier II Literacy Development: Throwing Sixth Graders a Lifeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Anne W.; Duesbery, Luke; Pyle, Nicole B.; Brandon, Regina R.; McIntosh, Angela S.

    2011-01-01

    Two experimental studies at one urban middle school investigated the effects of the combination of Tier I and Tier II evidence-based reading instruction compared to Tier I alone on struggling sixth-grade readers (N = 109). All participants received free or reduced-price lunch, and 95% were considered English learners at some point in their school…

  18. ADVANCED DIESEL ENGINE AND AFTERTREATMENT TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR TIER 2 EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Aneja, R.; Bolton, B; Oladipo, A; Pavlova-MacKinnon, Z; Radwan, A

    2003-08-24

    Advanced diesel engine and aftertreatment technologies have been developed for multiple engine and vehicle platforms. Tier 2 (2007 and beyond) emissions levels have been demonstrated for a light truck vehicle over a FTP-75 test cycle on a vehicle chassis dynamometer. These low emissions levels are obtained while retaining the fuel economy advantage characteristic of diesel engines. The performance and emissions results were achieved by integrating advanced combustion strategies (CLEAN Combustion{copyright}) with prototype aftertreatment systems. CLEAN Combustion{copyright} allows partial control of exhaust species for aftertreatment integration in addition to simultaneous NOx and PM reduction. Analytical tools enabled the engine and aftertreatment sub-systems development and system integration. The experimental technology development methodology utilized a range of facilities to streamline development of the eventual solution including utilization of steady state and transient dynamometer test-beds to simulate chassis dynamometer test cycles.

  19. Developing the Capacity to Implement Tier 2 and Tier 3 Supports: How Do We Support Our Faculty and Staff in Preparing for Sustainability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Wendy Peia; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Germer, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    School-site and district-level leadership teams rely on the existing knowledge base to select, implement, and evaluate evidence-based practices meeting students' multiple needs within the context of multitiered systems of support. The authors focus on the stages of implementation science as applied to Tier 2 and Tier 3 supports; the…

  20. Developing the Capacity to Implement Tier 2 and Tier 3 Supports: How Do We Support Our Faculty and Staff in Preparing for Sustainability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Wendy Peia; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Germer, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    School-site and district-level leadership teams rely on the existing knowledge base to select, implement, and evaluate evidence-based practices meeting students' multiple needs within the context of multitiered systems of support. The authors focus on the stages of implementation science as applied to Tier 2 and Tier 3 supports; the…

  1. Self-Regulated Strategy Development as a Tier 2 Writing Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Evelyn S.; Hancock, Christine; Carter, Deborah R.; Pool, Juli L.

    2013-01-01

    In a response to intervention framework, the implication of limited writing instruction suggests an immediate need for Tier 2 interventions to support struggling writers while at the same time addressing instructional gaps in Tier 1. Many schools struggle with implementing writing intervention, partly because of the limited number of…

  2. Self-Regulated Strategy Development as a Tier 2 Writing Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Evelyn S.; Hancock, Christine; Carter, Deborah R.; Pool, Juli L.

    2013-01-01

    In a response to intervention framework, the implication of limited writing instruction suggests an immediate need for Tier 2 interventions to support struggling writers while at the same time addressing instructional gaps in Tier 1. Many schools struggle with implementing writing intervention, partly because of the limited number of…

  3. Development of Two-Tier Diagnostic Test Pictorial-Based for Identifying High School Students Misconceptions on the Mole Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siswaningsih, W.; Firman, H.; Zackiyah; Khoirunnisa, A.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop the two-tier pictorial-based diagnostic test for identifying student misconceptions on mole concept. The method of this study is used development and validation. The development of the test Obtained through four phases, development of any items, validation, determination key, and application test. Test was developed in the form of pictorial consisting of two tier, the first tier Consist of four possible answers and the second tier Consist of four possible reasons. Based on the results of content validity of 20 items using the CVR (Content Validity Ratio), a number of 18 items declared valid. Based on the results of the reliability test using SPSS, Obtained 17 items with Cronbach’s Alpha value of 0703, the which means that items have accepted. A total of 10 items was conducted to 35 students of senior high school students who have studied the mole concept on one of the high schools in Cimahi. Based on the results of the application test, student misconceptions were identified in each label concept in mole concept with the percentage of misconceptions on the label concept of mole (60.15%), Avogadro’s number (34.28%), relative atomic mass (62, 84%), relative molecule mass (77.08%), molar mass (68.53%), molar volume of gas (57.11%), molarity (71.32%), chemical equation (82.77%), limiting reactants (91.40%), and molecular formula (77.13%).

  4. Development of a Three-Tier Test as a Valid Diagnostic Tool for Identification of Misconceptions Related to Carbohydrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milenkovic, Dusica D.; Hrin, Tamara N.; Segedinac, Mirjana D.; Horvat, Sasa

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the development and application of a three-tier test as a valid and reliable tool in diagnosing students' misconceptions regarding some basic concepts about carbohydrates. The test was administrated to students of the Pharmacy Department at the University of Bijeljina (Serb Republic). The results denoted construct and content…

  5. Development of a Three-Tier Test as a Valid Diagnostic Tool for Identification of Misconceptions Related to Carbohydrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milenkovic, Dusica D.; Hrin, Tamara N.; Segedinac, Mirjana D.; Horvat, Sasa

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the development and application of a three-tier test as a valid and reliable tool in diagnosing students' misconceptions regarding some basic concepts about carbohydrates. The test was administrated to students of the Pharmacy Department at the University of Bijeljina (Serb Republic). The results denoted construct and content…

  6. Towards a 'Good Life' for Farm Animals: Development of a Resource Tier Framework to Achieve Positive Welfare for Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Joanne L; Mullan, Siobhan M; Pritchard, Joy C; McFarlane, Una J C; Main, David C J

    2013-07-05

    The concept of a 'good life' recognises the distinction that an animal's quality of life is beyond that of a 'life worth living', representing a standard of welfare substantially higher than the legal minimum (FAWC, 2009). We propose that the opportunities required for a 'good life' could be used to structure resource tiers that lead to positive welfare and are compatible with higher welfare farm assurance schemes. Published evidence and expert opinion was used to define three tiers of resource provision (Welfare +, Welfare ++ and Welfare +++) above those stipulated in UK legislation and codes of practice, which should lead to positive welfare outcomes. In this paper we describe the principles underpinning the framework and the process of developing the resource tiers for laying hens. In doing so, we summarise expert opinion on resources required to achieve a 'good life' in laying hens and discuss the philosophical and practical challenges of developing the framework. We present the results of a pilot study to establish the validity, reliability and feasibility of the draft laying hen tiers on laying hen production systems. Finally, we propose a generic welfare assessment framework for farm animals and suggest directions for implementation, alongside outcome parameters, that can help define and promote a future 'good life' for farm animals.

  7. Overview of EDSP Tier II Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay histopathology and statistics

    EPA Science Inventory

    These presentations are meant to provide expert pathologists and statisticians with background information on the Tier II LAGDA design. Expert pathologists at this workshop are charged with providing guidance on histopathology considerations unique to the LAGDA. Expert statisti...

  8. Overview of EDSP Tier II Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay histopathology and statistics

    EPA Science Inventory

    These presentations are meant to provide expert pathologists and statisticians with background information on the Tier II LAGDA design. Expert pathologists at this workshop are charged with providing guidance on histopathology considerations unique to the LAGDA. Expert statisti...

  9. Developing a two-tiered instrument with confidence levels for assessing students' conceptions of Direct Current circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabah, Saed Ahmad

    The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a two-tier revised instrument (DIRECT-TTC) for measuring students understanding of Direct Current (DC) circuits and identifying their alternative conceptions. Another main purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between students' understanding of DC circuits and their confidence in their answers. The revised instrument consists of 15 two-tier items with a confidence scale. Both the Rasch analysis and students' interviews were used in validating the instrument and obtaining evidences for the validity of inferences. Through a two-stage quantitative and qualitative validation process using both conventional statistics and Rasch modeling, the results indicate that the instrument is both valid and reliable. The results show a statistically significant association between students' answers to the first- tier questions and explanations, r = .65 (p< .01, N = 214). The second-tier questions provided substantial information about students' conceptions of DC circuits beyond that provided by the first-tier questions. This research shows that the more able students with regard to the construct of understanding DC circuits are more likely to be confident in their answers, r = +.39 (p< .01). Several Rasch calibrations and correlation analyses indicate that the more difficult items are associated with less confidence in the correct answers. On the other hand, the results show no statistically significant relationship between item difficulty and students' confidence specifically in their incorrect answers. The difficult items with high confidence on incorrect answers exhibit the stronger alternative conceptions of DC circuits. The alternative conceptions of voltage and resistance are among the very strong alternative conceptions of DC circuits. Implications for researchers and teachers as well as recommendations for future research are presented.

  10. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Diagnostic Test for High School Students' Understanding of Flowering Plant Growth and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Sheau-Wen

    2004-01-01

    This study involved the development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test measuring students' understanding of flowering plant growth and development. The instrument development procedure had three general steps: defining the content boundaries of the test, collecting information on students' misconceptions, and instrument development.…

  11. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Diagnostic Test for High School Students' Understanding of Flowering Plant Growth and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Sheau-Wen

    2004-01-01

    This study involved the development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test measuring students' understanding of flowering plant growth and development. The instrument development procedure had three general steps: defining the content boundaries of the test, collecting information on students' misconceptions, and instrument development.…

  12. Two-tiered coupling between flowing actin and immobilized N-cadherin/catenin complexes in neuronal growth cones

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Mikael; Leduc, Cécile; Lagardère, Matthieu; Argento, Amélie; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Thoumine, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal growth cones move forward by dynamically connecting actin-based motility to substrate adhesion, but the mechanisms at the individual molecular level remain unclear. We cultured primary neurons on N-cadherin–coated micropatterned substrates, and imaged adhesion and cytoskeletal proteins at the ventral surface of growth cones using single particle tracking combined to photoactivated localization microscopy (sptPALM). We demonstrate transient interactions in the second time scale between flowing actin filaments and immobilized N-cadherin/catenin complexes, translating into a local reduction of the actin retrograde flow. Normal actin flow on micropatterns was rescued by expression of a dominant negative N-cadherin construct competing for the coupling between actin and endogenous N-cadherin. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments confirmed the differential kinetics of actin and N-cadherin, and further revealed a 20% actin population confined at N-cadherin micropatterns, contributing to local actin accumulation. Computer simulations with relevant kinetic parameters modeled N-cadherin and actin turnover well, validating this mechanism. Such a combination of short- and long-lived interactions between the motile actin network and spatially restricted adhesive complexes represents a two-tiered clutch mechanism likely to sustain dynamic environment sensing and provide the force necessary for growth cone migration. PMID:26038554

  13. A win-win solution?: A critical analysis of tiered pricing to improve access to medicines in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tiered pricing - the concept of selling drugs and vaccines in developing countries at prices systematically lower than in industrialized countries - has received widespread support from industry, policymakers, civil society, and academics as a way to improve access to medicines for the poor. We carried out case studies based on a review of international drug price developments for antiretrovirals, artemisinin combination therapies, drug-resistant tuberculosis medicines, liposomal amphotericin B (for visceral leishmaniasis), and pneumococcal vaccines. Discussion We found several critical shortcomings to tiered pricing: it is inferior to competition for achieving the lowest sustainable prices; it often involves arbitrary divisions between markets and/or countries, which can lead to very high prices for middle-income markets; and it leaves a disproportionate amount of decision-making power in the hands of sellers vis-à-vis consumers. In many developing countries, resources are often stretched so tight that affordability can only be approached by selling medicines at or near the cost of production. Policies that "de-link" the financing of R&D from the price of medicines merit further attention, since they can reward innovation while exploiting robust competition in production to generate the lowest sustainable prices. However, in special cases - such as when market volumes are very small or multi-source production capacity is lacking - tiered pricing may offer the only practical option to meet short-term needs for access to a product. In such cases, steps should be taken to ensure affordability and availability in the longer-term. Summary To ensure access to medicines for populations in need, alternate strategies should be explored that harness the power of competition, avoid arbitrary market segmentation, and/or recognize government responsibilities. Competition should generally be the default option for achieving affordability, as it has proven superior

  14. Developing a Tiered Response Model for Social-Emotional Learning through Interdisciplinary Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maras, Melissa A.; Thompson, Aaron M.; Lewis, Christie; Thornburg, Kathy; Hawks, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    A tiered response model for social-emotional learning (SEL) is needed to address the significant mental health needs of young people in this country. In collaboration with other school mental health professionals, school psychologists have a unique expertise that situates them to be systems change agents in this work. This article describes a…

  15. Complex System Assembly Underlies a Two-Tiered Model of Highly Delocalized Electrons.

    PubMed

    Mompeán, Miguel; Nogales, Aurora; Ezquerra, Tiberio A; Laurents, Douglas V

    2016-05-19

    Amyloid fibrils are exceptionally stable oligomeric structures with extensive, highly cooperative H-bonding networks whose physical origin remains elusive. While nonpolar systems benefit from both H-bonds and hydrophobic interactions, we found that highly polar sequences containing glutamine and asparagine amino acid residues form hyperpolarized H-bonds. This feature, observed by density functional theory calculations, encodes the origin of these polar oligomers' high stability. These results are explained in a theoretical model for complex amyloid assembly based on two different types of cooperative effects resulting from highly delocalized electrons, one of which is always present in both polar and hydrophobic systems. Experimental electric conductivity measurements, ThT fluorescence enhancement, and NMR spectroscopy support this proposal and reveal the conditions for disassembly.

  16. Periglacial complexes in Utopia Planitia: rimless, tiered depressions, (clastically) sorted and unsorted polygonised terrain and an ice-rich mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soare, Richard; Conway, Susan; Gallagher, Colman; Dohm, James; Clifford, Stephen M.; Williams, Jean-pierre

    2016-10-01

    We report the spatial and possible genetic-relationship at the mid-latitudes of Utopia Planitia (45-500N 115-1200E), Mars, of: (a) metre to decametre deep, rimless, tiered depressions; terrain that exhibits (b) (clastically) sorted and (c) unsorted (small-sized) polygons; and, (d) a very youthful, ice-rich mantle. We show that these individual landscape features are separated stratigraphically, this being presented to the Mars community for the first time, and suggest that the stratigraphical separation of these features could be the result of boundary conditions and formation processes that have varied much more widely than has been thought hitherto. In cold-climate and non-glacial regions such as the Yamal Peninsula of eastern Russia and the Tuktoyaktuk Coastlands of northern Canada, landscape assemblages comprised of similar features are referenced as "ice complexes" and are indicative of periglacialism on two fronts: first, the presence of "ice-rich" permafrost or permafrost comprised of "excess ice", i.e. "permafrost" whose pore space is exceeded by the "water ice" within that body of sediment; and, second, antecedently or currently active freeze-thaw cycling, minimally, to the full depth of the "ice-complex" depressions. In the Dry Valleys of the Antarctic, where the atmospheric aridity and cold-temperatures approach those of Mars, ice-vapour diffusion and adsorption cycles are cited as the means by which the near-surface, permafrost, i.e. ≤1m deep, has become ice-cemented. However, the metre to decametre depths of the "ice-complex" depressions on Earth and the morphologically-similar ones on Mars lie beyond the vertical reach of the Antarctic diffusion and adsorption cycles, both empirically and theoretically. By deduction, this points to the freeze-thaw cycling of water to depth, fostered either by exogenic or endogenic means, perhaps playing a more important role in the formation of the possible Martian "ice complexes" than might be expected were

  17. The design of a CORBA-based PACS in three-tier architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhuo; Wu, Lingda; Wei, Yingmei; Xie, Hongwei

    2005-04-01

    In the past the most of the traditional PACS adopt two-tier Client/Server architecture based on DICOM network in china. However, with the developments of PACS that becomes more large-scale and distributed, the traditional PACS architecture has a lot of weaknesses. To overcome these shortcomings, this paper presents a CORBA-based PACS in three-tier architecture which consists of the application-tier, the middle-tier and the DICOM data-tier. In application-tier, the upper applications can use the service offered from the middle-tier through the application interface. In middle-tier, the characteristic service of PACS, which are extracted from the traditional PACS, are wrapped in service components plug in the ORB software bus. For the data exchange in CORBA-based implementation, the middleware uses IIOP to call service components through the ORB then to return the results to the application-tier. The CORBA object services are responsible for the object location, creation, implementation and destruction, etc. In DICOM data-tier, DICOM image modalities and DICOM databases provide DICOM data for the middle-tier through DICOM image access service. Furthermore, a design of DICOM image access service, which accesses DICOM data and shields the middle-tier from the complexities of DICOM data structure and DIMSE protocol, is presented in this paper. After referred to the CIAS (Clinical Image Access Service) specification defined by OMG, a simplified IDL interface of DICOM image access service is also described. The CORBA-based PACS architecture is an open architecture allowing for the scalability and the interconnectivity & interoperability.

  18. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Multiple-Choice Diagnostic Test for High School Students' Understanding of Cell Division and Reproduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sesli, Ertugrul; Kara, Yilmaz

    2012-01-01

    This study involved the development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test for measuring students' understanding of cell division and reproduction. The instrument development procedure had three general steps: defining the content boundaries of the test, collecting information on students' misconceptions, and instrument development.…

  19. Preschool Multi-Tier Prevention-Intervention Model for Language and Early Literacy (Pre-3T): Development Summary and Implementation Guide. CYFS Working Paper No. 2014-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Brandy L.; Knoche, Lisa L.; Abbott, Mary I.; Sheridan, Susan M.; Carta, Judith J.; Sjuts, Tara S.

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this development study was to develop and pilot a three-tiered prevention model (universal, targeted, individualized) in early education for children at risk of reading difficulties. The aims of this study were to: (1) Define and develop a Pre-3T model to address the early literacy and language needs of young children in…

  20. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Multiple-Choice Diagnostic Test for High School Students' Understanding of Cell Division and Reproduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sesli, Ertugrul; Kara, Yilmaz

    2012-01-01

    This study involved the development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test for measuring students' understanding of cell division and reproduction. The instrument development procedure had three general steps: defining the content boundaries of the test, collecting information on students' misconceptions, and instrument development.…

  1. The Science behind Curriculum Development and Evaluation: Taking a Design Science Approach in the Production of a Tier 2 Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doabler, Christian T.; Clarke, Ben; Fien, Hank; Baker, Scott K.; Kosty, Derek B.; Cary, Mari Strand

    2015-01-01

    The production of an effective mathematics curriculum begins with a scientific development, evaluation, and revision framework. The purpose of this study was to conduct an initial investigation of a recently developed Tier 2 mathematics curriculum designed to improve the outcomes of first grade students at risk for mathematics difficulties (MD).…

  2. Development and Validation of a Two-Tier Instrument to Examine Understanding of Internal Transport in Plants and the Human Circulatory System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jing-Ru

    2004-01-01

    This study is intended to develop an assessment instrument to investigate students' understandings about internal transport in plants and human circulatory system. A refined process of a two-tier diagnostic test was used to develop the instrument. Finally, three versions of the Internal Transport in Plants and the Human Circulatory System test…

  3. The Science behind Curriculum Development and Evaluation: Taking a Design Science Approach in the Production of a Tier 2 Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doabler, Christian T.; Clarke, Ben; Fien, Hank; Baker, Scott K.; Kosty, Derek B.; Cary, Mari Strand

    2015-01-01

    The production of an effective mathematics curriculum begins with a scientific development, evaluation, and revision framework. The purpose of this study was to conduct an initial investigation of a recently developed Tier 2 mathematics curriculum designed to improve the outcomes of first grade students at risk for mathematics difficulties (MD).…

  4. Development and Validation of a Two-Tier Instrument to Examine Understanding of Internal Transport in Plants and the Human Circulatory System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jing-Ru

    2004-01-01

    This study is intended to develop an assessment instrument to investigate students' understandings about internal transport in plants and human circulatory system. A refined process of a two-tier diagnostic test was used to develop the instrument. Finally, three versions of the Internal Transport in Plants and the Human Circulatory System test…

  5. Tier 1, Teacher-Implemented Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Students with and without Behavioral Challenges: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Karen R.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Driscoll, Steven A.; Graham, Steve; Wilson, Kristen; Sandmel, Karin; Brindle, Mary; Schatschneider, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This study took place in the context of schools collaborating with a local university to implement an evidence-based, 3-tiered model of prevention and supports targeting academic, behavioral, and social goals. We examined whether Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) instruction, delivered by grade 2 and 3 general education teachers to all…

  6. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Multiple Choice Diagnostic Instrument To Assess High School Students' Understanding of Inorganic Chemistry Qualitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai; Treagust, David F.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development and application of a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument to assess high school students' understanding of inorganic chemistry qualitative analysis. Shows that the Grade 10 students had difficulty understanding the reactions involved in the identification of cations and anions, for example, double decomposition…

  7. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Multiple Choice Diagnostic Instrument To Assess High School Students' Understanding of Inorganic Chemistry Qualitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai; Treagust, David F.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development and application of a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument to assess high school students' understanding of inorganic chemistry qualitative analysis. Shows that the Grade 10 students had difficulty understanding the reactions involved in the identification of cations and anions, for example, double decomposition…

  8. Tier identification (TID) for tiered memory characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jichuan; Lim, Kevin T; Ranganathan, Parthasarathy

    2014-03-25

    A tier identification (TID) is to indicate a characteristic of a memory region associated with a virtual address in a tiered memory system. A thread may be serviced according to a first path based on the TID indicating a first characteristic. The thread may be serviced according to a second path based on the TID indicating a second characteristic.

  9. Development and application of a two-tier diagnostic instrument to assess middle-years students' proportional reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff; Dole, Shelley; Goos, Merrilyn

    2013-12-01

    Proportional reasoning involves the use of ratios in the comparison of quantities. While it is a key aspect of numeracy, particularly in the middle years of schooling, students do not always develop proportional reasoning naturally. Research suggests that many students do not apply proportional methods appropriately and that they often erroneously apply both multiplicative and additive thinking. Further, students cannot always distinguish non-proportional situations from those that are proportional. Understanding the situations in which students mistakenly use additive or multiplicative thinking and the nature of the proportional reasoning that students apply to different problem types is important for teachers seeking to support their students to develop proportional reasoning in the classroom. This paper describes the development and use of a two-tier diagnostic instrument to identify situations in which students could and could not apply proportional reasoning and the types of reasoning they used. It presents data from an Australian study involving over 2000 middle-years students (Years 5 to 9) as a means of illustrating the use of the instrument for diagnosing students' reasoning in different situations. The findings showed that the instrument was useful for identifying problem types in which students of different ages were able to apply correct reasoning. It also allowed identification of the types of incorrect reasoning used by students. The paper also describes useful applications of the instrument, including its use as a diagnostic instrument by classroom teachers and its use in the design of classroom activities included in teacher professional learning workshops.

  10. A novel approach for the development of tiered use biological criteria for rivers and streams in an ecologically diverse landscape.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, R William; Niemela, Scott; Genet, John A; Yoder, Chris O; Sandberg, John; Chirhart, Joel W; Feist, Mike; Lundeen, Benjamin; Helwig, Dan

    2016-03-01

    Water resource protection goals for aquatic life are often general and can result in under protection of some high quality water bodies and unattainable expectations for other water bodies. More refined aquatic life goals known as tiered aquatic life uses (TALUs) provide a framework to designate uses by setting protective goals for high quality water bodies and establishing attainable goals for water bodies altered by legally authorized legacy activities (e.g., channelization). Development of biological criteria or biocriteria typically requires identification of a set of least- or minimally-impacted reference sites that are used to establish a baseline from which goals are derived. Under a more refined system of stream types and aquatic life use goals, an adequate set of reference sites is needed to account for the natural variability of aquatic communities (e.g., landscape differences, thermal regime, and stream size). To develop sufficient datasets, Minnesota employed a reference condition approach in combination with an approach based on characterizing a stream's response to anthropogenic disturbance through development of a Biological Condition Gradient (BCG). These two approaches allowed for the creation of ecologically meaningful and consistent biocriteria within a more refined stream typology and solved issues related to small sample sizes and poor representation of minimally- or least-disturbed conditions for some stream types. Implementation of TALU biocriteria for Minnesota streams and rivers will result in consistent and protective goals that address fundamental differences among waters in terms of their potential for restoration.

  11. The Legnaro-Padova distributed Tier-2: challenges and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badoer, Simone; Biasotto, Massimo; Costa, Fulvia; Crescente, Alberto; Fantinel, Sergio; Ferrari, Roberto; Gulmini, Michele; Maron, Gaetano; Michelotto, Michele; Sgaravatto, Massimo; Toniolo, Nicola

    2014-06-01

    The Legnaro-Padova Tier-2 is a computing facility serving the ALICE and CMS LHC experiments. It also supports other High Energy Physics experiments and other virtual organizations of different disciplines, which can opportunistically harness idle resources if available. The unique characteristic of this Tier-2 is its topology: the computational resources are spread in two different sites, about 15 km apart: the INFN Legnaro National Laboratories and the INFN Padova unit, connected through a 10 Gbps network link (it will be soon updated to 20 Gbps). Nevertheless these resources are seamlessly integrated and are exposed as a single computing facility. Despite this intrinsic complexity, the Legnaro-Padova Tier-2 ranks among the best Grid sites for what concerns reliability and availability. The Tier-2 comprises about 190 worker nodes, providing about 26000 HS06 in total. Such computing nodes are managed by the LSF local resource management system, and are accessible using a Grid-based interface implemented through multiple CREAM CE front-ends. dCache, xrootd and Lustre are the storage systems in use at the Tier-2: about 1.5 PB of disk space is available to users in total, through multiple access protocols. A 10 Gbps network link, planned to be doubled in the next months, connects the Tier-2 to WAN. This link is used for the LHC Open Network Environment (LHCONE) and for other general purpose traffic. In this paper we discuss about the experiences at the Legnaro-Padova Tier-2: the problems that had to be addressed, the lessons learned, the implementation choices. We also present the tools used for the daily management operations. These include DOCET, a Java-based webtool designed, implemented and maintained at the Legnaro-Padova Tier-2, and deployed also in other sites, such as the LHC Italian T1. DOCET provides an uniform interface to manage all the information about the physical resources of a computing center. It is also used as documentation repository available to

  12. An enhanced tiered toxicity testing framework with triggers for assessing hazards and risks of commodity chemicals.

    PubMed

    Plunkett, Laura M; Kaplan, A Michael; Becker, Richard A

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents an enhanced integrated testing framework based on tiered testing and endpoint-specific decision triggers envisioned for application to commodity chemical safety assessments. The framework has two tiers in which exposure information can be integrated with hazard data at each Tier. Tier 1 tests are used to screen chemicals for major toxic effects (i.e., acute toxicity potential, target organs of repeat dose toxicity, genotoxicity potential, neurotoxicity potential, reproductive toxicity potential, immunotoxicity potential, and developmental toxicity potential), and to direct planning for more complex and targeted testing in Tier 2. The proposed decision triggers coupled with information on use and potential for exposure allow for scientifically-based decisions to be made about further testing in Tier 2, indicating which specific endpoints and tests warrant further evaluation, and which do not. The testing framework addresses risks to humans during all stages of development and provides data relevant to assessing hazards to sensitive subpopulations, such as infants and children. The REACH program in Europe and TSCA in the United States have led to an increased focus on development of hazard and risk information for chemicals used in industrial processes and consumer products. This framework and its toxicity decision triggers will allow for scientifically justified evaluation of chemicals that is comprehensive in terms of hazard screening, focuses resources on the specific complex tests that are most important for hazard characterization, and minimizes the use of animals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The development and validation of a three-tier diagnostic test measuring pre-service elementary education and secondary science teachers' understanding of the water cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, Dannah Lynn

    The main goal of this research study was to develop and validate a three-tier diagnostic test to determine pre-service teachers' (PSTs) conceptual knowledge of the water cycle. For a three-tier diagnostic test, the first tier assesses content knowledge; in the second tier, a reason is selected for the content answer; and the third tier allows test-takers to select how confident they are in their answers for the first two tiers. The second goal of this study was to diagnose any alternative conceptions PSTs might have about the water cycle. The Water Cycle Diagnostic Test (WCDT) was developed using the theoretical framework by Treagust (1986, 1988, and 1995), and in similar studies that developed diagnostic tests (e.g., Calean & Subramaniam, 2010a; Odom & Barrow, 2007; Pesman & Eryilmaz, 2010). The final instrument consisted of 15 items along with a demographic survey that examined PSTs' weather-related experiences that may or may not have affected the PSTs' understanding of the water cycle. The WCDT was administered to 77 PSTs enrolled in science methods courses during the fall of 2012. Among the 77 participants, 37 of the PSTs were enrolled in elementary education (EPST) and 40 in secondary science (SPST). Using exploratory factor analysis, five categories were factored out for the WCDT: Phase Change of Water; Condensation and Storage; Clouds; Global Climate Change; and Movement through the Water Cycle. Analysis of the PSTs' responses demonstrated acceptable reliability (alpha = 0.62) for the instrument, and acceptable difficulty indices and discrimination indices for 12 of the items. Analysis indicated that the majority of the PSTs had a limited understanding of the water cycle. Of the PSTs sampled, SPSTs were significantly more confident in their answers' on the WCDT than the EPSTs. Completion of an undergraduate atmospheric science and/or meteorology course, as well as a higher interest in listening and/or viewing weather-related programs, resulted in PSTs

  14. Towards a ‘Good Life’ for Farm Animals: Development of a Resource Tier Framework to Achieve Positive Welfare for Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Joanne L.; Mullan, Siobhan M.; Pritchard, Joy C.; McFarlane, Una J. C.; Main, David C. J.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Farm animals can be said to have a ‘good life’ if their quality of life is substantially higher than the current legal minimum and includes positive experiences such as pleasure. In commercial farms, animals can be provided with different resources such as bedding, exercise areas and enrichment objects. We used scientific evidence and expert opinion to determine which resources laying hens need to contribute to a ‘good life’. These resources were organised into three tiers, of increasing welfare, leading towards a ‘good life’. We describe how we developed the resource tiers and suggest how the overall framework might be used to promote a ‘good life’ for farm animals. Abstract The concept of a ‘good life’ recognises the distinction that an animal’s quality of life is beyond that of a ‘life worth living’, representing a standard of welfare substantially higher than the legal minimum (FAWC, 2009). We propose that the opportunities required for a ‘good life’ could be used to structure resource tiers that lead to positive welfare and are compatible with higher welfare farm assurance schemes. Published evidence and expert opinion was used to define three tiers of resource provision (Welfare +, Welfare ++ and Welfare +++) above those stipulated in UK legislation and codes of practice, which should lead to positive welfare outcomes. In this paper we describe the principles underpinning the framework and the process of developing the resource tiers for laying hens. In doing so, we summarise expert opinion on resources required to achieve a ‘good life’ in laying hens and discuss the philosophical and practical challenges of developing the framework. We present the results of a pilot study to establish the validity, reliability and feasibility of the draft laying hen tiers on laying hen production systems. Finally, we propose a generic welfare assessment framework for farm animals and suggest directions for implementation

  15. Development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test measuring college biology students' understanding of diffusion and osmosis after a course of instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odom, Arthur Louis; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    This study involved the development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test measuring college biology students' understanding of diffusion and osmosis after a course of instruction. The development procedure had three general steps: defining the content boundaries of the test, collecting information on students' misconceptions, and instrument development. Misconception data were collected from interviews and multiple-choice questions with free response answers. The data were used to develop 12 two-tier multiple choice items in which the first tier examined content knowledge and the second examined understanding of that knowledge. The conceptual knowledge examined was the particulate and random nature of matter, concentration and tonicity, the influence of life forces on diffusion and osmosis, membranes, kinetic energy of matter, the process of diffusion, and the process of osmosis. The diagnostic instrument was administered to 240 students (123 non-biology majors and 117 biology majors) enrolled in a college freshman biology laboratory course. The students had completed a unit on diffusion and osmosis. The content taught was carefully defined by propositional knowledge statements, and was the same content that defined the content boundaries of the test. The split-half reliability was .74. Difficulty indices ranged from 0.23 to 0.95, and discrimination indices ranged from 0.21 to 0.65. Each item was analyzed to determine student understanding of, and identify misconceptions about, diffusion and osmosis.Received: 18 June 1993; Revised: 16 February 1994;

  16. The Development and Validation of a Two-Tiered Multiple-Choice Instrument to Identify Alternative Conceptions in Earth Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangione, Katherine Anna

    2010-01-01

    This study was to determine reliability and validity for a two-tiered, multiple- choice instrument designed to identify alternative conceptions in earth science. Additionally, this study sought to identify alternative conceptions in earth science held by preservice teachers, to investigate relationships between self-reported confidence scores and…

  17. Developing an Educational Computer Game for Migratory Bird Identification Based on a Two-Tier Test Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hui-Chun; Chang, Shao-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Although educational computer games have been recognized as being a promising approach, previous studies have indicated that, without supportive models, students might only show temporary interest during the game-based learning process, and their learning performance is often not as good as expected. Therefore, in this paper, a two-tier test…

  18. The Development and Validation of a Two-Tiered Multiple-Choice Instrument to Identify Alternative Conceptions in Earth Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangione, Katherine Anna

    2010-01-01

    This study was to determine reliability and validity for a two-tiered, multiple- choice instrument designed to identify alternative conceptions in earth science. Additionally, this study sought to identify alternative conceptions in earth science held by preservice teachers, to investigate relationships between self-reported confidence scores and…

  19. Developing an Educational Computer Game for Migratory Bird Identification Based on a Two-Tier Test Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hui-Chun; Chang, Shao-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Although educational computer games have been recognized as being a promising approach, previous studies have indicated that, without supportive models, students might only show temporary interest during the game-based learning process, and their learning performance is often not as good as expected. Therefore, in this paper, a two-tier test…

  20. The Looming Danger of a Two-Tiered Professional Development System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Dennis

    2004-01-01

    If professional development relies on scripts and mandates rather than on learning communities and continuous improvement, it can actually hinder teachers' growth. The author expresses his fear that the teachers most likely to receive such inferior training are the ones who work with the student population most in need of high-quality teaching.…

  1. Development of methane emission factors for enteric fermentation in cattle from Benin using IPCC Tier 2 methodology.

    PubMed

    Kouazounde, J B; Gbenou, J D; Babatounde, S; Srivastava, N; Eggleston, S H; Antwi, C; Baah, J; McAllister, T A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop emission factors (EF) for methane (CH4) emissions from enteric fermentation in cattle native to Benin. Information on livestock characteristics and diet practices specific to the Benin cattle population were gathered from a variety of sources and used to estimate EF according to Tier 2 methodology of the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Most cattle from Benin are Bos taurus represented by Borgou, Somba and Lagune breeds. They are mainly multi-purpose, being used for production of meat, milk, hides and draft power and grazed in open pastures and crop lands comprising tropical forages and crops. Estimated enteric CH4 EFs varied among cattle breeds and subcategory owing to differences in proportions of gross energy intake expended to meet maintenance, production and activity. EFs ranged from 15.0 to 43.6, 16.9 to 46.3 and 24.7 to 64.9 kg CH4/head per year for subcategories of Lagune, Somba and Borgou cattle, respectively. Average EFs for cattle breeds were 24.8, 29.5 and 40.2 kg CH4/head per year for Lagune, Somba and Borgou cattle, respectively. The national EF for cattle from Benin was 39.5 kg CH4/head per year. This estimated EF was 27.4% higher than the default EF suggested by IPCC for African cattle with the exception of dairy cattle. The outcome of the study underscores the importance of obtaining country-specific EF to estimate global enteric CH4 emissions.

  2. Three Tiers to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Rhonda; Stepanek, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses a three-tiered, differentiated curriculum in a response to intervention (RTI) framework that has successfully raised achievement at all levels, but is particularly successful with ninth-grade students. Walla Walla (Washington) School District implemented the three-tiered intervention program as a series of differentiated…

  3. Tier 1 and Tier 2 Early Intervention for Handwriting and Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Rutberg, Judith E.; Abbott, Robert D.; Garcia, Noelia; Anderson-Youngstrom, Marci; Brooks, Allison; Fulton, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    Three studies evaluated Tier 1 early intervention for handwriting at a critical period for literacy development in first grade and one study evaluated Tier 2 early intervention in the critical period between third and fourth grades for composing on high stakes tests. The results contribute to knowledge of research-supported handwriting and…

  4. Tier 1 and Tier 2 Early Intervention for Handwriting and Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Rutberg, Judith E.; Abbott, Robert D.; Garcia, Noelia; Anderson-Youngstrom, Marci; Brooks, Allison; Fulton, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    Three studies evaluated Tier 1 early intervention for handwriting at a critical period for literacy development in first grade and one study evaluated Tier 2 early intervention in the critical period between third and fourth grades for composing on high stakes tests. The results contribute to knowledge of research-supported handwriting and…

  5. The transformation of two-tier test into four-tier test on Newton's laws concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratiwi, Nuzulira Janeusse; Kaniawati, Ida; Suhendi, Endi; Suyana, Iyon; Samsudin, Achmad

    2017-05-01

    This research is based on other forms of diagnostic tests in the format of two-tier test about the concept of Newton's Laws that the development still not yet well. Therefore, must be done a research to transform two-tier test into the four-tier test that refers to Kaltakci criteria. To achieve the purpose, the researchers used the 4D model (Defining, Designing, Developing, and Disseminating) as a method of research. The participants are 25 students at one of the senior high schools in Bandung. The result is the development of two-tier test format intothe four-tier test formatabout Newton's Laws concept. At the disseminating, there are obtained the category of students who scientific knowledge, misconceptions, and errors of the Newton's Laws concepts. The research will be the reference or preliminary research to conduct further research.

  6. Development and use of a three-tier diagnostic test to assess high school students' misconceptions about the photoelectric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taslidere, Erdal

    2016-05-01

    Background: In the last few decades, researchers have turned their attention to students' understanding of scientific concepts at different school levels. The results indicate that the learners have different ideas, and most of them are inaccurate in terms of those generally accepted by the scientific community. Purpose: This study was undertaken to describe the development, validation and use of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test (PEMT) to reveal Turkish high school students' common misconceptions in terms of the photoelectric effect. Sample: In this study, 243 students (male=86, female=137) from six high schools made up the sample which comprised approximately 76% of the 11th grade population. Design and Methods: Based on findings from the literature, open-ended questions and interviews, the PEMT was developed and administered to 243 students. The data was analysed descriptively. Results: The Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient of the scores was estimated as .83. Construct, content and face validities were established by senior experts and through the use of statistical techniques. The findings denoted that the test is a valid and reliable measure of students' qualitative understanding of the photoelectric concept. The results revealed that the majority of the students demonstrated a limited understanding of the photoelectric effect and have five prevalent misconceptions. These are: (1) an increase in intensity would provide the photon with enough energy to release electrons; (2) the photoelectric effect results from the ionization of atoms through the interaction with light; (3) a light beam whose photons have smaller energies than the work function would release electrons with the help of a voltage source; (4) the number of photoelectrons depends on the energy of the photon and (5) the photon has kinetic energy and it depends on the colour of light. The last two misconceptions were discovered in the current study. Conclusion: The findings

  7. Tier 2 safety Basis Document for the B151 Complex (B151, B152, and B154)

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, G A

    2006-12-07

    This Safety Basis Document (SBD) has been prepared for the B151 Complex at Site 200 to meet the current contractual requirements at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). B151 Complex consists of three separate complex and distinct buildings: B151, B152, and B154, represented within this document as facility segments. Based upon its chemical and radiological inventories, Segment B151 is classified as a Low Hazard facility segment. All other hazards associated with Segment B151 operations have been determined to be LSI. Based upon their inventories, Segment B152 and Segment B154 are each classified as LSI facility segments. However, for operational flexibility involving radiological materials, CMS chooses to classify each of these as Low Hazard facility segments. Changes in operations, maximum inventories, materials, or release potential that could result in larger consequences, or that could negatively impact the safety of the facility, will necessitate a re-evaluation of these facility classifications. This SBD is governed by the LLNL Non-Nuclear Work Smart Standards (WSSs) requirements including the ES&H Manual, Document 3.1, Non-Nuclear Safety Basis Program [LLNL, 2004a] and the DOE Explosives Safety Manual (ESM) [LLNL, 2004b]. This SBD demonstrates that the three segments of B151 Complex can be operated as Low Hazard facility segments without undue risks to co-located workers, the public, or the environment. This SBD: (1) Provides a systematic identification of the safety and health hazards associated with operations in the B151 Complex, (2) Compares facility inventories of explosives, biological materials, chemicals, radioisotopes with LLNL threshold values for each facility hazard classification criteria, (3) Examines standard and non-standard industrial hazards, (4) Examines the hazards of greatest significance, (5) Qualitatively discusses the programs that evaluate and control these hazards to ensure the protection of co-located workers, the public

  8. Tier2 Submit Software

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Download this tool for Windows or Mac, which helps facilities prepare a Tier II electronic chemical inventory report. The data can also be exported into the CAMEOfm (Computer-Aided Management of Emergency Operations) emergency planning software.

  9. Tiered approach into practice: scientific validation for chromatography-based assays in early development - a recommendation from the European Bioanalysis Forum.

    PubMed

    Timmerman, Philip; White, Stephen; Dougall, Stuart Mc; Kall, Morten A; Smeraglia, John; Fjording, Marianne Scheel; Knutsson, Magnus

    2015-09-10

    The principles of tiered approach have been part of the bioanalytical toolbox for some years. Nevertheless, an in spite of many valuable discussions in industry, they remain difficult to apply in a harmonized way for a broad array of studies in early drug development where these alternative approaches to regulated validation would make sense. The European Bioanalysis Forum has identified the need to proposes some practical workflows for five categories of studies for chromatography based assays where scientific validation will allow additional freedom while safeguarding scientific rigor and robust documentation: quantification of metabolites in plasma in relation to ICH M3(R2), urine analysis, tissue homogenate analysis, and preclinical and clinical studies in early stages of drug development. The recommendation would introduce a common language and harmonized best practice for these study categories and can help to refocus towards optimized scientific and resource investments for bioanalysis in early drug development.

  10. Multi-tier approach for data acquisition programming in the TJ-II remote participation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, J.; Sánchez, E.; Portas, A.; Ruiz, M.; Barrera, E.; López, S.

    2004-10-01

    Programming software to setup acquisition channels during device operation has been developed for the TJ-II remote participation system. The software follows a three-tier model. A first tier (client tier) groups client software containing only user interface code. A second tier (middle tier) includes code for authorization, authentication, and query processing. A third tier (data tier) consists of a relational database server for managing configurations. Multi-platform characteristics are provided by web browsers (client tier) and web servers (middle tier). This architecture avoids that data acquisition system controllers provide access control, database support, or graphic user interface resources. Therefore, computation capabilities of these systems can mainly be devoted to data handling. LabView (from National Instruments) has been used as programming language in the acquisition systems. This design allows a very transparent management of signals, independently on hardware modules and systems.

  11. Development and Application of a Novel Rasch-Based Methodology for Evaluating Multi-Tiered Assessment Instruments: Validation and Utilization of an Undergraduate Diagnostic Test of the Water Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romine, William L.; Schaffer, Dane L.; Barrow, Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development and validation of a three-tiered diagnostic test of the water cycle (DTWC) and use it to evaluate the impact of prior learning experiences on undergraduates' misconceptions. While most approaches to instrument validation take a positivist perspective using singular criteria such as reliability and fit with a measurement…

  12. Development and Application of a Novel Rasch-Based Methodology for Evaluating Multi-Tiered Assessment Instruments: Validation and Utilization of an Undergraduate Diagnostic Test of the Water Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romine, William L.; Schaffer, Dane L.; Barrow, Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development and validation of a three-tiered diagnostic test of the water cycle (DTWC) and use it to evaluate the impact of prior learning experiences on undergraduates' misconceptions. While most approaches to instrument validation take a positivist perspective using singular criteria such as reliability and fit with a measurement…

  13. A Tiered Model for Linking Students to the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Laura Landry; Gerard, Jean M.; Sturm, Michael R.; Wooldridge, Deborah G.

    2016-01-01

    A tiered practice model (introductory, pre-internship, and internship) embedded in the curriculum facilitates community engagement and creates relevance for students as they pursue a professional identity in Human Development and Family Studies. The tiered model integrates high-impact teaching practices (HIP) and student engagement pedagogies…

  14. A Tiered Model for Linking Students to the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Laura Landry; Gerard, Jean M.; Sturm, Michael R.; Wooldridge, Deborah G.

    2016-01-01

    A tiered practice model (introductory, pre-internship, and internship) embedded in the curriculum facilitates community engagement and creates relevance for students as they pursue a professional identity in Human Development and Family Studies. The tiered model integrates high-impact teaching practices (HIP) and student engagement pedagogies…

  15. Organ Donation Among Tiers of Health Workers: Expanding Resources to Optimize Organ Availability in a Developing Country.

    PubMed

    Oluyombo, Rotimi; Fawale, Bimbo Michael; Busari, Olusegun Adesola; Ogunmola, Jeffery Olarinde; Olanrewaju, Timothy Olusegun; Akinleye, Callistus Adewale; Ojewola, Rufus Wale; Yusuf, Musah; Obajolowo, Omotola; Soje, Michael; Gbadegesin, Babajide

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in end organ failure but disproportional shortage of organ donation calls for attention. Expanding the organ pool by assessing and improving health workers' attitude at all levels of care may be a worthwhile initiative. A questionnaire-based cross sectional study involving tertiary, secondary, and primary health institutions in Southwestern Nigeria was conducted. Age range was 18 to 62 (36.7 ± 9.2) years. Only 13.5%, 11.7%, and 11.2% from primary, secondary, and tertiary health centers, respectively, would definitely donate despite high level of awareness (>90%) at each level of care. Participants from primary health care are of low income (P < 0.05), and this cohort is less likely to be aware of organ donation (P < 0.05). At each level of care, permission by religion to donate organs influenced positive attitudes (willingness to donate, readiness to counsel families of potential donors, and signing of organ donation cards) toward organ donation. Good knowledge of organ donation only significantly influenced readiness to counsel donors (P < 0.05) and not willingness to donate (P > 0.05). At each level of health care, young health care workers (P < 0.05) and women (P > 0.05) would be willing to donate, whereas men show positive attitude in signing of organ donor cards (P < 0.05) and counseling of families of potential donors (P > 0.05). Knowledge and willingness to donate organs among health care levels were not different. Considering the potential advantage of community placement of other tiers of health care (primary and secondary) in Nigeria, integrating them would be strategically beneficial to organ donation.

  16. Using Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Students' Misconceptions of States of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirbulut, Zubeyde Demet; Geban, Omer

    2014-01-01

    This study involves the development of a three-tier diagnostic test to measure high school students' understanding of states of matter concepts. The States of Matter Diagnostic Test (SMDT) is a 19-item three-tier diagnostic test consisting of three-tier items for assessing students' understanding of states of matter concepts. The SMDT was…

  17. Using Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Students' Misconceptions of States of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirbulut, Zubeyde Demet; Geban, Omer

    2014-01-01

    This study involves the development of a three-tier diagnostic test to measure high school students' understanding of states of matter concepts. The States of Matter Diagnostic Test (SMDT) is a 19-item three-tier diagnostic test consisting of three-tier items for assessing students' understanding of states of matter concepts. The SMDT was…

  18. Addressing Instructional Avoidance with Tier II Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; Turtura, Jessica; Parry, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In a 3-tiered, prevention-oriented framework, Tier II (secondary, targeted) interventions are designed for students whose problem behaviors have not responded to Tier I but are not severe enough to warrant an individualized Tier III intervention. Tier II interventions are implemented similarly across students receiving the intervention and can be…

  19. 20 CFR 228.2 - Tier I and tier II annuity components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Tier I and tier II annuity components. 228.2... COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES General § 228.2 Tier I and tier II annuity components. (a) Tier I annuity component. The Tier I annuity component is generally the amount that would have been payable under...

  20. 20 CFR 228.2 - Tier I and tier II annuity components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tier I and tier II annuity components. 228.2... COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES General § 228.2 Tier I and tier II annuity components. (a) Tier I annuity component. The Tier I annuity component is generally the amount that would have been payable under...

  1. 20 CFR 228.2 - Tier I and tier II annuity components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Tier I and tier II annuity components. 228.2... COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES General § 228.2 Tier I and tier II annuity components. (a) Tier I annuity component. The Tier I annuity component is generally the amount that would have been payable under...

  2. Tiered hospital networks.

    PubMed

    Yegian, Jill M

    2003-01-01

    As a result of rising health care costs, health plans are experimenting with insurance products that shift greater financial responsibility for medical care to consumers and create incentives for consumers to consider cost differences when choosing among providers. Based on an October 2002 roundtable discussion, this paper discusses insurance product trends, particularly tiered hospital networks. Issues addressed include these product features' potential to reduce system costs, the effect on the hospital-health plan relationship, consumers' ability to consider cost and quality in decision making, and financial barriers to care for the chronically ill.

  3. Status and Trends in Networking at LHC Tier1 Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobyshev, A.; DeMar, P.; Grigaliunas, V.; Bigrow, J.; Hoeft, B.; Reymund, A.

    2012-12-01

    The LHC is entering its fourth year of production operation. Most Tier1 facilities have been in operation for almost a decade, when development and ramp-up efforts are included. LHC's distributed computing model is based on the availability of high capacity, high performance network facilities for both the WAN and LAN data movement, particularly within the Tier1 centers. As a result, the Tier1 centers tend to be on the leading edge of data center networking technology. In this paper, we analyze past and current developments in Tier1 LAN networking, as well as extrapolating where we anticipate networking technology is heading. Our analysis will include examination into the following areas: • Evolution of Tier1 centers to their current state • Evolving data center networking models and how they apply to Tier1 centers • Impact of emerging network technologies (e.g. 10GE-connected hosts, 40GE/100GE links, IPv6) on Tier1 centers • Trends in WAN data movement and emergence of software-defined WAN network capabilities • Network virtualization

  4. Development of an Interactive Mathematics Learning System Based on a Two-Tier Test Diagnostic and Guiding Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Tzu-Chi; Fu, Hseng-Tz; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Yang, Stephen J. H.

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical skills have been recognised as a core competence for engineering and science students. However, learning mathematics has been recognised as a difficult and challenging task for most students, in particular, calculus for first-year students in university. Consequently, the development of effective learning strategies and environments…

  5. Development, Validation, and Evaluation of Literacy 3D: A Package Supporting Tier 1 Preschool Literacy Instruction Implementation and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Charles R.; Abbott, Mary; Beecher, Constance; Atwater, Jane; Petersen, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, prekindergarten programs with literacy outcome goals are seeking to implement evidence-based practices to improve results. Such efforts require instructional intervention strategies to engage children as well as strategies to support teacher implementation. Reported is the iterative development of Literacy 3D, an enhanced support…

  6. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Diagnostic Instrument to Assess Middle-Years Students' Proportional Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff; Dole, Shelley; Goos, Merrilyn

    2013-01-01

    Proportional reasoning involves the use of ratios in the comparison of quantities. While it is a key aspect of numeracy, particularly in the middle years of schooling, students do not always develop proportional reasoning naturally. Research suggests that many students do not apply proportional methods appropriately and that they often erroneously…

  7. Tier Two Interventions Implemented within the Context of a Tiered Prevention Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Barbara S.; Stormont, Melissa; Gage, Nicholas A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing body of evidence demonstrating the value of Tier 1 and Tier 3 interventions, significantly less is known about Tier 2 level treatments when they are added within the context of a tiered continuum of support. The purpose of this article is to systematically review the existing research base for Tier 2 small group intervention…

  8. Tier Two Interventions Implemented within the Context of a Tiered Prevention Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Barbara S.; Stormont, Melissa; Gage, Nicholas A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing body of evidence demonstrating the value of Tier 1 and Tier 3 interventions, significantly less is known about Tier 2 level treatments when they are added within the context of a tiered continuum of support. The purpose of this article is to systematically review the existing research base for Tier 2 small group intervention…

  9. 47 CFR 76.922 - Rates for the basic service tier and cable programming services tiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... programming services tiers. 76.922 Section 76.922 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... § 76.922 Rates for the basic service tier and cable programming services tiers. (a) Basic and cable programming service tier rates. Basic service tier and cable programming service rates shall be subject to...

  10. 47 CFR 76.922 - Rates for the basic service tier and cable programming services tiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... programming services tiers. 76.922 Section 76.922 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... § 76.922 Rates for the basic service tier and cable programming services tiers. (a) Basic and cable programming service tier rates. Basic service tier and cable programming service rates shall be subject to...

  11. 47 CFR 76.922 - Rates for the basic service tier and cable programming services tiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... programming services tiers. 76.922 Section 76.922 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... § 76.922 Rates for the basic service tier and cable programming services tiers. (a) Basic and cable programming service tier rates. Basic service tier and cable programming service rates shall be subject...

  12. Development and validation of a 2nd tier test for identification of purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency patients during expanded newborn screening by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    la Marca, Giancarlo; Giocaliere, Elisa; Malvagia, Sabrina; Villanelli, Fabio; Funghini, Silvia; Ombrone, Daniela; Della Bona, Maria; Forni, Giulia; Canessa, Clementina; Ricci, Silvia; Romano, Francesca; Guerrini, Renzo; Resti, Massimo; Azzari, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency has been recently introduced in the newborn screening program in Tuscany. In order to improve the PNP screening efficiency, we developed a 2nd tier test to quantify PNP primary markers deoxyguanosine (dGuo) and deoxyinosine (dIno). Dried blood spots (DBS) samples were extracted with 200 μL of methanol and 100 μL of water (by two steps). Internal standards were added at a final concentration of 10 μmol/L. After extraction, samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS. The chromatographic run was performed in gradient mode by using a Synergi Fusion column. The assay was linear over a concentration range of 0.05-50 μmol/L (R2>0.999) for dGuo and 0.5-50 μmol/L (R2>0.998) for dIno. Intra- and interassay imprecision (mean CVs) for dIno and dGuo ranged from 2.9% to 12%. Limit of quantitaion (LOQ) were found to be 0.05 μmol/L and 0.5 μmol/L for dGuo and dIno, respectively. The reference ranges, obtained by measuring dGuo and dIno concentrations on DBS, were close to zero for both biomarkers. Moreover, DBS samples from seven patients with confirmed PNP were retrospectively evaluated and correctly identified. The LC-MS/MS method can reliably measure dIno and dGuo in DBS for the diagnosis of PNP. Validation data confirm the present method is characterised by good reproducibility, accuracy and imprecision for the quantitation of dIno and dGuo. The assay also appears suitable for use in monitoring treatment of PNP patients.

  13. Setting up a STAR Tier 2 Site at Golias/Prague Farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaloupka, Petr; Jakl, Pavel; Kapitán, Jan; Zerola, Michal; Lauret, Jérôme; STAR Collaboration

    2010-04-01

    High Energy Nuclear Physics (HENP) collaborations' experience show that the computing resources available at a single site are often neither sufficient nor satisfy the need of remote collaborators eager to carry their analysis in the fastest and most convenient way. From latencies in the network connectivity to the lack of interactivity, work at distant computing centers is often inefficient. Having fully functional software stack on local resources is a strong enabler of science opportunities for any local group who can afford the time investment. The situation becomes more complex as vast amount of data are often needed to perform meaningful analysis. Prague's heavy-ions group participating in STAR experiment at RHIC has been a strong advocate of local computing as the most efficient means of data processing and physics analyses. To create an environment where science can freely thrive, a Tier 2 computing center was set up at a Regional Computing Center for Particle Physics called "Golias". It is the biggest farm in the Czech Republic fully dedicated for particle physics experiments. We report on our experience in setting up a fully functional Tier 2 center leveraging the minimal locally available human and financial resources. We discuss the solutions chosen to address storage space and analysis issues and the impact on the farms overall functionality. This includes a locally built STAR analysis framework, integration with a local DPM system (a cost effective storage solution), the influence of the availability and quality of the network connection to Tier 0 via a dedicated CESNET/ESnet link and the development of light-weight yet fully automated data transfer tools allowing the movement of entire datasets from BNL (Tier 0) to Golias (Tier 2). We will summarize the impact of the gained computing performance on the efficiency of the local physics group at offline physics analysis and show the feasibility of such a solution that can used by other groups as well.

  14. Setting up a STAR Tier 2 Site at Golias/Prague Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Lauret, J.; Lauret, J.; Chaloupka, P.; Jakl, P.; Kapitan, J.; Zerola, M.

    2010-05-28

    High Energy Nuclear Physics (HENP) collaborations experience show that the computing resources available at a single site are often neither sufficient nor satisfy the need of remote collaborators eager to carry their analysis in the fastest and most convenient way. From latencies in the network connectivity to the lack of interactivity, work at distant computing centers is often inefficient. Having fully functional software stack on local resources is a strong enabler of science opportunities for any local group who can afford the time investment. The situation becomes more complex as vast amount of data are often needed to perform meaningful analysis. Prague's heavy-ions group participating in STAR experiment at RHIC has been a strong advocate of local computing as the most efficient means of data processing and physics analyses. To create an environment where science can freely thrive, a Tier 2 computing center was set up at a Regional Computing Center for Particle Physics called 'Golias'. It is the biggest farm in the Czech Republic fully dedicated for particle physics experiments. We report on our experience in setting up a fully functional Tier 2 center leveraging the minimal locally available human and financial resources. We discuss the solutions chosen to address storage space and analysis issues and the impact on the farms overall functionality. This includes a locally built STAR analysis framework, integration with a local DPM system (a cost effective storage solution), the influence of the availability and quality of the network connection to Tier 0 via a dedicated CESNET/ESnet link and the development of light-weight yet fully automated data transfer tools allowing the movement of entire datasets from BNL (Tier 0) to Golias (Tier 2). We will summarize the impact of the gained computing performance on the efficiency of the local physics group at offline physics analysis and show the feasibility of such a solution that can used by other groups as well.

  15. Tier II Forms and Instructions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Facilities must comply with the new requirements on the Tier II emergency and hazardous chemical inventory form starting reporting year 2013, which is due by March 1, 2014. Some states may have specific requirements for reporting and submission.

  16. 22 CFR 1508.420 - May I approve a transaction with an excluded or disqualified person at a lower tier?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... disqualified person at a lower tier? 1508.420 Section 1508.420 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION... § 1508.420 May I approve a transaction with an excluded or disqualified person at a lower tier? If a transaction at a lower tier is subject to your approval, you as an agency official may not approve— (a)...

  17. 22 CFR 1508.420 - May I approve a transaction with an excluded or disqualified person at a lower tier?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... disqualified person at a lower tier? 1508.420 Section 1508.420 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION... § 1508.420 May I approve a transaction with an excluded or disqualified person at a lower tier? If a transaction at a lower tier is subject to your approval, you as an agency official may not approve— (a)...

  18. 22 CFR 1508.420 - May I approve a transaction with an excluded or disqualified person at a lower tier?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... disqualified person at a lower tier? 1508.420 Section 1508.420 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION... § 1508.420 May I approve a transaction with an excluded or disqualified person at a lower tier? If a transaction at a lower tier is subject to your approval, you as an agency official may not approve— (a)...

  19. 22 CFR 1508.420 - May I approve a transaction with an excluded or disqualified person at a lower tier?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... disqualified person at a lower tier? 1508.420 Section 1508.420 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION... § 1508.420 May I approve a transaction with an excluded or disqualified person at a lower tier? If a transaction at a lower tier is subject to your approval, you as an agency official may not approve— (a)...

  20. Implementation of Grid Tier 2 and Tier 3 facilities on a Distributed OpenStack Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limosani, Antonio; Boland, Lucien; Coddington, Paul; Crosby, Sean; Huang, Joanna; Sevior, Martin; Wilson, Ross; Zhang, Shunde

    2014-06-01

    The Australian Government is making a AUD 100 million investment in Compute and Storage for the academic community. The Compute facilities are provided in the form of 30,000 CPU cores located at 8 nodes around Australia in a distributed virtualized Infrastructure as a Service facility based on OpenStack. The storage will eventually consist of over 100 petabytes located at 6 nodes. All will be linked via a 100 Gb/s network. This proceeding describes the development of a fully connected WLCG Tier-2 grid site as well as a general purpose Tier-3 computing cluster based on this architecture. The facility employs an extension to Torque to enable dynamic allocations of virtual machine instances. A base Scientific Linux virtual machine (VM) image is deployed in the OpenStack cloud and automatically configured as required using Puppet. Custom scripts are used to launch multiple VMs, integrate them into the dynamic Torque cluster and to mount remote file systems. We report on our experience in developing this nation-wide ATLAS and Belle II Tier 2 and Tier 3 computing infrastructure using the national Research Cloud and storage facilities.

  1. Transcriptome Complexity in Cardiac Development and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chen; Wang, Yibin

    2014-01-01

    With the advancement of transcriptome profiling by micro-arrays and high-throughput RNA-sequencing, transcriptome complexity and its dynamics are revealed at different levels in cardiovascular development and diseases. In this review, we will highlight the recent progress in our knowledge of cardiovascular transcriptome complexity contributed by RNA splicing, RNA editing and noncoding RNAs. The emerging importance of many of these previously under-explored aspects of gene regulation in cardiovascular development and pathology will be discussed. PMID:24759793

  2. Tier II Interventions within the Framework of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Essential Features for Design, Implementation, and Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Cynthia M; Borgmeier, Chris

    2010-01-01

    To meet the complex social behavioral and academic needs of all students, schools benefit from having available multiple evidence-based interventions of varying intensity. School-wide positive behavior support provides a framework within which a continuum of evidence-based interventions can be implemented in a school. This framework includes three levels or tiers of intervention; Tier I (primary or universal), Tier II (secondary or targeted), and Tier III (tertiary or individualized) supports. In this paper we review the logic behind school-wide positive behavior support and then focus on Tier II interventions, as this level of support has received the least attention in the literature. We delineate the key features of Tier II interventions as implemented within school-wide positive behavior support, provide guidelines for matching Tier II interventions to school and student needs, and describe how schools plan for implementation and maintenance of selected interventions.

  3. Integrated three-tiered approach to hardware-in-the-loop testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCesaris, Chet A., Jr.; Millner, Paul J.

    1997-07-01

    Flight testing of ballistic missile interceptors is limited by the complexity and costs of the test exercises, and inherent test limitations. While flight testing remains an essential part of ballistic missile weapons systems test programs, alternate test methods, such as hardware-in-the- loop (HWIL) testing, are used to fully characterize system operational characteristics. An integrated test approach that spans all levels of testing has been developed by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) to characterize their developing and fielded weapon systems. The BMDO has developed an integrated three tiered HWIL testing concept to assess the performance of its acquisition programs. The three tiers are the element level which includes sub-element level testing of critical components, the weapon system level, and the family of systems (Fos) level. The objective of element level testing is to evaluate the performance of each element of the weapon system with emphasis on exercising the processing components of the element under test. Element level testing is focused on testing the internal interactions of each test element in a simulated environment. The objective of weapon system level is to evaluate the data exchange between the elements of the weapon system in an integrated, simulated operational environment. The primary purpose of FoS level testing is assessing the interoperability of ballistic missile defense (BMD) weapon systems, both under development and fielded. This paper examines the test processes and objectives which occur at each of the three HWIL tiers, describes facilities and testbeds BMDO is using to implement this approach, and discusses how data from each of the tiers is used to help address program flight test issues and reduce program risk.

  4. Identifying tier one key suppliers.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In today's global marketplace, businesses are becoming increasingly reliant on suppliers for the provision of key processes, activities, products and services in support of their strategic business goals. The result is that now, more than ever, the failure of a key supplier has potential to damage reputation, productivity, compliance and financial performance seriously. Yet despite this, there is no recognised standard or guidance for identifying a tier one key supplier base and, up to now, there has been little or no research on how to do so effectively. This paper outlines the key findings of a BCI-sponsored research project to investigate good practice in identifying tier one key suppliers, and suggests a scalable framework process model and risk matrix tool to help businesses effectively identify their tier one key supplier base.

  5. 7 CFR 1794.16 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act § 1794.16 Tiering. It is the policy of RUS to prepare programmatic level analysis in order to tier an...

  6. 7 CFR 1794.16 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act § 1794.16 Tiering. It is the policy of RUS to prepare programmatic level analysis in order to tier an EIS...

  7. 7 CFR 1794.16 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act § 1794.16 Tiering. It is the policy of RUS to prepare programmatic level analysis in order to tier an EIS...

  8. 7 CFR 1794.16 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act § 1794.16 Tiering. It is the policy of RUS to prepare programmatic level analysis in order to tier an EIS...

  9. 7 CFR 1794.16 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act § 1794.16 Tiering. It is the policy of RUS to prepare programmatic level analysis in order to tier an EIS...

  10. The three tiers of screening for sarcoidosis organ involvement.

    PubMed

    Judson, Marc A

    2016-04-01

    Sarcoidosis may involve any organ in the body. Organ involvement with sarcoidosis may go undetected. This manuscript addresses a suggested approach to screening for sarcoidosis organ involvement. As sarcoidosis organ involvement may never cause symptoms or clinical problems, it is not always necessary to expend the time or expense to detect all organs involved with sarcoidosis. On the other hand, some forms of sarcoidosis organ involvement may have potentially severe consequences such as permanent vision impairment from eye sarcoidosis and sudden death from cardiac sarcoidosis. We believe it useful to describe three tiers of screening for sarcoidosis organ involvement. The first tier of screening involves eliciting a medical history and performing a physical examination. This is a useful screen for all organs. The second tier of screening involves performing specific laboratory tests to search for specific sarcoidosis organ involvement, even if there is no clinical sign or symptom to suggest involvement of that organ. Such screening is only recommended for a limited number of specific organs. The third tier of screening is complex and involves the performance of multiple tests/algorithms or examinations by subspecialists to search for specific organ involvement. The third tier of screening is used to evaluate eye sarcoidosis, vitamin D dysregulation associated with sarcoidosis, and cardiac sarcoidosis. It is hoped that this approach to screening for sarcoidosis organ involvement will be a springboard for rigorous examination of this process that is likely to benefit sarcoidosis patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Do Schools with Adequate Tier I SWPBIS Implementation Have Stronger Implementation at Tiers II and III?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jerin; McIntosh, Kent; Hoselton, Rob

    2014-01-01

    To illustrate the three-tiered model, Tier I (universal) supports are delivered similarly to all students in all settings, and at least 80% of students are expected to respond to these supports. Beyond universal supports, Tier II (targeted) supports serve 10-15% of students whose behavior does not respond to Tier I supports. A small group of…

  12. Can complexity science inform physician leadership development?

    PubMed

    Grady, Colleen Marie

    2016-07-04

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe research that examined physician leadership development using complexity science principles. Design/methodology/approach Intensive interviewing of 21 participants and document review provided data regarding physician leadership development in health-care organizations using five principles of complexity science (connectivity, interdependence, feedback, exploration-of-the-space-of-possibilities and co-evolution), which were grouped in three areas of inquiry (relationships between agents, patterns of behaviour and enabling functions). Findings Physician leaders are viewed as critical in the transformation of healthcare and in improving patient outcomes, and yet significant challenges exist that limit their development. Leadership in health care continues to be associated with traditional, linear models, which are incongruent with the behaviour of a complex system, such as health care. Physician leadership development remains a low priority for most health-care organizations, although physicians admit to being limited in their capacity to lead. This research was based on five principles of complexity science and used grounded theory methodology to understand how the behaviours of a complex system can provide data regarding leadership development for physicians. The study demonstrated that there is a strong association between physician leadership and patient outcomes and that organizations play a primary role in supporting the development of physician leaders. Findings indicate that a physician's relationship with their patient and their capacity for innovation can be extended as catalytic behaviours in a complex system. The findings also identified limiting factors that impact physicians who choose to lead, such as reimbursement models that do not place value on leadership and medical education that provides minimal opportunity for leadership skill development. Practical Implications This research provides practical

  13. 6 CFR 27.220 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tiering. 27.220 Section 27.220 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.220 Tiering. (a) Preliminary Determination of Risk-Based Tiering. Based...

  14. 6 CFR 27.220 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tiering. 27.220 Section 27.220 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.220 Tiering. (a) Preliminary Determination of Risk-Based Tiering. Based...

  15. 40 CFR 1502.20 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tiering. 1502.20 Section 1502.20 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.20 Tiering. Agencies are encouraged to tier their environmental impact statements to eliminate repetitive discussions...

  16. 40 CFR 1508.28 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tiering. 1508.28 Section 1508.28 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.28 Tiering. Tiering refers to the coverage of general matters in broader environmental impact statements (such as...

  17. 6 CFR 27.220 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tiering. 27.220 Section 27.220 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.220 Tiering. (a) Preliminary Determination of Risk-Based Tiering. Based...

  18. 32 CFR 989.10 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tiering. 989.10 Section 989.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.10 Tiering. The Air Force should use tiered (40 CFR 1502.20)...

  19. Recent developments in complex metal oxide photoelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdi, Fatwa F.; Berglund, Sean P.

    2017-05-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting, a process that directly produces hydrogen from water and sunlight using semiconductor materials, is an attractive form of renewable energy production. The hydrogen that is produced can be easily transported, stored, and utilized as a fuel without the emission of greenhouse gasses. However, many scientific and engineering challenges need to be overcome before PEC water splitting can be implemented on a large scale. One of the biggest challenges is the identification of suitable semiconductor materials to use in the construction of photoelectrodes. This topical review highlights a promising class of materials, complex metal oxides, which can be used as photoelectrodes for PEC water splitting. The advantages and limitations of complex metal oxides are first discussed, and strategies to overcome the limitations are outlined using the model case of bismuth vanadate (BiVO4), one of the highest performing complex metal oxide photoanodes reported to date. Building on the success story of BiVO4, we discuss pathways towards achieving even higher water splitting performance, including bandgap engineering as well as the development of alternative complex metal oxides with more appropriate bandgaps for obtaining high solar-to-hydrogen efficiency. Several classes of complex metal oxides (e.g. delafossites, tungstates, vanadates, spinels) are presented as promising candidates for photoelectrode materials. Finally, we conclude by summarizing the key properties of these complex metal oxides and providing an outlook towards expedited discovery of new and novel complex metal oxides for use as photoelectrodes.

  20. Use of Optical Imaging Technology in the Validation of a New, Rapid, Cost-Effective Drug Screen as Part of a Tiered In Vivo Screening Paradigm for Development of Drugs To Treat Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Parriot, Sandi; Hudson, Thomas H.; Lang, Thierry; Ngundam, Franklyn; Leed, Susan; Sena, Jenell; Harris, Michael; O'Neil, Michael; Sciotti, Richard; Read, Lisa; Lecoeur, Herve; Grogl, Max

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In any drug discovery and development effort, a reduction in the time of the lead optimization cycle is critical to decrease the time to license and reduce costs. In addition, ethical guidelines call for the more ethical use of animals to minimize the number of animals used and decrease their suffering. Therefore, any effort to develop drugs to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis requires multiple tiers of in vivo testing that start with higher-throughput efficacy assessments and progress to lower-throughput models with the most clinical relevance. Here, we describe the validation of a high-throughput, first-tier, noninvasive model of lesion suppression that uses an in vivo optical imaging technology for the initial screening of compounds. A strong correlation between luciferase activity and the parasite load at up to 18 days postinfection was found. This correlation allows the direct assessment of the effects of drug treatment on parasite burden. We demonstrate that there is a strong correlation between drug efficacy measured on day 18 postinfection and the suppression of lesion size by day 60 postinfection, which allows us to reach an accurate conclusion on drug efficacy in only 18 days. Compounds demonstrating a significant reduction in the bioluminescence signal compared to that in control animals can be tested in lower-throughput, more definitive tests of lesion cure in BALB/c mice and Golden Syrian hamsters (GSH) using Old World and New World parasites. PMID:28137819

  1. Use of Optical Imaging Technology in the Validation of a New, Rapid, Cost-Effective Drug Screen as Part of a Tiered In Vivo Screening Paradigm for Development of Drugs To Treat Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Caridha, Diana; Parriot, Sandi; Hudson, Thomas H; Lang, Thierry; Ngundam, Franklyn; Leed, Susan; Sena, Jenell; Harris, Michael; O'Neil, Michael; Sciotti, Richard; Read, Lisa; Lecoeur, Herve; Hickman, Mark; Grogl, Max

    2017-04-01

    In any drug discovery and development effort, a reduction in the time of the lead optimization cycle is critical to decrease the time to license and reduce costs. In addition, ethical guidelines call for the more ethical use of animals to minimize the number of animals used and decrease their suffering. Therefore, any effort to develop drugs to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis requires multiple tiers of in vivo testing that start with higher-throughput efficacy assessments and progress to lower-throughput models with the most clinical relevance. Here, we describe the validation of a high-throughput, first-tier, noninvasive model of lesion suppression that uses an in vivo optical imaging technology for the initial screening of compounds. A strong correlation between luciferase activity and the parasite load at up to 18 days postinfection was found. This correlation allows the direct assessment of the effects of drug treatment on parasite burden. We demonstrate that there is a strong correlation between drug efficacy measured on day 18 postinfection and the suppression of lesion size by day 60 postinfection, which allows us to reach an accurate conclusion on drug efficacy in only 18 days. Compounds demonstrating a significant reduction in the bioluminescence signal compared to that in control animals can be tested in lower-throughput, more definitive tests of lesion cure in BALB/c mice and Golden Syrian hamsters (GSH) using Old World and New World parasites. Copyright © 2017 Caridha et al.

  2. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 266 - Tier I and Tier II Feed Rate and Emissions Screening Limits for Metals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tier I and Tier II Feed Rate and...—Tier I and Tier II Feed Rate and Emissions Screening Limits for Metals Table I-A—Tier I and Tier II Feed Rate and Emissions Screening Limits for Noncarcinogenic Metals for Facilities in Noncomplex...

  3. A Four-Tier Differentiation Model: Engage All Students in the Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrelko, Janet M.

    2013-01-01

    This study details the creation of a four-tiered format designed to help preservice teachers write differentiated lesson plans. A short history of lesson plan differentiation models is described and how the four-tier approach was developed through collaboration with classroom teachers and university faculty. The unifying element for the format…

  4. Speech-Language Pathologist and General Educator Collaboration: A Model for Tier 2 Service Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Gina D.; Bellon-Harn, Monica L.

    2014-01-01

    Tier 2 supplemental instruction within a response to intervention framework provides a unique opportunity for developing partnerships between speech-language pathologists and classroom teachers. Speech-language pathologists may participate in Tier 2 instruction via a consultative or collaborative service delivery model depending on district needs.…

  5. XENOENDOCRINE DISRUPTERS-TIERED SCREENING AND TESTING: FILLING KEY DATA GAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a screening and testing program for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). High priority chemicals would be evaluated in the Tier 1 Screening (T1S) battery. Chemicals positive in T1S would then be tested (Tier 2). T1S...

  6. Exploring Students' Understanding of Electrochemical Cells Using an Enhanced Two-Tier Diagnostic Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Adrian Sin Loy; Subramaniam, R.; Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background: The development of two-tier multiple-choice questions has permitted the diagnosis of students' understanding on various topics in the sciences as well as helped to ascertain the alternative conceptions they have. A limitation of two-tier diagnostic instruments that has been noted in the literature, but which has not been…

  7. A Four-Tier Differentiation Model: Engage All Students in the Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrelko, Janet M.

    2013-01-01

    This study details the creation of a four-tiered format designed to help preservice teachers write differentiated lesson plans. A short history of lesson plan differentiation models is described and how the four-tier approach was developed through collaboration with classroom teachers and university faculty. The unifying element for the format…

  8. Building a Tier 2 Intervention: A Glimpse behind the Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Elizabeth S.; Goldstein, Howard

    2014-01-01

    This article highlights the development process and data-driven decisions that characterized a 5-year iterative process of development and evaluation of a Tier 2 early language curriculum, "Story Friends." This curriculum was specifically designed to be effective and feasible for high fidelity implementation in preschool settings.…

  9. Building a Tier 2 Intervention: A Glimpse behind the Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Elizabeth S.; Goldstein, Howard

    2014-01-01

    This article highlights the development process and data-driven decisions that characterized a 5-year iterative process of development and evaluation of a Tier 2 early language curriculum, "Story Friends." This curriculum was specifically designed to be effective and feasible for high fidelity implementation in preschool settings.…

  10. Development of simulation computer complex specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Training Simulation Computer Complex Study was one of three studies contracted in support of preparations for procurement of a shuttle mission simulator for shuttle crew training. The subject study was concerned with definition of the software loads to be imposed on the computer complex to be associated with the shuttle mission simulator and the development of procurement specifications based on the resulting computer requirements. These procurement specifications cover the computer hardware and system software as well as the data conversion equipment required to interface the computer to the simulator hardware. The development of the necessary hardware and software specifications required the execution of a number of related tasks which included, (1) simulation software sizing, (2) computer requirements definition, (3) data conversion equipment requirements definition, (4) system software requirements definition, (5) a simulation management plan, (6) a background survey, and (7) preparation of the specifications.

  11. Draft Tier 2 Environmental Impact Statement for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Draft Tier 2 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the International Space Station (ISS) has been prepared by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and follows NASA's Record of Decision on the Final Tier 1 EIS for the Space Station Freedom. The Tier 2 EIS provides an updated evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with the alternatives considered: the Proposed Action and the No-Action alternative. The Proposed Action is to continue U.S. participation in the assembly and operation of ISS. The No-Action alternative would cancel NASA's participation in the Space Station Program. ISS is an international cooperative venture between NASA, the Canadian Space Agency, the European Space Agency, the Science and Technology Agency of Japan, the Russian Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency. The purpose of the NASA action would be to further develop a human presence in space; to meet scientific, technological, and commercial research needs; and to foster international cooperation.

  12. Final Tier 2 Environmental Impact Statement for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Final Tier 2 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the International Space Station (ISS) has been prepared by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and follows NASA's Record of Decision on the Final Tier 1 EIS for the Space Station Freedom. The Tier 2 EIS provides an updated evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with the alternatives considered: the Proposed Action and the No-Action alternative. The Proposed Action is to continue U.S. participation in the assembly and operation of ISS. The No-Action alternative would cancel NASA!s participation in the Space Station Program. ISS is an international cooperative venture between NASA, the Canadian Space Agency, the European Space Agency, the Science and Technology Agency of Japan, the Russian Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency. The purpose of the NASA action would be to further develop human presence in space; to meet scientific, technological, and commercial research needs; and to foster international cooperation.

  13. Emergent behaviour in a chlorophenol-mineralising three-tiered microbial ‘food web’

    PubMed Central

    Wade, M.J.; Pattinson, R.W.; Parker, N.G.; Dolfing, J.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion enables the water industry to treat wastewater as a resource for generating energy and recovering valuable by-products. The complexity of the anaerobic digestion process has motivated the development of complex models. However, this complexity makes it intractable to pin-point stability and emergent behaviour. Here, the widely used Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) has been reduced to its very backbone, a syntrophic two-tiered microbial ‘food chain’ and a slightly more complex three-tiered microbial ‘food web’, with their stability analysed as a function of the inflowing substrate concentration and dilution rate. Parameterised for phenol and chlorophenol degradation, steady-states were always stable and non-oscillatory. Low input concentrations of chlorophenol were sufficient to maintain chlorophenol- and phenol-degrading populations but resulted in poor conversion and a hydrogen flux that was too low to sustain hydrogenotrophic methanogens. The addition of hydrogen and phenol boosted the populations of all three organisms, resulting in the counterintuitive phenomena that (i) the phenol degraders were stimulated by adding hydrogen, even though hydrogen inhibits phenol degradation, and (ii) the dechlorinators indirectly benefitted from measures that stimulated their hydrogenotrophic competitors; both phenomena hint at emergent behaviour. PMID:26551153

  14. Integrated Safety Analysis Tiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shackelford, Carla; McNairy, Lisa; Wetherholt, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Commercial partnerships and organizational constraints, combined with complex systems, may lead to division of hazard analysis across organizations. This division could cause important hazards to be overlooked, causes to be missed, controls for a hazard to be incomplete, or verifications to be inefficient. Each organization s team must understand at least one level beyond the interface sufficiently enough to comprehend integrated hazards. This paper will discuss various ways to properly divide analysis among organizations. The Ares I launch vehicle integrated safety analyses effort will be utilized to illustrate an approach that addresses the key issues and concerns arising from multiple analysis responsibilities.

  15. Do Students Know What They Know and What They Don't Know? Using a Four-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess the Nature of Students' Alternative Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caleon, Imelda S.; Subramaniam, R.

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on the development and application of a four-tier multiple-choice (4TMC) diagnostic instrument, which has not been reported in the literature. It is an enhanced version of the two-tier multiple-choice (2TMC) test. As in 2TMC tests, its answer and reason tiers measure students' content knowledge and explanatory knowledge,…

  16. Do Students Know What They Know and What They Don't Know? Using a Four-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess the Nature of Students' Alternative Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caleon, Imelda S.; Subramaniam, R.

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on the development and application of a four-tier multiple-choice (4TMC) diagnostic instrument, which has not been reported in the literature. It is an enhanced version of the two-tier multiple-choice (2TMC) test. As in 2TMC tests, its answer and reason tiers measure students' content knowledge and explanatory knowledge,…

  17. Cormorant: Development of a complex field

    SciTech Connect

    Stiles, J.H.; McKee, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Cormorant Field provides an example of the numerous changes which are required to the development plan for a large, complex field as the nature of its complexity becomes better known. Changes in the basic development and displacement pattern, the number and spacing of wells, and completion method have occurred as the structural, stratigraphic and diagenetic nature of the field has been uncovered. In addition, a better understanding of a key development constraint, the drilling reach, has allowed changes with significant cost savings. While a well thought out initial development plan was formulated for the field, close surveillance of geological results and field performance has been necessary to allow its almost continuous updating. This paper discusses studies and evaluations undertaken by Esso Exporation and Production U.K. to evaluate such changes. In addition to a discussion of each of the four fault blocks comprising the field, the following are addressed: (1) the role of detailed reservoir description work, (2) use of partial perforation techniques for waterflood control, and (3) the tailoring of reservoir monitoring to the specific problems of Cormorant. These studies were done to complement work done by the operator, Shell U.K. Exploration and Production, who prepared the base development plan and subsequent updates.

  18. Controlling Complex Systems and Developing Dynamic Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avizienis, Audrius Victor

    In complex systems, control and understanding become intertwined. Following Ilya Prigogine, we define complex systems as having control parameters which mediate transitions between distinct modes of dynamical behavior. From this perspective, determining the nature of control parameters and demonstrating the associated dynamical phase transitions are practically equivalent and fundamental to engaging with complexity. In the first part of this work, a control parameter is determined for a non-equilibrium electrochemical system by studying a transition in the morphology of structures produced by an electroless deposition reaction. Specifically, changing the size of copper posts used as the substrate for growing metallic silver structures by the reduction of Ag+ from solution under diffusion-limited reaction conditions causes a dynamical phase transition in the crystal growth process. For Cu posts with edge lengths on the order of one micron, local forces promoting anisotropic growth predominate, and the reaction produces interconnected networks of Ag nanowires. As the post size is increased above 10 microns, the local interfacial growth reaction dynamics couple with the macroscopic diffusion field, leading to spatially propagating instabilities in the electrochemical potential which induce periodic branching during crystal growth, producing dendritic deposits. This result is interesting both as an example of control and understanding in a complex system, and as a useful combination of top-down lithography with bottom-up electrochemical self-assembly. The second part of this work focuses on the technological development of devices fabricated using this non-equilibrium electrochemical process, towards a goal of integrating a complex network as a dynamic functional component in a neuromorphic computing device. Self-assembled networks of silver nanowires were reacted with sulfur to produce interfacial "atomic switches": silver-silver sulfide junctions, which exhibit

  19. Ensuring Safety of Navigation: A Three-Tiered Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, S. D.; Thompson, M.; Brazier, D.

    2014-12-01

    The primary responsibility of the Hydrographic Department at the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) is to support US Navy surface and sub-surface Safety of Navigation (SoN) requirements. These requirements are interpreted, surveys are conducted, and accurate products are compiled and archived for future exploitation. For a number of years NAVOCEANO has employed a two-tiered data-basing structure to support SoN. The first tier (Data Warehouse, or DWH) provides access to the full-resolution sonar and lidar data. DWH preserves the original data such that any scale product can be built. The second tier (Digital Bathymetric Database - Variable resolution, or DBDB-V) served as the final archive for SoN chart scale, gridded products compiled from source bathymetry. DBDB-V has been incorporated into numerous DoD tactical decision aids and serves as the foundation bathymetry for ocean modeling. With the evolution of higher density survey systems and the addition of high-resolution gridded bathymetry product requirements, a two-tiered model did not provide an efficient solution for SoN. The two-tiered approach required scientists to exploit full-resolution data in order to build any higher resolution product. A new perspective on the archival and exploitation of source data was required. This new perspective has taken the form of a third tier, the Navigation Surface Database (NSDB). NSDB is an SQLite relational database populated with International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), S-102 compliant Bathymetric Attributed Grids (BAGs). BAGs archived within NSDB are developed at the highest resolution that the collection sensor system can support and contain nodal estimates for depth, uncertainty, separation values and metadata. Gridded surface analysis efforts culminate in the generation of the source resolution BAG files and their storage within NSDB. Exploitation of these resources eliminates the time and effort needed to re-grid and re-analyze native source file formats.

  20. Middle School Students' Responses to Two-Tier Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haja, Shajahan; Clarke, David

    2011-01-01

    The structure of two-tier testing is such that the first tier consists of a multiple-choice question and the second tier requires justifications for choices of answers made in the first tier. This study aims to evaluate two-tier tasks in "proportion" in terms of students' capacity to write and select justifications and to examine the effect of…

  1. Middle School Students' Responses to Two-Tier Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haja, Shajahan; Clarke, David

    2011-01-01

    The structure of two-tier testing is such that the first tier consists of a multiple-choice question and the second tier requires justifications for choices of answers made in the first tier. This study aims to evaluate two-tier tasks in "proportion" in terms of students' capacity to write and select justifications and to examine the effect of…

  2. 50 CFR 86.53 - What are funding tiers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What are funding tiers? 86.53 Section 86... (BIG) PROGRAM How States Apply for Grants § 86.53 What are funding tiers? (a) This grant program will consist of two tiers of funding. (i) You may apply for one or both tiers. (ii) The two tiers will allow...

  3. 50 CFR 86.53 - What are funding tiers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are funding tiers? 86.53 Section 86... (BIG) PROGRAM How States Apply for Grants § 86.53 What are funding tiers? (a) This grant program will consist of two tiers of funding. (i) You may apply for one or both tiers. (ii) The two tiers will allow...

  4. 50 CFR 86.53 - What are funding tiers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What are funding tiers? 86.53 Section 86...) PROGRAM How States Apply for Grants § 86.53 What are funding tiers? (a) This grant program will consist of two tiers of funding. (i) You may apply for one or both tiers. (ii) The two tiers will allow...

  5. 50 CFR 86.53 - What are funding tiers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are funding tiers? 86.53 Section 86...) PROGRAM How States Apply for Grants § 86.53 What are funding tiers? (a) This grant program will consist of two tiers of funding. (i) You may apply for one or both tiers. (ii) The two tiers will allow...

  6. Tier 3 DarkStar on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Lockheed Martin/Boeing Tier III- (minus) unpiloted aerial vehicle is inspected by NASA personnel September 14, 1995, following its arrival at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Tier III Minus project utilized Dryden ground facilities during the flight test program. The vehicle was developed by Lockheed Martin Skunk Works and Boeing Defense and Space Group to satisfy a goal of the Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office (DARO) to supply responsive and sustained surveillance and reconnaissance data from anywhere within enemy territory, day or night, in all types of weather. Dubbed DarkStar, it had a wing span of 69 feet and was designed to fly above 45,000 feet at subsonic speeds on missions lasting more than eight hours. The first DarkStar prototype made its first flight on March 29, 1996. At the begininning of its second flight, on April 22, 1996, it crashed on takeoff, and was destroyed. The DarkStar's unusual shape was dictated by the requirement to orbit its target conducting surveillance while still remaining stealthy. Whereas aircraft like the F-117 are designed to be more stealthy from the front, the DarkStar is designed to be more stealthy from the sides.

  7. Cormorant; Development of a complex field

    SciTech Connect

    Stiles, J.H. Jr.; McKee, J.W. )

    1991-12-01

    The development plan of Cormorant oil field exemplifies changes required as the nature of a large, complex field becomes better known. The number and locations of wells and the completion method have changed as the structural, stratigraphic, and diagnetic natures of the field became better known. A better understanding of a key development constraint-and drilling reach-has allowed changes to the development plan at significant cost savings. Close surveillance of geological results and field performance has been necessary to allow almost continuous updating. This paper discusses studies and evaluations undertaking by Eso E and P U.K. to evaluate such changes for each of the field's four fault blocks. These studies complemented work done by the operator, Shell U.K. E and P.

  8. Examining the Efficacy of a Tier 2 Kindergarten Mathematics Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Ben; Doabler, Christian T.; Smolkowski, Keith; Baker, Scott K.; Fien, Hank; Cary, Mari Strand

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a Tier 2 kindergarten mathematics intervention program, ROOTS, focused on developing whole number understanding for students at risk in mathematics. A total of 29 classrooms were randomly assigned to treatment (ROOTS) or control (standard district practices) conditions. Measures of mathematics achievement were…

  9. Technical Adequacy of the SWPBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Kent; Massar, Michelle M.; Algozzine, Robert F.; George, Heather Peshak; Horner, Robert H.; Lewis, Timothy J.; Swain-Bradway, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Full and durable implementation of school-based interventions is supported by regular evaluation of fidelity of implementation. Multiple assessments have been developed to evaluate the extent to which schools are applying the core features of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS). The "SWPBIS Tiered Fidelity…

  10. Tiers of Intervention in Kindergarten Through Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Rollanda E.; Harty, Kristin R.; Fulmer, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    This study measured the effects of increasing levels of intervention in reading for a cohort of children in Grades K through 3 to determine whether the severity of reading disability (RD) could be significantly reduced in the catchment schools. Tier 1 consisted of professional development for teachers of reading. The focus of this study is on…

  11. Examining the Efficacy of a Tier 2 Kindergarten Mathematics Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Ben; Doabler, Christian T.; Smolkowski, Keith; Baker, Scott K.; Fien, Hank; Cary, Mari Strand

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a Tier 2 kindergarten mathematics intervention program, ROOTS, focused on developing whole number understanding for students at risk in mathematics. A total of 29 classrooms were randomly assigned to treatment (ROOTS) or control (standard district practices) conditions. Measures of mathematics achievement were…

  12. Using Tiered Assignments to Engage Learners in Advanced Placement Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geddes, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents lesson plans that incorporate tiered objectives and brainstorming techniques as means for differentiating instruction and ensuring that learners are challenged at levels commensurate with their abilities even though they are developing an understanding of the same physics concepts. A listing of materials and resources…

  13. Tier 3 Toxicity Value White Paper

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this white paper is to articulate the issues pertaining to Tier 3 toxicity values and provide recommendations on processes that will improve the transparency and consistency of identifying, evaluating, selecting, and documenting Tier 3 toxicity values for use in the Superfund and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) programs. This white paper will be used to assist regional risk assessors in selecting Tier 3 toxicity values as well as provide the foundation for future regional and national efforts to improve guidance and policy on Tier 3 toxicity values.

  14. Effects of Tier 2 and Tier 3 Mathematics Interventions for Second Graders with Mathematics Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Minyi Shih

    2015-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the effects of Tier 2 and Tier 3 mathematics interventions on students with mathematics learning difficulties. In the first study, the work of Bryant et al. was replicated and expanded upon by documenting the sustained effects of a Tier 2 mathematics intervention on mathematics performance by second graders.…

  15. Effects of Tier 2 and Tier 3 Mathematics Interventions for Second Graders with Mathematics Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Minyi Shih

    2015-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the effects of Tier 2 and Tier 3 mathematics interventions on students with mathematics learning difficulties. In the first study, the work of Bryant et al. was replicated and expanded upon by documenting the sustained effects of a Tier 2 mathematics intervention on mathematics performance by second graders.…

  16. Complex fold patterns developed by progressive deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreras, Jordi; Druguet, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Folds arise from shortening instabilities in rocks containing layers with contrasting viscosities or bearing mechanical anisotropies. A complete understanding of this fact requires a three-dimensional approach, because of the variable geometrical relations between strain and kinematic tensors and the surfaces subjected to folding. This is especially common in progressive non-coaxial flow, under which folds become unstable, leading to fold hinge curvature, axial surface curvature or both. The resulting complex fold patterns generated by progressive folding can be morphologically indistinguishable from interference patterns produced by the superposition of two fold systems, and a detailed 3-D analysis is needed to distinguish between them. This study is focused on complex fold shapes arisen from progressive single deformations. Examples can be grouped into: (i) non-cylindrical (or non-cylindroidal) folds and (ii) folds with non-planar axial surfaces (or non-plane folds). In both cases, hinge lines and axial surfaces can display up to a 180° curvature. Hinge line curvature leads to the development of sheath folds, while axial surface curvature leads to the development of polyclinal folds, being these cylindroidal if the hinges remain straight. The two end-member situations (sheath folds and polyclinal folds) are illustrated using examples from the Variscan Cap de Creus massif (Eastern Pyrenees). Fold Hinge rotation and development of sheath folds In simple shear zones, folds commonly nucleate with hinges at a high angle to the shear direction and progressively rotate towards parallelism with the shear/extension direction, giving rise to sheath folds. Axial surfaces also change in attitude with increasing strain, becoming parallel to the shear plane. Development of polyclinal folds with strongly curved axial surfaces A peculiar complex fold pattern consists of strongly curved axial surfaces but straight hinges. This folding type is opposed to sheath folds where axial

  17. A comparison of Tier 1 and Tier 3 medical homes under Oklahoma Medicaid program.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jay I; Anthony, Melody; Crawford, Steven A; Arky, Ronald A; Bitton, Asaf; Splinter, Garth L

    2014-04-01

    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) is a team-based model of care that seeks to improve quality of care and control costs. The Oklahoma Health Care Authority (OHCA) directs Oklahoma's Medicaid program and contracts with 861 medical home practices across the state in one of three tiers of operational capacity: Tier 1 (Basic), Tier 2 (Advanced) and Tier 3 (Optimal). Only 13.5% (n = 116) homes are at the optimal level; the majority (59%, n = 508) at the basic level. In this study, we sought to determine the barriers that prevented Tier 1 homes from advancing to Tier 3 level and the incentives that would motivate providers to advance from Tier 1 to 3. Our hypotheses were that Tier 1 medical homes were located in smaller practices with limited resources and the providers are not convinced that the expense of advancing from Tier 1 status to Tier 3 status was worth the added value. We analyzed OHCA records to compare the 508 Tier 1 (entry-level) with 116 Tier 3 (optimal) medical homes for demographic differences with regards to location: urban or rural, duration as medical home, percentage of contracts that were group contracts, number of providers per group contract, panel age range, panel size, and member-provider ratio. We surveyed all 508 Tier 1 homes with a mail-in survey, and with focused follow up visits to identify the barriers to, and incentives for, upgrading from Tier 1 to Tier 2 or 3. We found that Tier 1 homes were more likely to be in rural areas, run by solo practitioners, serve exclusively adult panels, have smaller panel sizes, and have higher member-to-provider ratios in comparison with Tier 3 homes. Our survey had a 35% response rate. Results showed that the most difficult changes for Tier 1 homes to implement were providing 4 hours of after-hours care and a dedicated program for mental illness and substance abuse. The results also showed that the most compelling incentives for encouraging Tier 1 homes to upgrade their tier status were less

  18. 32 CFR 989.10 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.10 Tiering. The Air Force should use tiered (40 CFR 1502.20) environmental... the same issues and to focus on the issues relating to specific actions. If the Air Force adopts...

  19. 32 CFR 989.10 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.10 Tiering. The Air Force should use tiered (40 CFR 1502.20) environmental... the same issues and to focus on the issues relating to specific actions. If the Air Force adopts...

  20. 32 CFR 989.10 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.10 Tiering. The Air Force should use tiered (40 CFR 1502.20) environmental... the same issues and to focus on the issues relating to specific actions. If the Air Force adopts...

  1. 32 CFR 989.10 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.10 Tiering. The Air Force should use tiered (40 CFR 1502.20) environmental... the same issues and to focus on the issues relating to specific actions. If the Air Force adopts...

  2. 18 CFR 707.9 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Tiering. 707.9 Section 707.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) Water Resources Council Implementing Procedures § 707.9 Tiering. In...

  3. 18 CFR 707.9 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tiering. 707.9 Section 707.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) Water Resources Council Implementing Procedures § 707.9 Tiering. In...

  4. 18 CFR 707.9 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tiering. 707.9 Section 707.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) Water Resources Council Implementing Procedures § 707.9 Tiering. In...

  5. 18 CFR 707.9 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tiering. 707.9 Section 707.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) Water Resources Council Implementing Procedures § 707.9 Tiering. In...

  6. 40 CFR 1508.28 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... program or policy statements) with subsequent narrower statements or environmental analyses (such as..., or policy environmental impact statement to a program, plan, or policy statement or analysis of... Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.28 Tiering. Tiering...

  7. 40 CFR 1508.28 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... program or policy statements) with subsequent narrower statements or environmental analyses (such as..., or policy environmental impact statement to a program, plan, or policy statement or analysis of... Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.28 Tiering. Tiering...

  8. 40 CFR 1508.28 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... program or policy statements) with subsequent narrower statements or environmental analyses (such as..., or policy environmental impact statement to a program, plan, or policy statement or analysis of... Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.28 Tiering. Tiering...

  9. Perspectives on Tiered Older Driver Assessment in Primary Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Betz, Marian E; Jones, Jacqueline; Genco, Emma; Carr, David B; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Haukoos, Jason S; Lowenstein, Steven R; Schwartz, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Widespread screening of older drivers, with in-depth evaluation only of those who screen positive ("tiered assessment"), might efficiently balance driver safety and mobility. To inform program development, we sought to examine the perspectives of older drivers and clinicians on the concept of tiered assessment in primary care settings. Iterative focus groups and interviews with 33 community-dwelling current drivers aged ≥65 years and 8 primary care providers. We used inductive and deductive theme analysis to explore driver and clinician perspectives and to identify barriers and facilitators to establishing a tiered older driver assessment program in primary care settings. Four dominant themes emerged. Two themes addressed the overall concept: (a) support for the concept of tiered older driver assessment and (b) concerns about the consequences of older driver assessment and how these could affect program viability. Two themes addressed screening: (c) tension inherent in using a generalized approach to the highly individualized issue of driving and (d) logistical considerations for screening in primary care settings. Standardized older driver screening and referral might improve clinician-driver communication, but screening should occur in a context that includes personalized mobility counseling. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. BRAFO tiered approach for Benefit-Risk Assessment of Foods.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, Jeljer; Hart, Andy; Boobis, Alan; Claupein, Erika; Cockburn, Andrew; Hunt, Alistair; Knudsen, Ib; Richardson, David; Schilter, Benoît; Schütte, Katrin; Torgerson, Paul R; Verhagen, Hans; Watzl, Bernhard; Chiodini, Alessandro

    2012-11-01

    BRAFO stands for Benefit-Risk Analysis for Foods. This European Commission funded project aims at developing a framework that allows quantitative comparison of human health risks and benefits of foods and food compounds based on a common scale of measurement. A methodology group brought together methodologies from several disciplines relevant to the evaluation of risks and benefits in food. This group reviewed and assembled the methodologies available. They produced this guidance document that describes a tiered ('stepwise') approach for performing a risk and benefit assessment of foods. This process starts with pre-assessment and problem formulation to set the scope of the assessment. This includes defining two scenarios, the reference and an alternative that are compared in the assessment. The approach consists of four tiers. In many cases, a lower tier assessment in which risks and benefits are qualitatively evaluated may be sufficient to show a clear difference between the health impacts of the two scenarios. In other cases, increasingly sophisticated methods to integrate risks and benefits quantitatively are used at higher tiers to assess the net health impact.

  11. Three-tier rough superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yuanzhi; Yuan, Longyan; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Jun

    2015-08-07

    A three-tier rough superhydrophobic surface was fabricated by growing hydrophobic modified (fluorinated silane) zinc oxide (ZnO)/copper oxide (CuO) hetero-hierarchical structures on silicon (Si) micro-pillar arrays. Compared with the other three control samples with a less rough tier, the three-tier surface exhibits the best water repellency with the largest contact angle 161° and the lowest sliding angle 0.5°. It also shows a robust Cassie state which enables the water to flow with a speed over 2 m s(-1). In addition, it could prevent itself from being wetted by the droplet with low surface tension (mixed water and ethanol 1:1 in volume) which reveals a flow speed of 0.6 m s(-1) (dropped from the height of 2 cm). All these features prove that adding another rough tier on a two-tier rough surface could futher improve its water-repellent properties.

  12. In vivo detection of lateral-ventral tier nigral degeneration in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Huddleston, Daniel E; Langley, Jason; Sedlacik, Jan; Boelmans, Kai; Factor, Stewart A; Hu, Xiaoping P

    2017-02-27

    The objective of this study was to measure neuromelanin-sensitive MRI contrast changes in the lateral-ventral tier of substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease (PD). Histopathological studies of PD have demonstrated both massive loss of melanized dopamine neurons and iron accumulation in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Neurodegeneration is most profound in the lateral-ventral tier of this structure. We have previously shown in both healthy controls and individuals with PD that neuromelanin-sensitive MRI and iron-sensitive MRI contrast regions in substantia nigra overlap. This overlap region is located in the lateral-ventral tier. Exploiting this area of contrast overlap for region of interest selection, we developed a semi-automated image processing approach to characterize the lateral-ventral tier in MRI data. Here we apply this approach to measure magnetization transfer contrast, which corresponds to local neuromelanin density, in both the lateral-ventral tier and the entire pars compacta in 22 PD patients and 19 controls. Significant contrast reductions were seen in PD in both the entire pars compacta (P = 0.009) and in its lateral-ventral tier (P = 0.0002); in PD contrast was significantly lower in the lateral-ventral tier than in the entire pars compacta (P = 0.0008). These findings are the first in vivo evidence of the selective vulnerability of this nigral subregion in PD, and this approach may be developed for high impact biomarker applications. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A tiered asthma hazard characterization and exposure assessment approach for evaluation of consumer product ingredients.

    PubMed

    Maier, Andrew; Vincent, Melissa J; Parker, Ann; Gadagbui, Bernard K; Jayjock, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is a complex syndrome with significant consequences for those affected. The number of individuals affected is growing, although the reasons for the increase are uncertain. Ensuring the effective management of potential exposures follows from substantial evidence that exposure to some chemicals can increase the likelihood of asthma responses. We have developed a safety assessment approach tailored to the screening of asthma risks from residential consumer product ingredients as a proactive risk management tool. Several key features of the proposed approach advance the assessment resources often used for asthma issues. First, a quantitative health benchmark for asthma or related endpoints (irritation and sensitization) is provided that extends qualitative hazard classification methods. Second, a parallel structure is employed to include dose-response methods for asthma endpoints and methods for scenario specific exposure estimation. The two parallel tracks are integrated in a risk characterization step. Third, a tiered assessment structure is provided to accommodate different amounts of data for both the dose-response assessment (i.e., use of existing benchmarks, hazard banding, or the threshold of toxicological concern) and exposure estimation (i.e., use of empirical data, model estimates, or exposure categories). Tools building from traditional methods and resources have been adapted to address specific issues pertinent to asthma toxicology (e.g., mode-of-action and dose-response features) and the nature of residential consumer product use scenarios (e.g., product use patterns and exposure durations). A case study for acetic acid as used in various sentinel products and residential cleaning scenarios was developed to test the safety assessment methodology. In particular, the results were used to refine and verify relationships among tiered approaches such that each lower data tier in the approach provides a similar or greater margin of safety for a given

  14. A tiered-layered-staged model for informed consent in personal genome testing

    PubMed Central

    Bunnik, Eline M; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Schermer, Maartje H N

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, developments in genomics technologies have led to the rise of commercial personal genome testing (PGT): broad genome-wide testing for multiple diseases simultaneously. While some commercial providers require physicians to order a personal genome test, others can be accessed directly. All providers advertise directly to consumers and offer genetic risk information about dozens of diseases in one single purchase. The quantity and the complexity of risk information pose challenges to adequate pre-test and post-test information provision and informed consent. There are currently no guidelines for what should constitute informed consent in PGT or how adequate informed consent can be achieved. In this paper, we propose a tiered-layered-staged model for informed consent. First, the proposed model is tiered as it offers choices between categories of diseases that are associated with distinct ethical, personal or societal issues. Second, the model distinguishes layers of information with a first layer offering minimal, indispensable information that is material to all consumers, and additional layers offering more detailed information made available upon request. Finally, the model stages informed consent as a process by feeding information to consumers in each subsequent stage of the process of undergoing a test, and by accommodating renewed consent for test result updates, resulting from the ongoing development of the science underlying PGT. A tiered-layered-staged model for informed consent with a focus on the consumer perspective can help overcome the ethical problems of information provision and informed consent in direct-to-consumer PGT. PMID:23169494

  15. Development of the communication complexity scale.

    PubMed

    Brady, Nancy C; Fleming, Kandace; Thiemann-Bourque, Kathy; Olswang, Lesley; Dowden, Patricia; Saunders, Muriel D; Marquis, Janet

    2012-02-01

    Accurate description of an individual's communication status is critical in both research and practice. Describing the communication status of individuals with severe intellectual and developmental disabilities is difficult because these individuals often communicate with presymbolic means that may not be readily recognized. Our goal was to design a communication scale and summary score for interpretation that could be applied across populations of children and adults with limited (often presymbolic) communication forms. The Communication Complexity Scale (CCS) was developed by a team of researchers and tested with 178 participants with varying levels of presymbolic and early symbolic communication skills. Correlations between standardized and informant measures were completed, and expert opinions were obtained regarding the CCS. CCS scores were within expected ranges for the populations studied, and interrater reliability was high. Comparison across other measures indicated significant correlations with standardized tests of language. Scores on informant report measures tended to place children at higher levels of communication. Expert opinions generally favored the development of the CCS. The scale appears to be useful for describing a given individual's level of presymbolic or early symbolic communication. Further research is needed to determine whether it is sensitive to developmental growth in communication.

  16. Development of the Communication Complexity Scale

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Nancy C.; Fleming, Kandace; Thiemann-Bourque, Kathy; Olswang, Lesley; Dowden, Patricia; Saunders, Muriel D.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate description of an individual's communication status is critical in both research and practice. Describing the communication status of individuals with severe intellectual and developmental disabilities is difficult because these individuals often communicate with presymbolic means that may not be readily recognized. Our goal was to design a communication scale and summary score for interpretation that could be applied across populations of children and adults with limited (often presymbolic) communication forms. Methods The Communication Complexity Scale (CCS) was developed by a team of researchers and tested with 178 participants with varying levels of presymbolic and early symbolic communication skills. Correlations between standardized and informant measures were completed, and expert opinions were obtained regarding the CCS. Results CCS scores were within expected ranges for the populations studied and inter-rater reliability was high. Comparison across other measures indicated significant correlations with standardized tests of language. Scores on informant report measures tended to place children at higher levels of communication. Expert opinions generally favored the development of the CCS. Clinical implications The scale appears to be useful for describing a given individual's level of presymbolic or early symbolic communication. Further research is needed to determine if it is sensitive to developmental growth in communication. PMID:22049404

  17. Phosphorylation of bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase at Ser425 provides a further tier of enzyme control in developing castor oil seeds.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Brendan; Rao, Srinath K; Plaxton, William C

    2011-01-01

    PEPC [PEP (phosphoenolpyruvate) carboxylase] is a tightly controlled anaplerotic enzyme situated at a pivotal branch point of plant carbohydrate metabolism. Two distinct oligomeric PEPC classes were discovered in developing COS (castor oil seeds). Class-1 PEPC is a typical homotetramer of 107 kDa PTPC (plant-type PEPC) subunits, whereas the novel 910-kDa Class-2 PEPC hetero-octamer arises from a tight interaction between Class-1 PEPC and 118 kDa BTPC (bacterial-type PEPC) subunits. Mass spectrometric analysis of immunopurified COS BTPC indicated that it is subject to in vivo proline-directed phosphorylation at Ser425. We show that immunoblots probed with phosphorylation site-specific antibodies demonstrated that Ser425 phosphorylation is promoted during COS development, becoming maximal at stage IX (maturation phase) or in response to depodding. Kinetic analyses of a recombinant, chimaeric Class-2 PEPC containing phosphomimetic BTPC mutant subunits (S425D) indicated that Ser425 phosphorylation results in significant BTPC inhibition by: (i) increasing its Km(PEP) 3-fold, (ii) reducing its I50 (L-malate and L-aspartate) values by 4.5- and 2.5-fold respectively, while (iii) decreasing its activity within the physiological pH range. The developmental pattern and kinetic influence of Ser425 BTPC phosphorylation is very distinct from the in vivo phosphorylation/activation of COS Class-1 PEPC's PTPC subunits at Ser11. Collectively, the results establish that BTPC's phospho-Ser425 content depends upon COS developmental and physiological status and that Ser425 phosphorylation attenuates the catalytic activity of BTPC subunits within a Class-2 PEPC complex. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for protein phosphorylation as a mechanism for the in vivo control of vascular plant BTPC activity.

  18. Simulation concept of NICA-MPD-SPD Tier0-Tier1 computing facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenkov, V. V.; Nechaevskiy, A. V.; Ososkov, G. A.; Pryahina, D. I.; Trofomov, V. V.; Uzhinskiy, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    The simulation concept for grid-cloud services of contemporary HENP experiments of the Big Data scale was formulated in practicing the simulation system developed in LIT JINR Dubna. This system is intended to improve the efficiency of the design and development of a wide class of grid-cloud structures by using the work quality indicators of some real system to design and predict its evolution. For these purposes the simulation program is combined with a real monitoring system of the grid-cloud service through a special database (DB). The DB accomplishes acquisition and analysis of monitoring data to carry out dynamical corrections of the simulation. Such an approach allows us to construct a general model pattern which should not depend on a specific simulated object, while the parameters describing this object can be used as input to run the pattern. The simulation of some processes of the NICA-MPD-SPD Tier0-Tier1 distributed computing is considered as an example of our approach applications.

  19. A three-tier clinical information systems design model.

    PubMed

    Chu, S; Cesnik, B

    2000-07-01

    Modern health care institutions are often multi-site organisations that implement heterogeneous information management systems interacting with distributed databases. Advances in treatment modality/technology and rapidly changing information technology create increasing demand for changes/redevelopment of many health information applications. These features spawn the need for solutions to (a) guarantee data exchange across different types of applications and database management systems, and (b) reduce the costs of systems development and modification. This paper explores the concept of 'middleware services' as a solution to achieve these goals. It reports on the successful application of a component-based 3-tier system architecture to develop a computerised clinical pathways management system. The implementation experience confirms a number of significant benefits of the 3-tier structure including, reusability, flexibility, significant reduction in costs and efforts of systems development, and provision of easy, open migration pathway for future change of technology and system redevelopment.

  20. 26 CFR 1.1446-5 - Tiered partnership structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... income (ECTI), has a partner that is a partnership (upper-tier partnership). Except as provided in...-tier partnership's effectively connected taxable income (ECTI). Paragraph (d) of this section... installment payments of such tax) with respect to ECTI allocable to the upper-tier partnership, the lower-tier...

  1. 20 CFR 225.21 - Survivor Tier I PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Survivor Tier I PIA. 225.21 Section 225.21... INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS PIA's Used in Computing Survivor Annuities and the Amount of the Residual Lump-Sum Payable § 225.21 Survivor Tier I PIA. The Survivor Tier I PIA is used in computing the tier I...

  2. 20 CFR 225.11 - Tier I PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tier I PIA. 225.11 Section 225.11 Employees... DETERMINATIONS PIA's Used in Computing Employee, Spouse and Divorced Spouse Annuities § 225.11 Tier I PIA. (a) General. The Tier I PIA is used in computing an employee, spouse or divorced spouse tier I amount. Except...

  3. 20 CFR 226.32 - Spouse tier II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Spouse tier II. 226.32 Section 226.32... Spouse tier II. The spouse tier II benefit is computed as follows: (a) The employee's tier II amount as... before reduction for the railroad retirement family maximum, is multiplied by 45 percent. The spouse...

  4. 20 CFR 226.32 - Spouse tier II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Spouse tier II. 226.32 Section 226.32... Spouse tier II. The spouse tier II benefit is computed as follows: (a) The employee's tier II amount as... before reduction for the railroad retirement family maximum, is multiplied by 45 percent. The spouse...

  5. 20 CFR 225.11 - Tier I PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tier I PIA. 225.11 Section 225.11 Employees... DETERMINATIONS PIA's Used in Computing Employee, Spouse and Divorced Spouse Annuities § 225.11 Tier I PIA. (a) General. The Tier I PIA is used in computing an employee, spouse or divorced spouse tier I amount....

  6. 20 CFR 225.11 - Tier I PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Tier I PIA. 225.11 Section 225.11 Employees... DETERMINATIONS PIA's Used in Computing Employee, Spouse and Divorced Spouse Annuities § 225.11 Tier I PIA. (a) General. The Tier I PIA is used in computing an employee, spouse or divorced spouse tier I amount....

  7. Tier 3 Interventions for Students with Significant Reading Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Vaughn, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview of research on intensive reading interventions to inform Tier 3 instruction for students with reading disabilities. Tier 3 interventions are typically provided to those students who demonstrate inadequate progress after receiving less intensive Tier 2 interventions. A conceptual overview of Tier 3 interventions…

  8. 20 CFR 226.32 - Spouse tier II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spouse tier II. 226.32 Section 226.32... Spouse tier II. The spouse tier II benefit is computed as follows: (a) The employee's tier II amount as... before reduction for the railroad retirement family maximum, is multiplied by 45 percent. The spouse...

  9. 20 CFR 225.21 - Survivor Tier I PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Survivor Tier I PIA. 225.21 Section 225.21 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT PRIMARY... Lump-Sum Payable § 225.21 Survivor Tier I PIA. The Survivor Tier I PIA is used in computing the tier...

  10. 20 CFR 226.32 - Spouse tier II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spouse tier II. 226.32 Section 226.32... Spouse tier II. The spouse tier II benefit is computed as follows: (a) The employee's tier II amount as... before reduction for the railroad retirement family maximum, is multiplied by 45 percent. The spouse...

  11. 20 CFR 225.21 - Survivor Tier I PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Survivor Tier I PIA. 225.21 Section 225.21 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT PRIMARY... Lump-Sum Payable § 225.21 Survivor Tier I PIA. The Survivor Tier I PIA is used in computing the tier...

  12. 20 CFR 226.32 - Spouse tier II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Spouse tier II. 226.32 Section 226.32... Spouse tier II. The spouse tier II benefit is computed as follows: (a) The employee's tier II amount as... before reduction for the railroad retirement family maximum, is multiplied by 45 percent. The spouse...

  13. 20 CFR 225.21 - Survivor Tier I PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Survivor Tier I PIA. 225.21 Section 225.21 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT PRIMARY... Lump-Sum Payable § 225.21 Survivor Tier I PIA. The Survivor Tier I PIA is used in computing the tier...

  14. 20 CFR 225.11 - Tier I PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tier I PIA. 225.11 Section 225.11 Employees... DETERMINATIONS PIA's Used in Computing Employee, Spouse and Divorced Spouse Annuities § 225.11 Tier I PIA. (a) General. The Tier I PIA is used in computing an employee, spouse or divorced spouse tier I amount....

  15. 20 CFR 225.21 - Survivor Tier I PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Survivor Tier I PIA. 225.21 Section 225.21 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT PRIMARY... Lump-Sum Payable § 225.21 Survivor Tier I PIA. The Survivor Tier I PIA is used in computing the tier...

  16. 20 CFR 225.11 - Tier I PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Tier I PIA. 225.11 Section 225.11 Employees... DETERMINATIONS PIA's Used in Computing Employee, Spouse and Divorced Spouse Annuities § 225.11 Tier I PIA. (a) General. The Tier I PIA is used in computing an employee, spouse or divorced spouse tier I amount....

  17. Effects of the Implementation of the "Rally to Read" Program: A Tier 3 Approach within the Response to Intervention Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bott, Kevin Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This study was a mixed-method, quasi-experimental investigation that evaluated the implementation of the "Rally to Read" remediation program, designed by the Center for Learning and Development (CLD), as a Tier 3 intervention method within the Response to Intervention (RTI) process. This study compared the progress of a Tier 3 student group on…

  18. Tier 2 Supports to Improve Motivation and Performance of Elementary Students with Behavioral Challenges and Poor Work Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Wendy Peia; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Cox, Meredith; Magrane, Ashley; Jenkins, Abbie; Hankins, Katy

    2012-01-01

    We offer a methodological illustration for researchers and practitioners of how to conduct a development study consistent with the parameters delineated by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES; U.S. Department of Education [USDE], 2010) to explore the utility of an existing Tier 1 intervention applied as a Tier 2 support within a three-tiered…

  19. Tier 2 Supports to Improve Motivation and Performance of Elementary Students with Behavioral Challenges and Poor Work Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Wendy Peia; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Cox, Meredith; Magrane, Ashley; Jenkins, Abbie; Hankins, Katy

    2012-01-01

    We offer a methodological illustration for researchers and practitioners of how to conduct a development study consistent with the parameters delineated by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES; U.S. Department of Education [USDE], 2010) to explore the utility of an existing Tier 1 intervention applied as a Tier 2 support within a three-tiered…

  20. 40 CFR 370.43 - What codes are used to report Tier I and Tier II inventory information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What codes are used to report Tier I and Tier II inventory information? 370.43 Section 370.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 370.43 What codes are used to report Tier I and Tier II inventory information? (a) Weight range...

  1. 40 CFR 370.43 - What codes are used to report Tier I and Tier II inventory information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What codes are used to report Tier I and Tier II inventory information? 370.43 Section 370.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 370.43 What codes are used to report Tier I and Tier II inventory information? (a) Weight range...

  2. EPCRA Tier II Confidential Location Information Form

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    For reporting Tier Two chemicals on the Emergency and Hazardous Chemical Inventory. Requires chemical description, categorized physical and health hazards, inventory reporting range, type of storage, and storage conditions and locations.

  3. Optimal Resource Allocation under Fair QoS in Multi-tier Server Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akai, Hirokazu; Ushio, Toshimitsu; Hayashi, Naoki

    Recent development of network technology realizes multi-tier server systems, where several tiers perform functionally different processing requested by clients. It is an important issue to allocate resources of the systems to clients dynamically based on their current requests. On the other hand, Q-RAM has been proposed for resource allocation in real-time systems. In the server systems, it is important that execution results of all applications requested by clients are the same QoS(quality of service) level. In this paper, we extend Q-RAM to multi-tier server systems and propose a method for optimal resource allocation with fairness of the QoS levels of clients’ requests. We also consider an assignment problem of physical machines to be sleep in each tier sothat the energy consumption is minimized.

  4. Tiered Human Integrated Sequence Search Databases for Shotgun Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Eric W.; Sun, Zhi; Campbell, David S.; Binz, Pierre-Alain; Farrah, Terry; Shteynberg, David; Mendoza, Luis; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Moritz, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    The results of analysis of shotgun proteomics mass spectrometry data can be greatly affected by the selection of the reference protein sequence database against which the spectra are matched. For many species there are multiple sources from which somewhat different sequence sets can be obtained. This can lead to confusion about which database is best in which circumstances – a problem especially acute in human sample analysis. All sequence databases are genome-based, with sequences for the predicted gene and their protein translation products compiled. Our goal is to create a set of primary sequence databases that comprise the union of sequences from many of the different available sources and make the result easily available to the community. We have compiled a set of four sequence databases of varying sizes, from a small database consisting of only the ~20,000 primary isoforms plus contaminants to a very large database that includes almost all non-redundant protein sequences from several sources. This set of tiered, increasingly complete human protein sequence databases suitable for mass spectrometry proteomics sequence database searching is called the Tiered Human Integrated Search Proteome set. In order to evaluate the utility of these databases, we have analyzed two different data sets, one from the HeLa cell line and the other from normal human liver tissue, with each of the four tiers of database complexity. The result is that approximately 0.8%, 1.1%, and 1.5% additional peptides can be identified for Tiers 2, 3, and 4, respectively, as compared with the Tier 1 database, at substantially increasing computational cost. This increase in computational cost may be worth bearing if the identification of sequence variants or the discovery of sequences that are not present in the reviewed knowledge base entries is an important goal of the study. We find that it is useful to search a data set against a simpler database, and then check the uniqueness of the

  5. Tiered Human Integrated Sequence Search Databases for Shotgun Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Eric W; Sun, Zhi; Campbell, David S; Binz, Pierre-Alain; Farrah, Terry; Shteynberg, David; Mendoza, Luis; Omenn, Gilbert S; Moritz, Robert L

    2016-11-04

    The results of analysis of shotgun proteomics mass spectrometry data can be greatly affected by the selection of the reference protein sequence database against which the spectra are matched. For many species there are multiple sources from which somewhat different sequence sets can be obtained. This can lead to confusion about which database is best in which circumstances-a problem especially acute in human sample analysis. All sequence databases are genome-based, with sequences for the predicted gene and their protein translation products compiled. Our goal is to create a set of primary sequence databases that comprise the union of sequences from many of the different available sources and make the result easily available to the community. We have compiled a set of four sequence databases of varying sizes, from a small database consisting of only the ∼20,000 primary isoforms plus contaminants to a very large database that includes almost all nonredundant protein sequences from several sources. This set of tiered, increasingly complete human protein sequence databases suitable for mass spectrometry proteomics sequence database searching is called the Tiered Human Integrated Search Proteome set. In order to evaluate the utility of these databases, we have analyzed two different data sets, one from the HeLa cell line and the other from normal human liver tissue, with each of the four tiers of database complexity. The result is that approximately 0.8%, 1.1%, and 1.5% additional peptides can be identified for Tiers 2, 3, and 4, respectively, as compared with the Tier 1 database, at substantially increasing computational cost. This increase in computational cost may be worth bearing if the identification of sequence variants or the discovery of sequences that are not present in the reviewed knowledge base entries is an important goal of the study. We find that it is useful to search a data set against a simpler database, and then check the uniqueness of the

  6. Cautionary Notes on a Global Tiered Pricing Framework for Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Owain D.; Ooms, Gorik

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been a policy momentum toward creating a global tiered pricing framework, which would provide differentiated prices for medicines globally, based on each country’s capacity to pay. We studied the most influential proposals for a tiered pricing framework since the 1995 World Trade Organization’s Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. We synthesized 6 critical questions to be addressed for a global framework to function and explored the many challenges of implementation. Although we acknowledge that there is the potential for an exceptional global commitment that would benefit both producers and those in developing countries in need of wider access to medicines, our greatest concern is to ensure that a global framework does not price out the poor from pharmaceutical markets nor threaten current flexibilities within the international patent regime. PMID:25973806

  7. Examining the Efficacy of a Tier 2 Kindergarten Mathematics Intervention.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Ben; Doabler, Christian T; Smolkowski, Keith; Baker, Scott K; Fien, Hank; Strand Cary, Mari

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a Tier 2 kindergarten mathematics intervention program, ROOTS, focused on developing whole number understanding for students at risk in mathematics. A total of 29 classrooms were randomly assigned to treatment (ROOTS) or control (standard district practices) conditions. Measures of mathematics achievement were collected at pretest and posttest. Treatment and control students did not differ on mathematics assessments at pretest. Gain scores of at-risk intervention students were significantly greater than those of control peers, and the gains of at-risk treatment students were greater than the gains of peers not at risk, effectively reducing the achievement gap. Implications for Tier 2 mathematics instruction in a response to intervention (RtI) model are discussed.

  8. Combining Tier 2 and Tier 3 Supports for Students with Disabilities in General Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLeod, K. Sandra; Hawken, Leanne S.; O'Neill, Robert E.; Bundock, Kaitlin

    2016-01-01

    Secondary level or Tier 2 interventions such as the Check-in Check-out (CICO) intervention effectively reduce problem behaviors of students who are non-responsive to school-wide interventions. However, some students will not be successful with Tier 2 interventions. This study investigated the effects of adding individualized function-based support…

  9. Fears for Tiers: Are Candidates Being Appropriately Rewarded for Their Performance in Tiered Examinations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheadon, Christopher; Beguin, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Tiering is a multi-stage test design whereby teachers allocate students to a particular difficulty level (tier) of a test. This approach to the challenge of delivering assessments to students with a heterogeneous ability distribution is normal practice in UK public examinations at the age of 16. This study uses Item Response Theory number-correct…

  10. 40 CFR 87.23 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... engine type certificate family's characteristic level does not exceed the numerical level of that... production of certain engines after the Tier 6 and Tier 8 standards begin to apply. (1) Engine type... this section. This also applies for engines that are covered by the same type certificate and are...

  11. 40 CFR 87.23 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... applicable standard if the testing results show that the engine type certificate family's characteristic... certain engines after the Tier 6 and Tier 8 standards begin to apply. (1) Engine type certificate families... applies for engines that are covered by the same type certificate and are determined to be derivative...

  12. Implementation Challenges for Tier One and Tier Two School-Based Programs for Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRusso, Maria D.; Donovan, Suzanne; Snow, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-method study examined the implementation and the challenges to implementation for participants in randomized controlled trials of two school-based programs for early adolescents: the Tier One Word Generation (WG) program, and the Tier Two Strategic Adolescent Reading Intervention (STARI). Levels of implementation for WG and STARI varied…

  13. Fears for Tiers: Are Candidates Being Appropriately Rewarded for Their Performance in Tiered Examinations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheadon, Christopher; Beguin, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Tiering is a multi-stage test design whereby teachers allocate students to a particular difficulty level (tier) of a test. This approach to the challenge of delivering assessments to students with a heterogeneous ability distribution is normal practice in UK public examinations at the age of 16. This study uses Item Response Theory number-correct…

  14. The CMS Tier0 goes cloud and grid for LHC Run 2

    SciTech Connect

    Hufnagel, Dirk

    2015-12-23

    In 2015, CMS will embark on a new era of collecting LHC collisions at unprecedented rates and complexity. This will put a tremendous stress on our computing systems. Prompt Processing of the raw data by the Tier-0 infrastructure will no longer be constrained to CERN alone due to the significantly increased resource requirements. In LHC Run 2, we will need to operate it as a distributed system utilizing both the CERN Cloud-based Agile Infrastructure and a significant fraction of the CMS Tier-1 Grid resources. In another big change for LHC Run 2, we will process all data using the multi-threaded framework to deal with the increased event complexity and to ensure efficient use of the resources. Furthermore, this contribution will cover the evolution of the Tier-0 infrastructure and present scale testing results and experiences from the first data taking in 2015.

  15. The CMS TierO goes Cloud and Grid for LHC Run 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufnagel, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    In 2015, CMS will embark on a new era of collecting LHC collisions at unprecedented rates and complexity. This will put a tremendous stress on our computing systems. Prompt Processing of the raw data by the Tier-0 infrastructure will no longer be constrained to CERN alone due to the significantly increased resource requirements. In LHC Run 2, we will need to operate it as a distributed system utilizing both the CERN Cloud-based Agile Infrastructure and a significant fraction of the CMS Tier-1 Grid resources. In another big change for LHC Run 2, we will process all data using the multi-threaded framework to deal with the increased event complexity and to ensure efficient use of the resources. This contribution will cover the evolution of the Tier-0 infrastructure and present scale testing results and experiences from the first data taking in 2015.

  16. The CMS Tier0 goes cloud and grid for LHC Run 2

    DOE PAGES

    Hufnagel, Dirk

    2015-12-23

    In 2015, CMS will embark on a new era of collecting LHC collisions at unprecedented rates and complexity. This will put a tremendous stress on our computing systems. Prompt Processing of the raw data by the Tier-0 infrastructure will no longer be constrained to CERN alone due to the significantly increased resource requirements. In LHC Run 2, we will need to operate it as a distributed system utilizing both the CERN Cloud-based Agile Infrastructure and a significant fraction of the CMS Tier-1 Grid resources. In another big change for LHC Run 2, we will process all data using the multi-threadedmore » framework to deal with the increased event complexity and to ensure efficient use of the resources. Furthermore, this contribution will cover the evolution of the Tier-0 infrastructure and present scale testing results and experiences from the first data taking in 2015.« less

  17. Analysis facility infrastructure (Tier-3) for ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González de La Hoz, S.; March, L.; Ros, E.; Sánchez, J.; Amorós, G.; Fassi, F.; Fernández, A.; Kaci, M.; Lamas, A.; Salt, J.

    2008-04-01

    In the ATLAS computing model the tiered hierarchy ranged from the Tier-0 (CERN) down to desktops or workstations (Tier-3). The focus on defining the roles of each tiered component has evolved with the initial emphasis on the Tier-0 and Tier-1 definition and roles. The various LHC (Large Hadron Collider) projects, including ATLAS, then evolved the tiered hierarchy to include Tier-2’s (Regional centers) as part of their projects. Tier-3 centres, on the other hand, have been defined as whatever an institution could construct to support their Physics goals using institutional and otherwise leveraged resources and therefore have not been considered to be part of the official ATLAS computing resources. However, Tier-3 centres are going to exist and will have implications on how the computing model should support ATLAS physicists. Tier-3 users will want to access LHC data and simulations and will want to enable their resources to support their analysis and simulation work. This document will define how IFIC (Instituto de Física Corpuscular de Valencia), after discussing with the ATLAS Tier-3 task force, should interact with the ATLAS computing model, detail the conditions under which Tier-3 centres can expect some level of support and set reasonable expectations for the scope and support of ATLAS Tier-3 sites.

  18. Making Educational Development and Change Sustainable: Insights from Complexity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the challenge of sustainable change and development in education from the perspective of complexity theory. Complexity theory's concept of emergence implies that, given a significant degree of complexity in a particular environment, new properties and behaviours emerge that are not necessarily contained in the essence of the…

  19. Developing Organizational Adaptability for Complex Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Steven A.; Turner, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Developing organizations capable of adapting requires leaders to set conditions. Setting conditions normally requires purposeful activities by the leadership to foster and develop leader and individual adaptability, supported by processes and activities that enable adaptive behaviors through the totality of the organization (Goldstein, Hazy, &…

  20. Grid Operation at Tokyo Tier-2 Centre for ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Isobe, Tadaaki; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Ueda, Ikuo

    International Centre for Elementary Particle Physics, the University of Tokyo, has been involved in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid since 2003. After extensive R&D experience of the PC computing farm, disk and tape storage systems, network technology and the integration of these components, it is now operating a regional centre for the ATLAS data analysis. The regional centre includes an ATLAS Tier-2 site which is running the gLite middleware developed by the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE (EGEE) project. One of the biggest challenges at the regional centre is efficient data transfer between the Tier-2 site in Tokyo and other sites, in particular the associated Tier-1 site in France, because the large round trip time due to the long distance makes it difficult to transfer data at a high rate. We have been studying to achieve a good performance of the data transfer, and some results of network tests and ATLAS data transfer are described. Hardware and software components and the operational experience are also reported in this article.

  1. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Diagnostic Test Measuring College Biology Students' Understanding of Diffusion and Osmosis after a Course of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Arthur Louis; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a diagnostic test for measuring college biology students' understanding of diffusion. Three general steps were used: (1) defining the content boundaries; (2) collecting information on students' misconceptions; and (3) instrument development. The split half reliability was 0.74, difficulty indices ranged from 0.23 to 0.95, and the…

  2. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Diagnostic Test Measuring College Biology Students' Understanding of Diffusion and Osmosis after a Course of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Arthur Louis; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a diagnostic test for measuring college biology students' understanding of diffusion. Three general steps were used: (1) defining the content boundaries; (2) collecting information on students' misconceptions; and (3) instrument development. The split half reliability was 0.74, difficulty indices ranged from 0.23 to 0.95, and the…

  3. A Grant Project to Initiate School Counselors' Development of a Multi-Tiered System of Supports Based on Social-Emotional Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Karen; Griffith, Catherine; Gray, Katharine; Greenspan, Scott

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of a grant project designed to create a district-wide elementary school counseling program with a strong data-based decision-making process. Project goals included building data literacy skills among school counselors and developing the infrastructure to efficiently collect important social-emotional indicators…

  4. General Chemistry Students' Understanding of the Chemistry Underlying Climate Science and the Development of a Two-Tiered Multiple-Choice Diagnostic Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versprille, A.; Towns, M.; Mahaffy, P.; Martin, B.; McKenzie, L.; Kirchhoff, M.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the NSF funded Visualizing the Chemistry of Climate Change (VC3) project, we have developed a chemistry of climate science diagnostic instrument for use in general chemistry courses based on twenty-four student interviews. We have based our interview protocol on misconceptions identified in the research literature and the essential principles of climate change outlined in the CCSP document that pertain to chemistry (CCSP, 2009). The undergraduate student interviews elicited their understanding of the greenhouse effect, global warming, climate change, greenhouse gases, climate, and weather, and the findings from these interviews informed and guided the development of the multiple-choice diagnostic instrument. Our analysis and findings from the interviews indicate that students seem to confuse the greenhouse effect, global warming, and the ozone layer and in terms of chemistry concepts, the students lack a particulate level understanding of greenhouse gases causing them to not fully conceptualize the greenhouse effect and climate change. Details of the findings from the interviews, development of diagnostic instrument, and preliminary findings from the full implementation of the diagnostic instrument will be shared.

  5. A tiered approach for assessing children's exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, T W; Hushka, L J; Tell, J G; Zaleski, R T

    2000-01-01

    Recently, intense attention has been given to children's health issues, particularly in the use of consumer products. Because of this attention, researchers have been planning and initiating studies specifically aimed at developing both toxicology data and exposure data directed to improve our understanding of industrial and consumer product chemical impacts on children's health. To ensure that this research is focused on the highest priority chemicals, we present a methodology for determining and prioritizing the higher hazard chemicals and scenarios for which children could be disproportionately or highly exposed. This tiered approach includes a screening step for initial chemical selection, a hazard assessment based on no- or lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels, and a margin of exposure (MOE) calculation. The initial chemical screen focuses on the chemical presence in specific media that are special to children, such as foods children regularly eat and drink, residential or school air, products children use, and soil and dust in and around residences. Data from the literature or from models serve as the initial exposure estimate. This methodology would allow us to focus on those chemicals to which children are most exposed that are also associated with, potentially, the highest risk. Use of the MOE calculation allows for comparison among chemicals, prioritization of chemicals for evaluation and testing, and identification of significant data gaps. PMID:10856018

  6. Research and development complex with remote access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panfilov, Y. V.; Kolesnik, L. L.; Ryabov, V. T.; Sidorova, S. V.

    2017-07-01

    Vacuum modular tool for thin films vacuum deposition was considered. Deposition tool automatic control system built-in to the remote access. Methodological support for the preparation of laboratory works and virtual simulator for mastering the ability to work on the vacuum deposition tool were developed.

  7. Economical Development of Complex Computer Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-15

    Davis, "New Projects: Beware of False Economies," Harvard Business Review , Number 2, March-April 1985, pp. 95-96. 9 Edward G. Krubasik, "Customize Your...Product Development," Harvard Business Review Number 6, November-December 1988, p. 49. 10 Edward B. Roberts and Marc H. Meyer, "Product Strategy and

  8. Multi-resolution global tomography using multiple tessellation tiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, N. A.; Myers, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    We are currently developing a new 3-D global tomography modeling framework with monitoring purposes at the forefront. The overall monitoring goal is to develop a seamless, 3-D global model capable of accurately locating seismic events from combined teleseismic and regional travel time observations. Such a model will eliminate the need to splice independent regional and/or global models for the purpose of travel time prediction since the singular model will be complete and self-consistent. In order to optimize the number of free parameters, the modeling framework must allow for flexible multiple resolution capabilities (depth and spatial). The model design must also directly account for variable discontinuous structures from a-priori information to maintain travel time prediction accuracy. With these general criteria in mind, we have designed a tessellation procedure whereby triangular sides of a pre-determined polyhedron are recursively subdivided into smaller triangles. Each recursion level (tier) produces 4 triangular regions (daughters) within each larger triangular region (parents) and the vertices are then normalized to the unit sphere. Upon building each higher tier tessellation, parent-daughter triangle information is stored and indexed to allow for rapid model referencing at any desired tessellation tier (resolution level). Therefore sensitivity kernels can be computed for all available tessellation tiers while simultaneously triangulating positions along a given ray path, allowing for easily adjustable multi-resolution model inversion setup. Mixing kernel weights from multiple tessellation tiers also provides for an efficient regularization scheme. Sets of model nodes are defined along the tessellated vertices and discontinuous structures (such as the Moho and subducted slabs) are treated via logical definitions and structured data array design with only a slight hindrance on computational efficiency. A geodetic reference ellipsoid (GRS80) is built into

  9. The Development, Validation, and Application of a Two-Tier Diagnostic Instrument to Detect Misconceptions in the Areas of Force, Heat, Light and Electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Bobby Jo.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the concepts prevalent among students in specific physical science related classes and to identify what classroom teachers would do when confronted with this knowledge. A 40 item instrument, Misconception Identification in Science Questionnaire (MISQ), was developed to identify certain concepts in the areas of force, heat, light, and electricity and administered to 509 students. Interviews were conducted with a stratified sampling of 27 students to validate the instrument. Six teachers were observed and interviewed to determine teacher opinion relative to test usefulness, diagnostic testing in general and other instructional factors. Quantitative and qualitative means were utilized to determine test reliability, validity, and usefulness. Item analysis was performed to determine item discrimination ability, as well as test reliability. Students were interviewed using the MISQ items and their oral responses were compared to their answers given on the pen-and-paper test. Confidence and sensibleness ratings were determined for each MISQ item utilizing responses given on the written test. The MISQ was analyzed and determined to have the ability to discriminate among various ability groups and possesses both validity and reliability. Female elementary science methods and physics students performed no better than the male physical science students on the MISQ. In general male students scored higher than their female peers and viewed their responses as more sensible and with more confidence. As age decreased among the students tested with the MISQ the confidence and sensibleness rating tended to decrease. Analysis of teacher interviews revealed three uses of the MISQ instrument in this study. The first of these was in the form of a general informative nature. The second utilized selected items as integral parts of the instructional process. The third used student responses as part of a grouping strategy. Further analysis reveals

  10. Complex Interplays between Phytosterols and Plastid Development.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Paola; Caudepon, Daniel; Altabella, Teresa; Arró, Montserrat; Ferrer, Albert; Manzano, David

    2017-10-09

    Isoprenoids comprise the largest class of natural compounds and are found in all kinds of organisms. In plants, they participate in both primary and specialized metabolism, playing essential roles in nearly all aspects of growth and development. The enormous diversity of this family of compounds is extensively exploited for biotechnological and biomedical applications as biomaterials, biofuels or drugs. Despite their variety of structures, all isoprenoids derive from the common C5 precursor Isopentenil diphosphate (IPP). Plants synthesize IPP through two different metabolic pathways, the mevalonic acid (MVA) and the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathways that operate in the cytosol-RE and plastids, respectively. MEP-derived isoprenoids include important compounds for chloroplast function and as such, knock-out mutant plants affected in different steps of this pathway display important alterations in plastid structure. These alterations often lead to albino phenotypes and lethality at seedling stage. MVA knock-out mutant plants show, on the contrary, lethal phenotypes already exhibited at the gametophyte or embryo developmental stage. However, the recent characterization of conditional knock-down mutant plants of Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPS), a central enzyme in cytosolic and mitochondrial isoprenoid biosynthesis, revealed an unexpected role of this pathway in chloroplast development and plastidial isoprenoid metabolism in post-embryonic stages. Upon FPS silencing, chloroplast structure is severely altered, together with a strong reduction in the levels of MEP pathway-derived major end products. This phenotype is associated to misregulation of genes involved in stress responses predominantly belonging to JA and Fe homeostasis pathways. Transcriptomic experiments and analysis of recent literature indicate that sterols are the cause of the observed alterations through an as yet undiscovered mechanism.

  11. A two-tier atmospheric circulation classification scheme for the European-North Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guentchev, Galina S.; Winkler, Julie A.

    A two-tier classification of large-scale atmospheric circulation was developed for the European-North-Atlantic domain. The classification was constructed using a combination of principal components and k-means cluster analysis applied to reanalysis fields of mean sea-level pressure for 1951-2004. Separate classifications were developed for the winter, spring, summer, and fall seasons. For each season, the two classification tiers were identified independently, such that the definition of one tier does not depend on the other tier having already been defined. The first tier of the classification is comprised of supertype patterns. These broad-scale circulation classes are useful for generalized analyses such as investigations of the temporal trends in circulation frequency and persistence. The second, more detailed tier consists of circulation types and is useful for numerous applied research questions regarding the relationships between large-scale circulation and local and regional climate. Three to five supertypes and up to 19 circulation types were identified for each season. An intuitive nomenclature scheme based on the physical entities (i.e., anomaly centers) which dominate the specific patterns was used to label each of the supertypes and types. Two example applications illustrate the potential usefulness of a two-tier classification. In the first application, the temporal variability of the supertypes was evaluated. In general, the frequency and persistence of supertypes dominated by anticyclonic circulation increased during the study period, whereas the supertypes dominated by cyclonic features decreased in frequency and persistence. The usefulness of the derived circulation types was exemplified by an analysis of the circulation associated with heat waves and cold spells reported at several cities in Bulgaria. These extreme temperature events were found to occur with a small number of circulation types, a finding that can be helpful in understanding past

  12. IT Complexity Revolution: Intelligent Tools for the Globalised World Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilyuk, Andrei; Ulieru, Mihaela

    Globalised-civilisation interaction intensity grows exponentially, involving all dimensions and regions of planetary environment. The resulting dynamics of critically high, exploding complexity urgently needs consistent understanding and efficient management. The new, provably universal concept of unreduced dynamic complexity of real interaction processes described here provides the former and can be used as a basis for the latter, in the form of “complexity revolution” in information systems controlling such “critically globalised” civilisation dynamics. We outline the relevant dynamic complexity properties and the ensuing principles of anticipated complexity transition in information and communication systems. We then emphasize key applications of unreduced complexity concept and complexity-driven IT to various aspects of post-industrial civilisation dynamics, including intelligent communication, context-aware information and control systems, reliable genetics, integral medicine, emergent engineering, efficient risk management at the new level of socio-economic development and resulting realistic sustainability.

  13. A Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Pre-Service Teachers' Misconceptions about Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Harika Ozge; Cigdemoglu, Ceyhan; Moseley, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test, the atmosphere-related environmental problems diagnostic test (AREPDiT), to reveal common misconceptions of global warming (GW), greenhouse effect (GE), ozone layer depletion (OLD), and acid rain (AR). The development of a two-tier diagnostic test…

  14. A Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Pre-Service Teachers' Misconceptions about Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Harika Ozge; Cigdemoglu, Ceyhan; Moseley, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test, the atmosphere-related environmental problems diagnostic test (AREPDiT), to reveal common misconceptions of global warming (GW), greenhouse effect (GE), ozone layer depletion (OLD), and acid rain (AR). The development of a two-tier diagnostic test…

  15. 76 FR 71623 - Publication of the Tier 2 Tax Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... Internal Revenue Service Publication of the Tier 2 Tax Rates AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Publication of the tier 2 tax rates for calendar year 2012 as required by section 3241(d) of the Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C. section 3241). Tier 2 taxes on railroad...

  16. 75 FR 73166 - Publication of the Tier 2 Tax Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Internal Revenue Service Publication of the Tier 2 Tax Rates AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Publication of the tier 2 tax rates for calendar year 2011 as required by section 3241(d) of the Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C. section 3241). Tier 2 taxes on railroad employees...

  17. 77 FR 71481 - Publication of the Tier 2 Tax Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... Internal Revenue Service Publication of the Tier 2 Tax Rates AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice. ] SUMMARY: Publication of the tier 2 tax rates for calendar year 2013 as required by section 3241(d) of the Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C. 3241). Tier 2 taxes on railroad employees...

  18. Beyond Tier-Based Bigrams: An Artificial Grammar Learning Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Hahn; Oh, Young-il

    2013-01-01

    Some of recently proposed phonotactic learners are tier-based bigram learners that restrict their hypothesis space to patterns between two segments that are adjacent at the tier level. This assumption is understandable considering that typologically frequent nonadjacent sound patterns are predominantly those that hold between two tier-adjacent…

  19. SWPBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory. Version 2.1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algozzine, B.; Barrett, S.; Eber, L.; George, H.; Horner, R.; Lewis, T.; Putnam, B.; Swain-Bradway, J.; McIntosh, K.; Sugai, G.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the SWPBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory (TFI) is to provide a valid, reliable, and efficient measure of the extent to which school personnel are applying the core features of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS). The TFI is divided into three sections (Tier I: Universal SWPBIS Features; Tier II: Targeted…

  20. Breaks Are Better: A Tier II Social Behavior Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, R. Justin; Anderson, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-tiered systems of social behavioral support in schools provide varying levels of intervention matched to student need. Tier I (primary or universal) systems are for all students and are designed to promote pro-social behavior. Tier III (tertiary or intensive) supports are for students who engage in serious challenging behavior that has not…

  1. 78 FR 71039 - Publication of the Tier 2 Tax Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... Internal Revenue Service Publication of the Tier 2 Tax Rates AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Publication of the tier 2 tax rates for calendar year 2014 as required by section 3241(d) of the Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C. section 3241). Tier 2 taxes on...

  2. Systematic Implementation of a Tier 2 Behavior Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Deborah Russell; Carter, Gabriel M.; Johnson, Evelyn S.; Pool, Juli L.

    2013-01-01

    Schools are increasingly adopting tiered models of prevention to meet the needs of diverse populations of students. This article outlines the steps involved in designing and implementing a systematic Tier 2 behavior intervention within a tiered service delivery model. An elementary school example is provided to outline the identification,…

  3. 47 CFR 76.987 - New product tiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false New product tiers. 76.987 Section 76.987... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.987 New product tiers. (a) Operators may establish a category of CPSTs, referred to as “new product tiers” (“NPTs”), and offer these tiers to subscribers...

  4. 47 CFR 76.920 - Composition of the basic tier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Composition of the basic tier. 76.920 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.920 Composition of the basic tier. Every subscriber of a cable system must subscribe to the basic tier in order to subscribe to any...

  5. Beyond Tier-Based Bigrams: An Artificial Grammar Learning Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Hahn; Oh, Young-il

    2013-01-01

    Some of recently proposed phonotactic learners are tier-based bigram learners that restrict their hypothesis space to patterns between two segments that are adjacent at the tier level. This assumption is understandable considering that typologically frequent nonadjacent sound patterns are predominantly those that hold between two tier-adjacent…

  6. 20 CFR 226.11 - Employee tier II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Employee tier II. 226.11 Section 226.11... EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing an Employee Annuity § 226.11 Employee tier II. The tier II of an employee annuity is based only on railroad service. For annuities awarded...

  7. 20 CFR 226.10 - Employee tier I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employee tier I. 226.10 Section 226.10... EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing an Employee Annuity § 226.10 Employee tier I. Tier I of an employee annuity is an amount similar to the social security benefit the employee...

  8. 20 CFR 226.10 - Employee tier I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Employee tier I. 226.10 Section 226.10... EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing an Employee Annuity § 226.10 Employee tier I. Tier I of an employee annuity is an amount similar to the social security benefit the employee...

  9. 20 CFR 226.11 - Employee tier II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee tier II. 226.11 Section 226.11... EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing an Employee Annuity § 226.11 Employee tier II. The tier II of an employee annuity is based only on railroad service. For annuities awarded...

  10. 20 CFR 226.11 - Employee tier II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Employee tier II. 226.11 Section 226.11... EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing an Employee Annuity § 226.11 Employee tier II. The tier II of an employee annuity is based only on railroad service. For annuities awarded...

  11. 20 CFR 226.11 - Employee tier II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Employee tier II. 226.11 Section 226.11... EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing an Employee Annuity § 226.11 Employee tier II. The tier II of an employee annuity is based only on railroad service. For annuities awarded...

  12. 47 CFR 76.920 - Composition of the basic tier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Composition of the basic tier. 76.920 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.920 Composition of the basic tier. Every subscriber of a cable system must subscribe to the basic tier in order to subscribe to any...

  13. 47 CFR 76.920 - Composition of the basic tier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Composition of the basic tier. 76.920 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.920 Composition of the basic tier. Every subscriber of a cable system must subscribe to the basic tier in order to subscribe to any...

  14. 47 CFR 76.920 - Composition of the basic tier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Composition of the basic tier. 76.920 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.920 Composition of the basic tier. Every subscriber of a cable system must subscribe to the basic tier in order to subscribe to any...

  15. 20 CFR 226.11 - Employee tier II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employee tier II. 226.11 Section 226.11... EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing an Employee Annuity § 226.11 Employee tier II. The tier II of an employee annuity is based only on railroad service. For annuities awarded...

  16. 47 CFR 76.987 - New product tiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false New product tiers. 76.987 Section 76.987... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.987 New product tiers. (a) Operators may establish a category of CPSTs, referred to as “new product tiers” (“NPTs”), and offer these tiers to subscribers...

  17. Breaks Are Better: A Tier II Social Behavior Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, R. Justin; Anderson, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-tiered systems of social behavioral support in schools provide varying levels of intervention matched to student need. Tier I (primary or universal) systems are for all students and are designed to promote pro-social behavior. Tier III (tertiary or intensive) supports are for students who engage in serious challenging behavior that has not…

  18. 47 CFR 76.920 - Composition of the basic tier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Composition of the basic tier. 76.920 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.920 Composition of the basic tier. Every subscriber of a cable system must subscribe to the basic tier in order to subscribe to any...

  19. 20 CFR 226.10 - Employee tier I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Employee tier I. 226.10 Section 226.10... EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing an Employee Annuity § 226.10 Employee tier I. Tier I of an employee annuity is an amount similar to the social security benefit the employee...

  20. 47 CFR 76.987 - New product tiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false New product tiers. 76.987 Section 76.987... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.987 New product tiers. (a) Operators may establish a category of CPSTs, referred to as “new product tiers” (“NPTs”), and offer these tiers to subscribers...

  1. 20 CFR 226.10 - Employee tier I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Employee tier I. 226.10 Section 226.10... EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing an Employee Annuity § 226.10 Employee tier I. Tier I of an employee annuity is an amount similar to the social security benefit the employee...

  2. 26 CFR 1.444-2T - Tiered structure (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tiered structure (temporary). 1.444-2T Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Accounting Periods § 1.444-2T Tiered structure (temporary). (a) General... a tiered structure on the date specified in paragraph (d) of this section. For purposes of this...

  3. 26 CFR 1.444-2T - Tiered structure (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tiered structure (temporary). 1.444-2T Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Accounting Periods § 1.444-2T Tiered structure (temporary). (a) General... a tiered structure on the date specified in paragraph (d) of this section. For purposes of this...

  4. 47 CFR 76.987 - New product tiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false New product tiers. 76.987 Section 76.987... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.987 New product tiers. (a) Operators may establish a category of CPSTs, referred to as “new product tiers” (“NPTs”), and offer these tiers to subscribers at...

  5. Research Methodology on Language Development from a Complex Systems Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane; Cameron, Lynne

    2008-01-01

    Changes to research methodology motivated by the adoption of a complexity theory perspective on language development are considered. The dynamic, nonlinear, and open nature of complex systems, together with their tendency toward self-organization and interaction across levels and timescales, requires changes in traditional views of the functions…

  6. Research Methodology on Language Development from a Complex Systems Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane; Cameron, Lynne

    2008-01-01

    Changes to research methodology motivated by the adoption of a complexity theory perspective on language development are considered. The dynamic, nonlinear, and open nature of complex systems, together with their tendency toward self-organization and interaction across levels and timescales, requires changes in traditional views of the functions…

  7. 20 CFR 228.2 - Tier I and tier II annuity components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Social Security Act if all of the employee's earnings after 1936 under both the railroad retirement system and the social security system had been creditable under the Social Security Act. (b) Tier...

  8. 20 CFR 228.2 - Tier I and tier II annuity components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Social Security Act if all of the employee's earnings after 1936 under both the railroad retirement system and the social security system had been creditable under the Social Security Act. (b) Tier...

  9. Tier 1 ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters

    SciTech Connect

    Shreffler, D.K.; Thorn, R.M.; Walls, B.E.; Word, J.Q.

    1994-01-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99--662) authorized the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) -- San Francisco District, to accommodate larger, deeper draft vessels in Oakland inner and Outer Harbors by deepening and widening the existing navigation channel, and providing turning basins and maneuvering areas in Oakland inner Harbor. The suitability of the resulting dredged material for disposal into ocean waters was subject to the procedures of the 1991 Testing Manual, Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal, known as the ``Green Book``. The Green Book provides a tiered approach for testing the suitability of dredged materials through chemical, physical, and biological evaluations. The first level of investigation, or Tier 1 evaluation, is used to determine whether a decision on LPC compliance can be made on the basis of readily available information. The Tier 1 report primarily summarizes existing information on sediment contamination and toxicity potential, identifies contaminants of concern, and determines the need for further testing. To assist the USACE in determining the suitability of dredged material from Oakland inner and Outer Harbors for ocean disposal, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory prepared this Tier 1 report based upon information and data provided by USACE. Because this Tier 1 report originated well after an LPC determination was made to require testing of project sediments in Tier 3, the primary purpose of this report was to identify contaminants of concern (if any) in that particular dredged material. In addition, this Tier 1 report summarizes available information on chemical, physical, and biological characterization of the sediments in Oakland inner and Outer Harbors.

  10. Manufacturer Tier 3 Questions and EPA Answers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document contains a record of EPA responses to manufacturer questions received prior to October 16, 2015 with respect to implementation of the Tier 3 final rule intended to aid regulated parties in achieving compliance with regulations for light-duty

  11. 40 CFR 79.53 - Tier 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... comparable to that provided by such testing. (3) The test animals shall be rodents, preferably a strain of... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Testing Requirements for Registration § 79.53 Tier 2. (a) Generally. Subject to... subject to testing under this subpart must be tested in accordance with each of the testing guidelines in...

  12. Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program Tier 1 Assessments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has completed weight-of-evidence (WoE) assessments under the Endocrine Distruptor Screening Program (EDSP) for 52 pesticides included in the final list of chemicals for Tier 1 screening. See weight of evidence reports and data evaluation records.

  13. Revitalizing Tier 2 Intervention with Graphic Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Linda; Grisham, Dana L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors explore the practice of incorporating graphic novels in a Tier 2 Response To Intervention (RTI) program for five elementary-aged struggling readers in an urban school. Using a formative experiment framework, the study found that graphic novels provided a vehicle for the application of word recognition and fluency strategies learned in…

  14. 40 CFR 79.54 - Tier 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... testing with respect to other organ systems or endpoints not addressed by specific Tier 2 tests, e.g..., physiologic, metabolic, or histopathologic effects of fuel or additive emissions to such other organ systems... characterization of significant levels of a known toxicant to such other organ systems and endpoints may...

  15. 40 CFR 79.54 - Tier 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... testing with respect to other organ systems or endpoints not addressed by specific Tier 2 tests, e.g..., physiologic, metabolic, or histopathologic effects of fuel or additive emissions to such other organ systems... characterization of significant levels of a known toxicant to such other organ systems and endpoints may...

  16. 40 CFR 79.54 - Tier 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... testing with respect to other organ systems or endpoints not addressed by specific Tier 2 tests, e.g..., physiologic, metabolic, or histopathologic effects of fuel or additive emissions to such other organ systems... characterization of significant levels of a known toxicant to such other organ systems and endpoints may...

  17. Lead and Copper Rule Tier Schedule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Lead and Copper Rule Tier Schedule may be used by public water systems in Wyoming and on EPA R8 Tribal Lands as a guide to properly identify their lead and copper tap sample sites to comply with the Lead and Copper Rule.

  18. 14 CFR 1216.314 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Tiering. 1216.314 Section 1216.314 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Procedures for... activity or sequential stages of a mission, and which themselves may require environmental assessments and...

  19. 14 CFR 1216.314 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tiering. 1216.314 Section 1216.314 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Procedures for... activity or sequential stages of a mission, and which themselves may require environmental assessments and...

  20. 18 CFR 707.9 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tiering. 707.9 Section 707.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL... these plans. The “policy” or “overview” EIS should serve as the framework and introduction for a...

  1. A four-tier problem-solving scaffold to teach pain management in dental school.

    PubMed

    Ivanoff, Chris S; Hottel, Timothy L

    2013-06-01

    Pain constitutes a major reason patients pursue dental treatment. This article presents a novel curriculum to provide dental students comprehensive training in the management of pain. The curriculum's four-tier scaffold combines traditional and problem-based learning to improve students' diagnostic, pharmacotherapeutic, and assessment skills to optimize decision making when treating pain. Tier 1 provides underpinning knowledge of pain mechanisms with traditional and contextualized instruction by integrating clinical correlations and studying worked cases that stimulate clinical thinking. Tier 2 develops critical decision making skills through self-directed learning and actively solving problem-based cases. Tier 3 exposes students to management approaches taken in allied health fields and cultivates interdisciplinary communication skills. Tier 4 provides a "knowledge and experience synthesis" by rotating students through community pain clinics to practice their assessment skills. This combined teaching approach aims to increase critical thinking and problem-solving skills to assist dental graduates in better management of pain throughout their careers. Dental curricula that have moved to comprehensive care/private practice models are well-suited for this educational approach. The goal of this article is to encourage dental schools to integrate pain management into their curricula, to develop pain management curriculum resources for dental students, and to provide leadership for change in pain management education.

  2. Documentation Driven Development for Complex Real-Time Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    REPORT Documentation Driven Development for Complex Real-Time Systems 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This paper presents a novel approach...5000 REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE b. ABSTRACT UU c. THIS PAGE UU 2. REPORT TYPE Old Reprint 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 5d...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 - Documentation Driven Development for Complex Real-Time Systems Report Title ABSTRACT This paper presents a novel

  3. Can recent pan-tropical biomass maps be used to derive alternative Tier 1 values for reporting REDD+ activities under UNFCCC?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langner, Andreas; Achard, Frédéric; Grassi, Giacomo

    2014-12-01

    The IPCC Guidelines propose 3 Tier levels for greenhouse gas monitoring within the forest land category with a hierarchical order in terms of accuracy, data requirements and complexity. Due to missing data and/or capacities, many developing countries, potentially interested in the reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation scheme, have to rely on Tier 1 default values with highest uncertainties. A possible way to increase the credibility of uncertain estimates is to apply a conservative approach, for which standard statistical information is needed. However, such information is currently not available for the IPCC values. In our study we combine a recent global forest mask, an ecological zoning map and the pan-tropical AGB datasets of Saatchi and Baccini to derive mean forest AGB values per ecological zone and continent as well as their corresponding confidence intervals. Such analysis can be considered transparent as the datasets/methodologies are well documented. Our study leads to alternative Tier 1 values and allows the application of statistically-based conservative approaches. Our AGB estimates derived from Saatchi and Baccini datasets are 35% and 24% lower respectively than the IPCC values. When restricting the analysis to intact forest landscapes resulting ABG estimates derived from Saatchi and Baccini datasets get closer to the IPCC values with 13% and 1% differences respectively (underestimation). This suggests that the IPCC default values are mainly based on plots in mature forest stands. However, as tropical forests generally consist of a mixture of intact and degraded stands, the use of IPCC values may not properly reflect the reality. Finally, we propose to use the average composite of the Saatchi and Baccini datasets to produce improved alternative IPCC Tier 1 values. The values derived from such approach can easily be updated when newer and/or improved pan-tropical AGB maps will be available.

  4. Developing a Measurement for Task Complexity in Flight.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yiyuan; Lu, Yanyu; Wang, Zhen; Huang, Dan; Fu, Shan

    2015-08-01

    Task complexity is regarded as an essential metric that is related to a pilot's performance and workload. Normally, pilots follow Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) during a flight. In this study, we developed a measurement named Task Complexity in Flight (TCIF) to represent the task complexity in the SOPs. The TCIF measurement combined four complexity components into one index: actions logic complexity (ALC), actions size complexity (ASC), information control exchange complexity (ICEC), and control mode complexity (CMC).To verify the measurement, we calculated 11 tasks during the takeoff and landing phases from the SOPs, and invited 10 pilots to perform the same tasks in a flight simulator. After flight, the TCIF results were compared with two workload measurements: the Bedford scale and heart rate. The results of TCIF and the 4 components of the 11 tasks were calculated. Further, the TCIF results showed a significant correlation with the Bedford scores (R=0.851) and were also consistent with the difference in heart rate (R=0.816). Therefore, with the increased TCIF results, both the Bedford scale and the difference in heart rate increased. TCIF was proposed based on the flight operating conditions. Although additional studies of TCIF are necessary, the results of this study suggest this measurement could effectively indicate task complexity in flight, and could also be used to guide pilot training and task allocation on the flight deck.

  5. An algal model for predicting attainment of tiered biological criteria of Maine's streams and rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danielson, Thomas J.; Loftin, Cyndy; Tsomides, Leonidas; DiFranco, Jeanne L.; Connors, Beth; Courtemanch, David L.; Drummond, Francis; Davies, Susan

    2012-01-01

    State water-quality professionals developing new biological assessment methods often have difficulty relating assessment results to narrative criteria in water-quality standards. An alternative to selecting index thresholds arbitrarily is to include the Biological Condition Gradient (BCG) in the development of the assessment method. The BCG describes tiers of biological community condition to help identify and communicate the position of a water body along a gradient of water quality ranging from natural to degraded. Although originally developed for fish and macroinvertebrate communities of streams and rivers, the BCG is easily adapted to other habitats and taxonomic groups. We developed a discriminant analysis model with stream algal data to predict attainment of tiered aquatic-life uses in Maine's water-quality standards. We modified the BCG framework for Maine stream algae, related the BCG tiers to Maine's tiered aquatic-life uses, and identified appropriate algal metrics for describing BCG tiers. Using a modified Delphi method, 5 aquatic biologists independently evaluated algal community metrics for 230 samples from streams and rivers across the state and assigned a BCG tier (1–6) and Maine water quality class (AA/A, B, C, nonattainment of any class) to each sample. We used minimally disturbed reference sites to approximate natural conditions (Tier 1). Biologist class assignments were unanimous for 53% of samples, and 42% of samples differed by 1 class. The biologists debated and developed consensus class assignments. A linear discriminant model built to replicate a priori class assignments correctly classified 95% of 150 samples in the model training set and 91% of 80 samples in the model validation set. Locally derived metrics based on BCG taxon tolerance groupings (e.g., sensitive, intermediate, tolerant) were more effective than were metrics developed in other regions. Adding the algal discriminant model to Maine's existing macroinvertebrate discriminant

  6. Progress in landslide susceptibility mapping over Europe using Tier-based approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Andreas; Hervás, Javier; Reichenbach, Paola; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2010-05-01

    The European Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection aims, among other objectives, to ensure a sustainable use of soil. The legal instrument of the strategy, the proposed Framework Directive, suggests identifying priority areas of several soil threats including landslides using a coherent and compatible approach based on the use of common thematic data. In a first stage, this can be achieved through landslide susceptibility mapping using geographically nested, multi-step tiered approaches, where areas identified as of high susceptibility by a first, synoptic-scale Tier ("Tier 1") can then be further assessed and mapped at larger scale by successive Tiers. In order to identify areas prone to landslides at European scale ("Tier 1"), a number of thematic terrain and environmental data sets already available for the whole of Europe can be used as input for a continental scale susceptibility model. However, since no coherent landslide inventory data is available at the moment over the whole continent, qualitative heuristic zonation approaches are proposed. For "Tier 1" a preliminary, simplified model has been developed. It consists of an equally weighting combination of a reduced, continent-wide common dataset of landslide conditioning factors including soil parent material, slope angle and land cover, to derive a landslide susceptibility index using raster mapping units consisting of 1 x 1 km pixels. A preliminary European-wide susceptibility map has thus been produced at 1:1 Million scale, since this is compatible with that of the datasets used. The map has been validated by means of a ratio of effectiveness using samples from landslide inventories in Italy, Austria, Hungary and United Kingdom. Although not differentiated for specific geomorphological environments or specific landslide types, the experimental model reveals a relatively good performance in many European regions at a 1:1 Million scale. An additional "Tier 1" susceptibility map at the same scale and using

  7. Tiered Internship Model for Undergraduate Students in Geospatial Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopteva, Irina A.; Arkowski, Donna; Craft, Elaine L.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the development, implementation, and evaluation of a tiered internship program for undergraduate students in geospatial science and technology (TIMSGeoTech). The internship program assists education programs in providing skill development that is relevant and useful, and it aligns graduates and their skills with industry…

  8. Tiered Internship Model for Undergraduate Students in Geospatial Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopteva, Irina A.; Arkowski, Donna; Craft, Elaine L.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the development, implementation, and evaluation of a tiered internship program for undergraduate students in geospatial science and technology (TIMSGeoTech). The internship program assists education programs in providing skill development that is relevant and useful, and it aligns graduates and their skills with industry…

  9. Supporting Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-Tiered Models of Prevention in Schools: Administrators' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Carter, Erik W.; Jenkins, Abbie; Dwiggins, Lauren; Germer, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    We report findings from a statewide survey of 365 site-level administrators developed to (a) learn about the extent to which schools across the state were implementing components of multi-tiered systems of support and (b) determine the areas in which these schools might need professional development or resources to support them. At least half of…

  10. Cerebellar Development and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, Maria; Sahin, Mustafa

    2015-12-01

    Approximately 50% of patients with the genetic disease tuberous sclerosis complex present with autism spectrum disorder. Although a number of studies have investigated the link between autism and tuberous sclerosis complex, the etiology of autism spectrum disorder in these patients remains unclear. Abnormal cerebellar function during critical phases of development could disrupt functional processes in the brain, leading to development of autistic features. Accordingly, the authors review the potential role of cerebellar dysfunction in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder in tuberous sclerosis complex. The authors also introduce conditional knockout mouse models of Tsc1 and Tsc2 that link cerebellar circuitry to the development of autistic-like features. Taken together, these preclinical and clinical investigations indicate the cerebellum has a profound regulatory role during development of social communication and repetitive behaviors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Complex Instruction: Managing Professional Development and School Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pescarmona, Isabella

    2010-01-01

    Complex Instruction (CI) is a comprehensive programme relating to curriculum development and instructional methodology, using multiple ability tasks and status interventions as key concepts. In 2006, at the end of a teacher training course, a group of primary school teachers decided to develop and experiment with original CI teaching units in…

  12. 40 CFR 86.1860-04 - How to comply with the Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 fleet average NOX standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NOX standards do not apply to a manufacturer whose U.S. LDV/T and MDPV sales are 100% Tier 2 LDV/Ts... sufficient Tier 2 NOX credits, interim non-Tier 2 LDV/LLDT NOX credits or interim non-Tier 2 HLDT/MDPV NOX...) Their Tier 2 LDV/LLDT and Tier 2 HLDT/MDPV fleet average NOX emissions for each model year through 2008...

  13. A tiered assessment framework to evaluate human health risk of contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Ben K; Melwani, Aroon R; Bay, Steven M

    2015-07-01

    For sediment contaminated with bioaccumulative pollutants (e.g., PCBs and organochorine pesticides), human consumption of seafood that contain bioaccumulated sediment-derived contaminants is a well-established exposure pathway. Historically, regulation and management of this bioaccumulation pathway has focused on site-specific risk assessment. The state of California (United States) is supporting the development of a consistent and quantitative sediment assessment framework to aid in interpreting a narrative objective to protect human health. The conceptual basis of this framework focuses on 2 key questions: 1) do observed pollutant concentrations in seafood from a given site pose unacceptable health risks to human consumers? and 2) is sediment contamination at a site a significant contributor to seafood contamination? The first question is evaluated by interpreting seafood tissue concentrations at the site, based on health risk calculations. The second question is evaluated by interpreting site-specific sediment chemistry data using a food web bioaccumulation model. The assessment framework includes 3 tiers (screening assessment, site assessment, and refined site assessment), which enables the assessment to match variations in data availability, site complexity, and study objectives. The second and third tiers use a stochastic simulation approach, incorporating information on variability and uncertainty of key parameters, such as seafood contaminant concentration and consumption rate by humans. The framework incorporates site-specific values for sensitive parameters and statewide values for difficult to obtain or less sensitive parameters. The proposed approach advances risk assessment policy by incorporating local data into a consistent region-wide problem formulation, applying best available science in a streamlined fashion. © 2015 SETAC.

  14. Three Tier Unified Process Model for Requirement Negotiations and Stakeholder Collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niazi, Muhammad Ashraf Khan; Abbas, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad

    2012-11-01

    This research paper is focused towards carrying out a pragmatic qualitative analysis of various models and approaches of requirements negotiations (a sub process of requirements management plan which is an output of scope managementís collect requirements process) and studies stakeholder collaborations methodologies (i.e. from within communication management knowledge area). Experiential analysis encompass two tiers; first tier refers to the weighted scoring model while second tier focuses on development of SWOT matrices on the basis of findings of weighted scoring model for selecting an appropriate requirements negotiation model. Finally the results are simulated with the help of statistical pie charts. On the basis of simulated results of prevalent models and approaches of negotiations, a unified approach for requirements negotiations and stakeholder collaborations is proposed where the collaboration methodologies are embeded into selected requirements negotiation model as internal parameters of the proposed process alongside some external required parameters like MBTI, opportunity analysis etc.

  15. A three-tier framework for monitoring antiretroviral therapy in high HIV burden settings

    PubMed Central

    Osler, Meg; Hilderbrand, Katherine; Hennessey, Claudine; Arendse, Juanita; Goemaere, Eric; Ford, Nathan; Boulle, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low and middle-income countries is a chronic disease intervention of unprecedented magnitude and is the dominant health systems challenge for high-burden countries, many of which rank among the poorest in the world. Substantial external investment, together with the requirement for service evolution to adapt to changing needs, including the constant shift to earlier ART initiation, makes outcome monitoring and reporting particularly important. However, there is growing concern at the inability of many high-burden countries to report on the outcomes of patients who have been in care for various durations, or even the number of patients in care at a particular point in time. In many instances, countries can only report on the number of patients ever started on ART. Despite paper register systems coming under increasing strain, the evolution from paper directly to complex electronic medical record solutions is not viable in many contexts. Implementing a bridging solution, such as a simple offline electronic version of the paper register, can be a pragmatic alternative. This paper describes and recommends a three-tiered monitoring approach in low- and middle-income countries based on the experience implementing such a system in the Western Cape province of South Africa. A three-tier approach allows Ministries of Health to strategically implement one of the tiers in each facility offering ART services. Each tier produces the same nationally required monthly enrolment and quarterly cohort reports so that outputs from the three tiers can be aggregated into a single database at any level of the health system. The choice of tier is based on context and resources at the time of implementation. As resources and infrastructure improve, more facilities will transition to the next highest and more technologically sophisticated tier. Implementing a three-tier monitoring system at country level for pre-antiretroviral wellness, ART

  16. A three-tier framework for monitoring antiretroviral therapy in high HIV burden settings.

    PubMed

    Osler, Meg; Hilderbrand, Katherine; Hennessey, Claudine; Arendse, Juanita; Goemaere, Eric; Ford, Nathan; Boulle, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low and middle-income countries is a chronic disease intervention of unprecedented magnitude and is the dominant health systems challenge for high-burden countries, many of which rank among the poorest in the world. Substantial external investment, together with the requirement for service evolution to adapt to changing needs, including the constant shift to earlier ART initiation, makes outcome monitoring and reporting particularly important. However, there is growing concern at the inability of many high-burden countries to report on the outcomes of patients who have been in care for various durations, or even the number of patients in care at a particular point in time. In many instances, countries can only report on the number of patients ever started on ART. Despite paper register systems coming under increasing strain, the evolution from paper directly to complex electronic medical record solutions is not viable in many contexts. Implementing a bridging solution, such as a simple offline electronic version of the paper register, can be a pragmatic alternative. This paper describes and recommends a three-tiered monitoring approach in low- and middle-income countries based on the experience implementing such a system in the Western Cape province of South Africa. A three-tier approach allows Ministries of Health to strategically implement one of the tiers in each facility offering ART services. Each tier produces the same nationally required monthly enrolment and quarterly cohort reports so that outputs from the three tiers can be aggregated into a single database at any level of the health system. The choice of tier is based on context and resources at the time of implementation. As resources and infrastructure improve, more facilities will transition to the next highest and more technologically sophisticated tier. Implementing a three-tier monitoring system at country level for pre-antiretroviral wellness, ART

  17. Risk based tiered approach (RBTASM) for pollution prevention.

    PubMed

    Elves, R G; Sweeney, L M; Tomljanovic, C

    1997-11-01

    Effective management of human health and ecological hazards in the manufacturing and maintenance environment can be achieved by focusing on the risks associated with these operations. The NDCEE Industrial Health Risk Assessment (IHRA) Program is developing a comprehensive approach to risk analysis applied to existing processes and used to evaluate alternatives. The IHRA Risk-Based Tiered Approach (RBTASM) builds on the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Risk-Based Corrective Action (RBCA) effort to remediate underground storage tanks. Using readily available information, a semi-quantitative ranking of alternatives based on environmental, safety, and occupational health criteria was produced. A Rapid Screening Assessment of alternative corrosion protection products was performed on behalf of the Joint Group on Acquisition Pollution Prevention (JG-APP). Using the RBTASM in pollution prevention alternative selection required higher tiered analysis and more detailed assessment of human health risks under site-specific conditions. This example illustrates the RBTASM for a organic finishing line using three different products (one conventional spray and two alternative powder coats). The human health risk information developed using the RBTASM is considered along with product performance, regulatory, and cost information by risk managers downselecting alternatives for implementation or further analysis.

  18. Development of the follicle complex and oocyte staging in red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus Linnaeus, 1776 (Perciformes, Sciaenidae).

    PubMed

    Grier, Harry J

    2012-08-01

    Pelagic egg development in red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, is described using tiered staging. Based on mitosis and meiosis, there are five periods: Mitosis of Oogonia, Active Meiosis I, Arrested Meiosis I, Active Meiosis II, and Arrested Meiosis II. The Periods are divided into six stages: Mitotic Division of Oogonia, Chromatin Nucleolus, Primary Growth, Secondary Growth, Oocyte Maturation and Ovulation. The Chromatin Nucleolus Stage is divided into four steps: Leptotene, Zygotene, Pachytene, and Early Diplotene. Oocytes in the last step possess one nucleolus, dispersed chromatin with forming lampbrush chromosomes and lack basophilic ooplasm. The Primary Growth Stage, characterized by basophilic ooplasm and absence of yolk in oocytes, is divided into five steps: One-Nucleolus, Multiple Nucleoli, Perinucleolar, Oil Droplets, and Cortical Alveolar. During primary growth, the Balbiani body develops from nuage, enlarges and disperses throughout the ooplasm as both endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi develop within it. Secondary growth or vitellogenesis has three steps: Early Secondary Growth, Late Secondary Growth and Full-Grown. The Oocyte Maturation Stage, including ooplasmic and germinal vesicle maturation, has four steps: Eccentric Germinal Vesicle, Germinal Vesicle Migration, Germinal Vesicle Breakdown and Resumption of Meiosis when complete yolk hydration occurs. The period is Arrested Meiosis II. When folliculogenesis is completed, the ovarian follicle, an oocyte and encompassing follicle cells, is surrounded by a basement membrane and developing theca, all forming a follicle complex. After ovulation, a newly defined postovulatory follicle complex remains attached to the germinal epithelium. It is composed of a basement membrane that separates the postovulatory follicle from the postovulatory theca. Arrested Meiosis I encompasses primary and secondary growth (vitellogenesis) and includes most of oocyte maturation until the resumption of meiosis (Active Meiosis II

  19. Development and Application of Agglomerated Multigrid Methods for Complex Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.

    2010-01-01

    We report progress in the development of agglomerated multigrid techniques for fully un- structured grids in three dimensions, building upon two previous studies focused on efficiently solving a model diffusion equation. We demonstrate a robust fully-coarsened agglomerated multigrid technique for 3D complex geometries, incorporating the following key developments: consistent and stable coarse-grid discretizations, a hierarchical agglomeration scheme, and line-agglomeration/relaxation using prismatic-cell discretizations in the highly-stretched grid regions. A signi cant speed-up in computer time is demonstrated for a model diffusion problem, the Euler equations, and the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for 3D realistic complex geometries.

  20. Development of Onboard Computer Complex for Russian Segment of ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branets, V.; Brand, G.; Vlasov, R.; Graf, I.; Clubb, J.; Mikrin, E.; Samitov, R.

    1998-01-01

    Report present a description of the Onboard Computer Complex (CC) that was developed during the period of 1994-1998 for the Russian Segment of ISS. The system was developed in co-operation with NASA and ESA. ESA developed a new computation system under the RSC Energia Technical Assignment, called DMS-R. The CC also includes elements developed by Russian experts and organizations. A general architecture of the computer system and the characteristics of primary elements of this system are described. The system was integrated at RSC Energia with the participation of American and European specialists. The report contains information on software simulators, verification and de-bugging facilities witch were been developed for both stand-alone and integrated tests and verification. This CC serves as the basis for the Russian Segment Onboard Control Complex on ISS.

  1. WHALE, a management tool for Tier-2 LCG sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, L. M.; Organtini, G.; Talamo, I. G.

    2012-12-01

    The LCG (Worldwide LHC Computing Grid) is a grid-based hierarchical computing distributed facility, composed of more than 140 computing centers, organized in 4 tiers, by size and offer of services. Every site, although indipendent for many technical choices, has to provide services with a well-defined set of interfaces. For this reason, different LCG sites need frequently to manage very similar situations, like jobs behaviour on the batch system, dataset transfers between sites, operating system and experiment software installation and configuration, monitoring of services. In this context we created WHALE (WHALE Handles Administration in an LCG Environment), a software actually used at the T2_IT_Rome site, an LCG Tier-2 for the CMS experiment. WHALE is a generic, site independent tool written in Python: it allows administrator to interact in a uniform and coherent way with several subsystems using a high level syntax which hides specific commands. The architecture of WHALE is based on the plugin concept and on the possibility of connecting the output of a plugin to the input of the next one, in a pipe-like system, giving the administrator the possibility of making complex functions by combining the simpler ones. The core of WHALE just handles the plugin orchestrations, while even the basic functions (eg. the WHALE activity logging) are performed by plugins, giving the capability to tune and possibly modify every component of the system. WHALE already provides many plugins useful for a LCG site and some more for a Tier-2 of the CMS experiment, especially in the field of job management, dataset transfer and analysis of performance results and availability tests (eg. Nagios tests, SAM tests). Thanks to its architecture and the provided plugins WHALE makes easy to perform tasks that, even if logically simple, are technically complex or tedious, like eg. closing all the worker nodes with a job-failure rate greater than a given threshold. Finally, thanks to the

  2. Comparison of one-tier and two-tier newborn screening metrics for congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Sarafoglou, Kyriakie; Banks, Kathryn; Gaviglio, Amy; Hietala, Amy; McCann, Mark; Thomas, William

    2012-11-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) for the classic forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is mandated in all states in the United States. Compared with other NBS disorders, the false-positive rate (FPR) of CAH screening remains high and has not been significantly improved by adjusting 17α-hydroxyprogesterone cutoff values for birth weight and/or gestational age. Minnesota was the first state to initiate, and only 1 of 4 states currently performing, second-tier steroid profiling for CAH. False-negative rates (FNRs) for CAH are not well known. This is a population-based study of all Minnesota infants (769,834) born 1999-2009, grouped by screening protocol (one-tier with repeat screen, January 1999 to May 2004; two-tier with second-tier steroid profiling, June 2004 to December 2009). FPR, FNR, and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated per infant, rather than per sample, and compared between protocols. Overall, 15 false-negatives (4 salt-wasting, 11 simple-virilizing) and 45 true-positives were identified from 1999 to 2009. With two-tier screening, FNR was 32%, FPR increased to 0.065%, and PPV decreased to 8%, but these changes were not statistically significant. Second-tier steroid profiling obviated repeat screens of borderline results (355 per year average). In comparing the 2 screening protocols, the FPR of CAH NBS remains high, the PPV remains low, and false-negatives occur more frequently than has been reported. Physicians should be cautioned that a negative NBS does not necessarily rule out classic CAH; therefore, any patient for whom there is clinical concern for CAH should receive immediate diagnostic testing.

  3. 20 CFR 226.30 - Spouse or divorced spouse tier I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spouse or divorced spouse tier I. 226.30... § 226.30 Spouse or divorced spouse tier I. (a) General. The tier I of a spouse or divorced spouse... retires before age 62 with 30 years of service, the spouse tier I is simply 50% of the employee tier...

  4. 20 CFR 226.30 - Spouse or divorced spouse tier I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Spouse or divorced spouse tier I. 226.30... § 226.30 Spouse or divorced spouse tier I. (a) General. The tier I of a spouse or divorced spouse... retires before age 62 with 30 years of service, the spouse tier I is simply 50% of the employee tier...

  5. 20 CFR 226.30 - Spouse or divorced spouse tier I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Spouse or divorced spouse tier I. 226.30... § 226.30 Spouse or divorced spouse tier I. (a) General. The tier I of a spouse or divorced spouse... retires before age 62 with 30 years of service, the spouse tier I is simply 50% of the employee tier...

  6. 20 CFR 226.30 - Spouse or divorced spouse tier I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Spouse or divorced spouse tier I. 226.30... § 226.30 Spouse or divorced spouse tier I. (a) General. The tier I of a spouse or divorced spouse... retires before age 62 with 30 years of service, the spouse tier I is simply 50% of the employee tier...

  7. 20 CFR 226.30 - Spouse or divorced spouse tier I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spouse or divorced spouse tier I. 226.30... § 226.30 Spouse or divorced spouse tier I. (a) General. The tier I of a spouse or divorced spouse... retires before age 62 with 30 years of service, the spouse tier I is simply 50% of the employee tier...

  8. A two-tiered self-powered wireless monitoring system architecture for bridge health management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurata, Masahiro; Lynch, Jerome P.; Galchev, Tzeno; Flynn, Michael; Hipley, Patrick; Jacob, Vince; van der Linden, Gwendolyn; Mortazawi, Amir; Najafi, Khalil; Peterson, Rebecca L.; Sheng, Li-Hong; Sylvester, Dennis; Thometz, Edward

    2010-04-01

    Bridges are an important societal resource used to carry vehicular traffic within a transportation network. As such, the economic impact of the failure of a bridge is high; the recent failure of the I-35W Bridge in Minnesota (2007) serves as a poignant example. Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems can be adopted to detect and quantify structural degradation and damage in an affordable and real-time manner. This paper presents a detailed overview of a multi-tiered architecture for the design of a low power wireless monitoring system for large and complex infrastructure systems. The monitoring system architecture employs two wireless sensor nodes, each with unique functional features and varying power demand. At the lowest tier of the system architecture is the ultra-low power Phoenix wireless sensor node whose design has been optimized to draw minimal power during standby. These ultra low-power nodes are configured to communicate their measurements to a more functionally-rich wireless sensor node residing on the second-tier of the monitoring system architecture. While the Narada wireless sensor node offers more memory, greater processing power and longer communication ranges, it also consumes more power during operation. Radio frequency (RF) and mechanical vibration power harvesting is integrated with the wireless sensor nodes to allow them to operate freely for long periods of time (e.g., years). Elements of the proposed two-tiered monitoring system architecture are validated upon an operational long-span suspension bridge.

  9. Tier 3- DarkStar engine run on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Lockheed Martin/Boeing Tier III- (minus) unpiloted aerial vehicle undergoing an engine run on the ramp at, following its arrival at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Tier III Minus project used Dryden ground facilities during the flight test program. The vehicle was developed by Lockheed Martin Skunk Works and Boeing Defense and Space Group to satisfy a goal of the Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office to supply responsive and sustained data from anywhere within enemy territory, day or night, in all types of weather. Dubbed DarkStar, the vehicle, with a wing span of 69 feet, was designed to fly above 45,000 feet at subsonic speeds on missions lasting more than eight hours. The first DarkStar prototype (article #695) made its first flight on March 29, 1996. At the begininning of its second flight, on April 22, 1996, it crashed on takeoff, and was destroyed. More than two years passed before the second Darkstar prototype (article #696) took to the air on June 29, 1998. The vehicle made a total of five flights, the last on January 9, 1999. The program was cancelled on January 28, 1999.

  10. Tier 3- DarkStar on ramp from above

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Lockheed Martin/Boeing Tier III- (minus) unpiloted aerial vehicle is inspected by NASA personnel September 14, 1995, following its arrival at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Tier III Minus project used Dryden ground facilities during the flight test program. The vehicle was developed by Lockheed Martin Skunk Works and Boeing Defense and Space Group to satisfy a goal of the Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office to supply responsive and sustained data from anywhere within enemy territory, day or night, in all types of weather. Dubbed DarkStar, the vehicle, with a wing span of 69 feet, was designed to fly above 45,000 feet at subsonic speeds on missions lasting more than eight hours. The first DarkStar prototype (article #695) made its first flight on March 29, 1996. At the begininning of its second flight, on April 22, 1996, it crashed on takeoff, and was destroyed. The second Darkstar prototype (article #696) made five flights between June 29, 1998 and January 9, 1999. The program was cancelled on January 28, 1999.

  11. Tier 3- DarkStar engine run on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Lockheed Martin/Boeing Tier III- (minus) unpiloted aerial vehicle undergoing an engine run on the ramp at, following its arrival at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Tier III Minus project used Dryden ground facilities during the flight test program. The vehicle was developed by Lockheed Martin Skunk Works and Boeing Defense and Space Group to satisfy a goal of the Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office to supply responsive and sustained data from anywhere within enemy territory, day or night, in all types of weather. Dubbed DarkStar, the vehicle, with a wing span of 69 feet, was designed to fly above 45,000 feet at subsonic speeds on missions lasting more than eight hours. The first DarkStar prototype (article #695) made its first flight on March 29, 1996. At the begininning of its second flight, on April 22, 1996, it crashed on takeoff, and was destroyed. More than two years passed before the second Darkstar prototype (article #696) took to the air on June 29, 1998. The vehicle made a total of five flights, the last on January 9, 1999. The program was cancelled on January 28, 1999.

  12. Diagnosing Students' Misconceptions in Number Sense via a Web-Based Two-Tier Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yung-Chi; Yang, Der-Ching; Li, Mao-Neng

    2016-01-01

    A web-based two-tier test (WTTT-NS) which combined the advantages of traditional written tests and interviews in assessing number sense was developed and applied to assess students' answers and reasons for the questions. In addition, students' major misconceptions can be detected. A total of 1,248 sixth graders in Taiwan were selected to…

  13. Using UML Modeling to Facilitate Three-Tier Architecture Projects in Software Engineering Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the use of a model-centric approach to facilitate software development projects conforming to the three-tier architecture in undergraduate software engineering courses. Many instructors intend that such projects create software applications for use by real-world customers. While it is important that the first version of these…

  14. Investigating a Tier 1 Intervention Focused on Proportional Reasoning: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Harwell, Michael R.; Karl, Stacy R.; Simonson, Gregory R.; Slater, Susan C.

    2017-01-01

    This randomized controlled study investigated the efficacy of a Tier 1 intervention--schema-based instruction--designed to help students with and without mathematics difficulties (MD) develop proportional reasoning. Twenty seventh-grade teachers/classrooms were randomly assigned to a treatment condition (schema-based instruction) or control…

  15. Web-Based Two-Tier Diagnostic Test and Remedial Learning Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Ah-Fur; Chen, Deng-Jyi

    2010-01-01

    Offering a series of diagnosis and individual remedial learning activities for a general class by means of web and multimedia technology can overcome the dilemma of conventional diagnosis and remedial instruction. The study proposes a three-layer conceptual framework and adopts a two-tier diagnostic test theory to develop a web-based two-tier…

  16. 22 CFR 208.435 - What must I require of a primary tier participant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What must I require of a primary tier participant? 208.435 Section 208.435 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Responsibilities of USAID Officials Regarding Transactions § 208...

  17. 22 CFR 208.435 - What must I require of a primary tier participant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What must I require of a primary tier participant? 208.435 Section 208.435 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Responsibilities of USAID Officials Regarding Transactions § 208...

  18. Using UML Modeling to Facilitate Three-Tier Architecture Projects in Software Engineering Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the use of a model-centric approach to facilitate software development projects conforming to the three-tier architecture in undergraduate software engineering courses. Many instructors intend that such projects create software applications for use by real-world customers. While it is important that the first version of these…

  19. Diagnosing Students' Misconceptions in Number Sense via a Web-Based Two-Tier Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yung-Chi; Yang, Der-Ching; Li, Mao-Neng

    2016-01-01

    A web-based two-tier test (WTTT-NS) which combined the advantages of traditional written tests and interviews in assessing number sense was developed and applied to assess students' answers and reasons for the questions. In addition, students' major misconceptions can be detected. A total of 1,248 sixth graders in Taiwan were selected to…

  20. Web-Based Two-Tier Diagnostic Test and Remedial Learning Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Ah-Fur; Chen, Deng-Jyi

    2010-01-01

    Offering a series of diagnosis and individual remedial learning activities for a general class by means of web and multimedia technology can overcome the dilemma of conventional diagnosis and remedial instruction. The study proposes a three-layer conceptual framework and adopts a two-tier diagnostic test theory to develop a web-based two-tier…

  1. Evaluating Secondary Students' Scientific Reasoning in Genetics Using a Two-Tier Diagnostic Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsui, Chi-Yan; Treagust, David

    2010-01-01

    While genetics has remained as one key topic in school science, it continues to be conceptually and linguistically difficult for students with the concomitant debates as to what should be taught in the age of biotechnology. This article documents the development and implementation of a two-tier multiple-choice instrument for diagnosing grades 10…

  2. XENOENDOCRINE DISRUPTERS-TIERED SCREENING AND TESTING: FILLING KEY DATA GAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a screening and testing program for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). High priority chemicals would be evaluated in the Tier 1 Screening (T1S) battery. Chemicals positive in T1S would then be tested...

  3. Understanding of Leaf Development-the Science of Complexity.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Robert

    2013-06-25

    The leaf is the major organ involved in light perception and conversion of solar energy into organic carbon. In order to adapt to different natural habitats, plants have developed a variety of leaf forms, ranging from simple to compound, with various forms of dissection. Due to the enormous cellular complexity of leaves, understanding the mechanisms regulating development of these organs is difficult. In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the use of technically advanced imaging techniques and computational modeling in studies of leaf development. Additionally, molecular tools for manipulation of morphogenesis were successfully used for in planta verification of developmental models. Results of these interdisciplinary studies show that global growth patterns influencing final leaf form are generated by cooperative action of genetic, biochemical, and biomechanical inputs. This review summarizes recent progress in integrative studies on leaf development and illustrates how intrinsic features of leaves (including their cellular complexity) influence the choice of experimental approach.

  4. "Small Talk": Developing Fluency, Accuracy, and Complexity in Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, James

    2012-01-01

    A major issue that continues to challenge language teachers is how to ensure that learners develop accuracy and complexity in their speaking, as well as fluency. Teachers know that too much corrective feedback (CF) can make learners reluctant to speak, while not enough may allow their errors to become entrenched. Furthermore, there is controversy…

  5. Economic development and wage inequality: A complex system analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pugliese, Emanuele; Pietronero, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    Adapting methods from complex system analysis, this paper analyzes the features of the complex relationship between wage inequality and the development and industrialization of a country. Development is understood as a combination of a monetary index, GDP per capita, and a recently introduced measure of a country’s economic complexity: Fitness. Initially the paper looks at wage inequality on a global scale, over the time period 1990–2008. Our empirical results show that globally the movement of wage inequality along with the ongoing industrialization of countries has followed a longitudinally persistent pattern comparable to the one theorized by Kuznets in the fifties: countries with an average level of development suffer the highest levels of wage inequality. Next, the study narrows its focus on wage inequality within the United States. By using data on wages and employment in the approximately 3100 US counties over the time interval 1990–2014, it generalizes the Fitness-Complexity metric for geographic units and industrial sectors, and then investigates wage inequality between NAICS industries. The empirical time and scale dependencies are consistent with a relation between wage inequality and development driven by institutional factors comparing countries, and by change in the structural compositions of sectors in a homogeneous institutional environment, such as the counties of the United States. PMID:28926577

  6. Environmental Complexity and Central Nervous System Development and Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Mark H.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental restriction or deprivation early in development can induce social, cognitive, affective, and motor abnormalities similar to those associated with autism. Conversely, rearing animals in larger, more complex environments results in enhanced brain structure and function, including increased brain weight, dendritic branching,…

  7. Economic development and wage inequality: A complex system analysis.

    PubMed

    Sbardella, Angelica; Pugliese, Emanuele; Pietronero, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    Adapting methods from complex system analysis, this paper analyzes the features of the complex relationship between wage inequality and the development and industrialization of a country. Development is understood as a combination of a monetary index, GDP per capita, and a recently introduced measure of a country's economic complexity: Fitness. Initially the paper looks at wage inequality on a global scale, over the time period 1990-2008. Our empirical results show that globally the movement of wage inequality along with the ongoing industrialization of countries has followed a longitudinally persistent pattern comparable to the one theorized by Kuznets in the fifties: countries with an average level of development suffer the highest levels of wage inequality. Next, the study narrows its focus on wage inequality within the United States. By using data on wages and employment in the approximately 3100 US counties over the time interval 1990-2014, it generalizes the Fitness-Complexity metric for geographic units and industrial sectors, and then investigates wage inequality between NAICS industries. The empirical time and scale dependencies are consistent with a relation between wage inequality and development driven by institutional factors comparing countries, and by change in the structural compositions of sectors in a homogeneous institutional environment, such as the counties of the United States.

  8. Distribution of the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex in Developing Soybean Cotyledons

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The somewhat surprising report that storage proteins and oil are non-uniformly distributed in the cotyledons of developing soybeans prompted us to determine the spatial distribution of the mitochondrial and plastidial forms of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). It has been proposed that pla...

  9. Development of Three-Dimensional Completion of Complex Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soska, Kasey C.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) object completion, the ability to perceive the backs of objects seen from a single viewpoint, emerges at around 6 months of age. Yet, only relatively simple 3D objects have been used in assessing its development. This study examined infants' 3D object completion when presented with more complex stimuli. Infants…

  10. Deictic Relational Complexity and the Development of Deception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHugh, Louise; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Stewart, Ian; Dymond, Simon

    2007-01-01

    An empirical investigation of age-related development of the ability to deceive was conducted from the perspective of Relational Frame Theory, which, unlike the traditional approach, Theory of Mind, has been used to analyze deception in terms of the complexity of the relational responding involved. A derived relational responding-based protocol…

  11. Development of Three-Dimensional Completion of Complex Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soska, Kasey C.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) object completion, the ability to perceive the backs of objects seen from a single viewpoint, emerges at around 6 months of age. Yet, only relatively simple 3D objects have been used in assessing its development. This study examined infants' 3D object completion when presented with more complex stimuli. Infants…

  12. Environmental Complexity and Central Nervous System Development and Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Mark H.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental restriction or deprivation early in development can induce social, cognitive, affective, and motor abnormalities similar to those associated with autism. Conversely, rearing animals in larger, more complex environments results in enhanced brain structure and function, including increased brain weight, dendritic branching,…

  13. "Small Talk": Developing Fluency, Accuracy, and Complexity in Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, James

    2012-01-01

    A major issue that continues to challenge language teachers is how to ensure that learners develop accuracy and complexity in their speaking, as well as fluency. Teachers know that too much corrective feedback (CF) can make learners reluctant to speak, while not enough may allow their errors to become entrenched. Furthermore, there is controversy…

  14. Task Complexity, Learning Opportunities, and Korean EFL Learners' Question Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, YouJin

    2012-01-01

    Building on the cognitive and interactive perspectives of task research, the cognition hypothesis states that increasing task complexity promotes greater interaction and feedback and thus facilitates second language (L2) development (Robinson, 2001b, 2007a). To date, very little research has explored this claim during learner-learner interactions…

  15. Development of Ga-67 Maltolate Complex as an Imaging Agent

    PubMed Central

    Fazaeli, Yousef; Jalilian, Amir Reza; Mohammadpour Amini, Mostafa; Majdabadi, Abbas; Rahiminejad, Ali; Bolourinovin, Fatemeh; Pouladi, Mehraban

    2012-01-01

    Due to the antitumor activity of Gallium MAL complex, as well as recent findings on new targeted biomolecules in malignant cells through this complex, the development of radiolabeled gallium complex for future imaging studies was targeted. Ga-67 labeled 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-onate (Ga-67 MAL) was prepared using freshly prepared Ga-67 chloride and 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-onate in a sodium salt form in 25 min at 40° C. The stability of the complex was checked in final formulation and human serum for 24 h followed by the administration in Swiss mice for biodistribution studies. The complex was prepared in high radiochemical purity (> 97% ITLC, > 98% HPLC) and specific activity of 13-14 GBq/mmol and was stable in the presence of serum for 48 h. The partition coefficient was calculated for the compound (log p = 0.40). A detailed comparative pharmacokinetic study was performed for Ga-67 cation and Ga-67-MAL. The complex is more rapidly washed out from the circulation through kidneys and liver compared to Ga-67 cation and can be an interesting tumor imaging agent due to the fact that the cold compound is undergoing clinical trials as a safe and potential therapeutic agent for cancer. PMID:24250502

  16. Assessing the Nutritional Quality of Diets of Canadian Adults Using the 2014 Health Canada Surveillance Tool Tier System

    PubMed Central

    Jessri, Mahsa; Nishi, Stephanie K.; L’Abbé, Mary R.

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Health Canada Surveillance Tool (HCST) was developed to assess adherence of dietary intakes with Canada’s Food Guide. HCST classifies foods into one of four Tiers based on thresholds for sodium, total fat, saturated fat and sugar, with Tier 1 representing the healthiest and Tier 4 foods being the unhealthiest. This study presents the first application of HCST to assess (a) dietary patterns of Canadians; and (b) applicability of this tool as a measure of diet quality among 19,912 adult participants of Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2. Findings indicated that even though most of processed meats and potatoes were Tier 4, the majority of reported foods in general were categorized as Tiers 2 and 3 due to the adjustable lenient criteria used in HCST. Moving from the 1st to the 4th quartile of Tier 4 and “other” foods/beverages, there was a significant trend towards increased calories (1876 kcal vs. 2290 kcal) and “harmful” nutrients (e.g., sodium) as well as decreased “beneficial” nutrients. Compliance with the HCST was not associated with lower body mass index. Future nutrient profiling systems need to incorporate both “positive” and “negative” nutrients, an overall score and a wider range of nutrient thresholds to better capture food product differences. PMID:26703721

  17. Assessing the Nutritional Quality of Diets of Canadian Adults Using the 2014 Health Canada Surveillance Tool Tier System.

    PubMed

    Jessri, Mahsa; Nishi, Stephanie K; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2015-12-12

    The 2014 Health Canada Surveillance Tool (HCST) was developed to assess adherence of dietary intakes with Canada's Food Guide. HCST classifies foods into one of four Tiers based on thresholds for sodium, total fat, saturated fat and sugar, with Tier 1 representing the healthiest and Tier 4 foods being the unhealthiest. This study presents the first application of HCST to assess (a) dietary patterns of Canadians; and (b) applicability of this tool as a measure of diet quality among 19,912 adult participants of Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2. Findings indicated that even though most of processed meats and potatoes were Tier 4, the majority of reported foods in general were categorized as Tiers 2 and 3 due to the adjustable lenient criteria used in HCST. Moving from the 1st to the 4th quartile of Tier 4 and "other" foods/beverages, there was a significant trend towards increased calories (1876 kcal vs. 2290 kcal) and "harmful" nutrients (e.g., sodium) as well as decreased "beneficial" nutrients. Compliance with the HCST was not associated with lower body mass index. Future nutrient profiling systems need to incorporate both "positive" and "negative" nutrients, an overall score and a wider range of nutrient thresholds to better capture food product differences.

  18. Comparison of tiered formularies and reference pricing policies: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Steve; Hanley, Gillian; Greyson, Devon

    2009-01-01

    To synthesize methodologically comparable evidence from the published literature regarding the outcomes of tiered formularies and therapeutic reference pricing of prescription drugs. We searched the following electronic databases: ABI/Inform, CINAHL, Clinical Evidence, Digital Dissertations & Theses, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews (which incorporates ACP Journal Club, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Methodology Register, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, Health Technology Assessments and NHS Economic Evaluation Database), EconLit, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, MEDLINE, PAIS International and PAIS Archive, and the Web of Science. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles and several grey literature sources. We sought English-language studies published from 1986 to 2007 that examined the effects of either therapeutic reference pricing or tiered formularies, reported on outcomes relevant to patient care and cost-effectiveness, and employed quantitative study designs that included concurrent or historical comparison groups. We abstracted and assessed potentially appropriate articles using a modified version of the data abstraction form developed by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group. From an initial list of 2964 citations, 12 citations (representing 11 studies) were deemed eligible for inclusion in our review: 3 studies (reported in 4 articles) of reference pricing and 8 studies of tiered formularies. The introduction of reference pricing was associated with reduced plan spending, switching to preferred medicines, reduced overall drug utilization and short-term increases in the use of physician services. Reference pricing was not associated with adverse health impacts. The introduction of tiered formularies was associated with reduced plan expenditures, greater patient costs and increased rates of non-compliance with

  19. Comparison of tiered formularies and reference pricing policies: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Steve; Hanley, Gillian; Greyson, Devon

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To synthesize methodologically comparable evidence from the published literature regarding the outcomes of tiered formularies and therapeutic reference pricing of prescription drugs. Methods We searched the following electronic databases: ABI/Inform, CINAHL, Clinical Evidence, Digital Dissertations & Theses, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews (which incorporates ACP Journal Club, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Methodology Register, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, Health Technology Assessments and NHS Economic Evaluation Database), EconLit, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, MEDLINE, PAIS International and PAIS Archive, and the Web of Science. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles and several grey literature sources. We sought English-language studies published from 1986 to 2007 that examined the effects of either therapeutic reference pricing or tiered formularies, reported on outcomes relevant to patient care and cost-effectiveness, and employed quantitative study designs that included concurrent or historical comparison groups. We abstracted and assessed potentially appropriate articles using a modified version of the data abstraction form developed by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group. Results From an initial list of 2964 citations, 12 citations (representing 11 studies) were deemed eligible for inclusion in our review: 3 studies (reported in 4 articles) of reference pricing and 8 studies of tiered formularies. The introduction of reference pricing was associated with reduced plan spending, switching to preferred medicines, reduced overall drug utilization and short-term increases in the use of physician services. Reference pricing was not associated with adverse health impacts. The introduction of tiered formularies was associated with reduced plan expenditures, greater patient costs and increased rates of

  20. The Impact of a Tiered Network on Hospital Choice

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Matthew B; Hsu, John; Landrum, Mary Beth; Chernew, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of a tiered network on hospital choice for scheduled admissions. Data The 2009–2012 patient-level claims data from Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts (BCBSMA). Study Design BCBSMA's three-tiered hospital network employs large differential cost sharing to encourage patients to seek care at hospitals on the preferred tier. During the study period, 44 percent of hospitals were moved to a different tier based on changes in cost or quality performance. We relied on this longitudinal variation for identification and specified conditional logit models to estimate the effect of the tiered network (TN) on patients' hospital choices relative to a non-TN comparison group. Principal Findings The TN was associated with increased use of hospitals on the preferred and middle tiers relative to the nonpreferred tier for planned admissions. The results suggest that if all members were in a TN plan, relative to all members being in a non-TN plan, scheduled admissions to hospitals on the nonpreferred tier would drop by 7.6 percentage points, while those to middle and preferred tier hospitals would rise by 0.9 and 6.6 percentage points, respectively. Conclusion Differential cost sharing can steer patients toward preferred hospitals for planned admissions. PMID:25752219

  1. JINR Tier-1 centre for the CMS experiment at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astakhov, N. S.; Baginyan, A. S.; Belov, S. D.; Dolbilov, A. G.; Golunov, A. O.; Gorbunov, I. N.; Gromova, N. I.; Kadochnikov, I. S.; Kashunin, I. A.; Korenkov, V. V.; Mitsyn, V. V.; Pelevanyuk, I. S.; Shmatov, S. V.; Strizh, T. A.; Tikhonenko, E. A.; Trofimov, V. V.; Voitishin, N. N.; Zhiltsov, V. E.

    2016-09-01

    An overview of the JINR Tier-1 centre for the CMS experiment at the LHC is given. Special emphasis is placed on the main tasks and services of the CMS Tier-1 at JINR. In February 2015 the JINR CMS Tier-1 resources were increased to the level that was outlined in JINR's rollout plan: CPU 2400 cores (28800 HEP-Spec06), 2.4 PB disks, and 5.0 PB tapes. The first results of the Tier-1 operations received during the LHC Run-2 start are presented.

  2. Regulation of flower development in Arabidopsis by SCF complexes.

    PubMed

    Ni, Weimin; Xie, Daoxin; Hobbie, Lawrence; Feng, Baomin; Zhao, Dazhong; Akkara, Joseph; Ma, Hong

    2004-04-01

    SCF complexes are the largest and best studied family of E3 ubiquitin protein ligases that facilitate the ubiquitylation of proteins targeted for degradation. The SCF core components Skp1, Cul1, and Rbx1 serve in multiple SCF complexes involving different substrate-specific F-box proteins that are involved in diverse processes including cell cycle and development. In Arabidopsis, mutations in the F-box gene UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) result in a number of defects in flower development. However, functions of the core components Cul1 and Rbx1 in flower development are poorly understood. In this study we analyzed floral phenotypes caused by altering function of Cul1 or Rbx1, as well as the effects of mutations in ASK1 and ASK2. Plants homozygous for a point mutation in the AtCUL1 gene showed reduced floral organ number and several defects in each of the four whorls. Similarly, plants with reduced AtRbx1 expression due to RNA interference also exhibited floral morphological defects. In addition, compared to the ask1 mutant, plants homozygous for ask1 and heterozygous for ask2 displayed enhanced reduction of B function, as well as other novel defects of flower development, including carpelloid sepals and an inhibition of petal development. Genetic analyses demonstrate that AGAMOUS (AG) is required for the novel phenotypes observed in the first and second whorls. Furthermore, the genetic interaction between UFO and AtCUL1 supports the idea that UFO regulates multiple aspects of flower development as a part of SCF complexes. These results suggest that SCF complexes regulate several aspects of floral development in Arabidopsis.

  3. Scientific or regulated validation: a tiered approach? Meeting report from a joint EBF/DVDMDG workshop.

    PubMed

    Timmerman, Philip; Lowes, Steve; McDougall, Stuart; Colligon, Irina; Miksic, Joy; Chowdhury, Swapan; White, Steve; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Jenkins, Rand; Kemper, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Tiered approach is rapidly gaining interest in the regulated bioanalytical community. Alternative approaches to the workflows as proposed in the regulatory Guidance (US FDA, EMA) are being used in discovery and early drug development, but with a growing array of assay types and studies requiring bioanalytical support in early drug development, the bioanalytical community is discussing how to bring best value to support these studies. Recently, international industry groups like European Bioanalysis Forum and Global Bioanalysis Consortium have discussed and published on the opportunity and need to include tiered approach more systematically in the early drug development support. On the back of these discussions, the Delaware Valley Drug Metabolism Discussion Group together with the European Bioanalysis Forum organized a meeting in Langhorne (PA, USA) to discuss the hurdles and added value of tiered approach with stakeholders from the Bioanalysis, quality assurance and PK community. The discussions focused on proposing scientific validation for studies where there is currently a mixed use of regulatory and tiered approach workflows. The meeting was well attended and the presentations and panel discussions contributed to a better understanding of what the industry is proposing as future practice.

  4. Development of a complex of activity in the solar corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, R.; Svestka, Z.

    1977-01-01

    Using Skylab observations of soft solar X-rays, the development of a complex of activity in the solar corona during its whole lifetime of seven solar rotations is studied. The basic components of the activity complex were determined to be permanently interconnected through sets of magnetic field lines, which suggests similar connections also below the photosphere. The visibility of individual loops in these connections, however, was greatly variable and typically shorter than one day. Each brightening of a coronal loop in X-rays seems to be related to a variation in the photospheric magnetic field near its footprint.

  5. Developing a complex approach to health phenomena (step 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifuentes, Myriam Patricia

    Health is a complex object for science and operative levels, partly because there are many approaches defining it but not scientifically sufficient or operatively accepted. This is relevant for health understanding but also for decision making on health related problems. "Determinants of Health" as a widely accepted theoretical proposal, identifies as problematic the reductionist view of health as the disease opposite, attempting to develop it positively according to WHO's definition, proposing a set of factors determining health outcomes. Though this allows a larger comprehension of health causes and effects, still has insufficiently defined theoretical statements and unproved assumptions which difficult understanding and effective actions orientation. Complexity deductive modeling since the insufficiently formalized frameworks, implies incorporating unmanageable object assumptions or reducing health broadness. Taking profit of Bogotá government adherence to DH proposal leading a health information system development, was possible inductive modeling since a systemic massive database (690.000 registries). In this way, DH theoretical statements about health components connectedness were explored by classic statistic approach, and by learning Bayesian networks from data (data mining). First approach showed understanding difficulties. Second was advantageous in approximating within and between determinants relationship structure. However, though DH introduces a systemic approach in considering diverse interacting elements is not empirically satisfactory to exhibit all the meaning of health complexity, because just matches analytic fashioned constructs depending on data expression. A strong networked model developing health complexity, needs the orientation by theoretical constructs as human agency and organization, to explore and understand emergent patterns of health.

  6. Pubertal development shapes perception of complex facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Motta-Mena, Natalie V; Scherf, K Suzanne

    2017-07-01

    We previously hypothesized that pubertal development shapes the emergence of new components of face processing (Scherf et al., 2012; Garcia & Scherf, 2015). Here, we evaluate this hypothesis by investigating emerging perceptual sensitivity to complex versus basic facial expressions across pubertal development. We tested pre-pubescent children (6-8 years), age- and sex-matched adolescents in early and later stages of pubertal development (11-14 years), and sexually mature adults (18-24 years). Using a perceptual staircase procedure, participants made visual discriminations of both socially complex expressions (sexual interest, contempt) that are arguably relevant to emerging peer-oriented relationships of adolescence, and basic (happy, anger) expressions that are important even in early infancy. Only sensitivity to detect complex expressions improved as a function of pubertal development. The ability to perceive these expressions is adult-like by late puberty when adolescents become sexually mature. This pattern of results provides the first evidence that pubertal development specifically influences emerging affective components of face perception in adolescence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Core promoter recognition complex changes accompany liver development

    PubMed Central

    D’Alessio, Joseph A.; Ng, Raymond; Willenbring, Holger; Tjian, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of several key developmental transitions have brought into question the long held view of the basal transcriptional apparatus as ubiquitous and invariant. In an effort to better understand the role of core promoter recognition and coactivator complex switching in cellular differentiation, we have examined changes in transcription factor IID (TFIID) and cofactor required for Sp1 activation/Mediator during mouse liver development. Here we show that the differentiation of fetal liver progenitors to adult hepatocytes involves a wholesale depletion of canonical cofactor required for Sp1 activation/Mediator and TFIID complexes at both the RNA and protein level, and that this alteration likely involves silencing of transcription factor promoters as well as protein degradation. It will be intriguing for future studies to determine if a novel and as yet unknown core promoter recognition complex takes the place of TFIID in adult hepatocytes and to uncover the mechanisms that down-regulate TFIID during this critical developmental transition. PMID:21368148

  8. Development of the modern theory of polymeric complex coacervation.

    PubMed

    Sing, Charles E

    2017-01-01

    Oppositely charged polymers can undergo the process of complex coacervation, which refers to a liquid-liquid phase separation driven by electrostatic attraction. These materials have demonstrated considerable promise as the basis for complex, self-assembled materials. In this review, we provide a broad overview of the theoretical tools used to understand the physical properties of polymeric coacervates. In particular, we discuss historic theories (Voorn-Overbeek, Random Phase Approximation), and then describe recent developments in the field (Field Theoretic, Counterion Release, Molecular Simulation, and Polymer Reference Interaction Site Model methods). We provide context for these methods, and map out the patchwork of theoretical models that are used to describe a diverse array of coacervate systems. We use this review of the literature to clarify a number of important theoretical challenges remaining in our physical understanding of complex coacervation.

  9. Generalised approach to modelling a three-tiered microbial food-web.

    PubMed

    Sari, T; Wade, M J

    2017-09-01

    The complexity of the anaerobic digestion process has motivated the development of complex models, such as the widely used Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1. However, this complexity makes it intractable to identify the stability profile coupled to the asymptotic behaviour of existing steady-states as a function of conventional chemostat operating parameters (substrate inflow concentration and dilution rate). In a previous study this model was simplified and reduced to its very backbone to describe a three-tiered chlorophenol mineralising food-web, with its stability analysed numerically using consensus values for the various biological parameters of the Monod growth functions. Steady-states where all organisms exist were always stable and non-oscillatory. Here we investigate a generalised form of this three-tiered food-web, whose kinetics do not rely on the specific kinetics of Monod form. The results are valid for a large class of growth kinetics as long as they keep the signs of their derivatives. We examine the existence and stability of the identified steady-states and find that, without a maintenance term, the stability of the system may be characterised analytically. These findings permit a better understanding of the operating region of the bifurcation diagram where all organisms exist, and its dependence on the biological parameters of the model. For the previously studied Monod kinetics, we identify four interesting cases that show this dependence of the operating diagram with respect to the biological parameters. When maintenance is included, it is necessary to perform numerical analysis. In both cases we verify the discovery of two important phenomena; i) the washout steady-state is always stable, and ii) a switch in dominance between two organisms competing for hydrogen results in the system becoming unstable and a loss in viability. We show that our approach results in the discovery of an unstable operating region in its positive steady-state, where all

  10. 75 FR 68021 - Draft Finding of No Significant Impact on the Tier 1 Ohio 3C Quick Start Passenger Rail Tier-1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... No Significant Impact on the Tier 1 Ohio 3C Quick Start Passenger Rail Tier-1 Environmental... Considering Environmental Impacts (FRA Environmental Procedures) (64 FR 28545, May 26, 1999), the FRA and the... Tier-1 Environmental Assessment (Tier-1 EA) that evaluates the impacts of the 3C Quick Start Passenger...

  11. Tier 2 Team Processes and Decision-Making in a Comprehensive Three-Tiered Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Juli L.; Carter, Deborah Russell; Johnson, Evelyn S.

    2013-01-01

    Three-tiered models of academic and behavioral support are being increasingly adopted across the nation, and with that adoption has come an increasing message that designing and implementing effective practices alone is not enough. Systems are needed to help staff to collectively implement best practices. These systems, as well as effective…

  12. Development of the Neurochemical Architecture of the Central Complex

    PubMed Central

    Boyan, George S.; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The central complex represents one of the most conspicuous neuroarchitectures to be found in the insect brain and regulates a wide repertoire of behaviors including locomotion, stridulation, spatial orientation and spatial memory. In this review article, we show that in the grasshopper, a model insect system, the intricate wiring of the fan-shaped body (FB) begins early in embryogenesis when axons from the first progeny of four protocerebral stem cells (called W, X, Y, Z, respectively) in each brain hemisphere establish a set of tracts to the primary commissural system. Decussation of subsets of commissural neurons at stereotypic locations across the brain midline then establishes a columnar neuroarchitecture in the FB which is completed during embryogenesis. Examination of the expression patterns of various neurochemicals in the central complex including neuropeptides, a neurotransmitter and the gas nitric oxide (NO), show that these appear progressively and in a substance-specific manner during embryogenesis. Each neuroactive substance is expressed by neurons located at stereotypic locations in a given central complex lineage, confirming that the stem cells are biochemically multipotent. The organization of axons expressing the various neurochemicals within the central complex is topologically related to the location, and hence birthdate, of the neurons within the lineages. The neurochemical expression patterns within the FB are layered, and so reflect the temporal topology present in the lineages. This principle relates the neuroanatomical to the neurochemical architecture of the central complex and so may provide insights into the development of adaptive behaviors. PMID:27630548

  13. Insect Antimicrobial Peptide Complexes Prevent Resistance Development in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Chernysh, Sergey; Gordya, Natalia; Suborova, Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades much attention has been paid to antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as natural antibiotics, which are presumably protected from resistance development in bacteria. However, experimental evolution studies have revealed prompt resistance increase in bacteria to any individual AMP tested. Here we demonstrate that naturally occurring compounds containing insect AMP complexes have clear advantage over individual peptide and small molecule antibiotics in respect of drug resistance development. As a model we have used the compounds isolated from bacteria challenged maggots of Calliphoridae flies. The compound isolated from blow fly Calliphora vicina was found to contain three distinct families of cell membrane disrupting/permeabilizing peptides (defensins, cecropins and diptericins), one family of proline rich peptides and several unknown antimicrobial substances. Resistance changes under long term selective pressure of the compound and reference antibiotics cefotaxime, meropenem and polymyxin B were tested using Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Acinetobacter baumannii clinical strains. All the strains readily developed resistance to the reference antibiotics, while no signs of resistance growth to the compound were registered. Similar results were obtained with the compounds isolated from 3 other fly species. The experiments revealed that natural compounds containing insect AMP complexes, in contrast to individual AMP and small molecule antibiotics, are well protected from resistance development in bacteria. Further progress in the research of natural AMP complexes may provide novel solutions to the drug resistance problem. PMID:26177023

  14. Estimation of the incidence of a rare genetic disease through a two-tier mutation survey

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, R.; Srinivasan, M.R. ); Raskin, S. Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba )

    1993-06-01

    Recent attempts to detect mutations involving single base changes or small deletions that are specific to genetic diseases provide an opportunity to develop a two-tier mutation-screening program through which incidence of rare genetic disorders and gene carriers may be precisely estimated. A two-tier survey consists of mutation screening in a sample of patients with specific genetic disorders and in a second sample of newborns from the same population in which mutation frequency is evaluated. The authors provide the statistical basis for evaluating the incidence of affected and gene carriers in such two-tier mutation-screening surveys, from which the precision of the estimates is derived. Sample-size requirements of such two-tier mutation-screening surveys are evaluated. Considering examples of cystic fibrosis (CF) and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD), the two most frequent autosomal recessive diseases in Caucasian populations and the two most frequent mutations ([Delta]F508 and G985) that occur on these disease allele-bearing chromosomes, the authors show that, with 50--100 patients and a 20-fold larger sample of newborns screened for these mutations, the incidence of such diseases and their gene carriers in a population may be quite reliably estimated. The theory developed here is also applicable to rare autosomal dominant diseases for which disease-specific mutations are found. 21 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  15. Managing Programmatic Risk for Complex Space System Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panetta, Peter V.; Hastings, Daniel; Brumfield, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Risk management strategies have become a recent important research topic to many aerospace organizations as they prepare to develop the revolutionary complex space systems of the future. Future multi-disciplinary complex space systems will make it absolutely essential for organizations to practice a rigorous, comprehensive risk management process, emphasizing thorough systems engineering principles to succeed. Project managers must possess strong leadership skills to direct high quality, cross-disciplinary teams for successfully developing revolutionary space systems that are ever increasing in complexity. Proactive efforts to reduce or eliminate risk throughout a project's lifecycle ideally must be practiced by all technical members in the organization. This paper discusses some of the risk management perspectives that were collected from senior managers and project managers of aerospace and aeronautical organizations by the use of interviews and surveys. Some of the programmatic risks which drive the success or failure of projects are revealed. Key findings lead to a number of insights for organizations to consider for proactively approaching the risks which face current and future complex space systems projects.

  16. A tiered observational system for anthropogenic methane emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duren, R. M.; Miller, C. E.; Hulley, G. C.; Hook, S. J.; Sander, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    Improved understanding of anthropogenic methane emissions is required for closing the global carbon budget and addressing priority challenges in climate policy. Several decades of top-down and bottom-up studies show that anthropogenic methane emissions are systematically underestimated in key regions and economic sectors. These uncertainties have been compounded by the dramatic rise of disruptive technologies (e.g., the transformation in the US energy system due to unconventional gas and oil production). Methane flux estimates derived from inverse analyses and aircraft-based mass balance approaches underscore the disagreement in nationally and regionally reported methane emissions as well as the possibility of a long-tail distribution in fugitive emissions spanning the US natural gas supply chain; i.e. a small number of super-emitters may be responsible for most of the observed anomalies. Other studies highlight the challenges of sectoral and spatial attribution of fugitive emissions - including the relative contributions of dairies vs oil and gas production or disentangling the contributions of natural gas transmission, distribution, and consumption or landfill emissions in complex urban environments. Limited observational data remains a foundational barrier to resolving these challenges. We present a tiered observing system strategy for persistent, high-frequency monitoring over large areas to provide remote detection, geolocation and quantification of significant anthropogenic methane emissions across cities, states, basins and continents. We describe how this would both improve confidence in methane emission estimates and expedite resolution of fugitive emissions and leaks. We summarize recent prototype field campaigns that employ multiple vantage points and measurement techniques (including NASA's CARVE and HyTES aircraft and PanFTS instrument on Mt Wilson). We share preliminary results of this tiered observational approach including examples of individual

  17. The Study on Complex Project Management in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanwen, Wang

    Different factors that can influence project performance have been identified, classified based on their nature, and discussed. Due to the inherent complexity and various problems encountered in implementing infrastructure project in developing countries, the project manager must appreciate the project environment, maintain flexibility, and be competent to analyze the nature of associated problems and their adverse effects on the success of the project, and address these promptly.

  18. The development of complex tooth shape in reptiles

    PubMed Central

    Zahradnicek, Oldrich; Buchtova, Marcela; Dosedelova, Hana; Tucker, Abigail S.

    2014-01-01

    Reptiles have a diverse array of tooth shapes, from simple unicuspid to complex multicuspid teeth, reflecting functional adaptation to a variety of diets and eating styles. In addition to cusps, often complex longitudinal labial and lingual enamel crests are widespread and contribute to the final shape of reptile teeth. The simplest shaped unicuspid teeth have been found in piscivorous or carnivorous ancestors of recent diapsid reptiles and they are also present in some extant carnivores such as crocodiles and snakes. However, the ancestral tooth shape for squamate reptiles is thought to be bicuspid, indicating an insectivorous diet. The development of bicuspid teeth in lizards has recently been published, indicating that the mechanisms used to create cusps and crests are very distinct from those that shape cusps in mammals. Here, we introduce the large variety of tooth shapes found in lizards and compare the morphology and development of bicuspid, tricuspid, and pentacuspid teeth, with the aim of understanding how such tooth shapes are generated. Next, we discuss whether the processes used to form such morphologies are conserved between divergent lizards and whether the underlying mechanisms share similarities with those of mammals. In particular, we will focus on the complex teeth of the chameleon, gecko, varanus, and anole lizards using SEM and histology to compare the tooth crown morphology and embryonic development. PMID:24611053

  19. The development of complex tooth shape in reptiles.

    PubMed

    Zahradnicek, Oldrich; Buchtova, Marcela; Dosedelova, Hana; Tucker, Abigail S

    2014-01-01

    Reptiles have a diverse array of tooth shapes, from simple unicuspid to complex multicuspid teeth, reflecting functional adaptation to a variety of diets and eating styles. In addition to cusps, often complex longitudinal labial and lingual enamel crests are widespread and contribute to the final shape of reptile teeth. The simplest shaped unicuspid teeth have been found in piscivorous or carnivorous ancestors of recent diapsid reptiles and they are also present in some extant carnivores such as crocodiles and snakes. However, the ancestral tooth shape for squamate reptiles is thought to be bicuspid, indicating an insectivorous diet. The development of bicuspid teeth in lizards has recently been published, indicating that the mechanisms used to create cusps and crests are very distinct from those that shape cusps in mammals. Here, we introduce the large variety of tooth shapes found in lizards and compare the morphology and development of bicuspid, tricuspid, and pentacuspid teeth, with the aim of understanding how such tooth shapes are generated. Next, we discuss whether the processes used to form such morphologies are conserved between divergent lizards and whether the underlying mechanisms share similarities with those of mammals. In particular, we will focus on the complex teeth of the chameleon, gecko, varanus, and anole lizards using SEM and histology to compare the tooth crown morphology and embryonic development.

  20. 26 CFR 1.444-4 - Tiered structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tiered structure. 1.444-4 Section 1.444-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Accounting Periods § 1.444-4 Tiered structure. (a) Electing small business trusts....

  1. 20 CFR 226.10 - Employee tier I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...: (a) A tier I PIA is computed based on combined railroad and social security earnings, as shown in § 225.11 of this chapter. This PIA is adjusted for any delayed retirement credits or cost-of-living... has less than 30 years of service. His tier I PIA Is $712.60, which is rounded down to $712. Since the...

  2. Essential Features of Tier 2 Social-Behavioral Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yong, Minglee; Cheney, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the essential features of Tier 2 interventions conducted within multitier systems of behavior support in schools. A systematic literature search identified 12 empirical studies that were coded and scored according to a list of Tier 2 specific RE-AIM criteria, related to the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption,…

  3. Modifying Instruction within Tiers in Multitiered Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupzyk, Sara; Daly, Edward J., III; Ihlo, Tanya; Young, Nicholas D.

    2012-01-01

    Response to Intervention provides a continuum of instruction across intensity levels through multitiered intervention models. A lot of work to date has been devoted to how to configure tiers to ensure the appropriate increases in intensity. Much less work has been devoted to making adjustments "within" tiers to attempt to forestall the need for…

  4. Testing the Efficacy of a Kindergarten Tier 2 Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Ben; Baker, Scott K.; Smolkowski, Keith; Fien, Hank; Doabler, Chris; Cary, Mari Strand; Chard, David

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study, funded by the "Institute for Education Sciences" under the "Mathematics and Science Education" topic, was to test the efficacy of a Tier 2 intervention curriculum, "ROOTS", when implemented under rigorous experimental conditions. In this study all classrooms implemented a validated Tier 1…

  5. 26 CFR 1.444-4 - Tiered structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tiered structure. 1.444-4 Section 1.444-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Accounting Periods § 1.444-4 Tiered structure. (a) Electing small business...

  6. 26 CFR 1.444-4 - Tiered structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tiered structure. 1.444-4 Section 1.444-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Accounting Periods § 1.444-4 Tiered structure. (a) Electing small business...

  7. 26 CFR 1.444-4 - Tiered structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tiered structure. 1.444-4 Section 1.444-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Accounting Periods § 1.444-4 Tiered structure. (a) Electing small business...

  8. Four peer reviews in support of the Tier 3 rulemaking ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Peer review of ERG's KenCaryl (CO) estimated summer hot-soak distributions report in support of the Tier 3 rulemaking To peer review ERG's KenCaryl (CO) estimated summer hot-soak distributions report (for Tier 3 rulemaking)

  9. 47 CFR 76.1605 - New product tier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New product tier. 76.1605 Section 76.1605 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1605 New product tier. (a) Within 30 days of the offering of an...

  10. 47 CFR 76.1618 - Basic tier availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basic tier availability. 76.1618 Section 76.1618 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1618 Basic tier availability. A cable operator...

  11. 47 CFR 76.1618 - Basic tier availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic tier availability. 76.1618 Section 76.1618 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1618 Basic tier availability. A cable operator...

  12. 47 CFR 76.1618 - Basic tier availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basic tier availability. 76.1618 Section 76.1618 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1618 Basic tier availability. A cable operator...

  13. 47 CFR 76.1618 - Basic tier availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basic tier availability. 76.1618 Section 76.1618 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1618 Basic tier availability. A cable operator...

  14. 47 CFR 76.1618 - Basic tier availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Basic tier availability. 76.1618 Section 76.1618 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1618 Basic tier availability. A cable operator...

  15. Three tiers of genome evolution in reptiles

    PubMed Central

    Organ, Chris L.; Moreno, Ricardo Godínez; Edwards, Scott V.

    2008-01-01

    Characterization of reptilian genomes is essential for understanding the overall diversity and evolution of amniote genomes, because reptiles, which include birds, constitute a major fraction of the amniote evolutionary tree. To better understand the evolution and diversity of genomic characteristics in Reptilia, we conducted comparative analyses of online sequence data from Alligator mississippiensis (alligator) and Sphenodon punctatus (tuatara) as well as genome size and karyological data from a wide range of reptilian species. At the whole-genome and chromosomal tiers of organization, we find that reptilian genome size distribution is consistent with a model of continuous gradual evolution while genomic compartmentalization, as manifested in the number of microchromosomes and macrochromosomes, appears to have undergone early rapid change. At the sequence level, the third genomic tier, we find that exon size in Alligator is distributed in a pattern matching that of exons in Gallus (chicken), especially in the 101—200 bp size class. A small spike in the fraction of exons in the 301 bp—1 kb size class is also observed for Alligator, but more so for Sphenodon. For introns, we find that members of Reptilia have a larger fraction of introns within the 101 bp–2 kb size class and a lower fraction of introns within the 5–30 kb size class than do mammals. These findings suggest that the mode of reptilian genome evolution varies across three hierarchical levels of the genome, a pattern consistent with a mosaic model of genomic evolution. PMID:21669810

  16. Synthetic aperture radar processing with tiered subapertures

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, A.W.

    1994-06-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is used to form images that are maps of radar reflectivity of some scene of interest, from range soundings taken over some spatial aperture. Additionally, the range soundings are typically synthesized from a sampled frequency aperture. Efficient processing of the collected data necessitates using efficient digital signal processing techniques such as vector multiplies and fast implementations of the Discrete Fourier Transform. Inherent in image formation algorithms that use these is a trade-off between the size of the scene that can be acceptably imaged, and the resolution with which the image can be made. These limits arise from migration errors and spatially variant phase errors, and different algorithms mitigate these to varying degrees. Two fairly successful algorithms for airborne SARs are Polar Format processing, and Overlapped Subaperture (OSA) processing. This report introduces and summarizes the analysis of generalized Tiered Subaperture (TSA) techniques that are a superset of both Polar Format processing and OSA processing. It is shown how tiers of subapertures in both azimuth and range can effectively mitigate both migration errors and spatially variant phase errors to allow virtually arbitrary scene sizes, even in a dynamic motion environment.

  17. An engineering approach for Tier 2 RBCA evaluations at NAPL-contaminated sites.

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.; Williams, G.; Butler, J. P.; Environmental Assessment

    2001-09-01

    Groundwater contaminated with non-aqueous-phase liquids (NAPLs) poses human health risks and evaluation of these risks requires estimated groundwater NAPL concentrations. Site NAPL concentrations are typically evaluated using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's tiered risk-based corrective action (RBCA) system. Tier 1 uses conservative assumptions and little site-specific data, while tier 2 requires more detailed site-specific data. This paper presents an engineering approach that can be used to predict maximum groundwater NAPL concentrations resulting from NAPL spills. This screening tool was developed by deriving an analytical solution for a partial differential equation describing NAPL transport through the unsaturated zone. Model processes include dissolution, advection, dispersion, sorption, volatilization, and first-order degradation. Results are obtained using two nondimensional parameters and engineering plots for a wide range of conditions. A brief study is provided to demonstrate the application of the model. Because the engineering plots are easy to use and facilitate sensitivity analyses, the model is recommended for screening and RBCA tier 2 analyses.

  18. The relationship between force and focal complex development

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, Catherine G.; Yamada, Kenneth M.; Sheetz, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    To adhere and migrate, cells must be capable of applying cytoskeletal force to the extracellular matrix (ECM) through integrin receptors. However, it is unclear if connections between integrins and the ECM are immediately capable of transducing cytoskeletal contraction into migration force, or whether engagement of force transmission requires maturation of the adhesion. Here, we show that initial integrin–ECM adhesions become capable of exerting migration force with the recruitment of vinculin, a marker for focal complexes, which are precursors of focal adhesions. We are able to induce the development of focal complexes by the application of mechanical force to fibronectin receptors from inside or outside the cell, and we are able to extend focal complex formation to vitronectin receptors by the removal of c-Src. These results indicate that cells use mechanical force as a signal to strengthen initial integrin–ECM adhesions into focal complexes and regulate the amount of migration force applied to individual adhesions at localized regions of the advancing lamella. PMID:12446745

  19. Using pan-tropical biomass maps to improve IPCC Tier 1 default level emission factors - a case study for the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langner, Andreas; Achard, Frédéric; Grassi, Giacomo

    2014-05-01

    The IPCC proposes three Tier levels for greenhouse gas emission monitoring with a hierarchical order in terms of accuracy as well as data requirements/complexity. While Tier 1 provides default above-ground biomass (AGB) values per ecological zone and continent, Tier 2 and 3 are either based on country-specific remote sensing or permanent sample-plot data. Due to missing capacities most developing countries have to rely on Tier 1 default values, which show highest uncertainties. Furthermore, IPCC Tier 1 values lack transparency as they are based on a variety of studies that have been repeatedly updated and combined with expert opinions, thus blurring the original data sources. A possible way to increase credibility is a conservative monitoring approach, following the principle of conservativeness, thus reducing the likelihood of unjustified payments for emission reductions not reflecting reality. For the implementation of that principle knowledge about the distribution of the biomass within each ecological zone is essential. However, such information is not available for the IPCC Tier 1 values, which only provide mean values and/or AGB ranges that are not based on a common statistical analysis. Using the pan-tropical datasets of Saatchi et al (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 108, 9899-9904, 2011; 1km spatial resolution) and Baccini et al (Nat Climate Change, 2:182-185, 2012; 500m spatial resolution) we calculated the mean AGB values as well as their 50% confidence intervals for each ecological zone within the DRC using Globcover2009 as forest/non-forest mask and the FAO ecological zones dataset. Such analysis is more transparent while at the same time leading to "statistically improved" Tier 1 values, potentially allowing a conservative monitoring approach by selecting the lower bound of the confidence interval for emission estimation during the reference period and the higher bound for the assessment period. Within the DRC Baccini generally delivers higher AGB estimates

  20. [Development and Validation of a Screening Instrument for Complex PTSD].

    PubMed

    Dorr, Florence; Firus, Christian; Kramer, Rolf; Bengel, Jürgen

    2016-11-01

    Chronic interpersonal traumata systematically result in psychological impairments referred to as complex post-traumatic stress disorder (cPTSD or DESNOS). This diagnosis will be newly established in the ICD-11 system. However, there is need for diagnostic instruments to assess cPTSD. The aim was to develop a screening form to identify patients at risk for cPTSD. The Screening for complex PTSD (SkPTBS) tests a) experience of potential traumatic events, b) related influential features and risk factors, and c) symptoms of cPTSD. 325 patients (mean age 51.5±8.7 years; 62.1% female) filled out the screening instrument at the beginning of their inpatient psychotherapy. The primary criterion for testing SkPTBS validity was the diagnosis of complex PTSD at the end of the inpatient treatment. The proportion of patients with cPTSD was 8.9% (n=29). SkPTBS items were selective, and the scale showed very good reliability (α=0.91). Factor analysis revealed a one-dimensional structure. SkPTBS total values predicted having cPTSD diagnosis and were correlated with global symptom severity (SCL-90-R) and depressive symptoms (BDI-II). There is evidence for high clinical utility of SkPTBS. A revised version was developed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. The Development and Study of Surface Bound Ruthenium Organometallic Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Geoffrey Reuben

    The focus of this project has been on the use of mono-diimine ruthenium organometallic complexes, of the general structure [H(Ru)(CO)(L)2(L') 2][PF6] (L=PPh3, DPPENE and L'=Bpy, DcBpy, MBpyC, Phen, AminoPhen) bound to surfaces as luminescent probes. Both biological and inorganic/organic hybrid surfaces have been studied. The complexes were characterized both bound and unbound using standard analytical techniques such as NMR, IR and X-ray crystallography, as well as through several photophysical methods as well. Initially the study focused on how the photophyscial properties of the complexes were affected by incorporation into biological membranes. It was found that by conjugating the probes to a more rigid cholesterol moiety that luminescence was conserved, compared to conjugation with a far more flexible lipid moiety, where luminescence was either lost or reduced. Both the cholesterol and lipid conjugates were able to insert into a lipid membrane, and in the more rigid environment some of the lipid conjugates regained some of their luminescence, but often blue shifted and reduced, depending on the conjugation site. Silica Polyamine Composites (SPCs) were a hybrid material developed in the Rosenberg Lab as useful metal separation materials, that could be easily modified, and had several benefits over current commercially available polymers, or inorganic materials. These SPCs also provided an opportunity for the development of a heterogeneous platform for luminescent complexes as either catalysts or sensors. Upon binding of the luminescent Ru complexes to the surface no loss, or major change in luminescence was seen, however, when bound to the rigid surface a significant increase in excited state lifetime was measured. It is likely that through binding and interacting with the surface that the complexes lost non-radiative decay pathways, resulting in the increase in lifetime, however, these interactions do not seem to affect the energy level of the MLCT band in a

  2. Nano-scale, planar and multi-tiered current pathways from a carbon nanotube-copper composite with high conductivity, ampacity and stability.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Chandramouli; Sekiguchi, Atsuko; Yamada, Takeo; Futaba, Don N; Hata, Kenji

    2016-02-21

    New lithographically processable materials with high ampacity are in demand to meet the increasing requirement for high operational current density at high temperatures existing in current pathways within electronic devices. To meet this demand, we report an approach to fabricate a high ampacity (∼100 times higher than Cu) carbon nanotube-copper (CNT-Cu) composite into a variety of complex nano-scale, planar and multi-tiered current pathways. The approach involved the use of a two-stage electrodeposition of copper into a pre-patterned template of porous, thin CNT sheets acting as the electrode. The versatility of this approach enabled the realization of completely suspended multi-tier, dielectric-less 'air-gap' CNT-Cu circuits that could be electrically isolated from each other and are challenging to fabricate with pure Cu or any metal. Importantly, all such complex structures, ranging from 500 nm to 20 μm in width, exhibited ∼100-times higher ampacity than any known metal, with comparable electrical conductivity as Cu. In addition, CNT-Cu structures also exhibited a superior temperature stability compared to the ∼10-times wider Cu counterparts. We believe that the combination of our approach and the properties demonstrated here are vital achievements for the future development of efficient and powerful electrical devices.

  3. Nano-scale, planar and multi-tiered current pathways from a carbon nanotube-copper composite with high conductivity, ampacity and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramaniam, Chandramouli; Sekiguchi, Atsuko; Yamada, Takeo; Futaba, Don N.; Hata, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    New lithographically processable materials with high ampacity are in demand to meet the increasing requirement for high operational current density at high temperatures existing in current pathways within electronic devices. To meet this demand, we report an approach to fabricate a high ampacity (~100 times higher than Cu) carbon nanotube-copper (CNT-Cu) composite into a variety of complex nano-scale, planar and multi-tiered current pathways. The approach involved the use of a two-stage electrodeposition of copper into a pre-patterned template of porous, thin CNT sheets acting as the electrode. The versatility of this approach enabled the realization of completely suspended multi-tier, dielectric-less `air-gap' CNT-Cu circuits that could be electrically isolated from each other and are challenging to fabricate with pure Cu or any metal. Importantly, all such complex structures, ranging from 500 nm to 20 μm in width, exhibited ~100-times higher ampacity than any known metal, with comparable electrical conductivity as Cu. In addition, CNT-Cu structures also exhibited a superior temperature stability compared to the ~10-times wider Cu counterparts. We believe that the combination of our approach and the properties demonstrated here are vital achievements for the future development of efficient and powerful electrical devices.

  4. Development of a complex orientation program for multidisciplinary training.

    PubMed

    Hemingway, Maureen; Morrissey, Lisa

    2013-06-01

    Providing complex orientation and multidisciplinary training for perioperative personnel of a newly constructed health care facility with new surgical suites proved both challenging and valuable to nurse leaders. Despite the need for such training, a program to teach groups across all disciplines regarding technological advances specific to the OR and to orient them to a new facility did not exist previously. To address this, we developed a multiphase educational initiative that involved orientation, technology training, and multidisciplinary simulation. The project required extensive planning, high-level collaboration, and use of the hospital's information technology systems, all while staff members continued to provide care for patients undergoing surgically complex procedures. The successful implementation of this program ensured that staff members were proficient in new OR technology and oriented to the new facility before occupancy began. Copyright © 2013 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 40 CFR 370.43 - What codes are used to report Tier I and Tier II inventory information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What codes are used to report Tier I and Tier II inventory information? 370.43 Section 370.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...,000 999,999,999 11 1 billion More than 1 billion. Note to paragraph (a): To convert gas or...

  6. Impact assessment procedures for sustainable development: A complexity theory perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Nooteboom, Sibout

    2007-10-15

    The author assumes that effective Impact Assessment procedures should somehow contribute to sustainable development. There is no widely agreed framework for evaluating such effectiveness. The author suggests that complexity theories may offer criteria. The relevant question is 'do Impact Assessment Procedures contribute to the 'requisite variety' of a social system for it to deal with changing circumstances?' Requisite variety theoretically relates to the capability of a system to deal with changes in its environment. The author reconstructs how thinking about achieving sustainable development has developed in a sequence of discourses in The Netherlands since the 1970s. Each new discourse built on the previous ones, and is supposed to have added to 'requisite variety'. The author asserts that Impact Assessment procedures may be a necessary component in such sequences and derives possible criteria for effectiveness.

  7. Aircraft stress sequence development: A complex engineering process made simple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, K. H.; Butts, D. G.; Sparks, W. A.

    1994-01-01

    Development of stress sequences for critical aircraft structure requires flight measured usage data, known aircraft loads, and established relationships between aircraft flight loads and structural stresses. Resulting cycle-by-cycle stress sequences can be directly usable for crack growth analysis and coupon spectra tests. Often, an expert in loads and spectra development manipulates the usage data into a typical sequence of representative flight conditions for which loads and stresses are calculated. For a fighter/trainer type aircraft, this effort is repeated many times for each of the fatigue critical locations (FCL) resulting in expenditure of numerous engineering hours. The Aircraft Stress Sequence Computer Program (ACSTRSEQ), developed by Southwest Research Institute under contract to San Antonio Air Logistics Center, presents a unique approach for making complex technical computations in a simple, easy to use method. The program is written in Microsoft Visual Basic for the Microsoft Windows environment.

  8. A Tiered Approach to Evaluating Salinity Sources in Water at Oil and Gas Production Sites.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Shawn M; Molofsky, Lisa J; Connor, John A; Walker, Kenneth L; Hopkins, Harley; Chakraborty, Ayan

    2017-09-01

    A suspected increase in the salinity of fresh water resources can trigger a site investigation to identify the source(s) of salinity and the extent of any impacts. These investigations can be complicated by the presence of naturally elevated total dissolved solids or chlorides concentrations, multiple potential sources of salinity, and incomplete data and information on both naturally occurring conditions and the characteristics of potential sources. As a result, data evaluation techniques that are effective at one site may not be effective at another. In order to match the complexity of the evaluation effort to the complexity of the specific site, this paper presents a strategic tiered approach that utilizes established techniques for evaluating and identifying the source(s) of salinity in an efficient step-by-step manner. The tiered approach includes: (1) a simple screening process to evaluate whether an impact has occurred and if the source is readily apparent; (2) basic geochemical characterization of the impacted water resource(s) and potential salinity sources coupled with simple visual and statistical data evaluation methods to determine the source(s); and (3) advanced laboratory analyses (e.g., isotopes) and data evaluation methods to identify the source(s) and the extent of salinity impacts where it was not otherwise conclusive. A case study from the U.S. Gulf Coast is presented to illustrate the application of this tiered approach. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  9. Newborn Screening for Vitamin B6 Non-responsive Classical Homocystinuria: Systematical Evaluation of a Two-Tier Strategy.

    PubMed

    Okun, Jürgen G; Gan-Schreier, Hongying; Ben-Omran, Tawfeq; Schmidt, Kathrin V; Fang-Hoffmann, Junmin; Gramer, Gwendolyn; Abdoh, Ghassan; Shahbeck, Noora; Al Rifai, Hilal; Al Khal, Abdul Latif; Haege, Gisela; Chiang, Chuan-Chi; Kasper, David C; Wilcken, Bridget; Burgard, Peter; Hoffmann, Georg F

    2017-01-01

    In classical homocystinuria (HCU, MIM# 236200) due to the deficiency of cystathionine β-synthase (EC 4.2.1.22) there is a clear evidence for the success of early treatment. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a two-tier strategy for HCU newborn screening. We reevaluated data from our newborn screening programme for Qatar in a total number of 125,047 neonates including 30 confirmed HCU patients. Our hitherto existing screening strategy includes homocysteine (Hcy) measurements in every child, resulting in a unique dataset for evaluation of two-tier strategies. Reevaluation included methionine (Met) levels, Met to phenylalanine (Phe) ratio, and Hcy. Four HCU cases identified after database closure were also included in the evaluation. In addition, dried blood spot samples selected by Met values >P97 in the newborn screening programs in Austria, Australia, the Netherlands, and Taiwan were analyzed for Hcy. Met to Phe ratio was found to be more effective for first sieve than Met, sorting out nearly 90% of normal samples. Only 10% of the samples would have to be processed by second-tier measurement of Hcy in dried blood spots. As no patient with HCU was found neither in the samples investigated for HCU, nor by clinical diagnosis in the other countries, the generalization of our two-tier strategy could only be tested indirectly. The finally derived two-tier algorithm using Met to Phe ratio as first- and Hcy as second-tier requires 10% first-tier positives to be transferred to Hcy measurement, resulting in 100% sensitivity and specificity in HCU newborn screening.

  10. Multi-tiered system of support incorporating the R.E.N.E.W. process and its relationship to perception of school safety and office discipline referrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flood, Molly M.

    This study examined the relationship between the fidelity of multi-tier school-wide positive behavior interventions and supports (SWPBIS) and staff perception of school safety and office discipline referrals. This research provided a case study on multi-tier supports and interventions, and the RENEW person-centered planning process in an alternative special education center following the implementation of a multi-tier SWPBIS model. Pennsylvania is one of several states looking to adopt an effective Tier III behavioral tool. The research described the results of an analysis of implementation fidelity on a multi-tiered school-wide positive behavior support model developed at a special education center operated by a public school system entity. This research explored the fidelity of SWPBIS implementation; analyzed the relationship of SWPBIS to school climate as measured by staff perceptions and reduction of office discipline referrals (ODR); explored tier III supports incorporating a process Rehabilitation and Empowerment, Natural Supports, Education and Work (RENEW); and investigated the potential sustainability of the RENEW process as a multi-tier system of support. This study investigated staff perceptions on integrated supports between schools and communities and identified the degree of relationship to school risk factors, school protective factors, and office discipline referrals following the building of cooperative partnerships between Systems of Care and Local Education Agencies.

  11. Implementation Challenges for Tier One and Tier Two School-Based Programs for Early Adolescents.

    PubMed

    LaRusso, Maria D; Donovan, Suzanne; Snow, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    This mixed-method study examined the implementation and the challenges to implementation for participants in randomized controlled trials of two school-based programs for early adolescents: the Tier One Word Generation (WG) program, and the Tier Two Strategic Adolescent Reading Intervention (STARI). Levels of implementation for WG and STARI varied substantially across teachers and classrooms, with mean levels of 40% for fourth- and fifth-grade WG, 31% for sixth- and seventh-grade WG, and 47% for STARI. The three most common implementation challenges for WG were lack of time, multiple new programs/curricula happening at the same time, and time lost to testing and test prep. The three most common implementation challenges for STARI were student misbehavior, student absences, and time lost to testing and test prep. In order to succeed, efforts to find programs that work and to improve educational outcomes must address these formidable problems in U.S. public schools.

  12. Plasmodia express two threonine-peptidase complexes during asexual development.

    PubMed

    Mordmüller, Benjamin; Fendel, Rolf; Kreidenweiss, Andrea; Gille, Christoph; Hurwitz, Robert; Metzger, Wolfram G; Kun, Jürgen F J; Lamkemeyer, Tobias; Nordheim, Alfred; Kremsner, Peter G

    2006-07-01

    Threonine-peptidases of the T1-family are multi-subunit complexes with broad substrate specificity. In eukaryotes, at least 14 genes encode subunits of the prototypic T1 threonine-peptidase, the proteasome. The proteasome determines the turnover of most proteins and thereby plays a fundamental role in diverse processes such as protein quality control, signal transduction, and cell cycle regulation. While eukaryotes and archaea possess a proteasome, bacteria generally express a second member of the T1-family, the proteasomal predecessor ClpQ/hslV that has a similar structure but is encoded by only one gene. The plasmodial genome is an exception because it encodes proteasomal subunits as well as a ClpQ/hslV-orthologe (Plasmodium falciparum-hslV; PfhslV). Structure, expression, and function of both types of peptidase-complex in P. falciparum are presently unknown. Our aim was to analyze both the coding sequences and derived proteins of both peptidase-complexes because highly specific and potent inhibitors can be designed against this class of enzymes. The proteasome was found expressed throughout the cell cycle, whereas PfhslV was detectable in schizonts and merozoites only. Treatment of P. falciparum with the threonine-peptidase inhibitor epoxomicin blocked two of three catalytically active proteasome subunits. This led to the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and, finally, to parasite death. In conclusion, we provide the first functional analysis of plasmodial threonine-peptidase-complexes and identify a lead compound for the development of a novel class of antimalarial drugs.

  13. STAR load balancing and tiered-storage infrastructure strategy for ultimate db access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipkin, D.; Lauret, J.; Betts, W.; Didenko, L.; Van Buren, G.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, the STAR experiment's database demands have grown in accord not only with simple facility growth, but also with a growing physics program. In addition to the accumulated metadata from a decade of operations, refinements to detector calibrations force user analysis to access database information post data production. Users may access any year's data at any point in time, causing a near random access of the metadata queried, contrary to time-organized production cycles. Moreover, complex online event selection algorithms created a query scarcity ("sparsity") scenario for offline production further impacting performance. Fundamental changes in our hardware approach were hence necessary to improve query speed. Initial strategic improvements were focused on developing fault-tolerant, load-balanced access to a multi-slave infrastructure. Beyond that, we explored, tested and quantified the benefits of introducing a Tiered storage architecture composed of conventional drives, solid-state disks, and memory-resident databases as well as leveraging the use of smaller database services fitting in memory. The results of our extensive testing in real life usage are presented.

  14. Dissecting a complex neurosurgical illustration: step-by-step development.

    PubMed

    Suk, Ian

    2011-12-01

    Modern computer graphics software has enabled the medical illustrator to render very complex anatomy by composing many different layers of drawings simultaneously. This and the author's capacity to take an "editorial" approach to compress several chronological events into a single, comprehensive two-dimensional illustration are analyzed in a step-by-step process. Through a series of images, the article provides a visual synopsis of the development of an illustration for an extensive clinical case: total sacrectomy performed through an all-posterior approach. Originally given as a slide presentation at the American Association of Neurological Surgeons Theodore Kurze Lecture in April 2011, the article provides some detailed notes on the techniques the author used to develop a comprehensive neurosurgical illustration.

  15. Prospects of the complex development of highly parameter geothermal brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Ramazanov, A. Sh.; Kasparova, M. A.

    2015-06-01

    The high efficiency of complex processing of high-temperature hydrothermal brines with utilization of heat energy in a binary geothermal power plant and subsequent extraction of solved chemical compounds is shown. Promising technological schemes are given, where electric power, which is generated in the binary geothermal power plant, is used in a block to recover chemistry components. The technology for integrated processing of geothermal brines of the chloride-sodium-calcium type is developed, which provides the manufacture not only of marketable products but also of practically overall reagents of processed water that are necessary to realize the technology. Priority areas for development are indicated, and the preliminary estimates for a Berikey geothermal deposit are given. It is shown that only established resources of thermal brines of the Berikey deposit make it possible to produce more than 2000 t of lithium carbonate and, thereby, to completely provide Russian industry requirements for it.

  16. Development of the nuclear weapons complex EP architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, C.; Halbleib, L.

    1996-07-01

    The Nuclear Weapons Guidance Team is an interagency committee led by Earl Whiteman, DOE that chartered the generation of EP40100, Concurrent Qualification and its successor EP401099, Concurrent Engineering and Qualification. As this new philosophy of concurrent operations has evolved and as implementation has been initiated, conflicts and insufficiencies in the remaining Engineering Procedures (EPs) have become more apparent. At the Guidance Team meeting in November 1995, this issue was explored and several approaches were considered. It was concluded at this meeting, that a smaller set of interagency EPs described in a hierarchical system could provide the necessary interagency direction to support complex-wide implementation. This set consolidates many existing EP processes where consistency and commonality are critical to success of the extended enterprise. The Guidance Team subsequently chartered an interagency team to initiate development activity associated with the envisioned new EP set. This team had participation from seven Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) sites as well as DOE/AL and DP-14 (team members are acknowledged later in this report). Per the Guidance Team, this team, referred to as the Architecture Subcommittee, was to map out and define an EP Architecture for the interagency EPs, make recommendations regarding a more agile process for EP approval and suggest an aggressive timeline to develop the combined EPs. The Architecture Subcommittee was asked to brief their output at the February Guidance Team meeting. This SAND report documents the results of the Architecture Subcommittee`s recommendations.

  17. A framework for implementing systems engineering development of complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunson, Karl Leonard

    The Department of Defense and the aerospace industry are responsible for decades of successful implementation of systems engineering process models used for the development of complex systems. The process models implemented throughout acquisition life cycles have proven to be comprehensive and flexible, and hence are designed to reduce acquisition schedule variability and the inherent risks of life-cycle cost overruns. While implementing the appropriate process model is important, various process models do not evaluate and quantify potential technical, manufacturing, scheduling and cost risks that may impact acquisition activities throughout the acquisition life cycle of the complex system. A potential way to effectively manage these risks with the appropriate process model is through the incorporation of the Synthesized Framework , the proposed method developed in this dissertation. With the described Synthesized Framework (SF), process models and risk drivers can be analyzed using this comprehensive approach, which implements qualitative and quantitative risk analysis techniques through Monte Carlo simulation. The result is a repeatable, inherent, risk-driven commitment process that can stabilize and synchronize both systems engineering and acquisition processes.

  18. A tiered risk-based approach for predicting diffuse and point source phosphorus losses in agricultural areas.

    PubMed

    Heathwaite, A L; Dils, R M; Liu, S; Carvalho, L; Brazier, R E; Pope, L; Hughes, M; Phillips, G; May, L

    2005-05-15

    Implementation of the European Union Water Framework Directive requires an assessment of the pressures from human activity, which, combined with information on the sensitivity of the receiving waterbody to the pressures, will identify those water bodies at risk of failing to meet the Directive's environmental objectives. Part of the process of undertaking the risk assessment for lakes is an assessment of diffuse agricultural phosphorus (P) pressures. Three approaches of increasing sophistication were developed for this purpose: a basic 'risk screening' approach (tier 1) applicable to all lakes in Great Britain (GB) and based on export coefficients for different land cover classes and animal types; the Pressure Delivery Risk Screening Matrix approach (tier 2) that differentiated between pressures in surface water and groundwater river basins; and the Phosphorus Indicators Tool (PIT), a simple model of locational risk and P delivery potential (tier 3). Application of the three approaches to a range of lake catchments in England demonstrated that a tiered risk assessment approach was appropriate which was tailored to the quality of the available data. A step-wise procedure was developed whereby if the tier 1 and 2 approaches showed a catchment to be at high risk of failing to meet the Directive's environmental objectives with regard to P, it was justifiable to undertake a more detailed assessment using the tier 3 approach. The tier 1 approach was applied to all lakes in GB greater than 1 ha in size on the assumption that the boundary between the good/moderate status classes under the Water Framework Directive guidelines represented a doubling of the total P (TP) reference conditions. The initial outputs suggested that 51% of lakes in GB are predicted to not meet the TP targets identified for high or good status and must, therefore, be considered at risk. There were regional differences in numbers of lakes at risk. Scotland appeared to have the fewest sites at risk (18

  19. [Development, health-industrial complex and industrial policy].

    PubMed

    Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois

    2006-08-01

    This paper puts health questions within the context of national development and industrial policy. It follows the idea of structuralist, Marxist and Schumpeterian approaches, in which industry and innovations form determining factors for the dynamism in capitalist economies and relative positions within the world economy. All countries that have developed and started to compete under better conditions with advanced countries have had an association between strong industry and an endogenous knowledge, learning and innovation base. However, in the field of health, this vision presents problems because business interests move according to the economic logic of profit rather than to meet health needs. The notion of the health-industrial complex is an attempt to provide a theoretical reference that enables linkage between two distinct types of logic: health and economic development. This study has sought to show, on the basis of foreign trade data, how disregard for the logic of health policy development has led to a situation of economic vulnerability in this sector, which may limit the objectives of universality, equality and comprehensiveness. Within this context, a cognitive and political break with these antagonistic visions that put health needs on one side and industrial needs on the other is proposed. A country that aims to reach a condition of development and independence requires strong innovative industries and an inclusive and universal health system, at the same time.

  20. Developing a theoretical framework for complex community-based interventions.

    PubMed

    Angeles, Ricardo N; Dolovich, Lisa; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Thabane, Lehana

    2014-01-01

    Applying existing theories to research, in the form of a theoretical framework, is necessary to advance knowledge from what is already known toward the next steps to be taken. This article proposes a guide on how to develop a theoretical framework for complex community-based interventions using the Cardiovascular Health Awareness Program as an example. Developing a theoretical framework starts with identifying the intervention's essential elements. Subsequent steps include the following: (a) identifying and defining the different variables (independent, dependent, mediating/intervening, moderating, and control); (b) postulating mechanisms how the independent variables will lead to the dependent variables; (c) identifying existing theoretical models supporting the theoretical framework under development; (d) scripting the theoretical framework into a figure or sets of statements as a series of hypotheses, if/then logic statements, or a visual model; (e) content and face validation of the theoretical framework; and (f) revising the theoretical framework. In our example, we combined the "diffusion of innovation theory" and the "health belief model" to develop our framework. Using the Cardiovascular Health Awareness Program as the model, we demonstrated a stepwise process of developing a theoretical framework. The challenges encountered are described, and an overview of the strategies employed to overcome these challenges is presented.

  1. The effects of attending selective college tiers in China.

    PubMed

    Loyalka, Prashant; Song, Yingquan; Wei, Jianguo

    2012-03-01

    We estimate the effects of attending the first versus second-tier of higher education institutions on Chinese students' at-college and expected post-college outcomes using various quasi-experimental methods such as regression discontinuity, genetic matching, and regression discontinuity controlling for covariates. Overall we find that just attending the first versus second-tier makes little difference in terms of students' class ranking, net tuition, expected wages, or likelihood of applying for graduate school. The results do show, however, that just attending the first versus second tier makes it less likely that students will get their preferred major choice.

  2. Tier 2 Interventions in Positive Behavior Support: A Survey of School Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Loman, Sheldon L.; Borgmeier, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    As increasing numbers of schools implement Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS), schools are looking for and implementing evidence-based practices for students whose needs are not fully met by Tier 1 supports. Although there is relative consistency and clarity in what constitutes Tier 1 behavior support within MTSS, Tier 2 supports may be more…

  3. 26 CFR 53.4961-1 - Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within correction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abatement of second tier taxes for correction... TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4961-1 Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within... second tier tax imposed with respect to the event shall not be assessed. If the tax has been assessed,...

  4. 26 CFR 53.4961-1 - Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within correction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abatement of second tier taxes for correction... TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4961-1 Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within... second tier tax imposed with respect to the event shall not be assessed. If the tax has been assessed,...

  5. 26 CFR 53.4961-1 - Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within correction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abatement of second tier taxes for correction... TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4961-1 Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within... second tier tax imposed with respect to the event shall not be assessed. If the tax has been assessed,...

  6. Effects of a Tier 3 Self-Management Intervention Implemented with and without Treatment Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lower, Ashley; Young, K. Richard; Christensen, Lynnette; Caldarella, Paul; Williams, Leslie; Wills, Howard

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a Tier 3 peer-matching self-management intervention on two elementary school students who had previously been less responsive to Tier 1 and Tier 2 interventions. The Tier 3 self-management intervention, which was implemented in the general education classrooms, included daily electronic communication between…

  7. 40 CFR 1043.50 - Approval of methods to meet Tier 1 retrofit NOX standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of methods to meet Tier 1... SUBJECT TO THE MARPOL PROTOCOL § 1043.50 Approval of methods to meet Tier 1 retrofit NOX standards... enable Pre-Tier 1 engines to meet the Tier 1 NOX standard of regulation 13 of Annex VI. Any person...

  8. 20 CFR 228.40 - Cost of living increase applicable to the tier I annuity component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Cost of living increase applicable to the tier... UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.40 Cost of living increase applicable to the tier I annuity component. The tier I annuity...

  9. 40 CFR 1043.50 - Approval of methods to meet Tier 1 retrofit NOX standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of methods to meet Tier 1... SUBJECT TO THE MARPOL PROTOCOL § 1043.50 Approval of methods to meet Tier 1 retrofit NOX standards... enable Pre-Tier 1 engines to meet the Tier 1 NOX standard of regulation 13 of Annex VI. Any person...

  10. 20 CFR 228.40 - Cost of living increase applicable to the tier I annuity component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... tier I annuity component. 228.40 Section 228.40 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.40 Cost of living increase applicable to the tier I annuity component. The tier I...

  11. 40 CFR 1043.50 - Approval of methods to meet Tier 1 retrofit NOX standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of methods to meet Tier 1... SUBJECT TO THE MARPOL PROTOCOL § 1043.50 Approval of methods to meet Tier 1 retrofit NOX standards... enable Pre-Tier 1 engines to meet the Tier 1 NOX standard of regulation 13 of Annex VI. Any person...

  12. 40 CFR 1043.50 - Approval of methods to meet Tier 1 retrofit NOX standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of methods to meet Tier 1... SUBJECT TO THE MARPOL PROTOCOL § 1043.50 Approval of methods to meet Tier 1 retrofit NOX standards... enable Pre-Tier 1 engines to meet the Tier 1 NOX standard of regulation 13 of Annex VI. Any person...

  13. 40 CFR 1043.50 - Approval of methods to meet Tier 1 retrofit NOX standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of methods to meet Tier 1... SUBJECT TO THE MARPOL PROTOCOL § 1043.50 Approval of methods to meet Tier 1 retrofit NOX standards... enable Pre-Tier 1 engines to meet the Tier 1 NOX standard of regulation 13 of Annex VI. Any person...

  14. 20 CFR 228.40 - Cost of living increase applicable to the tier I annuity component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... tier I annuity component. 228.40 Section 228.40 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.40 Cost of living increase applicable to the tier I annuity component. The tier I...

  15. 20 CFR 228.40 - Cost of living increase applicable to the tier I annuity component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Cost of living increase applicable to the tier... UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.40 Cost of living increase applicable to the tier I annuity component. The tier I annuity...

  16. Tier 2 Interventions in Positive Behavior Support: A Survey of School Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Loman, Sheldon L.; Borgmeier, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    As increasing numbers of schools implement Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS), schools are looking for and implementing evidence-based practices for students whose needs are not fully met by Tier 1 supports. Although there is relative consistency and clarity in what constitutes Tier 1 behavior support within MTSS, Tier 2 supports may be more…

  17. A Team-Based Process for Designing Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-Tiered (CI3T) Models of Prevention: How Does My School-Site Leadership Team Design a CI3T Model?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Jenkins, Abbie; Menzies, Holly Mariah; Kalberg, Jemma Robertson

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered models are context specific and developed by school-site teams according to the core values held by the school community. In this article, the authors provide a step-by-step, team-based process for designing comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered models of prevention that integrate academic, behavioral, and…

  18. A Team-Based Process for Designing Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-Tiered (CI3T) Models of Prevention: How Does My School-Site Leadership Team Design a CI3T Model?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Jenkins, Abbie; Menzies, Holly Mariah; Kalberg, Jemma Robertson

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered models are context specific and developed by school-site teams according to the core values held by the school community. In this article, the authors provide a step-by-step, team-based process for designing comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered models of prevention that integrate academic, behavioral, and…

  19. Development and Infectious Disease in Hosts with Complex Life Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Searle, Catherine L.; Xie, Gisselle Yang; Blaustein, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    Metamorphosis is often characterized by profound changes in morphology and physiology that can affect the dynamics of species interactions. For example, the interaction between a pathogen and its host may differ depending on the life stage of the host or pathogen. One pathogen that infects hosts with complex life cycles is the emerging fungal pathogen of amphibians, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). We sought to determine how conditions at the larval stage can affect variation in development and patterns of Bd infection across amphibian life stages. We used outdoor experimental mesocosms to simulate natural pond habitats and manipulated the presence of Bd, the larval density, and the number of host species in larvae of two co-occurring amphibian species (Rana cascadae and Pseudacris regilla). We found that infection differed between species throughout development; P. regilla consistently had higher infection severity compared to R. cascadae. Additionally, while up to 100% of larvae were infected, only 18.2% of R. cascadae and 81.5% of P. regilla were infected after metamorphosis. This indicates that amphibians have the ability to recover from Bd infection as they undergo metamorphosis. Higher larval densities in P. regilla led to a shorter larval period, and individuals with a shorter larval period had lower infection severity. This led to a trend where P. regilla larvae reared at high densities tended to have lower infection prevalence after metamorphosis. We also found that exposure to Bd increased larval mortality and prolonged the larval period in P. regilla, indicating that P. regilla are susceptible to the negative effects of Bd as larvae. This study demonstrates that host density, species composition, and pathogen exposure may all interact to influence development and infection in hosts with complex life cycles. PMID:23565288

  20. Development and infectious disease in hosts with complex life cycles.

    PubMed

    Searle, Catherine L; Xie, Gisselle Yang; Blaustein, Andrew R

    2013-01-01

    Metamorphosis is often characterized by profound changes in morphology and physiology that can affect the dynamics of species interactions. For example, the interaction between a pathogen and its host may differ depending on the life stage of the host or pathogen. One pathogen that infects hosts with complex life cycles is the emerging fungal pathogen of amphibians, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). We sought to determine how conditions at the larval stage can affect variation in development and patterns of Bd infection across amphibian life stages. We used outdoor experimental mesocosms to simulate natural pond habitats and manipulated the presence of Bd, the larval density, and the number of host species in larvae of two co-occurring amphibian species (Rana cascadae and Pseudacris regilla). We found that infection differed between species throughout development; P. regilla consistently had higher infection severity compared to R. cascadae. Additionally, while up to 100% of larvae were infected, only 18.2% of R. cascadae and 81.5% of P. regilla were infected after metamorphosis. This indicates that amphibians have the ability to recover from Bd infection as they undergo metamorphosis. Higher larval densities in P. regilla led to a shorter larval period, and individuals with a shorter larval period had lower infection severity. This led to a trend where P. regilla larvae reared at high densities tended to have lower infection prevalence after metamorphosis. We also found that exposure to Bd increased larval mortality and prolonged the larval period in P. regilla, indicating that P. regilla are susceptible to the negative effects of Bd as larvae. This study demonstrates that host density, species composition, and pathogen exposure may all interact to influence development and infection in hosts with complex life cycles.

  1. Arabidopsis flower development--of protein complexes, targets, and transport.

    PubMed

    Becker, Annette; Ehlers, Katrin

    2016-03-01

    Tremendous progress has been achieved over the past 25 years or more of research on the molecular mechanisms of floral organ identity, patterning, and development. While collections of floral homeotic mutants of Antirrhinum majus laid the foundation already at the beginning of the previous century, it was the genetic analysis of these mutants in A. majus and Arabidopsis thaliana that led to the development of the ABC model of floral organ identity more than 20 years ago. This intuitive model kick-started research focused on the genetic mechanisms regulating flower development, using mainly A. thaliana as a model plant. In recent years, interactions among floral homeotic proteins have been elucidated, and their direct and indirect target genes are known to a large extent. Here, we provide an overview over the advances in understanding the molecular mechanism orchestrating A. thaliana flower development. We focus on floral homeotic protein complexes, their target genes, evidence for their transport in floral primordia, and how these new results advance our view on the processes downstream of floral organ identity, such as organ boundary formation or floral organ patterning.

  2. Health informatics to optimize complex laboratory developed test configurations.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Uzma; Mahmood, Tariq; Anwar, Masood; Shaikh, Zubair

    2016-11-14

    Configuration of complex Laboratory Developed Tests (LDTs) is a time-consuming and complicated task, potentially leading to inconsistent LDTs in which features constraints remain unresolved and important features could remain unselected. Our objective is to address these issues by presenting an automated, health informatics solution which autonomously optimizes feature selection in complex LDTs through Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The optimization goal is to minimize inconsistencies and configuration time, and maximize the number of selected features. We implemented our technology in a local, secondary-care hospital in Pakistan which configures LDT for a local epidemic disease. First, a list of inconsistent LDT configurations is generated. This is used to initially estimate optimal PSO parameters, which are then used for optimization process. Results show that PSO is able to minimize 91% inconsistencies between 9 and 11 seconds. The number of selected critical features also increases by 100% in the optimized LDT configuration. We present a novel and the first application of computational optimization to solve LDT configuration issues.

  3. Application of elements of microbiological risk assessment in the food industry via a tiered approach.

    PubMed

    van Gerwen, Suzanne J C; Gorris, Leon G M

    2004-09-01

    Food safety control is a matter for concern for all parts of the food supply chain, including governments that develop food safety policy, food industries that must control potential hazards, and consumers who need to keep to the intended use of the food. In the future, food safety policy may be set using the framework of risk analysis, part of which is the development of (inter)national microbiological risk assessment (MRA) studies. MRA studies increase our understanding of the impact of risk management interventions and of the relationships among subsequent parts of food supply chains with regard to the safety of the food when it reaches the consumer. Application of aspects of MRA in the development of new food concepts has potential benefits for the food industry. A tiered approach to applying MRA can best realize these benefits. The tiered MRA approach involves calculation of microbial fate for a product and process design on the basis of experimental data (e.g., monitoring data on prevalence) and predictive microbiological models. Calculations on new product formulations and novel processing technologies provide improved understanding of microbial fate beyond currently known boundaries, which enables identification of new opportunities in process design. The outcome of the tiered approach focuses on developing benchmarks of potential consumer exposure to hazards associated with new products by comparison with exposure associated with products that are already on the market and have a safe history of use. The tiered prototype is a tool to be used by experienced microbiologists as a basis for advice to product developers and can help to make safety assurance for new food concepts transparent to food inspection services.

  4. Reelin and its complex involvement in brain development and function.

    PubMed

    Lakatosova, Silvia; Ostatnikova, Daniela

    2012-09-01

    Reelin is a neuroprotein with crucial role during neurodevelopment and also in postnatal period. It regulates neuronal migration and positioning in developing neocortex and cerebellar cortex. Postnatally it participates in regulation of dendritic and axonal growth, synaptogenesis, neurotransmission and it contribute to synaptic plasticity necessary for learning and memory functions. Role of Reelin seems to be rather complex, profound research gradually uncovers its further functions. Deficits of Reelin were detected in neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism. Pathogenesis of these disorders is far from being clearly understood. Reelin contribution to these diseases seems to be vital, since genetic variants of Reelin were associated with these diseases and often influence symptom severity. Reelin is a promising candidate molecule with potential future use in diagnostics and therapy, however further detailed research is essential. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Developing microRNA therapeutics: approaching the unique complexities.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Aimee L; Levin, Arthur A

    2012-08-01

    MicroRNAs are endogenous small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by interfering with translation or stability of target transcripts. The importance of microRNAs for maintaining biological functions is illustrated by the fact that microRNAs are exploited in nature to regulate phenotypes, and by the diverse disease phenotypes that result when microRNAs are mutated or improperly expressed. Disease-associated microRNAs might therefore represent a new class of therapeutic targets. With the recent demonstration that inhibition of miR-122 reduces viral load in hepatitis C patients, microRNA modulators are no longer merely theoretical, but rather, have become strong candidate therapeutics. The complexity of microRNA biology offers a novel mechanism of action for therapeutic intervention but also poses unique challenges for the development of therapeutic modulators as drugs.

  6. Curcumin complexation with cyclodextrins by the autoclave process: Method development and characterization of complex formation.

    PubMed

    Hagbani, Turki Al; Nazzal, Sami

    2017-03-30

    One approach to enhance curcumin (CUR) aqueous solubility is to use cyclodextrins (CDs) to form inclusion complexes where CUR is encapsulated as a guest molecule within the internal cavity of the water-soluble CD. Several methods have been reported for the complexation of CUR with CDs. Limited information, however, is available on the use of the autoclave process (AU) in complex formation. The aims of this work were therefore to (1) investigate and evaluate the AU cycle as a complex formation method to enhance CUR solubility; (2) compare the efficacy of the AU process with the freeze-drying (FD) and evaporation (EV) processes in complex formation; and (3) confirm CUR stability by characterizing CUR:CD complexes by NMR, Raman spectroscopy, DSC, and XRD. Significant differences were found in the saturation solubility of CUR from its complexes with CD when prepared by the three complexation methods. The AU yielded a complex with expected chemical and physical fingerprints for a CUR:CD inclusion complex that maintained the chemical integrity and stability of CUR and provided the highest solubility of CUR in water. Physical and chemical characterizations of the AU complexes confirmed the encapsulated of CUR inside the CD cavity and the transformation of the crystalline CUR:CD inclusion complex to an amorphous form. It was concluded that the autoclave process with its short processing time could be used as an alternate and efficient methods for drug:CD complexation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The complexity of childhood development: variability in perspective.

    PubMed

    Vereijken, Beatrix

    2010-12-01

    The complexity of childhood development is exemplified in the variability of development that is seen across tasks and individuals. Furthermore, variability in performance is omnipresent within individuals across repetitions of a task and across individuals performing the same task. Previously, this variability was thought to reflect error of measurement or error of execution. On this account, variability reflects noise that should be filtered or averaged out of the data in order to reveal the "true" underlying characteristics of the performance. Although errors of measurement and execution indeed contribute to variability in movements, research in the last 2 decades has revealed characteristics of variability that are far more interesting than just noise. These characteristics can be deeply informative about underlying control processes and point to directions for clinical practice. This perspective article reviews different ways of characterizing variability, illustrates changes in variability as a result of development and learning, and discusses different theoretical perspectives on the role of variability that give clues about how to understand changes in variability and how to deal with variability in clinical settings.

  8. Resolving the organization of the third tier visual cortex in primates: a hypothesis-based approach.

    PubMed

    Angelucci, Alessandra; Rosa, Marcello G P

    2015-01-01

    As highlighted by several contributions to this special issue, there is still ongoing debate about the number, exact location, and boundaries of the visual areas located in cortex immediately rostral to the second visual area (V2), i.e., the "third tier" visual cortex, in primates. In this review, we provide a historical overview of the main ideas that have led to four models of third tier cortex organization, which are at the center of today's debate. We formulate specific predictions of these models, and compare these predictions with experimental evidence obtained primarily in New World primates. From this analysis, we conclude that only one of these models (the "multiple-areas" model) can accommodate the breadth of available experimental evidence. According to this model, most of the third tier cortex in New World primates is occupied by two distinct areas, both representing the full contralateral visual quadrant: the dorsomedial area (DM), restricted to the dorsal half of the third visual complex, and the ventrolateral posterior area (VLP), occupying its ventral half and a substantial fraction of its dorsal half. DM belongs to the dorsal stream of visual processing, and overlaps with macaque parietooccipital (PO) area (or V6), whereas VLP belongs to the ventral stream and overlaps considerably with area V3 proposed by others. In contrast, there is substantial evidence that is inconsistent with the concept of a single elongated area V3 lining much of V2. We also review the experimental evidence from macaque monkey and humans, and propose that, once the data are interpreted within an evolutionary-developmental context, these species share a homologous (but not necessarily identical) organization of the third tier cortex as that observed in New World monkeys. Finally, we identify outstanding issues, and propose experiments to resolve them, highlighting in particular the need for more extensive, hypothesis-driven investigations in macaque and humans.

  9. View down and east from the Upper Tier of Upper ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View down and east from the Upper Tier of Upper Raceway, Rogers Storage Building immediate right, Rogers Frame Fitting Shop (HAER No. NJ-3-B) in background - Great Falls/S. U. M. Power Canal System, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  10. 4. Interior view to northwest, showing tiers of poles for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Interior view to northwest, showing tiers of poles for hanging tobacco to cure. - Edgewood Farm, Tobacco Barn, West side of State Route 600, .8 mile north of State Route 778, Clover, Halifax County, VA

  11. 7. Building 7 interior, west end of building showing tier ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Building 7 interior, west end of building showing tier of skylight windows and modern equipment. View looking west. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), Building No. 7, 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. Effectiveness of the United States Marine Corps Tiered Evaluation System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited EFFECTIVENESS OF THE...2015 Master’ s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS TIERED EVALUATION SYSTEM 6. AUTHOR(S) Lucas A. Crider...distribution is tmlimited 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE This thesis analyzes how effective the Marine Corps Tiered Evaluation

  13. A tiered approach to evaluate an iodine recycling inhibition ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The enzyme iodotyrosine deiodinase (dehalogenase, IYD) catalyzes iodide recycling and promotes iodide retention in thyroid follicular cells. Loss of function or chemical inhibition of IYD reduces thyroid hormone synthesis, which leads to insufficiency in tissues and subsequent negative developmental consequences. Iodide recycling by IYD is especially critical for low iodine diets and low iodine environments, including most freshwater ecosystems. We developed a putative adverse outcome pathway for IYD inhibition in amphibians and evaluated IYD inhibition with a tiered approach: 1) development of an in vitro IYD enzyme inhibition assay for chemical screening of compounds of interest to the US EPA, 2) ex vivo thyroid culture to establish thyroglobulin iodination as a biomarker of IYD inhibition, and 3) in vivo bioassays to characterize an organismal adverse outcome and test essentiality of IYD activity. An in vitro colorimetric assay was developed to measure activity of recombinant human IYD enzyme in a 96-well format, establishing the feasibility of medium to high throughput screening of chemicals for IYD inhibition. In ex vivo thyroid culture studies, thyroxine (T4), monoiodotyrosine (MIT), and diiodotyrosine (DIT) were quantified in individual thyroid glands and the media using a ultrahigh performance LC-MS/MS. In vivo exposure of developing Xenopus laevis to a suspected IYD inhibitor (3-L-nitro-tyrosine) resulted in markedly delayed metamorphosis and glandular

  14. A tiered approach to evaluate an iodine recycling inhibition ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The enzyme iodotyrosine deiodinase (dehalogenase, IYD) catalyzes iodide recycling and promotes iodide retention in thyroid follicular cells. Loss of function or chemical inhibition of IYD reduces thyroid hormone synthesis, which leads to insufficiency in tissues and subsequent negative developmental consequences. Iodide recycling by IYD is especially critical for low iodine diets and low iodine environments, including most freshwater ecosystems. We developed a putative adverse outcome pathway for IYD inhibition in amphibians and evaluated IYD inhibition with a tiered approach: 1) development of an in vitro IYD enzyme inhibition assay for chemical screening of compounds of interest to the US EPA, 2) ex vivo thyroid culture to establish thyroglobulin iodination as a biomarker of IYD inhibition, and 3) in vivo bioassays to characterize an organismal adverse outcome and test essentiality of IYD activity. An in vitro colorimetric assay was developed to measure activity of recombinant human IYD enzyme in a 96-well format, establishing the feasibility of medium to high throughput screening of chemicals for IYD inhibition. In ex vivo thyroid culture studies, thyroxine (T4), monoiodotyrosine (MIT), and diiodotyrosine (DIT) were quantified in individual thyroid glands and the media using a ultrahigh performance LC-MS/MS. In vivo exposure of developing Xenopus laevis to a suspected IYD inhibitor (3-L-nitro-tyrosine) resulted in markedly delayed metamorphosis and glandular

  15. Stability Impact on Wake Development in Moderately Complex Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Infield, D.; Zorzi, G.

    2017-05-01

    This paper uses a year of SCADA data from Whitelee Wind Farm near Glasgow to investigate wind turbine wake development in moderately complex terrain. Atmospheric stability measurements in terms of Richardson number from a met mast at an adjoining site have been obtained and used to assess the impact of stability on wake development. Considerable filtering of these data has been undertaken to ensure that all turbines are working normally and are well aligned with the wind direction. A group of six wind turbines, more or less in a line, have been selected for analysis, and winds within a 2 degree direction sector about this line are used to ensure, as far as possible, that all the turbines investigated are fully immersed in the wake/s of the upstream turbine/s. Results show how the terrain effects combine with the wake effects, with both being of comparable importance for the site in question. Comparison has been made with results from two commercial CFD codes for neutral stability, and reasonable agreement is demonstrated. Richardson number has been plotted against wind shear and turbulence intensity at a met mast on the wind farm that for the selected wind direction is not in the wake of any turbines. Good correlations are found indicating that the Richardson numbers obtained are reliable. The filtered data used for wake analysis were split according to Richardson number into two groups representing slightly stable to neutral, and unstable conditions. Very little difference in wake development is apparent. A greater difference can be observed when the data are separated simply by turbulence intensity, suggesting that, although turbulence intensity is correlated with stability, of the two it is the parameter that most directly impacts on wake development through mixing of ambient and wake flows.

  16. Recent development of glacier complex Adygine and resulting risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falatkova, Kristyna; Sobr, Miroslav; Engel, Zbynek; Jansky, Bohumir

    2015-04-01

    Recent development of glacier complex Adygine and resulting risks Falátková, K., Šobr, M., Engel, Z., Janský, B. Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Prague, Czech republic Glacier complex Adygine (3,400-4,200 m asl) is situated on the northern flank of the Kyrgyz Range, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. The valley downstream is part of National Park Ala Archa, which is popular with tourists, and is heading towards the country's capital - Bishkek. At the study site there is a glacier which is observed since 1960's. The glacier has been monitored by satellite imagery and in last 10 years by on-site geodetic measurement as well. Due to glacier shrinkage several glacial lakes of different genetic types (moraine-dammed, moraine- and rock-dammed, termokarst) have appeared at the site. Nowadays, the lakes are situated on three levels in front of the glacier's terminus and form a cascade, they are also hydrologically connected. The lakes were subjected to detailed bathymetric measurement and some parts of the dams were surveyed by geophysical methods. Especially the newest lakes in proximity of the terminus has been undergoing dynamic changes and may pose a threat in the near future. The risks arising together with changing climatic conditions and retreat of the glacier are associated with mainly three of the lakes. The largest one with area of 3.2 ha is dammed by a rock step overlaid by a moraine. Geophysical research of the dam revealed buried ice and seepage channels in its western part. It is the capacity of these subsurface channels, which are draining the lake throughout the year that represents a weak point in terms of dam stability. The second lake, a termokarst one, is a similar case but drained solely by subsurface channels. Very steep slopes of the lake basin are covered with loose material which could slide down and block the drainage channels. The lake would then fill all the basin (approx. 50,000 m3) very quickly as it is supplied with water from the

  17. Vibrational energy transport in acetylbenzonitrile described by an ab initio-based quantum tier model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisaki, Hiroshi; Yagi, Kiyoshi; Kikuchi, Hiroto; Takami, Toshiya; Stock, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Performing comprehensive quantum-chemical calculations, a vibrational Hamiltonian of acetylbenzonitrile is constructed, on the basis of which a quantum-mechanical "tier model" is developed that describes the vibrational dynamics following excitation of the CN stretch mode. Taking into account 36 vibrational modes and cubic and quartic anharmonic couplings between up to three different modes, the tier model calculations are shown to qualitatively reproduce the main findings of the experiments of Rubtsov and coworkers (2011), including the energy relaxation of the initially excited CN mode and the structure-dependent vibrational transport. Moreover, the calculations suggest that the experimentally measured cross-peak among the CN and CO modes does not correspond to direct excitation of the CO normal mode but rather reflects excited low-frequency vibrations that anharmonically couple to the CO mode. Complementary quasiclassical trajectory calculations are found to be in good overall agreement with the quantum calculations.

  18. Single-tier testing with the C6 peptide ELISA kit compared with two-tier testing for Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Wormser, Gary P; Schriefer, Martin; Aguero-Rosenfeld, Maria E; Levin, Andrew; Steere, Allen C; Nadelman, Robert B; Nowakowski, John; Marques, Adriana; Johnson, Barbara J B; Dumler, J Stephen

    2013-01-01

    For the diagnosis of Lyme disease, the 2-tier serologic testing protocol for Lyme disease has a number of shortcomings including low sensitivity in early disease; increased cost, time, and labor; and subjectivity in the interpretation of immunoblots. In this study, the diagnostic accuracy of a single-tier commercial C6 ELISA kit was compared with 2-tier testing. The results showed that the C6 ELISA was significantly more sensitive than 2-tier testing with sensitivities of 66.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 61.7-71.1) and 35.2% (95% CI 30.6-40.1), respectively (P < 0.001) in 403 sera from patients with erythema migrans. The C6 ELISA had sensitivity statistically comparable to 2-tier testing in sera from Lyme disease patients with early neurologic manifestations (88.6% versus 77.3%, P = 0.13) or arthritis (98.3% versus 95.6%, P = 0.38). The specificities of C6 ELISA and 2-tier testing in over 2200 blood donors, patients with other conditions, and Lyme disease vaccine recipients were found to be 98.9% and 99.5%, respectively (P < 0.05, 95% CI surrounding the 0.6 percentage point difference of 0.04 to 1.15). In conclusion, using a reference standard of 2-tier testing, the C6 ELISA as a single-step serodiagnostic test provided increased sensitivity in early Lyme disease with comparable sensitivity in later manifestations of Lyme disease. The C6 ELISA had slightly decreased specificity. Future studies should evaluate the performance of the C6 ELISA compared with 2-tier testing in routine clinical practice.

  19. Single-Tier Testing with the C6 Peptide ELISA Kit Compared with Two-Tier Testing for Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wormser, Gary P.; Schriefer, Martin; Aguero-Rosenfeld, Maria E.; Levin, Andrew; Steere, Allen C.; Nadelman, Robert B.; Nowakowski, John; Marques, Adriana; Johnson, Barbara J. B.; Dumler, J. Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Background The two-tier serologic testing protocol for Lyme disease has a number of shortcomings including low sensitivity in early disease; increased cost, time and labor; and subjectivity in the interpretation of immunoblots. Methods The diagnostic accuracy of a single-tier commercial C6 ELISA kit was compared with two-tier testing. Results The C6 ELISA was significantly more sensitive than two-tier testing with sensitivities of 66.5% (95% C.I.:61.7-71.1) and 35.2% (95%C.I.:30.6-40.1), respectively (p<0.001) in 403 sera from patients with erythema migrans. The C6 ELISA had sensitivity statistically comparable to two-tier testing in sera from Lyme disease patients with early neurological manifestations (88.6% vs. 77.3%, p=0.13) or arthritis (98.3% vs. 95.6%, p= 0.38). Te specificities of C6 ELISA and two-tier testing in over 2200 blood donors, patients with other conditions, and Lyme disease vaccine recipients were found to be 98.9% and 99.5%, respectively (p<0.05, 95% C.I. surrounding the 0.6 percentage point difference of 0.04 to 1.15). Conclusions Using a reference standard of two-tier testing, the C6 ELISA as a single step serodiagnostic test provided increased sensitivity in early Lyme disease with comparable sensitivity in later manifestations of Lyme disease. The C6 ELISA had slightly decreased specificity. Future studies should evaluate the performance of the C6 ELISA compared with two-tier testing in routine clinical practice. PMID:23062467

  20. 40 CFR 86.1861-04 - How do the Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 NOX averaging, banking and trading programs work?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2 NOX averaging, banking and trading programs work? 86.1861-04 Section 86.1861-04 Protection of... Vehicles § 86.1861-04 How do the Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 NOX averaging, banking and trading programs... (debits). (c) Early banking. (1)(i) Manufacturers may certify LDV/LLDTs to the Tier 2 FTP exhaust...

  1. Identifying Students for Secondary and Tertiary Prevention Efforts: How Do We Determine Which Students Have Tier 2 and Tier 3 Needs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Ennis, Robin Parks; Hirsch, Shanna Eisner

    2014-01-01

    In comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered models, it is essential to have a systematic method for identifying students who need supports at Tier 2 or Tier 3. This article provides explicit information on how to use multiple sources of data to determine which students might benefit from these supports. First, the authors provide an overview of how…

  2. Identifying Students for Secondary and Tertiary Prevention Efforts: How Do We Determine Which Students Have Tier 2 and Tier 3 Needs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Ennis, Robin Parks; Hirsch, Shanna Eisner

    2014-01-01

    In comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered models, it is essential to have a systematic method for identifying students who need supports at Tier 2 or Tier 3. This article provides explicit information on how to use multiple sources of data to determine which students might benefit from these supports. First, the authors provide an overview of how…

  3. Convective cell development and propagation in a mesoscale convective complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, Yoo-Shin; Brundidge, Kenneth C.

    1987-01-01

    A case study was made of the mesoscale convective complex (MCC) which occurred over southern Oklahoma and northern Texas on 27 May 1981. This storm moved in an eastsoutheasterly direction and during much of its lifetime was observable by radars at Oklahoma City, Ok. and Stephenville, Tx. It was found that the direction of cell (VIP level 3 or more reflectivity) propagation was somewhat erratic but approximately the same as the system (VIP level 1 reflectivity) movement and the ambient wind. New cells developed along and behind the gust front make it appear that once the MCC is initiated, a synergistic relationship exists between the gust front and the MCC. The relationship between rainfall patterns and amounts and the infrared (IR) temperature field in the satellite imagery were examined. The 210 K isotherm of GOES IR imagery was found to encompass the rain area of the storm. The heaviest rainfall was in the vicinity of the VIP level 3 cells and mostly contained within the 205 K isotherm of GOES IR imagery.

  4. Efficacy of a Tier 2 Supplemental Root Word Vocabulary and Decoding Intervention with Kindergarten Spanish-Speaking English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, J. Ron; Vadasy, Patricia F.; Sanders, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a Tier 2 standard protocol supplemental intervention designed simultaneously to develop root word vocabulary and reinforce decoding skills being taught to all students in the core beginning reading program with kindergarten Spanish-speaking English learners (ELs). Participating students were…

  5. The Etiology of Top-Tier Publications in Management: A Status Attainment Perspective on Academic Career Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Matthew; Schultz, Kaitlyn

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop and test a comprehensive model of personal and institutional input variables, composed of elements describing status-based antecedents, job/organizational context antecedents, and individual level antecedents, which may contribute to the production of significant (top-tier) research outputs in the…

  6. The Evaluation of a Three-Tier Model of Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports for Preschoolers in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Walker, Virginia L.; Voorhees, Mary D.; Snell, Martha E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall effectiveness of a three-tier model of positive behavior interventions and supports (PBIS), which was developed and tested in Head Start (HS) programs. Ten HS classrooms from five HS programs participated in the current study. Results indicated that PBIS was effective in improving classroom…

  7. Testing a multi-tiered stress-gradient model for risk assessment using sediment constituents from coral reef environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lidz, B.H.; Hallock, P.; ,

    2000-01-01

    Coral reefs are threatened worldwide by stresses ranging from local to global in extent. One of the major challenges in studies of reef decline is understanding how to distinguish between changes resulting from natural, anthropogenic, local, and global environmental perturbations. As such, a conceptual risk-assessment model is developed that includes tiers for natural stresses, global/regional stresses, and local anthropogenic stresses.

  8. 22 CFR 208.420 - May I approve a transaction with an excluded or disqualified person at a lower tier?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May I approve a transaction with an excluded or disqualified person at a lower tier? 208.420 Section 208.420 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Responsibilities of USAID Officials...

  9. 22 CFR 208.420 - May I approve a transaction with an excluded or disqualified person at a lower tier?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May I approve a transaction with an excluded or disqualified person at a lower tier? 208.420 Section 208.420 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Responsibilities of USAID Officials...

  10. The Etiology of Top-Tier Publications in Management: A Status Attainment Perspective on Academic Career Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Matthew; Schultz, Kaitlyn

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop and test a comprehensive model of personal and institutional input variables, composed of elements describing status-based antecedents, job/organizational context antecedents, and individual level antecedents, which may contribute to the production of significant (top-tier) research outputs in the…

  11. The Evaluation of a Three-Tier Model of Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports for Preschoolers in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Walker, Virginia L.; Voorhees, Mary D.; Snell, Martha E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall effectiveness of a three-tier model of positive behavior interventions and supports (PBIS), which was developed and tested in Head Start (HS) programs. Ten HS classrooms from five HS programs participated in the current study. Results indicated that PBIS was effective in improving classroom…

  12. 78 FR 58316 - Complex Issues in Developing Medical Devices for Pediatric Patients Affected by Rare Diseases...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Complex Issues in Developing Medical Devices for Pediatric... (FDA) is announcing the following public workshop entitled ``Complex Issues in Developing Medical... ``Complex Issues in Developing Drug and Biological Products for Rare Diseases.'' The purpose of the...

  13. Health monitoring display system for a complex plant

    DOEpatents

    Ridolfo, Charles F.; Harmon, Daryl L.; Colin, Dreyfuss

    2006-08-08

    A single page enterprise wide level display provides a comprehensive readily understood representation of the overall health status of a complex plant. Color coded failure domains allow rapid intuitive recognition of component failure status. A three-tier hierarchy of displays provide details on the health status of the components and systems displayed on the enterprise wide level display in a manner that supports a logical drill down to the health status of sub-components on Tier 1 to expected faults of the sub-components on Tier 2 to specific information relative to expected sub-component failures on Tier 3.

  14. Multiple drug therapy--a comparative study with 2 tier and 3 tier combination of rifampicin, clofazimine, DDS, INAH and thiacetazone in lepromatous cases.

    PubMed

    Kundu, S K; Ghosh, S; Hazra, S; Chaudhury, S

    1981-04-01

    A comparative study with 2 tier and 3 tier combination of Rifampicin, Clofazimine, DDS, INAH and Thiacetazone was conducted on fifty lepromatous leprosy cases for varying periods. Assessment showed that 2 tier combination of clofazimine and DDS produced good results but the cost stood in the way; whereas 3 tier combination of DDS, thiacetazone and INAH also yielded good results with much less expenses to be incurred by the patients. Whether therapy with this 3 tier combination could be continued for a longer period with sustained improvement is yet to be assessed by further studies for a considerable period.

  15. Collusion-Aware Privacy-Preserving Range Query in Tiered Wireless Sensor Networks†

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Dong, Lei; Peng, Hui; Chen, Hong; Zhao, Suyun; Li, Cuiping

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are indispensable building blocks for the Internet of Things (IoT). With the development of WSNs, privacy issues have drawn more attention. Existing work on the privacy-preserving range query mainly focuses on privacy preservation and integrity verification in two-tiered WSNs in the case of compromised master nodes, but neglects the damage of node collusion. In this paper, we propose a series of collusion-aware privacy-preserving range query protocols in two-tiered WSNs. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to consider collusion attacks for a range query in tiered WSNs while fulfilling the preservation of privacy and integrity. To preserve the privacy of data and queries, we propose a novel encoding scheme to conceal sensitive information. To preserve the integrity of the results, we present a verification scheme using the correlation among data. In addition, two schemes are further presented to improve result accuracy and reduce communication cost. Finally, theoretical analysis and experimental results confirm the efficiency, accuracy and privacy of our proposals. PMID:25615731

  16. Training Future Dentists for an Academic Career: A Three-Tiered Model.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Zsuzsa; Albani, Sarah E; Wankiiri-Hale, Christine

    2016-05-01

    The anticipated shortage of dental faculty presents a challenge for dental education as it will greatly impact the training of the next generation of practicing dentists. One way to alleviate shortages is to identify students who are interested in an academic career at the predoctoral level and provide them with training in teaching, research, and leadership. Based on available evidence, formal programs offer the best way to introduce students to academia as a viable career path. A well-designed program can also equip interested students with the necessary skills and basic knowledge to facilitate starting an academic career. The University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine has developed a three-tiered model for providing its dental students with exposure to and training in academic dentistry. The three tiers reflect differing levels of commitment: 1) a two-year academic career track program, 2) academic career track elective courses, and 3) extracurricular activities. The aim of this study was to provide an initial assessment of the program's overall effectiveness. Data were collected using student and faculty surveys and student applications for the two-year academic career track program. The data gathered included characteristics of, and feedback from, students taking the elective courses, as well as student and faculty feedback about student teacher effectiveness. The study found overall positive responses to the three-tiered program from faculty, students, and student teachers at this initial stage. Whether these students ultimately become faculty members (the ultimate goal of the program) will be assessed in the future.

  17. Evaluating Secondary Students' Scientific Reasoning in Genetics Using a Two-Tier Diagnostic Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Chi-Yan; Treagust, David

    2010-05-01

    While genetics has remained as one key topic in school science, it continues to be conceptually and linguistically difficult for students with the concomitant debates as to what should be taught in the age of biotechnology. This article documents the development and implementation of a two-tier multiple-choice instrument for diagnosing grades 10 and 12 students' understanding of genetics in terms of reasoning. The pretest and posttest forms of the diagnostic instrument were used alongside other methods in evaluating students' understanding of genetics in a case-based qualitative study on teaching and learning with multiple representations in three Western Australian secondary schools. Previous studies have shown that a two-tier diagnostic instrument is useful in probing students' understanding or misunderstanding of scientific concepts and ideas. The diagnostic instrument in this study was designed and then progressively refined, improved, and implemented to evaluate student understanding of genetics in three case schools. The final version of the instrument had Cronbach's alpha reliability of 0.75 and 0.64, respectively, for its pretest and the posttest forms when it was administered to a group of grade 12 students (n = 17). This two-tier diagnostic instrument complemented other qualitative data collection methods in this research in generating a more holistic picture of student conceptual learning of genetics in terms of scientific reasoning. Implications of the findings of this study using the diagnostic instrument are discussed.

  18. Collusion-aware privacy-preserving range query in tiered wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Dong, Lei; Peng, Hui; Chen, Hong; Zhao, Suyun; Li, Cuiping

    2014-12-11

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are indispensable building blocks for the Internet of Things (IoT). With the development of WSNs, privacy issues have drawn more attention. Existing work on the privacy-preserving range query mainly focuses on privacy preservation and integrity verification in two-tiered WSNs in the case of compromisedmaster nodes, but neglects the damage of node collusion. In this paper, we propose a series of collusion-aware privacy-preserving range query protocols in two-tiered WSNs. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to consider collusion attacks for a range query in tiered WSNs while fulfilling the preservation of privacy and integrity. To preserve the privacy of data and queries, we propose a novel encoding scheme to conceal sensitive information. To preserve the integrity of the results, we present a verification scheme using the correlation among data. In addition, two schemes are further presented to improve result accuracy and reduce communication cost. Finally, theoretical analysis and experimental results confirm the efficiency, accuracy and privacy of our proposals.

  19. Development of Web GIS for complex processing and visualization of climate geospatial datasets as an integral part of dedicated Virtual Research Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, Evgeny; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    For comprehensive usage of large geospatial meteorological and climate datasets it is necessary to create a distributed software infrastructure based on the spatial data infrastructure (SDI) approach. Currently, it is generally accepted that the development of client applications as integrated elements of such infrastructure should be based on the usage of modern web and GIS technologies. The paper describes the Web GIS for complex processing and visualization of geospatial (mainly in NetCDF and PostGIS formats) datasets as an integral part of the dedicated Virtual Research Environment for comprehensive study of ongoing and possible future climate change, and analysis of their implications, providing full information and computing support for the study of economic, political and social consequences of global climate change at the global and regional levels. The Web GIS consists of two basic software parts: 1. Server-side part representing PHP applications of the SDI geoportal and realizing the functionality of interaction with computational core backend, WMS/WFS/WPS cartographical services, as well as implementing an open API for browser-based client software. Being the secondary one, this part provides a limited set of procedures accessible via standard HTTP interface. 2. Front-end part representing Web GIS client developed according to a "single page application" technology based on JavaScript libraries OpenLayers (http://openlayers.org/), ExtJS (https://www.sencha.com/products/extjs), GeoExt (http://geoext.org/). It implements application business logic and provides intuitive user interface similar to the interface of such popular desktop GIS applications, as uDIG, QuantumGIS etc. Boundless/OpenGeo architecture was used as a basis for Web-GIS client development. According to general INSPIRE requirements to data visualization Web GIS provides such standard functionality as data overview, image navigation, scrolling, scaling and graphical overlay, displaying map

  20. Assessment of Scientific Literacy: Development and Validation of the Quantitative Assessment of Socio-Scientific Reasoning (QuASSR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romine, William L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Kinslow, Andrew T.

    2017-01-01

    We describe the development and validation of the Quantitative Assessment of Socio-scientific Reasoning (QuASSR) in a college context. The QuASSR contains 10 polytomous, two-tiered items crossed between two scenarios, and is based on theory suggesting a four-pronged structure for SSR (complexity, perspective taking, inquiry, and skepticism). In…

  1. Assessment of Scientific Literacy: Development and Validation of the Quantitative Assessment of Socio-Scientific Reasoning (QuASSR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romine, William L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Kinslow, Andrew T.

    2017-01-01

    We describe the development and validation of the Quantitative Assessment of Socio-scientific Reasoning (QuASSR) in a college context. The QuASSR contains 10 polytomous, two-tiered items crossed between two scenarios, and is based on theory suggesting a four-pronged structure for SSR (complexity, perspective taking, inquiry, and skepticism). In…

  2. A three-tiered approach for linking pharmacokinetic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The power of the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework arises from its utilization of pathway-based data to describe the initial interaction of a chemical with a molecular target (molecular initiating event; (MIE), followed by a progression through a series of key events that lead to an adverse outcome relevant for regulatory purposes. The AOP itself is not chemical specific, thus providing the biological context necessary for interpreting high throughput (HT) toxicity screening results. Application of the AOP framework and HT predictions in ecological and human health risk assessment, however, requires the consideration of chemical-specific properties that influence external exposure doses and target tissue doses. To address this requirement, a three-tiered approach was developed to provide a workflow for connecting biology-based AOPs to biochemical-based pharmacokinetic properties (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion; ADME), and then to chemical/human activity-based exposure pathways. This approach included: (1) The power of the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework arisesfrom its utilization of pathway-based data to describe the initial interaction of a chemical with a molecular target (molecular initiating event; (MIE), followed by a progression through a series of key events that lead to an adverse outcome relevant for regulatory purposes. The AOP itself is not chemical specific, thus providing the biological context necessary for interpreti

  3. A three-tiered approach for linking pharmacokinetic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The power of the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework arises from its utilization of pathway-based data to describe the initial interaction of a chemical with a molecular target (molecular initiating event; (MIE), followed by a progression through a series of key events that lead to an adverse outcome relevant for regulatory purposes. The AOP itself is not chemical specific, thus providing the biological context necessary for interpreting high throughput (HT) toxicity screening results. Application of the AOP framework and HT predictions in ecological and human health risk assessment, however, requires the consideration of chemical-specific properties that influence external exposure doses and target tissue doses. To address this requirement, a three-tiered approach was developed to provide a workflow for connecting biology-based AOPs to biochemical-based pharmacokinetic properties (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion; ADME), and then to chemical/human activity-based exposure pathways. This approach included: (1) The power of the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework arisesfrom its utilization of pathway-based data to describe the initial interaction of a chemical with a molecular target (molecular initiating event; (MIE), followed by a progression through a series of key events that lead to an adverse outcome relevant for regulatory purposes. The AOP itself is not chemical specific, thus providing the biological context necessary for interpreti

  4. A tiered analytical approach for investigating poor quality emergency contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Monge, María Eugenia; Dwivedi, Prabha; Zhou, Manshui; Payne, Michael; Harris, Chris; House, Blaine; Juggins, Yvonne; Cizmarik, Peter; Newton, Paul N; Fernández, Facundo M; Jenkins, David

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive health has been deleteriously affected by poor quality medicines. Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) are an important birth control method that women can use after unprotected coitus for reducing the risk of pregnancy. In response to the detection of poor quality ECPs commercially available in the Peruvian market we developed a tiered multi-platform analytical strategy. In a survey to assess ECP medicine quality in Peru, 7 out of 25 different batches showed inadequate release of levonorgestrel by dissolution testing or improper amounts of active ingredient. One batch was found to contain a wrong active ingredient, with no detectable levonorgestrel. By combining ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-IMS-MS) and direct analysis in real time MS (DART-MS) the unknown compound was identified as the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole. Quantitation by UHPLC-triple quadrupole tandem MS (QqQ-MS/MS) indicated that the wrong ingredient was present in the ECP sample at levels which could have significant physiological effects. Further chemical characterization of the poor quality ECP samples included the identification of the excipients by 2D Diffusion-Ordered Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (DOSY 1H NMR) indicating the presence of lactose and magnesium stearate.

  5. Application of a three-tier framework to assess ecological ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A multi‐level coastal wetland assessment strategy was applied to wetlands in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) to evaluate the feasibility of this approach for a broad national scale wetland condition assessment (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Wetlands Condition Assessment). Landscape‐scale assessment indicators (Tier 1) were developed and applied at the sub‐watershed (12‐digit Hydrologic Unit) level within the GOM coastal wetland sample frame with scores calculated using land‐use maps and GIS. Rapid assessment protocols (Tier‐2), using a combination of office and field work, evaluated metrics associated with landscape context, hydrology, physical structure, and biological structure. Intensive site monitoring (Tier‐3) included measures of soil chemistry and composition, water column and pore‐water chemistry, and dominant macrophyte community composition and tissue chemistry. Relationships within and among assessment levels were evaluated using multivariate and principal component analyses with few significant correlations were found. More detailed measures of hydrology, soils, and macrophyte species composition from sites across a known condition gradient, in conjunction with validation of standardized rapid assessment method, may be necessary to fully characterize coastal wetlands across the region This manuscript describes the application of a multi-level coastal wetland assessment strategy to wetlands in the northern Gulf of

  6. A Tiered Analytical Approach for Investigating Poor Quality Emergency Contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Monge, María Eugenia; Dwivedi, Prabha; Zhou, Manshui; Payne, Michael; Harris, Chris; House, Blaine; Juggins, Yvonne; Cizmarik, Peter; Newton, Paul N.; Fernández, Facundo M.; Jenkins, David

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive health has been deleteriously affected by poor quality medicines. Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) are an important birth control method that women can use after unprotected coitus for reducing the risk of pregnancy. In response to the detection of poor quality ECPs commercially available in the Peruvian market we developed a tiered multi-platform analytical strategy. In a survey to assess ECP medicine quality in Peru, 7 out of 25 different batches showed inadequate release of levonorgestrel by dissolution testing or improper amounts of active ingredient. One batch was found to contain a wrong active ingredient, with no detectable levonorgestrel. By combining ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-IMS-MS) and direct analysis in real time MS (DART-MS) the unknown compound was identified as the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole. Quantitation by UHPLC-triple quadrupole tandem MS (QqQ-MS/MS) indicated that the wrong ingredient was present in the ECP sample at levels which could have significant physiological effects. Further chemical characterization of the poor quality ECP samples included the identification of the excipients by 2D Diffusion-Ordered Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (DOSY 1H NMR) indicating the presence of lactose and magnesium stearate. PMID:24748219

  7. Complexity.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Hernández, J Jaime

    2006-01-01

    It is difficult to define complexity in modeling. Complexity is often associated with uncertainty since modeling uncertainty is an intrinsically difficult task. However, modeling uncertainty does not require, necessarily, complex models, in the sense of a model requiring an unmanageable number of degrees of freedom to characterize the aquifer. The relationship between complexity, uncertainty, heterogeneity, and stochastic modeling is not simple. Aquifer models should be able to quantify the uncertainty of their predictions, which can be done using stochastic models that produce heterogeneous realizations of aquifer parameters. This is the type of complexity addressed in this article.

  8. Results of Laboratory Testing of 15 Cookstove Designs in Accordance with the ISO/IWA Tiers of Performance.

    PubMed

    Still, Dean; Bentson, Samuel; Li, Haixi

    2015-03-01

    The widespread adoption and sustained use of modern cookstoves has the potential to reduce harmful effects to climate, health, and the well-being of approximately one-third of the world's population that currently rely on biomass fuel for cooking and heating. In an effort to understand and develop cleaner burning and more efficient cookstoves, 15 stove design and fuel/loading combinations were evaluated in the laboratory using the International Workshop Agreement's five-tiered (0-4) rating system for fuel use and emissions. The designs evaluated include rocket-type combustion chamber models including reduced firepower, sunken pots, and chimneys (three stoves); gasifier-type combustion chambers using prepared fuels in the form of wood pellets (four stoves); forced draft stoves with a small electric fan (five stoves); and a single insulated charcoal stove with preheated secondary air. It was found that a charcoal burning stove was the only stove to meet all the Tier 4 levels of performance. Achieving over 40% thermal efficiency at high power was made possible by reducing firepower and gaps around the pot, although batch-fed stoves generally do not "turn down" for optimal low power performance. While all stoves met Tier 4 for carbon monoxide, only stoves equipped with electrical fans reduced respirable particulate matter to Tier 4 levels. Finally, stoves with chimneys and integrated pots were fuel efficient and virtually eliminated indoor emissions. It is hoped that these design techniques will be useful in further development and evolution of high-performance cookstove designs.

  9. MITT writer and MITT writer advanced development: Developing authoring and training systems for complex technical domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiederholt, Bradley J.; Browning, Elica J.; Norton, Jeffrey E.; Johnson, William B.

    1991-01-01

    MITT Writer is a software system for developing computer based training for complex technical domains. A training system produced by MITT Writer allows a student to learn and practice troubleshooting and diagnostic skills. The MITT (Microcomputer Intelligence for Technical Training) architecture is a reasonable approach to simulation based diagnostic training. MITT delivers training on available computing equipment, delivers challenging training and simulation scenarios, and has economical development and maintenance costs. A 15 month effort was undertaken in which the MITT Writer system was developed. A workshop was also conducted to train instructors in how to use MITT Writer. Earlier versions were used to develop an Intelligent Tutoring System for troubleshooting the Minuteman Missile Message Processing System.

  10. Assembly of Photosynthetic Antenna Protein / Pigments Complexes from Algae and Plants for Development of Nanobiodevices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-10

    Assembly of Photosynthetic Antenna Protein / Pigments Complexes from Algae and Plants for Development of Nanobiodevices Key...Assembly of Photosynthetic Antenna Protein / Pigments Complexes from Algae and Plants for Development of Nanobiodevices 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This is the report of a project to use photosynthetic antenna pigment complexes from algae and plants as

  11. An evaluation of Access Tier local area network switches.

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, John M.; Olsberg, Ronald R.

    2004-06-01

    This reports tabulates the Test and Evaluation results of the Access Class Switch tests conducted by members of Department 9336. About 15 switches were reviewed for use in the enterprise network as access tier switches as defined in a three tier architecture. The Access Switch Tier has several functions including: aggregate customer desktop ports, preserve and apply QoS tags, provide switched LAN access, provide VLAN assignment, as well as others. The typical switch size is 48 or less user ports. The evaluation team reviewed network switch evaluation reports from the Tolly Group as well as other sources. We then used these reports as a starting point to identify particular switches for evaluation. In general we reviewed the products of dominant equipment manufacturers. Also, based on architectural design requirements, the majority of the switches tested were of relatively small monolithic unit variety.

  12. Retrospective on the Seniors' Council Tier 1 LDRD portfolio.

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, William Parker

    2012-04-01

    This report describes the Tier 1 LDRD portfolio, administered by the Seniors Council between 2003 and 2011. 73 projects were sponsored over the 9 years of the portfolio at a cost of $10.5 million which includes $1.9M of a special effort in directed innovation targeted at climate change and cyber security. Two of these Tier 1 efforts were the seeds for the Grand Challenge LDRDs in Quantum Computing and Next Generation Photovoltaic conversion. A few LDRDs were terminated early when it appeared clear that the research was not going to succeed. A great many more were successful and led to full Tier 2 LDRDs or direct customer sponsorship. Over a dozen patents are in various stages of prosecution from this work, and one project is being submitted for an R and D 100 award.

  13. Modes of tilting during extensional core complex development.

    PubMed

    Coleman, D S; Walker, J D

    1994-01-14

    Crustal extension and formation of the Mineral Mountains core complex, Utah, involved tilting of the Mineral Mountains batholith and associated faults during hanging wall and footwall deformation. The batholith was folded in the hanging wall of the Beaver Valley fault between 11 and 9 million years ago yielding about 45 degrees of tilt. Subsequently, the batholith was unroofed along the Cave Canyon detachment fault, and the batholith and fault were tilted approximately 40 degrees during footwall uplift. Recognition of deformed dikes beneath the detachment fault establishes the importance of footwall tilt during formation of extensional core complexes and demonstrates that footwall rebound can be an important process during extension.

  14. Four peer reviews in support of the Tier 3 rulemaking: EPA's ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Peer review of EPA's DELTA (diurnal emissions leaving to atmosphere) model in support of the Tier 3 rulemaking To peer review EPA's DELTA (diurnal emissions leaving to atmosphere) model (for Tier 3 rulemaking)

  15. Four peer reviews in support of the Tier 3 rulemaking: EPA's ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Peer review of EPA's DELTA (diurnal emissions leaving to atmosphere) model in support of the Tier 3 rulemaking To peer review EPA's DELTA (diurnal emissions leaving to atmosphere) model (for Tier 3 rulemaking)

  16. Impact of Transformational Leadership Behaviors on the Implementation of a Multi-Tiered System of Support with Emphasis on Cultural Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heavner, Donna Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS) are frameworks used to assess individual needs of students and the supports needed to meet those needs. An MTSS is complex with components which impact core instruction, curriculum, formative assessment, interventions, summative assessment, and problem solving. All of these components are a part of a school's…

  17. Impact of Transformational Leadership Behaviors on the Implementation of a Multi-Tiered System of Support with Emphasis on Cultural Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heavner, Donna Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS) are frameworks used to assess individual needs of students and the supports needed to meet those needs. An MTSS is complex with components which impact core instruction, curriculum, formative assessment, interventions, summative assessment, and problem solving. All of these components are a part of a school's…

  18. [Discussing a "two-tiered medical system": a statement].

    PubMed

    Ehring, F Schulze; Weber, Ch

    2008-12-01

    The criticism of a "two-tiered medical system" is a political slogan, which is also not exactly defined. However, for the public discussion this is not of further importance because talking about a "two-tiered medical system" has a priori a negative impact; in particular in times when people's fears surrounding medical care in Germany are great. Especially in a public health insurance system, insured people worry that in the future they will only receive the most essential medical services, rather than all services that are deemed reasonable and medically appropriate. One of the central themes in the discussion of a "two-tiered medical system" that causes disputes (or animosity) between privately and publicly insured persons arises when comparing differences in waiting periods to see a doctor and additional medical treatments made available to the privately insured. Critics of the "two-tiered medical system" envision a "one-tiered medical system"; one in which every person receives uniform healthcare, and in which the "purchase" of additional medical treatments is not permitted. However, the "one-tiered medical system" remains a theoretical construct. Service differences based on price differences are the reality. So the problem of the "two-tiered medical system" manifests itself only when those services that go beyond the basic care (privately offered services) negatively impact basic care, and/or displace basic care offerings. An example of this would be when a publicly insured patient has to wait longer to see a doctor because preference is given to privately insured patients. Economically speaking, negative external effects come into play. This causality has not been found or proven to be present in the German healthcare system. It exists neither in the inpatient nor in the outpatient healthcare sector. There is no basis to the claim that there is a difference in treatment favouring private patients with detrimental effects to non-privately insured patients

  19. A Cognitive Complexity Metric Applied to Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Glenda; Halford, Graeme S.

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments tested predictions from a theory in which processing load depends on relational complexity (RC), the number of variables related in a single decision. Tasks from six domains (transitivity, hierarchical classification, class inclusion, cardinality, relative-clause sentence comprehension, and hypothesis testing) were administered to…

  20. A Cognitive Complexity Metric Applied to Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Glenda; Halford, Graeme S.

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments tested predictions from a theory in which processing load depends on relational complexity (RC), the number of variables related in a single decision. Tasks from six domains (transitivity, hierarchical classification, class inclusion, cardinality, relative-clause sentence comprehension, and hypothesis testing) were administered to…