Science.gov

Sample records for complexse uruguay reconocimiento

  1. Uruguay.

    PubMed

    1988-06-01

    Uruguay, officially "The Oriental Republic of Uruguay," is a country of 176,215 sq km with a temperate climate and a good water supply, which contributed to the emergence of stock raising as the economy's traditional base. 1.31 million of the country's 2,940,200 people live in Montevideo, the capital and only large city. The population is 85%-95% white and 66% Roman Catholic. The dominant culture and official language is Spanish, although 25% of the people are of Italian origin. The annual population growth is only 0.5%, due to a low birth rate and large net outmigration. Infant mortality in 1986 was 27.1/1000, and life expectancy was 73 years. Literacy is 96%, due to an extensive system of public and private education. There is a large, urban middle class, which enjoys a high standard of living. 22% of the work force is in industry, 21% in government, 15% in commerce, and 28% in services. The 1986 gross domestic product was $6.2 billion, per capita $1701. The annual growth rate is now 6.3%, which is an upturn from the generally stagnant economic conditions of the last 30 years. 1986 exports were $834 million (mainly meat, wool, hides, and leather goods); imports were $870 million. Inflation averages 76.4%, and 270 pesos=$1.00. The major economic problem is managing the huge external debt of almost $5.4 billion. In 1987 Uruguay reached a debt rescheduling agreement with creditor banks and the International Monitary Fund, stretching out repayment dates through 2004. Exchange rates were allowed to float in 1982, and the country is trying to reduce the burden of the excessively large government sector through various privatization schemes. Uruguay has also been working with Argentina and Brazil toward integrating their economies. The only aboriginal inhabitants of Uruguay were the Charrua Indians. In 1811 Jose Gervasio Artigas led Uruguay's revolt against Spain, and total independence was achieved in 1828. Jose Batlle y Ordonez, who served as president from 1903 to

  2. Uruguay.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Uruguay is a country of 176,000 sq. km with 3 million inhabitants, of whom 96% are literate. Independence was gained on August 25, 1825. The terrain consists of plains and low hills, with a climate which is temperate. Spanish is spoken by White, Mestizo, and Black ethnic groups who are variously non-professing or of Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, and other faiths. Life expectancy ranges over 69-75 years. GDP is $11.3 billion, growing at a rate of 4%. Per capita income is $3600. The country's natural resources include arable land, hydroelectric potential, gold, granite, and marble. Beef, wool, grains, fruits, vegetables, meat processing, would and hides, textiles, shoes, handbags, leather apparel, tires, cement, fishing, and petroleum refining are areas of economic production. Fuels, chemical, machinery, and metals are imported, and meat, wool, hides, leather and wool products, fish, rice and furs are exported. In-depth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, relations with the U.S., and names of principal U.S. officials in the country.

  3. Oppression in Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otero, Mario

    1981-01-01

    Describes the effects of government intervention in Uruguay's universities and public schools. Teacher education, curriculum change, student and teacher behavior; education funding; research funding; research activity; and scientific teaching are discussed as to the effects of government intervention on them. (Author/DS)

  4. Tectonic map of Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Oyhantcabal, P.

    2008-05-01

    A compilation of available data about the geology of Uruguay allowed the definition of its main events and tectonic units. Based on a critical revision of different tectonic hypothesis found in the literature, a parsimonious tectonic evolution schema is presented, in the context of Western Gondwana. The tectonic map illustrates the general features of the structure and main tectonic units of Uruguay. The Precambrian shield, cropping out in the South and Southeast of the country is an Archean to Paleoprtoerozoic basement divided in three main tectonostratigraphic terrranes: the Piedra Alta (PAT) a juvenile Paleoproterozoic unit not reworked by later events; the Nico Pérez (NPT) a complex unit composed of several blocks where Archean to Mesoproterozoic events are recognised. The NPT was strongly reworked by Neoproterozoic (Brasiliano) orogeny. The Dom Feliciano Belt cropping out in eastern Uruguay is related to Western Gondwana amalgamation. Different tectonic settings are considered: pre-Brasiliano Basement inliers; supracrustal successions representing the evolution from a back- arc to a foreland basin; a magmatic arc; and post-collisional basins and related magmatism. In lower Paleozoic the Paraná foreland basin was generated as a consequence of orogenic events. The sedimentary successions in Uruguay include continental to shallow marine deposits where the influence of carboniferous to Permian glacial episode is recorded. The Mesozoic record is characterised by the influence of extension related to the break-up of Gondwana and the formation of the Atlantic Ocean: huge amounts of tholeiitic basalt were erupted (near 30.000 km3 in Uruguay), followed by cretaceous sediments in the northern area of the country while in the south-east, bimodal magmatism and sediments of the same age are associated to rift basins. The Cenozoic is characterised by tectonic quiescence. Subsidence is only observed in the western region (Chaco-Paraná Basin) and in the east (Laguna Mer

  5. Pesticides in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Mañay, N; Rampoldi, O; Alvarez, C; Piastra, C; Heller, T; Viapiana, P; Korbut, S

    2004-01-01

    This is a review, from an independent and scientific point of view, of the different aspects involved in the issue of pesticides in Uruguay. In its preparation, the University, responsible official institutions, nongovenment environmental organizations, and independent experts have been consulted. As to the legal framework, the responsibilities of the institutions are described and evaluated. The earlier and current regulations for the registration and sale of pesticides are presented, as well as the available information on the active ingredients most used in Uruguay. Official control is evaluated in reference to pesticide residues in food, drinking water, and the environment and to final waste disposal. Maximum allowed residue limits and the responsibilities of the corresponding governmental institutions are presented. Emphasis is placed on the fact that there are no publicly available data. Several research programs are presented, mainly from academia, and usually are not completed due to lack of financial support. In the conclusions the most problematic aspects are pointed out, emphasizing the need to improve national regulations for the country to establish an effective system of control. The importance of financial support to achieve this control and to conduct interdisciplinary studies to determine the real situation is discussed. All compounds are listed in Table 19. PMID:14738198

  6. Aloysio de Castro and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    Aloysio de Castro, when Director of the School of Medicine of Rio de Janeiro, and Américo Ricaldoni, when Dean of the School of Medicine of Montevideo, Uruguay, started a period of intense collaboration between both institutions. In this period, Aloysio visited Montevideo in many occasions, giving lectures, donating scientific material and publishing papers in Uruguay. Ricaldoni retributed his visits, distinguishing Aloysio as the first foreign Honorary Professor of the Medical School of Uruguay, participating in the inauguration of the new building of the School in Rio. Even after Ricaldoni's death in 1928, for many years, Aloysio continued with his visits. A poem by Aloysio de Castro dedicated to Montevideo is attached.

  7. English Language Teaching Profile: Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This profile in outline form of the English language teaching situation in Uruguay discusses the role of English within Uruguayan society and within the educational system. Though English is quite widely used for reading scientific, technical and medical publications, and while it is considered important culturally in higher professions, it is not…

  8. Uruguay on the World Stage

    PubMed Central

    Birn, Anne-Emanuelle

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of international health has typically been assessed from the standpoint of central institutions (international health organizations, foundations, and development agencies) or of one-way diffusion and influence from developed to developing countries. To deepen understanding of how the international health agenda is shaped, I examined the little-known case of Uruguay and its pioneering role in advancing and institutionalizing child health as an international priority between 1890 and 1950. The emergence of Uruguay as a node of international health may be explained through the country’s early gauging of its public health progress, its borrowing and adaptation of methods developed overseas, and its broadcasting of its own innovations and shortcomings. PMID:16051940

  9. New Geophysical Observatory in Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Nuñez, P.; Caraballo, R. R.; Ogando, R.

    2013-05-01

    In 2011 began the installation of the first geophysical observatory in Uruguay, with the aim of developing the Geosciences. The Astronomical and Geophysical Observatory Aiguá (OAGA) is located within the Cerro Catedral Tourist Farm (-34 ° 20 '0 .89 "S/-54 ° 42 '44.72" W, h: 270m). This has the distinction of being located in the center of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. Geologically is emplaced in a Neoproterozoic basement, in a region with scarce anthropogenic interference. The OAGA has, since 2012, with a GSM-90FD dIdD v7.0 and GSM-90F Overhauser, both of GEM Systems. In addition has a super-SID receiver provided by the Stanford University SOLAR Center, as a complement for educational purposes. Likewise the installation of a seismograph REF TEK-151-120A and VLF antenna is being done since the beginning of 2013.

  10. First neuronavigation experiences in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Carbajal, Guillermo; Gomez, Alvaro; Pereyra, Gabriela; Lima, Ramiro; Preciozzi, Javier; Vazquez, Luis; Villar, Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    Neuronavigation is the application of image guidance to neurosurgery where the position of a surgical tool can be displayed on a preoperative image. Although this technique has been used worldwide in the last ten years, it was never applied in Uruguay due to its cost. In an ongoing project, the Engineering Faculty (Universidad de la República), the Hospital de Clínicas (Medicine Faculty - Universidad de la República) and the Regional Hospital of Tacuarembó are doing the first experimental trials in neuronavigation. In this project, a prototype based on optical tracking equipment and the open source software IGSTK (Image Guided Surgery Toolkit) is under development and testing.

  11. 7 CFR 1405.7 - Uruguay Round Agreements Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uruguay Round Agreements Act. 1405.7 Section 1405.7... Uruguay Round Agreements Act. In the event the outlays by the United States for domestic support measures will exceed, in any required reporting period, the allowable levels under the Uruguay Round...

  12. 7 CFR 1405.7 - Uruguay Round Agreements Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uruguay Round Agreements Act. 1405.7 Section 1405.7... Uruguay Round Agreements Act. In the event the outlays by the United States for domestic support measures will exceed, in any required reporting period, the allowable levels under the Uruguay Round...

  13. Uruguay: Le francais en quete d'image (Uruguay: French in Search of an Image).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francais dans le Monde, 1993

    1993-01-01

    The role of French language instruction in Uruguay is assessed. Drawing on results of recent surveys, it is observed that French suffers from a lackluster image, and from a lack of confidence among language teachers themselves. (MSE)

  14. A Geography of Uruguay for Elementary Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    This paper is part of a larger study, conducted as part of a Christa McAuliffe Fellowship research project, "A Comparative Geography of Three Ecologically Similar Regions." The study compared the Chesapeake Bay region of Maryland with the Murray River region of South Australia and the Rio de la Plata region of Uruguay. The project was designed to…

  15. Developing Foreign Language Teacher Standards in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlman, Natalie A.

    2010-01-01

    This article documents the development of foreign language (FL) teacher standards in Uruguay. It begins by discussing what it means to be a teacher, what standards are and are not, and how they can be helpful or misused in teacher development. In the proposal, a distinction is made between teacher preparation programs that are course-based and…

  16. Adoption of Improved Agricultural Practices in Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucks, Carlos Alberto

    Conducted in Uruguay during 1965-68, this study compared adoption rates for selected agricultural practices between one area which received an extension program and one which did not; and sought relationships between selected characteristics of individual farmers and the adoption of new practices. Data came from interviews with 69 experimental and…

  17. Maritime Archaeology in Uruguay: Towards a Manifesto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Jorge Manuel; Buffa, Valerio; Cordero, Alejo; Francia, Gabriel; Adams, Jonathan

    2010-10-01

    We report a collaborative maritime archaeological project in Uruguay, one of several Latin American countries where the subject is undergoing review in terms of the ways it is practised and managed. Uruguay is typical of many states where there has been a tension between a heritage-based approach in which the results of investigations are viewed as publicly owned, as opposed to the profit motive in which commercial and personal gain is the underlying ethic. This project was conceived both as a way of assisting the Uruguayan Heritage Commission in promoting the former approach as well as advancing a programme of research into the age of global exploration. This paper sets out the rationale of the initial field season and reflects on subsequent developments.

  18. Control programme for cystic echinococcosis in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Irabedra, Pilar; Ferreira, Ciro; Sayes, Julio; Elola, Susana; Rodríguez, Miriam; Morel, Noelia; Segura, Sebastian; dos Santos, Estela; Guisantes, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community’s participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed. PMID:27223652

  19. 76 FR 10266 - Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... (68 FR 31940-31949, Docket No. 02-109-3), we amended the regulations to authorize the importation of... of Ovine Meat From Uruguay AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed... or frozen) ovine meat from Uruguay. Based on the evidence in a risk assessment that we have...

  20. Community-acquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiao Xue; Galiana, Antonio; Pedreira, Walter; Mowszowicz, Martin; Christophersen, Inés; Machiavello, Silvia; Lope, Liliana; Benaderet, Sara; Buela, Fernanda; Vicentino, Walter; Albini, María; Bertaux, Olivier; Constenla, Irene; Bagnulo, Homero; Llosa, Luis; Ito, Teruyo

    2005-01-01

    A novel, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone (Uruguay clone) with a non–multidrug-resistant phenotype caused a large outbreak, including 7 deaths, in Montevideo, Uruguay. The clone was distinct from the highly virulent community clone represented by strain MW2, although both clones carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene and cna gene. PMID:15963301

  1. Developing Medical Geology in Uruguay: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mañay, Nelly

    2010-01-01

    Several disciplines like Environmental Toxicology, Epidemiology, Public Health and Geology have been the basis of the development of Medical Geology in Uruguay during the last decade. The knowledge and performance in environmental and health issues have been improved by joining similar aims research teams and experts from different institutions to face environmental problems dealing with the population’s exposure to metals and metalloids and their health impacts. Some of the Uruguayan Medical Geology examples are reviewed focusing on their multidisciplinary approach: Lead pollution and exposed children, selenium in critically ill patients, copper deficiency in cattle and arsenic risk assessment in ground water. Future actions are also presented. PMID:20623004

  2. [Development of local health systems in Uruguay].

    PubMed

    Noceti, M C; Gherardi, A; Ríos, A M; Ríos, F

    1990-01-01

    This article summarizes Uruguay's experience in local health systems development and the elements that have contributed to awareness and dissemination of this concept. In 1988 the Ministry of Public Health assumed responsibility as one of the entities charged with strengthening the country's local health systems. A technical group was created to act at the central level. It has proposed and promoted changes directed toward the deconcentration of resource utilization in accordance with a set of general guidelines and, at the local level, has acted as a catalyst in the understanding of health services delivery management as a systemic concept.

  3. Geology, exploration status of Uruguay's sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Goso, C.; Santa Ana, H. de )

    1994-02-07

    This article attempts to present the geological characteristics and tectonic and sedimentary evolution of Uruguayan basins and the extent to which they have been explored. Uruguay is on the Atlantic coast of South America. The country covers about 318,000 sq km, including offshore and onshore territories corresponding to more than 65% of the various sedimentary basins. Four basins underlie the country: the Norte basin, the Santa Lucia basin, the offshore Punta del Este basin, and the offshore-onshore Pelotas-Merin basin. The Norte basin is a Paleozoic basin while the others are Mesozoic basins. Each basin has been explored to a different extent, as this paper explains.

  4. Developing medical geology in Uruguay: a review.

    PubMed

    Mañay, Nelly

    2010-05-01

    Several disciplines like Environmental Toxicology, Epidemiology, Public Health and Geology have been the basis of the development of Medical Geology in Uruguay during the last decade. The knowledge and performance in environmental and health issues have been improved by joining similar aims research teams and experts from different institutions to face environmental problems dealing with the population's exposure to metals and metalloids and their health impacts. Some of the Uruguayan Medical Geology examples are reviewed focusing on their multidisciplinary approach: Lead pollution and exposed children, selenium in critically ill patients, copper deficiency in cattle and arsenic risk assessment in ground water. Future actions are also presented.

  5. Training Strategy: Computer Education for Teachers in Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunberg, Jorge

    1987-01-01

    Described is the Alfa Project in Uruguay, designed to integrate computer education into secondary schools through teacher-training. Both teacher-users and teacher-authors were considered. Course objectives, curriculum content, and teaching guidelines are presented. (MNS)

  6. Uruguay: Population Geography of a Troubled Welfare State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tata, Robert J.

    1977-01-01

    Discussed is whether or not Uruguay's elaborate welfare system can be maintained by a deteriorating economy plagued by social tension and political unrest. Historical background is presented, demographic variables are discussed and modern influences are measured. (Author/DB)

  7. 9 CFR 94.22 - Restrictions on importation of beef from Uruguay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... from Uruguay. 94.22 Section 94.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... IMPORTATIONS § 94.22 Restrictions on importation of beef from Uruguay. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this part, fresh (chilled or frozen) beef from Uruguay may be exported to the United States under...

  8. 9 CFR 94.22 - Restrictions on importation of beef from Uruguay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... from Uruguay. 94.22 Section 94.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... IMPORTATIONS § 94.22 Restrictions on importation of beef from Uruguay. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this part, fresh (chilled or frozen) beef from Uruguay may be exported to the United States under...

  9. Birth defects monitoring in underdeveloped countries: an example from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Castilla, E E; Lopez-Camelo, J S; Dutra, G P; Paz, J E

    1991-01-01

    Medical authorities in developing countries are primarily interested in nutritional and infectious diseases. Therefore, activities directed to the prevention and control of low priority illnesses, such as birth defects, need to be particularly effective, simple, and economical. Monitoring of congenital anomalies is one of the preventive activities which can be efficiently performed at very low cost. Guidelines for this are given, and their application exemplified by the case of Uruguay. Uruguay has recently attained an infant mortality rate of 20/1,000, with the congenital anomalies ranking as its second cause. The government of Uruguay, through the Pan American Health Organisation/World Health Organisation (PARO/WHO) called the Estudio Colaborativo Latino Americano de Malformaciones Congenitas (ECLAMC) for advice in order to plan a program for the prevention of birth defects. The recommendations given were based on conclusions drawn from the analysis of data the ECLAMC program has been accumulating, from Uruguay and other Latin-American countries, since 1967. The case of Uruguay clearly indicates that sensible guidelines for birth defects prevention can be provided, after working with this "low priority and uninteresting" group of illnesses for more than twenty years.

  10. Ediacaran in Uruguay: Facts and controversies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubet, Natalie R.; Pecoits, Ernesto; Heaman, Larry M.; Veroslavsky, Gerardo; Gingras, Murray K.; Konhauser, Kurt O.

    2014-11-01

    The Ediacaran of Uruguay has been regarded as containing a significant geological and paleontological record, which would make these successions critical to unraveling diverse aspects regarding the assembly of southwestern Gondwana and to understanding the conditions surrounding the rise of animal life in a period punctuated by drastic paleoenvironmental changes. However, a review of currently available data leads to the conclusion that, although variable, the stratigraphy, distribution and age of these units remain ambiguous. The same is true for existing basin models and tectonic evolution, which show different and sometimes contradicting supporting evidence. Here, we propose that the Ediacaran record consists of the Maldonado Group (Playa Hermosa, Las Ventanas and San Carlos formations), and the Tacuarí, Barriga Negra, Rocha and Sierra de Aguirre formations. The Arroyo del Soldado Group (Yerbal, Polanco Limestones and Cerro Espuelitas formations) and the Arroyo de la Pedrera Group (Piedras de Afilar and Cerro Victoria formations) were likely deposited between 700 and 1000 Ma. The best available radiometric age constraints indicate intense magmatic-tectonic activity occurred between 600 and 560 Ma, incompatible with previous models suggesting a stable, Atlantic-type passive margin on this portion of southwestern Gondwana. Further research is needed in order to firmly establish a consistent litho- and chronostratigraphic framework; particularly, before attempting any regional or global correlation, and inferences on global paleoenvironmental and paleobiological events.

  11. A countrywide clinical informatics project in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Alvaro; Bessonart, Lino; Barbiel, Ana; Pazos, Pablo; Gil, Juan; Machado, Heber; Vero, Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    FEMI is a federation of 23 private not-for-profit health care organizations across Uruguay. It covers approximately 700 thousand people (20 percent of the Uruguayan population) and owns a tertiary center in Montevideo. Pressure from ongoing national changes in health funding and regulation have pushed FEMI to develop a project, in order to improve efficiency in health care through the use of information and communications technologies. In particular, a federal electronic health record and a strategic management system are pursued. This project is supported by the Inter American Development Bank. The project has four lines of action: Specification, construction and implementation of the systems; Alignment through the use of standards; Cultural change through training and prototype systems; and Infrastructure. Short term results include a federal balanced scorecard, federal identification and authorization services, a terminology service, telemedicine applications and massive training of interdisciplinary teams at the local level. The importance of collaboration at the regional level and the advantages of having a multi-institutional commitment are stressed. PMID:20841715

  12. Extinct and extant sand dollars (Clypeasteroida: Echinoidea) from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Sergio; Mooi, Rich

    2005-12-01

    We summarize information concerning Recent and Pleistocene-Holocene Uruguayan sand dollars (Mellitidae), as well as Miocene taxa (Monophorasteridae). Recent and Pleistocene-Holocene species (Encope emarginata, Mellita quinquiesperforata, and Leodia sexisperforata) are at their southernmost limits of distribution, with only E. emarginata recorded further south than Uruguay. Lower temperatures to the south, and/or the Rio de la Plata salinity barrier are suggested as controlling factors of these distributions. During the Miocene, the sea temperatures were notably higher than at present, and it was at this time that the extinct genera Monophoraster and Amplaster reached their maximum diversity in Uruguay. The family Monophorasteridae is the basal sister group of the Mellitidae.

  13. Achyrocline satureioides essential oils from southern Brazil and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, D; Atti-Serafini, L; Santos, A C; Frizzo, C D; Paroul, N; Paz, D; Dellacassa, E; Moyna, P

    2000-06-01

    The essential oils of the aerial parts of Achyrocline satureioides (D.C.) Lam., a regional medicinal plant, from different collection locations in the South of Brazil and Uruguay were examined by GC and GC-MS. Monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were the main fractions of both the oils from Brazil and Uruguay. The oxygenated monoterpenes and sequiterpenes were at much lower percentage in both samples. The Uruguayan samples have 1,8-cineole which is not present in the Brazilian samples and has not been reported in other samples from Brazil. The results indicated a high biodiversity of the native populations of A. satureioides.

  14. Assessment of gastroenteric viruses from wastewater directly discharged into Uruguay River, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Victoria, M; Tort, L F L; García, M; Lizasoain, A; Maya, L; Leite, J P G; Miagostovich, M P; Cristina, J; Colina, R

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the viral contamination of group A rotavirus (RVA), norovirus (NoV), and human astrovirus (HAstV) in sewage directly discharged into Uruguay River and to characterize RVA genotypes circulating in Uruguay. For this purpose, sewage samples (n = 96) were collected biweekly from March 2011 to February 2012 in four Uruguayan cities: Bella Unión, Salto, Paysandú, and Fray Bentos. Each sample was concentrated by ultracentrifugation method. Qualitative and quantitative RT-PCR for RVA, NoV, and HAstV were performed. A wide dissemination of gastroenteric viruses was observed in the sewage samples analyzed with 80% of positivity, being NoV (51%) the most frequently detected followed by RVA with a frequency of 49% and HAstV with 45%. Genotypes of RVA were typed using multiplex semi-nested RT-PCR as follows: P[8] (n = 15), P[4] (n = 8), P[10] (n = 1), P[11] (n = 1), G2 (n = 29), and G3 (n = 2). The viral load ranged from 10(3) to 10(7) genomic copies/liter, and they were detected roughly with the same frequency in all participant cities. A peak of RVA and HAstV detection was observed in colder months (June to September), whereas no seasonality was observed for NoV. This study demonstrates for the first time, the high degree of gastroenteric viral contamination in the country; highlighting the importance of developing these analyses as a tool to determine the viral contamination in this hydrographic boundary region used by the local populations for recreation and consumption, establishing an elevated risk of gastroenteric diseases for human health. PMID:24777819

  15. Assessment of gastroenteric viruses from wastewater directly discharged into Uruguay River, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Victoria, M; Tort, L F L; García, M; Lizasoain, A; Maya, L; Leite, J P G; Miagostovich, M P; Cristina, J; Colina, R

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the viral contamination of group A rotavirus (RVA), norovirus (NoV), and human astrovirus (HAstV) in sewage directly discharged into Uruguay River and to characterize RVA genotypes circulating in Uruguay. For this purpose, sewage samples (n = 96) were collected biweekly from March 2011 to February 2012 in four Uruguayan cities: Bella Unión, Salto, Paysandú, and Fray Bentos. Each sample was concentrated by ultracentrifugation method. Qualitative and quantitative RT-PCR for RVA, NoV, and HAstV were performed. A wide dissemination of gastroenteric viruses was observed in the sewage samples analyzed with 80% of positivity, being NoV (51%) the most frequently detected followed by RVA with a frequency of 49% and HAstV with 45%. Genotypes of RVA were typed using multiplex semi-nested RT-PCR as follows: P[8] (n = 15), P[4] (n = 8), P[10] (n = 1), P[11] (n = 1), G2 (n = 29), and G3 (n = 2). The viral load ranged from 10(3) to 10(7) genomic copies/liter, and they were detected roughly with the same frequency in all participant cities. A peak of RVA and HAstV detection was observed in colder months (June to September), whereas no seasonality was observed for NoV. This study demonstrates for the first time, the high degree of gastroenteric viral contamination in the country; highlighting the importance of developing these analyses as a tool to determine the viral contamination in this hydrographic boundary region used by the local populations for recreation and consumption, establishing an elevated risk of gastroenteric diseases for human health.

  16. Computing and Education in Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadowsky, Manuel

    Although the report is specifically about Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, the considerations presented are valid for all of Latin America. In September, 1969, Argentina had approximately 200 electronic computers. The annual growth is estimated at 15-20% and the implementation of teleprocessing and time-sharing systems have made evident the…

  17. Trichothecene genotypes of Fusarium graminearum from wheat in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Pan, Dinorah; Calero, Natalia; Mionetto, Ana; Bettucci, Lina

    2013-03-01

    Gibberella zeae (Schwein.) Petch (anamorph F. graminearum Schwabe) is the primary causal agent of FHB of wheat in Uruguay. In the last decade, F. graminearum has produced destructive epidemics on wheat in Uruguay, causing yield losses and price discounts due to reduced seed quality. Strains of F. graminearum clade usually express one of three strain-specific profiles of trichothecene metabolites: nivalenol and its acetylated derivatives (NIV chemotype), deoxynivalenol and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-AcDON chemotype), or deoxynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-AcDON chemotype). A multiplex PCR assay of Tri3, Tri5, and Tri7 was used to determine the trichothecene genotype of 111 strains of F. graminearum collected during 2003 and 2009 growing seasons from fields located in the major wheat production area of Uruguay. The result showed that all except one of the isolates were of DON genotype, with the remainder of NIV genotype in years 2003 and 2009. All strains with the DON genotype were also of the 15-AcDON genotype in 2003 and nearly all (45/50) in 2009. No DON/3-AcDON genotypes were found in either growing season. No potential shifts in the populations were found in the trichothecene genotypes between 2003 and the 2009 epidemic FHB harvest seasons. This study provides the first data on trichothecene genotypes of F. graminearum strains isolated from wheat in Uruguay and add to the current regional knowledge of trichothecene genotypes.

  18. Language Policies in Uruguay and Uruguayan Sign Language (LSU)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behares, Luis Ernesto; Brovetto, Claudia; Crespi, Leonardo Peluso

    2012-01-01

    In the first part of this article the authors consider the policies that apply to Uruguayan Sign Language (Lengua de Senas Uruguaya; hereafter LSU) and the Uruguayan Deaf community within the general framework of language policies in Uruguay. By analyzing them succinctly and as a whole, the authors then explain twenty-first-century innovations.…

  19. ELT through Videoconferencing in Primary Schools in Uruguay: First Steps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banegas, Darío Luis

    2013-01-01

    Plan Ceibal is an interinstitutional undertaking which has distributed XO laptops and Internet connectivity among primary school learners and teachers across Uruguay and developed a wide range of educational programmes. Ceibal administration believes that it is imperative to introduce English as a Foreign Language in primary education through the…

  20. Situation Reports--Bahamas, Brasil, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General…

  1. The Impending Demise of "tu" in Montevideo, Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyers, Joseph R.

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 1960s, the "tuteo" (T-T), and particularly the use of tonic "tu" with the "vos" verbal morphology (T-V) has been accepted as typical of the speech of Montevideo, Uruguay, a region generally classified as "voseante". This paper reports on the results of 117 rapid anonymous interviews conducted in Montevideo to document the status of…

  2. Braille Literacy and Self-Esteem: A Report from Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elissalde, E.

    1996-01-01

    Brief excerpts from correspondence from blind persons and their families in Uruguay indicate increased self-esteem resulting from access to braille materials such as a braille newspaper. Braille literacy is seen to enhance the dialog between student and teacher, parent and child, or child and book. Knowledge of community events offered by the…

  3. 78 FR 68327 - Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... effective and published in the Federal Register on May 29, 2003 (68 FR 31940-31949, Docket No. 02-109-3... FR 10266-10269, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0085), we proposed to also allow the importation of fresh ovine... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 94 RIN 0579-AD17 Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay...

  4. Educational Production and the Distribution of Teachers in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luschei, Thomas F.; Carnoy, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we discuss results from an analysis of a large dataset that includes virtually all sixth-grade students in Uruguay in 1996. We analyze the relationship between teacher attributes and student achievement scores and we explore the distribution of teachers according to characteristics identified as important by this analysis. We find…

  5. Molecular detection of Rangelia vitalii in domestic dogs from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Soares, João Fabio; Carvalho, Luis; Maya, Leticia; Dutra, Fernando; Venzal, José Manuel; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-05-30

    The piroplasm Rangelia vitalii is the etiological agent of canine rangeliosis, a severe disease affecting domestic dogs in South America. Two domestic dogs from two different Departments (Salto and Treinta y Tres) of Uruguay presented with clinical signs such as apathy, anorexia, pale mucous membranes, jaundice, and hemorrhagic manifestations, suggestive of a canine vector-borne disease. Molecular analysis, based on PCR and DNA sequencing of portions of the 18S rRNA gene, revealed that both dogs were infected by R. vitalii. Two consensus sequences, one from Salto and one from Treinta y Tres, differed from each other by only 1 nucleotide (99.8% similarity) and were 99.8-100% identical to corresponding sequences of R. vitalii from Brazil and Argentina available in GenBank. Through phylogenetic analysis inferred by the 18S rRNA gene, the two Uruguayan sequences of R. vitalii were aligned with the corresponding sequences from 7 other R. vitalii sequences available in GenBank (5 from Brazil and, 2 from Argentina) under high bootstrap support. The two dogs of the present study were negative for Ehrlichia canis according to the E. canis-specific real-time PCR assay. Our findings not only confirm the occurrence of R. vitalii in Uruguay but also provide the southernmost record of this re-emerging agent. The only previous report of R. vitalii in Uruguay dated from 1976, a period when molecular analyses were not available. We provide the first molecular detection of R. vitalii in Uruguay. Currently, canine rangeliosis is confirmed to occur in Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay.

  6. Molecular diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus in uruguay.

    PubMed

    Maya, L; Puentes, R; Reolón, E; Acuña, P; Riet, F; Rivero, R; Cristina, J; Colina, R

    2016-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) affects bovine production and reproduction causing significant economic losses all over the world. Two viral species has been recognized: BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, both distributed worldwide. Recently, novel specie of BVDV named HoBi-like pestivirus was discovered. The presence of BVDV was confirmed in 1996 in Uruguay, however, does not exist until today a schedule of compulsory vaccination along the country. Serological studies with samples from all Uruguayan herds were performed during 2000 and 2001 demonstrating that all of them were seropositive to BVDV with a mean prevalence of 69%. In addition, there have been no new studies done since those previously described and it is important to mention that the genetic diversity of BVD has never been described in Uruguay. Nowadays, there is strongly suspect that BVDV is one of the most important causes of reproductive failures in our herds. The aim of this study was to describe for the first time in Uruguay the genetic diversity of BVDV with samples collected from different regions along the country. Serological status of 390 non-vaccinated animals against BVDV with reproductive problems from farms of Rivera, Tacuarembó and Florida departments of Uruguay were studied. All herds were seropositive to BVDV and high proportion of animals were positive (298/390), while 4.1% (16/390) of the animals were positive to Antigen Capture ELISA test and Real Time PCR. Phylogenetic analysis performed with concatenated sequences from the 5'UTR and Npro genomic regions revealed that BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 are infecting our herds, being BVDV-1 the most frequently found. The major subtype was BVDV-1a, followed by BVDV-1i and BVDV-2b. This is the first study that describes the genetic diversity of BVDV in Uruguay and it will contribute to the elaboration of sanitization programs.

  7. Molecular detection of Rangelia vitalii in domestic dogs from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Soares, João Fabio; Carvalho, Luis; Maya, Leticia; Dutra, Fernando; Venzal, José Manuel; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-05-30

    The piroplasm Rangelia vitalii is the etiological agent of canine rangeliosis, a severe disease affecting domestic dogs in South America. Two domestic dogs from two different Departments (Salto and Treinta y Tres) of Uruguay presented with clinical signs such as apathy, anorexia, pale mucous membranes, jaundice, and hemorrhagic manifestations, suggestive of a canine vector-borne disease. Molecular analysis, based on PCR and DNA sequencing of portions of the 18S rRNA gene, revealed that both dogs were infected by R. vitalii. Two consensus sequences, one from Salto and one from Treinta y Tres, differed from each other by only 1 nucleotide (99.8% similarity) and were 99.8-100% identical to corresponding sequences of R. vitalii from Brazil and Argentina available in GenBank. Through phylogenetic analysis inferred by the 18S rRNA gene, the two Uruguayan sequences of R. vitalii were aligned with the corresponding sequences from 7 other R. vitalii sequences available in GenBank (5 from Brazil and, 2 from Argentina) under high bootstrap support. The two dogs of the present study were negative for Ehrlichia canis according to the E. canis-specific real-time PCR assay. Our findings not only confirm the occurrence of R. vitalii in Uruguay but also provide the southernmost record of this re-emerging agent. The only previous report of R. vitalii in Uruguay dated from 1976, a period when molecular analyses were not available. We provide the first molecular detection of R. vitalii in Uruguay. Currently, canine rangeliosis is confirmed to occur in Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay. PMID:25843009

  8. Molecular diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus in uruguay.

    PubMed

    Maya, L; Puentes, R; Reolón, E; Acuña, P; Riet, F; Rivero, R; Cristina, J; Colina, R

    2016-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) affects bovine production and reproduction causing significant economic losses all over the world. Two viral species has been recognized: BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, both distributed worldwide. Recently, novel specie of BVDV named HoBi-like pestivirus was discovered. The presence of BVDV was confirmed in 1996 in Uruguay, however, does not exist until today a schedule of compulsory vaccination along the country. Serological studies with samples from all Uruguayan herds were performed during 2000 and 2001 demonstrating that all of them were seropositive to BVDV with a mean prevalence of 69%. In addition, there have been no new studies done since those previously described and it is important to mention that the genetic diversity of BVD has never been described in Uruguay. Nowadays, there is strongly suspect that BVDV is one of the most important causes of reproductive failures in our herds. The aim of this study was to describe for the first time in Uruguay the genetic diversity of BVDV with samples collected from different regions along the country. Serological status of 390 non-vaccinated animals against BVDV with reproductive problems from farms of Rivera, Tacuarembó and Florida departments of Uruguay were studied. All herds were seropositive to BVDV and high proportion of animals were positive (298/390), while 4.1% (16/390) of the animals were positive to Antigen Capture ELISA test and Real Time PCR. Phylogenetic analysis performed with concatenated sequences from the 5'UTR and Npro genomic regions revealed that BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 are infecting our herds, being BVDV-1 the most frequently found. The major subtype was BVDV-1a, followed by BVDV-1i and BVDV-2b. This is the first study that describes the genetic diversity of BVDV in Uruguay and it will contribute to the elaboration of sanitization programs. PMID:26597189

  9. A new species of Branchinecta (Crustacea: Anostraca) from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Rogers, D Christopher; Lorenz, Helen Racz

    2015-10-22

    Branchinecta uruguayensis, a new species of fairy shrimp, is described from a single seasonally astatic aquatic habitat in coastal Uruguay. This is the first record of an anostracan from the nation of Uruguay. Male B. uruguayensis n. sp. are separated from other Branchinecta species by the form of the second antennae. Branchinecta uruguayensis n. sp. share the distal antennomere lobiform projection with B. papillata Rogers, De los Rios, & Zúñiga, 2008 and B. achalensis César, 1985. Branchinecta uruguayensis n. sp. females are readily separated from all other Branchinecta by the presence of posteriolateral thoracic spines and lateral crenulations on the first abdomen segment margins. A key is provided to the Branchinectidae of South America.

  10. American Foulbrood in Uruguay: twelve years from its first report.

    PubMed

    Antúnez, Karina; Anido, Matilde; Branchiccela, Belén; Harriet, Jorge; Campá, Juan; Zunino, Pablo

    2012-05-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American Foulbrood (AFB), a deleterious disease that affects honeybees. In Uruguay it was first reported in 1999. In 2001 the bacterium was spread all over the country, and its prevalence in honey was estimated in 51%. Two P. larvae genotypes were found; ERIC I - BOX A, worldwide distributed and ERIC I - BOX C, exclusively detected in Argentina until then. In the present manuscript we analyzed the evolution of AFB outbreaks from 1999 to 2009, presented a new nation-wide survey carried out during 2011 when a prevalence of 2% was found and discuss national strategies for prevention of the disease. Since Uruguay is a small country where almost all beekeepers are registered, Uruguayan experience can be useful to be applied in other countries.

  11. Extinct and extant sand dollars (Clypeasteroida: Echinoidea) from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Sergio; Mooi, Rich

    2005-12-01

    We summarize information concerning Recent and Pleistocene-Holocene Uruguayan sand dollars (Mellitidae), as well as Miocene taxa (Monophorasteridae). Recent and Pleistocene-Holocene species (Encope emarginata, Mellita quinquiesperforata, and Leodia sexisperforata) are at their southernmost limits of distribution, with only E. emarginata recorded further south than Uruguay. Lower temperatures to the south, and/or the Rio de la Plata salinity barrier are suggested as controlling factors of these distributions. During the Miocene, the sea temperatures were notably higher than at present, and it was at this time that the extinct genera Monophoraster and Amplaster reached their maximum diversity in Uruguay. The family Monophorasteridae is the basal sister group of the Mellitidae. PMID:17471610

  12. Picobirnavirus in captive animals from Uruguay: identification of new hosts.

    PubMed

    Gillman, Luciana; Sánchez, Ana Maria; Arbiza, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The Picobirnaviruses (PBVs) have been detected in several species of animals from different countries worldwide, including in South America. The host range of these viruses has increased in recent years; thus, in order to contribute to the knowledge in this topic we analyzed samples from captivity animals from Uruguay. We found the presence of PBVs in four species of animals, Panthera leo, Panthera onca, Puma concolor and Oncifelis geoffroyi, representing new PBV-susceptible hosts. All strains belonged to genogroup I. PMID:22759924

  13. Picobirnavirus in captive animals from Uruguay: identification of new hosts.

    PubMed

    Gillman, Luciana; Sánchez, Ana Maria; Arbiza, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The Picobirnaviruses (PBVs) have been detected in several species of animals from different countries worldwide, including in South America. The host range of these viruses has increased in recent years; thus, in order to contribute to the knowledge in this topic we analyzed samples from captivity animals from Uruguay. We found the presence of PBVs in four species of animals, Panthera leo, Panthera onca, Puma concolor and Oncifelis geoffroyi, representing new PBV-susceptible hosts. All strains belonged to genogroup I.

  14. 75 FR 65292 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Beef From Uruguay

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ...; Importation of Beef From Uruguay AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Approval of... approval of an information collection associated with regulations for the importation of beef from Uruguay... information on regulations for the ] importation of beef from Uruguay, contact Dr. Lynette Williams-...

  15. 37 CFR 1.701 - Extension of patent term due to examination delay under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to examination delay under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (original applications, other than... Examination Delay § 1.701 Extension of patent term due to examination delay under the Uruguay Round Agreements... phrase is used in 35 U.S.C. 154(b)(2) as amended by section 532(a) of the Uruguay Round Agreements...

  16. 37 CFR 1.701 - Extension of patent term due to examination delay under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to examination delay under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (original applications, other than... Examination Delay § 1.701 Extension of patent term due to examination delay under the Uruguay Round Agreements... phrase is used in 35 U.S.C. 154(b)(2) as amended by section 532(a) of the Uruguay Round Agreements...

  17. Large ferruginized palaeorhizospheres from a Paleogene lateritic profile of Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genise, Jorge F.; Bellosi, Eduardo S.; Verde, Mariano; González, Mirta G.

    2011-10-01

    It is proposed herein that columns included in the unconformity between Mercedes (Upper Cretaceous) and Asencio (Lower Eocene) formations of Uruguay, forming "caves" known since the XIX century, are large ferruginized palaeorhizospheres. Diagnostic characters are concentric internal structure, radiating secondary prolongations, preservation of original lamination, trace fossils, and other attributes of the original deposit. In contrast with rhizoliths, which originated as root casts or by roots and their peritrophic zones, palaeorhizospheres are originated from peritrophic zones to a few tens of centimeters in the soil surrounding the roots. In many cases, like those presented herein, rhizoliths are not preserved inside the palaeorhizospheres. Specimens were studied in 6 localities from central Uruguay, where 5 different morphological types were recognized according to its internal structure: (1) rimmed, (2) concentric, (3) concentric disrupted, (4) nodular or mottled, and (5) brecciated. The palaeorhizosphere hypothesis can explain this diversity of internal structures, which may be compatible with different stages of root and rhizosphere development. Types 1 and 2 could be produced by living roots, whereas 3 to 5 more probably by percolation and staining by Fe solutions coming from the overlying Asencio Formation through decaying or dead roots. The rim that surrounds most structures may be interpreted as the boundary of the original rhizosphere, where Fe ions translocated outward from the root by chelation, found oxidizing conditions. Concentric pattern would result from the centrifugal displacement of the oxidizing rim. Type 3 to 5 structures would start when most biologic processes around the living or decaying root cease, and periodic formation of rings stops. Even when palaeorhizospheres are included in the Mercedes Formation, their possibility to be produced during Mercedes times is unlikely because the strong oxidation processes involved were exclusive of

  18. Poisoning of sheep by Vernonia plantaginoides (Less.) Hieron in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Fernando; Romero, Agustin; Quinteros, Carina; Araújo, Ruben; García Y Santos, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    Vernonia plantaginoides (Less.) Hieron, previously known as Vernonia squarrosa, is a rhizomatous subshrub with purple flowers that is prevalent in the natural grassland of Uruguay, Argentina, and southern Brazil. We report an outbreak of V. plantaginoides (yuyo moro) intoxication in sheep in Treinta y Tres Department, northeastern Uruguay. A total of 54 of 463 (12%) recently weaned lambs died 2-7 days after entering a natural pasture that had been invaded by sprouting V. plantaginoides The first cases were found dead. Affected lambs showed marked jaundice, edema of the face, ears, and eyelids, and severe photodermatitis. At the autopsies of 3 lambs, the carcass was yellow, the liver was enlarged with a marked acinar pattern ("nutmeg liver"), and hemorrhages were observed on serous membranes. Microscopic lesions were characterized by diffuse periacinar hepatocellular necrosis and cholemic nephrosis. Three female lambs were experimentally dosed with the aerial parts of V. plantaginoides collected immediately after the outbreak. The lamb that was dosed once with 40 g/kg body weight died after 36 h with severe hepatic necrosis. The lamb dosed with 20 g/kg daily for 4 days showed clinical signs and microscopic lesions in the liver with multiple apoptotic hepatocytes in the periacinar zone. The third lamb, dosed with 30, 17, and 15 g/kg daily over 3 days, respectively, showed transient clinical signs and a rise in liver enzymes, but recovered, and no lesions were found postmortem. These results demonstrate that V. plantaginoides was responsible for severe field outbreaks of poisoning in sheep in Uruguay. PMID:27240570

  19. The presence of women in physics in Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frins, Erna; Auyuanet, Adriana; Cabeza, Cecilia; Stari, Cecilia; Kahan, Sandra; Renom, Madeleine

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we describe the presence of women in physics in Uruguay. At the lower academic and research levels in physics, the distribution is about 2:1 men to women, similar to the distribution in physics graduate students. The difference becomes more pronounced at the higher academic and research levels. At the highest level there are no women. We also present some data to compare physics with other science fields. In recent years the state university and main national funding agency (ANII) have made some efforts to promote the presence of women in sciences. However, these efforts have not yet shown acceptable results.

  20. Prevalence of type-specific HPV infection in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Berois, Nora; Heard, Isabelle; Fort, Zoraida; Alonso, Rafael; Sica, Adela; Moerzinger, Patricia; Rodriguez, Guillermo; Sancho-Garnier, Hélène; Osinaga, Eduardo; Favre, Michel

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this work was to describe the prevalence of type-specific Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women attending organized cervical cancer screening program in Uruguay. Nine hundred sixty-five liquid cervical cell samples obtained after collection of cervical smears for cytology were assessed for HPV DNA using the Papillocheck system (Greiner BioOne). The overall prevalence of High-Risk (HR) HPV infections was 20.8% and increased from 16.5% in women with normal cytology to 93.3% in HSIL. Prevalence of HPV 16 and/or 18 was 6.3% and HPV 16 was the most prevalent genotype in normal cytology (3.6%). The five most prevalent genotypes were HPV 16, 31, 51, 56, and 39. The overall prevalence peaked below age 30. This study provides essential baseline information at national level on type-specific HPV prevalence in Uruguay before the introduction of HPV vaccination. It documents the current prevalence of each of the oncogenic genotypes in a population attending cervical cancer screening program, suggesting that at least 64.7% of high risk lesions are potentially preventable by available HPV vaccines, and possibly augmentable if cross-protection against non-vaccine HPV types 31, 33, and 45 is confirmed.

  1. Lutzomyia longipalpis in Uruguay: the first report and the potential of visceral leishmaniasis transmission.

    PubMed

    Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Basmajdian, Yester; Fernández, María Soledad; Santini, María Soledad

    2011-05-01

    Phlebotomine captures were performed in February 2010 in Salto (Salto department) and Bella Unión-Cuarein (Artigas department), Uruguay. Bella Unión is located across the Paraná River from Monte Caseros, Argentina, where a focus of canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was reported in 2009. No VL cases have ever been recorded in Uruguay and the last reported capture of Phlebotominae was in 1932 (Lutzomyia cortelezzii and Lutzomyia gaminarai). Light traps were placed in peridomestic environments, and Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis, was found in Salto and Bella Unión. This is a first report of an area of potential VL transmission in Uruguay. Active and coordinated surveillance is required immediately the Uruguay-Argentina-Brazil border area.

  2. First molecular detection of Rickettsia parkeri in Amblyomma tigrinum and Amblyomma dubitatum ticks from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lado, Paula; Castro, Oscar; Labruna, Marcelo B; Venzal, José M

    2014-10-01

    Rickettsia parkei is the etiological agent of spotted fever in Uruguay, where is transmitted to humans by the tick Amblyomma triste. In the present study, ticks were collected from capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and domestic dogs during 2011-2012 in different parts of Uruguay. Three out of 11 (27.3%) Amblyomma dubitatum ticks collected from capybaras, and 4 out of 6 (66.7%) Amblyomma tigrinum ticks collected from dogs were shown by molecular analyses to be infected by Rickettsia parkeri strain Maculatum 20. Until the present work, A. triste was the only tick species that was found infected by R. parkeri in Uruguay. This is the first report of R. parkeri infecting these two tick species in Uruguay, expanding the current distribution of this rickettsial pathogen in the country.

  3. Lutzomyia longipalpis in Uruguay: the first report and the potential of visceral leishmaniasis transmission.

    PubMed

    Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Basmajdian, Yester; Fernández, María Soledad; Santini, María Soledad

    2011-05-01

    Phlebotomine captures were performed in February 2010 in Salto (Salto department) and Bella Unión-Cuarein (Artigas department), Uruguay. Bella Unión is located across the Paraná River from Monte Caseros, Argentina, where a focus of canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was reported in 2009. No VL cases have ever been recorded in Uruguay and the last reported capture of Phlebotominae was in 1932 (Lutzomyia cortelezzii and Lutzomyia gaminarai). Light traps were placed in peridomestic environments, and Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis, was found in Salto and Bella Unión. This is a first report of an area of potential VL transmission in Uruguay. Active and coordinated surveillance is required immediately the Uruguay-Argentina-Brazil border area. PMID:21655832

  4. Preemptive kidney transplantation--a team experience in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    González-Martínez, F; Curi, L; González-Carballido, G; Núñez, N; Manzo, L; Kurdián, M; Larre Borges, P; Nin, M; Orihuela, S

    2014-11-01

    Kidney transplantation is the best treatment for end-stage chronic renal disease. In Uruguay, the prevalence of patients on dialysis is 757 patients per millon inhabitants, plus 316 alive with a functioning renal graft. We install a preemptive renal transplantation program. Twenty-five patients received grafts without dialysis from 2004 to 2013, 5 receiving their 2nd transplantation and 17 from cadaveric donors, with 7.4 ± 7.7 months in the waiting list. At 24 months, patients' survival rate was 100% and the grafts' 97%, with a serum creatinine of 1.4 ± 0.6 mg%. The developed programs of dialysis and renal health care contributed install our preemptive kidney transplantation. Kidney transplantation should be proposed to selected patients with chronic renal failure as primary therapy of substitution of renal function.

  5. Development of the National Kidney Transplantation Program in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    González-Martínez, F; Orihuela, S; Alvarez, I; Dibello, N; Curi, L; Nin, M; Wimber, E; Mizraji, R; Bengochea, M; González, G; Manzo, L; Toledo, R; Silva, W; Chopitea, Á; Lopez, D; Balboa, O; Porto, D; Noboa, O

    2015-10-01

    The first kidney transplantation (KT) in Uruguay was performed in 1969. We report the rates of KT and survival of patients and grafts up to December 2014. The country has a surface of 176,215 km(2) and a population of 3,286,314 inhabitants (18.6 inhabitants per km(2)). Till December 31, 2014, 1,940 KT have been performed in Uruguay (41.8 pmp that year); 90.4% of them were from cadaveric donors (CD). Median age of recipients (R) was 44 ± 14 years; R older than 55 years increased from 0 to 27% during the period. Our pre-emptive KT program started in 2007. Optimal donors (D) decreased from 65.2% to 35.5%, and D older than 45 years old increased from 9% to 37%. Trauma as cause of death decreased from 49% to 32% and stroke as cause of death increased from 25% to 39%. Patient survival rates at 1, 5, and 8 years were 93%, 87%, and 78%, respectively for KT performed between 1980 and 1989; they were 98%, 93%, and 89%, respectively, for KT performed between 1990 and1999; they were 97%, 91%, and 90%, respectively, for KT performed between 2000 and 2010. In December 2013, there were 1098 patients pmp in renal replacement therapy, 758 pmp in dialysis, and 340 pmp (30.9%) with a functioning graft. Our national KT program is mainly based (90.6%) on cadaveric donation. Epidemiological changes in the characteristics of R and D followed the changes in aging that occurred in the general population and the dialysis population. The survival rates from patients and kidneys are similar to those reported by the European and the American registries.

  6. Lead contamination in Uruguay: the "La Teja" neighborhood case.

    PubMed

    Mañay, Nelly; Cousillas, Adriana Z; Alvarez, Cristina; Heller, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Lead, ubiquitous in the environment as a result of mining and industrialization, is found as a contaminant in humans although it has no known physiological function there. Lead-exposed children are known to be the population with the highest potential health risks. The recommended biomarker to assess environmental lead exposure in animals is lead level in blood. Before 2001, the Department of Toxicology and Environmental Hygiene was the only team to produce human monitoring data on Uruguayan populations (Manay 2001a,b; Mañay et al. 1999). Lead pollution in Uruguay first received official attention during the 2001 La Teja poisoning episode. It was in the La Teja neighbourhood of Montevideo that high BLL were found in children (as high as 20 microg/dL), prompting corrective responses from Health and Environmental authorities. Growing awareness of environmental lead pollution and consequential human health effects from that event, resulted in public debate and demands for solutions from Health and Environmental authorities. Citizens demanded public disclosure of information concerning lead pollution and wanted action to address contaminated Uruguayan sites. In response, the Ministry of Health assembled an interinstitutional multidisciplinary committee, with delegates from health, environmental, labor, educational, and social security authorities, as well as community nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), among others. The University of the Republic was designated to serve as the main responsible entity for technical advice and support. After 2001, new research on lead pollution was undertaken and included multidisciplinary studies with communities in response to health risk alerts. The main emphasis was placed on children exposed to environmental lead. Major sources of Uruguayan lead contamination, similar to those in other developing countries, result from metallurgical industries, lead-acid battery processing, lead wire and pipe factories, metal foundries, metal

  7. Antigenic and genetic characterization of rabies virus isolates from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Helena; Castilho, Juliana Galera; Souto, Juanita; Oliveira, Rafael de Novaes; Carrieri, Maria Luiza; Kotait, Ivanete

    2013-05-01

    After 25 years without any reported cases of rabies in Uruguay, the northern region of the country experienced an epizootic of bovine paralytic rabies in October 2007. The outbreak affected bovines and equines, and the main source of infection was the bat Desmodus rotundus, the only hematophagous species in the country. From October 2007 to July 2008, 42 bovine, 3 equine and 120 chiropteran samples were submitted to the National Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for rabies testing. A total of 12 samples (7 bovine, 2 equine and 3 from D. rotundus) were positive by the fluorescent antibody test, and viruses were isolated by the mouse inoculation test. The objective of this study was to compare the antigenic and genetic characteristics of these isolates and three isolates from insectivorous bats from other regions. Antigenic typing using a panel of eight monoclonal antibodies identified all 12 viruses as variant 3 (AgV3), a variant associated with D. rotundus. Two isolates from insectivorous bats (Tadarida brasiliensis and Molossus sp.) were characterized as antigenic variant 4 (AgV4) while the third, from Myotis sp., could not be characterized using this panel as its reactivity pattern did not match that of any of the known antigenic variants. Partial N-gene sequences (nt 149-1420) of these isolates were aligned with homologous sequences derived from GenBank by the CLUSTAL/W method and used to build a neighbor-joining distance tree with the Kimura 2-parameter model. All 12 isolates were genetically grouped into the D. rotundus cluster as they shared 100% identity. In the phylogenetic analysis, the three isolates from insectivorous bats segregated into three clusters: one related to T. brasiliensis, one to Myotis sp. and the other to Lasiurus sp., although the isolate associated with the latter came from a Molossus sp. specimen. These results indicate that AgV3 was associated with the outbreak of bovine paralytic rabies in Uruguay. This is the first report of rabies

  8. Freshwater gastropods diversity hotspots: three new species from the Uruguay River (South America)

    PubMed Central

    de Lucía, Micaela

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Atlantic Forest is globally one of the priority ecoregions for biodiversity conservation. In Argentina, it is represented by the Paranense Forest, which covers a vast area of Misiones Province between the Paraná and Uruguay rivers. The Uruguay River is a global hotspot of freshwater gastropod diversity, here mainly represented by Tateidae (genus Potamolithus) and to a lesser extent Chilinidae. The family Chilinidae (Gastropoda, Hygrophila) includes 21 species currently recorded in Argentina, and three species in the Uruguay River. The species of Chilinidae occur in quite different types of habitats, but generally in clean oxygenated water recording variable temperature ranges. Highly oxygenated freshwater environments (waterfalls and rapids) are the most vulnerable continental environments. We provide here novel information on three new species of Chilinidae from environments containing waterfalls and rapids in the Uruguay River malacological province of Argentina. Materials and Methods: The specimens were collected in 2010. We analyzed shell, radula, and nervous and reproductive systems, and determined the molecular genetics. The genetic distance was calculated for two mitochondrial markers (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I–COI- and cytochrome b -Cyt b-) for these three new species and the species recorded from the Misionerean, Uruguay River and Lower Paraná-Río de la Plata malacological provinces. In addition, the COI data were analyzed phylogenetically by the neighbor-joining and Bayesian inference techniques. Results: The species described here are different in terms of shell, radula and nervous and reproductive systems, mostly based on the sculpture of the penis sheath. Phylogenetic analyses grouped the three new species with those present in the Lower Paraná-Río de la Plata and Uruguay River malacological provinces. Discussion: Phylogenetic analyses confirm the separation between the Uruguay River and the Misionerean malacological

  9. Species of Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae on native Myrtaceae in Uruguay: evidence of fungal host jumps.

    PubMed

    Pérez, C A; Wingfield, M J; Altier, N; Blanchette, R A

    2013-02-01

    Mycosphaerella species are well-known causal agents of leaf diseases on many economically and ecologically important plant species. In Uruguay, a relatively large number of Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae are found on Eucalyptus, but nothing is known of these fungi on native Myrtaceae. The aim of this study was to identify Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae species associated with leaf diseases on native Myrtaceae in Uruguay and to consider whether host jumps by the pathogen from introduced Eucalyptus to native Myrtaceae have occurred. Several native forests throughout the country were surveyed with special attention given to those located close to Eucalyptus plantations. Five species belonging to the Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae clades were found on native Myrtaceous trees and three of these had previously been reported on Eucalyptus in Uruguay. Those occurring both on Eucalyptus and native Myrtaceae included Pallidocercospora heimii, Pseudocercospora norchiensis, and Teratosphaeria aurantia. In addition, Mycosphaerella yunnanensis, a species known to occur on Eucalyptus but not previously recorded in Uruguay, was found on leaves of two native Myrtaceous hosts. Because most of these species occur on Eucalyptus in countries other than Uruguay, it appears that they were introduced in this country and have adapted to be able to infect native Myrtaceae. These apparent host jumps have the potential to result in serious disease problems and they should be carefully monitored.

  10. Investigating Leadership Characteristics and Attitudes toward Creativity According to Agency Context for Agriculture Extension Agents in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravina, Maria Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate attitudes toward creativity and leadership characteristics according to the agency context for extension agents in Uruguay. Extension agents come from the three different agency contexts in Uruguay of the University, government, and private institutions. Leadership characteristics are those that combine…

  11. Evaluation Criteria for Participatory Research: Insights from Coastal Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro, Marila

    2014-07-01

    Participatory research in which experts and non-experts are co-researchers in addressing local concerns (also known as participatory action research or community-based research) can be a valuable approach for dealing with the uncertainty of social-ecological systems because it fosters learning among stakeholders and co-production of knowledge. Despite its increased application in the context of natural resources and environmental management, evaluation of participatory research has received little attention. The objectives of this research were to define criteria to evaluate participatory research processes and outcomes, from the literature on participation evaluation, and to apply them in a case study in an artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay. Process evaluation criteria (e.g., problem to be addressed of key interest to local and additional stakeholders; involvement of interested stakeholder groups in every research stage; collective decision making through deliberation; and adaptability through iterative cycles) should be considered as conditions to promote empowering participatory research. Our research contributes to knowledge on evaluation of participatory research, while also providing evidence of the positive outcomes of this approach, such as co-production of knowledge, learning, strengthened social networks, and conflict resolution.

  12. Detection of Pesticides in Active and Depopulated Beehives in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Pareja, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Niell, Silvina; Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas; Besil, Natalia; Cesio, María Verónica; Heinzen, Horacio

    2011-01-01

    The influence of insecticides commonly used for agricultural purposes on beehive depopulation in Uruguay was investigated. Honeycombs, bees, honey and propolis from depopulated hives were analyzed for pesticide residues, whereas from active beehives only honey and propolis were evaluated. A total of 37 samples were analyzed, representing 14,800 beehives. In depopulated beehives only imidacloprid and fipronil were detected and in active beehives endosulfan, coumaphos, cypermethrin, ethion and chlorpyrifos were found. Coumaphos was present in the highest concentrations, around 1,000 μg/kg, in all the propolis samples from active beehives. Regarding depopulated beehives, the mean levels of imidacloprid found in honeycomb (377 μg/kg, Standard Deviation: 118) and propolis (60 μg/kg, Standard Deviation: 57) are higher than those described to produce bee disorientation and fipronil levels detected in bees (150 and 170 μg/kg) are toxic per se. The other insecticides found can affect the global fitness of the bees causing weakness and a decrease in their overall productivity. These preliminary results suggest that bees exposed to pesticides or its residues can lead them in different ways to the beehive. PMID:22073016

  13. Evaluation criteria for participatory research: insights from coastal Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro, Marila

    2014-07-01

    Participatory research in which experts and non-experts are co-researchers in addressing local concerns (also known as participatory action research or community-based research) can be a valuable approach for dealing with the uncertainty of social-ecological systems because it fosters learning among stakeholders and co-production of knowledge. Despite its increased application in the context of natural resources and environmental management, evaluation of participatory research has received little attention. The objectives of this research were to define criteria to evaluate participatory research processes and outcomes, from the literature on participation evaluation, and to apply them in a case study in an artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay. Process evaluation criteria (e.g., problem to be addressed of key interest to local and additional stakeholders; involvement of interested stakeholder groups in every research stage; collective decision making through deliberation; and adaptability through iterative cycles) should be considered as conditions to promote empowering participatory research. Our research contributes to knowledge on evaluation of participatory research, while also providing evidence of the positive outcomes of this approach, such as co-production of knowledge, learning, strengthened social networks, and conflict resolution. PMID:24748238

  14. A Chilling Example? Uruguay, Philip Morris International, and WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Russell, Andrew; Wainwright, Megan; Mamudu, Hadii

    2015-06-01

    The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is the first international public health treaty to address the global spread of tobacco products. Ethnographic research at the fourth meeting of the FCTC's Conference of the Parties in Uruguay highlights the role of the FCTC in recalibrating the relationship between international trade and investment agreements and those of global public health. Specifically, we chart the origins and development of the Punta del Este Declaration, tabled by Uruguay at the conference, to counter a legal request by Philip Morris International, the world's largest tobacco transnational, for arbitration by the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes over Uruguay's alleged violations of several international trade and investment treaties. We argue that medical anthropologists should give greater consideration to global health governance and diplomacy as a potential counterweight to the 'politics of resignation' associated with corporate capitalism.

  15. A Chilling Example? Uruguay, Philip Morris International, and WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Russell, Andrew; Wainwright, Megan; Mamudu, Hadii

    2015-06-01

    The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is the first international public health treaty to address the global spread of tobacco products. Ethnographic research at the fourth meeting of the FCTC's Conference of the Parties in Uruguay highlights the role of the FCTC in recalibrating the relationship between international trade and investment agreements and those of global public health. Specifically, we chart the origins and development of the Punta del Este Declaration, tabled by Uruguay at the conference, to counter a legal request by Philip Morris International, the world's largest tobacco transnational, for arbitration by the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes over Uruguay's alleged violations of several international trade and investment treaties. We argue that medical anthropologists should give greater consideration to global health governance and diplomacy as a potential counterweight to the 'politics of resignation' associated with corporate capitalism. PMID:25331730

  16. Magnetostratigraphy of the Neogene sediments of SW Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Orgeira, M. J.; Sanchez, G.; Bertoni-Machado, C.; Farina, R.

    2007-05-01

    Preliminary results on the magnetostratigraphy of three Neogene formations from SW Uruguay are presented: Camacho, Raigón and Libertad, and a relative age from the record of reversions in the Earth's magnetic field polarity is proposed. The sediments outcrop in the SW region of Uruguay,and have been received attention due to their fossil contents. The oldest is the late Miocene-Pliocene Camacho Fm, of Huayquerian to Montehermosan affinities. A Pliocene-early Pleistocene age has been assigned to Raigón Fm, of Chapadmalalan affinities. The overlying Libertad Fm has been considered early-middle Pleistocene in age, and to have Marplatan-Ensenadan affinities. The lithology of this facies of Camacho Fm is identified by the presence of fine to very fine sandstones and is composed of silty-sandy and bioturbed silty deposits. The marine facies of this formation is rich in fossil content, as several invertebrate and vertebrate taxa are found. The upper Raigón Fm is formed by sandstones of varied grain size and includes lenses and levels of claystones and conglomerates. It shows the sedimentological features of a deep, pebble-rich braided fluvial system. The 383 vertebrate specimens found in the sandy facies and studied in a taphonomically-oriented study belong to 19 genera and 13 higher taxa. The bones are disarticulated, with smooth fractures and little weathered or abraded, which is congruent with a short time of contact, as observed in strong and sudden flows. The elements belong to the three Voorhies groups and fractured specimens are found along with well preserved materials, implying different taphonomical histories and reworking. The consequent inferred time averaging urges caution at using these remains for defining precise ages. The Libertad Fm, top of the sequence, is conformed by greenish clays, clayey fine sandstones, medium sized sandstones and conglomeratic levels, corresponding to deposits of continental origin under a semiarid climate, which allowed the

  17. OSRP Source Repatriations-Case Studies: Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Ray Jr.; Abeyta, Cristy; Matzke, Jim; Wald-Hopkins, Mark; Streeper, Charles

    2012-07-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Offsite Source Recovery Project (OSRP) began recovering excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources (sources) in 1999. As of February 2012, the project had recovered over 30,000 sources totaling over 820,000 Ci. OSRP grew out of early efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to recover disused excess Plutonium- 239 (Pu-239) sources that were distributed in the 1960's and 1970's under the Atoms for Peace Program. Source recovery was initially considered a waste management activity. However, after the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the interagency community began to recognize that excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources pose a national security threat, particularly those that lack a disposition path. After OSRP's transfer to the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to be part of GTRI, its mission was expanded to include all disused sealed sources that might require national security consideration. Recognizing the transnational threat posed by porous borders and the ubiquitous nature of sources, GTRI/OSRP repatriates U.S. origin sources based on threat reduction prioritization criteria. For example, several recent challenging source repatriation missions have been conducted by GTRI/OSRP in South America. These include the repatriation of a significant amount of Cs-137 and other isotopes from Brazil; re-packaging of conditioned Ra-226 sources in Ecuador for future repatriation; and, multilateral cooperation in the consolidation and export of Canadian, US, and Indian Co-60/Cs-137 sources from Uruguay. In addition, cooperation with regulators and private source owners in other countries presents opportunities for GTRI/OSRP to exchange best practices for managing disused sources. These positive experiences often result in long-term cooperation and information sharing with key foreign counterparts. International source recovery operations are essential to the preservation of U.S. national security

  18. A perfect storm? Welfare, care, gender and generations in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Filgueira, Fernando; Gutiérrez, Magdalena; Papadópulos, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This article claims that welfare states modelled on a contributory basis and with a system of entitlements that assumes stable two-parent families, a traditional breadwinner model, full formal employment and a relatively young age structure are profoundly flawed in the context of present-day challenges. While this is true for affluent countries modelled on the Bismarckian type of welfare system, the costs of the status quo are even more devastating in middle-income economies with high levels of inequality. A gendered approach to welfare reform that introduces the political economy and the economy of care and unpaid work is becoming critical to confront what may very well become a perfect storm for the welfare of these nations and their peoples. Through an in-depth study of the Uruguayan case, the authors show how the decoupling of risk and protection has torn asunder the efficacy of welfare devices in the country. An ageing society that has seen a radical transformation of its family and labour market landscapes, Uruguay maintained during the 1980s and 1990s a welfare state that was essentially contributory, elderly and male-oriented, and centred on cash entitlements. This contributed to the infantilization of poverty, increased the vulnerability of women and exacerbated fiscal stress for the system as a whole. Furthermore, because of high levels of income and asset inequality, the redistribution of risk between upper- and lower-income groups presented a deeply regressive pattern. The political economy of care and welfare has begun to change in the last decade or so, bringing about mild reforms in the right direction; but these might prove to be too little and too late. PMID:22165158

  19. Genetic relationships among populations of Aedes aegypti from Uruguay and northeastern Argentina inferred from ISSR-PCR data.

    PubMed

    Soliani, C; Rondan-Dueñas, J; Chiappero, M B; Martínez, M; Da Rosa, E García; Gardenal, C N

    2010-09-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), the main vector of yellow fever and dengue viruses, was eradicated from Argentina between 1955 and 1963, but reinvaded the country in 1986. In Uruguay, the species was reintroduced in 1997. In this study we used highly polymorphic inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers to analyse the genetic structure of Ae. aegypti populations from Uruguay and northeastern Argentina to identify possible colonization patterns of the vector. Overall genetic differentiation among populations was high (F(ST) = 0.106) and showed no correlation with geographic distance, which is consistent with the short time since the reintroduction of the species in the area. Differentiation between pairs of Argentine populations (F(ST) 0.072 to 0.221) was on average higher than between Uruguayan populations (F(ST)-0.044 to 0.116). Bayesian estimation of population structure defined four genetic clusters and most populations were admixtures of two of them: Mercedes and Treinta y Tres (Uruguay) were mixtures of clusters 1 and 3; Salto (Uruguay) and Paraná (Argentina) of clusters 1 and 4; Fray Bentos (Uruguay) of clusters 2 and 3, and Gualeguaychú (Argentina) of clusters 2 and 3. Posadas and Buenos Aires in Argentina were fairly genetically homogeneous. Our results suggest that Ae. aegypti recolonized Uruguay from bordering cities in Argentina via bridges over the Uruguay River and also from Brazil.

  20. Diagnostic Imaging Integrated Network: A Teleradiology Pilot in Public Hospitals in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Lilian; Ruibal Faral, Karime

    2015-01-01

    A network of health care centers allows radiologists to share diagnostic images in different areas of Uruguay. This solution is based on an informatics multicenter application for center management, enabling the creation, storage and distribution of images and reports from different imaging modalities according to outsourcing agreements. The solution improves health care territorial equity and reduces asymmetry in resources distribution. PMID:26262225

  1. Continuing Professional Development of Physicians in Uruguay: Lessons from a Countrywide Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Alvaro; Alvarino, Fernando; Niski, Rosa; Fosman, Elena; Torres, Jorge; Rios, Gilberto; Petruccelli, Dante

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the advancement of continuing professional development (CPD) for physicians in Uruguay and explains the motivations for a CPD system, the role of the faculty of medicine and the other stakeholders, the strategic goals, and current results, including strengths and weaknesses. The work described here had three strategic…

  2. Quality of Life Satisfaction among Workers and Non-Workers in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandelman, Nestor; Piani, Giorgina

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we use data from a population survey on quality of life dimensions conducted in Uruguay to analyze the self reported well-being among workers and non workers. Along with the literature, we find that the probability of being happy is greater for workers than non-workers. Specifically, we find evidence that workers tend to be more…

  3. Assessment of potential shale gas and shale oil resources of the Norte Basin, Uruguay, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy; Klett, Timothy R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Weaver, Jean N.; Brownfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Using a performance-based geological assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 13.4 trillion cubic feet of potential technically recoverable shale gas and 0.5 billion barrels of technically recoverable shale oil resources in the Norte Basin of Uruguay.

  4. Student Assessment as a Political Construction--The Case of Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benveniste, Luis

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the interplay between assessment policies in Uruguay and state-society relations. Shows how national student evaluation has come to symbolize an agreed-on mechanism of social accountability by which the central government upholds its responsibility for educational provision as it intervenes on behalf of impoverished communities.…

  5. Diagnostic Imaging Integrated Network: A Teleradiology Pilot in Public Hospitals in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Lilian; Ruibal Faral, Karime

    2015-01-01

    A network of health care centers allows radiologists to share diagnostic images in different areas of Uruguay. This solution is based on an informatics multicenter application for center management, enabling the creation, storage and distribution of images and reports from different imaging modalities according to outsourcing agreements. The solution improves health care territorial equity and reduces asymmetry in resources distribution.

  6. The "Tuteo" of Rocha, Uruguay: A Study of Pride and Language Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyers, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the tuteo in Rocha, Uruguay, a unique situation in a country that is mostly "voseante." The study draws on speakers' attitudes toward "tú" and "vos" in Rocha, taken from informal interviews and from a linguistic attitude survey. The survey was conducted with 58 informants, most of whom were…

  7. Lessons from Participation in a Web-Based Substance Use Preventive Program in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsa, Ana I.; Gandelman, Néstor; Lamé, Diego

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed individual and program characteristics associated with participation in an Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)-based substance use preventive intervention in Uruguay, South America. The intervention was directed at ninth- and tenth-grade students in 10 private schools in Montevideo. Participation in the program was…

  8. Practices to Reduce Milk Carbon Footprint on Grazing Dairy Farms in Southern Uruguay: Case Studies.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon footprint (CF) is an increasingly relevant indicator to estimate the impact of a product on climate change. This study followed international guidelines to quantify the CF of milk produced on 24 dairy farms in Uruguay. Cows were grazed all year and supplemented with concentrate feeds. These d...

  9. The "Failure" of Private Universities in Uruguay: A Tale of Three Institutions. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roane, Warren

    In Latin America private universities are a recent phenomenon; Uruguay began its experiment with privatization only 15 years ago. This study explores several factors which have impeded formation of private universities by analyzing the "failures" of three institutions. The theoretical framework of the study is based on work by D.C. Levy (1986),…

  10. Screening of endocrine disruption activity in sediments from the Uruguay River.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Rivera, Noelia; Eguren, Gabriela; Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas; Munkittrick, Kelly R

    2014-08-01

    Sediment constitutes an important sink of endocrine disruptor compounds; however, the potential of sediments to act as a source of endocrine disruptors should be more extensively investigated. The main objective of this study was to determine whether exposure of immature common carp to Uruguay River sediments undergo physiological and endocrine alterations. The lower Uruguay River watershed supports intensive agricultural and forest production, receives municipal sewage discharge and industrial effluent, and a new large pulp mill was constructed in 2006. A 30-day semi-static assay was performed using sediments from four sites along the Uruguay River and compared with an unexposed group in dechlorinated water as a negative control. We focused on two upstream and two downstream sites of a new elemental chlorine free pulp mill. The results showed that plasma vitellogenin levels increased in fish along the river and significant differences were found between the exposed and unexposed groups. Condition factor and gonadosomatic index were not different; however, a significant difference in hepatosomatic index was observed in fish exposed to sediment from an industrial site. A significant reduction in primary spermatocyte accumulation was observed in the exposed group compared with that in the control group, and some individuals exposed to sediments from industrial sites presented with testis-ova. Our results suggest that Uruguay River sediments act as an important source of estrogenic compounds that could be responsible for the alterations observed. Future studies are needed to identify the causal agents and determine exposure routes.

  11. 9 CFR 94.22 - Restrictions on importation of beef and ovine meat from Uruguay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, NEWCASTLE DISEASE, HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA... or ovine meat from animals that have been born, raised, and slaughtered in Uruguay. (b) Foot-and... bovines or sheep that originate from premises where foot-and-mouth disease has not been present during...

  12. Miscellaneous: Uruguay energy supply options study assessing the market for natural gas - executive summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Conzelmann, G.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-03-04

    Uruguay is in the midst of making critical decisions affecting the design of its future energy supply system. Momentum for change is expected to come from several directions, including recent and foreseeable upgrades and modifications to energy conversion facilities, the importation of natural gas from Argentina, the possibility for a stronger interconnection of regional electricity systems, the country's membership in MERCOSUR, and the potential for energy sector reforms by the Government of Uruguay. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of several fuel diversification strategies on Uruguay's energy supply system. The analysis pays special attention to fuel substitution trends due to potential imports of natural gas via a gas pipeline from Argentina and increasing electricity ties with neighboring countries. The Government of Uruguay has contracted with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to study several energy development scenarios with the support of several Uruguayan institutions. Specifically, ANL was asked to conduct a detailed energy supply and demand analysis, develop energy demand projections based on an analysis of past energy demand patterns with support from local institutions, evaluate the effects of potential natural gas imports and electricity exchanges, and determine the market penetration of natural gas under various scenarios.

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-59 - Fresh citrus fruit from Uruguay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... concern and has been produced in accordance with the requirements of the systems approach in 7 CFR 319.56... Fresh citrus fruit from Uruguay. Sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), lemons (C. limon (L.) Burm... in accordance with labeled instructions, and waxed. (g) Treatment. (1) Citrus fruit other than...

  14. Cross-fertilization between genetically modified and non-genetically modified maize crops in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Galeano, Pablo; Debat, Claudio Martínez; Ruibal, Fabiana; Fraguas, Laura Franco; Galván, Guillermo A

    2010-01-01

    The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) Bt maize (Zea mays L.) events MON810 and Bt11 is permitted in Uruguay. Local regulations specify that 10% of the crop should be a non-GM cultivar as refuge area for biodiversity, and the distance from other non-GM maize crops should be more than 250 m in order to avoid cross-pollination. However, the degree of cross-fertilization between maize crops in Uruguay is unknown. The level of adventitious presence of GM material in non-GM crops is a relevant issue for organic farming, in situ conservation of genetic resources and seed production. In the research reported here, the occurrence and frequency of cross-fertilization between commercial GM and non-GM maize crops in Uruguay was assessed. The methodology comprised field sampling and detection using DAS-ELISA and PCR. Five field-pair cases where GM maize crops were grown near non-GM maize crops were identified. These cases had the potential to cross-fertilize considering the distance between crops and the similarity of the sowing dates. Adventitious presence of GM material in the offspring of non-GM crops was found in three of the five cases. Adventitious presence of event MON810 or Bt11 in non-GM maize, which were distinguished using specific primers, matched the events in the putative sources of transgenic pollen. Percentages of transgenic seedlings in the offspring of the non-GM crops were estimated as 0.56%, 0.83% and 0.13% for three sampling sites with distances of respectively 40, 100 and 330 m from the GM crops. This is a first indication that adventitious presence of transgenes in non-GM maize crops will occur in Uruguay if isolation by distance and/or time is not provided. These findings contribute to the evaluation of the applicability of the "regulated coexistence policy" in Uruguay.

  15. A confirmed case of Rickettsia parkeri infection in a traveler from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Portillo, Aránzazu; García-García, Concepción; Sanz, M Mercedes; Santibáñez, Sonia; Venzal, José M; Oteo, José A

    2013-12-01

    The first confirmed case of Rickettsia parkeri infection in Uruguay is reported. To date, in South America, molecularly confirmed cases of human infection have been found in Argentina and probably, Brazil. Our patient returned to Spain after a 7-day trip to Colonia Suiza (Southwestern Uruguay). He presented fever (39°C), chills, and two eschars (tache noire-like) surrounded by an indurated, erythematous halo on the inner side of the left ankle besides a maculopapular rash on the legs. After treatment with doxycycline for 7 days, he fully recovered. R. parkeri infection was diagnosed by molecular-based detection of the microorganism in a swab specimen of the eschar. Diagnosis was supported by seroconversion between acute- and convalescent-phase sera specimens.

  16. Seroprevalence of St. Louis encephalitis virus and West Nile virus (Flavivirus, Flaviviridae) in horses, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Burgueño, Analía; Spinsanti, Lorena; Díaz, Luis Adrián; Rivarola, María Elisa; Arbiza, Juan; Contigiani, Marta; Delfraro, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) belong to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex (Flavivirus genus, Flaviviridae family). They show antigenic close relationships and share many similarities in their ecology. Both are responsible for serious human diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of neutralizing antibodies to these viruses in horses from Uruguay. To do this, 425 horse sera were collected in 2007 and analyzed by plaque reduction neutralization tests. As a result, 205 sera (48.2%) were found positive for SLEV, with titers ranging between 10 and 80. Two sera remained inconclusive, since they showed low titers to WNV and SLEV (10 and 20), not allowing us to demonstrate activity of WNV in our territory. This is the first report of circulation of SLEV in horses in Uruguay.

  17. Mitochondrial DNA COI characterization of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Paraguay and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Arnemann, J A; James, W J; Walsh, T K; Guedes, J V C; Smagghe, G; Castiglioni, E; Tay, W T

    2016-04-07

    Since its detection in Brazil in 2013, the Old World cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera has been reported in Argentina, Paraguay, and Bolivia. Here we present evidence extending the South American range of H. armigera to Uruguay, using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase I region. Molecular characterization of this gene region from individuals from Paraguay also supports previous morphological identification of H. armigera in Paraguay. Shared mtDNA haplotypes in H. armigera from Brazil, Uruguay, and Paraguay were identified. Additional surveying of populations in this region will be imperative to better monitor and understand factors that are underpinning its presence and successful adaptation in these South American regions. We discuss our findings with respect to the development of resistance pest management strategies of this invasive insect pest in a predominantly monoculture soybean crop landscape in the Southern Cone region.

  18. Dietary patterns and risk of ductal carcinoma of the breast: a factor analysis in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Alvaro L; De Stefani, Eduardo; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Boffetta, Paolo; Aune, Dagfinn; Silva, Cecilia; Landó, Gabriel; Luaces, María E; Acosta, Gisele; Mendilaharsu, María

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) shows very high incidence rates in Uruguayan women. The present factor analysis of ductal carcinoma of the breast, the most frequent histological type of this malignancy both in Uruguay and in the World, was conducted at a prepaid hospital of Montevideo, Uruguay. We identified 111 cases with ductal BC and 222 controls with normal mammograms. A factor analysis was conducted using 39 food groups, allowing retention of six factors analyzed through logistic regression in order to obtain odds ratios (OR) associated with ductal BC. The low fat and non-alcoholic beverage patterns were inversely associated (OR=0.30 and OR=0.45, respectively) with risk. Conversely, the fatty cheese pattern was positively associated (OR=4.17) as well as the fried white meat (OR=2.28) and Western patterns (OR 2.13). Ductal BC shared similar dietary risk patterns as those identified by studies not discriminating between histologic type of breast cancer. PMID:21198261

  19. Phylodynamics of HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Forms 12_BF and 38_BF in Argentina and Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although HIV-1 CRF12_BF and CRF38_BF are two epidemiologically important recombinant lineages circulating in Argentina and Uruguay, little is known about their population dynamics. Methods A total of 120 "CRF12_BF-like" and 20 "CRF38_BF-like" pol recombinant sequences collected in Argentina and Uruguay from 1997 to 2009 were subjected to phylogenetic and Bayesian coalescent-based analyses to estimate evolutionary and demographic parameters. Results Phylogenetic analyses revealed that CRF12_BF viruses from Argentina and Uruguay constitute a single epidemic with multiple genetic exchanges among countries; whereas circulation of the CRF38_BF seems to be confined to Uruguay. The mean estimated substitution rate of CRF12_BF at pol gene (2.5 × 10-3 substitutions/site/year) was similar to that previously described for subtype B. According to our estimates, CRF12_BF and CRF38_BF originated at 1983 (1978-1988) and 1986 (1981-1990), respectively. After their emergence, the CRF12_BF and CRF38_BF epidemics seem to have experienced a period of rapid expansion with initial growth rates of around 1.2 year-1 and 0.9 year-1, respectively. Later, the rate of spread of these CRFs_BF seems to have slowed down since the mid-1990s. Conclusions Our results suggest that CRF12_BF and CRF38_BF viruses were generated during the 1980s, shortly after the estimated introduction of subtype F1 in South America (~1975-1980). After an initial phase of fast exponential expansion, the rate of spread of both CRFs_BF epidemics seems to have slowed down, thereby following a demographic pattern that resembles those previously reported for the HIV-1 epidemics in Brazil, USA, and Western Europe. PMID:20307282

  20. Uruguay Roselli 1938 and Rosellichnus, n. ichnogenus: Two ichnogenera for clusters of fossil bee cells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Genise, J.F.; Bown, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    The systematic of the fossil bee nest ichnogenus Uruguay from the Uruguayan Cretaceous or lower Tertiary is reviewed and two new ichnospecies of a new ichnogenus, Rosellichnus, are proposed for fossil bee nests from the Miocene of the United Arab Emirates and Patagonian Argentina. Uruguay contains U. auroranormae (the ichnotype) and U. rivasi, which differs from the type ichnospecies in having clustered cells arranged in three rows, with one central and two marginal rows of subparallel cells. No bee nest architecture known to us unequivocally fits with any ichnospecies described herein. Uruguay was constructed in the subsoil and may be of halictid origin; however, its large cell size, thick cell walls, and the presence of a vestibular cell do not fit the architecture of nests of extant halictids. Rosellichnus arabicus lacks the complete cavity surrounding the cell cluster that is typical in nests of Old World halictids, but it may, nonetheless, still be of halictid origin. R. patagonicus has an architecture more similar to nests of anthophorine bees than to those of Neotropical Halictidae. Therefore, the ichnogenus Rosellichnus may include both halictid and anthophorine constructions. Although the smooth inner cell walls, spiral cell caps, and clustering of cells indicate that both Uruguay and Rosellichnus are trace fossils of bee origin, it is likely that both represent nest architectures that are no longer employed by extant bees, or those that are as yet unknown. The paleoenvironments of both the Argentine and Emirates species of Rosellichnus indicate that the trace-makers of this ichnogenus constructed their nests in open ground sandy soils. ?? 1996 OPA (Overseas Publishers Association) Amsterdam B.V. Published in The Netherlands by Harwood Academic Publishers GmbH.

  1. Latin American special project: kidney health cooperation project between Uruguay and Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Sola, Laura; Plata-Cornejo, Raúl; Fernández-Cean, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Uruguay and Bolivia are two countries that show heterogenicity of the Latin American region, including the national income, the expenditure on health and the services for renal care. In Bolivia, there is manpower shortage for renal care with only 5 nephrologists per million people (pmp) and the prevalence of patients on dialysis is only 200 pmp. This is much lower than the mean prevalence rate of renal replacement therapy for Latin America as a whole. Uruguay on the other hand has more dedicated renal resources with 50 nephrologists pmp, and renal replacement therapy is provided to ~ 1,000 dialysis patients pmp. In November 2012, a collaborative project financed by the Uruguayan International Cooperation Agency was signed by both the Uruguay and Bolivia Ministries of Health, and the goal was to develop a comprehensive program for the prevention and management of all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Bolivia. The specific objectives were to: a) promote renal healthcare in the primary healthcare setting, b) identify kidney disease in populations at risk, and c) optimize patient care at all stages of CKD, including dialysis and transplantation supported with a national ESRD registry in Bolivia. As a first step, delegates from the Bolivian Health Ministry, visited Uruguay in April 2014, primarily to strengthen the development of tools required for developing and maintaining a national registry. In addition, during this visit, a meeting with the president of the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH) culminated in designing a training program for peritoneal dialysis. This highly cooperative relationship is advancing the prevention and care of CKD in Bolivia and may serve as a model for international approaches to advance system level CKD care in countries with limited healthcare resources.

  2. Phylodynamics analysis of canine parvovirus in Uruguay: evidence of two successive invasions by different variants.

    PubMed

    Maya, Leticia; Calleros, Lucía; Francia, Lourdes; Hernández, Martín; Iraola, Gregorio; Panzera, Yanina; Sosa, Katia; Pérez, Ruben

    2013-06-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) comprises three antigenic variants (2a, 2b, and 2c) with different frequencies and genetic variability among countries. Current CPV populations are considered to be spatially structured with relatively little movement of viruses between geographical areas. Here we describe the evolution and population dynamics of CPV in Uruguay from 2006-2011 using full-length capsid viral protein 2 (VP2) sequences. CPV-2c was the predominant variant in Uruguay for 4 years (2006-2009). The estimated time to the most recent common ancestor suggested that the CPV-2c variant appeared in Uruguay around 2004-2005. Comparative phylogenetic analysis revealed that South American CPV-2c strains did not emerge de novo but may have a European origin. In 2010, a remarkable epidemiological change occurred as a consequence of the emergence of a novel CPV-2a strain in the previously homogeneous CPV-2c population. The frequency of the novel CPV-2a strain increased to 85 % in 2011, representing the first example of a CPV-2a strain replacing a predominant CPV-2c strain in a dog population. The CPV-2a strains detected in 2010-2011 were not phylogenetically related to any other strain collected on the American continent but were identical to Asiatic strains, suggesting that its emergence was a consequence of a migration event. Taken together, our findings suggest that in the last decade, Uruguay has experienced two successive invasions by CPV-2c and CPV-2a variants of European and Asiatic origins, respectively. These results support the hypothesis that CPV invasion events are not rare in certain geographic regions and indicate that some current strains may exhibit an unexpectedly high invasion and replacement capability.

  3. Infection by Paramphistomidae trematodes in cattle from two agricultural regions in NW Uruguay and NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Sanchís, J; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Macchi, M I; Piñeiro, P; Suárez, J L; Cazapal-Monteiro, C; Maldini, G; Venzal, J M; Paz-Silva, A; Arias, M S

    2013-01-16

    The analysis of infection by Paramphistomidae trematodes was conducted in two agricultural regions with different knowledge on this parasitosis. Faecal and blood samples were collected from 374 cattle in Salto (NW Uruguay) where there is a lack of information about paramphistomosis. A total of 429 cattle from Galicia (NW Spain), an area with previous records of infection by gastric flukes, were sampled. Diagnostics of trematodosis was developed by using a copromicroscopic probe and an ELISA with excretory/secretory antigens collected from adult Calicophoron daubneyi (Paramphistomidae) specimens. Results were evaluated according intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In the Uruguay, the percentage of cattle passing Paramphistomidae-eggs by faeces was 7% (95% Confidence Interval 5, 10). A significantly higher prevalence of paramphistomosis in the Hereford × Angus cattle (OR=3.5) was recorded, as observed for the oldest ruminants (>3.5 years). An overall seroprevalence of 29% (25, 34) was obtained by ELISA, with the highest values in the Friesians (OR=3), the youngest bovines (<2.5 years) and dairy cattle (Friesians). Twenty-six percent (22, 30) of the cattle from Spain passed eggs by faeces, and cattle aged 2.5-7 years reached significant highest prevalences. By means of the ELISA, a percentage of 55 cattle (50, 59) had antibodies against the gastric fluke, and the highest seroprevalence was observed among the bovines under 6 years. It is concluded that paramphistomosis is on the increase in cattle from NW Spain, partly due to the absence of an effective treatment against the trematode. There is a need for reducing the risk of infection by Paramhistomidae spp. in cattle from Uruguay, especially by improving their management to avoid exposure to the gastric trematode. Further studies are in progress for identifying the species of Paramphistomidae affecting ruminants in Uruguay.

  4. Tobacco cessation intervention for pregnant women in Argentina and Uruguay: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Argentina and Uruguay are among the countries with the highest proportion of pregnant women who smoke. The implementation of an effective smoking cessation intervention would have a significant impact on the health of mothers and infants. The “5 A’s” (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange) is a strategy consisting of a brief cessation counseling session of 5–15 minutes delivered by a trained provider. The “5 A’s” is considered the standard of care worldwide; however, it is under used in Argentina and Uruguay. Methods We will conduct a two-arm, parallel cluster randomized controlled trial of an implementation intervention in 20 prenatal care settings in Argentina and Uruguay. Prenatal care settings will be randomly allocated to either an intervention or a control group after a baseline data collection period. Midwives’ facilitators in the 10 intervention prenatal clinics (clusters) will be identified and trained to deliver the “5 A’s” to pregnant women and will then disseminate and implement the program. The 10 clusters in the control group will continue with their standard in-service activities. The intervention will be tailored by formative research to be readily applicable to local prenatal care services at maternity hospitals and acceptable to local pregnant women and health providers. Our primary hypothesis is that the intervention is feasible in prenatal clinics in Argentina and Uruguay and will increase the frequency of women receiving tobacco use cessation counseling during pregnancy in the intervention clinics compared to the control clinics. Our secondary hypotheses are that the intervention will decrease the frequency of women who smoke by the end of pregnancy, and that the intervention will increase the attitudes and readiness of midwives towards providing counseling to women in the intervention clinics compared to the control clinics. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01852617 PMID:23971512

  5. Differences by sex in tobacco use and awareness of tobacco marketing -Bangladesh, Thailand, and Uruguay, 2009.

    PubMed

    2010-05-28

    The majority of the world's 1.3 billion tobacco users are men, but female use is increasing. To examine differences in tobacco use and awareness of tobacco marketing by sex, CDC and health officials in Bangladesh, Thailand, and Uruguay (among the first countries to report results) analyzed 2009 data from a newly instituted survey, the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated wide variation among the three countries in tobacco use, product types used, and marketing awareness among males and females. In Bangladesh and Thailand, use of smoked tobacco products was far greater among males (44.7% and 45.6%, respectively) than females (1.5% and 3.1%, respectively). In Uruguay, the difference was smaller (30.7% versus 19.8%). Use of smokeless tobacco products in Bangladesh was approximately the same among males (26.4%) and females (27.9%), but females were significantly more likely to use smokeless tobacco in Thailand (6.3% versus 1.3%), and use in Uruguay by either sex was nearly nonexistent. Males in Bangladesh were twice as likely as females to notice cigarette advertising (68.0% versus 29.3%), but the difference between males and females was smaller in Thailand (17.4% versus 14.5%) and Uruguay (49.0% versus 40.0%). In all three countries, awareness of tobacco marketing was more prevalent among females aged 15--24 years than older women. Comprehensive bans on advertising, sponsorship, and promotion of tobacco products, recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), can reduce per capita cigarette consumption if enforced.

  6. Two new species of Chaco Tullgren from the Atlantic coast of Uruguay (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Nemesiidae).

    PubMed

    de Oca, Laura Montes; Pérez-Miles, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    We describe two new species of the nemesiid spider genus Chaco from Rocha Province, Uruguay. These new species are diagnosed based on genital morphology, male tibial apophysis spination, and burrow entrance. We test cospecificity of one species, Chaco costai,via laboratory mating experiments. The new species are diagnosed and illustrated and habitat characteristics, and capture behavior are described. We conduct a cladistic analysis based on a previously published morphological character matrix that now includes the newly described species. PMID:24146579

  7. Two new species of Chaco Tullgren from the Atlantic coast of Uruguay (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Nemesiidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Oca, Laura Montes; Pérez-Miles, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We describe two new species of the nemesiid spider genus Chaco from Rocha Province, Uruguay. These new species are diagnosed based on genital morphology, male tibial apophysis spination, and burrow entrance. We test cospecificity of one species, Chaco costai,via laboratory mating experiments. The new species are diagnosed and illustrated and habitat characteristics, and capture behavior are described. We conduct a cladistic analysis based on a previously published morphological character matrix that now includes the newly described species. PMID:24146579

  8. Two new species of Chaco Tullgren from the Atlantic coast of Uruguay (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Nemesiidae).

    PubMed

    de Oca, Laura Montes; Pérez-Miles, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    We describe two new species of the nemesiid spider genus Chaco from Rocha Province, Uruguay. These new species are diagnosed based on genital morphology, male tibial apophysis spination, and burrow entrance. We test cospecificity of one species, Chaco costai,via laboratory mating experiments. The new species are diagnosed and illustrated and habitat characteristics, and capture behavior are described. We conduct a cladistic analysis based on a previously published morphological character matrix that now includes the newly described species.

  9. Long-term flow forecasts based on climate and hydrologic modeling: Uruguay River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucci, Carlos Eduardo Morelli; Clarke, Robin Thomas; Collischonn, Walter; da Silva Dias, Pedro Leite; de Oliveira, Gilvan Sampaio

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes a procedure for predicting seasonal flow in the Rio Uruguay drainage basin (area 75,000 km2, lying in Brazilian territory), using sequences of future daily rainfall given by the global climate model (GCM) of the Brazilian agency for climate prediction (Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Clima, or CPTEC). Sequences of future daily rainfall given by this model were used as input to a rainfall-runoff model appropriate for large drainage basins. Forecasts of flow in the Rio Uruguay were made for the period 1995-2001 of the full record, which began in 1940. Analysis showed that GCM forecasts underestimated rainfall over almost all the basin, particularly in winter, although interannual variability in regional rainfall was reproduced relatively well. A statistical procedure was used to correct for the underestimation of rainfall. When the corrected rainfall sequences were transformed to flow by the hydrologic model, forecasts of flow in the Rio Uruguay basin were better than forecasts based on historic mean or median flows by 37% for monthly flows and by 54% for 3-monthly flows.

  10. Questioning the "melting pot": analysis of Alu inserts in three population samples from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Pedro C; Mut, Patricia; Ackermann, Elizabeth; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Sans, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The way that immigrants integrate into recipient societies has been discussed for decades, mainly from the perspective of the social sciences. Uruguay, as other American countries, received diffferent waves of European immigrants, although the details of the process of assimilation, when it did occur, are unclear. In this study we used genetic markers to understand the process experienced by the Basques, one of the major migration waves that populated Uruguay, and their relation to other immigrants, as well as to Native American and African descendants. For this purpose, we analyzed the allele frequencies of 10 ALU loci (A25, ACE, APOA1, B65, D1, F13B, PV92, TPA25, HS2.43, and HS4.65) in three samples from Uruguay (two of Basque descendants, one of non-Basque descendants) from two locations: Montevideo and Trinidad. No departure from Hardy-Weinberg expectations was observed, with the exceptions of the APOA1 and D1 loci in the non-Basque descendants' samples. Our data show that the major genetic contribution in the three samples comes from Europe (78-88%), with minor African (10-15%) and Native American (0-10%) contributions. Genetic distances reveal that Basque descendants from Trinidad cluster with Europeans, whereas both Montevideo samples cluster together and are separate from other populations, showing two diffferent types of integration, related to the general characteristics of each regional population.

  11. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Aichivirus 1 in Wastewater Samples from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Burutarán, L; Lizasoain, A; García, M; Tort, L F L; Colina, R; Victoria, M

    2016-03-01

    Aichivirus 1 (AiV-1) is an enteric virus with 30 nm in diameter, belonging to the genus Kobuvirus in the Picornaviridae family being a causative agent of gastroenteritis in humans. The transmission is via the fecal-oral route, through person to person contact, recreation in contaminated waters, or through the consumption of contaminated food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and the molecular characterization of AiV-1 in wastewater from Uruguay. Biweekly collections from March 2011 to February 2012 were performed in the cities of Bella Unión, Salto, Paysandú, and Fray Bentos, northwestern region of Uruguay. A total of 96 samples were collected; viruses were concentrated by ultracentrifugation, and AiV-1 was detected by using a nested PCR with primers directed to a conserved region (3CD junction) of the viral genome. A high frequency of AiV-1 (n = 54) was observed at all the cities analyzed mainly in the colder months of the year. AiV-1 was not evidenced as an appropriate viral fecal indicator since when compared with other previously detected enteric viruses, no correlation was observed. All 13 characterized AiV-1 belonged to the genotype B after the phylogenetic analysis performed with the sequences obtained from the first round PCR amplicon. This study demonstrates that AiV-1 is a frequently detected enteric viruses present in wastewater and excreted by infected persons in the northwestern region of Uruguay.

  12. Paleomagnetic and Tectonic studies in Uruguay: a brief synthesis of the last decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Bettucci, L.

    2013-05-01

    The paleomagnetic studies in Uruguay have been applied as a complementary tool to geological studies. Paleomagnetic data can be very useful for geodynamic reconstructions, fundamentally for determine the latitudinal tectonic transport, rotations of crustal blocks. This technique has been applied to Paleoproterozoic, Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic units. The geology of the Uruguayan territory is divided into four tectonic units of Uruguay that include a) the Piedra Alta tectonostratigraphic terrane (PATT) and b) Nico Pérez tectonostratigraphic terrane (NPTT), separated by the Sarandí del Yí high-strain zone. Both terranes are well exposed in the Río de La Plata craton (RPC) and have paleoproterozoic ages, the last was reworked in Neoproterozoic times (metacraton). The most thoroughly investigated Neoproterozoic sections are located in the eastern and southeastern regions of Uruguay. The c) Dom Feliciano Belt shows a tectonic evolution from back-arc to foreland basin characterized by fold-and-thrust, thick-skinned belts developed during the Brasiliano/Pan-African orogenic cycle. And finally d) The high metamorphic grade Punta del Este terrane where its most notable feature is their African affinity. There is a significant shortage of geochemical and geochronological data for the existing geological complexity.

  13. A new genus and species of opisthogonimid (Digenea) of Liophis anomalus (Serpentes: Colubridae) from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Volonterio, Odile; Baletta, Silvana; Meneghel, Melitta

    2006-10-01

    During a study on the helminth fauna of Liophis anomalus specimens deposited in the Reptile Collection of the Secci6n Zoología Vertebrados, Facultad de Ciencias, Uruguay, a new genus of Opisthogoniminae was found. Paracotyletrema n. gen. is described from the buccal cavity and esophagus of specimens from Departamento de Flores, Uruguay. This new genus differs from the other 2 Opisthogoniminae, Opisthogonimus and Westella, by having much smaller body size; maximum width at level of posterior end of oral sucker; oral sucker length more than one-fourth of body length; oral sucker and acetabulum separated by a distance of about the diameter of pharynx; cirrus pouch length more than half of body length; and testes in completely coincident zones. The type and only species, Paracotyletrema poncedeleoni n. gen., n. sp., is defined by the following diagnostic characters: mean oral sucker length one-third to one-half of body length; cirrus pouch of about body length, contorted, mainly acetabular; large, round testes in nearly adjacent fields, and an ovary nearly adjacent to right testis. Besides the type locality, Paracotyletrema poncedeleoni has been found in L. anomalus specimens from the Departamentos of Artigas and Treinta y Tres; therefore, it has a widespread distribution in Uruguay.

  14. Report of the procedure of voluntary interruption of pregnancy at a university hospital in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Bentancor, Ana; Hernández, Ana Laura; Godoy, Yamile; Dapueto, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the constitution and operation of a voluntary interruption of pregnancy team of a university hospital, from the outlook of the mental health team. METHODS In this case study, the following aspects were analyzed: 1) historical background; 2) implementation of Law 18,897 of October 22, 2012; and 3) functioning of the program at the Hospital de Clínicas of the Facultad de Medicina (Universidad de la República, Uruguay), taking into account three dimensions: structure, process, and results. RESULTS Between December 2012 and November 2013, a total of 6,676 voluntary interruptions of pregnancy were reported in Uruguay; out of these, 80 were conducted at the Hospital de Clínicas. The patients’ demographic data agreed with those reported at the national level: Of the total patients, 81.0% were aged over 19 years; 6.2% decided to continue with the pregnancy; and only 70.0% attended the subsequent control and received advice on contraception. CONCLUSIONS In its implementation year in Uruguay, we can assess the experience as positive from the point of view of women’s health. Our experience as a mental health team at the Hospital de Clínicas, inserted into the multidisciplinary voluntary interruption of pregnancy team, is in the process of assessment and reformulation of practices. PMID:27384969

  15. Assessing the impact of cigarette package health warning labels: a cross-country comparison in Brazil, Uruguay, and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F; Villalobos, Victor; Szklo, André; Fong, Geoffrey T; Pérez, Cristina; Sebrié, Ernesto; Sansone, Natalie; Figueiredo, Valeska; Boado, Marcelo; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Bianco, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of different health warning labels (HWL). Material and Methods Data from the International Tobacco Control Survey (ITC Survey) were analyzed from adult smokers in Brazil, Uruguay and Mexico, each of which used a different HWL strategy (pictures of human suffering and diseased organs; abstract pictorial representations of risk; and text-only messages, respectively). Main outcomes were HWL salience and cognitive impact. Results HWLs in Uruguay (which was the only country with a HWL on the front of the package) had higher salience than either Brazilian or Mexican packs. People at higher levels of educational attainment in Mexico were more likely to read the text-only HWLs whereas education was unassociated with salience in Brazil or Uruguay. Brazilian HWLs had greater cognitive impacts than HWLs in either Uruguay or Mexico. HWLs in Uruguay generated lower cognitive impacts than the text-only HWLs in Mexico. In Brazil, cognitive impacts were strongest among smokers with low educational attainment. Conclusions This study suggests that HWLs have the most impact when they are prominent (i.e., front and back of the package) and include emotionally engaging imagery that illustrates negative bodily impacts or human suffering due to smoking. PMID:21243191

  16. Provenance and paleogeography of the Devonian Durazno Group, southern Parana Basin in Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uriz, N. J.; Cingolani, C. A.; Basei, M. A. S.; Blanco, G.; Abre, P.; Portillo, N. S.; Siccardi, A.

    2016-03-01

    A succession of Devonian cover rocks occurs in outcrop and in the subsurface of central-northern Uruguay where they were deposited in an intracratonic basin. This Durazno Group comprises three distinct stratigraphic units, namely the Cerrezuelo, Cordobés and La Paloma formations. The Durazno Group does not exceed 300 m of average thickness and preserves a transgressive-regressive cycle within a shallow-marine siliciclastic shelf platform, and is characterized by an assemblage of invertebrate fossils of Malvinokaffric affinity especially within the Lower Devonian Cordobés shales. The sedimentary provenance of the Durazno Group was determined using petrography, geochemistry, and morphological studies of detrital zircons as well as their U-Pb ages. Sandstone petrography of Cerrezuelo and La Paloma sequences shows that they have a dominantly quartz-feldspathic composition with a minor contribution of other minerals. Whole-rock geochemical data indicate that alteration was strong in each of the three formations studied; chondritic-normalized REE patterns essentially parallel to PAAS, the presence of a negative Eu-anomaly, and Th/Sc and La/Hf ratios point to an average source composition similar to UCC or slightly more felsic. Within the Cerrezuelo Formation, recycling of older volcano-metasedimentary sources is interpreted from Zr/Sc ratios and high Hf, Zr, and REE concentrations. U-Pb detrital zircon age populations of the Cerrezuelo and La Paloma formations indicate that the principal source terranes are of Neoproterozoic age, but include also minor populations derived from Mesoproterozoic and Archean-Paleoproterozoic rocks. A provenance from the Cuchilla Dionisio-Dom Feliciano, Nico Pérez and Piedra Alta terranes of Uruguay and southern Brazil is likely. This study establishes an intracratonic extensional tectonic setting during Durazno time. Considering provenance age sources, regional paleocurrent distributions and the established orogenic history recorded in SW

  17. Agriculture In Uruguay: New Methods For Drought Monitoring and Crop Identification Using Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessel, J.; Ceccato, P.

    2014-12-01

    Agriculture is a vital resource in the country of Uruguay. Here we propose new methods using remotely sensed data for assisting ranchers, land managers, and policy makers in the country to better manage their crops. Firstly, we created a drought severity index based on the climatological anomalies of land surface temperature (LST) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission (TRMM), and normalized difference water index (NDWI) data also using MODIS. The use of the climatological anomalies on the variables has improved the ability of the index to correlate with known drought indices versus previously published indices, which had not used them. We applied various coefficient schemes and vegetation indices in order to choose the model which best correlated with the drought indices across 10 sites throughout Uruguay's rangelands. The model was tested over summer months from 2009-2013. In years where drought had indeed been a problem in the country (such as 2009) the model showed intense signals of drought. Secondly, we used Landsat images to identify winter and summer crops in Uruguay. We first classified them using ENVI and then used the classifications in an ArcMap model to identify specific crop areas. We first created a polygon of the classifications for soils and vegetation for each month (omitting cloud covered images). We then used the crop growing cycle to identify the times during the year for which specific polygons should be soil and which should be vegetation. By intersecting the soil polygons with the vegetation polygons during their respective time periods during the crop growing cycle we were able to create an accurately identify crops. When compared to a shapefile of proposed crops for the year the model obtained a kappa value of 0.60 with a probability of detection of 0.79 and a false alarm ratio of 0.31 for the south-western study area over the 2013-2014 summer.

  18. Testing multicultural robustness of the Child Behavior Checklist in a national epidemiological sample in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Viola, Laura; Garrido, Gabriela; Rescorla, Leslie

    2011-08-01

    Comparisons of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores from 31 societies (Rescorla et al. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 15:13-142 2007) supported the instrument's multicultural robustness, but none of these societies was in South America. The present study tested the multicultural robustness of the 2001 CBCL using data from a national epidemiological survey in Uruguay. Participants were 1,374 6- to 11-year-olds recruited through 65 schools nationwide; 1,098 (80%) had received no mental health or special education services in the past year (non-referred group), whereas 276 (referred group) had been referred for mental health services, had repeated ≥ 2 grades, or had significant developmental disabilities. Mean item ratings, factor structure, and scale internal consistencies were very similar to findings reported by Rescorla et al. (Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 15:13-142 2007) and Ivanova et al. (Journal of Clinical Child and Adoloescent Psychology 36: 405-417 2007). Children from low SES school environments obtained higher problem scores, especially in the referred group. Gender, age, and referral status effects paralleled those in the U.S. Non-referred children obtained somewhat higher mean problem scores in Uruguay than in the U.S., but mean score differences between non-referred and referred children were smaller in Uruguay than the U.S. Findings supporting the CBCL's multicultural robustness in a South American country extend the generalizability of findings reported by Rescorla et al. (Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 15:13-142 2007) for 31 societies.

  19. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Aichivirus 1 in Wastewater Samples from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Burutarán, L; Lizasoain, A; García, M; Tort, L F L; Colina, R; Victoria, M

    2016-03-01

    Aichivirus 1 (AiV-1) is an enteric virus with 30 nm in diameter, belonging to the genus Kobuvirus in the Picornaviridae family being a causative agent of gastroenteritis in humans. The transmission is via the fecal-oral route, through person to person contact, recreation in contaminated waters, or through the consumption of contaminated food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and the molecular characterization of AiV-1 in wastewater from Uruguay. Biweekly collections from March 2011 to February 2012 were performed in the cities of Bella Unión, Salto, Paysandú, and Fray Bentos, northwestern region of Uruguay. A total of 96 samples were collected; viruses were concentrated by ultracentrifugation, and AiV-1 was detected by using a nested PCR with primers directed to a conserved region (3CD junction) of the viral genome. A high frequency of AiV-1 (n = 54) was observed at all the cities analyzed mainly in the colder months of the year. AiV-1 was not evidenced as an appropriate viral fecal indicator since when compared with other previously detected enteric viruses, no correlation was observed. All 13 characterized AiV-1 belonged to the genotype B after the phylogenetic analysis performed with the sequences obtained from the first round PCR amplicon. This study demonstrates that AiV-1 is a frequently detected enteric viruses present in wastewater and excreted by infected persons in the northwestern region of Uruguay. PMID:26456918

  20. The incidence of prenatal alcohol exposure in Montevideo Uruguay as determined by meconium analysis.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Janine R; Magri, Raquel; Gareri, Joey N; Koren, Gideon

    2010-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to a wide range of deficits known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Epidemiologic studies regarding alcohol consumption in pregnancy have concentrated on North America, but recent reports have suggested that consumption is significant in many parts of the world. In Uruguay, alcohol consumption has changed into more risky and dangerous patterns and thus has a theoretical risk of having a high rate of prenatal alcohol exposure. This study characterizes the incidence of prenatal alcohol exposure in Montevideo, Uruguay, using a novel biomarker, fatty acid ethyl esters, in meconium as well as a survey to mothers. Nine hundred five meconium samples were collected from Hospital Pereira Rossell and Hospital de Clínicas in Montevideo, Uruguay. A maternal questionnaire was also completed. Meconium was analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters using liquid-liquid and solid phase extraction with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Meconium was also analyzed for other drugs of abuse using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Forty-four percent of meconium samples were above the positive cutoff for fatty acid ethyl esters and represent those newborns with risky prenatal exposure during the final two trimesters of pregnancy. Infants with prenatal alcohol exposure were more likely to have prenatal exposure to tobacco (odds ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-2.20) or any illicit drug (odds ratio, 2.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.98-5.31). Ethyl linoleate was a significant predictor of infant birth weight along with prenatal tobacco exposure, maternal body mass index, and infant sex. This study highlights a 44% incidence of prenatal alcohol exposure. PMID:20445483

  1. FY04 Inspection Results for Wet Uruguay Fuel in L-Basin

    SciTech Connect

    VORMELKER, PHILIP

    2005-09-01

    The 2004 visual inspection of four Uruguay nuclear fuel assemblies stored in L-Basin was completed. This was the third inspection of this wet stored fuel since its arrival in the summer of 1998. Visual inspection photographs of the fuel from the previous and the recent inspections were compared and no evidence of significant corrosion was found on the individual fuel plate photographs. Fuel plates that showed areas of pitting in the cladding during the original receipt inspection were also identified during the 2004 inspection. However, a few pits were found on the non-fuel aluminum clamping plates that were not visible during the original and 2001 inspections.

  2. Sewage surveillance reveals the presence of canine GVII norovirus and canine astrovirus in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lizasoain, A; Tort, L F L; García, M; Gómez, M M; Leite, J P G; Miagostovich, M P; Cristina, J; Berois, M; Colina, R; Victoria, Matías

    2015-11-01

    Canine norovirus (NoV) and astrovirus (AstV) were studied in 20 domestic sewage samples collected in two cities in Uruguay. Four samples were characterized as canine AstV after phylogenetic analysis clustering with strains detected in Italy and Brazil in 2008 and 2012, respectively. One sample was characterized as canine NoV and clustered with a strain detected in Hong Kong and recently classified as GVII. This study shows the occurrence of a canine NoV GVII strain for the first time in the American continent and also warns about possible zoonotic infection, since canine strains were detected in domestic sewage.

  3. Meat intake, 'mate' drinking and renal cell cancer in Uruguay: a case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    De Stefani, E.; Fierro, L.; Mendilaharsu, M.; Ronco, A.; Larrinaga, M. T.; Balbi, J. C.; Alonso, S.; Deneo-Pellegrini, H.

    1998-01-01

    In the period January 1988-December 1995, a case-control study of diet and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk involving 121 cases and 243 hospitalized controls was carried out in Montevideo, Uruguay. After adjusting for major covariates, red meat intake was associated with a 3.4 increase in risk for the highest category of intake, with a significant dose-response pattern. Also, barbecued meat, protein and heterocyclic amine intakes were associated with significant increases in risk of RCC. The consumption of the beverage known as 'mate' (a ocal tea derived from the herb Ilex paraguariensis) was associated with an increased risk of 3.0 for heavy drinkers. PMID:9820187

  4. Cannabis policy reforms in the Americas: a comparative analysis of Colorado, Washington, and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Bryce

    2014-07-01

    Legal reforms in the Americas are influencing the public debate on cannabis policy. Uruguay and the two US states of Colorado and Washington have taken steps to regulate and legitimize the production, distribution, and use of cannabis and its derivatives. Earlier experiences with medical cannabis in the United States and limited access and production models in Europe have been insightful. However, these reforms are going further still, venturing into a new area of cannabis policy. A lack of empirical evidence regarding the effects of such reforms poses a challenge for policymakers. These examples will inform the design and implementation of any future cannabis policies. Therefore, a clear understanding of the details of each jurisdiction is necessary in developing future legal changes. Literature comparing the models of Uruguay, Colorado, and Washington is thin. This paper is based on an exhaustive examination of the laws, regulations, and discussions with regulators and functionaries of each jurisdiction. The research and analysis herein will provide policymakers with a greater understanding of the laws and regulations relevant to legal cannabis in these three jurisdictions, as well as draw to their attention some potential impacts and challenges of cannabis reform that require additional consideration to ensure public safety and health.

  5. [Rejecting or prioritizing life? The ambiguities of AIDS biopolitics in Uruguay].

    PubMed

    Reihling, Hanspeter

    2010-06-01

    The biopolitics of aids in Uruguay could be seen between two big poles: the investment and the rejection of life. The productive mode can be expressed in the treatment of children who contracted HIV through mother to child transmission. For these children the infection in many cases becomes an asset until they reach adolescence. Except of some efforts of forced detention and mandatory testing, the public health system as well as NGOs show little interest in assisting adolescence infected or affected by HIV/aids. This is the result of a moral economy which marks people who are able to transmit the virus sexually or who have contracted it through sexual intercourse. Especially HIV positive mothers are seen as irresponsible and dangerous in contraposition to their "pure" offspring. However, this moral discourse hardly takes into account the larger social and economic context in which those mothers contracted the virus and as they faced Antiretroviral Therapy (ART). The life history of an adolescent boy will be told in order to reflect upon the modes of inclusion and exclusion of people living with HIV/aids since the beginning of the epidemic in Uruguay. Although the case is not representative, it identifies dynamics within the Uruguayan health system which are difficult to discern through conventional statistical methods.

  6. Genetic heterogeneity and subtyping of human Hepatitis E virus isolates from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Mirazo, Santiago; Ramos, Natalia; Russi, José Carlos; Arbiza, Juan

    2013-05-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an important public health concern in many developing countries causing waterborne outbreaks, as well as sporadic autochthonous hepatitis. It is transmitted primarily by the fecal-oral route. However, zoonotic transmission from animal reservoirs to human has also been suggested. Genotype 3 is the most frequent genotype found in South America and the HEV epidemiology in this region seems to be very complex. However, data about the molecular characterization of HEV isolates of the region is still lacking and further investigation is needed. Our study characterized human HEV strains detected in a 1-year period in Uruguay, by extensive sequence analysis of three regions of the HEV genome. Uruguayan strains were closely related to a set of European strains and in turn, were dissimilar to Brazilian, Argentinean and Bolivian isolates. Additionally, the co-circulation of viral subtypes 3i and 3h was observed. Circulation of subtype 3i had been reported in Argentina and Bolivia whereas sequences of subtype 3h are rare and had never been reported in Latin America. In order to contribute to shedding light over the molecular epidemiology of this emergent infection in the region, we thoroughly analyzed the genetic variability of HEV strains detected in Uruguay, providing the largest dataset of sequences of HEV ever reported in a country in South America.

  7. Evolution of venom antigenaemia and antivenom concentration in patients bitten by snakes in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Morais, Victor; Negrín, Alba; Tortorella, María Noel; Massaldi, Hugo

    2012-11-01

    In this work we describe the first study carried out in Uruguay of venom antigenaemia and antivenom concentration in patients bitten by snakes. Between 50 and 70 snake bite accidents per year are caused in Uruguay by 2 species: Rhinocerophis alternatus and Bothropoides pubescens. The patients are treated with a specific polyvalent antivenom. Gaining insight on the evolution of venom antigenaemia and antivenom concentration in patients is important to improve treatment protocols. Blood samples of 29 patients were analysed to determine venom and antivenom concentrations at different times. Venom was detected in 18 of 19 samples before antivenom administration, with a mean concentration of 57 ng/mL. Most of the patients received 4 or 8 vials to neutralize the venom effects. Only one patient needed a total of 16 vials. He showed a severe envenomation and needed supplementary amounts of antivenom after the fifth day of the snake bite accident to reach normal clotting parameters. Antivenom concentrations were determined at 12 h, 24 h and 15 days after antivenom administration. It was found a faster antivenom decrease between 12 and 24 h than to 24 h to 15 days. This was explained by a different clearance mechanism in each period. In the first phase, the cause would be the neutralization of venom present in the blood whereas in the second phase it would be due to unbound antivenom elimination.

  8. Clinical spectrum of cutaneous manifestations in renal and renopancreatic recipients in two centers in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Dufrechou, L; Nin, M; Curi, L; Larre Borges, P; Martínez Asuaga, M; Noboa, O; Orihuela, S; González-Martínez, F; Larre Borges, A

    2014-11-01

    Uruguay, with a total population of 3,345,000 inhabitants, is the Latin American country with the second highest number of renal replacement therapies. Long-term immunosuppressant therapy is essential for graft survival but results in reduced immunosurveillance, leading to an increased risk of complications. A variety of dermatological manifestations and a large increase in nonmelanoma skin cancers have been reported in this population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency and clinical spectrum of cutaneous manifestations in renal and renopancreatic recipients in 2 reference centers in Uruguay. Two hundred and six renal or renopancreatic recipients between 21 and 77 years old were evaluated between September 2009 and September 2011. A total of 206 dermatoses were observed; 60% of the patients had at least 1 cutaneous manifestation. The most frequent dermatoses were cutaneous side effects due to immunosuppressive treatment (40.6%), followed by infections (26.1%), miscellaneous causes (18.9%), and malignant and premalignant lesions (14.4%). Transplant recipients represent a high-risk dermatological population. Physicians in transplant units should be aware of the importance of dermatological screening in order to promote early detection of skin cancer.

  9. [Fiscal policy, affordability and cross effects in the demand for tobacco products: the case of Uruguay].

    PubMed

    Carbajales, Alejandro Ramos; Curti, Dardo

    2010-01-01

    Uruguay, a country with a solid tobacco control policy since 2005 shows, contrary to expectations, an insignificant decrease in total tobacco products' sales in the last five years. The hypothesis is that on one side, changes in household income and the income elasticity of the demand for cigarettes were important countervailing factors in the demand of both products. The period 2005-2009 shows a large increase of 36% in household real income in Uruguay due to fast economic recovery after the 2002 crisis. The second factor is the interchangeability of roll your own and cigarettes and the impact on the demand of each product as a reaction to tax and price changes. The tax and price of roll your own tobacco remains substantially lower than that of cigarettes. This fact, and the increased substitution of roll your own for cigarettes seems to be the main reasons for the low impact of the policy of tobacco tax and price increases. This paper then consists of a revision of a 2004 study to estimate separate demands for both main tobacco products and obtain estimates for own price, cross price and income elasticities. Then, a simulation study was performed using the elasticities found and two scenarios of increases in household income: moderate (2.5% per year) and high (5% per year) confirming that countries where income is growing fast and with a potential for substitution towards cheaper products require substantial cigarette tax and price increases for a fiscal tobacco control policy to become effective. PMID:21243189

  10. [Fiscal policy, affordability and cross effects in the demand for tobacco products: the case of Uruguay].

    PubMed

    Carbajales, Alejandro Ramos; Curti, Dardo

    2010-01-01

    Uruguay, a country with a solid tobacco control policy since 2005 shows, contrary to expectations, an insignificant decrease in total tobacco products' sales in the last five years. The hypothesis is that on one side, changes in household income and the income elasticity of the demand for cigarettes were important countervailing factors in the demand of both products. The period 2005-2009 shows a large increase of 36% in household real income in Uruguay due to fast economic recovery after the 2002 crisis. The second factor is the interchangeability of roll your own and cigarettes and the impact on the demand of each product as a reaction to tax and price changes. The tax and price of roll your own tobacco remains substantially lower than that of cigarettes. This fact, and the increased substitution of roll your own for cigarettes seems to be the main reasons for the low impact of the policy of tobacco tax and price increases. This paper then consists of a revision of a 2004 study to estimate separate demands for both main tobacco products and obtain estimates for own price, cross price and income elasticities. Then, a simulation study was performed using the elasticities found and two scenarios of increases in household income: moderate (2.5% per year) and high (5% per year) confirming that countries where income is growing fast and with a potential for substitution towards cheaper products require substantial cigarette tax and price increases for a fiscal tobacco control policy to become effective.

  11. Use of Reproductive Microhabitat by Melanophryniscus montevidensis (Anura: Bufonidae) from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gisela; Maneyro, Raúl

    2016-08-01

    This study describes the reproductive microhabitat of Melanophryniscus montevidensis and its use in two water bodies (WBs) in Barra de la Laguna de Rocha, Uruguay. Monthly field trips were performed between March 2012 and February 2013. Variables related to the WBs and vegetation, as well as parameters linked to the usage the amphibians make of the site (e.g: distance to the border of the pond, water depth and the vegetation use) were recorded. The behavior shown by the individuals during the breeding activity was recorded. This activity occurs in shallow temporary WBs with abundant hydrophilic vegetation. The individuals were found more frequently in areas near the edge of the pond, which has denser vegetation. The calling males were found closer to the border of the pond, and they showed better body condition than the non-calling males. In addition to calling activities, males used alternative tactics to find couples, such as active search of females, and aggressive behaviors, such as male displacing and physical combat. Such behaviors are common in anurans with explosive reproductive dynamics. The characterization of the reproductive microhabitats permits the proposal of strategies for the conservation of the species in Uruguay, given that the loss and fragmentation of habitats is one of the main causes considered for the decrease in their populations.

  12. Use of Reproductive Microhabitat by Melanophryniscus montevidensis (Anura: Bufonidae) from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gisela; Maneyro, Raúl

    2016-08-01

    This study describes the reproductive microhabitat of Melanophryniscus montevidensis and its use in two water bodies (WBs) in Barra de la Laguna de Rocha, Uruguay. Monthly field trips were performed between March 2012 and February 2013. Variables related to the WBs and vegetation, as well as parameters linked to the usage the amphibians make of the site (e.g: distance to the border of the pond, water depth and the vegetation use) were recorded. The behavior shown by the individuals during the breeding activity was recorded. This activity occurs in shallow temporary WBs with abundant hydrophilic vegetation. The individuals were found more frequently in areas near the edge of the pond, which has denser vegetation. The calling males were found closer to the border of the pond, and they showed better body condition than the non-calling males. In addition to calling activities, males used alternative tactics to find couples, such as active search of females, and aggressive behaviors, such as male displacing and physical combat. Such behaviors are common in anurans with explosive reproductive dynamics. The characterization of the reproductive microhabitats permits the proposal of strategies for the conservation of the species in Uruguay, given that the loss and fragmentation of habitats is one of the main causes considered for the decrease in their populations. PMID:27498792

  13. Population genetic analysis and trichothecene profiling of Fusarium graminearum from wheat in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Pan, D; Mionetto, A; Calero, N; Reynoso, M M; Torres, A; Bettucci, L

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto (F. graminearum s.s.) is the major causal agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat worldwide, and contaminates grains with trichothecene mycotoxins that cause serious threats to food safety and animal health. An important aspect of managing this pathogen and reducing mycotoxin contamination of wheat is knowledge regarding its population genetics. Therefore, isolates of F. graminearum s.s. from the major wheat-growing region of Uruguay were analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism assays, PCR genotyping, and chemical analysis of trichothecene production. Of the 102 isolates identified as having the 15-ADON genotype via PCR genotyping, all were DON producers, but only 41 strains were also 15-ADON producers, as determined by chemical analysis. The populations were genotypically diverse but genetically similar, with significant genetic exchange occurring between them. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that most of the genetic variability resulted from differences between isolates within populations. Multilocus linkage disequilibrium analysis suggested that the isolates had a panmictic population genetic structure and that there is significant recombination occurs in F. graminearum s.s. In conclusion, tour findings provide the first detailed description of the genetic structure and trichothecene production of populations of F. graminearum s.s. from Uruguay, and expands our understanding of the agroecology of F. graminearum and of the correlation between genotypes and trichothecene chemotypes. PMID:26985955

  14. Rickettsia parkeri: a Rickettsial pathogen transmitted by ticks in endemic areas for spotted fever rickettsiosis in southern Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Venzal, José M; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Portillo, Aránzazu; Mangold, Atilio J; Castro, Oscar; De Souza, Carlos G; Félix, María L; Pérez-Martínez, Laura; Santibánez, Sonia; Oteo, José A

    2012-01-01

    At first Rickettsia conorii was implicated as the causative agent of spotted fever in Uruguay diagnosed by serological assays. Later Rickettsia parkeri was detected in human-biting Amblyomma triste ticks using molecular tests. The natural vector of R. conorii, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has not been studied for the presence of rickettsial organisms in Uruguay. To address this question, 180 R. sanguineus from dogs and 245 A. triste from vegetation (flagging) collected in three endemic localities were screened for spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiosis in southern Uruguay. Tick extracted DNA pools were subjected to PCR using primers which amplify a fragment of the rickettsial gltA gene. Positive tick DNA pools with these primers were subjected to a second PCR round with primers targeting a fragment of the ompA gene, which is only present in SFG rickettsiae. No rickettsial DNA was detected in R. sanguineus. However, DNA pools of A. triste were found to be positive for a rickettsial organism in two of the three localities, with prevalences of 11.8% to 37.5% positive pools. DNA sequences generated from these PCR-positive ticks corresponded to R. parkeri. These findings, joint with the aggressiveness shown by A. triste towards humans, support previous data on the involvement of A. triste as vector of human infections caused by R. parkeri in Uruguay.

  15. Children in Institutions: The Beginning of the End? The Cases of Italy, Spain, Argentina, Chile and Uruguay. Innocenti Insight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llorente, Maria Angeles Garcia; Charlebois, Laura Martinez-Mora; Ducci, Valerio; Farias, Ana Maria

    Noting the growing global consensus on the need to promote family-based alternatives to institutional care for children and adolescents, this report examines efforts to prevent the institutionalization of children in Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Italy, and Spain, focusing on both public and private initiatives, as well as local and national…

  16. Barriers and promoters of an evidenced-based smoking cessation counseling during prenatal care in Argentina and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Colomar, Mercedes; Tong, Van T; Morello, Paola; Farr, Sherry L; Lawsin, Catalina; Dietz, Patricia M; Aleman, Alicia; Berrueta, Mabel; Mazzoni, Agustina; Becu, Ana; Buekens, Pierre; Belizán, José; Althabe, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    In Argentina and Uruguay, 10.3 and 18.3 %, respectively, of pregnant women smoked in 2005. Brief cessation counseling, based on the 5A's model, has been effective in different settings. This qualitative study aims to improve the understanding of factors influencing the provision of smoking cessation counseling during pregnancy in Argentina and Uruguay. In 2010, we obtained prenatal care providers', clinic directors', and pregnant smokers' opinions regarding barriers and promoters to brief smoking cessation counseling in publicly-funded prenatal care clinics in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay. We interviewed six prenatal clinic directors, conducted focus groups with 46 health professionals and 24 pregnant smokers. Themes emerged from three issue areas: health professionals, health system, and patients. Health professional barriers to cessation counseling included inadequate knowledge and motivation, perceived low self-efficacy, and concerns about inadequate time and large workload. They expressed interest in obtaining a counseling script. Health system barriers included low prioritization of smoking cessation and a lack of clinic protocols to implement interventions. Pregnant smokers lacked information on the risks of prenatal smoking and underestimated the difficulty of smoking cessation. Having access to written materials and receiving cessation services during clinic waiting times were mentioned as promoters for the intervention. Women also were receptive to non-physician office staff delivering intervention components. Implementing smoking cessation counseling in publicly-funded prenatal care clinics in Argentina and Uruguay may require integrating counseling into routine prenatal care and educating and training providers on best-practices approaches.

  17. Situation Report--Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to pupulation and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  18. 77 FR 65672 - Correction to Notice of Implementation of Determinations Under Section 129 of the Uruguay Round...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ...; and Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From the People's Republic of China, 77 FR 52683 (August 30... Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 31970, 31973 (June 5, 2008... the Uruguay Round Agreements Act: Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe From the People's...

  19. The Teaching of Astronomy in Uruguay. (Spanish Title: La Enseñanza de la Astronomía en Uruguay.) O Ensino da Astronomia no Uruguai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintos Ganón, Reina; Fernández, Julio Angel

    2008-07-01

    We present in this work the development of astronomy in Uruguay since the colony times up to the present, stressing in particular those aspects related to the formal as well as informal teaching of astronomy. The first antecedents of astronomical studies in our country go back to the beginnings of the XVIIIth century related to the scientific expeditions from Europe coming to our shores. The teaching of astronomy was generalized at the high school level as soon as the end of the XIXth century, while itsintroduction at the university level happened much later, around the middle of the last century. We analyze the current situation of this subject, its problems, and some measures to strengthen its development. Se presenta en este trabajo el desarrollo de la astronomía en el Uruguay desde la época colonial hasta el presente, destacando en particular los aspectos vinculados a su enseñanza tanto formal como informal. Los primeros antecedentes de estudios astronómicos datan de la época colonial relacionados con las expediciones científicas del Viejo Mundo que llegaban a nuestras costas. La enseñanza de la Astronomía se generalizó en el ámbito de los estudios secundarios ya a fines del siglo XIX, mientras que en la Universidad su arribo fue mucho más tardío, a mediados del siglo pasado. Se analiza la situación actual de esta disciplina, sus problemas, y algunas medidas para fortalecer su desarrollo. Apresentamos, neste trabalho, o desenvolvimento da Astronomia no Uruguai desde a época colonial até o presente, destacando em particular os aspectos vinculados ao seu ensino tanto formal quanto informal. Os primeiros antecedentes de estudos astronômicos em nosso país datam da época colonial relacionados com as expedições científicas do Velho Mundo que chegavam às nossas costas. O ensino da Astronomia se generalizou no âmbito dos estudos secundários já no final do século XIX, enquanto que sua introdução na universidade foi muito mais tardia, em

  20. The role of LATU as national metrology institute of Uruguay and its responsibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robatto, O.; Quagliata, E.; Santo, C.; Sica, A.; Sponton, M.

    2013-09-01

    Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay (LATU) is the National Metrology Institute of Uruguay and has the obligation to maintain the national standards stated by National Law 15298. At present LATU is acting as a secondary laboratory as well as a primary laboratory. LATU was ISO 17025:2005 DKD (Deutscher Kalibrierdienst) accredited from 2001 up to 2007. By that time LATU decided to support its Capabilities of Measurement and Calibration (CMCs) at CIPM-MRA (Mutual Recognition Arrangement between national metrology institutes (NMIs)) by peer assessment. A Peer Review has been done in 2008 in order to get the QSTF (Sistema Interamericano de Metrología, Quality System Task Force) approval. "New "CMCs for Industrial Thermometers have been approved by the JCRB on September 2010. CMCs claimed for Standard Resistance Platinum Thermometers (SPRTs) calibration at fixed points have not been approved yet because there were some requirements of traceability of employed cells that were not fulfilled but will be solved properly. The declared CMCs have been chosen by LATU in order to cover the increasing calibration services required by the industry and the secondary calibration laboratories. To demonstrate its technical competence an support its declared "CMCs" LATU has also participated at bilateral and regional comparisons. In recent years LATU, the National Accreditation Body (OUA), the Standards Institute, the National Institute of Quality and Compliance Bodies have become Members of a new Institution to strengthen the Quality Infrastructure of the country (SUNAMEC). As part of this new activities, LATU is giving training courses to the secondary laboratories performing calibrations in temperature that want to get accredited by the National Accreditation Body and to act as Technical Evaluators or Auditors when required by OUA. It is expected, that in the future and in the frame of new accredited and recognized temperature calibration laboratories, LATU could strengthen its

  1. Epidemic history of major genotypes of hepatitis C virus in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Castells, M; Bello, G; Ifrán, S; Pereyra, S; Boschi, S; Uriarte, R; Cristina, J; Colina, R

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, more than 170 million people are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and every year die more than 350,000 people from HCV-related liver diseases. Recently, HCV was reclassified into seven major genotypes and 67 subtypes. Some subtypes as 1a, 1b and 3a, have become epidemic as a result of the new parenteral transmission routes and are responsible for most HCV infections in Western countries. HCV 1a subtype have been sub-categorized into two separate sub clades. Recent studies based on the analysis of NS5B genome region, reveal that HCV epidemics in Argentina and Brazil are characterized by multiple introductions events of subtypes 1a, 1b and 3a, followed by subsequent local dispersion. There is no data about HCV genotypes circulating in Uruguay and their evolutionary and demographic history. To this end, a total of 153 HCV NS5B gene sequences were obtained from Uruguayan patients between 2005 and 2011. 86 (56%) sequences grouped with subtype 1a, 40 (26%) with subtype 3a and 27 (18%) with subtype 1b. Furthermore, subtype 1a sequences were distributed among both clades, 1 (n=62, 72%) and 2 (n=24, 28%). Four local HCV clades were found: UY-1a(I), UY-1a(II), UY-1a(III) and UY-3a; comprising a 39% of all HCV viruses analyzed in this study. HCV epidemic in Uruguay has been driving by multiple introductions of subtypes 1a, 1b and 3a and by local dissemination of a few country-specific strains. The evolutionary and demographic history of the major Uruguayan HCV clade UY-1a(I) was reconstructed under two different molecular clock rate models and displayed an epidemic history characterized by an initial phase of rapid expansion followed by a more recent reduction of growth rate since 2000-2005. This is the first comprehensive study about the molecular epidemiology and epidemic history of HCV in Uruguay.

  2. [The national-international nexus in public health: Uruguay and the circulation of child health and welfare policies, 1890-1940].

    PubMed

    Birn, Anne-Emanuelle

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the emergence of child health policy as a global concern from the perspective of Uruguay's interaction with the international public health community in the early 20th century and its role in the circulation of child health ideas and practices. It considers two facets of national-international interplay: a) Uruguay's exploration of an interrelationship with the international panorama of policies, research and lessons on the improvement of child health; and b) the translation of Uruguay's domestic debates into the influential Instituto Internacional Americano de Protección a la Infancia - IIPI and the purveying of Uruguay's policies, research, and lessons on child health improvement to other countries and to international health and welfare agencies.

  3. Occurrence and biodiversity of Aspergillus section Nigri on 'Tannat' grapes in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Garmendia, Gabriela; Vero, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin which has been found worldwide as a contaminant in wines. It is produced on grapes mainly by molds from Aspergillus section Nigri. This study has demonstrated for the first time the occurrence of black aspergilli on Tannat grapes from Uruguay, in a two year survey. Aspergillus uvarum (uniseriate) and Aspergillus welwitschiae (from Aspergillusniger aggregate) were the prevalent species whereas Aspergillus carbonarius which is considered the main OTA producing species was not detected. OTA production in culture medium was evaluated for native isolates from A. niger aggregate and compared to levels produced by a type strain of A. carbonarius. This work also includes the development of quick and easy molecular methods to identify black aspergilli to species level, avoiding sequencing. PMID:26398282

  4. First sauropod (Dinosauria: Saurischia) remains from the Guichón Formation, Late Cretaceous of Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Matías; Perea, Daniel; Cambiaso, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    We report the first sauropod remains recorded in the Guichón Formation, western Uruguay. The materials belong to a middle-sized sauropod represented by more than one individual, and among other remains include more than fifty caudal centra. Close to the bones, several eggshell fragments resembling Sphaerovum erbeniMones, 1980 were found. We discuss the biostratigraphic implications of these findings, which for the first time allow us to confidently refer the Guichón Formation to the Late Cretaceous. The combination of several synapomorphies such as a biconvex first caudal centrum, strongly procoelous middle and distal caudal centra, and a pyramidal astragalus suggests that the sauropod remains belong to a derived lithostrotian, probably related to Pellegrinisaurus powelli, Baurutitan britoi and Alamosaurus sanjuanensis. A few isolated teeth (now lost) referred by Frederich von Huene in 1934 to ornithomimid theropods and ornithischians are herein reinterpreted as belonging to indeterminate theropods and basal iguanodontians.

  5. Animal welfare and meat quality: the perspective of Uruguay, a "small" exporter country.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, M; Brito, G; Montossi, F; Soares de Lima, J M; San Julián, R

    2014-11-01

    Public sensitivity towards animal welfare has risen in recent years. Uruguay is a primary meat exporter. Therefore, it is compulsory not only to provide good quality and safe meat, but also to project a welfare friendly image. Uruguayan meat production systems are mainly based on rangeland pastures but, due to international meat prices and the opening of new markets, intensive fattening systems increased. These systems include a wide range of feeding alternatives between pasture and concentrate utilization, involving differences in terms of animal welfare, carcass and meat quality, that require to be studied. Accordingly, some husbandry practices associated mainly with extensive systems must be evaluated, as well as their applicability to international recommendations related to pre-slaughter handling which may not be suitable for local conditions. In the present paper we share scientific results related to the impact of different production systems, husbandry practices and pre-slaughter procedures associated to animal welfare and meat quality in Uruguayan conditions.

  6. Occurrence and biodiversity of Aspergillus section Nigri on 'Tannat' grapes in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Garmendia, Gabriela; Vero, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin which has been found worldwide as a contaminant in wines. It is produced on grapes mainly by molds from Aspergillus section Nigri. This study has demonstrated for the first time the occurrence of black aspergilli on Tannat grapes from Uruguay, in a two year survey. Aspergillus uvarum (uniseriate) and Aspergillus welwitschiae (from Aspergillusniger aggregate) were the prevalent species whereas Aspergillus carbonarius which is considered the main OTA producing species was not detected. OTA production in culture medium was evaluated for native isolates from A. niger aggregate and compared to levels produced by a type strain of A. carbonarius. This work also includes the development of quick and easy molecular methods to identify black aspergilli to species level, avoiding sequencing.

  7. Genetic characterization of the Neotropical catfish Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae, Siluriformes) in the Upper Uruguay River

    PubMed Central

    Ribolli, Josiane; de Melo, Cláudio Manoel Rodrigues; Zaniboni-Filho, Evoy

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater fish present unique challenges when one attempts to understand the factors that determine the structure of their populations. Habitat fragmentation is a leading cause of population decline that threatens ecosystems worldwide. In this study, we investigated the conservation status of genetic variability in the Neotropical catfish (Pimelodus maculatus). Specifically, we examined the structure and genetic diversity of this species in a region of the Upper Uruguay River fragmented by natural barriers and dams. There was no genetic structure among the four sites analyzed, indicating the existence of only one population group. A combination of environmental management and genetic monitoring should be used to minimize the impact of impoundment on panmitic populations of migratory fish species. PMID:23271936

  8. A new Paravortex (Platyhelminthes, Dalyellioida) endoparasite of Mesodesma mactroides (Bivalvia, Mesodesmatidae) from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Brusa, Francisco; Ponce de León, Rodrigo; Damborenea, Cristina

    2006-10-01

    Many species of turbellarians (Platyhelminthes) are known to live associated with other organisms, especially invertebrates, as commensals or parasites. The family Graffillidae (Rhabdocoela) includes two genera that parasitize mollusks, Graffílla and Paravortex. Within the latter genus, six species were described as associated with mollusks. In other instances, unnamed Paravortex species were mentioned as parasites of other bivalves and of the body surface of fishes. In the present work, a new Paravortex species that was found in the intestine of Mesodesma mactroides from the Atlantic coast of Uruguay is described. In addition, a bibliographical revision of the known Paravortex species with their respective hosts, location, and distribution is made. Paravortex nicolli, described by Szidat for the Argentinean coast, is mentioned for the first time after the original description, and the authorship and date of description of Paravortex tapetis Noury-Sraïri 1989 are elucidated.

  9. Legalizing a market for cannabis for pleasure: Colorado, Washington, Uruguay and beyond.

    PubMed

    Room, Robin

    2014-03-01

    Colorado, Washington state and Uruguay are currently designing legal non-medical markets for cannabis. These clearly contravene the 1961 and 1988 drug conventions; options for what may happen next are discussed. The current provisions in the three regulatory schemes are summarized. From a public health perspective, the emphasis should be on holding down consumption with regulatory measures, but the public health agenda does not seem to be a strong consideration in the implementation of the US schemes, and they are paying little attention to what can be learned from the history of alcohol and tobacco regulation. While alternative paths to a cannabis market under the conventions are noted, the legalization initiatives underline the need to revise the drug conventions, making prohibition of domestic markets an optional matter. Such changes would also ease the path for including alcohol under the conventions, which would be an important step forward in global health.

  10. Animal welfare and meat quality: the perspective of Uruguay, a "small" exporter country.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, M; Brito, G; Montossi, F; Soares de Lima, J M; San Julián, R

    2014-11-01

    Public sensitivity towards animal welfare has risen in recent years. Uruguay is a primary meat exporter. Therefore, it is compulsory not only to provide good quality and safe meat, but also to project a welfare friendly image. Uruguayan meat production systems are mainly based on rangeland pastures but, due to international meat prices and the opening of new markets, intensive fattening systems increased. These systems include a wide range of feeding alternatives between pasture and concentrate utilization, involving differences in terms of animal welfare, carcass and meat quality, that require to be studied. Accordingly, some husbandry practices associated mainly with extensive systems must be evaluated, as well as their applicability to international recommendations related to pre-slaughter handling which may not be suitable for local conditions. In the present paper we share scientific results related to the impact of different production systems, husbandry practices and pre-slaughter procedures associated to animal welfare and meat quality in Uruguayan conditions. PMID:25052465

  11. Tobacco smoke exposure in public places and workplaces after smoke-free policy implementation: a longitudinal analysis of smoker cohorts in Mexico and Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Nayeli Abad-Vivero, Erika; Sebrié, Ernesto M.; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Boado, Marcelo; Yong, Hua Hie; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Bianco, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence, correlates and changes in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure over the period after comprehensive smoke-free policy implementation in two Latin American countries. Methods: Data were analysed from population-based representative samples of adult smokers and recent quitters from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey in Mexico (n = 1766 and 1840, respectively) and Uruguay (n = 1379 and 1411, respectively). Prevalence of SHS exposure was estimated for regulated venues, and generalized estimating equations were used to determine correlates of SHS exposure. Results: Workplace SHS exposure in the last month was similar within and across countries (range: Mexico 20–25%; Uruguay 14–29%). At the most recent restaurant visit, SHS exposure was lower where comprehensive smoke-free policies were implemented (range: Uruguay 6–9%; Mexico City 5–7%) compared with Mexican cities with weaker policies, where exposure remained higher but decreased over time (32–17%). At the most recent bar visit, SHS exposure was common (range: Uruguay 8–36%; Mexico City 23–31%), although highest in jurisdictions with weaker policies (range in other Mexican cities: 74–86%). In Uruguay, males were more likely than females to be exposed to SHS across venues, as were younger compared with older smokers in Mexico. Conclusions: Comprehensive smoke-free policies are more effective than weaker policies, although compliance in Mexico and Uruguay is not as high as desired. PMID:23172895

  12. Seasonal Variation of Honeybee Pathogens and its Association with Pollen Diversity in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Antúnez, Karina; Anido, Matilde; Branchiccela, Belén; Harriet, Jorge; Campa, Juan; Invernizzi, Ciro; Santos, Estela; Higes, Mariano; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Zunino, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    Honeybees are susceptible to a wide range of pathogens, which have been related to the occurrence of colony loss episodes reported mainly in north hemisphere countries. Their ability to resist those infections is compromised if they are malnourished or exposed to pesticides. The aim of the present study was to carry out an epidemiological study in Uruguay, South America, in order to evaluate the dynamics and interaction of honeybee pathogens and evaluate their association with the presence of external stress factors such as restricted pollen diversity and presence of agrochemicals. We monitored 40 colonies in two apiaries over 24 months, regularly quantifying colony strength, parasite and pathogen status, and pollen diversity. Chlorinated pesticides, phosphorus, pyrethroid, fipronil, or sulfas were not found in stored pollen in any colony or season. Varroa destructor was widespread in March (end of summer-beginning of autumn), decreasing after acaricide treatments. Viruses ABPV, DWV, and SBV presented a similar trend, while IAPV and KBV were not detected. Nosema ceranae was detected along the year while Nosema apis was detected only in one sample. Fifteen percent of the colonies died, being associated to high V. destructor mite load in March and high N. ceranae spore loads in September. Although similar results have been reported in north hemisphere countries, this is the first study of these characteristics in Uruguay, highlighting the regional importance. On the other side, colonies with pollen of diverse botanical origins showed reduced viral infection levels, suggesting that an adequate nutrition is important for the development of healthy colonies. PMID:25794593

  13. Seasonal Variation of Honeybee Pathogens and its Association with Pollen Diversity in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Antúnez, Karina; Anido, Matilde; Branchiccela, Belén; Harriet, Jorge; Campa, Juan; Invernizzi, Ciro; Santos, Estela; Higes, Mariano; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Zunino, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    Honeybees are susceptible to a wide range of pathogens, which have been related to the occurrence of colony loss episodes reported mainly in north hemisphere countries. Their ability to resist those infections is compromised if they are malnourished or exposed to pesticides. The aim of the present study was to carry out an epidemiological study in Uruguay, South America, in order to evaluate the dynamics and interaction of honeybee pathogens and evaluate their association with the presence of external stress factors such as restricted pollen diversity and presence of agrochemicals. We monitored 40 colonies in two apiaries over 24 months, regularly quantifying colony strength, parasite and pathogen status, and pollen diversity. Chlorinated pesticides, phosphorus, pyrethroid, fipronil, or sulfas were not found in stored pollen in any colony or season. Varroa destructor was widespread in March (end of summer-beginning of autumn), decreasing after acaricide treatments. Viruses ABPV, DWV, and SBV presented a similar trend, while IAPV and KBV were not detected. Nosema ceranae was detected along the year while Nosema apis was detected only in one sample. Fifteen percent of the colonies died, being associated to high V. destructor mite load in March and high N. ceranae spore loads in September. Although similar results have been reported in north hemisphere countries, this is the first study of these characteristics in Uruguay, highlighting the regional importance. On the other side, colonies with pollen of diverse botanical origins showed reduced viral infection levels, suggesting that an adequate nutrition is important for the development of healthy colonies.

  14. Impact of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina on the production of beef cattle in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Solari, M A; Nari, A; Cardozo, H

    1992-01-01

    Uruguay is situated in a marginal area for the development of Boophilus microplus (30 degrees 35 degrees South Lat.) with important areas of enzootic instability for Babesia bovis and B. bigemina. The livestock products represent 70% of our exports, for which reason it is fundamental to evaluate the losses in the production that these haemoparasites cause as basic information to take future decisions. In the period 1988-1990, several works were carried out by our laboratory to know the incidence of babesiosis in the reduction of liveweight gains. The results are shown and discussed in the work. Experiment I: the weight increase of the control group (x = 0.248 kg/day), was 23% higher than that of the infected group with Babesia spp (from Uruguay), but significant statistical differences were not found (P < 0.05). These animals were kept in boxes and the food was controlled for 76 days. Experiment II: the incidence of Babesia spp (same strain) was studied for 140 days on Hereford heifers (n = 14) on natural pastures. The control group obtained x = 25.29 kg of liveweight gain and it was 45% higher than that of the infected group, significant statistical difference were found (P < 0.05). Experiments with attenuated strains III: four studies were carried out inoculating B. bovis and B. bigemina in bovines about one year old, in different growth systems, searching for the limit of application. Significant statistical differences between those groups were not found during the experiment (about 180 days) (P < 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1343684

  15. Basis for a streamflow forecasting system to Rincón del Bonete and Salto Grande (Uruguay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talento, Stefanie; Terra, Rafael

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents the basis for the design of streamflow prediction systems for the hydroelectric dams of Rincón del Bonete (Uruguay) and Salto Grande (Uruguay-Argentina). The prediction is made, independently, for each reservoir and each month of the year with two methodologies: data-driven statistical models and hybrid downscaling that includes atmospheric predictors. We determine a set of potential predictors and then fit linear models coupled with variable selection techniques, under the hypothesis of perfectly known predictors. The predictive skill of the schemes outperforms the climatological forecast throughout the year in both reservoirs (except August in Rincón del Bonete). This remains the case even when the forecast lead does not allow for the use of preceding flows as predictors. While in Rincón del Bonete it is not possible to distinguish a period of high predictability, in Salto Grande, there is a robust signal in March-May and October-December.

  16. Detection and molecular characterization of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) from piglets with exudative epidermitis in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Natalia; Mirazo, Santiago; Castro, Gustavo; Arbiza, Juan

    2012-10-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is an economically important emerging pathogen associated with distinct syndromes and diseases in swine, collectively known as porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD). The main purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of PCV2 in piglets affected with exudative epidermitis (EE) in Uruguay. In addition we aimed to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of the isolated strains. In June 2011 an outbreak of EE detected in a small herd was reported. Piglets presented skin lesions compatible with EE and symptoms associated with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) were also observed. Sera from affected and healthy animals were tested for the presence of viral DNA. Exclusively, diseased piglets were infected with PCV2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PCV2 isolates belonged to PCV2b genotype. We report the detection and molecular characterization of PCV2 strains for the first time in Uruguay.

  17. Hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction before and after implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free policy in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Sebrié, Ernesto Marcelo; Sandoya, Edgardo; Hyland, Andrew; Bianco, Eduardo; Glantz, Stanton A; Cummings, K Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Stimulated by the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, many countries in Latin America adopted comprehensive smoke-free policies. In March 2006, Uruguay became the first Latin American country to adopt 100% smoke-free national legislation, which ended smoking in all indoor public places and workplaces, including restaurants and bars. The objective of this study was to evaluate trends in hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease 2 years before and 2 years after the policy was implemented in Uruguay. Methods Reports of hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (International Classification of Disease-10 I21) from 37 hospitals (79% of all hospital admissions in the country), representing the period 2 years before and 2 years after the adoption of a nationwide smoke-free policy in Uruguay (between 1 March 2004 and 29 February 2008), were reviewed. A time series analysis was undertaken to compare the average monthly number of events of hospital admission for AMI before and after the smoke-free law. Results A total of 7949 hospital admissions for AMI were identified during the 4-year study period. Two years after the smoke-free policy was enacted, hospital admissions for AMI fell by 22%. The same pattern and roughly the same magnitude of reduction in AMI admissions were observed for patients seen in public and private hospitals, men, women and people aged 40–65 years and older than 65 years. Conclusions The national smoke-free policy implemented in Uruguay in 2006 was associated with a significant reduction in hospital admissions for AMI. PMID:22337557

  18. Mitochondrial DNA in Basque descendants from the city of Trinidad, Uruguay: Uruguayan- or Basque-like population?

    PubMed

    Sans, M; Figueiro, G; Ackermann, E; Barreto, I; Egaña, A; Bertoni, B; Poittevin-Gilmet, E; Maytia, D; Hidalgo, P C

    2011-02-01

    Like other countries in the Americas, during its colonization Uruguay was the recipient of immigrants from several ethnic groups from Europe, as well as of enslaved Africans. After its independence in 1830, Basques were the first group of Europeans to arrive in the country. In this paper, we aim to contribute to the understanding of the process of integration of these migratory waves into the Uruguayan society. For that purpose, individuals of Basque origin from the city of Trinidad, Uruguay, were chosen to participate in this study. Particularly, we wanted to determine if Basque descendants in Uruguay remained relatively isolated or if they mixed with other ethnic groups. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 60 self-identified Basque descendants, taken from a larger sample of subjects with Basque ancestors, was analyzed. The origin of mtDNA haplogroups was 77.8% European, 20.4% Amerindian, and 1.8% African, showing similar frequencies to other Uruguayan regions. Very few sequences showed a clear Basque origin, although other sources such as the Canary Islands are likely. Moreover, genetic distances clearly show that Basque descendants are genetically closer to other Uruguayan groups than to European populations, including Basques. It is possible to conclude that Basques and their descendants in the region of Trinidad did not remain isolated and that their marriage behavior was similar to that of other Uruguayan populations. However, to have a more accurate picture of the way Basques intermarried with other populations in Uruguay, new analyses are needed that take into account paternal lineages as well as biparental genetic markers.

  19. Barriers and Promoters of an Evidenced-Based Smoking Cessation Counseling During Prenatal Care in Argentina and Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Van T.; Morello, Paola; Farr, Sherry L.; Lawsin, Catalina; Dietz, Patricia M.; Aleman, Alicia; Berrueta, Mabel; Mazzoni, Agustina; Becu, Ana; Buekens, Pierre; Belizán, José; Althabe, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    In Argentina and Uruguay, 10.3 and 18.3 %, respectively, of pregnant women smoked in 2005. Brief cessation counseling, based on the 5A’s model, has been effective in different settings. This qualitative study aims to improve the understanding of factors influencing the provision of smoking cessation counseling during pregnancy in Argentina and Uruguay. In 2010, we obtained prenatal care providers’, clinic directors’, and pregnant smokers’ opinions regarding barriers and promoters to brief smoking cessation counseling in publicly-funded prenatal care clinics in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay. We interviewed six prenatal clinic directors, conducted focus groups with 46 health professionals and 24 pregnant smokers. Themes emerged from three issue areas: health professionals, health system, and patients. Health professional barriers to cessation counseling included inadequate knowledge and motivation, perceived low self-efficacy, and concerns about inadequate time and large workload. They expressed interest in obtaining a counseling script. Health system barriers included low prioritization of smoking cessation and a lack of clinic protocols to implement interventions. Pregnant smokers lacked information on the risks of prenatal smoking and underestimated the difficulty of smoking cessation. Having access to written materials and receiving cessation services during clinic waiting times were mentioned as promoters for the intervention. Women also were receptive to non-physician office staff delivering intervention components. Implementing smoking cessation counseling in publicly-funded prenatal care clinics in Argentina and Uruguay may require integrating counseling into routine prenatal care and educating and training providers on best-practices approaches. PMID:25500989

  20. Prevalence of serum antibodies to bovine herpesvirus-1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus in beef cattle in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Guarino, H; Núñez, A; Repiso, M V; Gil, A; Dargatz, D A

    2008-06-15

    Our objective was to determine the prevalence of serum antibodies to bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus in beef cattle in Uruguay. A random sample of 230 herds selected with probability proportional to population size based on the number of cattle was chosen from a list frame of all registered livestock farms as of June 1999. Sera from up to 10 heifers, cows and bulls (up to 30 sera total per herd) were collected on selected farms between March 2000 and March 2001 and evaluated by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Overall, 6358 serum samples were evaluated. We also collected data on previous diagnosis of BHV-1 or BVD infections and on the use of vaccines against these agents. The estimated prevalence of exposure to BHV-1 and BVD at the herd level for the Uruguayan beef population was 99% and 100%, respectively. Approximately 37% of beef cattle in Uruguay have been exposed to BHV-1 and 69% to BVD virus. Only 3% of beef herds in Uruguay regularly (typically, annually) use vaccines against either of these agents.

  1. Recent changes in frost days events characteristics in Uruguay-Southeastern South America.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renom, Madeleine; De Mello, Santiago

    2015-04-01

    There are few studies about extreme temperature events in Southeastern South America as is it mentioned in the SREX report (2009), although these events generate human health impacts and big economical looses. Southeastern South America is one of the major agricultural production regions worldwide. Particularly in Uruguay, agricultural production represents a high percentage of the GDP and, in the last 15 years there has been a significant increase in the area used for that economic activity. Although frost is not always is considered as an extreme event it causes, in the case of Uruguay, an impact on society, energy consumption and agricultural losses. Previous studies have shown a negative trend in the occurrence of cold nights (TN10) during winter (June-July-August) and autumn (March-April-May) in Uruguay. This work try to determine if these trends affects the occurrences and characteristics of frost days (Tmin< 0°C). Based on a high-quality daily minimum temperature for 11 meteorological stations that cover the period 1950-2009, we analyzed different features of frost days. Long term trends do not present a clear spatial behaviour suggesting that there is a not clear relationship between the percentile based index (TN10) and a fixed index (FD). At monthly scale, May and September show a negative trend, although these months present a low number of cases that difficult the statistical treatment. It is noticeable that from a decadal point of view the last decade (2000-2009) was the decade with fewer occurrences comparing with the rest, while the 90's is the decade that presents more cases. We also analyzed changes in frost period (FP) which commonly extends from May to September. In general all the stations present a decrease in the FP in accordance with the negative trend detected at monthly scale, suggesting a warming in autumn and spring time. Although we detected different behaviour in two stations, one located inner land and the other located on the

  2. Chemical signature of two Permian volcanic ash deposits within a bentonite bed from Melo, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Calarge, Liane M; Meunier, Alain; Lanson, Bruno; Formoso, Milton L L

    2006-09-01

    A Permian bentonite deposit at Melo, Uruguay is composed of a calcite-cemented sandstone containing clay pseudomorphs of glass shards (0-0.50 m) overlying a pink massive clay deposit (0.50-2.10 m). The massive bed is composed of two layers containing quartz and smectite or pure smectite respectively. The smectite is remarkably homogeneous throughout the profile: it is a complex mixed layer composed of three layer types whose expandability with ethylene glycol (2EG 1EG or 0EG sheets in the interlayer zone which correspond to low-, medium- and high-charge layers respectively) varies with the cation saturating the interlayer zone. The smectite homogeneity through the profile is the signature of an early alteration process in a lagoonal water which was over saturated with respect to calcite. Compaction during burial has made the bentonite bed a K-depleted closed system in which diagenetic illitization was inhibited. Variations in major, REE and minor element abundances throughout the massive clay deposit suggest that it originated from two successive ash falls. The incompatible element abundances are consistent with that of a volcanic glass fractionated from a rhyolite magma formed in a subduction/collision geological context. PMID:16936941

  3. Screening for Antimicrobial Activity of Wood Rotting Higher Basidiomycetes Mushrooms from Uruguay against Phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Barneche, Stephanie; Jorcin, Gabriela; Cecchetto, Gianna; Cerdeiras, María Pía; Vázquez, Alvaro; Alborés, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the antimicrobial activity of extracts of wood rotting higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms isolated from Eucalyptus plantations in Uruguay was studied using bacterial and fungal phytopathogens as targets. Fifty-one extracts from mycelia and growth broth were prepared from higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms, from which eight extracts (from Ganoderma resinaceum, Laetiporus sulphureus, Dictyopanus pusillus, and Bjerkandera adusta) showed antimicrobial activity against Xanthomonas vesicatoria, Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium expansum, Botrytis cinerea, and Rhizopus stolonifer as assayed in the qualitative test. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for those fungal extracts was determined and the results showed that L. sulphureus deserved further study, with low MIC values against X. vesicatoria. The antimicrobial activity of L. sulphureus culture broth extracts grown under different culture conditions was evaluated against X. vesicatoria. From the results of these assays, larger-scale cultures for the production of the compound(s) with antimicrobial activity should be performed using malt extract broth, at pH 5, at 20°C and static culture conditions. PMID:27481160

  4. Improved dengue fever prevention through innovative intervention methods in the city of Salto, Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Basso, César; García da Rosa, Elsa; Romero, Sonnia; González, Cristina; Lairihoy, Rosario; Roche, Ingrid; Caffera, Ruben M.; da Rosa, Ricardo; Calfani, Marisel; Alfonso-Sierra, Eduardo; Petzold, Max; Kroeger, Axel; Sommerfeld, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Background Uruguay is located at the southern border of Aedes aegypti distribution on the South American sub-continent. The reported dengue cases in the country are all imported from surrounding countries. One of the cities at higher risk of local dengue transmission is Salto, a border city with heavy traffic from dengue endemic areas. Methods We completed an intervention study using a cluster randomized trial design in 20 randomly selected ‘clusters’ in Salto. The clusters were located in neighborhoods of differing geography and economic, cultural and social aspects. Results Entomological surveys were carried out to measure the impact of the intervention on vector densities. Through participatory processes of all stakeholders, an appropriate ecosystem management intervention was defined. Residents collected the abundant small water holding containers and the Ministry of Public Health and the Municipality of Salto were responsible for collecting and eliminating them. Additional vector breeding places were large water tanks; they were either altered so that they could not hold water any more or covered so that oviposition by mosquitoes could not take place. Conclusions The response from the community and national programme managers was encouraging. The intervention evidenced opportunities for cost savings and reducing dengue vector densities (although not to statistically significant levels). The observed low vector density limits the potential reduction due to the intervention. A larger sample size is needed to obtain a statistically significant difference. PMID:25604764

  5. Social policies in Uruguay: a view from the political dimension of community psychology.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ferreyra, Alicia

    2009-03-01

    This paper approaches social policy (SP) from the political perspective considered by Montero (Critical psychology: An introduction, Sage, London, pp 231-244, 1997; Community, Work and Family 1(1):65-78, 1998; Introducción a la Psicología Comunitaria. Desarrollo, conceptos y procesos, Paidos, Buenos Aires, pp 89-114, pp 255-284, 2004; Hacer para transformar. El método en la Psicología Comunitaria, Paidos, Buenos Aires, pp 229-256, 2004) as a paradigmatic dimension of community psychology. The field of SP, the characteristics of certain SPs and the role of SP in the production and reproduction of the subjectivities of those subject to them in Uruguay are described and an analysis given of the challenge posed by going from a compensatory or palliative to a transformative mode of SP. It is proposed that identification of, and understanding and intervention in, psychosocial processes in the field are the keys to maximising the likelihood of SPs assuming a transformative character. Psychosocial aspects and participatory processes implicit in the relationship between the State and civil society are discussed. Finally, some orientations for community psychological intervention in this field of action are proposed.

  6. Early archosauromorph remains from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of north-eastern Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Ezcurra, Martín D; Velozo, Pablo; Meneghel, Melitta; Piñeiro, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    The Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is crucial to understand the impact of the Permo-Triassic mass extinction on the early evolution of the group and its subsequent dominance in Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystems. However, the Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is still very poor in most continents and hampers the identification of global macroevolutionary patterns. Here we describe cranial and postcranial bones from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of northeastern Uruguay that contribute to increase the meagre early archosauromorph record from South America. A basioccipital fused to both partial exoccipitals and three cervical vertebrae are assigned to Archosauromorpha based on apomorphies or a unique combination of characters. The archosauromorph remains of the Buena Vista Formation probably represent a multi-taxonomic assemblage composed of non-archosauriform archosauromorphs and a 'proterosuchid-grade' animal. This assemblage does not contribute in the discussion of a Late Permian or Early Triassic age for the Buena Vista Formation, but reinforces the broad palaeobiogeographic distribution of 'proterosuchid grade' diapsids in Permo-Triassic beds worldwide.

  7. Chemical signature of two Permian volcanic ash deposits within a bentonite bed from Melo, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Calarge, Liane M; Meunier, Alain; Lanson, Bruno; Formoso, Milton L L

    2006-09-01

    A Permian bentonite deposit at Melo, Uruguay is composed of a calcite-cemented sandstone containing clay pseudomorphs of glass shards (0-0.50 m) overlying a pink massive clay deposit (0.50-2.10 m). The massive bed is composed of two layers containing quartz and smectite or pure smectite respectively. The smectite is remarkably homogeneous throughout the profile: it is a complex mixed layer composed of three layer types whose expandability with ethylene glycol (2EG 1EG or 0EG sheets in the interlayer zone which correspond to low-, medium- and high-charge layers respectively) varies with the cation saturating the interlayer zone. The smectite homogeneity through the profile is the signature of an early alteration process in a lagoonal water which was over saturated with respect to calcite. Compaction during burial has made the bentonite bed a K-depleted closed system in which diagenetic illitization was inhibited. Variations in major, REE and minor element abundances throughout the massive clay deposit suggest that it originated from two successive ash falls. The incompatible element abundances are consistent with that of a volcanic glass fractionated from a rhyolite magma formed in a subduction/collision geological context.

  8. [The experience in Uruguay: the Bill for the Defense of Reproductive Health].

    PubMed

    Xavier, Mónica

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on the recent Uruguayan experience with the debate on sexual and reproductive rights. While the Bill for the Defense of Reproductive Health did not pass in the Senate, both the prior process and the subsequent impacts have been relevant, generating a social debate that is still incipient but has involved the mass media, academia, and the political parties and spawning a discussion that has involved both houses of Congress for the first time. Within this context, an outstanding role has been played by NGOs devoted to the defense of women's rights (especially sexual and reproductive), who established a coordinating body that included the trade union movement, which supported the bill. The debate also led to international ties that projected it beyond the country's borders. The article briefly reviews the background and basis for the bill, the research it entailed, and the international commitments assumed by Uruguay, before concluding with a summary of the bill itself and the challenges it poses in terms of sexual and reproductive rights, specifically with regard to voluntary interruption of pregnancy.

  9. First identification of Porcine Circovirus Type 2b mutant in pigs from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Natalia; Mirazo, Santiago; Castro, Gustavo; Arbiza, Juan

    2015-07-01

    Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) is a worldwide distributed virus and is considered an important emerging pathogen related to several distinct disease syndromes in pigs. PCV2 strains are classified into three genotypes: PCV2a, with five subtypes (2A-2E), PCV2b with three subtypes (1A-1C) and PCV2c, only found in Denmark. Recently, several reports suggested the circulation of newly emerging PCV2b mutants (mPCV2b) isolated from pigs with PCVAD in cases of suspected vaccine failure. In this work, we report for the first time the identification of mPCV2b in pigs from Uruguay, providing an additional evidence of a global circulation. Complete genome characterization and phylogenetic analysis reveal that Uruguayan strains, as well as mPCV2b previously reported are closely related to other sequences already classified as PCV2b-1C. Furthermore, results showed that mPCV2b presented different genetic markers in the capsid protein compared with classical PCV2a/b strains. Further investigation about antigenic shift of the mPCV2b strains including the Uruguayan isolates is needed.

  10. Genetic variability of hepatitis B virus in Uruguay: D/F, A/F genotype recombinants.

    PubMed

    Lopez, L; Flichman, D; Mojsiejczuk, L; Gonzalez, M V; Uriarte, R; Campos, R; Cristina, J; Garcia-Aguirre, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious global health problem. Approximately 2 billion people worldwide have been infected, and approximately 350 million individuals currently suffer from HBV-induced chronic liver infection, which causes 600,000 deaths annually from chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV is classified in eight genotypes (A-H), and two more have been proposed (I-J). In this paper, complete genome sequences of nine Uruguayan HBV are reported. Five samples belong to genotype F1b and one to genotype A2. Three HBV recombinants were detected: A1/F1b, A2/F1b and D3/F1b. The following mutations were detected: a G1896A substitution, a 33-nucleotide deletion from position 2896 to 2928 in the Pre-S1 region involving Pre-S1 residues 3-13, a 33-nt deletion in the Pre-S1 region involving nt 2913-2945 and Pre-S1 residues 9-19. More F genotypes strains than expected were detected in this study, supporting the hypothesis that there are more people of indigenous origin than declared in our population. Also, one third of the samples analyzed were recombinants. This cannot be explained by the low HBV prevalence in Uruguay, but a high HBV infection rate in drug addicts and dialysis patients could act in favor of multiple-genotype HBV infections that could lead to recombination.

  11. Patterns of exposure to multiple metals and associations with neurodevelopment of preschool children from Montevideo, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Ardoino, Graciela; Coffman, Donna L; Queirolo, Elena I; Ciccariello, Daniela; Mañay, Nelly; Ettinger, Adrienne S

    2015-01-01

    While it is known that toxic metals contribute individually to child cognitive and behavioral deficits, we still know little about the effects of exposure to multiple metals, particularly when exposures are low. We studied the association between children's blood lead and hair arsenic, cadmium, and manganese and their performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III. Ninety-two preschool children (age 13-42 months) from Montevideo, Uruguay, provided a hair sample and 78 had a blood lead level (BLL) measurement. Using latent class analysis (LCA), we identified four groups of exposure based on metal concentrations: (1) low metals, (2) low-to-moderate metals, (3) high lead and cadmium, and (4) high metals. Using the four-group exposure variable as the main predictor, and fitting raw scores on the cognitive, receptive vocabulary, and expressive vocabulary scales as dependent variables, both complete-case and multiple imputation (MI) analyses were conducted. We found no association between multiple-metal exposures and neurodevelopment in covariate-adjusted models. This study demonstrates the use of LCA together with MI to determine patterns of exposure to multiple toxic metals and relate these to child neurodevelopment. However, because the overall study population was small, other studies with larger sample sizes are needed to investigate these associations.

  12. Social policies in Uruguay: a view from the political dimension of community psychology.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ferreyra, Alicia

    2009-03-01

    This paper approaches social policy (SP) from the political perspective considered by Montero (Critical psychology: An introduction, Sage, London, pp 231-244, 1997; Community, Work and Family 1(1):65-78, 1998; Introducción a la Psicología Comunitaria. Desarrollo, conceptos y procesos, Paidos, Buenos Aires, pp 89-114, pp 255-284, 2004; Hacer para transformar. El método en la Psicología Comunitaria, Paidos, Buenos Aires, pp 229-256, 2004) as a paradigmatic dimension of community psychology. The field of SP, the characteristics of certain SPs and the role of SP in the production and reproduction of the subjectivities of those subject to them in Uruguay are described and an analysis given of the challenge posed by going from a compensatory or palliative to a transformative mode of SP. It is proposed that identification of, and understanding and intervention in, psychosocial processes in the field are the keys to maximising the likelihood of SPs assuming a transformative character. Psychosocial aspects and participatory processes implicit in the relationship between the State and civil society are discussed. Finally, some orientations for community psychological intervention in this field of action are proposed. PMID:19219546

  13. Detection and molecular characterization of Torque Teno Virus (TTV) in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Cancela, Florencia; Ramos, Natalia; Mirazo, Santiago; Mainardi, Victoria; Gerona, Solange; Arbiza, Juan

    2016-10-01

    Torque Teno Virus (TTV), member of Anelloviridae family, is considered a worldwide distributed emergent virus and is currently classified into seven genogroups. Interestingly, the pathogenicity of TTV remains unclear. However, it has been constantly associated to hepatitis cases of unknown etiology (HUE) as well as extensively studied in concurrent infections with Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1). In South America, TTV epidemiological data is scant, involving some studies from Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia and Bolivia. The aim of this work was to investigate for the first time in Uruguay the presence of TTV by a nested-PCR system in 85 human serum samples infected with HBV and/or HCV and/or HIV-1 and in HUE cases. Overall, our results reported a TTV infection rate of 79% (67/85). Furthermore, the molecular characterization of Uruguayan strains revealed that one of them clustered in genogroup 1, while the remaining ones formed separate clusters closely related to genogroup 3, which should be confirmed by complete genome sequencing. Further investigation about TTV circulation in Uruguayan population is needed in order to provide additional information about the genetic variability and TTV epidemiology in South America.

  14. Tobacco control campaign in Uruguay: Impact on smoking cessation during pregnancy and birth weight.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jeffrey E; Balsa, Ana Inés; Triunfo, Patricia

    2015-07-01

    We analyzed a nationwide registry of all pregnancies in Uruguay during 2007-2013 to assess the impact of three types of tobacco control policies: (1) provider-level interventions aimed at the treatment of nicotine dependence, (2) national-level increases in cigarette taxes, and (3) national-level non-price regulation of cigarette packaging and marketing. We estimated models of smoking cessation during pregnancy at the individual, provider and national levels. The rate of smoking cessation during pregnancy increased from 15.4% in 2007 to 42.7% in 2013. National-level non-price policies had the largest estimated impact on cessation. The price response of the tobacco industry attenuated the effects of tax increases. While provider-level interventions had a significant effect, they were adopted by relatively few health centers. Quitting during pregnancy increased birth weight by an estimated 188 g. Tobacco control measures had no effect on the birth weight of newborns of non-smoking women. PMID:25985121

  15. Patterns of Exposure to Multiple Metals and Associations with Neurodevelopment of Preschool Children from Montevideo, Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Ardoino, Graciela; Coffman, Donna L.; Queirolo, Elena I.; Ciccariello, Daniela; Mañay, Nelly; Ettinger, Adrienne S.

    2015-01-01

    While it is known that toxic metals contribute individually to child cognitive and behavioral deficits, we still know little about the effects of exposure to multiple metals, particularly when exposures are low. We studied the association between children's blood lead and hair arsenic, cadmium, and manganese and their performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III. Ninety-two preschool children (age 13–42 months) from Montevideo, Uruguay, provided a hair sample and 78 had a blood lead level (BLL) measurement. Using latent class analysis (LCA), we identified four groups of exposure based on metal concentrations: (1) low metals, (2) low-to-moderate metals, (3) high lead and cadmium, and (4) high metals. Using the four-group exposure variable as the main predictor, and fitting raw scores on the cognitive, receptive vocabulary, and expressive vocabulary scales as dependent variables, both complete-case and multiple imputation (MI) analyses were conducted. We found no association between multiple-metal exposures and neurodevelopment in covariate-adjusted models. This study demonstrates the use of LCA together with MI to determine patterns of exposure to multiple toxic metals and relate these to child neurodevelopment. However, because the overall study population was small, other studies with larger sample sizes are needed to investigate these associations. PMID:25694786

  16. Detection and molecular characterization of Torque Teno Virus (TTV) in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Cancela, Florencia; Ramos, Natalia; Mirazo, Santiago; Mainardi, Victoria; Gerona, Solange; Arbiza, Juan

    2016-10-01

    Torque Teno Virus (TTV), member of Anelloviridae family, is considered a worldwide distributed emergent virus and is currently classified into seven genogroups. Interestingly, the pathogenicity of TTV remains unclear. However, it has been constantly associated to hepatitis cases of unknown etiology (HUE) as well as extensively studied in concurrent infections with Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1). In South America, TTV epidemiological data is scant, involving some studies from Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia and Bolivia. The aim of this work was to investigate for the first time in Uruguay the presence of TTV by a nested-PCR system in 85 human serum samples infected with HBV and/or HCV and/or HIV-1 and in HUE cases. Overall, our results reported a TTV infection rate of 79% (67/85). Furthermore, the molecular characterization of Uruguayan strains revealed that one of them clustered in genogroup 1, while the remaining ones formed separate clusters closely related to genogroup 3, which should be confirmed by complete genome sequencing. Further investigation about TTV circulation in Uruguayan population is needed in order to provide additional information about the genetic variability and TTV epidemiology in South America. PMID:27510954

  17. [Introduction of a conjugate vaccine against Hib in Chile and Uruguay].

    PubMed

    Landaverde, M; Di Fabio, J L; Ruocco, G; Leal, I; de Quadros, C

    1999-03-01

    In some countries, the invasive disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) has been practically eliminated thanks to vaccination. However, in much of the developing world, meningitides and pneumonias caused by these bacteria continue to be a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality, as well as high hospitalization costs. Because safe and effective conjugate vaccines are now available, the Special Program for Vaccines and Immunization of the Pan American Health Organization has recommended introducing them into the regular vaccination regimen of as many countries as possible. This has been done in Chile and Uruguay, where the Hib vaccine now forms part of the regular vaccination routine. When the vaccine was being introduced, both countries had difficulties they could have avoided if they had known of the experiences of other nations. Therefore, these two countries now offer the lessons they learned to other nations considering introducing the vaccine into their immunization programs. The most important lessons were to: strengthen the epidemiological surveillance system sufficiently in advance of introducing the vaccine; with the support of scientific societies, present the technical information that justifies introducing the vaccine; seek community backing and acceptance; precisely establish in advance the presentation and dosage of the vaccine that is most appropriate for the country; and be certain to have the political and legal decisions needed to ensure the continuity of Hib vaccination in the future.

  18. Early archosauromorph remains from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of north-eastern Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Velozo, Pablo; Meneghel, Melitta; Piñeiro, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    The Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is crucial to understand the impact of the Permo-Triassic mass extinction on the early evolution of the group and its subsequent dominance in Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystems. However, the Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is still very poor in most continents and hampers the identification of global macroevolutionary patterns. Here we describe cranial and postcranial bones from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of northeastern Uruguay that contribute to increase the meagre early archosauromorph record from South America. A basioccipital fused to both partial exoccipitals and three cervical vertebrae are assigned to Archosauromorpha based on apomorphies or a unique combination of characters. The archosauromorph remains of the Buena Vista Formation probably represent a multi-taxonomic assemblage composed of non-archosauriform archosauromorphs and a ‘proterosuchid-grade’ animal. This assemblage does not contribute in the discussion of a Late Permian or Early Triassic age for the Buena Vista Formation, but reinforces the broad palaeobiogeographic distribution of ‘proterosuchid grade’ diapsids in Permo-Triassic beds worldwide. PMID:25737816

  19. Differences in coprophilous beetle communities structure in Sierra de Minas (Uruguay): a mosaic landscape.

    PubMed

    González-Vainer, Patricia; Morelli, E; Defeo, O

    2012-10-01

    Coprophilous beetles represent an abundant and rich group with critical importance in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Most coprophagous beetles have a stenotopic distribution in relation to vegetation types. Because of this, they are usually very sensitive to environmental changes and are considered well suited as bioindicator organisms. The aim of this study was to analyze variations in coprophilous beetle assemblages in natural and anthropogenic habitats. Coprophilous beetle communities were sampled monthly for 1 year using pitfall traps baited with cow dung, in native xeric upland forests, 15-years-old plantations of Pinus elliottii and pastures in Sierra de Minas, Lavalleja, Uruguay. A total of 7,436 beetles were caught and identified to species or morphospecies level. The most abundant families were Aphodiidae, Scarabaeidae, and Staphylinidae. Differences in species richness, abundance, Shannon index, evenness, and dominance were detected between habitats. Abundances of most frequent families were significantly higher in both kinds of forests. Species richness and diversity of Aphodiidae and Staphylinidae were higher in forests, while Scarabaeidae showed the highest richness and diversity in pine plantations. Species composition significantly differed between habitats. Uroxys terminalis Waterhouse and Ataenius perforatus Harold typified the assemblages in native forests and pine plantations and also discriminated both communities because of their differential pattern of abundance between habitats. Typifying species in pastures were Onthophagus hirculus, Ateuchus robustus (Harold), and Ataenius platensis Blanchard. Habitat type had a strong effect on the coprophilous beetle community structure and composition. PMID:23950086

  20. Seroepidemiological survey of Rickettsia spp. in dogs from the endemic area of Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lado, Paula; Costa, Francisco B; Verdes, José M; Labruna, Marcelo B; Venzal, José M

    2015-06-01

    Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis is a vector-borne zoonosis that occurs in some countries of the American continent. Following the first description and determination of the pathogenicity to humans in 2004 in USA, this bacterium has been reported in several South American countries. Human cases have been diagnosed in both Uruguay and Argentina in the past years. This study consisted in a serosurvey of 1000 domestic dogs living in the endemic area of rickettsiosis in Uruguay, where Amblyomma triste is the tick vector. Sera were analyzed by Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA), against antigens of three different rickettsial species: R. rhipicephali, R. felis and R. parkeri. It was determined that 20.3% of the dogs had antibodies that reacted to at least one of the three species tested, taking as cut off ≥64 titers. Furthermore, 140 of the seropositive dogs (14%) had a titer at least 4 times higher to R. parkeri than those of any of the other species, thus, it was considered that the immune response was stimulated by that species in particular. This is the first serological survey in primary hosts for adults of A. triste in Uruguay, and therefore the first prevalence values are reported. Adult A. triste ticks collected from the environment as well as from dogs were analyzed by PCR in order to confirm the current circulation of the agent in the area. In this matter, two out of 28 ticks from dogs, and 3 out of 53 ticks from the environment were positive, and the corresponding sequence analysis revealed 100% similarity with R. parkeri strain maculatum.

  1. Seroepidemiological survey of Rickettsia spp. in dogs from the endemic area of Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lado, Paula; Costa, Francisco B; Verdes, José M; Labruna, Marcelo B; Venzal, José M

    2015-06-01

    Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis is a vector-borne zoonosis that occurs in some countries of the American continent. Following the first description and determination of the pathogenicity to humans in 2004 in USA, this bacterium has been reported in several South American countries. Human cases have been diagnosed in both Uruguay and Argentina in the past years. This study consisted in a serosurvey of 1000 domestic dogs living in the endemic area of rickettsiosis in Uruguay, where Amblyomma triste is the tick vector. Sera were analyzed by Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA), against antigens of three different rickettsial species: R. rhipicephali, R. felis and R. parkeri. It was determined that 20.3% of the dogs had antibodies that reacted to at least one of the three species tested, taking as cut off ≥64 titers. Furthermore, 140 of the seropositive dogs (14%) had a titer at least 4 times higher to R. parkeri than those of any of the other species, thus, it was considered that the immune response was stimulated by that species in particular. This is the first serological survey in primary hosts for adults of A. triste in Uruguay, and therefore the first prevalence values are reported. Adult A. triste ticks collected from the environment as well as from dogs were analyzed by PCR in order to confirm the current circulation of the agent in the area. In this matter, two out of 28 ticks from dogs, and 3 out of 53 ticks from the environment were positive, and the corresponding sequence analysis revealed 100% similarity with R. parkeri strain maculatum. PMID:25735816

  2. The relationship among depression, parenting stress, and partner support in low-income women from Montevideo, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Ardoino, Graciela I; Queirolo, Elena I; Barg, Gabriel; Ciccariello, Daniela A; Kordas, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and predictors of depression in low-income mothers (n = 99) of young children from Uruguay. We administered the Beck Depression Scale (BDI) and the Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and asked who is responsible for the main tasks of parenting and household care. We found a high prevalence of moderate-to-severe depression (BDI >19 points, 31.3%), with women with t scores > 90 on the PSI being seven times more likely to experience moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms than women with lower PSI scores (p <.01). This is the first investigation of the predictors of depression in urban Uruguayan mothers of low socioeconomic status.

  3. Exposures to Particulate Matter from the Eruptions of the Puyehue Volcano and Birth Outcomes in Montevideo, Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Balsa, Ana Ines; Caffera, Marcelo; Bloomfield, Juanita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The ashes and dust resulting from the 2011 eruptions of the Puyehue volcano in Chile more than doubled monthly averages of PM10 concentrations in Montevideo, Uruguay. Few studies have taken advantage of natural experiments to assess the relationship between ambient air pollutant concentrations and birth outcomes. Objectives: In this study we explored the effect of particulate matter with diameter of ≤ 10 μm (PM10) on perinatal outcomes in Uruguay, a middle-income country in South America with levels of PM10 that in general do not exceed the recommended thresholds. The analyzed outcomes are preterm birth, term birth weight, and term low birth weight. Methods: We took advantage of the sharp variation in PM10 concentrations due to the Puyehue eruptions to estimate the associations between mother’s exposure to PM10 in each trimester of pregnancy and perinatal outcomes. We use birth registries for 2010–2013 and control for covariates, including maternal and pregnancy characteristics, weather, co-pollutants, and calendar quarter and hospital indicators. Results: A 10-μg/m3 increase in exposure to PM10 during the third trimester was associated with a higher likelihood of a preterm birth [odds ratio (OR) = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.19]. The association was robust to different model specifications, and increased with categorical exposure levels (OR for third-trimester PM10 ≥ 70 vs. < 30 μg/m3 = 5.24; 95% CI: 3.40, 8.08). Exposures were not consistently associated with birth weight or low birth weight among term births, though second-trimester exposures were associated with higher birth weight, contrary to expectations. Conclusions: Taking advantage of a natural experiment, we found evidence that exposure to high levels of PM10 during the third trimester of pregnancy may have increased preterm births among women in Montevideo, Uruguay. Citation: Balsa AI, Caffera M, Bloomfield J. 2016. Exposures to particulate matter from the eruptions of the Puyehue

  4. High prevalence and infection levels of Nosema ceranae in bumblebees Bombus atratus and Bombus bellicosus from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Arbulo, N; Antúnez, K; Salvarrey, S; Santos, E; Branchiccela, B; Martín-Hernández, R; Higes, M; Invernizzi, C

    2015-09-01

    Nosema ceranae is one of the most prevalent pathogens in Apis mellifera and has recently been found in multiple host species including several species of bumblebees. Prevalence and infection intensity of N. ceranae was determined in two species of native bumblebees from Uruguay. Nosema ceranae was the only microsporidia identified and mean prevalence was 72% in Bombus atratus and 63% in Bombus bellicosus, values much higher than those reported elsewhere. The presence of this pathogen in bumblebees may be threatening not only for bumblebee populations, but also to the rest of the native pollinator community and to honeybees. PMID:26248064

  5. High prevalence and infection levels of Nosema ceranae in bumblebees Bombus atratus and Bombus bellicosus from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Arbulo, N; Antúnez, K; Salvarrey, S; Santos, E; Branchiccela, B; Martín-Hernández, R; Higes, M; Invernizzi, C

    2015-09-01

    Nosema ceranae is one of the most prevalent pathogens in Apis mellifera and has recently been found in multiple host species including several species of bumblebees. Prevalence and infection intensity of N. ceranae was determined in two species of native bumblebees from Uruguay. Nosema ceranae was the only microsporidia identified and mean prevalence was 72% in Bombus atratus and 63% in Bombus bellicosus, values much higher than those reported elsewhere. The presence of this pathogen in bumblebees may be threatening not only for bumblebee populations, but also to the rest of the native pollinator community and to honeybees.

  6. Foraging strategies of Southern sea lion females in the La Plata River Estuary (Argentina-Uruguay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Diego H.; Dassis, Mariela; Ponce de León, Alberto; Barreiro, César; Farenga, Marcelo; Bastida, Ricardo O.; Davis, Randall W.

    2013-04-01

    The stocks of Southern sea lions (Otaria flavescens, SSL) and South American fur seals (SAFS) that breed on coastal islands of Uruguay constitute the most important focal concentration of pinnipeds in South America, with a significant increase in SAFS and a steady decrease of SSL over the past decades. Because females are a key element of population dynamics and no information exists on the post-breeding pup rearing period, we studied the foraging patterns of SSL females in the La Plata River Estuary (LPRE) during mid and late lactation (late austral autumn and winter), analyzing the foraging performance, geographic coverage and ontogenetic differences in foraging strategies for a period of 1-5 months. At-sea movements of 22 SSL females (6 subadults and 16 adults) from Isla de Lobos (IL, 35°01'28"S-54°52'59"W, Uruguay) were monitored using satellite transmitters (SPOT4, SPOT5 and STDR-S16, Wildlife Computers) in 2007 and 2010. An algorithm [McConnell, B.J., Chambers, C., Fedak, M.A., 1992. Foraging ecology of southern elephant seals in relation to the bathymetry and productivity of the Southern Ocean. Antarct. Sci. 4, 393-398.] with a maximum transit speed of 3 m s-1 was applied to the Argos information, resulting in a total of 2522 filtered locations. A daily mean of 3.5±1.74 filtered locations per animal was received. One hundred and eighty three foraging trips (FT) were recorded with no significant differences (p<0.05) between subadults and adults in the duration of FT (6.1±3.15 day), distance traveled per FT (237.2±105.25 km), mean distance from IL (57.2±25.90 km), maximum straight line (Spider) distance (100.2±41.40 km) and transit speed (1.1±1.04 m s-1). SSL showed directional fidelity to foraging sites, indicated by high mean vector (r) values (0.74±0.14) calculated from FT mean bearings. Kernel ranges for 50% and 95% of all FT locations were 5420 km2 and 36,222 km2, respectively, and the extension of the foraging areas appeared to be influenced by

  7. Molecular analysis of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 strains from Uruguay: evidence for natural occurring recombination.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Natalia; Mirazo, Santiago; Castro, Gustavo; Arbiza, Juan

    2013-10-01

    Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) is a worldwide distributed virus and is considered an important emerging pathogen related to several distinct disease syndromes in pigs. Genomic structure consists of three major open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 (rep gene) encodes replication-related proteins, ORF2 (cap gene) encodes the capsid protein and ORF3 encodes a protein putatively involved in virus-induced apoptosis. Based on cap gene sequences, PCV2 strains are classified into two main genotypes, PCV2a with five clusters (2A-2E) and PCV2b with three clusters (1A-1C). According to previous theoretical studies, PCV2 strains can eventually undergo intra and inter-genotype recombination, mainly within the rep gene. Ever since, several evidences of recombination in the field have been reported and confirmed this hypothesis. In South America, data regarding molecular characterization of PCV2 strains is still scant. Genotyping studies in the region have concluded that PCV2b is the predominant circulating genotype in the region and till now, no recombinant strains have ever been reported. In this work we thoroughly characterized at the molecular level Uruguayan PCV2 strains by extensive sequence data analysis. Moreover, recombination software tools were applied to explore and characterize eventual occurrence of natural recombination events. Two recombinant PCV2 strains were detected in this study, as a consequence of an inter-genotype recombination event between PCV2b-1A and PCV2a-2D, as the major and minor parent, respectively. According to recombination software analysis, in both cases the event occurred within the ORF1. Herein, extensive viral sequence dataset is provided, including the characterization of the first PCV2 recombinant strains ever reported in South America. Additionally, our results suggested a multi-centered source of PCV2 infection in Uruguay, which probably involved Brazilian and European origins.

  8. Distributional patterns in an insect community inhabiting a sandy beach of Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourglia, Virginia; González-Vainer, Patricia; Defeo, Omar

    2015-12-01

    Most studies of sandy beach macrofauna have been restricted to semiterrestrial species and do not include insects when providing species richness and abundance estimates. Particularly, spatio-temporal patterns of community structure of the entomofauna inhabiting these ecosystems have been scarcely documented. This study assessed spatio-temporal distributional patterns of the night active entomofauna on a beach-dune system of Uruguay, including variations in species richness, abundance and diversity, and their relationship with environmental factors. A deconstructive taxonomic analysis was also performed, considering richness and abundance patterns separately for the most abundant insect Orders (Hymenoptera and Coleoptera) to better understand the factors which drive their patterns. We found clear temporal and across-shore patterns in the insect community inhabiting a land-ocean interface, which matched spatiotemporal variations in the environment. Abundance and species richness were highest in spring and summer, concurrently with high temperatures and low values of sediment moisture and compaction. Multivariate ordinations showed two well-defined species groups, which separated summer, autumn and spring samples from winter ones. Generalized Linear Models allowed us to describe a clear segregation in space of the most important orders of the insect community, with specific preferences for the terrestrial (Hymenoptera) and beach (Coleoptera) fringes. Hymenoptera preferred the dune zone, characterized by high elevation and low sand moisture and compaction levels, whereas Coleoptera preferred gentle slopes and fine and humid sands of the beach. Our results suggest that beach and dune ecosystems operate as two separate components in regard to their physical and biological features. The high values of species richness and abundance of insects reveal that this group has a more significant ecological role than that originally considered so far in sandy beach ecology.

  9. Participatory research towards co-management: lessons from artisanal fisheries in coastal Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Trimble, Micaela; Berkes, Fikret

    2013-10-15

    Participatory research has become increasingly common in natural resources management. Even though participatory research is considered a strategy to facilitate co-management, there is little empirical evidence supporting this. The objective of the present paper is to analyze the contributions of participatory research to help encourage the emergence of co-management, based on a case study in Piriápolis artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay (where management has been top-down). We argue that participatory research involving artisanal fishers, government, and other stakeholders (university scientists and NGOs) can be a key stimulus towards co-management. We build this argument by considering "seven faces" by which co-management can be analyzed: (1) as power sharing; (2) as institution building; (3) as trust building; (4) as process; (5) as learning and knowledge co-production; (6) as problem solving; and (7) as governance. Our findings show that participatory research had an impact on these various faces: (1) power was shared when making research decisions; (2) a multi-stakeholder group (POPA), with a common vision and goals, was created; (3) trust among participants increased; (4) the process of group formation was valued by participants; (5) stakeholders learned skills for participation; (6) two problem-solving exercises were conducted; and (7) a diversity of stakeholders of the initial problem identified by fishers (sea lions' impact on long-line fishery) participated in the process. The case shows that participatory research functions as a platform which enhances learning and knowledge co-production among stakeholders, paving the way towards future co-management.

  10. Virus in Groundwater: Characterization of transport mechanisms and impacts on an agricultural area in Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamazo, P. A.; Colina, R.; Victoria, M.; Alvareda, E.; Burutaran, L.; Ramos, J.; Lopez, F.; Soler, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many areas of Uruguay groundwater is the only source of water for human consumption and for industrial-agricultural economic activities. Traditionally considered as a safe source, due to the "natural filter" that occurs in porous media, groundwater is commonly used without any treatment. The Uruguayan law requires bacteriological analysis for most water uses, but virological analyses are not mentioned in the legislation. In the Salto district, where groundwater is used for human consumption and for agricultural activities, bacterial contamination has been detected in several wells but no viruses analysis have been performed. The Republic University (UDELAR), with the support of the National Agency for Research and Innovation (ANII), is studying the incidence of virus in groundwater on an intensive agriculture area of the Salto district. In this area water is pumped from the "Salto Aquifer", a free sedimentary aquifer. Below this sedimentary deposit is the "Arapey" basaltic formation, which is also exploited for water productions on its fractured zones. A screening campaign has been performed searching for bacterial and viral contamination. Total and fecal coliforms have been found on several wells and Rotavirus and Adenovirus have been detected. A subgroup of the screening wells has been selected for an annual survey. On this subgroup, besides bacteria and viruses analysis, a standard physical and chemical characterization was performed. Results show a significant seasonal variation on microbiological contamination. In addition to field studies, rotavirus circulation experiments on columns are being performed. The objective of this experiments is to determinate the parameters that control virus transport in porous media. The results of the study are expected to provide an insight into the impacts of groundwater on Salto's viral gastroenterocolitis outbreaks.

  11. Formation of the volcanic rifted margin off Argentina/Uruguay, South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, D.; Reichert, C.; Ladage, S.; Schnabel, M.; Schreckenberger, B.; Neben, S.; Hinz, K.

    2009-04-01

    The Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Germany has investigated the passive continental margins offshore Argentina and Uruguay since the early 90ies. Numerous marine geophysical surveys have meanwhile established a databasis of more than 25.000 km of regional multi-channel reflection seismic lines, accompanied with magnetic and gravity profiles. These data document that the Early Cretaceous South Atlantic continental break-up and initial sea-floor spreading were accompanied by large-scale, transient volcanism emplacing voluminous extrusives, manifested in the seismic data by huge wedges of seaward dipping reflectors (SDRs). These deeply buried and 60-120 km wide SDRs were emplaced episodically as suggested by at least three superimposed SDRS units. Distinct along-margin variations in the architecture, volume, and width of the SDRs wedges correlate with large scale margin segmentation. We identify at least four domains bounded by the Falkland Fracture Zone/Falkland Transfer, the Colorado Transfer, the Ventana Transfer and the Salado Transfer. The individual transfer zones may have acted as barriers for propagating rifts during the SDR emplacement phase, selectively directing rift segments in left stepping patterns along the western South Atlantic margin. The rift segments are offset systematically in a left stepping pattern along the western South Atlantic margin. Albeit we found extensive variations in the architecture, style and extent of the seaward dipping reflector sequences a general trend is that the largest volumes are emplaced close to the proposed transfer zones and the width of the SDRs wedges decreases northward within the individual margin segments. The different volcano-tectonic architectures of the margin segments and the distribution of the extruded magmas indicates that the emplacement of the volcanic material was controlled by the tectonic setting and the pre-rift lithosphere configuration within individual margin

  12. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Udder Pathogens Isolated from Dairy Herds in the West Littoral Region of Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    A total of 522 strains belonging to streptococci, enterococci and staphylococci isolated from sub-clinical and clinical cases of bovine mastitis from the west littoral region of Uruguay were analysed for their susceptibility to several antimicrobial agents. The susceptibility patterns were studied by agar disk diffusion methods (ADDM) and broth micro-dilution to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The concentration that inhibits 90% (MIC90) of the analysed strains reported in micrograms per millilitre, for Staphylococcus aureus were > 8, 8, ≤ 0.5, ≤ 4, ≤ 1, ≤ 0.5, > 64, ≤ 0.25, 0.5, ≤ 1 and ≤ 1 to penicillin, ampicillin, oxacillin, cephalotin, gentamicin, erythromycin, oxitetracycline, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, neomycin, and clindamycin, respectively. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) had different values for penicillin (4) and ampicillin (2), while the other antimicrobial agents had the same MIC90 values as reported for S. aureus. The MIC90 values for streptococci were 0.12, 0.25, ≤ 4, 16, ≤ 0.25, 0.5, 0.25 for penicillin, ampicillin, cephalotin, gentamicin, erythromycin, oxytetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, whereas MIC90 for enterococci were 4, 4, 4, ≤ 0.5, 2, > 8 for penicillin, ampicillin, gentamicin, erythromycin, oxytetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, respectively. Of 336 strains of S. aureus, 160 (47.6%) were resistant to penicillin. For 41 CNS strains, 10 (27%) presented penicillin-resistance. All the streptococcal strains were susceptible to penicillin, while 3 (7%) of the 43 enteroccocal strains were resistant. Non significant statistical differences were found between the results obtained by ADDM and broth micro-dilution for classifying bacterial isolates as susceptible or resistant according to the National Committee of Clinical Laboratory Standards. PMID:12071114

  13. Paleo- and Neoproterozoic magmatic and tectonometamorphic evolution of the Isla Cristalina de Rivera (Nico Pérez Terrane, Uruguay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyhantçabal, Pedro; Wagner-Eimer, Martin; Wemmer, Klaus; Schulz, Bernhard; Frei, Robert; Siegesmund, Siegfried

    2012-10-01

    The Isla Cristalina de Rivera crystalline complex in northeastern Uruguay underwent a multistage magmatic and metamorphic evolution. Based on SHRIMP U-Pb zircon, Th-U-Pb monazite (CHIME-EPMA method) and K-Ar age data from key units several events can be recognized: (1) multistage magmatism at 2,171-2,114 Ma, recorded on zircon of the granulitic orthogneisses and their 2,093-2,077 Ma overgrowths; (2) a distinct amphibolite facies metamorphism at ~1,980 Ma, recorded by monazite; (3) greenschist facies reworking and shearing at ca. 606 Ma (monazite and K-Ar on muscovite) along the Rivera Shear Zone, and finally (4) intrusion of the post-tectonic Sobresaliente and Las Flores granites at around 585 Ma. Lithological similarities, geographic proximity and coeval magmatic and metamorphic events indicate a similar tectonometamorphic evolution for the Isla Cristalina de Rivera, the Valentines Block in Uruguay and the Santa María Chico Granulitic Complex in southern Brazil, since at least 2.1 Ga.

  14. Genetic Structure of Colletotrichum fructicola Associated to Apple Bitter Rot and Glomerella Leaf Spot in Southern Brazil and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Rockenbach, Mathias F; Velho, Aline C; Gonçalves, Amanda E; Mondino, Pedro E; Alaniz, Sandra M; Stadnik, Marciel J

    2016-07-01

    Colletotrichum fructicola is the main species causing apple bitter rot (ABR) and Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) in southern Brazil, and ABR in Uruguay where GLS remains unnoticed. Thus, this work aimed to determine the genetic structure of C. fructicola isolates of both the countries. A total of 28 out of 31 Brazilian isolates (90.3%) caused typical symptoms of GLS, while only 6 of 25 Uruguayan isolates (24.0%) originating from fruits were able to infect leaves, but causing atypical symptoms. Both populations showed similar levels of Nei's gene diversity (h = 0.088 and 0.079, for Brazilian and Uruguayan populations, respectively), and Bayesian cluster analysis inferred two genetic clusters correlated with the geographical origin of isolates. A principal coordinates analysis scatter plot and an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean-based dendrogram also grouped Brazilian and Uruguayan isolates into two groups. By pairwise comparison of nitrate-nonutilizing (nit) mutants with a proposed set of testers, all Uruguayan isolates were grouped into a unique vegetative compatibility group (namely VCG 1), while Brazilian isolates were grouped into four VCGs (VCG 1 to 4). Brazilian and Uruguayan populations of C. fructicola were found to be genetically distinct. Our results suggest that isolates of C. fructicola from Brazil capable of causing GLS and ABR arose independently of those from Uruguay. Possible causes leading to the evolutionary differences between populations are discussed. PMID:27019063

  15. Dinosaur ichnofauna of the Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous of the Paraná Basin (Brazil and Uruguay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francischini, H.; Dentzien–Dias, P. C.; Fernandes, M. A.; Schultz, C. L.

    2015-11-01

    Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous sedimentary layers are represented in the Brazilian Paraná Basin by the fluvio-aeolian Guará Formation and the Botucatu Formation palaeoerg, respectively, overlapped by the volcanic Serra Geral Formation. In Uruguay, the corresponding sedimentary units are named Batoví and Rivera Members (both from the Tacuarembó Formation), and the lava flows constitute the Arapey Formation (also in Paraná Basin). Despite the lack of body fossils in the mentioned Brazilian formations, Guará/Batoví dinosaur fauna is composed of theropod, ornithopod and wide-gauge sauropod tracks and isolated footprints, as well as theropod teeth. In turn, the Botucatu/Rivera dinosaur fauna is represented by theropod and ornithopod ichnofossils smaller than those from the underlying units. The analysis of these dinosaur ichnological records and comparisons with other global Mesozoic ichnofauna indicates that there is a size reduction in dinosaur fauna in the more arid Botucatu/Rivera environment, which is dominated by aeolian dunes. The absence of sauropod trackways in the Botucatu Sandstone fits with the increasingly arid conditions because it is difficult for heavy animals to walk on sandy dunes, as well as to obtain the required amount of food resources. This comparison between the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous dinosaur fauna in south Brazil and Uruguay demonstrates the influence of aridization on the size of animals occupying each habitat.

  16. A 10-year analysis of the oral squamous cell carcinoma profile in patients from public health centers in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria Laura Cosetti; Wagner, Vivian Petersen; Sant'ana Filho, Manoel; Carrard, Vinicius Coelho; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic, clinical, and therapeutic characteristics and predictive factors of poor prognosis in patients with primary oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in Uruguay. Medical records of patients with the diagnosis of primary OSCC treated between 2000 and 2010 in Uruguayan public hospitals were selected. Data on demographic characteristics, risk factors, clinical features, treatment, and outcome were collected. Associations of independent variables with outcomes were assessed using Pearson chi-squared and Fisher's tests. Of 200 patients with OSCC, 79.4% were men (3.8:1 male:female ratio), with a mean age of 60.75 ± 11.26 years. Tobacco and alcohol consumption were reported by 85.3% and 63.5% of patients, respectively. The most commonly affected location was the tongue (42.5%), with lesions exhibiting ulcerous aspects in 87.9% of cases and pain at the time of diagnosis in 70.4% of cases. One hundred sixty-one (82.1%) patients had advanced-stage (III/IV) OSCC. Surgery was the most common treatment option, and the overall 5-year survival rate was 58.5%. Univariate analysis showed that the predictors of poor prognosis were clinical aspect, size, regional metastasis, clinical stage, and treatment. In Uruguay, OSCC is diagnosed late, which is associated with a low survival rate. Educational and preventive measures and investment to improve early diagnosis should be undertaken.

  17. Susceptibility of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) to synthetic acaricides in Uruguay: Varroa mites' potential to develop acaricide resistance.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Matías Daniel; Ruffinengo, Sergio Roberto; Mendoza, Yamandú; Ojeda, Pilar; Ramallo, Gustavo; Floris, Iganazio; Eguaras, Martín Javier

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the acaricide susceptibility of Varroa destructor populations from Uruguay, which had never been exposed to synthetic acaricides. It was also to determine whether acaricide resistance to coumaphos occurred in apiaries in which acaricide rotation had been applied. Bioassays with acaricides against mite populations that had never been exposed to synthetic acaricides were performed, also against mite populations in which control failures with coumaphos had been reported. Additionally, coumaphos' effectiveness in honeybee colonies was experimentally tested. The lethal concentration that kills 50% of the exposed animals (LC(50)) for susceptible mite populations amounted to 0.15 μg/Petri dish for coumaphos and to less than 0.3 μg/Petri dish for the other acaricides. Coumaphos LC(50) was above 40 μg/Petri dish for resistant mites. The effectiveness of coumaphos in honeybee colonies parasitized by V. destructor ranged from 17.6% to 93.9%. LC(50) for mite populations susceptible to the most commonly applied miticides was determined, and the first case of coumaphos resistance recorded in Uruguay was established.

  18. First report of Tequus schrottkyi (Konow) (Hymenoptera: Pergidae) in Uruguay, and information about its host plant and biology

    PubMed Central

    González, Andrés; Schmidt, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The sawfly family Pergidae is best represented in South America, and it is the third largest family in the suborder Symphyta. Tequus is a Neotropical genus that has been reported in association with host plants of the genus Solanum (Solanaceae), with little information about the life history of its members. Tequus schrottkyi (Konow, 1906) was described from Paraguay, without any information about its biology and host plant. New information We report the first record of T. schrottkyi from Uruguay, with information on its host plant and details of its biology. The identification was based on morphology, DNA barcode is provided to allow identification using molecular characters. This sawfly species is associated with Solanum commersonii, a native plant common in Uruguay. Tequus schrottkyi presents several generations between March and July. The larvae feed on leaves and spin a silk cocoon in the soil in which they pupate. The adults exhibit sexual dimorphism, the female being larger than the male and with a different color pattern. The eggs are laid individually in the leaf margins into the leaf tissue. The larvae are unpalatable to a generalist predator, possibly due to defensive compounds sequestered from their host plant, known to contain toxic compounds. PMID:26929717

  19. The importance of XRD analysis in provenance and palaeoenvironmental studies of the Piedras de Afilar Formation, Neoproterozoic of Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamoukaghlian, K.; Poiré, D. G.; Gaucher, C.; Uriz, N.; Cingolani, C.; Frigeiro, P.

    2009-04-01

    The Piedras de Afilar Formation crops out in the southeast part of Uruguay, forming part of the Tandilia Terrane (sensu Bossi et al. 2005). Pamoukaghlian et al. (2006) and Gaucher et al. (2008) have published δ13C, δ18O and U/Pb SHRIMP results, which indicate a Neoproterozoic age for this formation. The palaeoenvironment has been defined as a shallow marine platform based on the presence of interference ripples, hummocky and mega-hummocky cross-stratification. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses help to better constrain the palaeoenvironment: the presence of chlorite/smectite found in black shales, suggest a reducing environment, and abundant illite indicates a cold to temperate climate. Provenance studies have been undertaken that utilise a combination of detailed palaeocurrent measurements, petrographic descriptions, XRD analyses, and geochemical isotopic analyses, including U/Pb SHRIMP determinations. Mineral compositional diagrams for sandstones suggest a stable cratonic provenance. Palaeocurrents are mainly from the NNE, indicating a provenance from the cratonic areas of the Tandilia Terrane. The illite crystal index indicates diagenetic to low-metamorphic conditions for the sequence; this is important to confirm that the identified minerals are authigenic. Clay minerals identified by XRD analysis of sandstones from the siliciclastic member are illite (80 - 90%), kaolinite (5 - 10%), and chlorite (5 - 10%). This is consistent with a provenance from the cratonic areas (quartz-feldspar dominated rock types). Isotopic analyses have been undertaken to provide better constraints on the tectonic setting. U/Pb SHRIMP ages for the youngest zircons are 990 Ma (Gaucher et al. 2008), and the basal granite (Granito de la Paz) is 2056 ± 11 Ma (Hartmann et al. 2001), suggesting a provenance from the Archaean basement for the Piedras de Afilar Formation, like its counterparts in the Rio de la Plata Craton. References Bossi, J., Piñeyro, D., Cingolani, C. (2005). El l

  20. The Admission and Academic Placement of Students from Selected South American Countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay. A Workshop Report, September-October, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldrich-Langen, Caroline, Ed.

    Information about the educational systems of Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay that may be helpful to U.S. college admission officers is presented. For each of the four countries, information is provided on: country facts, the educational system, primary and secondary education, higher education, other institutions, placement recommendations,…

  1. Whole-Genome Sequencing of an Isoniazid-Resistant Clinical Isolate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strain MtURU-002 from Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Berná, Luisa; Iraola, Gregorio; Greif, Gonzalo; Coitinho, Cecilia; Rivas, Carlos M.; Naya, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis in Uruguay has been effectively reduced to <30 per 100,000 population, although an increase in nonrisk populations in the last few years is evident. Here, we present the genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain MtURU-002 isolated from a patient showing bilateral pulmonary tuberculosis that was resistant to isoniazid. PMID:25035326

  2. Sea surface temperature variability off southern Brazil and Uruguay as revealed from historical data since 1854

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavialov, Peter O.; Wainer, Ilana; Absy, JoãO. M.

    1999-09-01

    About 300,000 quality-controlled local reports from ships of opportunity were complemented with the data extracted from global data records to compile monthly series of sea surface temperature (SST) for the period 1854 to 1994 on a grid 1° × 1° in latitude and longitude. These historical data are used to investigate the variability off the coast of southern Brazil and Uruguay in a broad range of temporal scales from seasonal to secular. With respect to behavior at these scales, three distinct areas can be identified in the study region. The first one, located over the shelf and controlled by winter invasions of subantarctic water along with Rio de la Plata and Patos-Mirim discharges, is characterized by large annual range of SST (7° to over 10°C), energetic mean square variability (from 1.4 to 2.2°C2, after removal of seasonal signal), and an extremely high secular trend toward warming (1.2 to 1.6°C per 100 years), especially in the proximity of the estuaries. The second one, an area of the Brazil Current influence, exhibits smaller annual range (5° to 7°C) and mean square variability (1 to 1.4°C2). The secular trend is from 1° to 1.2°C per 100 years, smaller than observed in the shelf, but still high compared to the global average. The third area, which encompasses the eastern deep ocean part of the region away from the influence of either major currents or coastal discharges, exhibits less energetic variability at all examined scales, as compared to the rest of the region. Everywhere in the region, 50 to 80% of interannual variability is associated with periods smaller than 10 years; however, compared to the rest of the region, the shelf zone is characterized by a relatively large contribution from decadal and interdecadal scales. In austral winter a thermal front forms in the study region, separating warm tropical water associated with the Brazil Current and cold subantarctic water flowing northward on the shelf with an admixture of coastal

  3. Regional differences in species composition and toxigenic potential among Fusarium head blight isolates from Uruguay indicate a risk of nivalenol contamination in new wheat production areas.

    PubMed

    Umpiérrez-Failache, M; Garmendia, G; Pereyra, S; Rodríguez-Haralambides, A; Ward, T J; Vero, S

    2013-08-16

    Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) are the primary cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat, and frequently contaminate grain with trichothecene mycotoxins that pose a serious threat to food safety and animal health. The species identity and trichothecene toxin potential of 151 FGSC isolates collected from wheat in Uruguay were determined via multilocus genotyping. Although F. graminearum with the 15ADON trichothecene type accounted for 86% of the isolates examined, five different FGSC species and all three trichothecene types were identified in this collection. This is the first report of Fusarium asiaticum, Fusarium brasilicum, Fusarium cortaderiae, and Fusarium austroamericanum from Uruguay. In addition, we observed significant (P<0.001) regional differences in the composition of FGSC species and trichothecene types within Uruguay. Isolates of F. graminearum with the 15ADON type were the most prevalent in western provinces (95%), while F. asiaticum (43%) and the NIV type (61%) predominated in the new wheat production zone in Cerro Largo along Uruguay's eastern border with Brazil. F. graminearum isolates (15ADON type) were significantly (P<0.005) more aggressive on wheat than were isolates from the other species examined (NIV or 3ADON types). However, F. graminearum isolates (15ADON type) were significantly (P<0.05) more sensitive to tebuconazole than isolates from other species (NIV type). These results document substantial heterogeneity among the pathogens responsible for FHB in Uruguay. In addition, the regional predominance of the NIV trichothecene type is of significant concern to food safety and indicates that additional monitoring of nivalenol levels in grain may be required.

  4. Periodontal conditions and associated factors among adults and the elderly: findings from the first National Oral Health Survey in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Susana M; Alvarez, Ramón; Andrade, Ernesto; Piccardo, Virginia; Francia, Alejandro; Massa, Fernando; Correa, Marcos Britto; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of periodontal conditions in the Uruguayan adult and elderly population and its association with socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics. Data from adults (35-44, n = 358) and elderly (65-74, n = 411) who participated in the first National Oral Health Survey, Uruguay, 2011, were used. The survey included a household questionnaire addressing socioeconomic characteristics, and tobacco use. Bleeding on probing (BOP), periodontal pockets (CPI) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were measured by clinical examination. A multivariable analysis was carried out. Considering both age groups, the prevalence of mild/severe periodontal disease was 21.8% and 9.12% for severe periodontal disease. Adjusted analyses revealed an association between high education and all outcomes. Attendance at dental services was negatively associated with BOP and mild to severe periodontitis. Periodontal outcomes were higher in disadvantaged socioeconomic groups. Tobacco consumption has a strong association with periodontal disease in the elderly. PMID:26840821

  5. Periodontal conditions and associated factors among adults and the elderly: findings from the first National Oral Health Survey in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Susana M; Alvarez, Ramón; Andrade, Ernesto; Piccardo, Virginia; Francia, Alejandro; Massa, Fernando; Correa, Marcos Britto; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of periodontal conditions in the Uruguayan adult and elderly population and its association with socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics. Data from adults (35-44, n = 358) and elderly (65-74, n = 411) who participated in the first National Oral Health Survey, Uruguay, 2011, were used. The survey included a household questionnaire addressing socioeconomic characteristics, and tobacco use. Bleeding on probing (BOP), periodontal pockets (CPI) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were measured by clinical examination. A multivariable analysis was carried out. Considering both age groups, the prevalence of mild/severe periodontal disease was 21.8% and 9.12% for severe periodontal disease. Adjusted analyses revealed an association between high education and all outcomes. Attendance at dental services was negatively associated with BOP and mild to severe periodontitis. Periodontal outcomes were higher in disadvantaged socioeconomic groups. Tobacco consumption has a strong association with periodontal disease in the elderly.

  6. Sustainability of meat production beyond carbon footprint: a synthesis of case studies from grazing systems in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Picasso, Valentín D; Modernel, Pablo D; Becoña, Gonzalo; Salvo, Lucía; Gutiérrez, Lucía; Astigarraga, Laura

    2014-11-01

    Livestock production has been challenged as a large contributor to climate change, and carbon footprint has become a widely used measure of cattle environmental impact. This analysis of fifteen beef grazing systems in Uruguay quantifies the range of variation of carbon footprint, and the trade-offs with other relevant environmental variables, using a partial life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Using carbon footprint as the primary environmental indicator has several limitations: different metrics (GWP vs. GTP) may lead to different conclusions, carbon sequestration from soils may drastically affect the results, and systems with lower carbon footprint may have higher energy use, soil erosion, nutrient imbalance, pesticide ecotoxicity, and impact on biodiversity. A multidimensional assessment of sustainability of meat production is therefore needed to inform decision makers. There is great potential to improve grazing livestock systems productivity while reducing carbon footprint and other environmental impacts, and conserving biodiversity.

  7. Sustainability of meat production beyond carbon footprint: a synthesis of case studies from grazing systems in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Picasso, Valentín D; Modernel, Pablo D; Becoña, Gonzalo; Salvo, Lucía; Gutiérrez, Lucía; Astigarraga, Laura

    2014-11-01

    Livestock production has been challenged as a large contributor to climate change, and carbon footprint has become a widely used measure of cattle environmental impact. This analysis of fifteen beef grazing systems in Uruguay quantifies the range of variation of carbon footprint, and the trade-offs with other relevant environmental variables, using a partial life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Using carbon footprint as the primary environmental indicator has several limitations: different metrics (GWP vs. GTP) may lead to different conclusions, carbon sequestration from soils may drastically affect the results, and systems with lower carbon footprint may have higher energy use, soil erosion, nutrient imbalance, pesticide ecotoxicity, and impact on biodiversity. A multidimensional assessment of sustainability of meat production is therefore needed to inform decision makers. There is great potential to improve grazing livestock systems productivity while reducing carbon footprint and other environmental impacts, and conserving biodiversity. PMID:25048094

  8. Seasonal variation in genetic population structure of sábalo (Prochilodus lineatus) in the Lower Uruguay River.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Eva Carolina; Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Monzón, Alexander Miguel; Somoza, Gustavo M; Ortí, Guillermo

    2013-09-01

    Prochilodus lineatus is a highly migratory fish species that sustains the most important commercial fishery of Paraná-Paraguay basin. Migratory patterns are poorly known and only few population genetic studies are available for this species in the Upper Paraná. To assess genetic population structure, we genotyped a sample of 93 individuals from the Lower Uruguay River close to Gualeguaychú city (Entre Ríos, Argentina) at three different times, July 2008 (Winter), September 2008 (Spring) and May 2009 (Fall). All individuals were genotyped for 12 microsatellite loci previously found to be informative to assess populations of P. lineatus. Our results show seasonal variation of the genetic sub-structuring at this locality that may be related to the presence of different migratory stocks throughout the year. The Fall sample includes an additional genetic cluster of individuals not detected in Winter and Spring, suggesting that this species should be considered a mixed stock fishery.

  9. [Characterization of rhizobia causing nodules on leguminous trees native to Uruguay using the rep-PCR technique].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A; Frioni, L

    2003-01-01

    Methods for identifying and following microorganisms in the environment such as soils, water and plant association have been highly developed in recent years. In this study, we used rep-PCR for the characterization of Rhizobium bacteria isolated from legume trees native of Uruguay which permitted to follow them in plant inoculation assays. Among the primers used, ERIC and BOX1AR, the latter allowed the differentiation of isolates from different legumes and the finding of a high level of homology among rhizobia that nodulate the same legume species. Besides, it demonstrated that the profiles of the isolates recovered from nodules of Acacia caven, were identical to the ones used as inoculants; this confirmed the efficiency of these methods to follow these diazotrophs in the environment.

  10. New insights into the characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with apple diseases in southern Brazil and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Velho, Aline Cristina; Alaniz, Sandra; Casanova, Leticia; Mondino, Pedro; Stadnik, Marciel J

    2015-04-01

    Colletotrichum species are associated with Apple bitter rot (ABR) and Glomerella leaf spot (GLS). Whereas both apple diseases occur frequently in Brazil, only the former has been reported in Uruguay. This work was aimed at identifying and comparing morpho-cultural characteristics and pathogenic variability of thirty-nine Colletotrichum isolates from both countries. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and β-tubulin (TUB2) allowed the identification of three species causing ABR and GLS in Brazil, i.e., Colletotrichum fructicola, Colletotrichum karstii, and Colletotrichum nymphaeae; and three species causing ABR in Uruguay, i.e., C. fructicola, Colletotrichum theobromicola, and Colletotrichum melonis. Six groups of colony colours were recorded with group 1 (mycelium white to pink and in reverse pinkish) and group 2 (mycelium white to grey and in reverse pinkish) the most frequent. Isolates of C. fructicola and C. theobromicola were sensitive to benomyl, while C. karstii, C. nymphaeae, and C. melonis were resistant. Conidia were predominantly cylindrical for C. fructicola and C. karstii, fusiform for C. nymphaeae and C. melonis, and obclavate for C. theobromicola. Brazilian isolates caused ABR in wounded fruits, but only five in non-wounded ones. Uruguayan isolates produced symptoms in fruits with or without previous wounding. All Brazilian isolates from GLS and twelve from ABR were able to cause GLS symptoms, while a sole Uruguayan ABR-isolate caused leaf spot symptoms. This study gives a better insight on the new species causing apple disease in both countries and discusses their pathogenic potential.

  11. Trends in early growth indices in the first 24 months of life in Uruguay over the past decade.

    PubMed

    Bove, Isabel; Campoy, Cristina; Uauy, Ricardo; Miranda, Teresa; Cerruti, Florencia

    2014-12-01

    Early growth is an important indicator of health and wellbeing of children and a good predictor of adult health. The objective of this study was to examine trends and determinants of overweight and stunting among infants aged 0 to 23 month(s) over the past decade (1999-2011) in Uruguay. Data were used from four large representative samples of 11,056 infants aged 0-23 month(s), who attended public and private health services in 1999, 2003, 2007, and 2011, using a similar methodology. Linear regression analysis was used for assessing trends in early growth indices and binary logistic regression to estimate the probability of being stunted and overweight. Although prevalence of overweight fell from 12.5% (1999) to 9.5% (2011) and stunting from 13.6% to 10.9% respectively, both rates remained higher than expected. Low birth- weight (LBW) was the main predictor of stunting [OR 6.5 (5.6-7.6)] and macrosomia of overweight [6.7 (5.3-8.3)]. We did not observe changes in LBW (7.8-8.8%) or macrosomia (5.9-6.7%) over the last decade. Boys showed increased chance of being overweight [OR 1.2 (1.04-1.3)]. Being stunted doubles the chances of being overweight [OR 2.5 (2.2-3.0)]. Overweight [OR 7.1 (6.1-8.3)], LBW [OR 13.2 (11.0-15.9)], and non-breastfed infants [OR 1.9 (1.7-2.1)] showed rapid weight gain. Uruguay has taken positive steps to decline the prevalence of stunting and overweight but both remain excessively high.

  12. The Santa Lucia-Aiguá-Merin rifting (Uruguay): an early aborted branch of the South Atlantic break-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossello, E.; López-Gamundí, O. R.; Veroslavsky, G.; de Santa Ana, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Santa Lucía-Aigua-Merin (SaLAM) rift is emplaced in the cratonic basement of SE Uruguay. It covers 450 km from the Rio de La Plata to the southwest to Laguna Merin to the northeast running broadly parallel to the South American plate boundary. It is a narrow, pull apart trough trending N 70° with two distinct depocenters (Santa Lucía and Merin) filled predominantly by Mesozoic volcaniclastic sediments. Alkaline magmatic rocks have been identified in the Minas-Aigua-Lescano uplifted segment that separates both depocenters. The Santa Lucía depocenter or sub basin was filled with a up to 2,500 m thick column of upper Jurassic to Cenozoic volcaniclastic sediments that rest on the structured Precambrian basement. The Merin sub basin is dominated by a thick volcanic sequence associated with a significant gravity anomaly. The SaLAM rift joins southwestard into a triple-junction configuration with the NW-SE trending Salado Basin is was buried by Lower Tertiary to Recent sediments. The SaLAM trough can be interpreted as an aborted branch of the South Atlantic break up; its orientation was probably controlled, at least partially, by the structural grain of the pre-existing Gondwana crystalline basement. Its accessible outcrops provide an excellent opportunity to study the sedimentary, magmatic and tectonic evolution of the early stages of the South Atlantic break up and its potential reactivation during the Andean orogeny that seemed to have affected significant parts of the adjacent large continental platform of Uruguay and Argentina.

  13. New insights into the characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with apple diseases in southern Brazil and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Velho, Aline Cristina; Alaniz, Sandra; Casanova, Leticia; Mondino, Pedro; Stadnik, Marciel J

    2015-04-01

    Colletotrichum species are associated with Apple bitter rot (ABR) and Glomerella leaf spot (GLS). Whereas both apple diseases occur frequently in Brazil, only the former has been reported in Uruguay. This work was aimed at identifying and comparing morpho-cultural characteristics and pathogenic variability of thirty-nine Colletotrichum isolates from both countries. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and β-tubulin (TUB2) allowed the identification of three species causing ABR and GLS in Brazil, i.e., Colletotrichum fructicola, Colletotrichum karstii, and Colletotrichum nymphaeae; and three species causing ABR in Uruguay, i.e., C. fructicola, Colletotrichum theobromicola, and Colletotrichum melonis. Six groups of colony colours were recorded with group 1 (mycelium white to pink and in reverse pinkish) and group 2 (mycelium white to grey and in reverse pinkish) the most frequent. Isolates of C. fructicola and C. theobromicola were sensitive to benomyl, while C. karstii, C. nymphaeae, and C. melonis were resistant. Conidia were predominantly cylindrical for C. fructicola and C. karstii, fusiform for C. nymphaeae and C. melonis, and obclavate for C. theobromicola. Brazilian isolates caused ABR in wounded fruits, but only five in non-wounded ones. Uruguayan isolates produced symptoms in fruits with or without previous wounding. All Brazilian isolates from GLS and twelve from ABR were able to cause GLS symptoms, while a sole Uruguayan ABR-isolate caused leaf spot symptoms. This study gives a better insight on the new species causing apple disease in both countries and discusses their pathogenic potential. PMID:25813510

  14. Trends in Early Growth Indices in the First 24 Months of Life in Uruguay over the Past Decade

    PubMed Central

    Campoy, Cristina; Uauy, Ricardo; Miranda, Teresa; Cerruti, Florencia

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Early growth is an important indicator of health and wellbeing of children and a good predictor of adult health. The objective of this study was to examine trends and determinants of overweight and stunting among infants aged 0 to 23 month(s) over the past decade (1999-2011) in Uruguay. Data were used from four large representative samples of 11,056 infants aged 0-23 month(s), who attended public and private health services in 1999, 2003, 2007, and 2011, using a similar methodology. Linear regression analysis was used for assessing trends in early growth indices and binary logistic regression to estimate the probability of being stunted and overweight. Although prevalence of overweight fell from 12.5% (1999) to 9.5% (2011) and stunting from 13.6% to 10.9% respectively, both rates remained higher than expected. Low birthweight (LBW) was the main predictor of stunting [OR 6.5 (5.6-7.6)] and macrosomia of overweight [6.7 (5.3-8.3)]. We did not observe changes in LBW (7.8-8.8%) or macrosomia (5.9-6.7%) over the last decade. Boys showed increased chance of being overweight [OR 1.2 (1.04-1.3)]. Being stunted doubles the chances of being overweight [OR 2.5 (2.2-3.0)]. Overweight [OR 7.1 (6.1-8.3)], LBW [OR 13.2 (11.0-15.9)], and non-breastfed infants [OR 1.9 (1.7-2.1)] showed rapid weight gain. Uruguay has taken positive steps to decline the prevalence of stunting and overweight but both remain excessively high. PMID:25895193

  15. [The health-disease-care process from the perspective of the users of a primary care clinic in Montevideo, Uruguay: An analysis of therapeutic trajectories].

    PubMed

    Evia Bertullo, Victoria

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze, using an ethnographic approach, the health-disease-care experiences of the users of a multi-specialty clinic that forms part of the Metropolitan Primary Health Care Network of Uruguay's Public Health Services. The fieldwork was carried out in the northeast of Montevideo from July 2012 to November 2013, combining participant observation in social and care spaces and interviews with more than 20 users. In our analysis of care trajectories we found that people incorporate different practices and beliefs when facing their health problems. The use of biomedical health care services is predominant in Uruguay; nevertheless, people engage in self-care practices and in some cases, in the use of folk, religious/magical or alternative remedies. Medical pluralism is therefore observed in facing certain common ailments or significant experiences of disease.

  16. Relationship between male moths of Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) caught in sex pheromone traps and cumulative degree-days in vineyards in southern Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Vidart, María Valeria; Mujica, María Valentina; Calvo, María Victoria; Duarte, Felicia; Bentancourt, Carlos María; Franco, Jorge; Scatoni, Iris Beatriz

    2013-12-01

    Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) has been known in Uruguay for 30 years and only in vineyards, despite being polyphagous. In recent years, this pest has caused sporadic but serious damage on some grapevine cultivars. Understanding the insect's phenology and developing a monitoring program are essential aspects of integrated pest management. We monitored males using sexual pheromone traps on four cultivars of vine, Pinot noir, Tannat, Gewürztraminer, and Cabernet Sauvignon, in two vine-growing establishments in the Department of Canelones and compiled data on the accumulated effective temperatures for the southern area of Uruguay. We determined that this species undergoes three generations per year and overwinters without diapause as larvae on dried grapes remaining after harvest. Using the proportion of cumulative male moths caught from December to May from 2003-2007 on the four cultivars and the sum of effective temperatures above two previously-published lower-threshold temperatures for development, 12.26°C and 13°C, statistically significant logistic models were estimated. Predictions based on the resulting models suggested that they would be acceptable tools to improve the efficiency of integrated management of this pest in Uruguay.

  17. Risk factors associated with human cystic echinococcosis in Florida, Uruguay: results of a mass screening study using ultrasound and serology.

    PubMed

    Carmona, C; Perdomo, R; Carbo, A; Alvarez, C; Monti, J; Grauert, R; Stern, D; Perera, G; Lloyd, S; Bazini, R; Gemmell, M A; Yarzabal, L

    1998-05-01

    Sonographic evidence of asymptomatic Echinococcus granulosus lesions in the liver was found in 156 of 9,515 persons in the Department of Florida, Uruguay. The sensitivity of ELISA and latex agglutination serology compared with ultrasound was 47.6% and 28.1%, respectively, and specificity was > 85%. There was a significant positive association between positive sonography and a personal history of previous but treated Echinococcus infection while those that were seropositive but ultrasound-negative were significantly more likely to have a personal history of infection or a history of infection in their family. Prevalence of infection increased significantly with age. There was no correlation between echinococcosis and dog ownership or home slaughter of sheep but offal disposal was important, with an increased prevalence of infection of 3.2%, 2.8%, and 3.1%, respectively, in persons feeding offal to dogs or burying or burning it compared with a prevalence of 0.8-1.5% in those using other methods of disposal. Almost half the population, when questioned, seemed to have sound knowledge about E. granulosus and described correct treatment of E. granulosus in dogs but this did not affect prevalence. There was a significant positive association between infection and the presence of a fenced fruit/vegetable garden and use of rural waters, particularly the cachimba (a small dam) and the aljibe (a cistern or tank) that collect rainwater from the ground surface and roofs, respectively.

  18. Assessing the impacts of climate change on winter crop production in Uruguay and Argentina using crop simulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Baethgen, W.E.; Magrin, G.O.

    1995-12-31

    Enhanced greenhouse effect caused by the increase in atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2} and other trace gases could lead to higher global surface temperature and altered hydrological cycles. Most possible climate change scenarios include higher atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, higher temperatures, and changes in precipitation. Three global climate models (GCMs) were applied to generate climate change scenarios for the Pampas region in southern South America. The generated scenarios were then used with crop simulation models to study the possible impact of climate change on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production in the Pampas. The authors evaluated the impact of possible climate change scenarios on wheat and barley production in Uruguay for a wide range of soil and crop management strategies including planting dates, cultivar types, fertilizer management, and tillage practices. They also studied the impact of climate change on wheat production across two transects of the Pampas: north to south transect with decreasing temperature, and east to west transect with decreasing precipitation. Finally, sensitivity analyses were conducted for both, the Uruguayan site and the transects, by increasing daily maximum and minimum temperature by 0, 2, and 4 C, and changing the precipitation by {minus}20, 0, and +20%.

  19. The late Paleozoic palynological diversity in southernmost Paraná (Uruguay), Claromecó and Paganzo basins (Argentina), Western Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beri, Ángeles; Gutiérrez, Pedro R.; Balarino, M. Lucía

    2015-12-01

    This study explores the changes in palynoflora diversity of the late Paleozoic in boreholes DI.NA.MI.GE. 254 (26 samples) and DI.NA.MI.GE. 221 (14 samples) of the Paraná Basin in Uruguay and in 18 surface samples of the La Deheza Formation (Paganzo Basin) and 10 samples of borehole UTAL.CMM1.La Estrella.x-1 (Claromecó Basin) in Argentina. Possible relationships among biostratigraphic zones, diversity levels, facies and climatic evolution patterns in Western Gondwana are studied. Diversity curves of boreholes 221 and 254 and the La Deheza Formation outcrop exhibit similar diversity evolution patterns, i.e., an increase in lower strata diversity and a decrease in upper strata diversity. The disappearance events are determined to be more prominent in biozones of the Cisuralian to the Guadalupian age and less prominent in biozones of the early Cisuralian age. The number of genera raises from the glaciomarine facies, through the deltaic and the marine facies, up to the shallow marine or lagoon facies, in which the disappearance rates become more prominent. . The diversity of the lower part of the La Estrella borehole is lesser than that of the other sequences These diversity, disappearance and appearance behaviors may reflect post-glacial climatic amelioration patterns and the beginning of an arid phase.

  20. Viral and bacterial contamination in a sedimentary aquifer in Uruguay: evaluation of coliforms as regional indicators of viral contamination.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamazo, Pablo; Colina, Rodney; Victoria, Matias; Alvareda, Elena; Burutatran, Luciana; Ramos, Julian; Olivera, María; Soler, Joan

    2015-04-01

    In many areas of Uruguay groundwater is the only source of water for human consumption and for industrial-agricultural economic activities. Traditionally considered as a safe source, groundwater is commonly used without any treatment. The Uruguayan law requires bacteriological (fecal) analysis for most water uses, but virological analyses are not mentioned in the legislation. In the Salto district, where groundwater is used for human consumption and for agricultural activities, bacterial contamination has been detected in several wells but no viruses analysis have been performed. The Republic University (UDELAR), with the support of the National Agency for Research and Innovation (ANII), is studying the incidence of virus and fecal bacteria in groundwater on an intensive agriculture area of the Salto district. An initial screening campaign of 44 wells was performed in which, besides total and fecal coliforms, rotavirus and adenovirus were detected. A subgroup of the screening wells (15) where selected for bimonthly sampling during a year. In accordance with literature results, single well data analysis shows that coliform and viral contamination can be considered as independent variables. However, when spatial data is integrated, coliform and viral contamination show linear correlation. In this work we present the survey results, we analyse the temporal incidence of variables like precipitation, temperature and chemical composition in well contamination and we discuss the value of coliforms as global indicator of viral contamination for the Salto aquifer.

  1. Structural evolution of the Sarandí del Yí Shear Zone, Uruguay: kinematics, deformation conditions and tectonic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oriolo, S.; Oyhantçabal, P.; Heidelbach, F.; Wemmer, K.; Siegesmund, S.

    2015-10-01

    The Sarandí del Yí Shear Zone is a crustal-scale shear zone that separates the Piedra Alta Terrane from the Nico Pérez Terrane and the Dom Feliciano Belt in southern Uruguay. It represents the eastern margin of the Río de la Plata Craton and, consequently, one of the main structural features of the Precambrian basement of Western Gondwana. This shear zone first underwent dextral shearing under upper to middle amphibolite facies conditions, giving rise to the reactivation of pre-existing crustal fabrics in the easternmost Piedra Alta Terrane. Afterwards, pure-shear-dominated sinistral shearing with contemporaneous magmatism took place under lower amphibolite to upper greenschist facies conditions. The mylonites resulting from this event were then locally reactivated by a cataclastic deformation. This evolution points to strain localization under progressively retrograde conditions with time, indicating that the Sarandí del Yí Shear Zone represents an example of a thinning shear zone related to the collisional to post-collisional evolution of the Dom Feliciano Belt that occurred between the Meso- to Neoproterozoic (>600 Ma) and late Ediacaran-lower Cambrian times.

  2. Dietary benzo[a]pyrene, alcohol drinking, and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Alvaro L; De Stefani, Eduardo; Correa, Pelayo; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Boffetta, Paolo; Acosta, Gisele; Mendilaharsu, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In order to determine to the effect of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on breast cancer risk we conducted a case-control study in the time period 1996-2004. The study included 1,098 participants (460 cases and 638 controls). All the patients were drawn from the four major hospitals in Montevideo, Uruguay. Statistical analysis was performed using unconditional multiple logistic regression and the models included age, residence, urban/rural status, education, monthly income, body mass index, menopausal status, age at menarche, parity, smoking index, alcohol drinking, mate consumption, total energy, total vegetables and fruits, and BaP intake. The highest vs. the lowest quartile of BaP intake (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.3) was significantly associated with breast cancer risk. Alcohol drinking was also directly associated with breast cancer risk (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.19-2.23) and the joint effect of BaP and alcohol drinking showed an elevated risk of the disease (OR 3.32, 95% CI 2.17-5.06). The present study suggests that elevated consumption of BaP could play an important role in the etiology of breast cancer. This effect is enhanced by the intake of alcohol. PMID:22126482

  3. A bentonite bed in the Aceguá (RS, Brazil) and Melo (Uruguay) areas: a highly crystallized montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calarge, Liane Maria; Meunier, Alain; Formoso, Milton L. L.

    2003-06-01

    Two occurrences of bentonite beds have been studied in Aceguá (RS, Brazil) and Melo (Uruguay). Despite their different thicknesses, the two profiles seem to belong to the same bentonite bed because of their similar petrographical and mineralogical properties (color, density, composition). Both are composed of a nearly pure smectite mineral that is dominantly a montmorillonite. High amounts of Mg ions in the octahedral sheet elevate the layer charge approximately 0.5 per Si 4O 10. The layer charge is mostly compensated for by Ca 2+ ions in the interlayer. The rare earth element (REE) patterns are different from the post-Archean Australian average shale (PAAS) standard. In particular, when the data are PAAS normalized, the pattern obtained shows that the bentonite is LREE depleted. Thus, it cannot have originated from detrital sources. Despite diagenetic conditions that favor the crystallization of random illite/smectite mixed layers from detrital clays in the surrounding formations, the mineral reactions in the bentonite bed are limited to a few Al for Si substitutions in the tetrahedral sheets. The clays remain dominantly montmorillonite with abnormally high crystallinity.

  4. Occurrence of Clinical and Sub-Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Herds in the West Littoral Region in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Gianneechini, R; Concha, C; Rivero, R; Delucci, I; López, J Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-nine dairy farms were selected to determine the incidence of clinical mastitis, prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis and bacterial aetiology in the West Littoral Region of Uruguay. In samples taken by the owner and frozen at -20°C during a week the incidence rate of clinical mastitis was determined as 1.2 cases per 100 cow-months at risk. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolated pathogen in 37.5% of 40 milk samples from clinical cases obtained in 1 month. No bacteria grew in the 32.5% of the total samples. A sub-sample including 1077 dairy cows from randomly selected farms was used to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis. These samples were taken on one visit to each farm. The prevalence was 52.4% on a cow basis and 26.7% on an udder quarter basis. In 55.1% of the quarters of the selected animals with more than 300 000 cells/ml there was no growth. The isolated pathogens from sub-clinical cases and their relative frequencies were: Staphylococcus aureus 62.8%, Streptococcus agalactiae 11.3%, Enterococcus sp. 8%, coagulase-negative staphylococci 7.4%, Streptococus uberis 6.4%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae 1.8%, Escherichia coli 1.5% and Staphylococcus hyicus coagulase-positive 0.6%. PMID:12831175

  5. Acute contact toxicity test of insecticides (Cipermetrina 25, Lorsban 48E, Thionex 35) on honeybees in the southwestern zone of Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas; Mendoza-Spina, Yamandú; Branchiccela, María Belén

    2012-07-01

    Glyphosate-resistant soybean cultivation is expanding rapidly in Uruguay, with its land area having increased by 95 times during the past 10 years. Because of the region's Neotropical conditions, insecticide use is required to ensure adequate soybean productivity. However, in areas shared by soybean crops and beekeepers - such as the southwestern zone of Uruguay (SWZU) - the use of insecticides can increase the risks of honeybee death and honey contamination. Uruguayan commercial and legal guidelines set out practices and field doses designed to prevent acute intoxication with insecticides. However, honeybees in the SWZU are predominantly a polyhybrid subspecies different from that used to set international reference values, and hence they may have a different acute toxicity response, thus rendering such precautions ineffective. The aim of this work was to assess the acute toxicity response of polyhybrid honeybees in the SWZU to cypermethrin (commercial formulation: Cipermetrina 25 Agrin®), chlorpyrifos (commercial formulation: Lorsban 48E®), and endosulfan (commercial formulation: Thionex 35®). Acute toxicity bioassays were conducted to determine the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of each insecticide for the honeybees. The results indicate that, compared with EU reference values, SWZU honeybees have a higher toxicological sensitivity to chlorpyrifos and endosulfan, and a lower toxicological sensitivity to cypermethrin, based on the commercial formulations tested. However, when these results were adjusted according to their field dose equivalents, only chlorpyrifos emerged as a potential problem for beekeeping, as the maximum recommended field dose of Lorsban 48E® for soybean crops in Uruguay is 23 times the corresponding LD(50) for honeybees in the SWZU. PMID:22440636

  6. Monitoring the effects of climate and agriculture intensity on nutrient fluxes in lowland streams: a comparison between temperate Denmark and subtropical Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyenola, Guillermo; Meerhof, Mariane; Teixeira de Mello, Franco; González-Bergonzoni, Ivan; Graeber, Daniel; Vidal, Nicolas; Mazzeo, Nestor; Ovesen, Niels; Jeppesen, Erik; Thodsen, Hans; Kronvang, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Climate is changing towards more extreme conditions all over the world. At the same time, land use is becoming more intensive worldwide and particularly in many developing countries, whereas several developed countries are trying to reduce the impacts of intensive agricultural production and lower the excessive nutrient loading and eutrophication symptoms in water bodies. In 2009, we initiated a comparative research project between the subtropical region (Uruguay) and the temperate region (Denmark) to compare the hydrology and nutrient fluxes in paired micro-catchments with extensive production or intensive agriculture. The four selected streams drained catchments of similar size (7 to 19 km2). We have established similarly equipped monitoring stations in the four micro-catchments in spring (November 2009, Uruguay; March 2010, Denmark) to monitor the effects of land use and agriculture intensity on stream hydrology and nutrient concentrations and fluxes under different climate conditions. We have conducted high frequency measurements in the four lowland streams with underwater probes (turbidity, pH, conductivity and oxygen measured every 15 minutes), fortnight grab sampling of water and automatic sampling of composite water samples for nutrient analysis (total and dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus; sampled every four hours and accumulated fortnightly). Moreover, water level and meteorological information (precipitation, air temperature, global radiation, humidity) has been recorded every 10 minutes and instantaneous flow measurements have been conducted at regular intervals, to facilitate the calculation of instantaneous discharge from continuous records of water level (stage-discharge relationships). We will show results of ca. 2 years from this comparative study between Uruguay and Denmark, and the importance of differences in climate and land use will be discussed.

  7. Effectiveness of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against vaccine-type invasive disease among children in Uruguay: an evaluation using existing data.

    PubMed

    Picón, Teresa; Alonso, Lucía; García Gabarrot, Gabriela; Speranza, Noelia; Casas, Mariana; Arrieta, Fernando; Camou, Teresa; Rosa, Raquel; De Oliveira, Lucia Helena; Verani, Jennifer Rabke

    2013-07-01

    The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced into the routine immunization program in Uruguay in March 2008 with a 2-dose primary series (given at 2 and 4 months) plus a booster (at 12 months) and a catch-up campaign (two doses given at 15 and 17 months). We used a case-control methodology and existing laboratory surveillance and immunization registry data from Uruguay to evaluate PCV7 effectiveness against vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (VT-IPD). Cases of VT-IPD (with pneumococcus obtained from a normally sterile site) were identified through the National Reference Laboratory. Age- and neighborhood-matched controls were obtained through a national immunization registry in which all children are enrolled at birth regardless of vaccine receipt; all eligible controls were included. Immunization status of cases and controls was assessed through the immunization registry, and conditional logistic regression was used to calculate PCV7 effectiveness. Between April 2008 and February 2010, 44 cases of VT-IPD among children<5 years were identified; 43 (98%) of those children were located in the registry. Among located case patients, 7 (16.3%) were age-eligible to have received at least one dose of PCV7. A total of 637 matched controls were included. Vaccine effectiveness was 91.3% (95% CI: 46.4, 98.6) for ≥ 1 PCV7 doses and 94.8% (95% CI: 43.1, 99.5) for ≥ 2 PCV7 doses. Using existing data we demonstrated high effectiveness of PCV7 against VT-IPD in Uruguay-a middle-income country using a 2-dose primary series plus a booster dose and a limited catch-up campaign. These data also highlight the utility of surveillance and high-quality immunization registries for evaluating the effectiveness of vaccines.

  8. Acute contact toxicity test of insecticides (Cipermetrina 25, Lorsban 48E, Thionex 35) on honeybees in the southwestern zone of Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas; Mendoza-Spina, Yamandú; Branchiccela, María Belén

    2012-07-01

    Glyphosate-resistant soybean cultivation is expanding rapidly in Uruguay, with its land area having increased by 95 times during the past 10 years. Because of the region's Neotropical conditions, insecticide use is required to ensure adequate soybean productivity. However, in areas shared by soybean crops and beekeepers - such as the southwestern zone of Uruguay (SWZU) - the use of insecticides can increase the risks of honeybee death and honey contamination. Uruguayan commercial and legal guidelines set out practices and field doses designed to prevent acute intoxication with insecticides. However, honeybees in the SWZU are predominantly a polyhybrid subspecies different from that used to set international reference values, and hence they may have a different acute toxicity response, thus rendering such precautions ineffective. The aim of this work was to assess the acute toxicity response of polyhybrid honeybees in the SWZU to cypermethrin (commercial formulation: Cipermetrina 25 Agrin®), chlorpyrifos (commercial formulation: Lorsban 48E®), and endosulfan (commercial formulation: Thionex 35®). Acute toxicity bioassays were conducted to determine the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of each insecticide for the honeybees. The results indicate that, compared with EU reference values, SWZU honeybees have a higher toxicological sensitivity to chlorpyrifos and endosulfan, and a lower toxicological sensitivity to cypermethrin, based on the commercial formulations tested. However, when these results were adjusted according to their field dose equivalents, only chlorpyrifos emerged as a potential problem for beekeeping, as the maximum recommended field dose of Lorsban 48E® for soybean crops in Uruguay is 23 times the corresponding LD(50) for honeybees in the SWZU.

  9. Soil erosion and mitigation measures on rented and owned fields in Uruguay: the impact of transgenic soya and foreign investors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caon, Lucrezia; Kessler, Aad; Keesstra, Saskia; Cruze, Rick

    2014-05-01

    Governments, companies and individuals with financial capital to invest, are worldwide buying or renting land in developing or third world countries. Uruguay is a developing country whose economy is mainly based on agriculture. Since 2000 many foreigners started to invest in the Uruguayan agricultural sector and to practice intensive large-scale agriculture. The significant presence of foreigners in the country is proven by the fact that almost 360 000 ha out of the 500 000 ha forming the study area were managed by foreigners in 2012. Nowadays farmers have abandoned the traditional crop rotation plan that included pasture to produce grain for export, and transgenic soya (soya RR) became the main crop planted by both foreigners and locals. Besides the high soil erosion rates related to having soya as main crop, planting soya implies the use of glyphosate, a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide leading to important environmental impacts. It is commonly said that foreigners investing in poor countries are exploiting the local natural resources aiming to get the highest possible profit from them. Is this a valid assumption in Uruguay? The purpose of this study was to compare the land management style of foreign and local farmers and to relate it to the soil erosion occurring in the study area. The land tenure (rented or owned fields) and the type of farmer interviewed ("individual farmer" equivalent to L.L.C. or "anonymous society" equivalent to P.L.C.) were taken into consideration during the analysis. Based on what stated by the farmers interviewed, the soil erosion simulations considered the seven most popular crop rotation plans on rented and owned fields, three ideals crop rotation plans, the application of no mitigation measures, and the construction of terraces and conservation buffers. Depending on the crop rotation plan, soils characterized by slope gradients higher than 2 resulted in soil erosion rates higher than the 7 ton/ha/year allowed by law. The highest

  10. Extreme late chronotypes and social jetlag challenged by Antarctic conditions in a population of university students from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Tassino, Bettina; Horta, Stefany; Santana, Noelia; Levandovski, Rosa; Silva, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In humans, a person's chronotype depends on environmental cues and on individual characteristics, with late chronotypes prevailing in youth. Social jetlag (SJL), the misalignment between an individual׳s biological clock and social time, is higher in late chronotypes. Strong SJL is expected in Uruguayan university students with morning class schedules and very late entertainment activities. Sleep disorders have been reported in Antarctic inhabitants, that might be a response to the extreme environment or to the strictness of Antarctic life. We evaluated, for the first time in Uruguay, the chronotypes and SJL of 17 undergraduate students of the First Uruguayan Summer School on Antarctic Research, using Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ) and sleep logs (SL) recorded during 3 phases: pre-Antarctic, Antarctic, and post-Antarctic. The midsleep point of free days corrected for sleep debt on work days (MSFsc,) was used as proxy of individuals' chronotype, whose values (around 6 a.m.) are the latest ever reported. We found a SJL of around 2 h in average, which correlated positively with MSFsc, confirming that late chronotypes generate a higher sleep debt during weekdays. Midsleep point and sleep duration significantly decreased between pre-Antarctic and Antarctic phases, and sleep duration rebounded to significant higher values in the post-Antarctic phase. Waking time, but not sleep onset time, significantly varied among phases. This evidence suggests that sleep schedules more likely depended on the social agenda than on the environmental light-dark shifts. High motivation of students towards Antarctic activities likely induced a subjective perception of welfare non-dependent on sleep duration. PMID:27226819

  11. Extreme late chronotypes and social jetlag challenged by Antarctic conditions in a population of university students from Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Tassino, Bettina; Horta, Stefany; Santana, Noelia; Levandovski, Rosa; Silva, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In humans, a person’s chronotype depends on environmental cues and on individual characteristics, with late chronotypes prevailing in youth. Social jetlag (SJL), the misalignment between an individual׳s biological clock and social time, is higher in late chronotypes. Strong SJL is expected in Uruguayan university students with morning class schedules and very late entertainment activities. Sleep disorders have been reported in Antarctic inhabitants, that might be a response to the extreme environment or to the strictness of Antarctic life. We evaluated, for the first time in Uruguay, the chronotypes and SJL of 17 undergraduate students of the First Uruguayan Summer School on Antarctic Research, using Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ) and sleep logs (SL) recorded during 3 phases: pre-Antarctic, Antarctic, and post-Antarctic. The midsleep point of free days corrected for sleep debt on work days (MSFsc,) was used as proxy of individuals’ chronotype, whose values (around 6 a.m.) are the latest ever reported. We found a SJL of around 2 h in average, which correlated positively with MSFsc, confirming that late chronotypes generate a higher sleep debt during weekdays. Midsleep point and sleep duration significantly decreased between pre-Antarctic and Antarctic phases, and sleep duration rebounded to significant higher values in the post-Antarctic phase. Waking time, but not sleep onset time, significantly varied among phases. This evidence suggests that sleep schedules more likely depended on the social agenda than on the environmental light–dark shifts. High motivation of students towards Antarctic activities likely induced a subjective perception of welfare non-dependent on sleep duration. PMID:27226819

  12. Erosive tooth wear among 12-year-old schoolchildren: a population-based cross-sectional study in Montevideo, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Loureiro, Licet; Fabruccini Fager, Anunzziatta; Alves, Luana Severo; Alvarez Vaz, Ramón; Maltz, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, extent, severity, intraoral distribution and risk indicators for erosive tooth wear (ETW) among 12-year-old schoolchildren from Montevideo, Uruguay. A population-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted using a representative sample of 1,136 12-year-old schoolchildren attending public and private schools. Parents answered questions on socioeconomic status and general health. Schoolchildren answered questions on dietary and oral hygiene habits. Two calibrated examiners recorded ETW on permanent teeth according to the Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) score system. Logistic regression models were performed to assess the association between the predictor variables and the prevalence of ETW (overall and severe ETW). Odds ratios (OR) and the respective 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. The prevalence of ETW was 52.9%, being mild erosion (BEWE = 1) in the vast majority of cases (48.5%). Severe erosion (BEWE ≥2) was detected in 4.4% of schoolchildren. The overall prevalence of ETW differed significantly between categories of gender and socioeconomic status, but only between gender in the severe ETW analysis. The overall extent of ETW was significantly different between categories of gender, socioeconomic status, and swish before swallow. The extent of severe ETW differed between categories of swish before swallow and brushing frequency. In the logistic regression analysis, no association was found between the studied variables and the overall prevalence of ETW. Males were more likely to have severe ETW than females (OR = 3.22, 95% CI = 1.50-6.89). ETW may be considered a public health problem among 12-year-old-Uruguayan schoolchildren.

  13. Pregnant women's secondhand smoke exposure and receipt of screening and brief advice by prenatal care providers in Argentina and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Tong, Van T; Morello, Paola; Alemán, Alicia; Johnson, Carolyn; Dietz, Patricia M; Farr, Sherry L; Mazzoni, Agustina; Berrueta, Mabel; Colomar, Mercedes; Ciganda, Alvaro; Becú, Ana; Bittar Gonzalez, Maria G; Llambi, Laura; Gibbons, Luz; Smith, Ruben A; Buekens, Pierre; Belizán, José M; Althabe, Fernando

    2015-06-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure has negative effects on maternal and infant health. SHS exposure among pregnant women in Argentina and Uruguay has not been previously described, nor has the proportion of those who have received screening and advice to avoid SHS during prenatal care. Women who attended one of 21 clusters of publicly-funded prenatal care clinics were interviewed regarding SHS exposure during pregnancy at their delivery hospitalization during 2011-2012. Analyses were conducted using SURVEYFREQ procedure in SAS version 9.3 to account for prenatal clinic clusters. Of 3,427 pregnant women, 43.4 % had a partner who smoked, 52.3 % lived with household members who smoked cigarettes, and 34.4 % had no or partial smoke-free home rule. Of 528 pregnant women who worked outside of the home, 21.6 % reported past month SHS exposure at work and 38.1 % reported no or partial smoke-free work policy. Overall, 35.9 % of women were exposed to SHS at home or work. In at least one prenatal care visit, 67.2 % of women were screened for SHS exposure, and 56.6 % received advice to avoid SHS. Also, 52.6 % of women always avoided SHS for their unborn baby's health. In summary, a third of pregnant women attending publicly-funded prenatal clinics were exposed to SHS, and only half of pregnant women always avoided SHS for their unborn baby's health. Provider screening and advice rates can be improved in these prenatal care settings, as all pregnant women should be screened and advised of the harms of SHS and how to avoid it.

  14. Network analysis of cattle movements in Uruguay: Quantifying heterogeneity for risk-based disease surveillance and control.

    PubMed

    VanderWaal, Kimberly L; Picasso, Catalina; Enns, Eva A; Craft, Meggan E; Alvarez, Julio; Fernandez, Federico; Gil, Andres; Perez, Andres; Wells, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock between premises is one of the foremost factors contributing to the spread of infectious diseases of livestock. In part to address this issue, the origin and destination for all cattle movements in Uruguay are registered by law. This information has great potential to be used in assessing the risk of disease spread in the Uruguayan cattle population. Here, we analyze cattle movements from 2008 to 2013 using network analysis in order to understand the flows of animals in the Uruguayan cattle industry and to identify targets for surveillance and control measures. Cattle movements were represented as seasonal and annual networks in which farms represented nodes and nodes were linked based on the frequency and quantity of cattle moved. At the farm level, the distribution of the number of unique farms each farm is connected to through outgoing and incoming movements, as well as the number of animals moved, was highly right-skewed; the majority of farms had few to no contacts, whereas the 10% most highly connected farms accounted for 72-83% of animals moved annually. This extreme level of heterogeneity in movement patterns indicates that some farms may be disproportionately important for pathogen spread. Different production types exhibited characteristic patterns of farm-level connectivity, with some types, such a dairies, showing consistently higher levels of centrality. In addition, the observed networks were characterized by lower levels of connectivity and higher levels of heterogeneity than random networks of the same size and density, both of which have major implications for disease dynamics and control strategies. This represents the first in-depth analysis of farm-level livestock movements within South America, and highlights the importance of collecting livestock movement data in order to understand the vulnerability of livestock trade networks to invasion by infectious diseases.

  15. ¹⁷⁷Lu-Labeled Agents for Neuroendocrine Tumor Therapy and Bone Pain Palliation in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Balter, Henia; Victoria, Trindade; Mariella, Terán; Javier, Gaudiano; Rodolfo, Ferrando; Andrea, Paolino; Graciela, Rodriguez; Juan, Hermida; Eugenia, De Marco; Patricia, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Lutetium-177 is an emerging radionuclide due its convenient chemical and nuclear properties. In this paper we describe the development and evaluation in Uruguay of the targeted 177Lu labelled radiopharmaceuticals EDTMP (for bone pain palliation) and DOTA-TATE (neuroendocrine tumors). We optimized the preparation of these 177Lu radiopharmaceuticals including radiolabelling, quality control methods, in vitro and in vivo stability and their therapeutic application in patients. Radiation dosimetry aspects of 177Lu are also included. Nine male patients with prostate cancer and four female patients with breast carcinoma with multiple bone metastatic lesions were treated with 177Lu-EDTMP. Four patients with gastroentheropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NET) and one patient with bronchial NET were treated with 1- 3 cycles with a cumulative dose of 4.44-22.2 GBq of 177Lu-DOTA-TATE. Scintigraphic images of the patients treated with 177Lu-EDTMP evidenced high and rapid uptake in bone metastasis, remaining after 7 days post administration. Images allow skeletal visualization with high definition and demonstrate increased uptake in bone metastases. For 177Lu-DOTA-TATE, partial remissions were obtained in 4 patients and the remaining patient did not show significant progression 3 months after the second cycle. No serious adverse effects were registered, even in two patients with confirmed renal disease and high risk for renal disease Dosimetry assessments confirm the predictive value of the personalized therapy with radiolabelled peptides. We found it is possible to accumulate high therapeutic doses in tumours in sequential administrations of 177Lu-DOTA-TATE, increasing the probability of biological response without significant impairment of the renal function in patients with risk factors. These results demonstrate the attractive therapeutic properties of these two 177Lu labelled agents and the feasibility of this metabolic therapy in regions far away from 177Lu producing

  16. ¹⁷⁷Lu-Labeled Agents for Neuroendocrine Tumor Therapy and Bone Pain Palliation in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Balter, Henia; Victoria, Trindade; Mariella, Terán; Javier, Gaudiano; Rodolfo, Ferrando; Andrea, Paolino; Graciela, Rodriguez; Juan, Hermida; Eugenia, De Marco; Patricia, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Lutetium-177 is an emerging radionuclide due its convenient chemical and nuclear properties. In this paper we describe the development and evaluation in Uruguay of the targeted 177Lu labelled radiopharmaceuticals EDTMP (for bone pain palliation) and DOTA-TATE (neuroendocrine tumors). We optimized the preparation of these 177Lu radiopharmaceuticals including radiolabelling, quality control methods, in vitro and in vivo stability and their therapeutic application in patients. Radiation dosimetry aspects of 177Lu are also included. Nine male patients with prostate cancer and four female patients with breast carcinoma with multiple bone metastatic lesions were treated with 177Lu-EDTMP. Four patients with gastroentheropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NET) and one patient with bronchial NET were treated with 1- 3 cycles with a cumulative dose of 4.44-22.2 GBq of 177Lu-DOTA-TATE. Scintigraphic images of the patients treated with 177Lu-EDTMP evidenced high and rapid uptake in bone metastasis, remaining after 7 days post administration. Images allow skeletal visualization with high definition and demonstrate increased uptake in bone metastases. For 177Lu-DOTA-TATE, partial remissions were obtained in 4 patients and the remaining patient did not show significant progression 3 months after the second cycle. No serious adverse effects were registered, even in two patients with confirmed renal disease and high risk for renal disease Dosimetry assessments confirm the predictive value of the personalized therapy with radiolabelled peptides. We found it is possible to accumulate high therapeutic doses in tumours in sequential administrations of 177Lu-DOTA-TATE, increasing the probability of biological response without significant impairment of the renal function in patients with risk factors. These results demonstrate the attractive therapeutic properties of these two 177Lu labelled agents and the feasibility of this metabolic therapy in regions far away from 177Lu producing

  17. Extreme late chronotypes and social jetlag challenged by Antarctic conditions in a population of university students from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Tassino, Bettina; Horta, Stefany; Santana, Noelia; Levandovski, Rosa; Silva, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In humans, a person's chronotype depends on environmental cues and on individual characteristics, with late chronotypes prevailing in youth. Social jetlag (SJL), the misalignment between an individual׳s biological clock and social time, is higher in late chronotypes. Strong SJL is expected in Uruguayan university students with morning class schedules and very late entertainment activities. Sleep disorders have been reported in Antarctic inhabitants, that might be a response to the extreme environment or to the strictness of Antarctic life. We evaluated, for the first time in Uruguay, the chronotypes and SJL of 17 undergraduate students of the First Uruguayan Summer School on Antarctic Research, using Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ) and sleep logs (SL) recorded during 3 phases: pre-Antarctic, Antarctic, and post-Antarctic. The midsleep point of free days corrected for sleep debt on work days (MSFsc,) was used as proxy of individuals' chronotype, whose values (around 6 a.m.) are the latest ever reported. We found a SJL of around 2 h in average, which correlated positively with MSFsc, confirming that late chronotypes generate a higher sleep debt during weekdays. Midsleep point and sleep duration significantly decreased between pre-Antarctic and Antarctic phases, and sleep duration rebounded to significant higher values in the post-Antarctic phase. Waking time, but not sleep onset time, significantly varied among phases. This evidence suggests that sleep schedules more likely depended on the social agenda than on the environmental light-dark shifts. High motivation of students towards Antarctic activities likely induced a subjective perception of welfare non-dependent on sleep duration.

  18. Preliminary AMS Study in Cretaceous Igneous Rocks of Valle Chico Complex, Uruguay: Statistical Determination of Magnetic Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcelona, H.; Mena, M.; Sanchez-Bettucci, L.

    2009-05-01

    The Valle Chico Complex, at southeast Uruguay, is related Paraná-Etendeka Province. The study involved basaltic lavas, quarz-syenites, and rhyolitic and trachytic dikes. Samples were taken from 18 sites and the AMS of 250 specimens was analyzed. The AMS is modeled by a second order tensor K and it graphical representation is a symmetric ellipsoid. The axes relations determine parameters which describe different properties like shape, lineation, and foliation, degree of anisotropy and bulk magnetic susceptibility. Under this perspective, one lava, dike, or igneous body can be considered a mosaic of magnetic susceptibility domains (MSD). The DSM is an area with specific degree of homogeneity in the distribution of parameters values and cinematic conditions. An average tensor would weigh only one MSD, but if the site is a mosaic, subsets of specimens with similar parameters can be created. Hypothesis tests can be used to establish parameter similarities. It would be suitable considered as a MSD the subsets with statistically significant differences in at least one of its means parameters, and therefore, be treated independently. Once defined the MSDs the tensor analysis continues. The basalt-andesitic lavas present MSD with an NNW magnetic foliation, dipping 10. The K1 are sub-horizontal, oriented E-W and reprsent the magmatic flow direction. The quartz-syenites show a variable magnetic fabric or prolate ellipsoids mayor axes dispose parallel to the flow direction (10 to the SSE). Deformed syenites show N300/11 magnetic foliation, consistent with the trend of fractures. The K1 is subvertical. The MSD defined in rhyolitic dikes have magnetic foliations consistent with the structural trend. The trachytic dikes show an important indetermination in the magnetic response. However, a 62/N90 magnetic lineation was defined. The MSDs obtained are consistent with the geological structures and contribute to the knowledge of the tectonic, magmatic and kinematic events.

  19. Pregnant Women's Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Receipt of Screening and Brief Advice by Prenatal Care Providers in Argentina and Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Van T.; Morello, Paola; Alemán, Alicia; Johnson, Carolyn; Dietz, Patricia M.; Farr, Sherry L.; Mazzoni, Agustina; Berrueta, Mabel; Colomar, Mercedes; Ciganda, Alvaro; Becú, Ana; Gonzalez, Maria G. Bittar; Llambi, Laura; Gibbons, Luz; Smith, Ruben A.; Buekens, Pierre; Belizán, José M.; Althabe, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure has negative effects on maternal and infant health. SHS exposure among pregnant women in Argentina and Uruguay has not been previously described, nor has the proportion of those who have received screening and advice to avoid SHS during prenatal care. Women who attended one of 21 clusters of publicly-funded prenatal care clinics were interviewed regarding SHS exposure during pregnancy at their delivery hospitalization during 2011–2012. Analyses were conducted using SURVEYFREQ procedure in SAS version 9.3 to account for prenatal clinic clusters. Of 3,427 pregnant women, 43.4 % had a partner who smoked, 52.3 % lived with household members who smoked cigarettes, and 34.4 % had no or partial smoke-free home rule. Of 528 pregnant women who worked outside of the home, 21.6 % reported past month SHS exposure at work and 38.1 % reported no or partial smoke-free work policy. Overall, 35.9 % of women were exposed to SHS at home or work. In at least one prenatal care visit, 67.2 % of women were screened for SHS exposure, and 56.6 % received advice to avoid SHS. Also, 52.6 % of women always avoided SHS for their unborn baby's health. In summary, a third of pregnant women attending publicly-funded prenatal clinics were exposed to SHS, and only half of pregnant women always avoided SHS for their unborn baby's health. Provider screening and advice rates can be improved in these prenatal care settings, as all pregnant women should be screened and advised of the harms of SHS and how to avoid it. PMID:25427876

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Alfalfa-Nodulating Rhizobia Present in Acidic Soils of Central Argentina and Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    del Papa, María F.; Balagué, Laura J.; Sowinski, Susana Castro; Wegener, Caren; Segundo, Eduardo; Abarca, Francisco Martínez; Toro, Nicolás; Niehaus, Karsten; Pühler, Alfred; Aguilar, O. Mario; Martínez-Drets, Gloria; Lagares, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of alfalfa-nodulating rhizobia from acid soils of different locations in Central Argentina and Uruguay. A collection of 465 isolates was assembled, and the rhizobia were characterized for acid tolerance. Growth tests revealed the existence of 15 acid-tolerant (AT) isolates which were able to grow at pH 5.0 and formed nodules in alfalfa with a low rate of nitrogen fixation. Analysis of those isolates, including partial sequencing of the genes encoding 16S rRNA and genomic PCR-fingerprinting with MBOREP1 and BOXC1 primers, demonstrated that the new isolates share a genetic background closely related to that of the previously reported Rhizobium sp. Or191 recovered from an acid soil in Oregon (B. D. Eardly, J. P. Young, and R. K. Selander, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:1809–1815, 1992). Growth curves, melanin production, temperature tolerance, and megaplasmid profiles of the AT isolates were all coincident with these characteristics in strain Or191. In addition to the ability of all of these strains to nodulate alfalfa (Medicago sativa) inefficiently, the AT isolates also nodulated the common bean and Leucaena leucocephala, showing an extended host range for nodulation of legumes. In alfalfa, the time course of nodule formation by the AT isolate LPU 83 showed a continued nodulation restricted to the emerging secondary roots, which was probably related to the low rate of nitrogen fixation by the largely ineffective nodules. Results demonstrate the complexity of the rhizobial populations present in the acidic soils represented by a main group of N2-fixing rhizobia and a second group of ineffective and less-predominant isolates related to the AT strain Or191. PMID:10103231

  1. Hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction before and after implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free policy in Uruguay: experience through 2010

    PubMed Central

    Sebrié, Ernesto Marcelo; Sandoya, Edgardo; Bianco, Eduardo; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K Michael; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-01-01

    Background Comprehensive smoke-free laws have been followed by drops in hospitalisations for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), including in a study with 2 years follow-up for such a law in Uruguay. Methods Multiple linear and negative binomial regressions for AMI admissions (ICD-10 code 121) from 37 hospitals for 2 years before and 4 years after Uruguay implemented a 100% nationwide smoke-free law. Results Based on 11 135 cases, there was a significant drop of −30.9 AMI admissions/month (95% CI −49.8 to −11.8, p=0.002) following implementation of the smoke-free law. The effect of the law did not increase or decrease over time following implementation (p=0.234). This drop represented a 17% drop in AMI admissions following the law (IRR=0.829, 95% CI 0.743 to 0.925, p=0.001). Conclusions Adding two more years of follow-up data confirmed that Uruguay’s smoke-free law was followed by a substantial and sustained reduction in AMI hospitalisations. PMID:25324157

  2. Phylogenetic analyses of Norovirus strains detected in Uruguay reveal the circulation of the novel GII.P7/GII.6 recombinant variant.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Álvaro; Tort, Fernando López; Victoria, Matías; Fumian, Tulio M; Miagostovich, Marize P; Leite, José Paulo G; Cristina, Juan; Colina, Rodney

    2014-12-01

    Noroviruses (NoV) are one of the major etiological agent of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) outbreaks worldwide. Distinct NoV genotypes have been associated with different transmission patterns and disease severity in humans. Therefore, it is important to identify genetically different NoV genotypes circulating in a particular region. However, genotyping has become a challenge due to recombination events occurring mainly nearby ORF1/ORF2 junction of NoV genome, leading to distinct genotypes with polymerase and capsid regions derived from parenteral strains. Taking this into account, ORF1/ORF2 sequences were obtained from NoV strains collected from patients with AGE in Uruguay. This study reveals in silico evidences of recombination events taking place in four out of six strains analyzed for which its polymerase gene and its capsid region correspond to GII.P7 and to GII.6 genotype, respectively. These results also reveal the circulation of a GII.P7/GII.6 recombinant variant in the natural populations of NoV strains in the northwestern region of Uruguay. As far as we know this is the first report about the circulation of a NoV GII.P7/GII.6 recombinant variant in the Americas.

  3. Methane Emission and Milk Production of Dairy Cows Grazing Pastures Rich in Legumes or Rich in Grasses in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Dini, Yoana; Gere, José; Briano, Carolina; Manetti, Martin; Juliarena, Paula; Picasso, Valentin; Gratton, Roberto; Astigarraga, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary GHGs emissions are relevant in evaluating environmental impact of farming systems. Methane (CH4) produced by enteric fermentation accounts for half of all anthropogenic emissions of GHGs in Uruguay, where ruminant production is based on year round grazing of forages. Here we compared milk production and CH4 emissions by dairy cows grazing two contrasting mixed pastures (rich in legumes or rich in grasses) using the SF6 tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-days periods. There were no differences in milk or CH4 production between the contrasting pastures, probably because of the high herbage allowance that enabled selective grazing by cows. Abstract Understanding the impact of changing pasture composition on reducing emissions of GHGs in dairy grazing systems is an important issue to mitigate climate change. The aim of this study was to estimate daily CH4 emissions of dairy cows grazing two mixed pastures with contrasting composition of grasses and legumes: L pasture with 60% legumes on Dry Matter (DM) basis and G pasture with 75% grasses on DM basis. Milk production and CH4 emissions were compared over two periods of two weeks during spring using eight lactating Holstein cows in a 2 × 2 Latin square design. Herbage organic matter intake (HOMI) was estimated by chromic oxide dilution and herbage organic matter digestibility (OMD) was estimated by faecal index. Methane emission was estimated by using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-day periods. OMD (0.71) and HOMI (15.7 kg OM) were not affected by pasture composition. Milk production (20.3 kg/d), milk fat yield (742 g/d) and milk protein yield (667 g/d) were similar for both pastures. This may be explained by the high herbage allowance (30 kg DM above 5 cm/cow) which allowed the cows to graze selectively, in particular in grass sward. Similarly, methane emission expressed as absolute value (368 g/d or 516 L/d) or expressed as

  4. Zinc in plasma and breast milk in adolescents and adults in pregnancy and pospartum: a cohort study in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Severi, Cecilia; Hambidge, Michael; Krebs, Nancy; Alonso, Rafael; Atalah, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la edad como factor de riego para el déficit nutricional de zinc en el embarazo y en el posparto y la correlación entre la concentración de zinc plasmático y de la leche materna. Diseño: Estudio de cohorte de 151 embarazadas adolescentes y 161 adultas con < 14 semanas de gestación al primer control prenatal, seleccionadas en 16 centros públicos de salud de primer nivel de atención de Uruguay. Se obtuvieron datos socio demográficos y se determinó zinc plasmático al primer control prenatal y 4 meses posparto (± 1 mes). En el último control se midió también la concentración de zinc en la leche materna. Resultados: La media de concentración de zinc plasmático a las 14 semanas de gestación fue 84.4 ± 3.6 ug. /dl sin diferencias significativas con las adultas (85.2 ± 13.6 ug/dl). La prevalencia de hipozincemia fue relativamente baja, sin diferencias entre los grupos (14.6% en adolescentes y 12.3% en adultas). La concentración de zinc en la leche materna fue similar en adolescentes y adultas (1.2 CI 1.1-1.4 mg. /L en el grupo total). No se encontró correlación entre el nivel plasmático de zinc materno y la concentración en la leche en adultas y una débil correlación en el grupo de adolescentes (-0.27, P <0.05). Conclusión: La prevalencia de hipozincemia en el embarazo es relativamente baja y similar entre adultas y adolescentes. No se observó relación entre la edad materna y los niveles plasmáticos de zinc post parto en la madre ni en la leche materna. La concentración de zinc plasmático materno no se correlacionó con el zinc en la leche materna.

  5. Complex Bedforms and Complex Water Masses: A Case Study from the Tertiary to Present-day, Pelotas Basin, Offshore Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, P.; Badalini, G.; Wrigley, S.; Walker, R.; Argent, J.; Hernandez-Molina, J.; de Santa Ana, H.; Soto, M.; Tomasini, J.

    2015-12-01

    Contour currents are commonly associated with bedform development on modern seabeds yet there is a general paucity of published examples from the ancient record. Recently acquired 3D seismic data, covering over 13000km2 of the Pelotas Basin, offshore Uruguay, provides a unique opportunity to study the architecture and development of a variety of bedform. The data shows that, throughout the Tertiary, contour currents were the dominant control on sedimentation along the Uruguayan margin. The first evidence of contour current activity is during the Early Tertiary in the form of a major regional unconformity that, even though it was fully subaqueous, does not show any major features associated with downslope sedimentation. In the mid-slope region, the unconformity coincides with an extensive (1500km2) intra-slope scour-field orientated parallel to the slope. Individual scours are up to 40m deep, 500m wide and 3km long. Coeval with these scours are a group of coalesced basin floor scours, which run parallel to the base of slope and extend over 400km2. Individual scours exhibit an asymmetric shape - similar to giant flute marks - that are up to 150m deep, 20km wide and extend for at least 40km along slope. The development of these scoured areas shows clear evidence of two major north-flowing water masses. Directly above this regional unconformity are a series of ribbon-like bedforms that developed oblique to the slope. Individual bedforms are up to 40km in length with wavelengths of 5km and heights up to 100m. These bedforms are overlain by a set of barchan-like dunes, up to 30km in length with wavelengths of 10km. Individual dunes are in the order of 100m thick and stack to form an overall package up to 500m thick. These features show a clear change from erosion/bypass to deposition/reworking that is linked to a decrease in ocean current velocity and/ or sediment supply. The features observed suggest a complex oceanic regime was present throughout the Tertiary that

  6. Mesoproterozoic evolution of the Río de la Plata Craton in Uruguay: at the heart of Rodinia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaucher, Claudio; Frei, Robert; Chemale, Farid; Frei, Dirk; Bossi, Jorge; Martínez, Gabriela; Chiglino, Leticia; Cernuschi, Federico

    2011-04-01

    Mesoproterozoic volcanosedimentary units and tectonic events occurring in the Río de la Plata Craton (RPC) are reviewed. A belt consisting of volcanosedimentary successions exhibiting greenschist-facies metamorphism is exposed in the eastern RPC (Nico Pérez Terrane) in Uruguay. The Parque UTE Group consists of basic volcanics and gabbros at the base (1,492 ± 4 Ma, U-Pb on zircon), carbonates in its middle part and interbedded carbonates, shales and acid volcanics (1,429 ± 21 Ma, U-Pb on zircon) at the top. The Mina Verdún Group is made up of rhyolites and acid pyroclastics at its base and top, and Conophyton-bearing limestones and massive dolostones in the middle. A U-Pb LA-ICP MS zircon age of 1,433 ± 6 Ma is reported here for lapilli-tuffs at the base of the Mina Verdún Group (Cerro de las Víboras Formation). This age shows that the Mina Verdún Group immediately postdates the Parque UTE Group, a fact supported by carbon isotope chemostratigraphy. Both units were deformed and metamorphosed between 1.25 and 1.20 Ga, as shown by K-Ar and Ar-Ar ages. This tectonic event affected most of the RPC and led to the accretion of the Nico Pérez Terrane to the remainder of the RPC along the Sarandí del Yí megashear. We report a U-Pb LA-ICP MS zircon age (upper intercept) of 3,096 ± 45 Ma for metatonalites of the La China Complex (Nico Pérez Terrane), which yield a lower intercept age of 1,252 Ma. A proto-Andean, Mesoproterozoic belt is envisaged to account for abundant Mesoproterozoic detrital zircon ages occurring in Ediacaran sandstones of the RPC. If the RPC is fringed at both sides by Mesoproterozoic, Grenville-aged belts it is likely that it occupied a rather central position in Rodinia. A possible location between Laurentia and the Kalahari Craton, and to the south of Amazonia, is suggested.

  7. Epigenetic formation of amethyst-bearing geodes from Los Catalanes gemological district, Artigas, Uruguay, southern Paraná Magmatic Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, L. C.; Hartmann, L. A.; Vasconcellos, M. A. Z.; Medeiros, J. T. N.; Theye, T.

    2009-07-01

    Giant geodes (up to 4 m long) in the massive central portions of altered basalt lavas from the Paraná Magmatic Province, southern Brazil and Uruguay, form a world-class source of amethyst and agate. Although the origin of the cavities has been ascribed to degassing of the lava at > 1150 °C, field evidence is conclusive that the giant amethyst-agate-filled geodes were formed by hydrothermal processes at low temperatures. We propose an epigenetic and hydrothermal model for the origin of giant geodes. This model includes hydrothermal brecciation during an early brittle stage and the late formation of the cavities (geodes). In the brittle stage an overpressured aqueous fluid affected the basalt in a P, T field delimited by temperatures between 100 and 150 °C and vapor pressures between 1.2 and 5.5 bar. The fluids were capable of lifting the roof and fracturing the host rock along new subhorizontal and subvertical fractures and breccias in the massive lava. The formation of these structures occurred at shallow depths, unit-by-unit. To open the cavities, dissolution of the now altered basalt to clay minerals is necessary. The process is closely linked to the highest alteration grade of mineralized lavas in Los Catalanes gemological district. Dissolution processes are observed in micrometer-scale in the studied basalts. The primary mineralogy, consisting of labradorite (± andesine) +augite + pigeonite + mesostasis (K-rich), was altered during the interaction of large volumes of hot aqueous fluid with the rock. The alteration of pigeonite and its replacement by smectite is observed around the cavities, followed by the precipitation of amorphous silica and microcrystalline quartz in clay-rich sites. Associated zeolites (heulandite + clinoptilolite) fill the newly formed cavities in progressive stages of hydrothermal alteration. Our data indicate that the temperatures were less than 200 °C and probably less than 150 °C; cavity formation occurred after alteration of the

  8. Arroyo del Vizcaíno, Uruguay: a fossil-rich 30-ka-old megafaunal locality with cut-marked bones

    PubMed Central

    Fariña, Richard A.; Tambusso, P. Sebastián; Varela, Luciano; Czerwonogora, Ada; Di Giacomo, Mariana; Musso, Marcos; Bracco, Roberto; Gascue, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Human–megafauna interaction in the Americas has great scientific and ethical interest because of its implications on Pleistocene extinction. The Arroyo del Vizcaíno site near Sauce, Uruguay has already yielded over 1000 bones belonging to at least 27 individuals, mostly of the giant sloth Lestodon. The assemblage shows some taphonomic features suggestive of human presence, such as a mortality profile dominated by prime adults and little evidence of major fluvial transport. In addition, several bones present deep, asymmetrical, microstriated, sharp and shouldered marks similar to those produced by human stone tools. A few possible lithic elements have also been collected, one of which has the shape of a scraper and micropolish consistent with usage on dry hide. However, the radiocarbon age of the site is unexpectedly old (between 27 and 30 thousand years ago), and thus may be important for understanding the timing of the peopling of America. PMID:24258717

  9. Arroyo del Vizcaíno, Uruguay: a fossil-rich 30-ka-old megafaunal locality with cut-marked bones.

    PubMed

    Fariña, Richard A; Tambusso, P Sebastián; Varela, Luciano; Czerwonogora, Ada; Di Giacomo, Mariana; Musso, Marcos; Bracco, Roberto; Gascue, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Human-megafauna interaction in the Americas has great scientific and ethical interest because of its implications on Pleistocene extinction. The Arroyo del Vizcaíno site near Sauce, Uruguay has already yielded over 1000 bones belonging to at least 27 individuals, mostly of the giant sloth Lestodon. The assemblage shows some taphonomic features suggestive of human presence, such as a mortality profile dominated by prime adults and little evidence of major fluvial transport. In addition, several bones present deep, asymmetrical, microstriated, sharp and shouldered marks similar to those produced by human stone tools. A few possible lithic elements have also been collected, one of which has the shape of a scraper and micropolish consistent with usage on dry hide. However, the radiocarbon age of the site is unexpectedly old (between 27 and 30 thousand years ago), and thus may be important for understanding the timing of the peopling of America.

  10. The genesis of the amethyst geodes at Artigas (Uruguay) and the paleohydrology of the Guaraní aquifer: structural, geochemical, oxygen, carbon, strontium isotope and fluid inclusion study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morteani, Giulio; Kostitsyn, Y.; Preinfalk, C.; Gilg, H. A.

    2010-06-01

    The amethyst-bearing geodes found in the flood basalts of the Arapey formation at Artigas (Uruguay) were formed as protogeodes by bubbles of CO2-rich basalt-derived fluids. The formation of the celadonite rim and the lining of the geodes by agate followed by quartz and amethyst were driven by the artesian water of the Guaraní aquifer percolating the basalts from below. The temperature of the amethyst formation is estimated from fluid inclusion data to be between 50° and 120°C. Oxygen stable isotope data suggest a crystallization temperature of calcite of about only 24°C. The actual wellhead temperature of the water produced from the Guaraní aquifer in the study area is around 29°C.

  11. Stable isotope and mineralogical investigation of the genesis of amethyst geodes in the Los Catalanes gemological district, Uruguay, southernmost Paraná volcanic province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Lauren C.; Hartmann, Leo A.; Ronchi, Luiz H.; Berner, Zsolt; Theye, Thomas; Massonne, Hans J.

    2011-03-01

    Stable isotopes (C, O, S) and mineralogical studies of the world-class amethyst-geode deposits of the Los Catalanes gemological district, Uruguay, constrain processes operative during mineral deposition. The mineralized basaltic andesites from the Cretaceous Paraná volcanic province are intensely altered to zeolites (clinoptilolite) and clay minerals. Variations in the δ18O values of silica minerals in geodes (chalcedony, quartz, and amethyst) are much larger and the values generally somewhat lower (21.2-31.5‰) in the Uruguayan deposits than in the Ametista do Sul area of southern Brazil. The range of δ34S values (-15.0 to -0.3‰) of altered basaltic rocks requires (in addition to sulfur of magmatic origin) the involvement of 34S-depleted sedimentary sulfur from bacterial sulfate reduction. The results delimit the mineralizing processes to a post-eruption environment characterized by low temperature and strong interaction of the lava flows with meteoric water.

  12. Mosquito-Producing Containers, Spatial Distribution, and Relationship between Aedes aegypti Population Indices on the Southern Boundary of its Distribution in South America (Salto, Uruguay)

    PubMed Central

    Basso, César; Caffera, Ruben M.; García da Rosa, Elsa; Lairihoy, Rosario; González, Cristina; Norbis, Walter; Roche, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted in the city of Salto, Uruguay, to identify mosquito-producing containers, the spatial distribution of mosquitoes and the relationship between the different population indices of Aedes aegypti. On each of 312 premises visited, water-filled containers and immature Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were identified. The containers were counted and classified into six categories. Pupae per person and Stegomyia indices were calculated. Pupae per person were represented spatially. The number of each type of container and number of mosquitoes in each were analyzed and compared, and their spatial distribution was analyzed. No significant differences in the number of the different types of containers with mosquitoes or in the number of mosquitoes in each were found. The distribution of the containers with mosquito was random and the distribution of mosquitoes by type of container was aggregated or highly aggregated. PMID:23128295

  13. Chemical stratigraphy of the Paraná basalt succession in western Uruguay: further evidence for the diachronous nature of the Paraná magma types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, S. P.; Peate, D. W.; Hawkesworth, C. J.; Mantovani, M. S. M.

    1999-11-01

    An important issue in the study of continental flood basalt provinces concerns whether chemically defined magma types have chronological significance. Relevant to this debate, we present important findings based on new major and trace element geochemical data on lavas from three drill holes in western Uruguay which intersect up to 718 m of the Paraná basalt succession. The lava pile here consists of Paranapanema lavas overlain by widespread Gramado lavas and one rare Esmeralda lava. The occurrence of Paranapanema lavas beneath Gramado lavas is the reverse of the magma type stratigraphy of the Paraná flood basalt pile further north in Brazil. This provides evidence, independent of isotopic dating, that in the Paraná, magma types are not chronostratigraphic. The simultaneous eruption of different magma types suggests that the spatial and temporal distribution of magma types reflects the sub-crustal distribution of distinct source regions inferred to lie within the lithospheric mantle.

  14. Implementation of the risk and harm reduction strategy against unsafe abortion in Uruguay: From a university hospital to the entire country.

    PubMed

    Labandera, Ana; Gorgoroso, Monica; Briozzo, Leonel

    2016-08-01

    The history of the creation of the risk and harm reduction model applied to unsafe abortion is reviewed, from its initial implementation by a small group of gynecologists at the Pereira Rossell Hospital Center in Uruguay to its spread to the rest of the country. Its ethical rationale, its successful application in the hospital, the decision to disseminate it with the cooperation of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), and the intervention procedures are explained. It was evaluated from the epidemiological and anthropological viewpoints, from the changes in professionals' and users' perception of the care offered and its impact on complications and maternal deaths. A very favorable change was seen in the number and quality of the services, the providers' attitude, and maternal morbidity and mortality were reduced. It also brought visibility to women with unplanned and unwanted pregnancies and an improved understanding of their problems, which contributed to the legislative changes that were made subsequently. PMID:27577026

  15. Arroyo del Vizcaíno, Uruguay: a fossil-rich 30-ka-old megafaunal locality with cut-marked bones.

    PubMed

    Fariña, Richard A; Tambusso, P Sebastián; Varela, Luciano; Czerwonogora, Ada; Di Giacomo, Mariana; Musso, Marcos; Bracco, Roberto; Gascue, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Human-megafauna interaction in the Americas has great scientific and ethical interest because of its implications on Pleistocene extinction. The Arroyo del Vizcaíno site near Sauce, Uruguay has already yielded over 1000 bones belonging to at least 27 individuals, mostly of the giant sloth Lestodon. The assemblage shows some taphonomic features suggestive of human presence, such as a mortality profile dominated by prime adults and little evidence of major fluvial transport. In addition, several bones present deep, asymmetrical, microstriated, sharp and shouldered marks similar to those produced by human stone tools. A few possible lithic elements have also been collected, one of which has the shape of a scraper and micropolish consistent with usage on dry hide. However, the radiocarbon age of the site is unexpectedly old (between 27 and 30 thousand years ago), and thus may be important for understanding the timing of the peopling of America. PMID:24258717

  16. Molecular epidemiology of group A rotavirus among children admitted to hospital in Salto, Uruguay, 2011-2012: first detection of the emerging genotype G12.

    PubMed

    Tort, Luis Fernando López; Victoria, Matías; Lizasoain A, Andrés; Castells, Matías; Maya, Leticia; Gómez, Mariela Martínez; Arreseigor, Edit; López, Patricia; Cristina, Juan; Leite, Jose Paulo Gagliardi; Colina, Rodney

    2015-05-01

    Group A rotavirus (RVA) is the most important etiologic agent of infant acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide. Detection and molecular characterization of RVA in Salto department, Northwestern region of Uruguay, was conducted on 175 clinical samples, being 153 stool and 22 vomit samples, collected from hospitalized children with AGE, between 0-15 years old, from two hospitals of Salto city during 2011 and 2012. RVA was detected and genotyped by seminested multiplex RT-PCR in order to determine G- and P-genotypes. Positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were carried out in order to determine lineages and sub-lineages. RVA were detected in 64 (37%) of the samples and the G and P genotypes observed were: 6% G1P[8], 23% G2P[4]/G2P[X]/GXP[4], 23% G3P[8]/G3P[X], 14% G12P[8]/G12P[X], 16% GXP[8], 1,5% G12P[9], 3% G2P[4]/[8], and 16% non-typeable. VP7 and VP4 genotypes related to DS-1 like gene constellation were prevalent during 2011 and those VP7 and VP4 genotypes related to Wa-like constellation were prevalent during 2012 (mainly represented by G3P[8]). Interestingly, RVA was detected in vomit samples in a high prevalence (41%). RVA was observed mainly in the age group between 1 and 5 years old (75% of the cases), and seasonality with a high detection rate in winter season was observed for the two consecutive years of surveillance. To our knowledge, this study represents the first detection and molecular characterization of RVA in Salto department, Northwestern region of Uruguay; and the first identification of the emerging genotype G12 in the country. PMID:25650154

  17. Smoke-free policies and the social acceptability of smoking in Uruguay and Mexico: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project

    PubMed Central

    Boado, Marcelo; Sebrié, Ernesto M.; Bianco, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Little research has been conducted to determine the psychosocial and behavioral impacts of smoke-free policies in middle-income countries. Methods Cross-sectional data were analyzed from the 2006 waves of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation. Survey comparing adult smokers in Mexico (n = 1,080), where smoke-free legislation at that time was weak, and Uruguay (n = 1,002), where comprehensive smoke-free legislation was implemented. Analyses aimed to determine whether exposure to smoke-free policies and perceived antismoking social norms were associated with smokers’ receiving cues about the bothersome nature of secondhand smoke (SHS), with smokers’ reactance against such cues, and with smokers’ level of support for smoke-free policies in different venues. Results In bivariate analyses, Uruguayan smokers were more likely than Mexican smokers to experience verbal anti-SHS cues, lower reactance against anti-SHS cues, stronger antismoking societal norms, and stronger support for 100% smoke-free policies in enclosed workplaces, restaurants, and bars. In multivariate models for both countries, the strength of voluntary smoke-free policies at home was independently associated with support for smoke-free policies across all venues queried, except for in bars among Uruguayans. Perceived strength of familial antismoking norms was consistently associated with all indicators of the social acceptability of smoking in Uruguay but only with the frequency of receiving anti-SHS verbal cues in Mexico. Discussion These results are generally consistent with previous research indicating that comprehensive smoke-free policies are likely to increase the social unacceptability of smoking and that resistance against such policies is likely to diminish once such policies are in place. PMID:19380383

  18. Molecular epidemiology of group A rotavirus among children admitted to hospital in Salto, Uruguay, 2011-2012: first detection of the emerging genotype G12.

    PubMed

    Tort, Luis Fernando López; Victoria, Matías; Lizasoain A, Andrés; Castells, Matías; Maya, Leticia; Gómez, Mariela Martínez; Arreseigor, Edit; López, Patricia; Cristina, Juan; Leite, Jose Paulo Gagliardi; Colina, Rodney

    2015-05-01

    Group A rotavirus (RVA) is the most important etiologic agent of infant acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide. Detection and molecular characterization of RVA in Salto department, Northwestern region of Uruguay, was conducted on 175 clinical samples, being 153 stool and 22 vomit samples, collected from hospitalized children with AGE, between 0-15 years old, from two hospitals of Salto city during 2011 and 2012. RVA was detected and genotyped by seminested multiplex RT-PCR in order to determine G- and P-genotypes. Positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were carried out in order to determine lineages and sub-lineages. RVA were detected in 64 (37%) of the samples and the G and P genotypes observed were: 6% G1P[8], 23% G2P[4]/G2P[X]/GXP[4], 23% G3P[8]/G3P[X], 14% G12P[8]/G12P[X], 16% GXP[8], 1,5% G12P[9], 3% G2P[4]/[8], and 16% non-typeable. VP7 and VP4 genotypes related to DS-1 like gene constellation were prevalent during 2011 and those VP7 and VP4 genotypes related to Wa-like constellation were prevalent during 2012 (mainly represented by G3P[8]). Interestingly, RVA was detected in vomit samples in a high prevalence (41%). RVA was observed mainly in the age group between 1 and 5 years old (75% of the cases), and seasonality with a high detection rate in winter season was observed for the two consecutive years of surveillance. To our knowledge, this study represents the first detection and molecular characterization of RVA in Salto department, Northwestern region of Uruguay; and the first identification of the emerging genotype G12 in the country.

  19. Detection of Common, Emerging and Uncommon VP4, and VP7 Human Group A Rotavirus Genotypes from Urban Sewage Samples in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Tort, Luis Fernando Lopez; Victoria, Matías; Lizasoain, Andrés; García, Mariana; Berois, Mabel; Cristina, Juan; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Gómez, Mariela Martínez; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira; Colina, Rodney

    2015-12-01

    Environmental approach has proven to be a useful tool for epidemiological studies demonstrating through environmental studies the diversity of viruses circulating in a given population. The aim of this study was to perform a phylogenetic characterization of the group A rotavirus (RVA) glycoprotein (G)- and protease-sensitive (P)-genotypes obtained from sewage samples (n = 116) collected in six cities of Uruguay during March 2011 to April 2013. A worldwide standardized semi-nested multiplex RT-PCR (SNM RT-PCR) protocol directed against VP4 and VP7 genes were conducted for RVA detection and consensual DNA fragments were submitted to nucleotide sequencing. P and/or G genotype was successfully determined by phylogenetic analysis in 61% (n = 37) of the positive samples obtained by SNM RT-PCR (n = 61). The RVA genotypes were as follow: G1 (n = 2), G2 (n = 14), G3 (n = 5), G12 (n = 2), P[4] (n = 4), P[8] (n = 16), and P[3] (n = 2). Interestingly, through phylogenetic analysis, emerging, and uncommon human genotypes could be detected. Results obtained from the comparison of RVA genotypes detected in the current study and Uruguayan RVA strains previously described for contemporary clinical pediatric cases showed that monitoring sewage may be a good screening option for a rapid and economical overview of the circulating genotypes in the surrounding human population and a useful approximation to study RVA epidemiology in a future vaccine monitoring program. The present study represents the first report in Uruguay that describes the phylogenetic diversity of RVA from urban sewage samples.

  20. Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines on the Incidence of Pneumonia in Hospitalized Children after Five Years of Its Introduction in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Hortal, María; Estevan, Miguel; Meny, Miguel; Iraola, Inés; Laurani, Hilda

    2014-01-01

    Background Data on the burden of pneumococcal disease and the most frequent serotypes demonstrated that invasive disease and pneumonia were important manifestations affecting children under 5 years of age. Therefore, pneumococcal diseases prevention became a public health priority. Uruguay was the first Latin American country to incorporate PCV7 into its National Immunization Program. The aim of this study is to compare the incidence rates for hospitalized pneumonia in children from the pre PCV introduction period and the following five years of PCVs application in Uruguay. Methods and Findings Population-based surveillance of pneumonia hospitalization rates, in children, less than 14 years of age, had been performed prior pneumococcal vaccination, and continued following PCV7 introduction and PCV13 replacement, using the same methodology. Hospitalized children with pneumonia were enrolled from January 1, 2009 through December 31st, 2012. The study was carried out in an area with a population of 238,002 inhabitants of whom 18, 055 were under five years of age. Patients with acute lower respiratory infections for whom a chest radiograph was performed on admission were eligible. Digitalized radiographs were interpreted by a reference radiologist, using WHO criteria. Pneumonia was confirmed in 2,697 patients, 1,267 with consolidated and 1,430 with non consolidated pneumonia of which incidence decrease, between 2009 and 2012, was 27.3% and 46.4% respectively. 2001–2004 and 2009–2012 comparison showed a significant difference of 20.4% for consolidated pneumonia hospitalizations. A significant incidence decline was recorded among children 6 to 35 months of age. Conclusions An overall significant reduction in pneumonia hospitalizations was observed following the introduction of PCV7 and furthermore following the change to PCV13. PMID:24905093

  1. Area Handbook for Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Thomas E.; And Others

    This volume is one of 62 in a series of handbooks designed to be useful to military and other personnel who need a convenient compilation of basic facts about the social, economic, political, and military institutions and practices of various countries. The emphasis is on objective description of the nation's present society and the kinds of…

  2. Screening of dioxin-like compounds by complementary evaluation strategy utilising ELISA, micro-EROD, and HRGC-HRMS in soil and sediments from Montevideo, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Levy, W; Brena, B M; Henkelmann, B; Bernhöft, S; Pirez, M; González-Sapienza, G; Schramm, K-W

    2014-08-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) are persistent, toxic, and bioaccumulate in the environment. Due to their high analytical costs, these compounds are hardly regulated and mostly not monitored in the Third World. To overcome this, bioassays have been proposed as low-cost alternative methods. Two of the most established bioanalytical tools, the dioxin antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA and the micro-EROD bioassay are evaluated and compared to high resolution gas chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) analytical methodology. The methods were tested using thirteen soils and sediment samples selected from diverse sites in Montevideo, Uruguay. The WHO₂₀₀₅ total toxic equivalent (WHO₂₀₀₅-TEQ) of soils ranged from 2.4 to 2212 (ng WHO₂₀₀₅-TEQ/kg dry sample) and from 0.14 to 9.4 (ng WHO₂₀₀₅-TEQ/kg dry sample) in sediments. This study shows significant contamination related to dioxin-like compounds, particularly in sites where uncontrolled burnings were carried out. ELISA and micro-EROD bioassay correlated well with HRGC/HRMS, R Spearman 0.773 and 0.913, respectively and were highly correlated to each other, R Spearman 0.879. Preliminary threshold values of bioassay toxic equivalents of 330 (ng/kg dry sample) for the micro-EROD bioassay and 220 (ng/kg dry sample) for ELISA are proposed.

  3. Major shear zones of southern Brazil and Uruguay: escape tectonics in the eastern border of Rio de La plata and Paranapanema cratons during the Western Gondwana amalgamation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passarelli, C. R.; Basei, M. A. S.; Wemmer, K.; Siga, O.; Oyhantçabal, P.

    2011-04-01

    The Mantiqueira Province represents a series of supracrustal segments of the South-American counterpart formed during the Gondwana Supercontinent agglutination. In this crustal domain, the process of escape tectonics played a conspicuous role, generating important NE-N-S-trending lineaments. The oblique component of the motions of the colliding tectonic blocks defined the transpressional character of the main suture zones: Lancinha-Itariri, Cubatão-Arcádia-Areal, Serrinha-Rio Palmital in the Ribeira Belt and Sierra Ballena-Major Gercino in the Dom Feliciano Belt. The process as a whole lasted for ca. 60 Ma, since the initial collision phase until the lateral escape phase predominantly marked by dextral and subordinate sinistral transpressional shear zones. In the Dom Feliciano Belt, southern Brazil and Uruguay, transpressional event at 630-600 Ma is recognized and in the Ribeira Belt, despite less coevally, the transpressional event occurred between 590 and 560 Ma in its northern-central portion and between ca. 625 and 595 Ma in its central-southern portion. The kinematics of several shear zones with simultaneous movement in opposite directions at their terminations is explained by the sinuosity of these lineaments in relation to a predominantly continuous westward compression.

  4. The basement of the Punta del Este Terrane (Uruguay): an African Mesoproterozoic fragment at the eastern border of the South American Río de La Plata craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basei, Miguel A. S.; Peel, Elena; Sánchez Bettucci, Leda; Preciozzi, Fernando; Nutman, Allen P.

    2011-04-01

    The Punta del Este Terrane (eastern Uruguay) lies in a complex Neoproterozoic (Brasiliano/Pan-African) orogenic zone considered to contain a suture between South American terranes to the west of Major Gercino-Sierra Ballena Suture Zone and eastern African affinities terranes. Zircon cores from Punta del Este Terrane basement orthogneisses have U-Pb ages of ca. 1,000 Ma, which indicate an lineage with the Namaqua Belt in Southwestern Africa. U-Pb zircon ages also provide the following information on the Punta del Este terrane: the orthogneisses containing the ca. 1,000 Ma inheritance formed at ca. 750 Ma; in contrast to the related terranes now in Africa, reworking of the Punta del Este Terrane during Brasiliano/Pan-African orogenesis was very intense, reaching granulite facies at ca. 640 Ma. The termination of the Brasiliano/Pan-African orogeny is marked by formation of acid volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks at ca. 570 Ma (Sierra de Aguirre Formation), formation of late sedimentary basins (San Carlos Formation) and then intrusion at ca. 535 Ma of post-tectonic granitoids (Santa Teresa and José Ignacio batholiths). The Punta del Este Terrane and unrelated western terranes represented by the Dom Feliciano Belt and the Río de La Plata Craton were in their present positions by ca. 535 Ma.

  5. Characteristics of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) Strains Isolated from Skin and Soft-Tissue Infections in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Lorena; Machado, Virginia; Mollerach, Marta; Mota, María Inés; Tuchscherr, Lorena P. N.; Gadea, Pilar; Gardella, Noella; Sordelli, Daniel O.; Vola, Magdalena; Schelotto, Felipe; Varela, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed 90 nonduplicates community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) strains isolated from skin and soft-tissue infections. All strains were mecA positive. Twenty-four of the 90 strains showed inducible macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance. All strains produced α-toxin; 96% and 100% of them displayed positive results for lukS-F and cna genes, respectively. Eigthy-five strains expressed capsular polysaccharide serotype 8. Six different pulsotypes were discriminated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and three predominant groups of CA-MRSA strains (1, 2, and 4) were identified, in agreement with phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. Strains of group 1 (pulsotype A, CP8+, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)+) were the most frequently recovered and exhibited a PFGE band pattern identical to other CA-MRSA strains previously isolated in Uruguay and Brazil. Three years after the first local CA-MRSA report, these strains are still producing skin and soft-tissue infections demonstrating the stability over time of this community-associated emerging pathogen. PMID:20016669

  6. Timing of deformation in the Sarandí del Yí Shear Zone, Uruguay: Implications for the amalgamation of western Gondwana during the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano-Pan-African Orogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oriolo, Sebastián.; Oyhantçabal, Pedro; Wemmer, Klaus; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Benowitz, Jeffrey; Pfänder, Jörg; Hannich, Felix; Siegesmund, Siegfried

    2016-03-01

    U-Pb and Hf zircon (sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe -SHRIMP- and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry -LA-ICP-MS-), Ar/Ar hornblende and muscovite, and Rb-Sr whole rock-muscovite isochron data from the mylonites of the Sarandí del Yí Shear Zone, Uruguay, were obtained in order to assess the tectonothermal evolution of this crustal-scale structure. Integration of these results with available kinematic, structural, and microstructural data of the shear zone as well as with geochronological data from the adjacent blocks allowed to constrain the onset of deformation along the shear zone at 630-625 Ma during the collision of the Nico Pérez Terrane and the Río de la Plata Craton. The shear zone underwent dextral shearing up to 596 Ma under upper to middle amphibolite facies conditions, which was succeeded by sinistral shearing under lower amphibolite to upper greenschist facies conditions until at least 584 Ma. After emplacement of the Cerro Caperuza granite at 570 Ma, the shear zone underwent only cataclastic deformation between the late Ediacaran and the Cambrian. The Sarandí del Yí Shear Zone is thus related to the syncollisional to postcollisional evolution of the amalgamation of the Río de la Plata Craton and the Nico Pérez Terrane. Furthermore, the obtained data reveal that strain partitioning and localization with time, magmatism emplacement, and fluid circulation are key processes affecting the isotopic systems in mylonitic belts, revealing the complexity in assessing the age of deformation of long-lived shear zones.

  7. The Use of Legal, Illegal, and Roll-you-own Cigarettes to Increasing Tobacco Excise Taxes and Comprehensive Tobacco Control Policies-Findings from the ITC Uruguay Survey

    PubMed Central

    Curti, Dardo; Shang, Ce; Ridgeway, William; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Background Little research has been done to examine whether smokers switch to illegal or roll-your-own (RYO) cigarettes in response to a change in their relative price. Objective This paper explores how relative prices between three cigarette forms (manufactured legal, manufactured illegal, and RYO cigarettes) are associated with the choice of one form over another after controlling for covariates, including sociodemographic characteristics, smokers’ exposure to anti-smoking messaging, health warning labels, and tobacco marketing. Methods Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were employed to analyse the association between the price ratio of two different cigarette forms and the usage of one form over the other. Findings A 10% increase in the relative price ratio of legal to RYO cigarettes is associated with 4.6% increase in the probability of consuming RYO over manufactured legal cigarettes (P≤0.05). In addition, more exposure to anti-smoking messaging is associated with lower odds of choosing RYO over manufactured legal cigarettes (P≤0.05). Non-significant associations exist between the manufactured illegal to legal cigarette price ratios and choosing manufactured illegal cigarettes, suggesting that smokers do not switch to manufactured illegal cigarettes as prices of legal ones increase. However, these non-significant findings may be due to lack of variation in the price ratio measures. In order to improve the effectiveness of increased taxes and prices in reducing smoking, policy makers need to narrow price variability in the tobacco market. Moreover, increasing anti-smoking messaging reduces tax avoidance in the form of switching to cheaper RYO cigarettes in Uruguay. PMID:25740084

  8. Multiple Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in the Southern Cone of Latin America: A Population-based Study in Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Adolfo L.; Irazola, Vilma E.; Calandrelli, Matias; Elorriaga, Natalia; Gutierrez, Laura; Lanas, Fernando; Manfredi, Jose A.; Mores, Nora; Olivera, Hector; Poggio, Rosana; Ponzo, Jacqueline; Seron, Pamela; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Bazzano, Lydia A.; He, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death, and its mortality is increasing in Latin America. However, population-based data on cardiovascular disease risk factors are sparse in these countries. Methods A total of 7,524 men and women, aged 35 to 74 years old, were recruited between February 2010 and December 2011 from randomly selected samples in 4 cities (Bariloche and Marcos Paz, Argentina; Temuco, Chile; and Pando-Barros Blancos, Uruguay) in the Southern Cone of Latin America. Cardiovascular risk factors were measured using standard methods by trained and certified observers. Results Approximately 85.5% of adults ate less than five servings of fruit or vegetables per day, 35.2% engaged in low physical activity, and 29.7% currently smoked cigarettes. The prevalences of obesity, central obesity, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome were 35.7%, 52.9%, 40.8%, 2.0%, 58.4%, 12.4%, and 37.4%, respectively. The proportion of individuals with ≥3 cardiovascular risk factors, including low intake of fruit and vegetables, low physical activity, current cigarette smoking, obesity or central obesity, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, dyslipidemia, and diabetes, was 68.3%, and the proportion of individual with ≥3 cardiometabolic risk factors, including obesity or central obesity, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, dyslipidemia, and diabetes, was 22.9%. Conclusions Cardiovascular disease risk factors are highly prevalent in the general population in the Southern Cone of Latin America. These data suggest that national efforts on the prevention, treatment, and control of cardiovascular risk factors should be a public health priority in the Southern Cone of Latin America. PMID:25662056

  9. Deaf Community Mobilization in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    There are more than 50 million (or approximately 15%) persons with disabilities living in Latin America and the Caribbean: 80 percent live in impoverished conditions, lack employment, and encounter social exclusion. Deaf and hard of hearing persons are particularly impacted as they are frequently denied access to most sectors of society. This…

  10. CTX-M-15 in combination with aac(6')-Ib-cr is the most prevalent mechanism of resistance both in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, including K. pneumoniae ST258, in an ICU in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Bado, Inés; Gutiérrez, Claudia; García-Fulgueiras, Virginia; Cordeiro, Nicolás F; Araújo Pirez, Lucía; Seija, Verónica; Bazet, Cristina; Rieppi, Gloria; Vignoli, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to determine the extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-EcKp) clones circulating in an intensive care unit (ICU) in Uruguay between August 2010 and July 2011, (ii) to characterise the ESBL and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes of the studied isolates and (iii) to determine the virulotype of the clinical isolates. Clinical and gut-colonising ESBL-EcKp from ICU patients were studied. Bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination were performed using a VITEK(®)2 system. Detection of ESBL, KPC and PMQR genes was performed by PCR and sequencing. Clonality was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). In total, 54 ESBL-EcKp isolates (40 K. pneumoniae and 14 E. coli), with or without PMQR genes, were recovered from 30 of 68 inpatients. Forty-seven isolates were CTX-M-15-producers (36 as a single ESBL and 11 together with CTX-M-14). In addition, four isolates produced CTX-M-14, two produced CTX-M-2 and one produced SHV-5. No carbapenemases were detected either in E. coli or K. pneumoniae isolates. Among the ESBL-producing isolates, 42 also harboured PMQR genes: 27 aac(6')-Ib-cr; 14 aac(6')-Ib-cr and qnrB; and a single isolate carrying only qnrB. K. pneumoniae ST258, ST48 and ST16 and E. coli ST10 and ST405 were detected in 46/54 isolates, including 9 clinical isolates. In conclusion, non-KPC-producing K. pneumoniae ST258 harbouring different ESBL and PMQR genes was the main clone disseminated in the ICU. Extensive surveillance measures must be implemented to prevent the emergence of acquired plasmid-encoded blaKPC by ST258 K. pneumoniae.

  11. Cultural Diversity Awareness Inventory = Inventario Sobre el Reconocimiento de Diversas Culturas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Gertrude B.

    This booklet features a checklist designed to help persons who are involved in providing direct services to culturally diverse, young special needs children to assess their attitudes, beliefs, and behavior toward these children. The booklet also contains suggestions and lists of print, film, and filmstrip resources for developing a school program…

  12. A Formative Approach to National Assessments: The Case of Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravela, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a case of national achievement assessment at the primary level within a formative approach. Many countries experience an increasing obligation to attach high stakes to national assessments, which results in greater pressure on teachers and schools. The author's view is that this kind of approach is…

  13. Geomagnetically induced currents in Uruguay: Sensitivity to modelling parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caraballo, R.

    2016-11-01

    According to the traditional wisdom, geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) should occur rarely at mid-to-low latitudes, but in the last decades a growing number of reports have addressed their effects on high-voltage (HV) power grids at mid-to-low latitudes. The growing trend to interconnect national power grids to meet regional integration objectives, may lead to an increase in the size of the present energy transmission networks to form a sort of super-grid at continental scale. Such a broad and heterogeneous super-grid can be exposed to the effects of large GIC if appropriate mitigation actions are not taken into consideration. In the present study, we present GIC estimates for the Uruguayan HV power grid during severe magnetic storm conditions. The GIC intensities are strongly dependent on the rate of variation of the geomagnetic field, conductivity of the ground, power grid resistances and configuration. Calculated GIC are analysed as functions of these parameters. The results show a reasonable agreement with measured data in Brazil and Argentina, thus confirming the reliability of the model. The expansion of the grid leads to a strong increase in GIC intensities in almost all substations. The power grid response to changes in ground conductivity and resistances shows similar results in a minor extent. This leads us to consider GIC as a non-negligible phenomenon in South America. Consequently, GIC must be taken into account in mid-to-low latitude power grids as well.

  14. Reconnaissance evaluation of Honduran geothermal sites. Una evaluacion por medio de reconocimiento de seis areas geotermicas en Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, D.; Fakundiny, R.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-12-01

    Six geothermal spring sites were selected on the basis of preliminary investigations conducted in Honduras over the last decade and were evaluated in terms of their development potential. Of the six, the Platanares and San Ignacio sites have high base temperatures and high surface fluid discharge rates and appear to have the best potential for further development as sources of electrical power. A third site, Azacualpa, has a high enough base temperature and discharge rate to be considered as a back-up, but the logistical problems involved in geophysical surveys make it less attractive than the two primary sites. Of the remaining three sites, Pavana may be a source of direct-use heat for local agricultural processing. Sambo Creek and El Olivar have either severe logistical problems that would impede further investigation and development or base temperatures and flow rates that are too low to warrant detailed investigation at this time.

  15. 78 FR 8435 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus Hybrids and Fortunella

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... of citrus canker). In a previous revision of the PRA, citrus black spot (Guignardia citricarpa Kiely... of citrus black spot because the combination of conditions required for disease transmission from... compounds. However, if the rind is thin or damaged, or existing oviposition puncture holes are...

  16. Emergence of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Uruguay: infection control and molecular characterization

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, C; Ingold, A; Echeverría, N; Acevedo, A; Vignoli, R; García-Fulgueiras, V; Viroga, J; Gonzalez, O; Odizzio, V; Etulain, K; Nuñez, E; Albornoz, H; Borthagaray, G; Galiana, A

    2014-01-01

    We describe the first outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-KP), the infection control measures adopted and the shift in resistance patterns of isolates during antibiotic treatment. The ST258 KPC-KP strain exhibited a multiresistant antibiotic phenotype including co-resistance to gentamycin, colistin and tigecycline intermediate susceptibility. Isolates before and after treatment had different behaviour concerning their antibiotic susceptibility and the population analysis profile study. A progressive increase in the aminoglycosides (acquiring amicacin resistance) and β-lactam MICs, and a decreased susceptibility to fosfomycin was observed throughout the administration of combined antimicrobial regimens including meropenem. A high meropenem resistance KPC-KP homogeneous population (MIC 256 Jg/mL), could arise from the meropenem heterogeneous low-level resistance KPC-KP population (MIC 8 Jg/mL), by the selective pressure of the prolonged meropenem therapy. The kpc gene was inserted in a Tn4401 isoform a, and no transconjugants were detected. The core measures adopted were successful to prevent evolution towards resistance dissemination. PMID:25356345

  17. Black dimensional stones: Geology, technical properties and deposit characterization of the dolerites from Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Demarco, M.; Oyhantçabal, P.; Stein, K.-J.; Siegesmund, S.

    2012-04-01

    Dimensional stones with a black color occupy a prominent place on the international market. Uruguayan dolerite dikes of andesitic and andesitic-basaltic composition are mined for commercial blocks of black dimensional stones. A total of 16 dikes of both compositions were studied and samples collected for geochemical and petrographical analysis. Color measurements were performed on different black dimensional stones in order to compare them with the Uruguayan dolerites. Samples of the two commercial varieties (Absolute Black and Moderate Black) were obtained for petrophysical analysis (e.g. density, porosity, uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strength, etc.). Detailed structural analyses were performed in several quarries. Geochemistry and petrography determines the intensity of the black color. When compared with commercial samples from China, Brazil, India and South Africa, among others, the Uruguayan dolerite Absolute Black is the darkest black dimensional stone analyzed. In addition, the petrophysical properties of the Uruguayan dolerites make them one of the highest quality black dimensional stones. Structural analyses show that five joint sets have been recognized: two sub-vertical joints, one horizontal and two diagonal. These joint sets are one of the most important factors that control the deposits, since they control the block size distribution and the amount of waste material.

  18. Distance Education for Physicians: Adaptation of a Canadian Experience to Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llambi, Laura; Margolis, Alvaro; Toews, John; Dapueto, Juan; Esteves, Elba; Martinez, Elisa; Forster, Thais; Lopez, Antonio; Lockyer, Jocelyn

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The production of online high-quality continuing professional development is a complex process that demands familiarity with effective program and content design. Collaboration and sharing across nations would appear to be a reasonable way to improve quality, increase access, and reduce costs. Methods: In this case report, the…

  19. Testing Multicultural Robustness of the Child Behavior Checklist in a National Epidemiological Sample in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viola, Laura; Garrido, Gabriela; Rescorla, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Comparisons of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores from 31 societies (Rescorla et al. "Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders" 15:13-142 2007) supported the instrument's multicultural robustness, but none of these societies was in South America. The present study tested the multicultural robustness of the 2001 CBCL using data from a…

  20. Aureobasidium pullulans as a biocontrol agent of postharvest pathogens of apples in Uruguay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yeast, Aureobasidium pullulans, was the microorganism most frequently recovered from the surface of apple fruit (cv. Red Delicious) stored in commercial cold chambers for six months. In the present work, ten isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans were assayed to determine if they could control blu...

  1. STABLE ISOTOPES IN ECOLOGICAL STUDIES: NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN MIXING MODELS (URUGUAY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable isotopes are increasingly being used as tracers in ecological studies. One application uses isotopic ratios to quantify the proportional contributions of multiple sources to a mixture. Examples include pollution sources for air or water bodies, food sources for animals, ...

  2. 77 FR 52683 - Implementation of Determinations Under Section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act: Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... Negative Determination of Critical Circumstances, 73 FR 40480, 40483 (July 15, 2008). \\15\\ See OTR Tires... Notice of Countervailing Duty Order, 73 FR 42545, 42547 (July 22, 2008). \\17\\ See CWP Section 129 Final... Countervailing Duty Determination and Final Affirmative Determination, in Part, of Critical Circumstances, 73...

  3. 9 CFR 94.22 - Restrictions on importation of beef from Uruguay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or less in the loin muscle at the end of the maturation period. Measurements for pH must be taken at the middle of both longissimus dorsi muscles. Any carcass in which the pH does not reach 5.8 or...

  4. 9 CFR 94.22 - Restrictions on importation of beef from Uruguay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or less in the loin muscle at the end of the maturation period. Measurements for pH must be taken at the middle of both longissimus dorsi muscles. Any carcass in which the pH does not reach 5.8 or...

  5. Plastic ingestion by a generalist seabird on the coast of Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Javier; Burgues, María Fernanda; Carrizo, Daniel; Machín, Emanuel; Teixeira-de Mello, Franco

    2016-06-15

    We analyzed plastic ingestion by Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus) from 806 pellets collected between 2011 and 2013. Employing a Raman spectroscopy, we characterized those polymers used to produce the plastics ingested. Debris was recorded in 143 pellets (%FO=17.7%, n=202, 92.58g). Plastic was found in 119 pellets (%FO=83%) and non-plastic occurred in 56 pellets (%FO=39%). The most important debris category was plastic film with 55.3% (n=79). Plastic bags were observed in 19 pellets (%FO=2.4%, weight=25.02g). Glass was the second most important component (%FO=18.9%) followed by plastic fragments (%FO=17.8%). Plastic debris represented the 65.3% of the debris fragments (n=132, weight=58.84g), and was composed by polyethylene (52%), polypropylene (26%), polyamide (12%), polystyrene (6%), polyvinyl chloride (2%), and polyethylene terephthalate (2%). How plastics were obtained by gulls and the effects on individuals are discussed, as well as environmental considerations about plastic pollution on coastal environments. PMID:27098991

  6. 78 FR 41259 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... (78 FR 8435-8441, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0060) a proposal \\1\\ to amend the regulations concerning the... Health Inspection Service (APHIS) that details the activities that the Uruguayan NPPO will, subject to... established export markets in Europe and Russia. Given the small quantity expected to be imported from...

  7. Plastic ingestion by a generalist seabird on the coast of Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Javier; Burgues, María Fernanda; Carrizo, Daniel; Machín, Emanuel; Teixeira-de Mello, Franco

    2016-06-15

    We analyzed plastic ingestion by Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus) from 806 pellets collected between 2011 and 2013. Employing a Raman spectroscopy, we characterized those polymers used to produce the plastics ingested. Debris was recorded in 143 pellets (%FO=17.7%, n=202, 92.58g). Plastic was found in 119 pellets (%FO=83%) and non-plastic occurred in 56 pellets (%FO=39%). The most important debris category was plastic film with 55.3% (n=79). Plastic bags were observed in 19 pellets (%FO=2.4%, weight=25.02g). Glass was the second most important component (%FO=18.9%) followed by plastic fragments (%FO=17.8%). Plastic debris represented the 65.3% of the debris fragments (n=132, weight=58.84g), and was composed by polyethylene (52%), polypropylene (26%), polyamide (12%), polystyrene (6%), polyvinyl chloride (2%), and polyethylene terephthalate (2%). How plastics were obtained by gulls and the effects on individuals are discussed, as well as environmental considerations about plastic pollution on coastal environments.

  8. Sustainable Innovation Strategies in Education: OLPC Case Studies in Ethiopia and Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiatordi, Andrea; Pischetola, Magda

    In the Knowledge Society great importance is given to sharing knowledge and information. The ICTs not only provide a very efficient infrastructure for this task, they also have radically changed the way we interact and access information. This effect is even more consistent among the younger generations, who were born and raised in an era when network communications were already nearly as common as any other service. This also means they met another generation, the one of their parents and teachers who did not experience the same immersion in technology as they did. A sort of conflict arises from this encounter: children who have been exposed to such a wide range of possibilities are taught by adults who consolidated a method based on analogical instruments and who think using different patterns. It seems necessary, given this scenario, to spend a great deal of effort in integrating teachers' methodologies with ICTs in order to create a better environment for children's education. This paper reflects on two different experiences from One Laptop Per Child deployments. The project, which is the largest attempt in the world to promote one-to-one computing in primary schools, is particularly interesting for the role it is having in changing the student-teacher relationship. Giving a laptop to every child in a country does not seem to be enough to reform a school system: strong effort must be made to teach the teachers how to better use these new resources in order to improve the quality of their pupils' learning experience. This means that the whole process must be sustainable and participated. The two environments studied are Ethiopian primary school classes and Uruguayan schools for children with special needs: in both cases the role of technology is critical for sustainable innovation. In the first case, there is evidence that the teachers need to be taught how to use the ICTs to enhance the quality of their work, while in the second case they need to learn how to use assistive technology to make the classroom environment really inclusive. Both researches tend to highlight the important role of ICTs for social inclusion and suggest strategies to use one-to-one technologies for this purpose.

  9. Enteropathogens Associated with Acute Diarrhea in Children from Households with High Socioeconomic Level in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Batthyány, Lara; Bianco, María Noel; Pérez, Walter; Pardo, Lorena; Algorta, Gabriela; Robino, Luciana; Suárez, Ramón; Navarro, Armando; Pírez, María Catalina; Schelotto, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diarrhea, a common disease of children, deserves permanent monitoring in all social groups. To know the etiology and clinical manifestations of acute diarrhea in children up to 5 years of age from high socioeconomic level households, we conducted a descriptive, microbiological, and clinical study. Stools from 59 children with acute community-acquired diarrhea were examined, and their parents were interviewed concerning symptoms and signs. Rotavirus, adenovirus, and norovirus were detected by commercially available qualitative immunochromatographic lateral flow rapid tests. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, and Shigella were investigated by standard bacteriological methods and diarrheagenic E. coli by PCR assays. We identified a potential enteric pathogen in 30 children. The most frequent causes of diarrhea were enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), viruses, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Only 2 patients showed mixed infections. Our data suggest that children with viral or Campylobacter diarrhea were taken to the hospital earlier than those infected with EPEC. One child infected with STEC O26 developed “complete” HUS. The microbiological results highlight the importance of zoonotic bacteria such as atypical EPEC, Campylobacter, STEC, and Salmonella as pathogens associated with acute diarrhea in these children. The findings also reinforce our previous communications about the regional importance of non-O157 STEC strains in severe infant food-borne diseases. PMID:25861274

  10. Genetic diversity of wild germplasm of "yerba mate" (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Cascales, Jimena; Bracco, Mariana; Poggio, Lidia; Gottlieb, Alexandra Marina

    2014-12-01

    The "yerba mate" tree, Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil., is a crop native to subtropical South America, marketed for the elaboration of the highly popular "mate" beverage. The Uruguayan germplasm occupies the southernmost area of the species distribution range and carries adaptations to environments that considerably differ from the current production area. We characterized the genetic variability of the germplasm from this unexplored area by jointly analyzing individuals from the diversification center (ABP, Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay) with 19 nuclear and 11 plastidic microsatellite markers. For the Uruguayan germplasm, we registered 55 alleles (18 % private), and 80 genotypes (44 % exclusive), whereas 63 alleles (28.6 % private) and 81 genotypes (42 % exclusive) were recorded for individuals from ABP. Only two plastidic haplotypes were detected. Distance-based and multilocus genotype analyses showed that individuals from ABP intermingle and that the Uruguayan germplasm is differentiated in three gene-pools. Significant positive correlations between genetic and geographic distances were detected. Our results concur in that ABP individuals harbor greater genetic variation than those from the tail of the distribution, as to the number of alleles (1.15-fold), He (1.19-fold), Rs (1.39-fold), and the between-group genetic distances (1.16-fold). Also the shape of the genetic landscape interpolation analysis suggests that the genetic variation decays southward towards the Uruguayan territory. We showed that Uruguayan germplasm hosts a combination of nuclear alleles not present in the central region, constituting a valuable breeding resource. Future conservation efforts should concentrate in collecting numerous individuals of "yerba mate" per site to gather the existent variation.

  11. Implementing Georeferencing in the Decision-Making Process of a Health Care Provider in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Silva Layes, Elizabeth; Morales, Fernando; Leivas, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Proper management of information is not only essential but also critical in any organization's decision making process. Data integration and spacial visualization are the key features of georeferencial systems, which bring support to decision making in epidemiology as well as sanitary planning.This paper shows the development of a georeferential system that interacts with the data provided by the Health Care System.Thereby allowing creation of viable methods which will help to improve patient care, treatments, and interventions through building space-time relationships.

  12. The Nature of Recognition in TEFL Teachers' Lives (La naturaleza del reconocimiento en la vida de los maestros de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes Gillingsde González, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This article aims at sharing a vital issue that emerged from the findings of a qualitative research study into collective responses of teachers of English as a foreign language to an extended change process in their Mexican university context from 1989 to 2003. The data generation process employed was comprised of semi-structured interviews as…

  13. First record of the genus Jenynsia from marine water on the coast of Punta del Este, Maldonado, Uruguay (Cyprinodontiformes: Anablepidae).

    PubMed

    Calviño, P; Alonso, F

    2016-03-01

    The first report of the genus Jenynsia occurring in marine waters is presented here. The evolution of high salinity tolerance within Anablepidae is discussed and a hypothesis is proposed that this characteristic is a plesiomorphic trait in Jenynsia which was probably present in the common ancestor of the Anablepidae.

  14. 77 FR 36257 - Notice of Implementation of Determination Under Section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... Proceedings; Final Modification, 77 FR 8101 (February 14, 2012) (``Final Modification for Reviews''). The... from Belgium: Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review, 77 FR 66,271... FR 41553 (July 17, 2003). \\9\\ The full name of this company is Pastificio Fratelli Pagani...

  15. Micronucleus test in fishes as indicators of environmental quality in subestuaries of the Río de la Plata (Uruguay).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel; Villar, Silvia; Acuña Plavan, Alicia

    2015-02-28

    Genotoxic agents may exert damage that may be active through following generations. Micronuclei are cytoplasmic chromatin masses outside the main cell nucleus, indicators of chromosomal damage. This study applied micronuclei test to evaluate genetic damage of fish in three breeding and nursery areas of commercially important fishes exposed to differing degrees of anthropogenic impact: Pando, Solís Chico and Solís Grande sub-estuaries. The micronuclei test revealed differences in the presence and concentrations of genotoxic components in these sub-estuaries. Fish in the urban and industrialized Pando sub-estuary presented the highest percentages of micronuclei. The absence of seasonal changes in micronuclei in Pando fish could be explained by physical characteristics of the sub-estuary and by regional weather conditions. Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes, 1835) was the species most susceptible to genotoxic components. It is recommended the use of a battery of biomarkers to better explain the health of organisms in that important nursery area. PMID:25455785

  16. Associations between hair manganese levels and cognitive, language, and motor development in preschool children from Montevideo, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Rink, Stephanie M; Ardoino, Graciela; Queirolo, Elena I; Cicariello, Daniela; Mañay, Nelly; Kordas, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Environmental manganese (Mn) exposure in childhood has been associated with developmental deficits. This study investigated associations between low-level Mn exposure and developmental scores in children aged 14-45 months. Children's hair samples (n = 60) were analyzed for Mn and lead (Pb) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Children were assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III (BSID). Mean hair Mn and Pb concentrations were 0.98 ± 0.74 and 10.1 ± 10.5 μg/g, respectively. Unadjusted inverse associations were seen between Mn and BSID subscales, with girls having lower scores related to Mn than boys. No significant associations remained in covariate-adjusted models, although when stratified by sex boys had a positive association between hair Mn levels and language scores. This study does not show clear evidence of an association between hair Mn concentrations and children's developmental scores in a region of low-level Mn exposure.

  17. New constraints on oceanographic vs. seismic control on submarine landslide initiation: a geotechnical approach off Uruguay and northern Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Fei; Strasser, Michael; Preu, Benedict; Hanebuth, Till J. J.; Krastel, Sebastian; Kopf, Achim

    2014-10-01

    Submarine landslides are common along the Uruguayan and Argentinean continental margin, but size, type and frequency of events differ significantly between distinct settings. Previous studies have proposed sedimentary and oceanographic processes as factors controlling slope instability, but also episodic earthquakes have been postulated as possible triggers. However, quantitative geotechnical slope stability evaluations for this region and, for that matter, elsewhere in the South Atlantic realm are lacking. This study quantitatively assesses continental slope stability for various scenarios including overpressure and earthquake activity, based on sedimentological and geotechnical analyses on three up to 36 m long cores collected on the Uruguayan slope, characterized by muddy contourite deposits and a locus of landslides (up to 2 km3), and in a canyon-dominated area on the northern Argentinean slope characterized by sandy contourite deposits. The results of shear and consolidation tests reveal that these distinct lithologies govern different stability conditions and failure modes. The slope sectors are stable under present-day conditions (factor of safety >5), implying that additional triggers would be required to initiate failure. In the canyon area, current-induced oversteepening of weaker sandy contourite deposits would account for frequent, small-scale slope instabilities. By contrast, static vs. seismic slope stability calculations reveal that a peak ground acceleration of at least 2 m/s2 would be required to cause failure of mechanically stronger muddy contourite deposits. This implies that, also along the western South Atlantic passive margin, submarine landslides on open gentle slopes require episodic large earthquakes as ultimate trigger, as previously postulated for other, northern hemisphere passive margins.

  18. 75 FR 48940 - Notice of Implementation of Determination Under Section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... Dumping Margin During an Antidumping Investigation; Final Modification, 71 FR 77722 (December 27, 2006... Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 34122 (June 18, 2004), as amended in Notice of Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR...

  19. 76 FR 66892 - Notice of Implementation of Determination Under Section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Investigation; Final Modification, 71 FR 77722 (December 27, 2006). \\1\\ See Notice of Final Determination of... Parts Thereof from the Republic of Korea, 71 FR 29310 (May 22, 2006), as amended by Amended Final..., 75 FR 14126 (March 24, 2010). The Department invited interested parties to comment on the...

  20. 76 FR 74771 - Notice of Implementation of Determination Under Section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... FR 77722 (December 27, 2006). The Department invited interested parties to comment on the Preliminary... Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan, 64 FR 27756 (May 21, 1999) (``Plate Order'') and Notice of Antidumping..., 64 FR 40555 (July 27, 1999) (``Sheet Order''), as amended by Notice of Amendment of...

  1. Interactions between environmental factors can hide isolation by distance patterns: a case study of Ctenomys rionegrensis in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Kittlein, Marcelo J; Gaggiotti, Oscar E

    2008-01-01

    Identifying the factors responsible for the structuring of genetic diversity is of fundamental importance for biodiversity conservation. However, arriving at such understanding is difficult owing to the many factors involved and the potential interactions between them. Here, we present an example of how such interactions can preclude us from arriving at a complete characterization of the demographic history and genetic structure of a species. Ctenomys rionegrensis is a species with restricted dispersal abilities and, as such, should exhibit an isolation by distance (IBD) pattern, which previous studies were unable to uncover. It was therefore concluded that this species underwent a recent population expansion. Using a novel hierarchical Bayesian method, we show that the inability to detect the IBD pattern is due to the interaction between elevation and geographical distance. We posit that populations in low areas suffer periodic floods that may reduce local population sizes, increasing genetic drift, a process that masks the effect of distance on genetic differentiation. Our results do not refute the possibility that the populations of C. rionegrensis underwent a recent population expansion but they indicate that an alternative scenario described by a metapopulation model at or near migration-drift equilibrium cannot be excluded either. PMID:18682369

  2. Association between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Health-Related Quality of Life among Patients at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Jonathan P. W.; Rienzi, Edgardo G.; Lavie, Carl J.; Blair, Steven N.; Pate, Russell R.

    2015-01-01

    To date, few studies have examined the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in populations at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Purpose To examine the association between objectively measured CRF and physical and mental components of HRQoL in a Uruguayan cohort at risk for developing CVD. Methods Patient data records from 2002–2012 at the Calidad de Vida Center were examined. To assess CRF, participants performed a submaximal exercise test. During the evaluation, participants also completed the SF-36, a HRQoL measure comprised of eight dimensions that are summarized by physical and mental component scores (PCS and MCS, respectively). ANCOVA was used to examine the relationship between HRQoL dimensions and CRF. Logistic regression was then used to compare the odds of having a HRQoL component score above the norm across CRF. All analyses were performed separately for males and females with additional stratified analyses across age and BMI conducted among significant trends. Results A total of 2,302 subjects were included in the analysis. Among females, a significant relationship was observed between CRF and vitality, physical functioning, physical role, bodily pain, and general health dimensions. However, for males the only dimension found to be significantly associated with CRF was physical health. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant linear trend (p<0.001) for PCS scores above the norm across CRF levels was observed for females only. Conclusion Among females with one or more risk factors for developing CVD, higher levels of CRF were positively associated with the vitality and physical dimensions of HRQoL, as well as the overall PCS. However, among males the only dimension associated with CRF was physical functioning. Future studies should examine this relationship among populations at risk for developing CVD in more detail and over time. PMID:25901358

  3. Micronucleus test in fishes as indicators of environmental quality in subestuaries of the Río de la Plata (Uruguay).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel; Villar, Silvia; Acuña Plavan, Alicia

    2015-02-28

    Genotoxic agents may exert damage that may be active through following generations. Micronuclei are cytoplasmic chromatin masses outside the main cell nucleus, indicators of chromosomal damage. This study applied micronuclei test to evaluate genetic damage of fish in three breeding and nursery areas of commercially important fishes exposed to differing degrees of anthropogenic impact: Pando, Solís Chico and Solís Grande sub-estuaries. The micronuclei test revealed differences in the presence and concentrations of genotoxic components in these sub-estuaries. Fish in the urban and industrialized Pando sub-estuary presented the highest percentages of micronuclei. The absence of seasonal changes in micronuclei in Pando fish could be explained by physical characteristics of the sub-estuary and by regional weather conditions. Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes, 1835) was the species most susceptible to genotoxic components. It is recommended the use of a battery of biomarkers to better explain the health of organisms in that important nursery area.

  4. Spatial patterns of ichthyoplankton assemblages in the Rı´o de la Plata Estuary (Argentina-Uruguay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berasategui, A. D.; Acha, E. M.; Fernández Araoz, N. C.

    2004-08-01

    Two oceanographic surveys were conducted across the salinity gradient of the Rı´o de la Plata Estuary during austral late spring and summer. Ichthyoplankton was dominated by families Sciaenidae, Clupeidae, Engraulidae, Cynoglossidae and Carangidae. The distribution of larval fish assemblages was strongly associated to the salinity structure. Oceanographic conditions were characterized by a large salt wedge (180 km long and a vertical salinity gradient up to 10 units per meter). During both sampling periods each ichthyoplankton assemblage was related to the same region of the salt wedge: the fresh water environment, the bottom salinity front, the mixohaline zone and the outer portion (surface salinity front) of the estuary. Larval assemblages were not related to the thermal structure. Reproductive activity of fishes inside the Rı´o de la Plata Estuary is relatively common (60% of the teleosts sampled use this estuary as a nursery ground). Moreover, the high incidence of pelagic eggs spawners (75% of the species present in the ichthyoplankton) in the Rı´o de la Plata contrasts to the vast majority of estuaries, where this reproductive strategy is poorly represented. Estuarine dynamics plays a dominant role in allowing this reproductive style in this estuary. Spring-summer wind pattern should generate a retentive environment which could minimize advective losses of eggs and larvae to the adjacent ocean.

  5. 37 CFR 201.33 - Procedures for filing Notices of Intent to Enforce a restored copyright under the Uruguay Round...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... this section. Notices of Intent to Enforce must be in English, and should be typed or printed by hand legibly in dark, preferably black, ink, on 81/2 by 11 inch white paper of good quality, with at least a...; (B) An English translation of the title if title is in a foreign language; (C) Alternative titles...

  6. 37 CFR 201.33 - Procedures for filing Notices of Intent to Enforce a restored copyright under the Uruguay Round...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... this section. Notices of Intent to Enforce must be in English, and should be typed or printed by hand legibly in dark, preferably black, ink, on 81/2 by 11 inch white paper of good quality, with at least a... untitled, a brief description of the work; (B) An English translation of the title if title is in a...

  7. 37 CFR 201.33 - Procedures for filing Notices of Intent to Enforce a restored copyright under the Uruguay Round...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... this section. Notices of Intent to Enforce must be in English, and should be typed or printed by hand legibly in dark, preferably black, ink, on 81/2 by 11 inch white paper of good quality, with at least a... untitled, a brief description of the work; (B) An English translation of the title if title is in a...

  8. 37 CFR 201.33 - Procedures for filing Notices of Intent to Enforce a restored copyright under the Uruguay Round...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... this section. Notices of Intent to Enforce must be in English, and should be typed or printed by hand legibly in dark, preferably black, ink, on 81/2 by 11 inch white paper of good quality, with at least a... untitled, a brief description of the work; (B) An English translation of the title if title is in a...

  9. Ecology of rodent-associated hantaviruses in the Southern Cone of South America: Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Palma, R Eduardo; Polop, Jaime J; Owen, Robert D; Mills, James N

    2012-04-01

    Thirteen hantavirus genotypes, associated with at least 12 sigmodontine reservoir rodents, have been recognized in the four countries that represent the Southern Cone of South America. Host-virus relationships are not as well defined as in North America; several Southern Cone hantaviruses appear to share a common host and some viruses do not occur throughout the range of their host. Although hantavirus-host relationships in the Southern Cone are less strictly concordant with the single-host-single-virus pattern reported elsewhere, recent studies suggest that much of the ambiguity may result from an incomplete understanding of host and hantavirus systematics. Although some Southern Cone host species are habitat generalists, some sympatric species are habitat specialists, helping to explain how some strict host-virus pairings may be maintained. In some cases, host population densities were higher in peridomestic habitats and prevalence of hantavirus infection was higher in host populations in peridomestic habitats. Seasonal and multiyear patterns in climate and human disturbance affect host population densities, prevalence of infection, and disease risk to humans. Unusually high hantavirus antibody prevalence in indigenous human populations may be associated with frequent and close contact with host rodents. Ongoing studies are improving our understanding of hantavirus-host ecology and providing tools that may predict human risk.

  10. Talking about Teaching: A Study of the Professional Uses of Email by Secondary School Teachers in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunberg, Jorge; Armellini, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Teacher collegiality has been highlighted as a crucial factor in educational change and professional development. Secondary school teachers have been consistently found to feel isolated from their colleagues, with few opportunities and mechanisms for collegial support and exchange. Research suggests that computer-mediated communication, and…

  11. The orb-weaving spider genus Chrysometa in Uruguay: distribution and description of a new species (Araneae, Tetragnathidae).

    PubMed

    Simó, Miguel; Álvarez, Luis; Laborda, Álvaro

    2016-01-01

    The spider genus Chrysometa Simon, 1895 comprises 138 species of small (3-5 mm) Neotropical orb-weavers spiders (Nogueira et al. 2011; World Spider Catalogue 2015) mainly associated with arboreal vegetation from intermediate to low altitude forests (Levi 1986). Males of Chrysometa differ from other tetragnathids by having the palpal tibial length approximately as long as its widest point; paracymbium articulated and with several apophyses located at both ends; male cephalic region narrower than in the female and having cymbial ectobasal and ectomedian processes. Females are diagnosed by having femora without trichobothria; abdomen covered with silver guanine patches; a flat epigynum and also by their fertilization ducts originating anteriorly and crossing over the spermathecae (Levi 1986; Alvarez-Padilla & Hormiga 2011). PMID:27395900

  12. Results of high-risk neutropenia therapy of hematology–oncology patients in a university hospital in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Boada Burutaran, Matilde; Guadagna, Regina; Grille, Sofia; Stevenazzi, Mariana; Guillermo, Cecilia; Diaz, Lilian

    2014-01-01

    Background Febrile neutropenia is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in hematology–oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy. The management of febrile neutropenia is typically algorithm-driven. The aim of this study was to assess the results of a standardized protocol for the treatment of febrile neutropenia. Methods A retrospective cohort study (2011–2012) was conducted of patients with high-risk neutropenia in a hematology–oncology service. Results Forty-four episodes of 17 patients with a median age of 48 years (range: 18–78 years) were included. The incidence of febrile neutropenia was 61.4%. The presence of febrile neutropenia was associated with both the duration and severity of neutropenia. Microbiological agents were isolated from different sources in 59.3% of the episodes with bacteremia isolated from blood being the most prevalent (81.3%). Multiple drug-resistant gram-negative bacilli were isolated in 62.5% of all microbiologically documented infections. Treatment of 63% of the episodes in which the initial treatment was piperacillin/tazobactam needed to be escalated to meropenem. The mortality rate due to febrile neutropenia episodes was 18.5%. Conclusion The high rate of gram-negative bacilli resistant to piperacillin/tazobactam (front-line antibiotics in our protocol) and the early need to escalate to carbapenems raises the question as to whether it is necessary to change the current protocol. PMID:25638764

  13. 37 CFR 201.33 - Procedures for filing Notices of Intent to Enforce a restored copyright under the Uruguay Round...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., music, motion picture, sound recording, book, etc.); (B) Name of author(s); (C) Source country; (D) Approximate year of publication; (E) Additional identifying information (e.g., for movies: director, leading.... Alternative title(s) (if any): 4. Type of work: (e.g. painting, sculpture, music, motion picture,...

  14. Methane Emission and Milk Production of Dairy Cows Grazing Pastures Rich in Legumes or Rich in Grasses in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Dini, Yoana; Gere, José; Briano, Carolina; Manetti, Martin; Juliarena, Paula; Picasso, Valentin; Gratton, Roberto; Astigarraga, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the impact of changing pasture composition on reducing emissions of GHGs in dairy grazing systems is an important issue to mitigate climate change. The aim of this study was to estimate daily CH₄ emissions of dairy cows grazing two mixed pastures with contrasting composition of grasses and legumes: L pasture with 60% legumes on Dry Matter (DM) basis and G pasture with 75% grasses on DM basis. Milk production and CH₄ emissions were compared over two periods of two weeks during spring using eight lactating Holstein cows in a 2 × 2 Latin square design. Herbage organic matter intake (HOMI) was estimated by chromic oxide dilution and herbage organic matter digestibility (OMD) was estimated by faecal index. Methane emission was estimated by using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-day periods. OMD (0.71) and HOMI (15.7 kg OM) were not affected by pasture composition. Milk production (20.3 kg/d), milk fat yield (742 g/d) and milk protein yield (667 g/d) were similar for both pastures. This may be explained by the high herbage allowance (30 kg DM above 5 cm/cow) which allowed the cows to graze selectively, in particular in grass sward. Similarly, methane emission expressed as absolute value (368 g/d or 516 L/d) or expressed as methane yield (6.6% of Gross Energy Intake (GEI)) was not affected by treatments. In conclusion, at high herbage allowance, the quality of the diet selected by grazing cows did not differ between pastures rich in legumes or rich in grasses, and therefore there was no effect on milk or methane production. PMID:26486922

  15. 3 CFR 8618 - Proclamation 8618 of December 21, 2010. To Take Certain Actions Under the African Growth and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Israel. 18. During the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations (the “Uruguay Round”), a... and chemical intermediates subject to duty-free treatment. 19. Section 111(b) of the Uruguay Round... were the subject of reciprocal duty elimination negotiations during the Uruguay Round, if the...

  16. Scanning and mobile multi-axis DOAS measurements of SO2 and NO2 emissions from an electric power plant in Montevideo, Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frins, E.; Bobrowski, N.; Osorio, M.; Casaballe, N.; Belsterli, G.; Wagner, T.; Platt, U.

    2014-12-01

    In March 2012 the emissions of NO2 and SO2 from a power station located on the east side of Montevideo Bay (34° 53‧ 10″ S, 56° 11‧ 49″ W) were quantified by simultaneously using mobile and scanning multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (in the following mobile DOAS and scanning DOAS, respectively). The facility produces electricity by means of two technologies: internal combustion motors and steam generators. The motors are powered with centrifuged heavy oil and produce a maximum power of 80 MW approximately. The steam generators produce approximately 305 MW and are powered with heavy fuel oil. We compare the emissions obtained from the measured slant column densities (mobile DOAS and scanning DOAS) with the emissions estimated from fuel mass balance. On one occasion it was possible to distinguish between the two types of sources, observing two plumes with different SO2 and NO2 emission rates. During the period of the campaign the mean SO2 emission flux was determined to be 0.36 (±0.12) kg s-1 and 0.26 (±0.09) kg s-1 retrieved from mobile and scanning DOAS respectively, while the calculated SO2 flux from the sulphur content of the fuel was 0.34 (±0.03) kg s-1. The average NO2 flux calculated from mobile DOAS was determined to be 11 (±3) × 10-3 kg s-1. Using the scanning DOAS approach a mean NO2 flux of 5.4 (±1.7) × 10-3 kg s-1 was obtained, which is significantly lower than by the mobile measurements. The differences between the results of mobile MAX-DOAS measurements and scanning DOAS measurements are most probably caused by the variability and the limited knowledge of the wind speed and direction.

  17. Variability in terrigenous sediment supply offshore of the Río de la Plata (Uruguay) recording the continental climatic history over the past 1200 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Laura; García-Rodríguez, Felipe; Hanebuth, Till J. J.

    2016-03-01

    The continental shelf adjacent to the Río de la Plata (RdlP) exhibits extremely complex hydrographic and ecological characteristics which are of great socioeconomic importance. Since the long-term environmental variations related to the atmospheric (wind fields), hydrologic (freshwater plume), and oceanographic (currents and fronts) regimes are little known, the aim of this study is to reconstruct the changes in the terrigenous input into the inner continental shelf during the late Holocene period (associated with the RdlP sediment discharge) and to unravel the climatic forcing mechanisms behind them. To achieve this, we retrieved a 10 m long sediment core from the RdlP mud depocenter at 57 m water depth (GeoB 13813-4). The radiocarbon age control indicated an extremely high sedimentation rate of 0.8 cm per year, encompassing the past 1200 years (AD 750-2000). We used element ratios (Ti / Ca, Fe / Ca, Ti / Al, Fe / K) as regional proxies for the fluvial input signal and the variations in relative abundance of salinity-indicative diatom groups (freshwater versus marine-brackish) to assess the variability in terrigenous freshwater and sediment discharges. Ti / Ca, Fe / Ca, Ti / Al, Fe / K and the freshwater diatom group showed the lowest values between AD 850 and 1300, while the highest values occurred between AD 1300 and 1850. The variations in the sedimentary record can be attributed to the Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA), both of which had a significant impact on rainfall and wind patterns over the region. During the MCA, a weakening of the South American summer monsoon system (SAMS) and the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ), could explain the lowest element ratios (indicative of a lower terrigenous input) and a marine-dominated diatom record, both indicative of a reduced RdlP freshwater plume. In contrast, during the LIA, a strengthening of SAMS and SACZ may have led to an expansion of the RdlP river plume to the far north, as indicated by higher element ratios and a marked freshwater diatom signal. Furthermore, a possible multidecadal oscillation probably associated with Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) since AD 1300 reflects the variability in both the SAMS and SACZ systems.

  18. Regional differences in species composition and toxigenic potential among Fusarium head blight isolates from Uruguay indicate a risk of nivalenol contamination in new wheat production areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) are the primary cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat, and frequently contaminate grain with trichothecene mycotoxins that pose a serious threat to food safety and animal health. The species identity and trichothecene toxin potential...

  19. Taxonomic Treatment of Solanum Section Petota (Wild Potatoes) in Catálogo de Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, y sur del Brasil)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum section Petota (Solanaceae), which includes the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its wild relatives, contains over 150 wild species distributed from the southwestern U.S.A. (38°N) to central Argentina and adjacent Chile (41°S). This catalog includes all species from the Southern Con...

  20. The turbidity front as a habitat for Acartia tonsa (Copepoda) in the Río de la Plata, Argentina-Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derisio, Carla; Braverman, Mara; Gaitán, Esteban; Hozbor, Constanza; Ramírez, Fernando; Carreto, José; Botto, Florencia; Gagliardini, Domingo A.; Acha, E. Marcelo; Mianzan, Hermes

    2014-01-01

    Acartia tonsa is one of the most abundant copepod species in estuaries worldwide. In the Río de la Plata, its highest densities appear to occur in an area of low quality food (detritus): the turbidity front (TF). The objective of this study was to understand how trophic and oceanographic drivers contribute to the high densities of A. tonsa in the Río de la Plata TF. The patterns of spatial distribution and density of this species were analyzed in relation to oceanographic and biological attributes of the system. The egg production rate (EPR) in the TF was evaluated as a measure of fitness, and a stable isotope analysis indicated the possible sources of organic matter in the species' diet. This study confirmed that the highest observed densities of A. tonsa were mostly associated with the TF, where high suspended matter and low Chl-a occur. Immediately offshore from the TF, decreased copepod densities and the maximum Chl-a values were found. Females close to the estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) had a lower EPR than those closer to the high Chl-a concentrations. Within the TF, A. tonsa apparently fed on detritus close to the ETM and phytoplankton close to the edge of the TF. The report includes a discussion of how retention processes, two layered flow and the life history strategy of A. tonsa could be contributing to the development of high densities (more than 10,000 ind m- 3) of this species in the inner estuarine zone, despite the poor quality of food available for development in that area. A. tonsa can live and prosper in areas with high turbidity and low chlorophyll concentrations. This trait exemplifies the plasticity of this species and helps explain why it is a key species in many worldwide estuaries.

  1. Geochemistry of the Neoproterozoic (800-767 Ma) Cerro Bori orthogneisses, Dom Feliciano Belt in Uruguay: tectonic evolution of an ancient continental arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, C.; Porcher, C. C.; Fernandes, L. A. D.; Masquelin, H.; Koester, E.; Conceição, R. V.

    2013-10-01

    The Cerro Bori orthogneisses, crystallized between ca. 800 and 767 Ma, are composed of a sequence of mafic gneisses, with dioritic-gabbroic and dioritic composition tectonically interleaved with a sequence of tonalitic and granodioritic gneisses. These rocks intruded the Chafalote paragneisses (metapelites, semipelites, carbonate and mafic rocks) and they were metamorphosed of high P-T conditions at ca. 676-654 Ma. This paper presents the first major and trace geochemical signatures, as well as Sm and Pb isotopic composition for the Cerro Bori orthogneisses, which allow distinguishing three different groups of rocks. Type I rocks are mafic gneisses with tholeiitic affinity, whereas the Type II rocks are tonalitic and granodioritic gneisses with calc-alkaline affinity. The third type is composed of biotite-rich mafic gneisses with potassic and ultrapotassic affinities. All the three types of rocks have negative ℰND values (between -2.12 and -6.67) and old TDM ages (between 1.2 and 2.0 Ga), indicating that the process of crustal assimilation/contamination was an important process, together with fractional crystallization. An continental arc tectonic setting is suggested to this association of rocks between 800 and 767 Ma. This subduction suggests the existence of an ocean between Rio de La Plata and adjacent cratons during the break up of the Rodinia supercontinent.

  2. Variability in terrigenous sediment supply offshore of the Rio de la Plata (Uruguay) recording the continental climatic history over the past 1200 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, L.; García-Rodríguez, F.; Hanebuth, T. J. J.

    2015-04-01

    The continental shelf adjacent to the Río de la Plata (RdlP) exhibits extremely complex hydrographic and ecological characteristics which are of great socio-economic importance. Since the long-term environmental variations related to the atmospheric (wind fields), hydrologic (freshwater plume), and oceanographic (currents and fronts) regimes are little known, the aim of this study is to reconstruct the changes in the terrigenous input into the inner continental shelf during the Late Holocene period (associated with the RdlP sediment discharge) and to unravel the climatic forcing mechanisms behind them. To achieve this, we retrieved a 10 m long sediment core from the RdlP mud depocenter at a depth of 57 m (GeoB 13813-4). The radiocarbon age control indicated an extremely high sedimentation rate of 0.8 cm per year, encompassing the past 1200 years (750-2000 AD). We used element ratios (Ti / Ca, Fe / Ca, Ti / Al, Fe / K) as regional proxies for the fluvial input signal, and the variations in relative abundance of salinity-indicative diatom groups (freshwater vs. marine-brackish) to assess the variability in terrigenous water and sediment discharge. Ti / Ca, Fe / Ca, Ti / Al, Fe / K and the freshwater diatom group showed the lowest values between 850 and 1300 AD, while the highest values occurred between 1300 and 1850 AD. The variations in the sedimentary record can be attributed to such regional and global climatic episodes as the Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA), both of which had a significant impact on rainfall and wind patterns over the region. During the MCA, a northward migration of the Intertropical Confluence Zone (ITCZ) could explain the lowest element ratios (indicative of a lower terrigenous input) and a marine-dominated diatom record, both indicative of a reduced RdlP freshwater plume. In contrast during the LIA, the southward migration of the ITCZ accompanied by El Niño-like state conditions may have led to an expansion of RdlP river plume far to the north, as indicated by higher element ratios and a marked freshwater diatom signal. During the current warm period (i.e., after 1900 AD), the highest values in the element ratios and a pronounced marine to marine-brackish diatom record was found. This discordance between diatom record and sediment supply during the last century could be the consequence of an anthropogenic impact on the drainage basin and the RdlP system, expressed by the artificial increase in metal concentrations in the offshore sediments.

  3. Report of the Latin American and Caribbean Regional Meeting for the International Youth Year (2nd, Montevideo, Uruguay, August 26-29, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Economic and Social Council, New York, NY.

    The report is organized into three sections. Section 1, "Attendance and Organization of Work," is a general summary giving information on place and date, attendance, election of officers, and agenda, and summarizing the opening meeting, the consideration and adoption of the final report, and the closing meeting. Section 2, "Summary of Debates,"…

  4. Teacher Collegiality and Electronic Communication: A Study of the Collaborative Uses of E-Mail by Secondary School Teachers in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grnberg, Jorge; Armellini, Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    Teacher collegiality has been consistently highlighted in recent years as a crucial factor in the success of processes of educational change and professional development. Consequently, there is considerable interest both from researchers and practitioners, in investigating strategies capable of supporting interactions and collaborations between…

  5. Uruguay eHealth initiative: preliminary studies regarding an integrated approach to evaluate vascular age and preclinical atherosclerosis (CUiiDARTE project).

    PubMed

    Armentano, Ricardo L; Bia, Daniel; Zócalo, Yanina; Torrado, Juan; Farro, Ignacio; Farro, Federico; Florio, Lucía; Olascoaga, Alicia; Alallon, Walter; Negreira, Carlos; Lluberas, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present an initiative to develop a national (Uruguayan) program to evaluate vascular age and to detect pre-clinical atherosclerosis using: gold-standard technologies; complimentary and integrative approaches to asses arterial functional and structural indexes; data bases systems to process, analyze and determine normal and reference values and to identify the most sensitive markers of vascular changes for different ages. We evaluated, in a Uruguayan population complementary structural and functional vascular parameters that associate aging-related changes and are considered markers of sub-clinical atherosclerosis. Traditional CV risk factors were assessed. The subjects (n=281) were submitted to non-invasive vascular studies to evaluate: 1) Common carotid artery (CCA) intima-media thickness and diameter waveforms, 2) CCA stiffness, 3) aortic stiffness (pulse wave velocity) and 4) peripheral and central pressure pulse wave derived parameters. Age groups: 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, and 61-70 years-old. Age-related profiles were obtained for the different vascular parameters, and their utility to assess vascular changes in young, middle-aged and old subjects was evaluated. The work has the strength of being the first that uses, in Latin-America an integrative approach to characterize vascular aging-related changes.

  6. 75 FR 33824 - Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates, Fourth Review: Advice Concerning the Addition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... (USTR) pursuant to section 115 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (URAA) (19 U.S.C. 3524) and section... indicated in the USTR's letter, as part of the Uruguay Round negotiations, the United States and 21...

  7. 76 FR 3584 - Time for Payment of Certain Excise Taxes, and Quarterly Excise Tax Payments for Small Alcohol...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... Revenue Code of 1986 by the Uruguay Round Agreement Act of 1994 and by the 2005 Safe, Accountable... provisions of the Uruguay Round Agreement Act of 1994 (URA) (Pub. L. 103-465, 108 Stat. 4809), and the...

  8. 7 CFR 6.25 - Allocation of licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... designation result from both Tokyo Round concessions and Uruguay Round concessions, the designations should be... Uruguay Round for the right to designate importers has not done so, but determines to designate...

  9. 15 CFR 2015.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-containing products established as a result of the Uruguay Round Agreements, approved by the Congress in section 101 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (Pub. L. 103-465). In particular, this party provides...

  10. 77 FR 21774 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ...; Compania Libra de Navegacion Uruguay S.A.; Compania Sud Americana de Vapores, S.A.; COSCO Container Lines... Libra de Navegacion Uruguay; Matson Navigation Co.; Mediterranean Shipping Co., S.A.;...

  11. 7 CFR 6.25 - Allocation of licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... designation result from both Tokyo Round concessions and Uruguay Round concessions, the designations should be... Uruguay Round for the right to designate importers has not done so, but determines to designate...

  12. 78 FR 20390 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to the Foreign...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... INTERNACIONALES DEL ECUADOR NIDEGROUP S.A., Quito, Pichincha, Ecuador; c/o SNACK PARTY, Quito, Pichincha, Ecuador.... 172101469-2 (Ecuador); Passport B716164 (Uruguay); alt. Passport C144880 (Uruguay); alt. Passport 02952296-8 (Uruguay) (individual) . Entity SNACK PARTY, Los Vinedos 19 y Venezuela, Quito, Pichincha, Ecuador;...

  13. 78 FR 76276 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Ovine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Collection; Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... regulations for the importation of ovine meat from Uruguay into the United States. ] DATES: We will consider...: For information on the regulations for the importation of ovine meat from Uruguay, contact Dr....

  14. 76 FR 68271 - To Modify the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... ] TD03NO11.020 ] TD03NO11.021 ] TD03NO11.022 ] TD03NO11.023 ] TD03NO11.024 ] TD03NO11.025 ] TD03NO11.026 [FR... from the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations (the ``Uruguay Round Agreements''). In section 101(a) of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (the ``URAA'') (19 U.S.C. 3511(a)), the...

  15. 7 CFR Appendices 1, 2 and 3 to... - Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Tokyo round Uruguay round NON-CHEESE ARTICLES BUTTER (NOTE 6) 5,278,428 1,698,572 EU-25 75,459 20,702... Uruguay 250,000 Other Countries 100,906 100,729 Any Country 300,000 BLUE-MOLD CHEESE (EXCEPT STILTON...,276 210,207 367,517 1,890,000 EU-25 2,496,468 885,532 2,025,000 Romania 500,000 Uruguay 428,000...

  16. Planificacion linguistica y constitucion de un bloque regional: El caso del Mercosur (Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uraguay) y de Chile (Language Planning and the Constitution of a Regional Bloc: The Case of Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay) and Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chareille, Samantha

    2003-01-01

    The common market of the South is a new linguistic and cultural area. The resurgence of innermost identities within member states proves that Mercosur identity can neither be universal nor specific. The outcome of this quest for identity will depend on the ability to carefully handle an area of cultural diversity and a place of common allegiance…

  17. 77 FR 413 - To Modify the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States and for Other Purposes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... thirty- sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-00020 Filed 1-3-12; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... resulting from the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations, including Schedule XX- United States of...)), and approved in section 101(a) of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (URAA) (19 U.S.C. 3511(a))....

  18. 78 FR 42872 - Communication with the U.S. Copyright Office: Revised Addresses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ....gov/help/general-form.html . \\1\\ See 69 FR 5371 (Feb. 4, 2004) and 68 FR 70039 (Dec. 16, 2003). (b... Uruguay Round Agreements Act. * * * * * (d) Requirements for Notice of Intent to Enforce a Copyright Restored under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act. (1) Notices of Intent to Enforce should be mailed to...

  19. 76 FR 11553 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti Dumping Measures on Corrosion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Countervailing Duty Orders'' (``Sunset Policy Bulletin''), 63 FR 18871 (16 April 1998); (6) ``the general... of Administrative Action that accompanied the Uruguay Round Agreements Act, H.R. Doc. No. 103-316... docket and open to public inspection. Pursuant to section 127(e) of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act...

  20. Never Too Early.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Alicia; And Others

    The approach to English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction for preschool children at Instituto Crandon, a private elementary-secondary school in Uruguay is described. First, characteristics of Uruguay and its educational system are outlined, stressing the advantages of temperate physical environment and high literacy rate. Then background…

  1. Dictatorships and Repression against the Universities: The Transition to Military Rule in Latin America and the Impact on Enrollments in the Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astin, Paul

    This paper focuses on the transition to military rule in Brazil (1964), Uruguay (1973), Chile (1973), and Argentina (1976) and examines the argument that the disciplines which lend themselves to analysis of the social order, such as the social sciences and humanities, are most often the target of political repression. Argentina, Uruguay, and Chile…

  2. 9 CFR 94.1 - Regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on..., the Republic of South Africa, and Uruguay. (b) The importation of any ruminant or swine or any fresh... § 94.22 for fresh (chilled or frozen) beef from Uruguay. (c) The importation of any used farm...

  3. Juana P. Manso (1819-1875)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwell, Myriam

    2005-01-01

    This article profiles Juana P. Manso, who was a writer, translator, journalist, teacher and precursor of feminism in Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil. In 1840 she moved with her family to Montevideo (Uruguay), exiled under the regime of Juan Manuel de Rosas, who was governing the territory of the United Provinces of the River Plate. During Rosas'…

  4. Accuracy and reaction time in recognition of facial emotions in people with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Parada-Fernández, Pamela; Oliva-Macías, Mireia; Amayra, Imanol; López-Paz, Juan F; Lázaro, Esther; Martínez, Óscar; Jometón, Amaia; Berrocoso, Sarah; García de Salazar, Héctor; Pérez, Manuel

    2015-11-16

    Introduccion. La expresion facial emocional constituye una guia basica en la interaccion social y, por lo tanto, las alteraciones en su expresion o reconocimiento implican una limitacion importante para la comunicacion. Por otro lado, el deterioro cognitivo y la presencia de sintomas depresivos, que se encuentran comunmente en los pacientes con esclerosis multiple, no se sabe como influyen en el reconocimiento emocional. Objetivo. Considerar la evaluacion del tiempo de reaccion y precision en la respuesta de reconocimiento de expresiones faciales de las personas afectadas por esclerosis multiple y valorar las posibles variables que pueden modular el reconocimiento de emociones, como la depresion y las funciones cognitivas. Sujetos y metodos. El estudio tiene un diseño no experimental transversal con una sola medicion. La muestra esta compuesta por 85 participantes, 45 con diagnostico de esclerosis multiple y 40 sujetos control. Resultados. Los sujetos con esclerosis multiple revelaban diferencias significativas tanto en el tiempo de reaccion y la precision de respuesta en pruebas neuropsicologicas en comparacion con el grupo control. Se identificaron modelos explicativos en el reconocimiento emocional. Conclusion. Los sujetos con esclerosis multiple se enfrentan a dificultades en el reconocimiento de emociones faciales, y se observaron diferencias en la memoria, atencion, velocidad de procesamiento y sintomatologia depresiva en relacion con el grupo control.

  5. Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention (ILO No. 111).

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    The government of Uruguay ratified this UN International Labor Organization Convention on employment and occupation discrimination on November 16, 1989, and the government of Democratic Yemen ratified it on January 3, 1989.

  6. Equal Remuneration Convention (ILO No. 100).

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    The government of Uruguay ratified this UN International Labor Organization convention on equal remuneration on November 16, 1989, and the Government of Zimbabwe ratified this Convention on December 14, 1989.

  7. UNICEF

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sweden Switzerland (DE) Switzerland (FR) Switzerland (IT) Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor- ... Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States of America Uruguay ...

  8. Find an Eye M.D.

    MedlinePlus

    ... Svalbard & Jan Mayen Islands Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania-United Republic Thailand Togo ... Islands Tuvalu U S Minor Island Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Unknown Uruguay Uzbekistan ...

  9. 77 FR 61818 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duties...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (``SCM Agreement''); and Article VI of the General... public inspection. Pursuant to section 127(e) of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (19 ] U.S.C....

  10. 37 CFR 202.12 - Restored copyrights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... seek an alternative deposit under special relief (37 CFR 202.20(d)). In such a case, the applicant... Uruguay Round Agreements Act, Public Law 103-465. (b) Definitions. (1) For the purposes of this...

  11. 9 CFR 327.2 - Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of products into the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume..., Romania, San Marino, 1 Scotland, Slovakia, 2 Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yugoslavia....

  12. Phenrica littoralis a potential candidate for the biological control of alligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides: redscription of the adult, first description of immature stages and biological notes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flea beetles of aliligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides (Martius) Grisebach (Amaranthaceae), were collected in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Brazil. Species in the genera Disonycha Chevrolat, Agasicles Jacoby Systena Chevrolat and Phenrica Bechyne were frequently found on this weed. Phenric...

  13. International Osteoporosis Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Arab Emirates - United Kingdom - United States - Uruguay - Uzbekistan - Venezuela - Viet Nam - Serbia Sign In Sign Up Members ... Advisors Regional Representation Vision, Mission & Goals Annual Report History Find a Local Society Contact Us Partners What ...

  14. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 710 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (EAR) (15 CFR parts 730 through 774). ** For export control purposes, Cook Islands and Niue are not... Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela Vietnam Yemen Zambia...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart A of... - Parties to the Montreal Protocol, and Nations Complying With, But Not Parties to, the Protocol

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ✓ ✓ ✓ Uruguay ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Uzbekistan ✓ ✓ ✓ Vanuatu ✓ ✓ ✓ Venezuela ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Viet Nam ✓ ✓ ✓ Yemen ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Yugoslavia.... Yemen 146. Zambia 147. Zimbabwe...

  16. 7 CFR 319.37-6 - Specific treatment and other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... noxious weeds listed in 7 CFR 360.200. Hibiscus spp. (hibiscus, rose mallow) seeds All, with the exception..., Thailand, Thursday Island, United Arab Emirates, Uruguay, Vietnam, Yemen (Sanaa), and Zaire...

  17. 76 FR 15233 - Proposed Modification to Regulation Concerning the Revocation of Antidumping and Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ...) (change ``have'' to ``has'') and delete 19 CFR 351.222(m) (a transition rule related to the Uruguay Round... of suspended investigations. (a) Introduction. ``Revocation'' is a term of art that refers to the...

  18. Social values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    Biologist Petteri Vihervaara gathered together specialists in geography, ecology, forestry, cultural studies and ethnography to analyse people's attitudes about the ecosystem services of different plantations in the context of rapid afforestation in Uruguay.

  19. First case of Mycobacterium heckeshornense cavitary lung disease in the Latin America and Caribbean region

    PubMed Central

    Coitinho, C.; Greif, G.; van Ingen, J.; Laserra, P.; Robello, C.; Rivas, C.

    2015-01-01

    A case of cavitary pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium heckeshornense in Uruguay is described. This is the first case reported in the Latin America and Caribbean region, showing that this species is a worldwide opportunistic human pathogen. PMID:26909156

  20. 75 FR 40837 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ....gov . Agreement No.: 011279-027. Title: Latin America Agreement. Parties: ABC Discussion Agreement; Caribbean Shipowners Association; Central America Discussion Agreement; Compania Libra de Navegacion Uruguay... America Discussion Agreement; and Zim Integrated Shipping Services, Ltd. Filing Party: Wayne R. Rohde,...

  1. Chagas Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... if they: ■ Have lived in rural areas of Mexico, Central America or South America, in countries such ... El Salvador, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay or Venezuela ■ ...

  2. 7 CFR 6.37 - Supersedure of Import Regulation 1, Revision 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... appendices 1 through 3 as contained in 7 CFR subtitle A revised as of January 1, 1996). With respect to any... Appendix 3 Tokyo round Uruguay round NON-CHEESE ARTICLES BUTTER (NOTE 6) 5,278,428 1,698,572 EU-25 75,459... Uruguay 250,000 Other Countries 100,906 100,729 Any Country 300,000 BLUE-MOLD CHEESE (EXCEPT...

  3. Assessment of Anthropogenic Impacts in La Plata River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, N. O.; Venencio, M.

    2006-12-01

    An assessment of the variability of the streamflows in La Plata Basin (LPB), particularly in its major tributaries Paraná and Uruguay, is presented in this work. The La Plata Basin, the fifth largest basin in the world and second only to the Amazon in South America, is 3.6 million km2 and covers portions of 5 countries: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Sub-basins include the Bermejo, Paraná, Paraguay, Pilcomayo, and Uruguay. Major rivers of the basin are the Paraguay, the Uruguay and the Paraná. Streamflows in the LPB have been above normal in the last decades, e.g. the mean flow in the Paraná river during the 1971-1994 period was 34% higher than the mean flow during the 1931-1970 period. A similar analysis carried out on the precipitation records for the La Plata basin showed only a 14% increase during the same periods for the Upper Paraná basin and a 20% increase for the Uruguay basin. In this paper it is postulated that the increase in the streamflows, not explained by precipitation increases, is due to the changes in cultivation patterns in the upper basins of the Paraná and Uruguay. Particularly, the substitution of coffee plantations for annual crops, mainly soybeans, has produced a change in the infiltration patterns that influenced the discharges.

  4. Aedes aegypti from temperate regions of South America are highly competent to transmit dengue virus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti is extensively spread throughout South America where it has been responsible for large dengue epidemics during the last decades. Intriguingly, dengue transmission has not been reported in Uruguay and is essentially prevalent in subtropical northern Argentina which borders Uruguay. Methods We assessed vector competence for dengue virus (DENV) of Ae. aegypti populations collected in subtropical Argentina (Corrientes) as well as temperate Uruguay (Salto) and Argentina (Buenos Aires) in 2012 using experimental oral infections with DENV-2. Mosquitoes were incubated at 28°C and examined at 14 and 21 days p.i. to access viral dissemination and transmission. Batches of the Buenos Aires mosquitoes were also incubated at 15°C and 20°C. Results Although mosquitoes from temperate Uruguay and Argentina were competent to transmit DENV, those from subtropical Argentina were more susceptible, displaying the highest virus titters in the head and presenting the highest dissemination of infection and transmission efficiency rates when incubated at 28°C. Interestingly, infectious viral particles could be detected in saliva of mosquitoes from Buenos Aires exposed to 15°C and 20°C. Conclusions There is a potential risk of establishing DENV transmission in Uruguay and for the spread of dengue outbreaks to other parts of subtropical and temperate Argentina, notably during spring and summer periods. PMID:24373423

  5. A cross-country comparison of secondhand smoke exposure among adults: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    PubMed Central

    King, Brian A; Mirza, Sara A; Babb, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Objective Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) from burning tobacco products causes disease and premature death among non-smoking adults and children. The objective of this study was to determine the nature, extent and demographic correlates of SHS exposure among adults in low- and middle-income countries with a high burden of tobacco use. Methods Data were obtained from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), a nationally representative household survey of individuals 15 years of age or older. Interviews were conducted during 2008–2010 in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, the Philippines, Poland, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay and Vietnam. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the prevalence and correlates of SHS exposure in homes, workplaces, government buildings, restaurants, public transportation and healthcare facilities. Results Exposure to SHS in the home ranged from 17.3% (Mexico) to 73.1% (Vietnam). Among those who work in an indoor area outside the home, SHS exposure in the workplace ranged from 16.5% (Uruguay) to 63.3% (China). Exposure to SHS ranged from 6.9% (Uruguay) to 72.7% (Egypt) in government buildings, 4.4% (Uruguay) to 88.5% (China) in restaurants, 5.4% (Uruguay) to 79.6% (Egypt) on public transportation, and 3.8% (Uruguay) to 49.2% (Egypt) in healthcare facilities. Conclusions A large proportion of adults living in low-and middle-income countries are exposed to SHS in their homes, workplaces, and other public places. Countries can enact and enforce legislation requiring 100% smoke-free public places and workplaces, and can also conduct educational initiatives to reduce SHS exposure in homes. PMID:23019273

  6. Herramienta para distinguir lunares de melanoma.

    Cancer.gov

    “De lunares a melanoma: reconocimiento de las características ABCDE” presenta fotos que muestran cambios en lesions individuales pigmentadas con el tiempo, y describe las diferentes apariencias de lunares, de nevos displásicos y de melanomas.

  7. [The tendency of youths to emigrate: the Uruguayan case].

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, A

    1995-01-01

    "This paper presents the case of Uruguay, seen as an emigration country on the basis of the information contained in the Youth National Survey....The results show that one fourth of the persons in the cohorts defined as young plan to live abroad even though not permanently....[We propose] paying more attention to cultural and social mobility aspects in the analysis of international migration, as well as general prospects of life styles that are offered as possibilities to young people in a country like Uruguay in the frame of the economic and cultural globalisation in which the references are those of the developed countries." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) PMID:12291042

  8. First case of peritoneal cystic echinococcosis in a domestic cat caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (genotype 1) associated to feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Castro, Oscar F; Crampet, Alejandro; Bartzabal, Álvaro; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Grimm, Felix; Deplazes, Peter

    2014-04-01

    A new cystic echinococcosis case in a cat in Uruguay is reported herein. The cat was taken to a veterinary clinic in Rocha city, Uruguay, due to dyspnea, constipation and abdominal enlargement. During surgery a large quantity of cysts was retrieved from the abdominal cavity. The cysts were morphologically studied and confirmed as Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (genotype 1) by molecular tools using cytochrome oxidase submit 1 and small subunit ribosomal RNA gene as target genes. Moreover, for the first time a coinfection with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was detected. FIV-induced immunosuppression could be a determining factor in the development of cystic echinococcosis in cats.

  9. [The tendency of youths to emigrate: the Uruguayan case].

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, A

    1995-01-01

    "This paper presents the case of Uruguay, seen as an emigration country on the basis of the information contained in the Youth National Survey....The results show that one fourth of the persons in the cohorts defined as young plan to live abroad even though not permanently....[We propose] paying more attention to cultural and social mobility aspects in the analysis of international migration, as well as general prospects of life styles that are offered as possibilities to young people in a country like Uruguay in the frame of the economic and cultural globalisation in which the references are those of the developed countries." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  10. Estudio comparativo de los metodos analitico-sintetico y global en el aprendizaje de la lectura (Comparative Study of the Analytical-Synthetical (Phonics) and Global (Sight) Reading Methods).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbonell de Grompone, Maria A.; And Others

    An investigation into the phonics and sight methods of reading instruction being taught in Uruguay schools seeks valid predictions in support of each approach. The study, written in Spanish, examines the progressive reading habits and abilities of 12 first-grade classes. Teachers assigned to teach each method uniformly had equivalent training and…

  11. Workers with Family Responsibilities Convention (ILO No. 156).

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    The government of France ratified this UN Convention on Workers with Family Responsibilities on March 16, 1989; the government of Uruguay ratified it on November 16, 1989; and the government of the Yemen Arab Republic ratified it on March 13, 1989.

  12. Latin America and the Caribbean: A Survey of Distance Education 1991. New Papers on Higher Education: Studies and Research 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carty, Joan

    Country profiles compiled through a survey of distance education in Latin America and the Caribbean form the contents of this document. Seventeen countries were surveyed in Latin America: Argentina; Bolivia; Brazil; Chile; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; French Guiana; Guatemala; Guyana; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Peru; Uruguay; and…

  13. Nuevas Tendencias en la Ensenanza de las Ciencias (New Trends in Science Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oficina Regional de Educacion de la Unesco para America Latina y el Caribe, Santiago (Chile).

    The concern for improving science education in Latin America is reflected in this document compiled by UNESCO offices in Chile, Uruguay, and Paris with financial support from UNICEF, and directed to Latin American science teachers. The first part deals with planning the reforms needed in science education and the practical considerations involved.…

  14. 77 FR 19745 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States; Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... and Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 47771 (August 9, 2010); (2... Results and Final Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 56158 (September 12... the Antidumping Duty Order, 75 FR 75965 (December 7, 2010); and (7) Section 129 of the Uruguay...

  15. 76 FR 32010 - Certifications Pursuant to Public Law That 12 Nations Have Adopted Programs To Reduce the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... States. The Department also certified that the fishing environments in 26 other countries and one economy... Suriname. The Department also certified 26 shrimp harvesting nations and one economy as having fishing... United Kingdom, and Uruguay. Ten nations and one economy only harvest shrimp using small boats with...

  16. Cadophora species as trunk pathogens and wood-infecting fungi of grapevine in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cadophora species, in particular Cadophora luteo-olivacea, are reported from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in California, South Africa, Spain, Uruguay, and Canada. Frequent isolation from vines co-infected with the Esca pathogens (Togninia minima, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora), and confirmation of it...

  17. Clinical engineering development in the Uruguayan public health system.

    PubMed

    Di Virgilio, Valerio; Ambrois, Gonzalo

    2010-01-01

    Establishment of the clinical engineering department with a network of 5 operational centers to strengthen public medical equipment management and maintenance, in the context of the Health System reform with the purpose of ensuring universal access to the health services in the Republic of Uruguay. PMID:21097119

  18. What's Up Down Under? A Geography of Australia for Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, W.

    This paper is part of a larger study entitled "A Comparative Geography of Three Ecologically Similar Regions," which compares the Chesapeake Bay region of Maryland with the Murray River region of South Australia and the Rio de la Plata region of Uruguay. Readings with accompanying questions are intended for classroom use. Teachers are encouraged…

  19. 78 FR 39947 - To Modify Duty-Free Treatment Under the Generalized System of Preferences and for Other Purposes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... code 3295-F2-P ] TD02JY13.019 ] TD02JY13.020 ] TD02JY13.021 ] TD02JY13.022 [FR Doc. 2013-16104 Filed 7..., implemented the trade agreements resulting from the Uruguay Round of multilateral negotiations,...

  20. Sustainable Trade: A New Paradigm for World Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanza, Robert; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the environmental impact of the liberalization of trade and calls for the development of a fair and sustainable trading system. Examines the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) for their impact on sustainable trade. (LZ)

  1. Leaf rust resistance in selected Uruguayan common wheat cultivars with early maturity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf rust (caused by Puccinia triticina) is one of the most important diseases of wheat in Uruguay, therefore breeding for resistance to this disease has been a long term objective for INIA wheat breeding program. Information of the identity of resistance genes present in the program is required to ...

  2. Vowel Harmony: A Variable Rule in Brazilian Portuguese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisol, Leda

    1989-01-01

    Examines vowel harmony in the "Gaucho dialect" of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. Informants from four areas of the state were studied: the capital city (Porto Alegre), the border region with Uruguay, and two areas of the interior populated by descendants of nineteenth-century immigrants from Europe, mainly Germans and Italians. (VWL)

  3. 78 FR 22798 - Hazardous Materials: Revision of Maximum and Minimum Civil Penalties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... on which the agency has ] no discretion. 44 FR 11034. The economic impact of the final rule is... may be viewed at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2000-04-11/pdf/00-8505.pdf . K. Executive Order 13609.... Similarly, the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (Pub. L. 96-39), as amended by the Uruguay Round Agreements...

  4. The Street and Its Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucchini, Riccardo

    1996-01-01

    Studied development of identity as street children in Montevideo, Uruguay. Found that children without income-generating activity lack self-definition as street children but recognize the street as a place of apprenticeship, knowing they can return to institutions or to parents. Working children view the street as a workplace and meeting place,…

  5. Patients' Ways of Speaking about Antiretroviral Medications and Possible Implications for Adherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delbene, Roxana

    2012-01-01

    The medical literature reports that antiretrovirals (ARVs) are considered attitudinal objects (Dunbar-Jacob, 1995). Drawing on the pragmatics of emotion (Caffi & Janney, 1994), this study analyzes how patients' stances about their ARTs shape their emotional relationships with their treatments. The data, collected in a public hospital in Uruguay,…

  6. Conditioned Aversion in Sheep Induced by Baccharis coridifolia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Southern Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, and Paraguay, the invasive weed Baccharis coridifolia often poisons naive animals. Farmers prevent B. coridifolia poisoning using several unconventional methods to reduce ingestion: (1) burning plant material under an animals’ nose, and having the animal inhal...

  7. The Use and Limits of AFLP Data in the Taxonomy of Polyploid Wild Potato Species in Solanum Series Conicibaccata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum sect. Petota (tuber-bearing wild and cultivated potatoes) are a group of approximately 190 wild species distributed throughout the Americas from the southwestern United States south to Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay. Solanum series Conicibaccata are a group of approximately 40 species within ...

  8. Early Childhood Trends Worldwide--First Annual World Early Childhood Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Presents information on trends in early childhood education in various countries, focusing on educational policy and the role of government. Summarizes trends from Armenia, Canada, Finland, Iceland, India, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, Moldova, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Ukraine, United Kingdom, and Uruguay. (KB)

  9. Can a Laptop Change How the World Teaches?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jason

    2008-01-01

    In December 2007, the XO laptop was launched in Uruguay. The XO laptop is an inexpensive computer created by the One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) Foundation, which the founders hope will advance education in the developing world. In the frenzy to light up children's faces with the glow of an LCD, it is the librarians and teachers and their role in…

  10. Latin America Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    A profile of Latin America (defined as consisting of the countries of Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela) emerges from this collection of black and white illustrative maps, tables, and…

  11. Linguistic Variation in a Border Town: Palatalization of Dental Stops and Vowel Nasalization in Rivera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castaneda-Molla, Rosa Maria

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the analysis of variation at the phonological level, specifically the variable realization of palatalization of dental stops before the high vowel /i/ and vowel nasalization in the speech of bilingual speakers of Uruguayan Portuguese (UP) in the city of Rivera, Uruguay. The data were collected in participant-observation and…

  12. Teaching Tobacco Cessation Skills to Uruguayan Physicians Using Information and Communication Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llambi, Laura; Esteves, Elba; Martinez, Elisa; Forster, Thais; Garcia, Sofia; Miranda, Natalia; Arredondo, Antonio Lopez; Margolis, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Since 2004, with the ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Uruguay has implemented a wide range of legal restrictions designed to reduce the devastating impacts of tobacco. This legal process generated an increase in demand for tobacco cessation treatment, which led to the need to train a large number of…

  13. Laptop Classes in Some Australian Government Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluck, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    Australia was once a world leader for laptop adoption in schools. Now overtaken by extensive roll-outs of laptops in Maine and Uruguay, this paper seeks to explain why this lead was lost. Six case studies of government primary schools were undertaken to gather data about current initiatives. Comparative analysis shows how the potential of…

  14. Lack of Genetic Differentiation Between Puccinia triticina Collections from North and South America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isolates (265) of Puccinia triticina from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Peru,Uruguay, Canada and the US were tested for polymorphism at 23 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci, and tested for virulence on 20 Thatcher near-isogenic lines of wheat. Grouping of the isolates through a Bayesian model-based clus...

  15. Adaptation of in vitro bioassays for the diagnosis of resistance to Fipronil and Ivermectin in R. (B.) microplus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    R. microplus represents the most important pathological constraint to livestock production in Brazil and Uruguay. The infestation of cattle by ticks is controlled by chemical applications on a regular basis. Fipronil and ivermectin have been widely used in recent years to the benefit of cattle produ...

  16. Resistance to the soybean rust pathogen (Phakopsora Pachyrhizi) in common bean cultivar CNC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust (SBR), caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is a new disease in the Americas that has moved swiftly from one country to another. P. pachyrhizi was first reported on soybeans in Paraguay (2001) and soon after in Brazil and Argentina (2002), Bolivia (2003), Uruguay and the USA, (2004), and M...

  17. Non-Profit Child Care: A Powerful Worldwide Movement. An Exchange International Trend Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Examines nonprofit child care in the United States and its role in various other nations. Focuses on the legal status of various types of for-profit and nonprofit U.S. centers and centers in Canada, Russia, Namibia, Malaysia, Sweden, Uruguay, Croatia, Japan, Australia, Hungary, Kenya, Singapore, Lithuania, Bangladesh, and Tanzania. (KB)

  18. Public Expenditure in Education in Latin America. Recommendations to Serve the Purposes of the Paris Open Educational Resources Declaration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toledo, Amalia; Botero, Carolina; Guzmán, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors identify and analyze public policy and the investment and expenditure that the governments of Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Paraguay and Uruguay commit to make in the development and procurement of textbooks, books and digital content for primary and secondary education (K-12). The aim is to identify and propose a roadmap…

  19. Espanol I: Manual (para Peace Corps Volunteers) (Spanish I: Manual (for Peace Corps Volunteers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Montevideo (Uruguay).

    This guide is designed for Spanish language training of Peace Corps workers in Uruguay, and reflects daily communication needs in that context. It consists of 11 instructional units, each addressing four to seven specific language competencies. A table of contents outlines the targeted competencies and content for each unit. The units contain…

  20. Maryland: A Geographic Study for Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    This paper shows comparisons among the Chesapeake Bay region of Maryland, the Murray River region of South Australia, and the Rio de la Plata region of Uruguay. Through comparative geography, students are to draw their own conclusions about the similarities and differences of the three regions. Teachers are encouraged to use other resources to aid…

  1. Wild and Cultivated Potato (Solanum sect. Petota) Escaped and Persistent Outside of its Natural Range

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild potato (Solanum section Petota) contains about 110 species that are native to the Americas from the southwestern United States to central Chile and adjacent Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and southern Brazil. Landrace populations of the cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum, are native to the Ame...

  2. 78 FR 76779 - Proposed Modification of the Philadelphia, PA, Class B Airspace Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... May 9, 2013, the FAA published a final rule modifying the Philadelphia Class B airspace area (78 FR..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... The Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (Pub. L. 96-39), as amended by the Uruguay Round Agreements Act...

  3. Theory, Method, and Triangulation in the Study of Street Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucchini, Riccardo

    1996-01-01

    Describes how a comparative study of street children in Montevideo (Uruguay), Rio de Janeiro, and Mexico City contributes to a synergism between theory and method. Notes how theoretical approaches of symbolic interactionism, genetic structuralism, and habitus theory complement interview, participant observation, and content analysis methods;…

  4. The Secondary Education Curriculum in Latin America: New Tendencies and Changes. Final Report of the Seminar Organized by the International Bureau of Education and Held at the International Institute for Educational Planning (Buenos Aires, Argentina, September 2-3, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braslavsky, Cecilia

    This report was presented and discussed at a seminar on "The Secondary Education Curriculum in Latin America: The View of Specialists" which took place at UNESCO's International Institute for Educational Planning. It also incorporates information and comments put forward at the seminar by participants from Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, and Brazil.…

  5. Accreditation as an Incentive for Internationalization: A South American Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landoni, Pablo; Roane, Warren

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the history and purposes of accreditation in the United States, examines its basic elements, and notes its tendency to encompass ever-increasing geographic areas. It contrasts those with the experience of Uruguay within MERCOSUR and its history of accreditation. In order to make this comparison across both regions, the focus…

  6. Library Professionals' Education in the Mercosur Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Oliveira, Ely Francina Tannuri; Guimaraes, Jose Augusto Chaves

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with library professionals education in Mercosur--the Common Market of South America--established on 29 March, 1991 to expand the national markets of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, and promote free circulation of goods, services and production agents in that region. The paper presents, through a descriptive study, the…

  7. Non-Formal Education for Youth and Adults: The Perspective of Civil Society. New Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarti, Iliana Pereyra

    2006-01-01

    REPEM is a civil society organisation based in Uruguay. REPEM's mission is to contribute to the achievement of social and gender justice through alliance-building processes. In this article, the author, who works with REPEM, shares some reflections, lessons learned, and concerns about the issue of non-formal education for youth and adults. She…

  8. A Critique of Southern Core Monetarism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacha, Edmar L.

    1983-01-01

    Military governments in Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay attempted to stabilize their economies in the 1970s abnd early 1980s, but failed because of internal economic constraints. A serious error in all three countries which resulted in problems with foreign payments was their emphasis on import liberalization rather than export promotion. (IS)

  9. Leaf rust resistance in selected Uruguayan late maturity common wheat cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf rust (caused by Puccinia triticina) is one of the most important diseases of wheat in Uruguay, therefore and breeding for resistance to this disease has been a priority for the INIA wheat breeding development program. Knowledge of the resistance genes present in the germplasm is relevant to bre...

  10. Income and beyond: Multidimensional Poverty in Six Latin American Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battiston, Diego; Cruces, Guillermo; Lopez-Calva, Luis Felipe; Lugo, Maria Ana; Santos, Maria Emma

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies multidimensional poverty for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, El Salvador, Mexico and Uruguay for the period 1992-2006. The approach overcomes the limitations of the two traditional methods of poverty analysis in Latin America (income-based and unmet basic needs) by combining income with five other dimensions: school attendance for…

  11. 26 CFR 1.415(a)-1 - General rules with respect to limitations on benefits and contributions under qualified plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... normal retirement age that satisfies the requirements of section 411(a)(3)(B) and 29 CFR 2530.203-3... age that satisfies the requirements of section 411(a)(3)(B) and 29 CFR 2530.203-3. (g) Effective date... Uruguay Round Agreements Act of 1994, Public Law 103-465 (108 Stat. 4809) (GATT), apply (as permitted by...

  12. Human Rights in the Southern Cone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primack, Joel

    1981-01-01

    Described are the effects of government intervention in Uruguay's universities, particularly on science teaching and research institutions. Effects include not only dismissal of science teachers and researchers, but also the disappearance of several prominent scientists. The results of these actions include lowered scientific productivity and loss…

  13. The Political Structuration of Assessment: Negotiating State Power and Legitimacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benveniste, Luis

    2002-01-01

    Examines the national educational assessment systems of Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay to explore the role of politics and state-polity relations in shaping the design, implementation, and impact of national assessment systems. Discusses the rapid global diffusion of national assessment systems and the impact of centralized versus decentralized…

  14. Education in Latin America: A Selected Bibliography (1986-1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aedo-Richmond, Ruth

    1996-01-01

    Presents a selected bibliography of books, theses, articles, and dissertations concerning education in Latin America. Includes separate sections on Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. All selections are in…

  15. International Networking for Sexuality Education: A Politically Sensitive Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhart, Katharina; von Kaenel, Andreas; Cerruti, Stella; Chequer, Pedro; Gomes, Rebeca; Herlt, Claudia; Horstick, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, six countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay) commenced work on a project to harmonise public policy on school sexuality education (SE) and the prevention of HIV. Inter-sectoral management committees for SE involving ministries of education, ministries of health and civil society were established, national policies…

  16. A Morphometric Study of Species Boundaries of the Wild Potato Solanum Series Piurana (Solanaceae) and putatively related species from seven other series in Solanum Sect. Petota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are about 190 wild potato (Solanum section Petota) species distributed from the southwestern United States to central Argentina and adjacent Chile and Uruguay. Their overall morphological similarity has led to widely conflicting taxonomic treatments. Solanum series Piurana is one of 21 series ...

  17. Soil quality impacts of current South American agricultural practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing global demand for oil seeds and cereals during the past 50 years has caused an expansion in the cultivated areas and resulted in major soil management and crop production changes throughout Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina and southern Brazil. Unprecedented adoption of no-tillage as ...

  18. New Demands and Policies on Higher Education in the Mercosur: A Comparative Study on Challenges, Resources, and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrechea, Enrique Martinez; Castro, Adriana Chiancone

    2009-01-01

    This article attempts to analyze the main tendencies of the higher education systems and policies within the Mercosur, a regional bloc composed by Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. The article discusses some global trends and describes the process of educational integration in the Mercosur as well as the higher education systems of each of…

  19. WTO Members' Commitments in Education Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jian

    2009-01-01

    The establishment of World Trade Organization is in line with the conclusion reached at the end of the Uruguay Round in April 1994 by the bulk of the world's trading nations. WTO is in charge of managing multilateral trading system. WTO's "General Agreement on Trade in Services" (GATS) requires member nations to comply with the following…

  20. La Formacion Docente y la Educacion Primaria en Una Propuesta de Cambio (Teacher Training on Education: A Proposal for Change).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Enrique Alonso, Ed.

    In order to raise the quality of teaching and teacher education in Uruguay, a program of innovation and change was considered at a 1986 educational conference. Conference goals included identifying ways to: (1) increase opportunities to promote innovation and change; (2) search for strategies to encourage creative problem solving; (3) increase…

  1. Joint Analysis of Preschool Attendance and School Performance in the Short and Long-Run

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Renato; Tansini, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at explaining the academic performance of a sample of children starting their first year at public schools in Montevideo, Uruguay, during 1999. We are mainly interested in the effect of pre-school education on the children's academic results. Previous probit and OLS estimations suggested that pre-school education has a positive…

  2. Period Determination for NEA (162421) 2000 ET70

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Eduardo Manuel; Oey, Julian; Han, Xianming L.; Heffner, Orry R.; Kidd, Adam W.; Magnetta, Bradley J.; Rastede, Frederick W.

    2012-07-01

    Lightcurve analysis for (162421) 2000 ET70 was performed in collaboration with observers in Uruguay, Australia, and the United States from observations obtained during the asteroid's favorable opposition in 2012. The synodic rotation period was found to be 8.947 ± 0.001 h and the lightcurve amplitude was 0.60 ± 0.07 mag.

  3. THE ATMOSPHERIC CYCLING AND AIR-SEA EXCHANGE OF MERCURY SPECIES IN THE SOUTH AND EQUATORIAL ATLANTIC OCEAN. (R829796)

    EPA Science Inventory


    Measurements of gas-, particle- and precipitation-phases of atmospheric mercury
    (Hg) were made in the South and equatorial Atlantic Ocean as part of the 1996
    IOC Trace Metal Baseline Study (Montevideo, Uruguay to Barbados). Total gaseous
    mercury (TGM) ranged from ...

  4. A Course on Experimental Design for Different University Specialties: Experiences and Changes over a Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez Luaces, Victor; Velazquez, Blanca; Dee, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the origin and development of an Experimental Design course which has been taught in several faculties of the Universidad de la Republica and other institutions in Uruguay, over a 10-year period. At the end of the course, students were assessed by carrying out individual work projects on real-life problems, which was innovative for…

  5. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Paenibacillus larvae isolates.

    PubMed

    Antúnez, K; Piccini, C; Castro-Sowinski, S; Rosado, A S; Seldin, L; Zunino, P

    2007-09-20

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American Foulbrood (AFB), a severe disease of honeybees (Apis melifera). The aim of this work was to develop a strategy for the subtyping and the epidemiological analysis of P. larvae. Phenotypic characterisation, susceptibility to several antibiotics, electrophoresis of whole bacterial proteins, rep-PCR, ribotyping and DGGE were assessed using a collection of P. larvae isolates from different Uruguayan and Argentinean locations. Results indicated that there are two P. larvae genotypes circulating in Uruguay ERIC I-BOX A (worldwide distributed) and ERIC I-BOX C (exclusively detected in Argentina until this study). These results suggest that P. larvae isolates had moved between Argentina and Uruguay, probably through the Uruguay River. Patterns of whole bacterial proteins, DGGE and ribotyping did not improve the P. larvae intraspecific discrimination. Antibiotic susceptibility assays showed that 100% isolates were OTC-sensitive and 22% (belonging to ERIC I-BOX A group) were sulfisoxazole-resistant. This work may contribute to the elucidation of basic aspects related to the epidemiology of AFB in Uruguay and in the region.

  6. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 740 - Country Groups

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting Supplement No. 1 to Part 740, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... Kingdom United States Uruguay Vanuatu Vatican City Venezuela Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Country... Turkmenistan X X Ukraine X United Arab Emirates X X Uzbekistan X X Vietnam X X Yemen X X Country Group E...

  7. Lectura y Vida. Revista Latinoamericana de Lectura (Reading and Life. Latinamerican Reading Magazine). 1990-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Reading Association, Newark, DE.

    This series of 24 magazines offers readings in Spanish on literacy, education problems, psycholinguistics, expository writing, and reading behavior. The magazine's editorial committee includes representatives from Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, the United States, Uruguay, Mexico, Venezuela, and Spain. Articles concern literacy issues of both…

  8. New American Lamiinae (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2016-03-30

    Five new species are described in Lamiinae: Cotycicuiara v-alba (Acanthoderini), from Brazil (Bahia); Dolichestola birai, from Argentina, and D. monnei, from Brazil (Rio de Janeiro) and Uruguay (Desmiphorini); Blabicentrus lineatus, from Brazil (Rio de Janeiro) (Desmiphorini); and Inermestoloides flavus, from Brazil (Pará) (Desmiphorini). A key to species of Cotycicuiara is provided; Blabicentrus lineatus is included in a previous key.

  9. Whole-Genome Sequences of Mycobacterium bovis Strain MbURU-001, Isolated from Fresh Bovine Infected Samples

    PubMed Central

    Lasserre, Moira; Berná, Luisa; Greif, Gonzalo; Díaz-Viraqué, Florencia; Naya, Hugo; Castro-Ramos, Miguel; Juambeltz, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis in cattle has a high incidence in Uruguay, where it is considered a disease of national importance. We present the genome sequence of Mycobacterium bovis strain MbURU-001, isolated from pectoral lymph nodes of a bovine host from a cattle farm. PMID:26543108

  10. 26 CFR 1.415(a)-1 - General rules with respect to limitations on benefits and contributions under qualified plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... normal retirement age that satisfies the requirements of section 411(a)(3)(B) and 29 CFR 2530.203-3... age that satisfies the requirements of section 411(a)(3)(B) and 29 CFR 2530.203-3. (g) Effective date... Uruguay Round Agreements Act of 1994, Public Law 103-465 (108 Stat. 4809) (GATT), apply (as permitted by...

  11. Planning Education for Regional Economic Integration: The Case of Paraguay and MERCOSUR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinn, Noel

    This paper examines the possible impact of MERCOSUR on Paraguay's economic and educational systems. MERCOSUR is a trade agreement among Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay, under which terms all import tariffs among the countries will be eliminated by 1994. The countries will enter into a common economic market. The worst-case scenario…

  12. 75 FR 25200 - WTO Agricultural Safeguard Trigger Levels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... Proclamation No. 6763, dated December 23, 1994, 60 FR 1005 (Jan. 4, 1995). The Secretary of Agriculture further... at 60 FR 427 (Jan. 4, 1995). Notice: As provided in section 405 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act... Federal Register, at 60 FR 427 (Jan. 4, 1995). Issued at Washington, DC, April 29, 2010. John D....

  13. CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Introduction; Kenya; Korea (Republic of); Lesotho; Liberia; Malagasy; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mexico, Mozambique, Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Sudana; Surinam; Swaziland; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Uganda; Uruguay; Venezuela; Zaire; Zambia; Appendix I. Conventional and Energetic Yields; Appendix II, Phytomass Files; and References.

  14. Six Latin American countries could join in new gas market

    SciTech Connect

    Bechelli, C.M. ); Brandt, R.D. )

    1991-10-21

    The development of a regional natural gas market in southern Latin America based on a common pipeline network is a clear possibility in the medium term. This paper is, therefore, important to summarize precisely the present status and outlook for the natural gas industry in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Uruguay, and Paraguay.

  15. Workshop in environmental issues associated with western hemisphere oil and gas production

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Representatives from several U.S. and Latin American oil and gas companies, and government representatives, met in Montevideo, Uruguay, on May 4-6, 1994, to discuss regulation, cooperation, and management of environmental issues associated with oil and gas production. This report presents a brief summary of the topics discussed at the meeting.

  16. Status of Gobiosoma (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from Brazil: description of a new species, redescription of G. hemigymnum, molecular phylogeny of the genus, and key to Atlantic species.

    PubMed

    Van Tassell, James L; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Macieira, Raphael Mariano; Tornabene, Luke

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear how many species of Gobiosoma occur in Brazil and what their geographic distributions are. Here we combine data from a comprehensive morphological survey and a molecular analysis to clarify this uncertain taxonomy and place Brazilian Gobiosoma within a phylogenetic framework. Recent collections in Brazil, from the states of Ceará to Santa Catarina, and in Uruguay yielded two allopatric species of Gobiosoma that are distinct in genetics, meristics, morphometrics, scale pattern and coloration. Comparisons were made with types and specimens of Gobiosoma hemigymnum, Garmannia mediocricula, Gobiosoma spilotum and Gobiosoma parri and all other known species of Gobiosoma. We place G. parri in synonomy with G. hemigymnum with a distribution of Rio de Janeiro to Uruguay and Argentina. The northern species, that extends from the states of Espírito Santo to Ceará, is described as a new species, Gobiosoma alfiei. A key to the Atlantic species of Gobiosoma is provided. PMID:26623827

  17. The environment and population growth: decade for action.

    PubMed

    1992-05-01

    The signs of environmental stress grow as the world's population increases: worn-out farmlands, eroded hillsides, polluted water, parched grasslands, smoke-laden air, depleted ozone, and treeless ranges. Each year about 17 million hectares of tropical forest vanish--an area the size of Tunisia or Uruguay. Fish catches are leveling off. Cities are clogged with refuse. Water and air, instead of sustaining life, cause disease.

  18. New American Lamiinae (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Five new species are described in Lamiinae: Cotycicuiara v-alba (Acanthoderini), from Brazil (Bahia); Dolichestola birai, from Argentina, and D. monnei, from Brazil (Rio de Janeiro) and Uruguay (Desmiphorini); Blabicentrus lineatus, from Brazil (Rio de Janeiro) (Desmiphorini); and Inermestoloides flavus, from Brazil (Pará) (Desmiphorini). A key to species of Cotycicuiara is provided; Blabicentrus lineatus is included in a previous key. PMID:27394539

  19. Smoke-free politics--lessons to learn for Romania.

    PubMed

    Mihălţan, Florin

    2015-01-01

    Very recently ASH -Global Action for everyone's health 2014 published two lesson on the progress of smoke free regulations in two countries France and Uruguay with all the explanations and comments referring to the results, limits and benefits of different strategies. I am trying to see in comparison with this two examples what we have done and what is necessary to learn in the future for also having in Romania a strong free regulation for smoke free environment.

  20. South America: Investment target of the world

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The paper discusses investment in the oil and gas industries of South America. For Venezuela, first-round profit sharing, marginal field agreements, and drilling and production activities are described. Exploration, resource development, and production are also described for Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, Trinidad and Tobago, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Uruguay, and the Falkland Islands. Political problems in Ecuador, licensing in Trinidad and Tobago, and the privatization of Petroperu are also mentioned.

  1. Clinical values dataset processing through cluster analysis to find cardiovascular risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucci, C. M.; Legnani, W. E.; Armentano, R. L.

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this work is to show another way to grouping population with clinical variables measured in health centres and to assign a cardiovascular risk indicator. To do this, two different datasets were used, one coming from France and another coming from Uruguay. The well proved Framingham index was used to validate the results. The preliminary results are very auspicious to encourage the research and get deeper knowledge of the cardiovascular risk indicators.

  2. A NEO survey in the southern hemisphere "BUSCA"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancredi, Gonzalo; Sosa, Andrea; Acosta, Edgardo; Ceretta, Alberto

    2002-11-01

    The efforts to discover NEOs have been concentrated up to now in the Northern Hemisphere where there are already 6 big NEO surveys functioning. The Observatorio Astronómico "Los Molinos" got a grant to install a new observatory fully dedicated to the NEO survey in the countryside of Uruguay (South America). The new telescope is expected to be operational in early 2002. The program is named "Búsqueda Uruguaya de Supernovas, Cometas y Asteroides - BUSCA".

  3. The Uruguayan Automated and Robotic Telescope B U S C A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancredi, G.; Sosa, A.; Acosta, E.; Ceretta, A.; Joliet, E.; Ruétalo, M.; Bonsignore, F.

    The efforts to discover NEOs have been concentrated up to now in the Northern Hemisphere where there are already 6 big NEO surveys functioning. The Observatorio Astronómico "Los Molinos" obtained a grant to install a new observatory dedicated to the NEO survey in the countryside of Uruguay (South America). The new telescope has started operations in mid 2002. The name of this program is "Búsqueda Uruguaya de Supernovas, Cometas y Asteroides - BUSCA".

  4. Does income affect fertility or does fertility affect income?

    PubMed

    Bonitsis, T H; Geithman, D T

    1987-01-01

    "This paper tests for the dynamic causal connection between real income per capita and the birth rate for a subset of developing countries. These countries are Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, and Uruguay. Our empirical findings show that, for the historical period under review, in several countries real income per capita affected the birth rate. Virtually no evidence is found to support the hypothesis that the birth rate affected real income per capita."

  5. Diverse Mobilized Class 1 Integrons Are Common in the Chromosomes of Pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Elena; Marquez, Carolina; Ingold, Ana; Merlino, John; Djordjevic, Steven P.; Roy Chowdhury, Piklu

    2012-01-01

    Eleven clinical class 1 integron-containing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from Australia and Uruguay were investigated for the genomic locations of these elements. Several novel class 1 integrons/transposons were found in at least four distinct locations in the chromosome, including genomic islands. These elements seem to be undergoing successful dispersal by lateral gene transfer since integrons were identified across several lineages and more than one clonal line. PMID:22271862

  6. 76 FR 59483 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... Federal, Mexico; c/o INVERSIONES CIFUENTES Y CIA. S. EN C., Medellin, Colombia; c/o ROBLE DE MINAS S.A...-70 Of. 1205, Medellin, Colombia; NIT 811035904-6 (Colombia) 9. ROBLE DE MINAS S.A., Calle 18B Sur No...., Lavalleja, Uruguay; c/o INVERSIONES CIFUENTES Y CIA. S. EN C., Medellin, Colombia; c/o ROBLE DE MINAS...

  7. Progress towards the elimination of transmission of Chagas disease in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, A

    1997-01-01

    From a global perspective, Chagas disease represents the third largest tropical disease burden after malaria and schistosomiasis. The estimated average annual per-capita gross domestic product in Latin America is US$2,966. The economic loss for the continent due to early mortality and disability by this disease in economically most productive young adults currently amounts to US$8,156 million which is equivalent to 2.5% of the external debt of the whole continent in 1995. In 1991, the Ministers of Health of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay, launched the Southern Cone Initiative for elimination of transmission of Chagas disease. The progress towards elimination of vectorial and transfusional transmission of Chagas disease in Uruguay, Chile, Argentina and Brazil has been documented by reports from the national control programmes of the above countries. Current data on disinfestation of houses, coverage of screening in blood banks and serology in children and young adults indicate that the interruption of the vectorial and transfusional transmission of Chagas disease will be achieved in these countries as follows: Uruguay and Chile in 1999, Brazil and Argentina in 2003. By eliminating the transmission of Chagas disease in the above countries, the incidence of the disease in the whole of Latin America will be reduced by more than 70%. PMID:9477549

  8. [Preliminary study on the presence of arbovirus in the populations of Corrientes and Misiones].

    PubMed

    Hodara, V L; Jozan, M; Martínez, H; Work, T H; Juan, N J; Weissenbacher, M

    1991-01-01

    Human seroprevalence of Flavivirus was determined by hemagglutination inhibition tests on 479 sera from Misiones and 49 from Corrientes provinces. Paraná and Uruguay river bank communities from Argentina and neighbouring countries carry out frequent traffic across the rivers. With the aim of searching for a possible introduction of Dengue virus from Brasil or/and Paraguay, reactivity among people from Paraná and Uruguay river communities was compared with those from mountain communities. Two sera from Ituzaingó (Corrientes Province) were positive for Dengue 2. In Misiones, 3 sera from Oberá and 2 from Montecarlo were reactive for Dengue 2 and 1 serum from Puerto Iguazú was reactive for Dengue 1. Seroprevalence among the river population was significatively higher than among the mountain population. Likewise, populations on Paraná river showed more positive sera than those on Uruguay river; 54% of the samples possessed titers for SLE virus higher than for Dengue or Yellow fever. Anti-alphavirus (EEE and WEE) antibodies tested in sera from Misiones people showed a complementary distribution pattern to flavivirus. Seroprevalence of anti-alphavirus antibodies was higher in the mountain than in the river populations.

  9. Interacting effects of climate and agriculture on fluvial DOM in temperate and subtropical catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graeber, D.; Goyenola, G.; Meerhoff, M.; Zwirnmann, E.; Ovesen, N. B.; Glendell, M.; Gelbrecht, J.; Teixeira de Mello, F.; González-Bergonzoni, I.; Jeppesen, E.; Kronvang, B.

    2015-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important factor in aquatic ecosystems, which is involved in a large variety of biogeochemical and ecological processes and recent literature suggests that it could be strongly affected by agriculture in different climates. Based on novel monitoring techniques, we investigated the interaction of climate and agriculture effects on DOM quantity and molecular composition. To examine this, we took water samples over two years in two paired intensive and extensive farming catchments in each Denmark (temperate climate) and Uruguay (subtropical climate). We measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) concentrations and DOC and DON molecular fractions with size-exclusion chromatography. Moreover, we assessed DOM composition with absorbance and fluorescence measurements, as well as parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). We also calculated DOC and DON loads based on daily discharge measurements, as well as measured precipitation and air temperature. In the catchments in Uruguay, the fluvial DOM was characterized by higher temporal variability of DOC and DON loads which were clearly related to a higher temporal variability of precipitation and a DOM composition with rather plant-like character relative to the Danish catchments. Moreover, we consistently found a higher temporal variability of DOC an DON loads in the intensive farming catchments than in the extensive farming catchments, with the highest temporal variability in the Uruguayan intensive farming catchment. Moreover, the composition of DOM exported from the intensive farming catchments was always complex and related to microbial processing in both Denmark and Uruguay. This was indicated by low C : N ratios, several spectroscopic DOM composition indexes and the PARAFAC fluorescence components. We propose that the consistent effect of intensive farming on DOM composition and the temporal variability of DOC and DON loads is related to similarities in the management of

  10. Interacting effects of climate and agriculture on fluvial DOM in temperate and subtropical catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graeber, D.; Goyenola, G.; Meerhoff, M.; Zwirnmann, E.; Ovesen, N. B.; Glendell, M.; Gelbrecht, J.; Teixeira de Mello, F.; Gonzalez-Bergonzoni, I.; Jeppesen, E.; Kronvang, B.

    2015-05-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important factor in aquatic ecosystems, which is involved in a large variety of biogeochemical and ecological processes, and recent literature suggests that it could be strongly affected by agriculture in different climates. Based on novel monitoring techniques, we investigated the interaction of climate and agriculture effects on DOM quantity and quality. To examine this, we took water samples over 2 years in two paired intensive and extensive farming catchments in each of Denmark (temperate climate) and Uruguay (subtropical climate). We measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) concentrations and DOC and DON molecular fractions with size-exclusion chromatography. Moreover, we characterized DOM quality with absorbance and fluorescence measurements, as well as parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). We also calculated the DOC and DON loads based on daily discharge measurements, as well as measured precipitation and air temperature. The fluvial DOM in the catchments in Uruguay was characterized by higher temporal variability of DOC and DON loads which were clearly to a higher temporal variability of precipitation and a DOM composition with rather plant-like character relative to the Danish catchments. Moreover, we found a consistently higher temporal variability of DOC and DON loads in the intensive farming catchments than in the extensive farming catchments, with highest temporal variability in the Uruguayan intensive farming catchment. Furthermore, the composition of DOM exported from the intensive farming catchments was consistently complex and always related to microbial processing in both Denmark and Uruguay. This was indicated by low C : N ratios, several spectroscopic DOM composition indices and PARAFAC fluorescence components. We propose that the consistent effect of intensive farming on DOM composition and the temporal variability of DOC and DON loads is related to similarities in the management of

  11. Validation of the taxon Ixodes aragaoi Fonseca (Acari: Ixodidae) based on morphological and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Onofrio, Valeria C; Ramirez, Diego G; Giovanni, Dalton N S; Marcili, Arlei; Mangold, Atilio J; Venzal, José M; Mendonça, Ronaldo Z; Labruna, Marcelo B; Barros-Battesti, Darci M

    2014-01-01

    The species Ixodes aragaoi Fonseca was described as Ixodes ricinus aragaoi, and later placed in synonymy with Ixodes affinis. However, this synonymy was rejected and the subspecies was elevated to species, and named as I. aragaoi. Some researchers did not consider the validity of I. aragaoi and maintained the synonymy proposed until 1998 when I. aragaoi was revalidated, and it was suggested that Ixodes pararicinus could be a synonym. The aim of this study was to confirm the taxonomic validity of I. aragaoi by means of redescription of adults and molecular analysis. Morphological studies were performed by optical and scanning electron microscopy; types of I. aragaoi were compared with those of I. pararicinus from Argentina, and also with material of I. pararicinus from Uruguay and I. affinis from the United States. Mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequences were obtained for determining phylogenetic relationships based on maximum parsimony. Morphological and molecular differences between I. aragaoi, I. pararicinus from Argentina, and I. affinis confirm the validity of the first each of these species. The morphological similarities of I. pararicinus from Uruguay with I. aragaoi, and the small distance of nucleotide sequences between them, confirm that the Uruguayan ticks are in fact I. aragaoi and expand the geographical distribution of this species. Based on the specimens of Ixodes examined in the present study, from the same locality of the types of I. ricinus rochensis in Uruguay, we agree with the synonymy of this subspecies with I. aragaoi as previously reported. Finally, our analyses indicate that both I. aragaoi and Ixodes fuscipes, another South American tick species, belong to the I. ricinus complex, currently composed of 19 species.  PMID:25283212

  12. [The role of experience in the neurology of facial expression of emotions].

    PubMed

    Gordillo, Fernando; Pérez, Miguel A; Arana, José M; Mestas, Lilia; López, Rafael M

    2015-04-01

    Introduccion. La expresion facial de las emociones tiene una funcion social importante que facilita la interaccion entre las personas. Este proceso tiene una base neurologica, que no se aisla del contexto ni de la experiencia acumulada por la interaccion entre las personas en dicho contexto. Sin embargo, hasta la fecha, no se conocen con claridad los efectos de la experiencia sobre la percepcion de las emociones. Objetivos. Discutir que funcion desempeña la experiencia en el reconocimiento de la expresion facial de las emociones y analizar los sesgos que las experiencias negativas y positivas podrian tener sobre la percepcion emocional. Desarrollo. La maduracion de las estructuras que soportan la capacidad para reconocer la emocion pasa por un periodo sensible durante la adolescencia, donde la experiencia adquirida puede tener mayor impacto sobre el reconocimiento emocional. Experiencias de abuso, maltrato, abandono, guerras o estres generan un sesgo hacia las expresiones de ira y tristeza. De igual manera, las experiencias positivas dan lugar a un sesgo hacia la expresion de alegria. Conclusiones. Solo cuando las personas son capaces de utilizar la expresion facial de las emociones como un canal de comprension y expresion interaccionaran de manera adecuada con su entorno. Este entorno, a su vez, dara lugar a experiencias que modulan dicha capacidad. Por lo tanto, es un proceso autorregulatorio que puede ser dirigido a traves de la implementacion de programas de intervencion sobre los aspectos emocionales.

  13. Coordination of NEO Observers in South-America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancredi, G.

    At present the discovery of NEOs is concentrated in the Northern Hemisphere. None of the 6 existing survey programs can reach declinations below -30deg. Nevertheless, there are two small surveys ready to start in the near future in the southern hemisphere: an extension of the Catalina Sky Survey using the Uppsala Schmidt in Siding Spring and the Project BUSCA in Uruguay. Many of the NEOs discovered by the northern surveys could reach the southern sky, with declinations unreachable for a northern observer. Furthermore, the recovery of an asteroid in subsequent oppositions could come indistinctly in the northern and southern sky. A network of well-equipped observers in the southern region is then a must in a campaign to catalog the NEO population. In view of this situation, the Planetary Society, through its NEO grant, have already supported many observers in the Southern Hemisphere. The planetary science community in South America has considerably grown in the last 10 years. We have well-known research groups in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Those groups have established many scientific links by exchanging graduate students and through several meetings. In particular, we have already hold two Workshop in Planetary Science in South America in 1999 (La Plata, Argentina) and 2000 (Montevideo, Uruguay) with more than 25 participants each. Recently, in February 2002, we organized a Workshop of NEO observers in Montevideo with the participation of more than 20 professional and amateurs observers from: Argentina: Obs. Ast. Felix Aguilar - Yale University (San Juan) and CRICYT (Mendoza); Brazil: Obs. Abraes de Moraes (San Pablo), Obs. Wykrota (Belo Horizonte) and Observatorio Nacional (Rio de Janeiro); Paraguay: Obs. Nacional de Asuncion and Sociedad de Estudios Astronómicos (Asunción) Uruguay: Depto. Astronomía - Fac. Ciencias, Obs. Ast. Los Molinos and Obs. Kappa Crucis (Montevideo). Among the resolutions of the Workshop, we highlight: * Creation of the "Asociaci

  14. Micropropagation systems of Feijoa (Acca sellowiana (O. Berg) Burret).

    PubMed

    Guerra, Miguel Pedro; Cangahuala-Inocente, Gabriela Claudia; Vesco, Lirio Luiz Dal; Pescador, Rosete; Caprestano, Clarissa Alves

    2013-01-01

    Acca sellowiana (O. Berg) Burret sin. Feijoa sellowiana (Myrtaceae) is a semiwoody fruit species native to South Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina; edible fruits are tasty. The naturally occurring populations in Santa Catarina State show high variability in fruit size, color, and other features. A breeding program launched in 1990 resulted in the release of four Brazilian commercial varieties. The conventional clonal propagation methods of this species, such as cutting and grafting, have shown low efficiency. Therefore, tissue culture techniques were developed for mass propagation. This chapter describes several protocols based on organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. Additional techniques including synthetic seed technology and temporary immersion system are also described.

  15. Monteggia fracture-dislocations: A Historical Review

    PubMed Central

    Rehim, Shady A.; Maynard, Mallory A.; Sebastin, Sandeep J.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    The eponym Monteggia fracture-dislocation originally referred to a fracture of the shaft of the ulna accompanied by anterior dislocation of the radial head that was described by Giovanni Battista Monteggia of Italy in 1814. Subsequently, a further classification system based on the direction of the radial head dislocation and associated fractures of the radius and ulna was proposed by Jose Luis Bado of Uruguay in 1958. This article investigates the evolution of treatment, classification, and outcomes of the Monteggia injury and sheds light on the lives and contributions of Monteggia and Bado. PMID:24792923

  16. PREFACE: FLUIDOS 2010: XI Meeting on Recent Advances in the Physics of Fluids and their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bove, Italo; Cabeza, Cecilia; Martí, Arturo C.; Sarasúa, Gustavo

    2011-04-01

    The papers published in this volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series were selected from the manuscripts submitted to the XI Meeting on Recent Advances in the Physics of Fluids and their Applications (FLUIDOS2010), which was held in Colonia del Sacramento, Uruguay, 3-5 November 2010. FLUIDOS takes place every two years, usually in November, with the aim of gathering together researchers from all areas of the Physics of Fluids, to update themselves on the latest technical developments and applications, share knowledge and stimulate new ideas. This 11th meeting continues the successful experience of the previous ones which were held in different Argentinian cities. For the first time, the meeting was celebrated in Uruguay, more specifically, in the peaceful town of Colonia del Sacramento, designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. The conference presented an outstanding program of papers covering the most recent advances in Physics of Fluids in the following areas: General Fluid Dynamics General and non-Newtonian Flows Magnetohydrodynamics Electrohydrodynamics and Plasmas Hydraulics, Thermohydraulics and Multiple Phase Flows A website with full details of the conference program, abstracts and other information can be found at http://fluidos2010.fisica.edu.uy. We would like to thank all the participants, especially those who contributed with talks, posters and manuscripts, for making FLUDOS2010 such a successful conference. Our thanks also go to our colleagues for their support and encouragement, particularly in the refereeing of papers. We would like to acknowledge additional financial support from Comisión Sectorial de Investigación Científica (Universidad de la República, Uruguay), Programa de Desarrollo de las Ciencias Básicas (Uruguay) and the Centro Latinoamericano de Física (CLAF). Our thanks are extended to the local government of Colonia del Sacramento. The next FLUIDOS conference will be held in November 2013, in Buenos Aires, Argentina. We

  17. Conceiving risk, divergent responses: perspectives on the construction of risk of FASD in six countries.

    PubMed

    Drabble, Laurie A; Poole, Nancy; Magri, Raquel; Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona; Li, Qing; Plant, Moira

    2011-01-01

    Conceptualizations of risks related to women's alcohol use during pregnancy, and the attendant response to preventing fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), are examined in six countries: the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Uganda, Uruguay, and China. Considerable differences were found in how risks were conceptualized across countries and in contextual factors that influence research, prevention, and intervention efforts. Differences in conceptualizations were also apparent within countries. Differences also existed in the degree to which the issue of drinking during pregnancy has been minimized or amplified and in whether and how responses are linked to treatment or other public health interventions.

  18. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of the Parapiptadenia rigida-nodulating Cupriavidus sp. strain UYPR2.512

    DOE PAGES

    De Meyer, Sofie E.; Fabiano, Elena; Tian, Rui; Van Berkum, Peter; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, T. B. K.; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; et al

    2015-04-11

    Cupriavidus sp. strain UYPR2.512 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from a root nodule of Parapiptadenia rigida grown in soils from a native forest of Uruguay. Here we describe the features of Cupriavidus sp. strain UYPR2.512, together with sequence and annotation. We find the 7,858,949 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 365 scaffolds of 369 contigs, contains 7,411 protein-coding genes and 76 RNA-only encoding genes, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project proposal.

  19. Lower Rio Parana Panaramic, Argentina, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This southeast looking view shows the lower Parana River (32.0S, 59.5W) of central Argentina with floodwaters obscuring most of the valley bottom detail. The rain swollen lower 300 km of the river, that displaced some 200,000 people, even appears as an arm of the ocean. Uruguay is visible at top left and cities appear as small white patches. Buenos Aires, South America's largest city, can be seen on the south shore of Rio de la Plata.

  20. No evidence of interference competition among the invasive feral pig and two native peccary species in a Neotropical wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oliveira-Santos, Luiz G. R.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Tomas, Walfrido M.; Mourao, Guilherme; Fernandez, Fernando A.S.

    2011-01-01

    In South America, the invasive feral pig (Sus scrofa Linnaeus) has become established in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and in a wide range within Brazil, along the southern half of the Atlantic Forest, in the cerrado (savanna) and in the Pantanal wetland. The geographical ranges of the two most common South American native peccary (Tayassu pecari Link and Pecari tajacu Linnaeus) overlap almost entirely, and the feral pig now co-occurs with them in several areas. Because feral pig, white-lipped and collared peccary are considered ecological equivalents, there has been much speculation about possible competitive interactions among them (Desbiez et al. 2009, Sicuro & Oliveira 2002).

  1. Patterns of social association in the franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, Randall S.; Bordino, Pablo; Douglas, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known from living animals about the social patterns of the franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei, a small dolphin inhabiting a narrow strip of coastal waters off Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil. These dolphins tend to be found in small groups, typically composed of two or three individuals (Bordino et al. 1999). Throughout much of the species' range, franciscanas encounter artisanal gill nets (Praderi 1989, Corcuera et al. 1994, Bertozzi and Zerbini 2002, Bordino et al. 2002, Secchi et al. 2003). Entanglement in these nets results in the deaths of thousands of individuals each year, at levels that are likely unsustainable (Bordino and Albareda 2004, Cappozzo et al. 2007).

  2. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of the Parapiptadenia rigida-nodulating Cupriavidus sp. strain UYPR2.512

    SciTech Connect

    De Meyer, Sofie E.; Fabiano, Elena; Tian, Rui; Van Berkum, Peter; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, T. B. K.; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Howieson, John; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Reeve, Wayne

    2015-04-11

    Cupriavidus sp. strain UYPR2.512 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from a root nodule of Parapiptadenia rigida grown in soils from a native forest of Uruguay. Here we describe the features of Cupriavidus sp. strain UYPR2.512, together with sequence and annotation. We find the 7,858,949 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 365 scaffolds of 369 contigs, contains 7,411 protein-coding genes and 76 RNA-only encoding genes, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project proposal.

  3. Phenrica littoralis (Bechyné, 1955) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) a potential candidate for the biological control of alligator weed, Alternantheraphiloxeroides (Martius) Grisebach (Amaranthaceae): redescription of the adult, first description of immature stages, and biological notes.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Nora; Sosa, Alejandro J; Julien, Mic

    2013-01-01

    Flea beetles of alligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides (Martius) Grisebach (Amaranthaceae), were collected in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Brazil. Species in the genera Disonycha Chevrolat, Agasicles Jacoby, Systena Chevrolat and Phenrica Bechyné were frequently found on this weed. Phenrica littoralis (Bechyn6) was the most abundant within this genus. The male is described and the holotype female is redescribed adding new diagnostic characters of the mouthparts, hind wings, metendosternite, and male and female genitalia. Larva and pupa are described and illustrated for the first time providing data for future phylogenetic studies in the subtribe Disonychina.

  4. Neosporosis in South America.

    PubMed

    Moore, D P

    2005-01-20

    This work gathers reports about Neospora-infections in South America. Neospora-infections have been reported from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay. Evidence of exposure to N. caninum was mentioned in cattle, goats, sheep, dogs, cats, water buffaloes, alpacas, llamas, South American opossums, wolves and other wild canids. No antibodies were found in horses. Interesting epidemiological and pathological data were described. Two isolations were performed from dogs, one from cattle, and recently five from water buffaloes. Since the cattle industry is important in South America and reproductive losses caused by Neospora-infection have been identified, more investigations are needed in order to understand its epidemiology and control the disease.

  5. Infrastructure opportunities in South America: Energy sector. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The report, conducted by CG/LA, Inc., was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report was assembled for the South American Infrastructure Conference held in New Orleans. It contains a regional overview of infrastructure activities in ten countries represented at the conference. Also covered are project listings in five sectors, including Energy, Transportation, Environment, Telecommunications, and Industry. The study covers TDA case studies as well as project financeability. The ten countries covered in the report include the following: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. This volume focuses on the Energy Sector in South America.

  6. Future research on foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Kitching, R P

    2002-12-01

    The recent outbreaks of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Argentina, Europe, Japan, the Republic of Korea, South Africa and Uruguay have brought to world attention the devastating effects of the disease in a naïve population and the social and economic costs of control and eradication. The fact that much still remains unknown about the natural history of FMD virus came as a surprise to some. This paper attempts to identify where research should be directed in order to be better prepared in the future.

  7. First record of Myotis albescens (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) in French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Dewynter, Maël; Delaval, Marguerite; Catzeflis, François; Ruedi, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Myotis albescens occurs from Mexico southward to Uruguay and Argentina. The species is known for all South American countries except French Guiana and Chile. New information Based on one specimen recently collected in French Guiana we fill part of the gap in the distribution of the species in South America. Myotis albescens occurs in the Guiana Shield with other four congeners, from which it can be distinguished by external and skull traits. As an aid to future identifications, we provide a key to this assemblage. PMID:26069439

  8. Enzootic calcinosis caused by Nierembergia rivularis in sheep.

    PubMed

    García y Santos, Carmen; Pereira, Rodrigo; Etcheberry, Gabriel; Goyen, Juan M; Pérez, William; Capelli, Alejandra; Alonso, Eduardo; Ruiz-Díaz, Alejandro; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2012-03-01

    Enzootic calcinosis was diagnosed in sheep in Uruguay in pastures containing the plant Nierembergia rivularis. In a flock of 200 sheep, 20 were affected and 12 died. Clinical signs were anorexia, weight loss followed by cachexia, stiffness, and kyphosis. At necropsy and histologic examination, mineral deposits were observed on the medial layer of the arteries, heart, lungs, and kidneys. Similar lesions were also observed in 3 sheep forced to graze in an area containing the plant, while no lesions were observed in a control sheep that grazed in an area free of N. rivularis. It is concluded that N. rivularis is a calcinogenic plant for sheep. PMID:22379059

  9. View of forest fires in South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This view, acquired with a Hasselblad camera equipped with a 250mm lens, shows only a small portion of forest fires that marked the Earth photography taken over Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina during this mission. Numerous fires are visible in this late-dry-season scene of the areas between the Parana and Uruguay Rivers. Most of this burning is usually associated with agricultural preparations. The nadir point of the Space Shuttle at the time this photograph was taken (2018 GMT, September 16, 1993) was 28.5 degrees South, 60.0 degrees West. The view is to the west.

  10. [Emotional processing in adult vs adolescent patients with eating behavior disorders; emotional recognizing and the mental theory].

    PubMed

    Calvo Sagardoy, Rosa; Gallego Morales, Luis Tomás; Solórzano Ostolaza, Gloria; Kassem García, Soledad; Morales Martínez, Carmen; Codesal Julián, Rosana; Blanco Fernández, Ascensión

    2014-04-01

    Objetivo y métodos: Actualmente se destaca la importancia de las dificultades de reconocimiento emocional y los problemas en cognición social (ToM), en la predisposición y mantenimiento de los Trastornos de Conducta Alimentaria (TCA). La mayoría de los estudios han sido realizados en pacientes adultos y pocos han analizado estas características en pacientes adolescentes. Este estudio examina las dificultades de reconocimiento emocional y cognición social en 48 pacientes con Anorexia Nerviosa (AN) y Bulimia Nerviosa (BN), adultas y adolescentes, con diversos grados de gravedad y las compara con grupos control sano. Para evaluar estas dificultades se han utilizado los siguientes cuestionarios: TAS-20 y el RME. Resultados: Conforme a lo establecido en nuestras hipótesis, las pacientes con AN y BN presentan mayores dificultades en el reconocimiento que los sujetos control. Las dificultades están moduladas por la edad y la gravedad del trastorno. Las pacientes adultas y más graves presentan más problemas en el reconocimiento emocional que las adolescentes menos graves. No se han obtenido diferencias en función del diagnóstico ni del índice de masa corporal (IMC). Contrariamente a lo esperado en la hipótesis sobre la teoría de la mente, las pacientes AN y BN, adultas y adolescentes mantienen intacta su capacidad para atribuir estados mentales a otros, realizando la tarea de mentalización de forma similar a los sujetos control. Únicamente las pacientes con más tratamientos previos y mayor duración del trastorno muestran un rendimiento ligeramente inferior. No existe relación con el IMC ni con los síntomas alimentarios. Conclusiones: Dado que todas las pacientes TCA tienen dificultades emocionales, es esencial que se introduzcan técnicas terapéuticas que faciliten el reconocimiento y la aceptación en el tratamiento. Puesto que las dificultades se intensifican en el transcurso del trastorno, los tratamientos de pacientes adolescentes tienen que

  11. Local trophic specialisation in a cosmopolitan spider (Araneae).

    PubMed

    Líznarová, Eva; Sentenská, Lenka; García, Luis Fernando; Pekár, Stano; Viera, Carmen

    2013-02-01

    Trophic specialisation can be observed in species with long-term constant exploitation of a certain prey in all populations or in a population of a species with short-term exploitation of a certain prey. While in the former case the species would evolve stereotyped or specialised trophic adaptations, the trophic traits of the latter should be versatile or generalised. Here, we studied the predatory behavioural adaptations of a presumed myrmecophagous spider, Oecobius navus. We chose two distinct populations, one in Portugal and the other in Uruguay. We analysed the actual prey of both populations and found that the Portuguese population feeds mainly on dipterans, while the Uruguayan population feeds mainly on ants. Indeed, dipterans and springtails in Portugal, and ants in Uruguay were the most abundant potential prey. In laboratory trials O. navus spiders recognised and captured a wide variety of prey. The capture efficiency of the Portuguese population measured as components of the handling time was higher for flies than for ants, while that of the Uruguayan population was higher for ants. We found phenotypic plasticity in behavioural traits that lead to increased capture efficiency with respect to the locally abundant prey, but it remains to be determined whether the traits of the two populations are genetically fixed. We conclude that O. navus is a euryphagous generalist predator which shows local specialisation on the locally abundant prey.

  12. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of the Parapiptadenia rigida-nodulating Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from a root nodule of Parapiptadenia rigida collected at the Angico plantation, Mandiyu, Uruguay, in December 2006. A survey of symbionts of P. rigida in Uruguay demonstrated that this species is nodulated predominantly by Burkholderia microsymbionts. Moreover, Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413 is a highly efficient nitrogen fixing symbiont with this host. Currently, the only other sequenced isolate to fix with this host is Cupriavidus sp. UYPR2.512. Therefore, Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413 was selected for sequencing on the basis of its environmental and agricultural relevance to issues in global carbon cycling, alternative energy production, and biogeochemical importance, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project. Here we describe the features of Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413, together with sequence and annotation. The 10,373,764 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 336 scaffolds of 342 contigs, contains 9759 protein-coding genes and 77 RNA-only encoding genes. PMID:26203342

  13. Tobacco Use and Secondhand Smoke Exposure During Pregnancy: An Investigative Survey of Women in 9 Developing Nations

    PubMed Central

    Althabe, Fernando; Onyamboko, Marie; Kaseba-Sata, Christine; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Freire, Salvio; Garces, Ana L.; Parida, Sailajanandan; Goudar, Shivaprasad S.; Kadir, Muhammad Masood; Goco, Norman; Thornberry, Jutta; Daniels, Magdalena; Bartz, Janet; Hartwell, Tyler; Moss, Nancy; Goldenberg, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We examined pregnant women's use of cigarettes and other tobacco products and the exposure of pregnant women and their young children to secondhand smoke (SHS) in 9 nations in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Methods. Face-to-face surveys were administered to 7961 pregnant women (more than 700 per site) between October 2004 and September 2005. Results. At all Latin American sites, pregnant women commonly reported that they had ever tried cigarette smoking (range: 78.3% [Uruguay] to 35.0% [Guatemala]). The highest levels of current smoking were found in Uruguay (18.3%), Argentina (10.3%), and Brazil (6.1%). Experimentation with smokeless tobacco occurred in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and India; one third of all respondents in Orissa, India, were current smokeless tobacco users. SHS exposure was common: between 91.6% (Pakistan) and 17.1% (Democratic Republic of the Congo) of pregnant women reported that smoking was permitted in their home. Conclusions. Pregnant women's tobacco use and SHS exposure are current or emerging problems in several low- and middle-income nations, jeopardizing ongoing efforts to improve maternal and child health. PMID:18309125

  14. ELISA as an affordable methodology for monitoring groundwater contamination by pesticides in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Brena, Beatriz M; Arellano, Lourdes; Rufo, Caterina; Last, Michael S; Montaño, Jorge; Egaña Cerni, Eduardo; Gonzalez-Sapienza, Gualberto; Last, Jerold A

    2005-06-01

    The traditional instrumental technology for pesticide residue analysis is too expensive and labor-intense to meet the regional needs concerning environmental monitoring. ELISA methodology was used for a pilot scale study of groundwater quality in an agricultural region a few kilometers southwest of Montevideo, the capital city of Uruguay. The study spanned 2 years and examined concentrations (detection limits are given in [ppb]) of two triazine herbicides (simazine [0.3] and atrazine [0.4]) and the carbamate insecticide carbaryl [10] and its major metabolite 1-naphthol [17]. In general, pesticide concentrations were below detection limits in the samples tested and in all cases were well below the maximum contaminant levels set by the U.S. EPA. 1-Naphthol was detected frequently by ELISA, but the assay may have tended to systematically overestimate this analyte. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its type in Uruguay and perhaps the first systematic approach to monitoring for organic pesticides in groundwater water sources in the temperate region of South America.

  15. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of the Parapiptadenia rigida-nodulating Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413

    DOE PAGES

    De Meyer, Sofie E.; Fabiano, Elena; Tian, Rui; Van Berkum, Peter; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, T. B. K.; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; et al

    2015-06-04

    We report that Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from a root nodule of Parapiptadenia rigida collected at the Angico plantation, Mandiyu, Uruguay, in December 2006. A survey of symbionts of P. rigida in Uruguay demonstrated that this species is nodulated predominantly by Burkholderia microsymbionts. Moreover, Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413 is a highly efficient nitrogen fixing symbiont with this host. Currently, the only other sequenced isolate to fix with this host is Cupriavidus sp. UYPR2.512. Therefore, Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413 was selected for sequencing on the basis of its environmental and agriculturalmore » relevance to issues in global carbon cycling, alternative energy production, and biogeochemical importance, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project. Here we describe the features of Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413, together with sequence and annotation. The 10,373,764 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 336 scaffolds of 342 contigs, contains 9759 protein-coding genes and 77 RNA-only encoding genes.« less

  16. A South American Prehistoric Mitogenome: Context, Continuity, and the Origin of Haplogroup C1d

    PubMed Central

    Sans, Mónica; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Hughes, Cris E.; Lindo, John; Hidalgo, Pedro C.; Malhi, Ripan S.

    2015-01-01

    Based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), it has been estimated that at least 15 founder haplogroups peopled the Americas. Subhaplogroup C1d3 was defined based on the mitogenome of a living individual from Uruguay that carried a lineage previously identified in hypervariable region I sequences from ancient and modern Uruguayan individuals. When complete mitogenomes were studied, additional substitutions were found in the coding region of the mitochondrial genome. Using a complete ancient mitogenome and three modern mitogenomes, we aim to clarify the ancestral state of subhaplogroup C1d3 and to better understand the peopling of the region of the Río de la Plata basin, as well as of the builders of the mounds from which the ancient individuals were recovered. The ancient mitogenome, belonging to a female dated to 1,610±46 years before present, was identical to the mitogenome of one of the modern individuals. All individuals share the mutations defining subhaplogroup C1d3. We estimated an age of 8,974 (5,748–12,261) years for the most recent common ancestor of C1d3, in agreement with the initial peopling of the geographic region. No individuals belonging to the defined lineage were found outside of Uruguay, which raises questions regarding the mobility of the prehistoric inhabitants of the country. Moreover, the present study shows the continuity of Native lineages over at least 6,000 years. PMID:26509686

  17. First full-length genomic sequence of a hepatitis A virus isolated in Argentina shows recombination between subgenotypes IA and IB.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Sebastian; Malirat, Viviana; Scodeller, Eduardo; Mattion, Nora

    2011-01-01

    A hepatitis A virus (HAV) recovered in Argentina from a stool sample of a sick child in the year 2006 (HAV-Arg/06) was entirely sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis included the HAV-Arg/06 sequence in subgenotype IA, either considering the usual VP1-2A variable junction fragment or the full length nucleotide sequence. Interestingly, a recombination event with subgenotype IB, involving a portion of the 2C-3A nonstructural proteins coding region (nucleotides 4961-5140) was detected using specific software. Only subgenotype IA strains have been detected in Argentina or Uruguay, whereas subgenotype IA and IB strains have been reported to circulate in Brazil. Although recombination has been given an important role in the evolution of picornaviruses, there have been only a few reports of its involvement in the evolution of HAV, probably due to the limited number of complete HAV sequences available. This study constitutes the first report of a full-length HAV sequence in Argentina and the third in South America, after the sequence of the IA isolate HAV5 from Uruguay and the IB isolate HAF-203 from Brazil. The availability of new sequence data covering the complete HAV genome will help establish a more consistent genetic relatedness among HAV isolates and the role of recombination in its evolution. PMID:21056065

  18. Cross-resistance between fipronil and lindane in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Castro Janer, E; Klafke, G M; Capurro, M L; Schumaker, T T S

    2015-05-30

    The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini), is one of the most damaging parasites of cattle in tropical and subtropical regions. Several chemical groups have been used for its control, including cyclodienes (lindane and dieldrin). In Uruguay and Brazil these products were used at the beginning of the 1960s and during a few years. Fipronil and lindane act on the same target site. In both countries, southern cattle tick resistance to fipronil has sometimes developed quickly after only a few acaricide treatments (three to seven). The objective of the present study was to determine cross-resistance between fipronil and lindane in southern cattle ticks from Uruguay and Brazil. Initially, the FAO's (Food and Agricultural Organization) larval packet test with lindane was applied to a fipronil-resistant strain and to susceptible field populations. Mozo and POA strains were used as the susceptible controls. A larval immersion test was used to assess fipronil toxicity. Of fifteen fipronil-resistant field populations that were tested with lindane, eleven were lindane-resistant and three were susceptible. The last three populations had incipient resistance to fipronil. Finally, cross-resistance between fipronil and lindane in the southern cattle tick is reported in this study for the first time. PMID:25868846

  19. Growing Brazilian demand to spur gas network in South America

    SciTech Connect

    Deffarges, E.H. ); Maurer, L.I.A. )

    1993-01-18

    A recent combination in South America of economic and geopolitical factors is prompting development of a new integrated gas-pipeline network in the continent's Southern Cone. The crucial factors include privatization, regional integration, economic growth, and environmental concerns. The area, Latin America's largest regional entity, includes Brazil (population 150 million and a 1990 GNP of about $375 billion, 9th largest in the world), Argentina (population 32 million and the third largest Latin American economy after Brazil and Mexico), Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay are members of the MercoSur economic bloc whose objective is to develop free trade in the region. There are very few integrated pipeline networks in the world. Besides the giant North American system, with hundreds of producers and pipelines, there is only one other large integrated network. It connects continental European countries to their outside suppliers such as Norway, the C.I.S., and Algeria. The emergence of a new pipeline system is therefore important for the natural-gas industry worldwide and even more so if it occurs in a region now growing rapidly after a decade of economic difficulties.

  20. Microsatellite characterization of Cimarron Uruguayo dogs

    PubMed Central

    Gagliardi, Rosa; Llambí, Silvia; García, Cristina; Arruga, María Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Various genetic markers, including microsatellites, have been used to analyze the genetic polymorphism and heterozygosity in canine breeds. In this work, we used nine microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic variability in Cimarron Uruguayo dogs, the only officially recognized native canine breed in Uruguay. DNA from 30 Cimarron Uruguayo dogs from northeastern and southern Uruguay was analyzed. The allelic frequencies for each microsatellite, the genetic variability and the consanguinity were calculated, as were the polymorphic information content (PIC) and the probability of exclusion (PE). All of the microsatellites studied were polymorphic. FH 2361, FH 2305 and PEZ 03 were the most informative, with PIC values > 0.7, in agreement with results for other canine breeds. The PE values for the markers were within the ranges previously described and were generally greater for microsatellites with higher PIC values. The heterozygosity value (0.649) was considered high since only nine microsatellites were analyzed. Compared with data for other breeds, the results obtained here indicate that Cimarron Uruguayo dogs have high genetic diversity. PMID:21637561

  1. Frequency and spectrum of hemoglobinopathy mutations in a Uruguayan pediatric population

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Julio Da; Ávila, Amalia; Icasuriaga, Sandra; Gongóra, María; Castillo, Luis; Serrón, Alejandra; Kimura, Elza Miyuki; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; Sans, Mónica; Sonati, Maria de Fátima

    2013-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are the most common recessive diseases worldwide but their prevalence in Uruguay has not been investigated. In this study, 397 unrelated outpatient children from the Pereira Rosell Hospital Center (CHPR), as well as 31 selected patients with microcytic anemia and 28 β-thalassemia carriers were analyzed for hemoglobinopathies by using biochemical and molecular biology methods. Parametric and non-parametric methods were used to compare the hematological indices between groups of genotypes. Of the 397 patients in the first group, approximately 1% (0.76% HbS and 0.25% β-thalassemia) had a mutation in the HBB gene and 3.3% had β-thalassemia. These mutations had a heterogeneous distribution that varied according to individual ancestry. HbS was found exclusively in individuals with declared African ancestry and had a carrier frequency of 2.2%. The frequency of α-thalassemia carriers in outpatients of European and African ancestry was 1.2% and 6.5%, respectively. In contrast, the frequency of α-thalassemia carriers in patients with microcytic anemia was 25.8%, significantly higher (p < 0.01) than that observed in the sample as a whole and in Afro-descendants and Euro-descendants. Significant differences were observed in the hematological parameters between individuals with thalassemia genotypes and those with a normal genotype. These results indicate that hemoglobinopathies are a relevant health problem in Uruguay. PMID:24130436

  2. Fumonisin levels in Uruguayan corn products.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro, M S; Silva, G E; Scott, P M; Lawrence, G A; Stack, M E

    1997-01-01

    A survey was conducted to evaluate fumonisins FB1 and FB2 in Uruguayan corn products. Sixty-four samples of different local brands were purchased from retail stores during a 15-month period and analyzed for FB1 and FB2 by methanol-water extraction, cleanup with a 1 mL. strong-anion-exchange solid-phase extraction column, and liquid chromatography with o-pthaldialdehyde-2-mercaptoethanol derivatization and fluorescence detection. Contamination levels for FB1 varied from 50 ng/g (detection limit) to 6342 ng/g. Values were highest in feed samples (up to 6342 ng/g), unprocessed corn kernel (up to 3688 ng/g), and milled products, which included polenta (up to 427 ng/g). They were lowest in processed corn kernel (up to 155 ng/g) and snacks (up to 314 ng/g). FB2 was determined in one-fourth of the total samples and detected at trace levels in only one feed sample. The data demonstrated the natural occurrence of fumonisins in corn products in Uruguay. Feed and polenta that contain fumonisins could be of concern because they are consumed in large amounts and are often the main nutrient source in Uruguay. PMID:9241845

  3. Alternative Parameterization of the 3-PG Model for Loblolly Pine: A Regional Validation and Climate Change Assessment on Stand Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Gonzalez-Benecke, C. A.; Teskey, R. O.; Martin, T.; Jokela, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is one of the fastest growing pine species. It has been planted on more than 10 million ha in the southeastern U.S., and also been introduced into many countries. Using data from the literature and long-term productivity studies, we re-parameterized the 3-PG model for loblolly pine stands. We developed new functions for estimating NPP allocation dynamics, canopy cover and needlefall dynamics, effects of frost on production, density-independent and density-dependent tree mortality, biomass pools at variable starting ages, and the fertility rating. New functions to estimate merchantable volume partitioning were also included, allowing for economic analyses. The fertility rating was determined as a function of site index (mean height of dominant trees at age=25 years). We used the largest and most geographically extensive validation dataset for this species ever used (91 pots in 12 states in U.S. and 10 plots in Uruguay). Comparison of modeled to measured data showed robust agreement across the natural range in the U.S., as well as in Uruguay, where the species is grown as an exotic. Using the new set of functions and parameters with downscaled projections from twenty different climate models, the model was applied to assess the impact of future climate change scenarios on stand productivity in the southeastern U.S.

  4. Eolian deposits of the southwestern margin of the Botucatú paleoerg: Reconstruction of the Gondwana landscape in Central Northern Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peri, V. Gisel; Naipauer, Maximiliano; Pimentel, Marcio; Barcelona, Hernan

    2016-06-01

    The Mesozoic Botucatú paleoerg at the southwestern margin of Gondwana includes a succession of eolian dunes cross-strata which are presently exposed in Otumpa Hills (Central Northern Argentina). Here, the architectural facies, petrology, and provenance of those rocks were studied in order to investigate depositional environments and paleoclimates. The stratigraphic sequence included basal eolian two-dimensional crescentic dunes (Slp) overlain by three-dimensional crescentic dunes of smaller scale (Smt). These were correlated with the Upper Member Rivera of the Tacuarembó Formation (Uruguay), or its equivalent in Brazil, the Botucatú Formation. These outcrops partially mark the southwestern margin of the Botucatú paleoerg along the Chaco-Paraná Basin boundary. The paleocurrents from the W, NW, and SW and the U-Pb ages of detrital zircons indicate a main Pampean cratonic and secondary Andean magmatic arc (180 Ma) source. A detrital zircon of 180 Ma by U-Pb limits a maximum depositional age at 180 Ma (Toarcian) for facies Slp. Upwards, the phreatic silcrete and calcrete indicate semiarid conditions during the Paleocene, which are correlated with the Queguay Formation of Uruguay. A saprolite paleoweathering profile, recording wet tropical-hyper-tropical climate at the Early Eocene and representing the Gondwana landscape and climate conditions, crowns the sequence. This study represents the first provenance and surface texture analysis of minerals from the Botucatú paleoerg and was instrumental to unravel past environmental and sedimentary conditions.

  5. First full-length genomic sequence of a hepatitis A virus isolated in Argentina shows recombination between subgenotypes IA and IB.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Sebastian; Malirat, Viviana; Scodeller, Eduardo; Mattion, Nora

    2011-01-01

    A hepatitis A virus (HAV) recovered in Argentina from a stool sample of a sick child in the year 2006 (HAV-Arg/06) was entirely sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis included the HAV-Arg/06 sequence in subgenotype IA, either considering the usual VP1-2A variable junction fragment or the full length nucleotide sequence. Interestingly, a recombination event with subgenotype IB, involving a portion of the 2C-3A nonstructural proteins coding region (nucleotides 4961-5140) was detected using specific software. Only subgenotype IA strains have been detected in Argentina or Uruguay, whereas subgenotype IA and IB strains have been reported to circulate in Brazil. Although recombination has been given an important role in the evolution of picornaviruses, there have been only a few reports of its involvement in the evolution of HAV, probably due to the limited number of complete HAV sequences available. This study constitutes the first report of a full-length HAV sequence in Argentina and the third in South America, after the sequence of the IA isolate HAV5 from Uruguay and the IB isolate HAF-203 from Brazil. The availability of new sequence data covering the complete HAV genome will help establish a more consistent genetic relatedness among HAV isolates and the role of recombination in its evolution.

  6. Act No. 15.977 creating the National Institute of Minors to succeed the Children's Council and fixing its duties, 14 September 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This Act creates in Uruguay the National Institute of Minors to succeed the Children's Council. The following are the duties of the Institute: 1) to assist and protect from conception to the age of majority minors morally or materially abandoned; 2) to carry out all those activities having the objective of preventing the material or moral abandonment and antisocial conduct of minors; 3) to contribute, in conjunction with other specialized organizations, to the protection of handicapped minors even when they have not been abandoned; 4) to cooperate with parents, guardians, and educators in bringing about the material, intellectual, and moral improvement of minors; 5) to control the working conditions of minors without infringing upon the competency of the Executive Power; 6) to execute security measures arranged by competent authorities to achieve the rehabilitation and education of transgressing minors; 7) to support the activities of private nonprofit institutions with legal capacity that pursue similar objectives. Further provisions of the Act set forth the resources, powers, and administration of the Institute, among other things. Decree No. 877/988 of 27 December 1988 provides that the Institute is related to the Executive Power by means of the Ministry of Education and Culture. See Diario Oficial de la Republica Oriental del Uruguay, Vol. 334, No. 22810, 17 February 1988, pp. 189A-190A.

  7. Accuracy of self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tong, Van T; Althabe, Fernando; Alemán, Alicia; Johnson, Carolyn C; Dietz, Patricia M; Berrueta, Mabel; Morello, Paola; Colomar, Mercedes; Buekens, Pierre; Sosnoff, Connie S; Farr, Sherry L; Mazzoni, Agustina; Ciganda, Alvaro; Becú, Ana; Bittar Gonzalez, Maria G; Llambi, Laura; Gibbons, Luz; Smith, Ruben A; Belizán, José M

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of bias of self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy is reported in high-income countries but not elsewhere. We sought to evaluate self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy using biochemical verification and to compare characteristics of women with and without biochemically confirmed cessation in Argentina and Uruguay. In a cross-sectional study from October 2011 to May 2012, women who attended one of 21 prenatal clinics and delivered at selected hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay, were surveyed about their smoking cessation during pregnancy. We tested saliva collected from women <12 h after delivery for cotinine to evaluate self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy. Overall, 10.0% (44/441) of women who self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy had biochemical evidence of continued smoking. Women who reported quitting later in pregnancy had a higher percentage of nondisclosure (17.2%) than women who reported quitting when learning of their pregnancy (6.4%).

  8. Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hill.)-based beverages: How successive extraction influences the extract composition and its capacity to chelate iron and scavenge free radicals.

    PubMed

    Colpo, Ana C; Rosa, Hemerson; Lima, Maria Eduarda; Pazzini, Camila Eliza F; de Camargo, Vanessa B; Bassante, Felipa E M; Puntel, Robson; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Mendez, Andreas; Folmer, Vanderlei

    2016-10-15

    Chimarrão or mate is a popular beverage from South America that is drank with successive infusions. Although yerba mate extracts have been widely studied, few studies have described the extract contents in beverages. Using yerba mate samples from Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay, we examined the extract chromatographic profiles, total polyphenol content and their capacities to chelate iron. In addition, we analyzed antioxidant activity by examining the ability of the extracts to scavenge DPPH and NO. Our results showed that the amount of extracted compound was highest in yerba mate extract from Uruguay, followed by Argentina, then Brazil. Herbs from all three areas had a significant capacity to inhibit DPPH and NO free radicals. The Brazilian and Uruguayan herbs had an 80% iron chelation capacity (p<0.001), while the iron chelation capacity of the Argentinean herb was lower but still significant (p⩽0.05). We conclude that the compound concentration decreases with successive extractions, while the antioxidant capacity is maintained at significant levels.

  9. Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hill.)-based beverages: How successive extraction influences the extract composition and its capacity to chelate iron and scavenge free radicals.

    PubMed

    Colpo, Ana C; Rosa, Hemerson; Lima, Maria Eduarda; Pazzini, Camila Eliza F; de Camargo, Vanessa B; Bassante, Felipa E M; Puntel, Robson; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Mendez, Andreas; Folmer, Vanderlei

    2016-10-15

    Chimarrão or mate is a popular beverage from South America that is drank with successive infusions. Although yerba mate extracts have been widely studied, few studies have described the extract contents in beverages. Using yerba mate samples from Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay, we examined the extract chromatographic profiles, total polyphenol content and their capacities to chelate iron. In addition, we analyzed antioxidant activity by examining the ability of the extracts to scavenge DPPH and NO. Our results showed that the amount of extracted compound was highest in yerba mate extract from Uruguay, followed by Argentina, then Brazil. Herbs from all three areas had a significant capacity to inhibit DPPH and NO free radicals. The Brazilian and Uruguayan herbs had an 80% iron chelation capacity (p<0.001), while the iron chelation capacity of the Argentinean herb was lower but still significant (p⩽0.05). We conclude that the compound concentration decreases with successive extractions, while the antioxidant capacity is maintained at significant levels. PMID:27173551

  10. Recent evidence of hantavirus circulation in the American tropic.

    PubMed

    Montoya-Ruiz, Carolina; Diaz, Francisco J; Rodas, Juan D

    2014-03-14

    Hantaan virus was discovered in Korea during the 1970s while other similar viruses were later reported in Asia and Europe. There was no information about hantavirus human infection in the Americas until 1993 when an outbreak was described in the United States. This event promoted new studies to find hantaviruses in the Americas. At first, many studies were conducted in Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay and Paraguay, while other Latin American countries began to report the presence of these agents towards the end of the 20th century. More than 30 hantaviruses have been reported in the Western Hemisphere with more frequent cases registered in the southern cone (Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia and Brazil). However there was an important outbreak in 2000 in Panama and some rare events have been described in Peru, Venezuela and French Guiana. Since hantaviruses have only recently emerged as a potential threat in the tropical zones of the Americas, this review compiles recent hantavirus reports in Central America, the Caribbean islands and the northern region of South America. These studies have generated the discovery of new hantaviruses and could help to anticipate the presentation of possible future outbreaks in the region.

  11. Complete genome sequence of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv trifolii strain WSM2304, an effective microsymbiont of the South American clover Trifolium polymorphum

    SciTech Connect

    Reeve, Wayne; O'Hara, Graham; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Ardley, Julie; Brau, Lambert; Nandesena, Kemanthi; Tiwari, Ravi; Malfatti, Stephanie; Kiss, Hajnalka; Lapidus, Alla L.; Copeland, A; Nolan, Matt; Land, Miriam L; Ivanova, N; Mavromatis, K; Markowitz, Victor; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Melino, Vanessa; Denton, Matthew; Yates, Ron; Howieson, John

    2010-01-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv trifolii is the effective nitrogen fixing microsymbiont of a diverse range of annual and perennial Trifolium (clover) species. Strain WSM2304 is an aerobic, motile, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rod, isolated from Trifolium polymorphum in Uruguay in 1998. This microsymbiont predominated in the perennial grasslands of Glencoe Research Station, in Uruguay, to competitively nodulate its host, and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Here we describe the basic features of WSM2304, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence for a nitrogen fixing microsymbiont of a clover species from the American center of origin. We reveal that its genome size is 6,872,702 bp encoding 6,643 protein-coding genes and 62 RNA only encoding genes. This multipartite genome was found to contain 5 distinct replicons; a chromosome of size 4,537,948 bp and four circular plasmids of size 1,266,105 bp, 501,946 bp, 308,747 bp and 257,956 bp.

  12. Latin America multidisciplinary research on heat shock proteins and cell stress: proceedings of the first conference of the Latin America Chapter of the Cell Stress Society International.

    PubMed

    Bausero, María A

    2015-09-01

    The First Conference of the Latin America Chapter of the Cell Stress Society International (CSSI) organized by CSSI was held in Montevideo, Uruguay, on March 11-14, 2014. The Latin America Chapter of the CSSI (LAC-CSSI) was established at the Workshop on the Molecular Biology of the Stress Response, Porto Alegre, Brazil, May 2012. The chapter's first meeting took place in the beautiful city of Montevideo and was chaired by the first (LAC-CSSI) elected president Professor María Bausero. Forty-two invited speakers presented their work to more than 100 scientists. The first day of the conference was dedicated to an introductory program for students, young investigators, and participants new to the field of molecular chaperones and the stress response. These seminars were held in the Pasteur Institute of Montevideo and the Faculty of Sciences of the University of the Republic. These institutions were carefully selected to give foreign participants a broad view of the diversity of students and institutions doing research in Uruguay, as well as an opportunity for direct interaction with our scientists and students. Invited speakers for the seminar series were Dr. Wolfgang Schumann, Dr. Cristina Bonorino, Dr. Antonio De Maio, Dr. Ian Brown, Dr. Rafael Radi, Dr. Daniel Ciocca, and Dr. Celia Quijano. The remaining days of the conference took place at the Sheraton Hotel in Montevideo, and the scientific sessions are discussed below.

  13. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of the Parapiptadenia rigida-nodulating Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413

    SciTech Connect

    De Meyer, Sofie E.; Fabiano, Elena; Tian, Rui; Van Berkum, Peter; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, T. B. K.; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Howieson, John; Kyrpides, Nikos; Reeve, Wayne

    2015-06-04

    We report that Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from a root nodule of Parapiptadenia rigida collected at the Angico plantation, Mandiyu, Uruguay, in December 2006. A survey of symbionts of P. rigida in Uruguay demonstrated that this species is nodulated predominantly by Burkholderia microsymbionts. Moreover, Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413 is a highly efficient nitrogen fixing symbiont with this host. Currently, the only other sequenced isolate to fix with this host is Cupriavidus sp. UYPR2.512. Therefore, Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413 was selected for sequencing on the basis of its environmental and agricultural relevance to issues in global carbon cycling, alternative energy production, and biogeochemical importance, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project. Here we describe the features of Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413, together with sequence and annotation. The 10,373,764 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 336 scaffolds of 342 contigs, contains 9759 protein-coding genes and 77 RNA-only encoding genes.

  14. Karyological Features of Achyrocline (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae): stable karyotypes, low DNA content variation and linkage of rRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Mazzella, C; Rodríguez, M; Vaio, M; Gaiero, P; López-Carro, B; Santiñaque, F F; Folle, G A; Guerra, M

    2010-01-01

    Many Achyrocline (Asteraceae, tribe Gnaphalieae) species are widely used in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay as popular medicinal and aromatic plants. Achyrocline flaccida, A. satureioides, A. alata, and A. crassiuscula are distributed in Uruguay and popularly known as 'marcelas'. In order to characterize them, we performed chromosome counts, compared the karyotypes, mapped the 5S and 45S rDNA sites by fluorescent in situ hybridization, and estimated their DNA content. All species were diploid with 2n = 28 chromosomes, this being the first report for A. flaccida and A. crassiuscula. All species showed symmetrical karyotypes composed exclusively of biarmed chromosomes. DNA content estimated by flow cytometry revealed 2C values ranging from 5.73 to 6.03 pg, the amounts for A. alata and A. crassiuscula being higher than those for the other species. Cytogenetic mapping of 5S and 45S rDNA sequences in three species, A. flaccida, A. satureioides and A. alata, showed that in these species both sites co-localized in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 10. This site corresponds to the only DAPI(-) and CMA(+) band of their genomes. Southern blot hybridization of 5S and 45S rDNA on BamHI digested genomic DNA confirmed the tight linkage of these rDNA families into a single unit. Cytological data indicate that Achyrocline species are karyologically poorly differentiated, whereas the uncommon distribution of 5S and 45S rDNA suggests a close relationship with other genera of the Anthemidae tribe.

  15. Global situation of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD)--a short review.

    PubMed

    Kesy, A

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews the actual world FMD situation. In 2000, fifty nine countries officially reported outbreaks of FMD. The disease occurred in Europe (Greece), Asia (Russia, Mongolia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Japan, Laos, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, in Caucasian region--Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia as well as in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan), Africa (Egypt, Kenya, Mauritania, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Malawi, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe) and in South America (Brazil, Colombia, Uruguay, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador and Venezuela). In 2001, FMD was still spreading throughout the endemic regions and appeared in some of the west European countries--Great Britain, The Netherlands, France and Ireland. In South America, FMD occurred in Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil and Colombia. In Asia the FMD spread in Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Mongolia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Yemen, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Iran, Bhutan, Nepal, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Taiwan. The FMD situation in Africa was unclear, but probably most countries in West, East and South Africa were affected. The most recent data of the OIE from May 2002 confirmed FMD outbreaks in population of pigs in Republic of Korea.

  16. Spanish, French and British consumers' acceptability of Uruguayan beef, and consumers' beef choice associated with country of origin, finishing diet and meat price.

    PubMed

    Realini, C E; Font i Furnols, M; Sañudo, C; Montossi, F; Oliver, M A; Guerrero, L

    2013-09-01

    The effect of country of origin (local, Switzerland, Argentina, Uruguay), finishing diet (grass, grass plus concentrate, concentrate), and price (low, medium, high) on consumer's beef choice and segmentation was evaluated in Spain, France and United Kingdom. Sensory acceptability of Uruguayan beef from different production systems was also evaluated and contrasted with consumers' beef choices. Origin was the most important characteristic for the choice of beef with preference for meat produced locally. The second most important factor was animal feed followed by price with preference for beef from grass-fed animals and lowest price. The least preferred product was beef from Uruguay, concentrate-fed animals and highest price. Sensory data showed higher acceptability scores for Uruguayan beef from grass-fed animals with or without concentrate supplementation than animals fed concentrate only. Consumer segments with distinct preferences were identified. Foreign country promotion seems to be fundamental for marketing beef in Europe, as well as the development of different marketing strategies to satisfy each consumer segment.

  17. Microsatellite characterization of Cimarron Uruguayo dogs.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Rosa; Llambí, Silvia; García, Cristina; Arruga, María Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Various genetic markers, including microsatellites, have been used to analyze the genetic polymorphism and heterozygosity in canine breeds. In this work, we used nine microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic variability in Cimarron Uruguayo dogs, the only officially recognized native canine breed in Uruguay. DNA from 30 Cimarron Uruguayo dogs from northeastern and southern Uruguay was analyzed. The allelic frequencies for each microsatellite, the genetic variability and the consanguinity were calculated, as were the polymorphic information content (PIC) and the probability of exclusion (PE). All of the microsatellites studied were polymorphic. FH 2361, FH 2305 and PEZ 03 were the most informative, with PIC values > 0.7, in agreement with results for other canine breeds. The PE values for the markers were within the ranges previously described and were generally greater for microsatellites with higher PIC values. The heterozygosity value (0.649) was considered high since only nine microsatellites were analyzed. Compared with data for other breeds, the results obtained here indicate that Cimarron Uruguayo dogs have high genetic diversity. PMID:21637561

  18. Local trophic specialisation in a cosmopolitan spider (Araneae).

    PubMed

    Líznarová, Eva; Sentenská, Lenka; García, Luis Fernando; Pekár, Stano; Viera, Carmen

    2013-02-01

    Trophic specialisation can be observed in species with long-term constant exploitation of a certain prey in all populations or in a population of a species with short-term exploitation of a certain prey. While in the former case the species would evolve stereotyped or specialised trophic adaptations, the trophic traits of the latter should be versatile or generalised. Here, we studied the predatory behavioural adaptations of a presumed myrmecophagous spider, Oecobius navus. We chose two distinct populations, one in Portugal and the other in Uruguay. We analysed the actual prey of both populations and found that the Portuguese population feeds mainly on dipterans, while the Uruguayan population feeds mainly on ants. Indeed, dipterans and springtails in Portugal, and ants in Uruguay were the most abundant potential prey. In laboratory trials O. navus spiders recognised and captured a wide variety of prey. The capture efficiency of the Portuguese population measured as components of the handling time was higher for flies than for ants, while that of the Uruguayan population was higher for ants. We found phenotypic plasticity in behavioural traits that lead to increased capture efficiency with respect to the locally abundant prey, but it remains to be determined whether the traits of the two populations are genetically fixed. We conclude that O. navus is a euryphagous generalist predator which shows local specialisation on the locally abundant prey. PMID:23200575

  19. Does Multi-morbidity Mediate the Effect of Socioeconomics on Self-rated Health? Cross-country Differences

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study explored cross-country differences in how multi-morbidity explains the effects of socioeconomic characteristics on self-rated health. Methods: The study borrowed data from the Research on Early Life and Aging Trends and Effects. Participants were 44,530 individuals (age > 65 years) who were sampled from 15 countries (i.e. United States, China, India, Russia, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, Mexico, Argentina, Barbados, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Uruguay, Ghana and South Africa). Multi-morbidity was measured as number of chronic medical conditions. In Model I, main effects of socioeconomic factors on self-rated health were calculated using country-specific logistic regressions. In Model II, number of chronic conditions were also added to the models to find changes in coefficients for demographic and socioeconomic factors. Results: In the United States, number of chronic medical conditions explained the effect of income on subjective health. In Puerto Rico, number of chronic medical conditions explained the effect of marital status on subjective health. In Costa Rica, Argentina, Barbados, Cuba, and Uruguay, number of chronic medical conditions explained gender disparities in subjective health. In China, Mexico, Brazil, Russia, Chile, India, Ghana and South Africa, number of chronic medical conditions did not explain the effect of demographic or socioeconomic factors on subjective health. Conclusions: Multi-morbidity explains the effect of demographic and socioeconomic factors on subjective health in some but not other countries. Further research is needed. PMID:26445632

  20. Accuracy of self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    TONG, VAN T.; ALTHABE, FERNANDO; ALEMÁN, ALICIA; JOHNSON, CAROLYN C.; DIETZ, PATRICIA M.; BERRUETA, MABEL; MORELLO, PAOLA; COLOMAR, MERCEDES; BUEKENS, PIERRE; SOSNOFF, CONNIE S.; FARR, SHERRY L.; MAZZONI, AGUSTINA; CIGANDA, ALVARO; BECÚ, ANA; GONZALEZ, MARIA G. BITTAR; LLAMBI, LAURA; GIBBONS, LUZ; SMITH, RUBEN A.; BELIZÁN, JOSÉ M.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of bias of self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy is reported in high-income countries but not elsewhere. We sought to evaluate self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy using biochemical verification and to compare characteristics of women with and without biochemically confirmed cessation in Argentina and Uruguay. In a cross-sectional study from October 2011 to May 2012, women who attended one of 21 prenatal clinics and delivered at selected hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay, were surveyed about their smoking cessation during pregnancy. We tested saliva collected from women <12 h after delivery for cotinine to evaluate self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy. Overall, 10.0% (44/441) of women who self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy had biochemical evidence of continued smoking. Women who reported quitting later in pregnancy had a higher percentage of nondisclosure (17.2%) than women who reported quitting when learning of their pregnancy (6.4%). PMID:25350478