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Sample records for complexse uruguay reconocimiento

  1. Uruguay.

    PubMed

    1988-06-01

    Uruguay, officially "The Oriental Republic of Uruguay," is a country of 176,215 sq km with a temperate climate and a good water supply, which contributed to the emergence of stock raising as the economy's traditional base. 1.31 million of the country's 2,940,200 people live in Montevideo, the capital and only large city. The population is 85%-95% white and 66% Roman Catholic. The dominant culture and official language is Spanish, although 25% of the people are of Italian origin. The annual population growth is only 0.5%, due to a low birth rate and large net outmigration. Infant mortality in 1986 was 27.1/1000, and life expectancy was 73 years. Literacy is 96%, due to an extensive system of public and private education. There is a large, urban middle class, which enjoys a high standard of living. 22% of the work force is in industry, 21% in government, 15% in commerce, and 28% in services. The 1986 gross domestic product was $6.2 billion, per capita $1701. The annual growth rate is now 6.3%, which is an upturn from the generally stagnant economic conditions of the last 30 years. 1986 exports were $834 million (mainly meat, wool, hides, and leather goods); imports were $870 million. Inflation averages 76.4%, and 270 pesos=$1.00. The major economic problem is managing the huge external debt of almost $5.4 billion. In 1987 Uruguay reached a debt rescheduling agreement with creditor banks and the International Monitary Fund, stretching out repayment dates through 2004. Exchange rates were allowed to float in 1982, and the country is trying to reduce the burden of the excessively large government sector through various privatization schemes. Uruguay has also been working with Argentina and Brazil toward integrating their economies. The only aboriginal inhabitants of Uruguay were the Charrua Indians. In 1811 Jose Gervasio Artigas led Uruguay's revolt against Spain, and total independence was achieved in 1828. Jose Batlle y Ordonez, who served as president from 1903 to

  2. Uruguay.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Uruguay is a country of 176,000 sq. km with 3 million inhabitants, of whom 96% are literate. Independence was gained on August 25, 1825. The terrain consists of plains and low hills, with a climate which is temperate. Spanish is spoken by White, Mestizo, and Black ethnic groups who are variously non-professing or of Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, and other faiths. Life expectancy ranges over 69-75 years. GDP is $11.3 billion, growing at a rate of 4%. Per capita income is $3600. The country's natural resources include arable land, hydroelectric potential, gold, granite, and marble. Beef, wool, grains, fruits, vegetables, meat processing, would and hides, textiles, shoes, handbags, leather apparel, tires, cement, fishing, and petroleum refining are areas of economic production. Fuels, chemical, machinery, and metals are imported, and meat, wool, hides, leather and wool products, fish, rice and furs are exported. In-depth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, relations with the U.S., and names of principal U.S. officials in the country.

  3. Oppression in Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otero, Mario

    1981-01-01

    Describes the effects of government intervention in Uruguay's universities and public schools. Teacher education, curriculum change, student and teacher behavior; education funding; research funding; research activity; and scientific teaching are discussed as to the effects of government intervention on them. (Author/DS)

  4. Honeybee viruses in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Antúnez, Karina; D'Alessandro, Bruno; Corbella, Eduardo; Ramallo, Gustavo; Zunino, Pablo

    2006-09-01

    Mortality of honeybees is a serious problem that beekeepers have to face periodically in Uruguay and worldwide. The presence of RNA viruses, in addition to other pathogens may be one of its possible causes. In this work, we detected Chronic bee paralysis virus, Acute bee paralysis virus, Black queen cell virus, Sacbrood virus and Deformed wing virus in samples of Uruguayan honeybees with or without Varroa destructor and Nosema apis. The detection of viruses in different provinces, simultaneous co-infection of colonies by several viruses and the fact that 96% of the samples were infected with one or more virus, indicates they are widely spread in the region.

  5. Lead contamination in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Mañay, N; Pereira, L; Cousillas, Z

    1999-01-01

    Uruguay is a developing country of South America with about 3 million people, half of whom live in its principal city, Montevideo. This city has several lead pollution sources as emitting industries, most of them surrounded by residential neighborhoods, some still using lead pipes in drinking water systems of old buildings, and has areas of heavy traffic with cars that are still fueled with leaded gasoline. The toxic effects of this heavy metal are well known. Children are a very sensitive population and their early symptoms of intoxication are not always taken into account. Blood lead is a good indicator of recent exposure to lead influenced by inhalation and ingestion. The systematic data assessment of lead pollution and people exposure in Uruguay was not well known when the Department of Toxicology and Environmental Hygiene of the Faculty of Chemistry began to analyze lead in biological samples, first from exposed workers and next from children and the general population, including sensitive animal species like dogs. Several described studies were carried out analyzing for blood lead to assess lead uptake and to obtain reference values for Uruguayan populations. Since 1986, that Department is the only laboratory where blood lead analyses are done, and the analytical method has been controlled by an interlaboratory quality control program of the Ministry of Labour of Spain and confirmed by experts from the Laboratory of Occupational and Environmental Medicine of Lund, Sweden. Financial and technical support was obtained from Sweden (SAREC) and also from the University of the Republic of Uruguay. Uruguayan lead workers have always been the principally studied population because their lead exposure assessment as well as their health protection education is not always done properly. Uruguay has adopted ACGIH reference values (150 micrograms/m3 in total lead dust, 50 micrograms/m3 respirable lead dust, 300 micrograms/L blood), and the high blood lead levels indicate

  6. Cystic fibrosis in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Luzardo, Gerardo; Aznarez, Isabel; Crispino, Beatriz; Mimbacas, Adriana; Martínez, Liria; Poggio, Rossana; Zielenski, Julian; Tsui, Lap-Chee; Cardoso, Horacio

    2002-03-31

    We conducted clinical and genetic analyses of 52 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients in Uruguay, which is about half of the known affected individuals in the country. A relatively high proportion had a mild presentation, characterized by pancreatic sufficiency (28%), a strong pulmonary component (97%), and borderline sweat electrolyte measurements (25%). Mutational analysis of CF chromosomes demonstrated a relatively low incidence of the DeltaF508 allele (40%) and a large number of other cystic fibrosis conductance regulator mutations, with an overall detection rate of about 71%. Fifteen different mutations were detected in our patients: DeltaF508, G542X, R1162X, G85E, N1303K, R334W, R75Q, R74W, D1270N, W1282X, DeltaI507, 2789+5G-->A, R1066C, -816C/T, R553X, as well as RNA splicing variant IVS8-5T. This group of Uruguayan CF patients has some characteristics in common with other populations of similar origin (Hispanics), as well as some unique characteristics.

  7. Aloysio de Castro and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    Aloysio de Castro, when Director of the School of Medicine of Rio de Janeiro, and Américo Ricaldoni, when Dean of the School of Medicine of Montevideo, Uruguay, started a period of intense collaboration between both institutions. In this period, Aloysio visited Montevideo in many occasions, giving lectures, donating scientific material and publishing papers in Uruguay. Ricaldoni retributed his visits, distinguishing Aloysio as the first foreign Honorary Professor of the Medical School of Uruguay, participating in the inauguration of the new building of the School in Rio. Even after Ricaldoni's death in 1928, for many years, Aloysio continued with his visits. A poem by Aloysio de Castro dedicated to Montevideo is attached.

  8. English Language Teaching Profile: Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This profile in outline form of the English language teaching situation in Uruguay discusses the role of English within Uruguayan society and within the educational system. Though English is quite widely used for reading scientific, technical and medical publications, and while it is considered important culturally in higher professions, it is not…

  9. Uruguay on the World Stage

    PubMed Central

    Birn, Anne-Emanuelle

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of international health has typically been assessed from the standpoint of central institutions (international health organizations, foundations, and development agencies) or of one-way diffusion and influence from developed to developing countries. To deepen understanding of how the international health agenda is shaped, I examined the little-known case of Uruguay and its pioneering role in advancing and institutionalizing child health as an international priority between 1890 and 1950. The emergence of Uruguay as a node of international health may be explained through the country’s early gauging of its public health progress, its borrowing and adaptation of methods developed overseas, and its broadcasting of its own innovations and shortcomings. PMID:16051940

  10. Rickettsia parkeri in Amblyomma triste from Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Portillo, Aránzazu; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Castro, Oscar; Cabrera, Perla A.; Oteo, José A.

    2004-01-01

    Our goal was to detect whether spotted fever group Rickettsia are found in the suspected vector of rickettsioses, Amblyomma triste, in Uruguay. Rickettsia parkeri was detected in A. triste, which suggests that this species could be considered a pathogenic agent responsible for human rickettsioses in Uruguay. PMID:15496258

  11. Rainwater composition in northeast Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunckel, M.; Saizar, C.; Zarauz, J.

    The chemical composition of rainfall in northeast Uruguay in 1999 and 2000 and the sources that contribute to the rainwater chemistry are assessed in this study, contributing to a limited knowledge base of rainwater quality in South America. Principal factor analysis and cluster analysis indicate that four main source groups influence the rainfall chemistry over a range of spatial scales. Terrigenous sources (e.g. rock, soil and dust) and agricultural sources (e.g. livestock and crop fertilization) contribute to rainwater chemistry on a local and sub-regional scale. Influx of marine air from the Atlantic Ocean has a regional-scale influence while biomass burning contributes at both a local and sub-regional scale (e.g. fuel wood, and agroindustries) and through long-range transport (forest fires and land clearing). As may be expected in this area dominated by agriculture, the concentrations of ions that are indicative of industrial emissions, NO 3- and SO 42-, are typical of background measurements. The current data are limited, but provide an indication of rain quality and the sources that influence its chemistry in Uruguay. It may be inferred that large-scale biomass burning in the central parts of the continent influence rainwater chemistry on a scale far larger than indicated by the Uruguayan network. Similarly, but to lesser extent, the influx of marine air off the Atlantic Ocean has a greater regional-scale influence than suggested by these data.

  12. Area Handbook Series: Uruguay, A Country Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    Artigas. Montevideo: Ediciones de "El Pais," 1960. Astori, Danilo. El Uruguay de Ia dictadura, 1973-1985. La politica econdmica de la dictadura...de Terra, 1931-1938. Montevideo: Ediciones de la tSanda Oriental, 1983. Lerin, Fran~ois and Cristina Torres. Historia politica df [a dzctadura uruguaya...Uruguay. Montevideo: Editorial Arca, 1971. Lista Clericetti, Julio. Historia politica uruguaya, 1938-1972. Mon- tevideo: J. Lista Clericetti, 1984. L6pez

  13. New Geophysical Observatory in Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Nuñez, P.; Caraballo, R. R.; Ogando, R.

    2013-05-01

    In 2011 began the installation of the first geophysical observatory in Uruguay, with the aim of developing the Geosciences. The Astronomical and Geophysical Observatory Aiguá (OAGA) is located within the Cerro Catedral Tourist Farm (-34 ° 20 '0 .89 "S/-54 ° 42 '44.72" W, h: 270m). This has the distinction of being located in the center of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. Geologically is emplaced in a Neoproterozoic basement, in a region with scarce anthropogenic interference. The OAGA has, since 2012, with a GSM-90FD dIdD v7.0 and GSM-90F Overhauser, both of GEM Systems. In addition has a super-SID receiver provided by the Stanford University SOLAR Center, as a complement for educational purposes. Likewise the installation of a seismograph REF TEK-151-120A and VLF antenna is being done since the beginning of 2013.

  14. First neuronavigation experiences in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Carbajal, Guillermo; Gomez, Alvaro; Pereyra, Gabriela; Lima, Ramiro; Preciozzi, Javier; Vazquez, Luis; Villar, Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    Neuronavigation is the application of image guidance to neurosurgery where the position of a surgical tool can be displayed on a preoperative image. Although this technique has been used worldwide in the last ten years, it was never applied in Uruguay due to its cost. In an ongoing project, the Engineering Faculty (Universidad de la República), the Hospital de Clínicas (Medicine Faculty - Universidad de la República) and the Regional Hospital of Tacuarembó are doing the first experimental trials in neuronavigation. In this project, a prototype based on optical tracking equipment and the open source software IGSTK (Image Guided Surgery Toolkit) is under development and testing.

  15. Uruguay: Le francais en quete d'image (Uruguay: French in Search of an Image).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francais dans le Monde, 1993

    1993-01-01

    The role of French language instruction in Uruguay is assessed. Drawing on results of recent surveys, it is observed that French suffers from a lackluster image, and from a lack of confidence among language teachers themselves. (MSE)

  16. Adoption of Improved Agricultural Practices in Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucks, Carlos Alberto

    Conducted in Uruguay during 1965-68, this study compared adoption rates for selected agricultural practices between one area which received an extension program and one which did not; and sought relationships between selected characteristics of individual farmers and the adoption of new practices. Data came from interviews with 69 experimental and…

  17. A Geography of Uruguay for Elementary Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    This paper is part of a larger study, conducted as part of a Christa McAuliffe Fellowship research project, "A Comparative Geography of Three Ecologically Similar Regions." The study compared the Chesapeake Bay region of Maryland with the Murray River region of South Australia and the Rio de la Plata region of Uruguay. The project was…

  18. Developing Foreign Language Teacher Standards in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlman, Natalie A.

    2010-01-01

    This article documents the development of foreign language (FL) teacher standards in Uruguay. It begins by discussing what it means to be a teacher, what standards are and are not, and how they can be helpful or misused in teacher development. In the proposal, a distinction is made between teacher preparation programs that are course-based and…

  19. Sarcosporidian infection in pigs in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Freyre, A; Chifflet, L; Mendez, J

    1992-02-01

    Examination of enzymatic digests of samples of the crux diaphragm obtained at abbatoirs in Montevideo, Uruguay, indicated that 57.2% of 269 pigs weighing 90-140 kg were infected with Sarcocystis sp. The morphology of sarcocystis in H & E stained sections indicated that they were Sarcocystis miescheriana.

  20. Adoption of Improved Agricultural Practices in Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucks, Carlos Alberto

    Conducted in Uruguay during 1965-68, this study compared adoption rates for selected agricultural practices between one area which received an extension program and one which did not; and sought relationships between selected characteristics of individual farmers and the adoption of new practices. Data came from interviews with 69 experimental and…

  1. Control programme for cystic echinococcosis in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Irabedra, Pilar; Ferreira, Ciro; Sayes, Julio; Elola, Susana; Rodríguez, Miriam; Morel, Noelia; Segura, Sebastian; dos Santos, Estela; Guisantes, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community’s participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed. PMID:27223652

  2. Control programme for cystic echinococcosis in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Irabedra, Pilar; Ferreira, Ciro; Sayes, Julio; Elola, Susana; Rodríguez, Miriam; Morel, Noelia; Segura, Sebastian; Santos, Estela Dos; Guisantes, Jorge A

    2016-05-24

    Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community's participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed.

  3. Anaplasma platys in dogs from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Luis; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Sosa, Nicolás; Félix, María Laura; Venzal, José Manuel

    2017-02-01

    Anaplasmataceae family members include vector-borne bacteria of veterinary importance that may also affect humans. Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys are the main members of this family detected in dogs worldwide. In Uruguay there are not many published studies on tick-borne pathogens affecting dogs, the only haemoparasite molecularly confirmed in dogs, is the piroplasm Rangelia vitalii. The aim of the present work was to detect the presence of A. platys and E. canis in dogs and dogs-associated ticks of two localities in Northwestern Uruguay. Blood samples from dogs with and without clinical signs associated with vector-borne diseases, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus obtained from these dogs were analyzed by PCR for Anaplasmataceae. Positive dogs were further analyzed by PCR for Ehrlichia spp. and A. platys. All the ticks were found negative. No dog was detected infected with E. canis, while eight dogs (4.2%) were found to be infected with A. platys. Phylogenetic analysis of groESL operon sequence for A. platys revealed no differences with sequences described for A. platys in neighbor countries and from other regions of the world. This is the first report of the presence of A. platys in Uruguay.

  4. Hydrologic impacts of converting grassland to managed forestland in Uruguay

    Treesearch

    G.M. Chescheira; R.W. Skaggsa; D.M. Amatyab

    2008-01-01

    Over 500,000 hectares of grassland have been converted to managed forestland in Uruguay since 1990. This study was initiated to determine the hydrologic and water quality impacts of changing land use from grassland (pasture) to pine plantation in Uruguay. Two adjacent watersheds located on the El Cerro ranch in the Tacuarembo River basin were selected for a paired...

  5. The genus Phanerochaete (Corticiaceae, Basidiomycotina) sensu lato in Uruguay

    Treesearch

    Sebastian Martinez; Karen K. Nakasone

    2005-01-01

    Eight species of Phanerochaete are reported from Uruguay for the first time, including a new species, P. vesiculosa. Phanerochaete vesiculosa is characterized by thin-walled, clavate to cylindrical vesicles embedded in the subiculum. A key to the known species of Phanerochaete from Uruguay is provided.

  6. Uruguay: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-04

    34Uruguay: Partido Colorado apoyó a Lacalle para segunda vuelta electoral," Agence France Presse, October 28, 2009. “Uruguay: Partido Independiente neutral...Uruguayans, respectively.26 24 Claudio Aliscioni, “Un plebiscito que puede cambiar el sistema

  7. Community-acquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiao Xue; Galiana, Antonio; Pedreira, Walter; Mowszowicz, Martin; Christophersen, Inés; Machiavello, Silvia; Lope, Liliana; Benaderet, Sara; Buela, Fernanda; Vicentino, Walter; Albini, María; Bertaux, Olivier; Constenla, Irene; Bagnulo, Homero; Llosa, Luis; Ito, Teruyo

    2005-01-01

    A novel, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone (Uruguay clone) with a non–multidrug-resistant phenotype caused a large outbreak, including 7 deaths, in Montevideo, Uruguay. The clone was distinct from the highly virulent community clone represented by strain MW2, although both clones carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene and cna gene. PMID:15963301

  8. New records and checklist of corticioid Basidiomycota from Uruguay

    Treesearch

    Sebastian Martinez; Karen K. Nakasone

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-eight corticioid basidiomycete species are reported from Uruguay for the first time. An annotated checklist with 110 species of corticioid Basidiomycota recorded from Uruguay is presented based on these new records and an intensive literature search. These species are distributed in 49 genera and 10 orders. The order Polyporales...

  9. Slates from Uruguay: a traditional natural stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Demarco, M.; Oyhantçabal, P.; Stein, K.-J.; Siegesmund, S.

    2012-04-01

    Slates were traditionally used as roofing material or for cladding worldwide and also in Uruguay. In regions where this resource was easily mined, the widespread application of slates in constructions resulted in the development of characteristic cultural landscapes. The application of slates in a wider sense is nowadays open for all uses of dimensional stone, compared to the restricted use as roofing or cladding material in the past. This has been achieved by the discovery and mining of new deposits within the last 25 years worldwide. Furthermore, the optimization of mining techniques that allows the excavation of larger blocks and the technical development for further handling of the blocks has contributed to an open spectrum of applications. The slate deposits from Uruguay are associated with the Neoproterozoic thrust and fold belt of the Dom Feliciano Belt. The slates are linked to calc-silicate strata in a greenschist facies volcano-sedimentary sequence and the deposits are located in the limb of a regional fold, where bedding and cleavage are parallel. The main lithotype is a layered and fine-grained calcareous phyllite with a quite diverse palette of colors: light green, grey, dark grey, reddish and black. The mined slate is split into slabs 0.5 - 2cm thick. The technical properties were investigated in a very systematic way with respect to the new European standards, showing values comparable to those registered for internationally known slates. In the past, the average production in Uruguay was around 4000 tons/year and a historical maximum of 13,000 tons was reached in 1993. The oscillations in the regional demand were the cause of several flourishing and decay cycles in the activity, but our investigation shows a considerable volume of indicated resources and therefore a very good potential. Exploration for colors and qualities and quantification of reserves is a prerequisite for the development of the sector.

  10. Developing Medical Geology in Uruguay: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mañay, Nelly

    2010-01-01

    Several disciplines like Environmental Toxicology, Epidemiology, Public Health and Geology have been the basis of the development of Medical Geology in Uruguay during the last decade. The knowledge and performance in environmental and health issues have been improved by joining similar aims research teams and experts from different institutions to face environmental problems dealing with the population’s exposure to metals and metalloids and their health impacts. Some of the Uruguayan Medical Geology examples are reviewed focusing on their multidisciplinary approach: Lead pollution and exposed children, selenium in critically ill patients, copper deficiency in cattle and arsenic risk assessment in ground water. Future actions are also presented. PMID:20623004

  11. Developing medical geology in Uruguay: a review.

    PubMed

    Mañay, Nelly

    2010-05-01

    Several disciplines like Environmental Toxicology, Epidemiology, Public Health and Geology have been the basis of the development of Medical Geology in Uruguay during the last decade. The knowledge and performance in environmental and health issues have been improved by joining similar aims research teams and experts from different institutions to face environmental problems dealing with the population's exposure to metals and metalloids and their health impacts. Some of the Uruguayan Medical Geology examples are reviewed focusing on their multidisciplinary approach: Lead pollution and exposed children, selenium in critically ill patients, copper deficiency in cattle and arsenic risk assessment in ground water. Future actions are also presented.

  12. Testicular sparganosis in a child from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Tsukasa; Gutierrez, Carmen; Rodriguez, Angeles; Sauto, Sergio

    2003-09-01

    A patient 9 years old had a painless tumor in the left testicle. The left testicle measured about 5 cm long and about 3 cm wide and was stony hard in part. From an echographic image, the patient was diagnosed to have a hematoma in the left testicle. The left testicle was surgically removed. From histological observations, burrows were surrounded by numerous eosinophils in the testicle, epididymis and tunica vaginalis. Cross sections of spargana were in the burrows. Severe granulomatous orchitis and epididymitis were around the burrows. This case was the second one of human sparganosis in Uruguay.

  13. Uruguay: Population Geography of a Troubled Welfare State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tata, Robert J.

    1977-01-01

    Discussed is whether or not Uruguay's elaborate welfare system can be maintained by a deteriorating economy plagued by social tension and political unrest. Historical background is presented, demographic variables are discussed and modern influences are measured. (Author/DB)

  14. Training Strategy: Computer Education for Teachers in Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunberg, Jorge

    1987-01-01

    Described is the Alfa Project in Uruguay, designed to integrate computer education into secondary schools through teacher-training. Both teacher-users and teacher-authors were considered. Course objectives, curriculum content, and teaching guidelines are presented. (MNS)

  15. 7 CFR 1405.7 - Uruguay Round Agreements Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Uruguay Round Agreements Act. In the event the outlays by the United States for domestic support measures... level of domestic support provided by the United States complies with the commitments of the...

  16. Traditional application of slates in Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Demarco, Manuela; Cardenes Van den Eynde, Víctor

    2017-04-01

    Commercial slates in Uruguay are represented by dolomitic and pelitic slates, which are known in the local market with the generic name of "piedra laja". The dolomitic slates, or more precisely the "slaty dolomitic semipelites" and "slaty dolomitic metacarbonate rocks" (following the nomenclature of the British Geological Survey for metamorphic rocks, Robertson 1999), dominates the production since 1960. The mining started in a quarry called "Libro Gigante", which means "giant book" in Spanish, as the slaty cleavage of these rocks is almost vertical, which resembles a book when looked from far away. These slates integrate the Lavalleja Group, a unit that comprises the schist belt of the Neoproterozoic Dom Feliciano Belt that crops out in south-eastern Uruguay. According to Morales Demarco et al (2013), there are two active slate mining districts in this region: the northern, called "Arroyo Minas Viejas Mining District", from where light grey, light and dark green and green-red slate varieties are mined, and the southern called "Arroyo Mataojo Mining District" and where only dark grey slates are extracted. Few kilometres eastern from these districts, and still in Lavalleja Group, a quarry of slaty dolomitic pelite is found with sporadic production. Far to the east, the slaty muscovitic pelites of Rocha Group are mined from one quarry in "Puntas del Chafalote". The traditional applications of these slates in the country are as façade cladding and floor slabs, both indoor and outdoor. The potential use of the dolomitic slates as roofing slates has been investigated and discarded by Morales Demarco et al (2013), as the slabs resulting from splitting are too thick (0.5 to 2 cm) and thus too heavy for this application. The parameter that controls the fissility of slates is the mass value (Bentz and Martini, 1968; DIN EN 12326-2, 2000) and is very important to determine their potential applications. It takes into account the number of mica layers per mm and the average

  17. Activity of transplant coordination in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Mizraji, R; Pérez, S; Alvarez, I

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the evolution of donation and organ transplantation in Uruguay, after the initiation of a program of transplant coordination, which began in 2000. The total number of effective donors increased from 28.7 per million people (pmp) in 2000 to 48.1 pmp in 2005, which constituted an increase of 75%. The number of real donors also increased from 10 pmp in 2000 to 20.6 pmp in 2005, more than a 100% increase, with a cadaveric renal transplantation rate of 36 pmp (2005). The conversion of effective to real donors (RD/ED) increased from 0.125 to 0.42. Familial refusal decreased from 62.1% in 2000 to 19% in 2005, which constituted a decrease of 70%. We concluded that implementation of transplant coordinators and involvement of intensive care medical doctors in coordination have had a strong impact on these results.

  18. [National study of drug habits in Uruguay].

    PubMed

    Míguez, H; Magri, R

    1995-03-01

    The results of a prevalence study of alcohol abuse and drugs use in the general population of the República Oriental del Uruguay are showed here. A national household sample was drawn from the most important urban areas and 2500 persons, aged between 15 and 65 years, were selected and interviewed. Illicit substances use (include use of any of the following: marihuana, cocaine, inhalants, hallucinogens) reached 4.5% for the lifetime prevalence period, 1.1% in the last twelve months and 0.7% for the last thirty day. Twenty percent of the sample classified for tobacco dependence, and alcohol abuse, in the last 30 days, was 19.5%. Significant associations, by sex and age, were found.

  19. [Use of nitrous oxide in Uruguay].

    PubMed

    Fernández, P; Andruskevicius, M; Cristiani, F

    2010-02-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a medicinal gas that has been used for anesthesia for over a century and a half. As evidence of the adverse effects of N2O have been contrasted with the good safety profiles of new anesthetic agents, use of the older gas has declined. To describe and analyze the use of N2O for anesthesia in the Eastern Republic of Uruguay. To describe the use of other drugs for general anesthesia. The study had 2 phases. In the first phase, information on the use of N2O and other drugs for general anesthesia was obtained from the medical records of a sample of patients who underwent surgery between November 2007 and November 2008 at nationally important hospitals. In the second phase 80 physician anesthesiologists were surveyed to obtain information on their reported use of N2O for general anesthesia. The respondents were found working during the first half of 2008. A total of 104 patients' records were read and 80 anesthesiologists were surveyed. We found that 31 (29.8%) patients received N2O during anesthesia. The survey showed that 62 (77.5%) of the anesthesiologists had used N2O in the last 6 months. Nine (50%) of the anesthesiologists who had not used N2O said their reason was that it was unavailable. The other 9 referred either to the risk of postoperative nausea and/or vomiting (n = 6) or the fact of having better alternatives (n = 9). This study shows that N2O is little used in current anesthesia practice. The tendency in Uruguay continues to be toward declining use.

  20. Compliance with Uruguay's single presentation requirement.

    PubMed

    DeAtley, Teresa; Bianco, Eduardo; Welding, Kevin; Cohen, Joanna E

    2017-04-17

    Tobacco companies vary pack colours, designs, descriptors, flavours and brand names on cigarette packs to target a multitude of consumers. These different brand variants can falsely imply that some brand variants are less harmful than others. Uruguay is the only country that requires cigarette companies to adhere to a single presentation (one brand variant) per brand family. An existing, systematic pack purchasing protocol was adapted for data collection. Neighbourhoods in Montevideo were categorised into five strata by percentage of poor households. Five neighbourhoods within each stratum were selected based on geographical variation. In each neighbourhood, a 'starting hub' was identified and a systematic walking protocol was implemented to purchase unique packs at four key vendor types. Unique packs were purchased in 9 out of 25 neighbourhoods. Fifty-six unique packs were purchased, representing 30 brands. Of these, 51 packs were legal, representing 26 brands. The majority of the legal brands (n=16; 62%) were compliant with the requirement. The remaining packs were non-compliant due to differences in colour, design element, brand name, crest and descriptors. Although not prohibited by the single presentation requirement, 16 legal brands had more than one stick count (10, 11, 14 or 20 sticks), and packs from four brands had more than one packaging type (hard, soft or tin). Overall, compliance with Uruguay's single presentation requirement was good. In addition to the current restrictions, future single presentation requirements could expand to include packs in more than one stick count and packaging type. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Birth defects monitoring in underdeveloped countries: an example from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Castilla, E E; Lopez-Camelo, J S; Dutra, G P; Paz, J E

    1991-01-01

    Medical authorities in developing countries are primarily interested in nutritional and infectious diseases. Therefore, activities directed to the prevention and control of low priority illnesses, such as birth defects, need to be particularly effective, simple, and economical. Monitoring of congenital anomalies is one of the preventive activities which can be efficiently performed at very low cost. Guidelines for this are given, and their application exemplified by the case of Uruguay. Uruguay has recently attained an infant mortality rate of 20/1,000, with the congenital anomalies ranking as its second cause. The government of Uruguay, through the Pan American Health Organisation/World Health Organisation (PARO/WHO) called the Estudio Colaborativo Latino Americano de Malformaciones Congenitas (ECLAMC) for advice in order to plan a program for the prevention of birth defects. The recommendations given were based on conclusions drawn from the analysis of data the ECLAMC program has been accumulating, from Uruguay and other Latin-American countries, since 1967. The case of Uruguay clearly indicates that sensible guidelines for birth defects prevention can be provided, after working with this "low priority and uninteresting" group of illnesses for more than twenty years.

  2. A countrywide clinical informatics project in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Alvaro; Bessonart, Lino; Barbiel, Ana; Pazos, Pablo; Gil, Juan; Machado, Heber; Vero, Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    FEMI is a federation of 23 private not-for-profit health care organizations across Uruguay. It covers approximately 700 thousand people (20 percent of the Uruguayan population) and owns a tertiary center in Montevideo. Pressure from ongoing national changes in health funding and regulation have pushed FEMI to develop a project, in order to improve efficiency in health care through the use of information and communications technologies. In particular, a federal electronic health record and a strategic management system are pursued. This project is supported by the Inter American Development Bank. The project has four lines of action: Specification, construction and implementation of the systems; Alignment through the use of standards; Cultural change through training and prototype systems; and Infrastructure. Short term results include a federal balanced scorecard, federal identification and authorization services, a terminology service, telemedicine applications and massive training of interdisciplinary teams at the local level. The importance of collaboration at the regional level and the advantages of having a multi-institutional commitment are stressed.

  3. Ediacaran in Uruguay: Facts and controversies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubet, Natalie R.; Pecoits, Ernesto; Heaman, Larry M.; Veroslavsky, Gerardo; Gingras, Murray K.; Konhauser, Kurt O.

    2014-11-01

    The Ediacaran of Uruguay has been regarded as containing a significant geological and paleontological record, which would make these successions critical to unraveling diverse aspects regarding the assembly of southwestern Gondwana and to understanding the conditions surrounding the rise of animal life in a period punctuated by drastic paleoenvironmental changes. However, a review of currently available data leads to the conclusion that, although variable, the stratigraphy, distribution and age of these units remain ambiguous. The same is true for existing basin models and tectonic evolution, which show different and sometimes contradicting supporting evidence. Here, we propose that the Ediacaran record consists of the Maldonado Group (Playa Hermosa, Las Ventanas and San Carlos formations), and the Tacuarí, Barriga Negra, Rocha and Sierra de Aguirre formations. The Arroyo del Soldado Group (Yerbal, Polanco Limestones and Cerro Espuelitas formations) and the Arroyo de la Pedrera Group (Piedras de Afilar and Cerro Victoria formations) were likely deposited between 700 and 1000 Ma. The best available radiometric age constraints indicate intense magmatic-tectonic activity occurred between 600 and 560 Ma, incompatible with previous models suggesting a stable, Atlantic-type passive margin on this portion of southwestern Gondwana. Further research is needed in order to firmly establish a consistent litho- and chronostratigraphic framework; particularly, before attempting any regional or global correlation, and inferences on global paleoenvironmental and paleobiological events.

  4. [The evolution of psychiatry in Uruguay].

    PubMed

    Casarotti, Humberto

    2011-01-01

    Uruguay, a country in South America situated between Brazil and Argentina, has a population of 3 million, a literacy rate of 97%, and health coverage of 87% . Treatment of patients with mental disturbances has existed throughout its history. From colonial times and in the Spanish religious tradition, treatment of mental alienation had recourse to the "madhouse" of the Charity Hospital in Montevideo (1788). Half a century after independence the National Lunatic Asylum was built (1880), and the field of psychiatry began to develop, centred on the asylum-hospital. Within a French medical heritage, institutions such as the Chair of Psychiatry (1907) and the Society of Psychiatry (1923) were created; their academic activities permanently invigorated the growth of this branch of medicine. Since the late 1960's, with the contribution of both European thought and the North American influence, psychiatry has begun a progressive transformation, with positive gains (extension of psychiatry to the whole country, more pragmatic treatments with community involvement, academic links with non-public institutions, integration between models, etc.), but also with negative aspects (an increasing risk of abandoning the discipline of psychopathology and of trivialising diagnosis and therapy).

  5. Presence of Nosema ceranae in honeybees (Apis mellifera) in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Invernizzi, Ciro; Abud, Carolina; Tomasco, Ivanna H; Harriet, Jorge; Ramallo, Gustavo; Campá, Juan; Katz, Helena; Gardiol, Gabriela; Mendoza, Yamandú

    2009-06-01

    The microsporidium Nosema ceranae is an emergent pathogen of European honeybees Apis mellifera. Using a PCR-RFLP diagnosis, 29 samples of infected honeybees obtained in 2007-2008 (N=26), 2004 (N=2) and before 1990 (N=1) were analyzed for the presence of Nosema apis and N. ceranae. Only N. ceranae was found in all samples, indicating that this species dispersed to Uruguay (and likely the region) at some time before 1990. The presence of N. ceranae in Uruguay is not associated with an increase of Nosemosis, and its role in colony loss seems to be irrelevant.

  6. Assessment of gastroenteric viruses from wastewater directly discharged into Uruguay River, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Victoria, M; Tort, L F L; García, M; Lizasoain, A; Maya, L; Leite, J P G; Miagostovich, M P; Cristina, J; Colina, R

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the viral contamination of group A rotavirus (RVA), norovirus (NoV), and human astrovirus (HAstV) in sewage directly discharged into Uruguay River and to characterize RVA genotypes circulating in Uruguay. For this purpose, sewage samples (n = 96) were collected biweekly from March 2011 to February 2012 in four Uruguayan cities: Bella Unión, Salto, Paysandú, and Fray Bentos. Each sample was concentrated by ultracentrifugation method. Qualitative and quantitative RT-PCR for RVA, NoV, and HAstV were performed. A wide dissemination of gastroenteric viruses was observed in the sewage samples analyzed with 80% of positivity, being NoV (51%) the most frequently detected followed by RVA with a frequency of 49% and HAstV with 45%. Genotypes of RVA were typed using multiplex semi-nested RT-PCR as follows: P[8] (n = 15), P[4] (n = 8), P[10] (n = 1), P[11] (n = 1), G2 (n = 29), and G3 (n = 2). The viral load ranged from 10(3) to 10(7) genomic copies/liter, and they were detected roughly with the same frequency in all participant cities. A peak of RVA and HAstV detection was observed in colder months (June to September), whereas no seasonality was observed for NoV. This study demonstrates for the first time, the high degree of gastroenteric viral contamination in the country; highlighting the importance of developing these analyses as a tool to determine the viral contamination in this hydrographic boundary region used by the local populations for recreation and consumption, establishing an elevated risk of gastroenteric diseases for human health.

  7. Autochthonous Outbreak and Expansion of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis, Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Satragno, Dinora; Faral-Tello, Paula; Canneva, Bruno; Verger, Lorenzo; Lozano, Alejandra; Vitale, Edgardo; Greif, Gonzalo; Soto, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    We report an outbreak of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Uruguay. Blood specimens from 11/45 dogs tested positive for Leishmania spp. Specimens of Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies were captured; typing revealed Leishmania infantum. Our findings document an expansion of visceral leishmaniasis to southern South America and risk for vectorborne transmission to humans. PMID:28221113

  8. Braille Literacy and Self-Esteem: A Report from Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elissalde, E.

    1996-01-01

    Brief excerpts from correspondence from blind persons and their families in Uruguay indicate increased self-esteem resulting from access to braille materials such as a braille newspaper. Braille literacy is seen to enhance the dialog between student and teacher, parent and child, or child and book. Knowledge of community events offered by the…

  9. Trichothecene genotypes of Fusarium graminearum from wheat in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Pan, Dinorah; Calero, Natalia; Mionetto, Ana; Bettucci, Lina

    2013-03-01

    Gibberella zeae (Schwein.) Petch (anamorph F. graminearum Schwabe) is the primary causal agent of FHB of wheat in Uruguay. In the last decade, F. graminearum has produced destructive epidemics on wheat in Uruguay, causing yield losses and price discounts due to reduced seed quality. Strains of F. graminearum clade usually express one of three strain-specific profiles of trichothecene metabolites: nivalenol and its acetylated derivatives (NIV chemotype), deoxynivalenol and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-AcDON chemotype), or deoxynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-AcDON chemotype). A multiplex PCR assay of Tri3, Tri5, and Tri7 was used to determine the trichothecene genotype of 111 strains of F. graminearum collected during 2003 and 2009 growing seasons from fields located in the major wheat production area of Uruguay. The result showed that all except one of the isolates were of DON genotype, with the remainder of NIV genotype in years 2003 and 2009. All strains with the DON genotype were also of the 15-AcDON genotype in 2003 and nearly all (45/50) in 2009. No DON/3-AcDON genotypes were found in either growing season. No potential shifts in the populations were found in the trichothecene genotypes between 2003 and the 2009 epidemic FHB harvest seasons. This study provides the first data on trichothecene genotypes of F. graminearum strains isolated from wheat in Uruguay and add to the current regional knowledge of trichothecene genotypes.

  10. Computing and Education in Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadowsky, Manuel

    Although the report is specifically about Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, the considerations presented are valid for all of Latin America. In September, 1969, Argentina had approximately 200 electronic computers. The annual growth is estimated at 15-20% and the implementation of teleprocessing and time-sharing systems have made evident the…

  11. Educational Production and the Distribution of Teachers in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luschei, Thomas F.; Carnoy, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we discuss results from an analysis of a large dataset that includes virtually all sixth-grade students in Uruguay in 1996. We analyze the relationship between teacher attributes and student achievement scores and we explore the distribution of teachers according to characteristics identified as important by this analysis. We find…

  12. Juquitiba-like Hantavirus from 2 Nonrelated Rodent Species, Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Delfraro, Adriana; Tomé, Lorena; D’Elía, Guillermo; Clara, Mario; Achával, Federico; Russi, José C.

    2008-01-01

    Serologic and genetic analyses indicate that a Juquitiba-like hantavirus circulates in Maldonado, Uruguay. This virus is carried by 2 rodent species, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Oxymycterus nasutus. The same hantavirus in 2 nonrelated species can be explained by a spillover infection or a host-switching event. PMID:18760017

  13. [Tinea nigra. 1st clinical case in Uruguay].

    PubMed

    Conti-Díaz, I A; Burgoa, F; Civila, E; Bonasse, J; Miller, A

    1984-08-30

    The first case in Uruguay of 'tinea nigra' is described in a 44-year-old male patient with a maculous pigmented lesion on the right foot. It represents the most meridional case of the disease yet recorded in South America. Exophiala werneckii was isolated in cultures (strain 1905 IHM).

  14. ELT through Videoconferencing in Primary Schools in Uruguay: First Steps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banegas, Darío Luis

    2013-01-01

    Plan Ceibal is an interinstitutional undertaking which has distributed XO laptops and Internet connectivity among primary school learners and teachers across Uruguay and developed a wide range of educational programmes. Ceibal administration believes that it is imperative to introduce English as a Foreign Language in primary education through the…

  15. Language Policies in Uruguay and Uruguayan Sign Language (LSU)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behares, Luis Ernesto; Brovetto, Claudia; Crespi, Leonardo Peluso

    2012-01-01

    In the first part of this article the authors consider the policies that apply to Uruguayan Sign Language (Lengua de Senas Uruguaya; hereafter LSU) and the Uruguayan Deaf community within the general framework of language policies in Uruguay. By analyzing them succinctly and as a whole, the authors then explain twenty-first-century innovations.…

  16. The Impending Demise of "tu" in Montevideo, Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyers, Joseph R.

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 1960s, the "tuteo" (T-T), and particularly the use of tonic "tu" with the "vos" verbal morphology (T-V) has been accepted as typical of the speech of Montevideo, Uruguay, a region generally classified as "voseante". This paper reports on the results of 117 rapid anonymous interviews conducted…

  17. The Impending Demise of "tu" in Montevideo, Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyers, Joseph R.

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 1960s, the "tuteo" (T-T), and particularly the use of tonic "tu" with the "vos" verbal morphology (T-V) has been accepted as typical of the speech of Montevideo, Uruguay, a region generally classified as "voseante". This paper reports on the results of 117 rapid anonymous interviews conducted…

  18. ELT through Videoconferencing in Primary Schools in Uruguay: First Steps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banegas, Darío Luis

    2013-01-01

    Plan Ceibal is an interinstitutional undertaking which has distributed XO laptops and Internet connectivity among primary school learners and teachers across Uruguay and developed a wide range of educational programmes. Ceibal administration believes that it is imperative to introduce English as a Foreign Language in primary education through the…

  19. Situation Reports--Bahamas, Brasil, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General…

  20. Language Policies in Uruguay and Uruguayan Sign Language (LSU)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behares, Luis Ernesto; Brovetto, Claudia; Crespi, Leonardo Peluso

    2012-01-01

    In the first part of this article the authors consider the policies that apply to Uruguayan Sign Language (Lengua de Senas Uruguaya; hereafter LSU) and the Uruguayan Deaf community within the general framework of language policies in Uruguay. By analyzing them succinctly and as a whole, the authors then explain twenty-first-century innovations.…

  1. Autochthonous Outbreak and Expansion of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Satragno, Dinora; Faral-Tello, Paula; Canneva, Bruno; Verger, Lorenzo; Lozano, Alejandra; Vitale, Edgardo; Greif, Gonzalo; Soto, Carlos; Robello, Carlos; Basmadjián, Yester

    2017-03-01

    We report an outbreak of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Uruguay. Blood specimens from 11/45 dogs tested positive for Leishmania spp. Specimens of Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies were captured; typing revealed Leishmania infantum. Our findings document an expansion of visceral leishmaniasis to southern South America and risk for vectorborne transmission to humans.

  2. Molecular diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus in uruguay.

    PubMed

    Maya, L; Puentes, R; Reolón, E; Acuña, P; Riet, F; Rivero, R; Cristina, J; Colina, R

    2016-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) affects bovine production and reproduction causing significant economic losses all over the world. Two viral species has been recognized: BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, both distributed worldwide. Recently, novel specie of BVDV named HoBi-like pestivirus was discovered. The presence of BVDV was confirmed in 1996 in Uruguay, however, does not exist until today a schedule of compulsory vaccination along the country. Serological studies with samples from all Uruguayan herds were performed during 2000 and 2001 demonstrating that all of them were seropositive to BVDV with a mean prevalence of 69%. In addition, there have been no new studies done since those previously described and it is important to mention that the genetic diversity of BVD has never been described in Uruguay. Nowadays, there is strongly suspect that BVDV is one of the most important causes of reproductive failures in our herds. The aim of this study was to describe for the first time in Uruguay the genetic diversity of BVDV with samples collected from different regions along the country. Serological status of 390 non-vaccinated animals against BVDV with reproductive problems from farms of Rivera, Tacuarembó and Florida departments of Uruguay were studied. All herds were seropositive to BVDV and high proportion of animals were positive (298/390), while 4.1% (16/390) of the animals were positive to Antigen Capture ELISA test and Real Time PCR. Phylogenetic analysis performed with concatenated sequences from the 5'UTR and Npro genomic regions revealed that BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 are infecting our herds, being BVDV-1 the most frequently found. The major subtype was BVDV-1a, followed by BVDV-1i and BVDV-2b. This is the first study that describes the genetic diversity of BVDV in Uruguay and it will contribute to the elaboration of sanitization programs.

  3. Molecular detection of Rangelia vitalii in domestic dogs from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Soares, João Fabio; Carvalho, Luis; Maya, Leticia; Dutra, Fernando; Venzal, José Manuel; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-05-30

    The piroplasm Rangelia vitalii is the etiological agent of canine rangeliosis, a severe disease affecting domestic dogs in South America. Two domestic dogs from two different Departments (Salto and Treinta y Tres) of Uruguay presented with clinical signs such as apathy, anorexia, pale mucous membranes, jaundice, and hemorrhagic manifestations, suggestive of a canine vector-borne disease. Molecular analysis, based on PCR and DNA sequencing of portions of the 18S rRNA gene, revealed that both dogs were infected by R. vitalii. Two consensus sequences, one from Salto and one from Treinta y Tres, differed from each other by only 1 nucleotide (99.8% similarity) and were 99.8-100% identical to corresponding sequences of R. vitalii from Brazil and Argentina available in GenBank. Through phylogenetic analysis inferred by the 18S rRNA gene, the two Uruguayan sequences of R. vitalii were aligned with the corresponding sequences from 7 other R. vitalii sequences available in GenBank (5 from Brazil and, 2 from Argentina) under high bootstrap support. The two dogs of the present study were negative for Ehrlichia canis according to the E. canis-specific real-time PCR assay. Our findings not only confirm the occurrence of R. vitalii in Uruguay but also provide the southernmost record of this re-emerging agent. The only previous report of R. vitalii in Uruguay dated from 1976, a period when molecular analyses were not available. We provide the first molecular detection of R. vitalii in Uruguay. Currently, canine rangeliosis is confirmed to occur in Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay.

  4. A new species of Branchinecta (Crustacea: Anostraca) from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Rogers, D Christopher; Lorenz, Helen Racz

    2015-10-22

    Branchinecta uruguayensis, a new species of fairy shrimp, is described from a single seasonally astatic aquatic habitat in coastal Uruguay. This is the first record of an anostracan from the nation of Uruguay. Male B. uruguayensis n. sp. are separated from other Branchinecta species by the form of the second antennae. Branchinecta uruguayensis n. sp. share the distal antennomere lobiform projection with B. papillata Rogers, De los Rios, & Zúñiga, 2008 and B. achalensis César, 1985. Branchinecta uruguayensis n. sp. females are readily separated from all other Branchinecta by the presence of posteriolateral thoracic spines and lateral crenulations on the first abdomen segment margins. A key is provided to the Branchinectidae of South America.

  5. Health information systems training for a countrywide implementation in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Margolis, A; Vero, A; Bessonart, L; Barbiel, A; Ferla, M

    2009-01-01

    Health Information systems training is one of the bottlenecks in clinical systems implementation. In this article, a strategy to massively create and train interdisciplinary coordinating teams is described for a project in Uruguay at FEMI, a non-academic setting which includes 23 health care institutions across the country and a tertiary referral center in Montevideo. A series of educational activities were designed for the local coordinating teams. They included both onsite and online formats, site visits, integrated with some of the project tasks. In total, 128 professionals from all the Institutions participated in one or more of the training sessions (onsite and online) and 87 of them accomplished one of the forms of training. Massive basic health informatics training was possible in Uruguay through collaboration with academic institutions at the country and regional level. Next steps include an active involvement of nurses in the educational events and planning of massive training of end users.

  6. 75 FR 48940 - Notice of Implementation of Determination Under Section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... International Trade Administration Notice of Implementation of Determination Under Section 129 of the Uruguay... Commerce (the Department) to implement its determination under section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements... Section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act: Antidumping Measures on Polyethylene Retail Carrier...

  7. 75 FR 65292 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Beef From Uruguay

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ...; Importation of Beef From Uruguay AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Approval of... approval of an information collection associated with regulations for the importation of beef from Uruguay... information on regulations for the ] importation of beef from Uruguay, contact Dr. Lynette Williams-...

  8. Detection of Vaccinia Virus in Dairy Cattle Serum Samples from 2009, Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Franco-Luiz, Ana Paula Moreira; Oliveira, Danilo Bretas; Pereira, Alexandre Fagundes; Gasparini, Mirela Cristina Soares; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; Trindade, Giliane de Souza; Puentes, Rodrigo; Furtado, Agustin; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos

    2016-01-01

    We detected orthopoxvirus in 28 of 125 serum samples collected during 2009 from cattle in Uruguay. Two samples were PCR-positive for vaccinia virus and had sequences similar to those for vaccinia virus associated with outbreaks in Brazil. Autochthonous circulation of vaccinia virus in Uruguay and other South American countries cannot be ruled out. PMID:27869601

  9. 9 CFR 94.22 - Restrictions on importation of beef from Uruguay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE... Uruguay. (b) Foot-and-mouth disease has not been diagnosed in Uruguay within the previous 12 months. (c) The beef came from bovines that originated from premises where foot-and-mouth disease has not been...

  10. 9 CFR 94.22 - Restrictions on importation of beef from Uruguay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE... Uruguay. (b) Foot-and-mouth disease has not been diagnosed in Uruguay within the previous 12 months. (c) The beef came from bovines that originated from premises where foot-and-mouth disease has not been...

  11. 9 CFR 94.22 - Restrictions on importation of beef from Uruguay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE... Uruguay. (b) Foot-and-mouth disease has not been diagnosed in Uruguay within the previous 12 months. (c) The beef came from bovines that originated from premises where foot-and-mouth disease has not been...

  12. 9 CFR 94.22 - Restrictions on importation of beef from Uruguay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE... Uruguay. (b) Foot-and-mouth disease has not been diagnosed in Uruguay within the previous 12 months. (c) The beef came from bovines that originated from premises where foot-and-mouth disease has not been...

  13. Large ferruginized palaeorhizospheres from a Paleogene lateritic profile of Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genise, Jorge F.; Bellosi, Eduardo S.; Verde, Mariano; González, Mirta G.

    2011-10-01

    It is proposed herein that columns included in the unconformity between Mercedes (Upper Cretaceous) and Asencio (Lower Eocene) formations of Uruguay, forming "caves" known since the XIX century, are large ferruginized palaeorhizospheres. Diagnostic characters are concentric internal structure, radiating secondary prolongations, preservation of original lamination, trace fossils, and other attributes of the original deposit. In contrast with rhizoliths, which originated as root casts or by roots and their peritrophic zones, palaeorhizospheres are originated from peritrophic zones to a few tens of centimeters in the soil surrounding the roots. In many cases, like those presented herein, rhizoliths are not preserved inside the palaeorhizospheres. Specimens were studied in 6 localities from central Uruguay, where 5 different morphological types were recognized according to its internal structure: (1) rimmed, (2) concentric, (3) concentric disrupted, (4) nodular or mottled, and (5) brecciated. The palaeorhizosphere hypothesis can explain this diversity of internal structures, which may be compatible with different stages of root and rhizosphere development. Types 1 and 2 could be produced by living roots, whereas 3 to 5 more probably by percolation and staining by Fe solutions coming from the overlying Asencio Formation through decaying or dead roots. The rim that surrounds most structures may be interpreted as the boundary of the original rhizosphere, where Fe ions translocated outward from the root by chelation, found oxidizing conditions. Concentric pattern would result from the centrifugal displacement of the oxidizing rim. Type 3 to 5 structures would start when most biologic processes around the living or decaying root cease, and periodic formation of rings stops. Even when palaeorhizospheres are included in the Mercedes Formation, their possibility to be produced during Mercedes times is unlikely because the strong oxidation processes involved were exclusive of

  14. Riverine Eolian Dunes in Uruguay: OSL Ages and Paleoenvironmental Significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, D. S.; Suarez, R.; Brook, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    Relict parabolic dunes occur along Rio Negro and Rio Tacuarembó in Uruguay under the current humid temperate climate. These dunes offer important terrestrial evidence of drier conditions in the past and may provide foresight about landscape consequences of future climate change. The ages of these dunes previously had not been measured by any absolute dating technique. Two dune fields were selected for optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating using the single aliquot regeneration method, including four samples along Rio Negro near Pueblo de la Arena and three samples along Rio Tacuarembó near Ansina. Results indicate that the dunes were active during the late Pleistocene, with five of the OSL ages in the 22 ka to 12 ka range. One OSL age at the Ansina dune field returned an age of 6 ka, indicating the possibility of limited dune reactivation during the Holocene. There is clear evidence of historical dune activation (e.g. buried fences) at both the Rio Negro and Rio Tacuarembó sites; one OSL sample from Rio Negro dunes confirms an historical age of 107 years BP. However, human land disturbance rather than climatic factors may explain the historical reactivation. Late Pleistocene dune activity in central Uruguay indicates much drier and windier paleoclimate (at least seasonally) than present, and correlates well with eolian activity in more arid parts of South America in western Argentina. Age and paleoenvironment of the riverine dunes in Uruguay are remarkably similar to those of the southeastern United States (USA), indicating similar patterns of paleoclimate in both hemispheres. Such similarities help to resolve the spatial patterns of global scale climate change.

  15. Double burden of undernutrition and obesity in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Severi, Cecilia; Moratorio, Ximena

    2014-12-01

    Uruguay is at an advanced stage of the epidemiologic transition; like other Latin American countries, it bears a nutritional double burden composed of undernutrition and overweight or obesity. The aim was to estimate whether a double burden of nutritional problems exists in Uruguay and to identify if governmental programs and policies for nutrition take this double burden into account. Existing studies were reviewed, and other data were processed specifically for the purpose of this article. Several data sources were used to include a broad, comprehensive population range. The prevalence of stunting in children aged <2 y is 10.9%. There is a high frequency of obesity, which increases with age (9.5% in children <2 y old, 18.8% in those aged 6 y, 20.4% in those aged 11 y, 26.6% in those aged 13-15 y, and 35.3% in adults). In addition, 13.8% of women start pregnancy underweight and the rate of obesity increases during pregnancy from 36.7% at the beginning to 46.5% at the end. Anemia is very frequent in the selected population we examined, as follows: 31% of children <2 y old and 20.9% of pregnant women in their third trimester. An obese mother with a stunted child are present in 6.3% of households; 1.9% of stunted children are obese at age 6 y and 3.1% are obese at the age of 11. Multiple logistic analysis applied to children <2 y showed an association between stunting and obesity (OR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2, 3.6). The data suggest that there is a nutritional double burden in Uruguay. This nutritional burden is similar to that of other countries in the region. This important public issue should be tackled, and it should be addressed in early infancy. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. The presence of women in physics in Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frins, Erna; Auyuanet, Adriana; Cabeza, Cecilia; Stari, Cecilia; Kahan, Sandra; Renom, Madeleine

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we describe the presence of women in physics in Uruguay. At the lower academic and research levels in physics, the distribution is about 2:1 men to women, similar to the distribution in physics graduate students. The difference becomes more pronounced at the higher academic and research levels. At the highest level there are no women. We also present some data to compare physics with other science fields. In recent years the state university and main national funding agency (ANII) have made some efforts to promote the presence of women in sciences. However, these efforts have not yet shown acceptable results.

  17. Picobirnavirus in captive animals from Uruguay: identification of new hosts.

    PubMed

    Gillman, Luciana; Sánchez, Ana Maria; Arbiza, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The Picobirnaviruses (PBVs) have been detected in several species of animals from different countries worldwide, including in South America. The host range of these viruses has increased in recent years; thus, in order to contribute to the knowledge in this topic we analyzed samples from captivity animals from Uruguay. We found the presence of PBVs in four species of animals, Panthera leo, Panthera onca, Puma concolor and Oncifelis geoffroyi, representing new PBV-susceptible hosts. All strains belonged to genogroup I. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Prevalence of type-specific HPV infection in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Berois, Nora; Heard, Isabelle; Fort, Zoraida; Alonso, Rafael; Sica, Adela; Moerzinger, Patricia; Rodriguez, Guillermo; Sancho-Garnier, Hélène; Osinaga, Eduardo; Favre, Michel

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this work was to describe the prevalence of type-specific Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women attending organized cervical cancer screening program in Uruguay. Nine hundred sixty-five liquid cervical cell samples obtained after collection of cervical smears for cytology were assessed for HPV DNA using the Papillocheck system (Greiner BioOne). The overall prevalence of High-Risk (HR) HPV infections was 20.8% and increased from 16.5% in women with normal cytology to 93.3% in HSIL. Prevalence of HPV 16 and/or 18 was 6.3% and HPV 16 was the most prevalent genotype in normal cytology (3.6%). The five most prevalent genotypes were HPV 16, 31, 51, 56, and 39. The overall prevalence peaked below age 30. This study provides essential baseline information at national level on type-specific HPV prevalence in Uruguay before the introduction of HPV vaccination. It documents the current prevalence of each of the oncogenic genotypes in a population attending cervical cancer screening program, suggesting that at least 64.7% of high risk lesions are potentially preventable by available HPV vaccines, and possibly augmentable if cross-protection against non-vaccine HPV types 31, 33, and 45 is confirmed.

  19. Groundwater arsenic distribution in South-western Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manganelli, A.; Goso, C.; Guerequiz, R.; Fernández Turiel, J. L.; García Vallès, M.; Gimeno, D.; Pérez, C.

    2007-12-01

    This is the first specific information regarding arsenic distribution of groundwater in SW Uruguay. Twenty-eight wells were sampled on the aquifers of Mercedes, Raigón and Chuy in five localities. The pH, specific conductivity and temperature were determined in the field. The hydrochemical characterization (major and trace elements) was carried out by both inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The occurring arsenic concentrations exceed the recommended threshold for drinking water of the World Health Organization (10 μg/l of As) in 22 samples, with more than 50 μg/l of As in two cases. The median, minimum and maximum concentrations were 0.1, 16.9 and 58.0 μg/l of As, respectively. The studied aquifers present a horizontal and a vertical variation of the concentrations as a whole as well as individually. The highest values were observed in the Mercedes Aquifer in the areas near the Uruguay River.

  20. First molecular detection of Rickettsia parkeri in Amblyomma tigrinum and Amblyomma dubitatum ticks from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lado, Paula; Castro, Oscar; Labruna, Marcelo B; Venzal, José M

    2014-10-01

    Rickettsia parkei is the etiological agent of spotted fever in Uruguay, where is transmitted to humans by the tick Amblyomma triste. In the present study, ticks were collected from capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and domestic dogs during 2011-2012 in different parts of Uruguay. Three out of 11 (27.3%) Amblyomma dubitatum ticks collected from capybaras, and 4 out of 6 (66.7%) Amblyomma tigrinum ticks collected from dogs were shown by molecular analyses to be infected by Rickettsia parkeri strain Maculatum 20. Until the present work, A. triste was the only tick species that was found infected by R. parkeri in Uruguay. This is the first report of R. parkeri infecting these two tick species in Uruguay, expanding the current distribution of this rickettsial pathogen in the country.

  1. Preemptive kidney transplantation--a team experience in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    González-Martínez, F; Curi, L; González-Carballido, G; Núñez, N; Manzo, L; Kurdián, M; Larre Borges, P; Nin, M; Orihuela, S

    2014-11-01

    Kidney transplantation is the best treatment for end-stage chronic renal disease. In Uruguay, the prevalence of patients on dialysis is 757 patients per millon inhabitants, plus 316 alive with a functioning renal graft. We install a preemptive renal transplantation program. Twenty-five patients received grafts without dialysis from 2004 to 2013, 5 receiving their 2nd transplantation and 17 from cadaveric donors, with 7.4 ± 7.7 months in the waiting list. At 24 months, patients' survival rate was 100% and the grafts' 97%, with a serum creatinine of 1.4 ± 0.6 mg%. The developed programs of dialysis and renal health care contributed install our preemptive kidney transplantation. Kidney transplantation should be proposed to selected patients with chronic renal failure as primary therapy of substitution of renal function.

  2. View of Montevideo, Uruguay area of South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the Montevideo, Uruguay area of South America is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken form the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The large body of water is Rio de la Plata which flows into the South Atlantic Ocean at the bottom of the picture. The red plume in the Rio de la Plata is probably sediment moving seaward. The Santa Lucia River enters the Rio de la Plata west of Montevideo and is at the mouth of the Sant Lucia. The white beach and sand dune areas are plainly visible along the coast. A major airport can be seen immediately east of downtown Montevideo. Major thoroughfares and residential areas, such as the bright one in the suburbs, are clearly visible, also. Farm tracts in green and gray rectangular patterns indicate agricultural regions.

  3. Suicide attempts and suicide ideation among the elderly in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Fachola, María Cristina Heuguerot; Lucero, Rossana; Porto, Viviana; Díaz, Elizabeth; París, María de Los Angeles

    2015-06-01

    An investigation is presented into Suicide Attempts (SA) among the Elderly in Uruguay conducted in 2014 in a Public Health institution in Montevideo linked to a Claves/Fiocruz project. Starting with an initial project, semi-structured interviews were conducted with institutionalized individuals with a history of suicide attempts, as well as a review of the literature and research into preventive norms and actions by public health authorities in the country. The results reveal difficulties of individuals in talking about SA as well as shame associated with aging. There was also a major difficulty talking about family ties, confirming gender differences in the method of SA and greater suicide ideation among women, although the possibility of SA repetition does not appear to be a concern. The study elicits reflection on the importance of attention, care, quality of life and the effects of institutionalized life upon the elderly.

  4. Development of the National Kidney Transplantation Program in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    González-Martínez, F; Orihuela, S; Alvarez, I; Dibello, N; Curi, L; Nin, M; Wimber, E; Mizraji, R; Bengochea, M; González, G; Manzo, L; Toledo, R; Silva, W; Chopitea, Á; Lopez, D; Balboa, O; Porto, D; Noboa, O

    2015-10-01

    The first kidney transplantation (KT) in Uruguay was performed in 1969. We report the rates of KT and survival of patients and grafts up to December 2014. The country has a surface of 176,215 km(2) and a population of 3,286,314 inhabitants (18.6 inhabitants per km(2)). Till December 31, 2014, 1,940 KT have been performed in Uruguay (41.8 pmp that year); 90.4% of them were from cadaveric donors (CD). Median age of recipients (R) was 44 ± 14 years; R older than 55 years increased from 0 to 27% during the period. Our pre-emptive KT program started in 2007. Optimal donors (D) decreased from 65.2% to 35.5%, and D older than 45 years old increased from 9% to 37%. Trauma as cause of death decreased from 49% to 32% and stroke as cause of death increased from 25% to 39%. Patient survival rates at 1, 5, and 8 years were 93%, 87%, and 78%, respectively for KT performed between 1980 and 1989; they were 98%, 93%, and 89%, respectively, for KT performed between 1990 and1999; they were 97%, 91%, and 90%, respectively, for KT performed between 2000 and 2010. In December 2013, there were 1098 patients pmp in renal replacement therapy, 758 pmp in dialysis, and 340 pmp (30.9%) with a functioning graft. Our national KT program is mainly based (90.6%) on cadaveric donation. Epidemiological changes in the characteristics of R and D followed the changes in aging that occurred in the general population and the dialysis population. The survival rates from patients and kidneys are similar to those reported by the European and the American registries.

  5. Lead contamination in Uruguay: the "La Teja" neighborhood case.

    PubMed

    Mañay, Nelly; Cousillas, Adriana Z; Alvarez, Cristina; Heller, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Lead, ubiquitous in the environment as a result of mining and industrialization, is found as a contaminant in humans although it has no known physiological function there. Lead-exposed children are known to be the population with the highest potential health risks. The recommended biomarker to assess environmental lead exposure in animals is lead level in blood. Before 2001, the Department of Toxicology and Environmental Hygiene was the only team to produce human monitoring data on Uruguayan populations (Manay 2001a,b; Mañay et al. 1999). Lead pollution in Uruguay first received official attention during the 2001 La Teja poisoning episode. It was in the La Teja neighbourhood of Montevideo that high BLL were found in children (as high as 20 microg/dL), prompting corrective responses from Health and Environmental authorities. Growing awareness of environmental lead pollution and consequential human health effects from that event, resulted in public debate and demands for solutions from Health and Environmental authorities. Citizens demanded public disclosure of information concerning lead pollution and wanted action to address contaminated Uruguayan sites. In response, the Ministry of Health assembled an interinstitutional multidisciplinary committee, with delegates from health, environmental, labor, educational, and social security authorities, as well as community nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), among others. The University of the Republic was designated to serve as the main responsible entity for technical advice and support. After 2001, new research on lead pollution was undertaken and included multidisciplinary studies with communities in response to health risk alerts. The main emphasis was placed on children exposed to environmental lead. Major sources of Uruguayan lead contamination, similar to those in other developing countries, result from metallurgical industries, lead-acid battery processing, lead wire and pipe factories, metal foundries, metal

  6. Antigenic and genetic characterization of rabies virus isolates from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Helena; Castilho, Juliana Galera; Souto, Juanita; Oliveira, Rafael de Novaes; Carrieri, Maria Luiza; Kotait, Ivanete

    2013-05-01

    After 25 years without any reported cases of rabies in Uruguay, the northern region of the country experienced an epizootic of bovine paralytic rabies in October 2007. The outbreak affected bovines and equines, and the main source of infection was the bat Desmodus rotundus, the only hematophagous species in the country. From October 2007 to July 2008, 42 bovine, 3 equine and 120 chiropteran samples were submitted to the National Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for rabies testing. A total of 12 samples (7 bovine, 2 equine and 3 from D. rotundus) were positive by the fluorescent antibody test, and viruses were isolated by the mouse inoculation test. The objective of this study was to compare the antigenic and genetic characteristics of these isolates and three isolates from insectivorous bats from other regions. Antigenic typing using a panel of eight monoclonal antibodies identified all 12 viruses as variant 3 (AgV3), a variant associated with D. rotundus. Two isolates from insectivorous bats (Tadarida brasiliensis and Molossus sp.) were characterized as antigenic variant 4 (AgV4) while the third, from Myotis sp., could not be characterized using this panel as its reactivity pattern did not match that of any of the known antigenic variants. Partial N-gene sequences (nt 149-1420) of these isolates were aligned with homologous sequences derived from GenBank by the CLUSTAL/W method and used to build a neighbor-joining distance tree with the Kimura 2-parameter model. All 12 isolates were genetically grouped into the D. rotundus cluster as they shared 100% identity. In the phylogenetic analysis, the three isolates from insectivorous bats segregated into three clusters: one related to T. brasiliensis, one to Myotis sp. and the other to Lasiurus sp., although the isolate associated with the latter came from a Molossus sp. specimen. These results indicate that AgV3 was associated with the outbreak of bovine paralytic rabies in Uruguay. This is the first report of rabies

  7. Freshwater gastropods diversity hotspots: three new species from the Uruguay River (South America)

    PubMed Central

    de Lucía, Micaela

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Atlantic Forest is globally one of the priority ecoregions for biodiversity conservation. In Argentina, it is represented by the Paranense Forest, which covers a vast area of Misiones Province between the Paraná and Uruguay rivers. The Uruguay River is a global hotspot of freshwater gastropod diversity, here mainly represented by Tateidae (genus Potamolithus) and to a lesser extent Chilinidae. The family Chilinidae (Gastropoda, Hygrophila) includes 21 species currently recorded in Argentina, and three species in the Uruguay River. The species of Chilinidae occur in quite different types of habitats, but generally in clean oxygenated water recording variable temperature ranges. Highly oxygenated freshwater environments (waterfalls and rapids) are the most vulnerable continental environments. We provide here novel information on three new species of Chilinidae from environments containing waterfalls and rapids in the Uruguay River malacological province of Argentina. Materials and Methods: The specimens were collected in 2010. We analyzed shell, radula, and nervous and reproductive systems, and determined the molecular genetics. The genetic distance was calculated for two mitochondrial markers (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I–COI- and cytochrome b -Cyt b-) for these three new species and the species recorded from the Misionerean, Uruguay River and Lower Paraná-Río de la Plata malacological provinces. In addition, the COI data were analyzed phylogenetically by the neighbor-joining and Bayesian inference techniques. Results: The species described here are different in terms of shell, radula and nervous and reproductive systems, mostly based on the sculpture of the penis sheath. Phylogenetic analyses grouped the three new species with those present in the Lower Paraná-Río de la Plata and Uruguay River malacological provinces. Discussion: Phylogenetic analyses confirm the separation between the Uruguay River and the Misionerean malacological

  8. Freshwater gastropods diversity hotspots: three new species from the Uruguay River (South America).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Gregoric, Diego E; de Lucía, Micaela

    2016-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is globally one of the priority ecoregions for biodiversity conservation. In Argentina, it is represented by the Paranense Forest, which covers a vast area of Misiones Province between the Paraná and Uruguay rivers. The Uruguay River is a global hotspot of freshwater gastropod diversity, here mainly represented by Tateidae (genus Potamolithus) and to a lesser extent Chilinidae. The family Chilinidae (Gastropoda, Hygrophila) includes 21 species currently recorded in Argentina, and three species in the Uruguay River. The species of Chilinidae occur in quite different types of habitats, but generally in clean oxygenated water recording variable temperature ranges. Highly oxygenated freshwater environments (waterfalls and rapids) are the most vulnerable continental environments. We provide here novel information on three new species of Chilinidae from environments containing waterfalls and rapids in the Uruguay River malacological province of Argentina. The specimens were collected in 2010. We analyzed shell, radula, and nervous and reproductive systems, and determined the molecular genetics. The genetic distance was calculated for two mitochondrial markers (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I-COI- and cytochrome b -Cyt b-) for these three new species and the species recorded from the Misionerean, Uruguay River and Lower Paraná-Río de la Plata malacological provinces. In addition, the COI data were analyzed phylogenetically by the neighbor-joining and Bayesian inference techniques. The species described here are different in terms of shell, radula and nervous and reproductive systems, mostly based on the sculpture of the penis sheath. Phylogenetic analyses grouped the three new species with those present in the Lower Paraná-Río de la Plata and Uruguay River malacological provinces. Phylogenetic analyses confirm the separation between the Uruguay River and the Misionerean malacological provinces in northeast Argentina. These new endemic species from

  9. Species of Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae on native Myrtaceae in Uruguay: evidence of fungal host jumps.

    PubMed

    Pérez, C A; Wingfield, M J; Altier, N; Blanchette, R A

    2013-02-01

    Mycosphaerella species are well-known causal agents of leaf diseases on many economically and ecologically important plant species. In Uruguay, a relatively large number of Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae are found on Eucalyptus, but nothing is known of these fungi on native Myrtaceae. The aim of this study was to identify Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae species associated with leaf diseases on native Myrtaceae in Uruguay and to consider whether host jumps by the pathogen from introduced Eucalyptus to native Myrtaceae have occurred. Several native forests throughout the country were surveyed with special attention given to those located close to Eucalyptus plantations. Five species belonging to the Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae clades were found on native Myrtaceous trees and three of these had previously been reported on Eucalyptus in Uruguay. Those occurring both on Eucalyptus and native Myrtaceae included Pallidocercospora heimii, Pseudocercospora norchiensis, and Teratosphaeria aurantia. In addition, Mycosphaerella yunnanensis, a species known to occur on Eucalyptus but not previously recorded in Uruguay, was found on leaves of two native Myrtaceous hosts. Because most of these species occur on Eucalyptus in countries other than Uruguay, it appears that they were introduced in this country and have adapted to be able to infect native Myrtaceae. These apparent host jumps have the potential to result in serious disease problems and they should be carefully monitored.

  10. Investigating Leadership Characteristics and Attitudes toward Creativity According to Agency Context for Agriculture Extension Agents in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravina, Maria Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate attitudes toward creativity and leadership characteristics according to the agency context for extension agents in Uruguay. Extension agents come from the three different agency contexts in Uruguay of the University, government, and private institutions. Leadership characteristics are those that combine…

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in milk powders marketed in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    García Londoño, Víctor Alonso; Reynoso, Cora Marcela; Resnik, Silvia

    2017-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occurrence in forty-four samples of milk powder, marketed in Uruguay, was determined. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was applied with fluorescence detector (FLD) and UV-VIS diodes array detector (DAD). Milk powder was fortified with PAHs at three levels producing average recovery higher than 78.6% for all levels. The highest concentration of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) was 2.85 μg kg(-1) in milk powder. Contamination of samples expressed as the sum of 16 analysed PAHs varied between 5.77 and 427.28 μg kg(-1) and as PAH4 (BaP, chrysene, benzo(a)anthracene and benzo(b)fluoranthene) was between below LOD and 11.54 μg kg(-1). Only one sample exceeded the maximum limit for BaP, but 84% of the commercial milk powders did not comply with the European Union maximum limit for PAH4.

  12. Detection of pesticides in active and depopulated beehives in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Niell, Silvina; Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas; Besil, Natalia; Cesio, María Verónica; Heinzen, Horacio

    2011-10-01

    The influence of insecticides commonly used for agricultural purposes on beehive depopulation in Uruguay was investigated. Honeycombs, bees, honey and propolis from depopulated hives were analyzed for pesticide residues, whereas from active beehives only honey and propolis were evaluated. A total of 37 samples were analyzed, representing 14,800 beehives. In depopulated beehives only imidacloprid and fipronil were detected and in active beehives endosulfan, coumaphos, cypermethrin, ethion and chlorpyrifos were found. Coumaphos was present in the highest concentrations, around 1,000 μg/kg, in all the propolis samples from active beehives. Regarding depopulated beehives, the mean levels of imidacloprid found in honeycomb (377 μg/kg, Standard Deviation: 118) and propolis (60 μg/kg, Standard Deviation: 57) are higher than those described to produce bee disorientation and fipronil levels detected in bees (150 and 170 μg/kg) are toxic per se. The other insecticides found can affect the global fitness of the bees causing weakness and a decrease in their overall productivity. These preliminary results suggest that bees exposed to pesticides or its residues can lead them in different ways to the beehive.

  13. Petrological features of the Santa Teresa Granitic Complex Southeastern Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzio, Rossana; Artur, Antonio Carlos

    1999-09-01

    The Santa Teresa Granitic Complex, located in the north-eastern region of the Rocha Department (Eastern Uruguay), is an epizonal Late-Brasiliano granite intruded in the low-grade metasedimentary sequence of the Rocha Group. Twelve different facies types, each with distinctive structural-petrographic features, were recognized during detailed mapping (1:50,000) of the central-eastern part of the granitic complex and form two magmatic suites. The Santa Teresa Calk-alkaline Suite is composed of mostly porphyritic 3a-3b granites with variable amounts of biotite, sphene, allanite, magnetite and microgranular enclaves and belongs to a middle to high potassium calk-alkaline series with high silica contents. In contrast, the Sierra de la Blanqueada Peraluminous Suite has a great variation of grain size, including 3a-3b granitic facies with variable content of muscovite, biotite, tourmaline, ilmenite and monazite. Zircon morphology was studied in both suites and also shows their calk-alkaline and peraluminous nature. The Santa Teresa Calk-alkaline Suite had a Late- to Post-orogenic setting whereas the Sierra de la Blanqueada Peraluminous Suite was formed during the crustal thickening related to a syn-collisional environment.

  14. Evaluation Criteria for Participatory Research: Insights from Coastal Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro, Marila

    2014-07-01

    Participatory research in which experts and non-experts are co-researchers in addressing local concerns (also known as participatory action research or community-based research) can be a valuable approach for dealing with the uncertainty of social-ecological systems because it fosters learning among stakeholders and co-production of knowledge. Despite its increased application in the context of natural resources and environmental management, evaluation of participatory research has received little attention. The objectives of this research were to define criteria to evaluate participatory research processes and outcomes, from the literature on participation evaluation, and to apply them in a case study in an artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay. Process evaluation criteria (e.g., problem to be addressed of key interest to local and additional stakeholders; involvement of interested stakeholder groups in every research stage; collective decision making through deliberation; and adaptability through iterative cycles) should be considered as conditions to promote empowering participatory research. Our research contributes to knowledge on evaluation of participatory research, while also providing evidence of the positive outcomes of this approach, such as co-production of knowledge, learning, strengthened social networks, and conflict resolution.

  15. Detection of Pesticides in Active and Depopulated Beehives in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Pareja, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Niell, Silvina; Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas; Besil, Natalia; Cesio, María Verónica; Heinzen, Horacio

    2011-01-01

    The influence of insecticides commonly used for agricultural purposes on beehive depopulation in Uruguay was investigated. Honeycombs, bees, honey and propolis from depopulated hives were analyzed for pesticide residues, whereas from active beehives only honey and propolis were evaluated. A total of 37 samples were analyzed, representing 14,800 beehives. In depopulated beehives only imidacloprid and fipronil were detected and in active beehives endosulfan, coumaphos, cypermethrin, ethion and chlorpyrifos were found. Coumaphos was present in the highest concentrations, around 1,000 μg/kg, in all the propolis samples from active beehives. Regarding depopulated beehives, the mean levels of imidacloprid found in honeycomb (377 μg/kg, Standard Deviation: 118) and propolis (60 μg/kg, Standard Deviation: 57) are higher than those described to produce bee disorientation and fipronil levels detected in bees (150 and 170 μg/kg) are toxic per se. The other insecticides found can affect the global fitness of the bees causing weakness and a decrease in their overall productivity. These preliminary results suggest that bees exposed to pesticides or its residues can lead them in different ways to the beehive. PMID:22073016

  16. Evaluation criteria for participatory research: insights from coastal Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro, Marila

    2014-07-01

    Participatory research in which experts and non-experts are co-researchers in addressing local concerns (also known as participatory action research or community-based research) can be a valuable approach for dealing with the uncertainty of social-ecological systems because it fosters learning among stakeholders and co-production of knowledge. Despite its increased application in the context of natural resources and environmental management, evaluation of participatory research has received little attention. The objectives of this research were to define criteria to evaluate participatory research processes and outcomes, from the literature on participation evaluation, and to apply them in a case study in an artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay. Process evaluation criteria (e.g., problem to be addressed of key interest to local and additional stakeholders; involvement of interested stakeholder groups in every research stage; collective decision making through deliberation; and adaptability through iterative cycles) should be considered as conditions to promote empowering participatory research. Our research contributes to knowledge on evaluation of participatory research, while also providing evidence of the positive outcomes of this approach, such as co-production of knowledge, learning, strengthened social networks, and conflict resolution.

  17. View of Montevideo, Uruguay area of South America

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-15

    SL3-84-202 (July-September 1973) --- A vertical view of the Montevideo, Uruguay area of South America is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch Earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The large body of water is Rio de la Plata which flows into the South Atlantic Ocean at the bottom of the picture. The red plum in the Rio de la Plata is probably sediment moving seaward. The Santa Lucia River enters the Rio de la Plata west of Montevideo and is the major drainage for the region. Note the small Isla del Tigre at the mouth of the Santa Lucia. The white beach and sand dune areas are plainly visible along the coast. A major airport can be seen immediately east of downtown Montevideo. Major thoroughfares and residential areas, such as the bright one in the suburbs, are clearly visible, also. Farm tracts in green and grey rectangular patterns indicate agricultural regions. Photo credit: NASA

  18. A Chilling Example? Uruguay, Philip Morris International, and WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Russell, Andrew; Wainwright, Megan; Mamudu, Hadii

    2015-06-01

    The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is the first international public health treaty to address the global spread of tobacco products. Ethnographic research at the fourth meeting of the FCTC's Conference of the Parties in Uruguay highlights the role of the FCTC in recalibrating the relationship between international trade and investment agreements and those of global public health. Specifically, we chart the origins and development of the Punta del Este Declaration, tabled by Uruguay at the conference, to counter a legal request by Philip Morris International, the world's largest tobacco transnational, for arbitration by the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes over Uruguay's alleged violations of several international trade and investment treaties. We argue that medical anthropologists should give greater consideration to global health governance and diplomacy as a potential counterweight to the 'politics of resignation' associated with corporate capitalism.

  19. Magnetostratigraphy of the Neogene sediments of SW Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Orgeira, M. J.; Sanchez, G.; Bertoni-Machado, C.; Farina, R.

    2007-05-01

    Preliminary results on the magnetostratigraphy of three Neogene formations from SW Uruguay are presented: Camacho, Raigón and Libertad, and a relative age from the record of reversions in the Earth's magnetic field polarity is proposed. The sediments outcrop in the SW region of Uruguay,and have been received attention due to their fossil contents. The oldest is the late Miocene-Pliocene Camacho Fm, of Huayquerian to Montehermosan affinities. A Pliocene-early Pleistocene age has been assigned to Raigón Fm, of Chapadmalalan affinities. The overlying Libertad Fm has been considered early-middle Pleistocene in age, and to have Marplatan-Ensenadan affinities. The lithology of this facies of Camacho Fm is identified by the presence of fine to very fine sandstones and is composed of silty-sandy and bioturbed silty deposits. The marine facies of this formation is rich in fossil content, as several invertebrate and vertebrate taxa are found. The upper Raigón Fm is formed by sandstones of varied grain size and includes lenses and levels of claystones and conglomerates. It shows the sedimentological features of a deep, pebble-rich braided fluvial system. The 383 vertebrate specimens found in the sandy facies and studied in a taphonomically-oriented study belong to 19 genera and 13 higher taxa. The bones are disarticulated, with smooth fractures and little weathered or abraded, which is congruent with a short time of contact, as observed in strong and sudden flows. The elements belong to the three Voorhies groups and fractured specimens are found along with well preserved materials, implying different taphonomical histories and reworking. The consequent inferred time averaging urges caution at using these remains for defining precise ages. The Libertad Fm, top of the sequence, is conformed by greenish clays, clayey fine sandstones, medium sized sandstones and conglomeratic levels, corresponding to deposits of continental origin under a semiarid climate, which allowed the

  20. OSRP Source Repatriations-Case Studies: Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Ray Jr.; Abeyta, Cristy; Matzke, Jim; Wald-Hopkins, Mark; Streeper, Charles

    2012-07-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Offsite Source Recovery Project (OSRP) began recovering excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources (sources) in 1999. As of February 2012, the project had recovered over 30,000 sources totaling over 820,000 Ci. OSRP grew out of early efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to recover disused excess Plutonium- 239 (Pu-239) sources that were distributed in the 1960's and 1970's under the Atoms for Peace Program. Source recovery was initially considered a waste management activity. However, after the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the interagency community began to recognize that excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources pose a national security threat, particularly those that lack a disposition path. After OSRP's transfer to the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to be part of GTRI, its mission was expanded to include all disused sealed sources that might require national security consideration. Recognizing the transnational threat posed by porous borders and the ubiquitous nature of sources, GTRI/OSRP repatriates U.S. origin sources based on threat reduction prioritization criteria. For example, several recent challenging source repatriation missions have been conducted by GTRI/OSRP in South America. These include the repatriation of a significant amount of Cs-137 and other isotopes from Brazil; re-packaging of conditioned Ra-226 sources in Ecuador for future repatriation; and, multilateral cooperation in the consolidation and export of Canadian, US, and Indian Co-60/Cs-137 sources from Uruguay. In addition, cooperation with regulators and private source owners in other countries presents opportunities for GTRI/OSRP to exchange best practices for managing disused sources. These positive experiences often result in long-term cooperation and information sharing with key foreign counterparts. International source recovery operations are essential to the preservation of U.S. national security

  1. A perfect storm? Welfare, care, gender and generations in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Filgueira, Fernando; Gutiérrez, Magdalena; Papadópulos, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This article claims that welfare states modelled on a contributory basis and with a system of entitlements that assumes stable two-parent families, a traditional breadwinner model, full formal employment and a relatively young age structure are profoundly flawed in the context of present-day challenges. While this is true for affluent countries modelled on the Bismarckian type of welfare system, the costs of the status quo are even more devastating in middle-income economies with high levels of inequality. A gendered approach to welfare reform that introduces the political economy and the economy of care and unpaid work is becoming critical to confront what may very well become a perfect storm for the welfare of these nations and their peoples. Through an in-depth study of the Uruguayan case, the authors show how the decoupling of risk and protection has torn asunder the efficacy of welfare devices in the country. An ageing society that has seen a radical transformation of its family and labour market landscapes, Uruguay maintained during the 1980s and 1990s a welfare state that was essentially contributory, elderly and male-oriented, and centred on cash entitlements. This contributed to the infantilization of poverty, increased the vulnerability of women and exacerbated fiscal stress for the system as a whole. Furthermore, because of high levels of income and asset inequality, the redistribution of risk between upper- and lower-income groups presented a deeply regressive pattern. The political economy of care and welfare has begun to change in the last decade or so, bringing about mild reforms in the right direction; but these might prove to be too little and too late.

  2. The impact of the 2009/2010 enhancement of cigarette health warning labels in Uruguay: longitudinal findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Uruguay Survey.

    PubMed

    Gravely, Shannon; Fong, Geoffrey T; Driezen, Pete; McNally, Mary; Thrasher, James F; Thompson, Mary E; Boado, Marcelo; Bianco, Eduardo; Borland, Ron; Hammond, David

    2016-01-01

    Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 11 Guidelines recommend that health warning labels (HWLs) should occupy at least 50% of the package, but the tobacco industry claims that increasing the size would not lead to further benefits. This article reports the first population study to examine the impact of increasing HWL size above 50%. We tested the hypothesis that the 2009/2010 enhancement of the HWLs in Uruguay would be associated with higher levels of effectiveness. Data were drawn from a cohort of adult smokers (≥18 years) participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Uruguay Survey. The probability sample cohort was representative of adult smokers in five cities. The surveys included key indicators of HWL effectiveness. Data were collected in 2008/09 (prepolicy: wave 2) and 2010/11 (postpolicy: wave 3). Overall, 1746 smokers participated in the study at wave 2 (n=1379) and wave 3 (n=1411). Following the 2009/2010 HWL changes in Uruguay (from 50% to 80% in size), all indicators of HWL effectiveness increased significantly (noticing HWLs: OR=1.44, p=0.015; reading HWLs: OR=1.42, p=0.002; impact of HWLs on thinking about risks of smoking: OR=1.66, p<0.001; HWLs increasing thinking about quitting: OR=1.76, p<0.001; avoiding looking at the HWLs: OR=2.35, p<0.001; and reports that HWLs stopped smokers from having a cigarette 'many times': OR=3.42, p<0.001). The 2009/2010 changes to HWLs in Uruguay, including a substantial increment in size, led to increases of key HWL indicators, thus supporting the conclusion that enhancing HWLs beyond minimum guideline recommendations can lead to even higher levels of effectiveness. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. The impact of the 2009/2010 enhancement of cigarette health warning labels in Uruguay: longitudinal findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Uruguay Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gravely, Shannon; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Driezen, Pete; McNally, Mary; Thrasher, James F.; Thompson, Mary E.; Boado, Marcelo; Bianco, Eduardo; Borland, Ron; Hammond, David

    2015-01-01

    Background FCTC Article 11 Guidelines recommend that health warning labels (HWLs) should occupy at least 50% of the package, but the tobacco industry claims that increasing the size would not lead to further benefits. This article reports the first population study to examine the impact of increasing HWL size above 50%. We tested the hypothesis that the 2009/2010 enhancement of the HWLs in Uruguay would be associated with higher levels of effectiveness. Methods Data were drawn from a cohort of adult smokers (≥18 years) participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Uruguay Survey. The probability sample cohort was representative of adult smokers in 5 cities. The surveys included key indicators of HWL effectiveness. Data were collected in 2008/09 (pre-policy: Wave 2) and 2010/11 (post-policy: Wave 3). Results Overall, 1746 smokers participated in the study at Wave 2 (n=1,379) and Wave 3 (n=1,411). Following the 2009/2010 HWL changes in Uruguay (from 50% to 80% in size), all indicators of HWL effectiveness increased significantly [noticing HWLs: odds ratio (OR)=1.44, p=0.015; reading HWLs: OR=1.42, p=0.002; impact of HWLs on thinking about risks of smoking: OR=1.66, p<0.001; HWLs increasing thinking about quitting: OR=1.76, p<0.001; avoiding looking at the HWLs: OR=2.35, p<.001; and reports that HWLs stopped smokers from having a cigarette “many times”: OR=3.42, p<0.001]. Conclusions The 2009/2010 changes to HWLs in Uruguay, including a substantial increment in size, led to increases of key HWL indicators, thus supporting the conclusion that enhancing HWLs beyond minimum guideline recommendations can lead to even higher levels of effectiveness. PMID:25512431

  4. Genetic relationships among populations of Aedes aegypti from Uruguay and northeastern Argentina inferred from ISSR-PCR data.

    PubMed

    Soliani, C; Rondan-Dueñas, J; Chiappero, M B; Martínez, M; Da Rosa, E García; Gardenal, C N

    2010-09-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), the main vector of yellow fever and dengue viruses, was eradicated from Argentina between 1955 and 1963, but reinvaded the country in 1986. In Uruguay, the species was reintroduced in 1997. In this study we used highly polymorphic inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers to analyse the genetic structure of Ae. aegypti populations from Uruguay and northeastern Argentina to identify possible colonization patterns of the vector. Overall genetic differentiation among populations was high (F(ST) = 0.106) and showed no correlation with geographic distance, which is consistent with the short time since the reintroduction of the species in the area. Differentiation between pairs of Argentine populations (F(ST) 0.072 to 0.221) was on average higher than between Uruguayan populations (F(ST)-0.044 to 0.116). Bayesian estimation of population structure defined four genetic clusters and most populations were admixtures of two of them: Mercedes and Treinta y Tres (Uruguay) were mixtures of clusters 1 and 3; Salto (Uruguay) and Paraná (Argentina) of clusters 1 and 4; Fray Bentos (Uruguay) of clusters 2 and 3, and Gualeguaychú (Argentina) of clusters 2 and 3. Posadas and Buenos Aires in Argentina were fairly genetically homogeneous. Our results suggest that Ae. aegypti recolonized Uruguay from bordering cities in Argentina via bridges over the Uruguay River and also from Brazil.

  5. Simulation of the hydrologic effects of afforestation in the tacuarembo river basin, Uruguay

    Treesearch

    N.O. von Stackelberg; G.M. Chescheir; R.W. Skaggs; D.M. Amatya

    2007-01-01

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to simulate the hydrology of two small paired catchments in northern Uruguay. The control and treatment catchments (69 and 108 ha, respectively) were monitored for a three-year pretreatment period during which the land use was grassland with livestock grazing. Subsequently, the treatment catchment was planted (57%...

  6. Insurgents to Presidents: Contemporary Civil-Military Relations In Brazil, El Salvador, and Uruguay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    Investigación de la Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la Republica , Montevideo, Uruguay, September 15, 2014. 156 Ibid., 17. 157 National...Proceso de Negociación.” Paper presented at XIII Jornada de Investigación de la Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la Republica , Montevideo

  7. The "Failure" of Private Universities in Uruguay: A Tale of Three Institutions. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roane, Warren

    In Latin America private universities are a recent phenomenon; Uruguay began its experiment with privatization only 15 years ago. This study explores several factors which have impeded formation of private universities by analyzing the "failures" of three institutions. The theoretical framework of the study is based on work by D.C. Levy…

  8. Practices to Reduce Milk Carbon Footprint on Grazing Dairy Farms in Southern Uruguay: Case Studies.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carbon footprint (CF) is an increasingly relevant indicator to estimate the impact of a product on climate change. This study followed international guidelines to quantify the CF of milk produced on 24 dairy farms in Uruguay. Cows were grazed all year and supplemented with concentrate feeds. These d...

  9. The "Tuteo" of Rocha, Uruguay: A Study of Pride and Language Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyers, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the tuteo in Rocha, Uruguay, a unique situation in a country that is mostly "voseante." The study draws on speakers' attitudes toward "tú" and "vos" in Rocha, taken from informal interviews and from a linguistic attitude survey. The survey was conducted with 58 informants, most of whom were…

  10. Student Assessment as a Political Construction--The Case of Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benveniste, Luis

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the interplay between assessment policies in Uruguay and state-society relations. Shows how national student evaluation has come to symbolize an agreed-on mechanism of social accountability by which the central government upholds its responsibility for educational provision as it intervenes on behalf of impoverished communities.…

  11. Diagnostic Imaging Integrated Network: A Teleradiology Pilot in Public Hospitals in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Lilian; Ruibal Faral, Karime

    2015-01-01

    A network of health care centers allows radiologists to share diagnostic images in different areas of Uruguay. This solution is based on an informatics multicenter application for center management, enabling the creation, storage and distribution of images and reports from different imaging modalities according to outsourcing agreements. The solution improves health care territorial equity and reduces asymmetry in resources distribution.

  12. Screening of endocrine disruption activity in sediments from the Uruguay River.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Rivera, Noelia; Eguren, Gabriela; Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas; Munkittrick, Kelly R

    2014-08-01

    Sediment constitutes an important sink of endocrine disruptor compounds; however, the potential of sediments to act as a source of endocrine disruptors should be more extensively investigated. The main objective of this study was to determine whether exposure of immature common carp to Uruguay River sediments undergo physiological and endocrine alterations. The lower Uruguay River watershed supports intensive agricultural and forest production, receives municipal sewage discharge and industrial effluent, and a new large pulp mill was constructed in 2006. A 30-day semi-static assay was performed using sediments from four sites along the Uruguay River and compared with an unexposed group in dechlorinated water as a negative control. We focused on two upstream and two downstream sites of a new elemental chlorine free pulp mill. The results showed that plasma vitellogenin levels increased in fish along the river and significant differences were found between the exposed and unexposed groups. Condition factor and gonadosomatic index were not different; however, a significant difference in hepatosomatic index was observed in fish exposed to sediment from an industrial site. A significant reduction in primary spermatocyte accumulation was observed in the exposed group compared with that in the control group, and some individuals exposed to sediments from industrial sites presented with testis-ova. Our results suggest that Uruguay River sediments act as an important source of estrogenic compounds that could be responsible for the alterations observed. Future studies are needed to identify the causal agents and determine exposure routes.

  13. Quality of Life Satisfaction among Workers and Non-Workers in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandelman, Nestor; Piani, Giorgina

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we use data from a population survey on quality of life dimensions conducted in Uruguay to analyze the self reported well-being among workers and non workers. Along with the literature, we find that the probability of being happy is greater for workers than non-workers. Specifically, we find evidence that workers tend to be more…

  14. Continuing Professional Development of Physicians in Uruguay: Lessons from a Countrywide Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Alvaro; Alvarino, Fernando; Niski, Rosa; Fosman, Elena; Torres, Jorge; Rios, Gilberto; Petruccelli, Dante

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the advancement of continuing professional development (CPD) for physicians in Uruguay and explains the motivations for a CPD system, the role of the faculty of medicine and the other stakeholders, the strategic goals, and current results, including strengths and weaknesses. The work described here had three strategic…

  15. Miscellaneous: Uruguay energy supply options study assessing the market for natural gas - executive summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Conzelmann, G.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-03-04

    Uruguay is in the midst of making critical decisions affecting the design of its future energy supply system. Momentum for change is expected to come from several directions, including recent and foreseeable upgrades and modifications to energy conversion facilities, the importation of natural gas from Argentina, the possibility for a stronger interconnection of regional electricity systems, the country's membership in MERCOSUR, and the potential for energy sector reforms by the Government of Uruguay. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of several fuel diversification strategies on Uruguay's energy supply system. The analysis pays special attention to fuel substitution trends due to potential imports of natural gas via a gas pipeline from Argentina and increasing electricity ties with neighboring countries. The Government of Uruguay has contracted with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to study several energy development scenarios with the support of several Uruguayan institutions. Specifically, ANL was asked to conduct a detailed energy supply and demand analysis, develop energy demand projections based on an analysis of past energy demand patterns with support from local institutions, evaluate the effects of potential natural gas imports and electricity exchanges, and determine the market penetration of natural gas under various scenarios.

  16. Lessons from Participation in a Web-Based Substance Use Preventive Program in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsa, Ana I.; Gandelman, Néstor; Lamé, Diego

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed individual and program characteristics associated with participation in an Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)-based substance use preventive intervention in Uruguay, South America. The intervention was directed at ninth- and tenth-grade students in 10 private schools in Montevideo. Participation in the program was…

  17. Quality of Life Satisfaction among Workers and Non-Workers in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandelman, Nestor; Piani, Giorgina

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we use data from a population survey on quality of life dimensions conducted in Uruguay to analyze the self reported well-being among workers and non workers. Along with the literature, we find that the probability of being happy is greater for workers than non-workers. Specifically, we find evidence that workers tend to be more…

  18. Continuing Professional Development of Physicians in Uruguay: Lessons from a Countrywide Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Alvaro; Alvarino, Fernando; Niski, Rosa; Fosman, Elena; Torres, Jorge; Rios, Gilberto; Petruccelli, Dante

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the advancement of continuing professional development (CPD) for physicians in Uruguay and explains the motivations for a CPD system, the role of the faculty of medicine and the other stakeholders, the strategic goals, and current results, including strengths and weaknesses. The work described here had three strategic…

  19. Assessment of potential shale gas and shale oil resources of the Norte Basin, Uruguay, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy; Klett, Timothy R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Weaver, Jean N.; Brownfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Using a performance-based geological assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 13.4 trillion cubic feet of potential technically recoverable shale gas and 0.5 billion barrels of technically recoverable shale oil resources in the Norte Basin of Uruguay.

  20. 9 CFR 94.22 - Restrictions on importation of beef and ovine meat from Uruguay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, NEWCASTLE DISEASE, HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA...-mouth disease has not been diagnosed in Uruguay within the previous 12 months. (c) The meat comes from bovines or sheep that originate from premises where foot-and-mouth disease has not been present during the...

  1. Cross-fertilization between genetically modified and non-genetically modified maize crops in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Galeano, Pablo; Debat, Claudio Martínez; Ruibal, Fabiana; Fraguas, Laura Franco; Galván, Guillermo A

    2010-01-01

    The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) Bt maize (Zea mays L.) events MON810 and Bt11 is permitted in Uruguay. Local regulations specify that 10% of the crop should be a non-GM cultivar as refuge area for biodiversity, and the distance from other non-GM maize crops should be more than 250 m in order to avoid cross-pollination. However, the degree of cross-fertilization between maize crops in Uruguay is unknown. The level of adventitious presence of GM material in non-GM crops is a relevant issue for organic farming, in situ conservation of genetic resources and seed production. In the research reported here, the occurrence and frequency of cross-fertilization between commercial GM and non-GM maize crops in Uruguay was assessed. The methodology comprised field sampling and detection using DAS-ELISA and PCR. Five field-pair cases where GM maize crops were grown near non-GM maize crops were identified. These cases had the potential to cross-fertilize considering the distance between crops and the similarity of the sowing dates. Adventitious presence of GM material in the offspring of non-GM crops was found in three of the five cases. Adventitious presence of event MON810 or Bt11 in non-GM maize, which were distinguished using specific primers, matched the events in the putative sources of transgenic pollen. Percentages of transgenic seedlings in the offspring of the non-GM crops were estimated as 0.56%, 0.83% and 0.13% for three sampling sites with distances of respectively 40, 100 and 330 m from the GM crops. This is a first indication that adventitious presence of transgenes in non-GM maize crops will occur in Uruguay if isolation by distance and/or time is not provided. These findings contribute to the evaluation of the applicability of the "regulated coexistence policy" in Uruguay.

  2. Epidemiological investigation of bovine tuberculosis outbreaks in Uruguay (2011-2013).

    PubMed

    Picasso, Catalina; Alvarez, Julio; VanderWaal, Kimberly L; Fernandez, Federico; Gil, Andres; Wells, Scott J; Perez, Andres

    2017-03-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic disease of cattle caused by infection with the Mycobacterium bovis. While bTB prevalence in Uruguay has been low (<11 outbreaks/year) for the past 50 years as a consequence of a national control program, annual incidence increased in 2011 through 2013-15, 26 and 16 infected herds each year, raising concerns from livestock stakeholders and the government. The goal of this study was to assess the spatial dynamics of bTB in Uruguay from 2011 to 2013 and the association between bTB and potential demographic and movement risk factors at the herd level using data provided by the Uruguayan Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture, and Fisheries. Clustering of incident outbreaks was assessed using the Cuzick-Edwards' test and the Bernoulli model of the spatial scan statistic, and a conditional multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess risk factors associated with bTB in a subset of Uruguayan dairy farms. Significant (P<0.05) global clustering was detected in 2012, while high-risk local clusters were detected in southwestern (2011, 2012, 2013), northwestern (2012), and southeastern (2012) Uruguay. Increased risk of bTB in different regions of Uruguay suggests a potential role of animal movements in disease dissemination. Larger herds, higher numbers of animals purchased, and incoming steers to the farm were associated with increased odds of breaking with bTB, in agreement with previous studies but also suggesting other additional sources of risk. These results will contribute to enhanced effectiveness of bTB control programs in Uruguay with the ultimate objective of preventing or mitigating the impact of the disease in the human and animal populations of the country.

  3. Dietary patterns and risk of ductal carcinoma of the breast: a factor analysis in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Alvaro L; De Stefani, Eduardo; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Boffetta, Paolo; Aune, Dagfinn; Silva, Cecilia; Landó, Gabriel; Luaces, María E; Acosta, Gisele; Mendilaharsu, María

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) shows very high incidence rates in Uruguayan women. The present factor analysis of ductal carcinoma of the breast, the most frequent histological type of this malignancy both in Uruguay and in the World, was conducted at a prepaid hospital of Montevideo, Uruguay. We identified 111 cases with ductal BC and 222 controls with normal mammograms. A factor analysis was conducted using 39 food groups, allowing retention of six factors analyzed through logistic regression in order to obtain odds ratios (OR) associated with ductal BC. The low fat and non-alcoholic beverage patterns were inversely associated (OR=0.30 and OR=0.45, respectively) with risk. Conversely, the fatty cheese pattern was positively associated (OR=4.17) as well as the fried white meat (OR=2.28) and Western patterns (OR 2.13). Ductal BC shared similar dietary risk patterns as those identified by studies not discriminating between histologic type of breast cancer.

  4. Mitochondrial DNA COI characterization of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Paraguay and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Arnemann, J A; James, W J; Walsh, T K; Guedes, J V C; Smagghe, G; Castiglioni, E; Tay, W T

    2016-04-07

    Since its detection in Brazil in 2013, the Old World cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera has been reported in Argentina, Paraguay, and Bolivia. Here we present evidence extending the South American range of H. armigera to Uruguay, using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase I region. Molecular characterization of this gene region from individuals from Paraguay also supports previous morphological identification of H. armigera in Paraguay. Shared mtDNA haplotypes in H. armigera from Brazil, Uruguay, and Paraguay were identified. Additional surveying of populations in this region will be imperative to better monitor and understand factors that are underpinning its presence and successful adaptation in these South American regions. We discuss our findings with respect to the development of resistance pest management strategies of this invasive insect pest in a predominantly monoculture soybean crop landscape in the Southern Cone region.

  5. A confirmed case of Rickettsia parkeri infection in a traveler from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Portillo, Aránzazu; García-García, Concepción; Sanz, M Mercedes; Santibáñez, Sonia; Venzal, José M; Oteo, José A

    2013-12-01

    The first confirmed case of Rickettsia parkeri infection in Uruguay is reported. To date, in South America, molecularly confirmed cases of human infection have been found in Argentina and probably, Brazil. Our patient returned to Spain after a 7-day trip to Colonia Suiza (Southwestern Uruguay). He presented fever (39°C), chills, and two eschars (tache noire-like) surrounded by an indurated, erythematous halo on the inner side of the left ankle besides a maculopapular rash on the legs. After treatment with doxycycline for 7 days, he fully recovered. R. parkeri infection was diagnosed by molecular-based detection of the microorganism in a swab specimen of the eschar. Diagnosis was supported by seroconversion between acute- and convalescent-phase sera specimens.

  6. A Confirmed Case of Rickettsia parkeri Infection in a Traveler from Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Portillo, Aránzazu; García-García, Concepción; Sanz, M. Mercedes; Santibáñez, Sonia; Venzal, José M.; Oteo, José A.

    2013-01-01

    The first confirmed case of Rickettsia parkeri infection in Uruguay is reported. To date, in South America, molecularly confirmed cases of human infection have been found in Argentina and probably, Brazil. Our patient returned to Spain after a 7-day trip to Colonia Suiza (Southwestern Uruguay). He presented fever (39°C), chills, and two eschars (tache noire-like) surrounded by an indurated, erythematous halo on the inner side of the left ankle besides a maculopapular rash on the legs. After treatment with doxycycline for 7 days, he fully recovered. R. parkeri infection was diagnosed by molecular-based detection of the microorganism in a swab specimen of the eschar. Diagnosis was supported by seroconversion between acute- and convalescent-phase sera specimens. PMID:24166040

  7. Seroprevalence of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus and West Nile Virus (Flavivirus, Flaviviridae) in Horses, Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Burgueño, Analía; Spinsanti, Lorena; Díaz, Luis Adrián; Rivarola, María Elisa; Arbiza, Juan; Contigiani, Marta

    2013-01-01

    St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) belong to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex (Flavivirus genus, Flaviviridae family). They show antigenic close relationships and share many similarities in their ecology. Both are responsible for serious human diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of neutralizing antibodies to these viruses in horses from Uruguay. To do this, 425 horse sera were collected in 2007 and analyzed by plaque reduction neutralization tests. As a result, 205 sera (48.2%) were found positive for SLEV, with titers ranging between 10 and 80. Two sera remained inconclusive, since they showed low titers to WNV and SLEV (10 and 20), not allowing us to demonstrate activity of WNV in our territory. This is the first report of circulation of SLEV in horses in Uruguay. PMID:24490165

  8. Yellow Pygmy Rice Rat (Oligoryzomys flavescens) and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Delfraro, Adriana; Clara, Mario; Tomé, Lorena; Achaval, Federico; Levis, Silvana; Calderón, Gladys; Enria, Delia; Lozano, Mario; Russi, José

    2003-01-01

    During 5,230 trapping nights, 672 small mammals were trapped in the areas where most hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases occur in Uruguay. Yellow pygmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys flavescens) were the only rodents that showed evidence of antibodies to hantavirus, with a seroprevalence of 2.6%. The rodents were trapped in all the explored environments, and most of the seropositive rodents were found in habitats frequented by humans. Nucleotide sequences were obtained from four HPS case-patients and four yellow pygmy rice rats of the M genome segment. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis showed that rodent-borne viruses and viruses from three HPS case-patients form a well-supported clade and share a 96.4% identity with the previously characterized Central Plata hantavirus. These results suggest that yellow pygmy rice rat (O. flavescens) may be the host for Central Plata, a hantavirus associated with HPS in the southern area of Uruguay.[ PMID:12890326

  9. Two new species of Chaco Tullgren from the Atlantic coast of Uruguay (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Nemesiidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Oca, Laura Montes; Pérez-Miles, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We describe two new species of the nemesiid spider genus Chaco from Rocha Province, Uruguay. These new species are diagnosed based on genital morphology, male tibial apophysis spination, and burrow entrance. We test cospecificity of one species, Chaco costai,via laboratory mating experiments. The new species are diagnosed and illustrated and habitat characteristics, and capture behavior are described. We conduct a cladistic analysis based on a previously published morphological character matrix that now includes the newly described species. PMID:24146579

  10. Two new species of Chaco Tullgren from the Atlantic coast of Uruguay (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Nemesiidae).

    PubMed

    de Oca, Laura Montes; Pérez-Miles, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    We describe two new species of the nemesiid spider genus Chaco from Rocha Province, Uruguay. These new species are diagnosed based on genital morphology, male tibial apophysis spination, and burrow entrance. We test cospecificity of one species, Chaco costai,via laboratory mating experiments. The new species are diagnosed and illustrated and habitat characteristics, and capture behavior are described. We conduct a cladistic analysis based on a previously published morphological character matrix that now includes the newly described species.

  11. Uruguay Roselli 1938 and Rosellichnus, n. ichnogenus: Two ichnogenera for clusters of fossil bee cells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Genise, J.F.; Bown, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    The systematic of the fossil bee nest ichnogenus Uruguay from the Uruguayan Cretaceous or lower Tertiary is reviewed and two new ichnospecies of a new ichnogenus, Rosellichnus, are proposed for fossil bee nests from the Miocene of the United Arab Emirates and Patagonian Argentina. Uruguay contains U. auroranormae (the ichnotype) and U. rivasi, which differs from the type ichnospecies in having clustered cells arranged in three rows, with one central and two marginal rows of subparallel cells. No bee nest architecture known to us unequivocally fits with any ichnospecies described herein. Uruguay was constructed in the subsoil and may be of halictid origin; however, its large cell size, thick cell walls, and the presence of a vestibular cell do not fit the architecture of nests of extant halictids. Rosellichnus arabicus lacks the complete cavity surrounding the cell cluster that is typical in nests of Old World halictids, but it may, nonetheless, still be of halictid origin. R. patagonicus has an architecture more similar to nests of anthophorine bees than to those of Neotropical Halictidae. Therefore, the ichnogenus Rosellichnus may include both halictid and anthophorine constructions. Although the smooth inner cell walls, spiral cell caps, and clustering of cells indicate that both Uruguay and Rosellichnus are trace fossils of bee origin, it is likely that both represent nest architectures that are no longer employed by extant bees, or those that are as yet unknown. The paleoenvironments of both the Argentine and Emirates species of Rosellichnus indicate that the trace-makers of this ichnogenus constructed their nests in open ground sandy soils. ?? 1996 OPA (Overseas Publishers Association) Amsterdam B.V. Published in The Netherlands by Harwood Academic Publishers GmbH.

  12. Differences by sex in tobacco use and awareness of tobacco marketing -Bangladesh, Thailand, and Uruguay, 2009.

    PubMed

    2010-05-28

    The majority of the world's 1.3 billion tobacco users are men, but female use is increasing. To examine differences in tobacco use and awareness of tobacco marketing by sex, CDC and health officials in Bangladesh, Thailand, and Uruguay (among the first countries to report results) analyzed 2009 data from a newly instituted survey, the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated wide variation among the three countries in tobacco use, product types used, and marketing awareness among males and females. In Bangladesh and Thailand, use of smoked tobacco products was far greater among males (44.7% and 45.6%, respectively) than females (1.5% and 3.1%, respectively). In Uruguay, the difference was smaller (30.7% versus 19.8%). Use of smokeless tobacco products in Bangladesh was approximately the same among males (26.4%) and females (27.9%), but females were significantly more likely to use smokeless tobacco in Thailand (6.3% versus 1.3%), and use in Uruguay by either sex was nearly nonexistent. Males in Bangladesh were twice as likely as females to notice cigarette advertising (68.0% versus 29.3%), but the difference between males and females was smaller in Thailand (17.4% versus 14.5%) and Uruguay (49.0% versus 40.0%). In all three countries, awareness of tobacco marketing was more prevalent among females aged 15--24 years than older women. Comprehensive bans on advertising, sponsorship, and promotion of tobacco products, recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), can reduce per capita cigarette consumption if enforced.

  13. Phylodynamics of HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Forms 12_BF and 38_BF in Argentina and Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although HIV-1 CRF12_BF and CRF38_BF are two epidemiologically important recombinant lineages circulating in Argentina and Uruguay, little is known about their population dynamics. Methods A total of 120 "CRF12_BF-like" and 20 "CRF38_BF-like" pol recombinant sequences collected in Argentina and Uruguay from 1997 to 2009 were subjected to phylogenetic and Bayesian coalescent-based analyses to estimate evolutionary and demographic parameters. Results Phylogenetic analyses revealed that CRF12_BF viruses from Argentina and Uruguay constitute a single epidemic with multiple genetic exchanges among countries; whereas circulation of the CRF38_BF seems to be confined to Uruguay. The mean estimated substitution rate of CRF12_BF at pol gene (2.5 × 10-3 substitutions/site/year) was similar to that previously described for subtype B. According to our estimates, CRF12_BF and CRF38_BF originated at 1983 (1978-1988) and 1986 (1981-1990), respectively. After their emergence, the CRF12_BF and CRF38_BF epidemics seem to have experienced a period of rapid expansion with initial growth rates of around 1.2 year-1 and 0.9 year-1, respectively. Later, the rate of spread of these CRFs_BF seems to have slowed down since the mid-1990s. Conclusions Our results suggest that CRF12_BF and CRF38_BF viruses were generated during the 1980s, shortly after the estimated introduction of subtype F1 in South America (~1975-1980). After an initial phase of fast exponential expansion, the rate of spread of both CRFs_BF epidemics seems to have slowed down, thereby following a demographic pattern that resembles those previously reported for the HIV-1 epidemics in Brazil, USA, and Western Europe. PMID:20307282

  14. Phylodynamics analysis of canine parvovirus in Uruguay: evidence of two successive invasions by different variants.

    PubMed

    Maya, Leticia; Calleros, Lucía; Francia, Lourdes; Hernández, Martín; Iraola, Gregorio; Panzera, Yanina; Sosa, Katia; Pérez, Ruben

    2013-06-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) comprises three antigenic variants (2a, 2b, and 2c) with different frequencies and genetic variability among countries. Current CPV populations are considered to be spatially structured with relatively little movement of viruses between geographical areas. Here we describe the evolution and population dynamics of CPV in Uruguay from 2006-2011 using full-length capsid viral protein 2 (VP2) sequences. CPV-2c was the predominant variant in Uruguay for 4 years (2006-2009). The estimated time to the most recent common ancestor suggested that the CPV-2c variant appeared in Uruguay around 2004-2005. Comparative phylogenetic analysis revealed that South American CPV-2c strains did not emerge de novo but may have a European origin. In 2010, a remarkable epidemiological change occurred as a consequence of the emergence of a novel CPV-2a strain in the previously homogeneous CPV-2c population. The frequency of the novel CPV-2a strain increased to 85 % in 2011, representing the first example of a CPV-2a strain replacing a predominant CPV-2c strain in a dog population. The CPV-2a strains detected in 2010-2011 were not phylogenetically related to any other strain collected on the American continent but were identical to Asiatic strains, suggesting that its emergence was a consequence of a migration event. Taken together, our findings suggest that in the last decade, Uruguay has experienced two successive invasions by CPV-2c and CPV-2a variants of European and Asiatic origins, respectively. These results support the hypothesis that CPV invasion events are not rare in certain geographic regions and indicate that some current strains may exhibit an unexpectedly high invasion and replacement capability.

  15. Infection by Paramphistomidae trematodes in cattle from two agricultural regions in NW Uruguay and NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Sanchís, J; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Macchi, M I; Piñeiro, P; Suárez, J L; Cazapal-Monteiro, C; Maldini, G; Venzal, J M; Paz-Silva, A; Arias, M S

    2013-01-16

    The analysis of infection by Paramphistomidae trematodes was conducted in two agricultural regions with different knowledge on this parasitosis. Faecal and blood samples were collected from 374 cattle in Salto (NW Uruguay) where there is a lack of information about paramphistomosis. A total of 429 cattle from Galicia (NW Spain), an area with previous records of infection by gastric flukes, were sampled. Diagnostics of trematodosis was developed by using a copromicroscopic probe and an ELISA with excretory/secretory antigens collected from adult Calicophoron daubneyi (Paramphistomidae) specimens. Results were evaluated according intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In the Uruguay, the percentage of cattle passing Paramphistomidae-eggs by faeces was 7% (95% Confidence Interval 5, 10). A significantly higher prevalence of paramphistomosis in the Hereford × Angus cattle (OR=3.5) was recorded, as observed for the oldest ruminants (>3.5 years). An overall seroprevalence of 29% (25, 34) was obtained by ELISA, with the highest values in the Friesians (OR=3), the youngest bovines (<2.5 years) and dairy cattle (Friesians). Twenty-six percent (22, 30) of the cattle from Spain passed eggs by faeces, and cattle aged 2.5-7 years reached significant highest prevalences. By means of the ELISA, a percentage of 55 cattle (50, 59) had antibodies against the gastric fluke, and the highest seroprevalence was observed among the bovines under 6 years. It is concluded that paramphistomosis is on the increase in cattle from NW Spain, partly due to the absence of an effective treatment against the trematode. There is a need for reducing the risk of infection by Paramhistomidae spp. in cattle from Uruguay, especially by improving their management to avoid exposure to the gastric trematode. Further studies are in progress for identifying the species of Paramphistomidae affecting ruminants in Uruguay.

  16. Tobacco cessation intervention for pregnant women in Argentina and Uruguay: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Argentina and Uruguay are among the countries with the highest proportion of pregnant women who smoke. The implementation of an effective smoking cessation intervention would have a significant impact on the health of mothers and infants. The “5 A’s” (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange) is a strategy consisting of a brief cessation counseling session of 5–15 minutes delivered by a trained provider. The “5 A’s” is considered the standard of care worldwide; however, it is under used in Argentina and Uruguay. Methods We will conduct a two-arm, parallel cluster randomized controlled trial of an implementation intervention in 20 prenatal care settings in Argentina and Uruguay. Prenatal care settings will be randomly allocated to either an intervention or a control group after a baseline data collection period. Midwives’ facilitators in the 10 intervention prenatal clinics (clusters) will be identified and trained to deliver the “5 A’s” to pregnant women and will then disseminate and implement the program. The 10 clusters in the control group will continue with their standard in-service activities. The intervention will be tailored by formative research to be readily applicable to local prenatal care services at maternity hospitals and acceptable to local pregnant women and health providers. Our primary hypothesis is that the intervention is feasible in prenatal clinics in Argentina and Uruguay and will increase the frequency of women receiving tobacco use cessation counseling during pregnancy in the intervention clinics compared to the control clinics. Our secondary hypotheses are that the intervention will decrease the frequency of women who smoke by the end of pregnancy, and that the intervention will increase the attitudes and readiness of midwives towards providing counseling to women in the intervention clinics compared to the control clinics. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01852617 PMID:23971512

  17. Latin American special project: kidney health cooperation project between Uruguay and Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Sola, Laura; Plata-Cornejo, Raúl; Fernández-Cean, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Uruguay and Bolivia are two countries that show heterogenicity of the Latin American region, including the national income, the expenditure on health and the services for renal care. In Bolivia, there is manpower shortage for renal care with only 5 nephrologists per million people (pmp) and the prevalence of patients on dialysis is only 200 pmp. This is much lower than the mean prevalence rate of renal replacement therapy for Latin America as a whole. Uruguay on the other hand has more dedicated renal resources with 50 nephrologists pmp, and renal replacement therapy is provided to ~ 1,000 dialysis patients pmp. In November 2012, a collaborative project financed by the Uruguayan International Cooperation Agency was signed by both the Uruguay and Bolivia Ministries of Health, and the goal was to develop a comprehensive program for the prevention and management of all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Bolivia. The specific objectives were to: a) promote renal healthcare in the primary healthcare setting, b) identify kidney disease in populations at risk, and c) optimize patient care at all stages of CKD, including dialysis and transplantation supported with a national ESRD registry in Bolivia. As a first step, delegates from the Bolivian Health Ministry, visited Uruguay in April 2014, primarily to strengthen the development of tools required for developing and maintaining a national registry. In addition, during this visit, a meeting with the president of the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH) culminated in designing a training program for peritoneal dialysis. This highly cooperative relationship is advancing the prevention and care of CKD in Bolivia and may serve as a model for international approaches to advance system level CKD care in countries with limited healthcare resources.

  18. Prevalence of Escherichia coli adhesion-related genes in neonatal calf diarrhea in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Umpiérrez, Ana; Acquistapace, Sofía; Fernández, Sofía; Oliver, Martín; Acuña, Patricia; Reolón, Eduardo; Zunino, Pablo

    2016-05-31

    Neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD), one of the most important diseases of neonatal dairy and beef calves in Uruguay, has become relevant in association with intensive systems. This disease generates substantial economic losses every year worldwide as a result of increased morbidity and mortality. Escherichia coli, one of the pathogens associated with NCD, can express several fimbrial and afimbrial adhesins. The objective of this study was to assess the presence of clpG, f5, f17A, f17G(II), and f17G(I) genes that encode three important adhesins expressed in diarrheagenic E. coli: F5, F17 and CS31A, isolated from feces of calves in Uruguay. Feces of 86 (70 diarrheic and 16 healthy) calves, from 15 animal facilities in Uruguay, were collected between 2012 and 2013. Biochemical and molecular identification were performed to finally obtain 298 E. coli isolates. Partial amplification of adhesion-related genes was performed by polymerase chain reaction. The most prevalent gene was f17A (31.2%), followed by f17G(II), clpG, f17G(I) and f5 (25.8%, 17.5%, 3.7% and 0.7%, respectively). All genes were present in diarrheic and healthy animals except f5 and f17G(I); these genes were present only in affected calves, although in low numbers. This is the first report of the presence of F5, F17, and CS31A genes in E. coli strains from NCD cases in Uruguay. Prevalence values of the genes, except f5, were in accordance with regional findings. It is expected that further characterization of locally transmitted strains will contribute to control a problem of regional and international magnitude.

  19. New Long-Term Care Policies in Latin America: The National System of Care in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Matus-Lopez, Mauricio; Pedraza, Camilo Cid

    2016-07-01

    Uruguay is the Latin American country with the largest share of elderly population and it has the greatest pressure for formal long-term care services in the region. For this reason, last year the government approved a law creating a National System of Care. This article describes and analyzes the long-term care policy in the recently created National System of Care of Uruguay. The Director of the National System of Care was asked to complete a questionnaire with a description and management of long-term care programs. This information was completed with official information and peer-reviewed articles of long-term care in Uruguay. The National System of Care includes long-term care services. The main services are carried out through a cash-for-care system for home-based services, but in the future the benefits will expand to day centers and residential and nursing homes. The system follows international trends in terms of universality, services, and regulations dealing with care. However, the current and future financing is low, and this condition could undermine its development capacity. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Report of the procedure of voluntary interruption of pregnancy at a university hospital in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Bentancor, Ana; Hernández, Ana Laura; Godoy, Yamile; Dapueto, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the constitution and operation of a voluntary interruption of pregnancy team of a university hospital, from the outlook of the mental health team. METHODS In this case study, the following aspects were analyzed: 1) historical background; 2) implementation of Law 18,897 of October 22, 2012; and 3) functioning of the program at the Hospital de Clínicas of the Facultad de Medicina (Universidad de la República, Uruguay), taking into account three dimensions: structure, process, and results. RESULTS Between December 2012 and November 2013, a total of 6,676 voluntary interruptions of pregnancy were reported in Uruguay; out of these, 80 were conducted at the Hospital de Clínicas. The patients’ demographic data agreed with those reported at the national level: Of the total patients, 81.0% were aged over 19 years; 6.2% decided to continue with the pregnancy; and only 70.0% attended the subsequent control and received advice on contraception. CONCLUSIONS In its implementation year in Uruguay, we can assess the experience as positive from the point of view of women’s health. Our experience as a mental health team at the Hospital de Clínicas, inserted into the multidisciplinary voluntary interruption of pregnancy team, is in the process of assessment and reformulation of practices. PMID:27384969

  1. A new genus and species of opisthogonimid (Digenea) of Liophis anomalus (Serpentes: Colubridae) from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Volonterio, Odile; Baletta, Silvana; Meneghel, Melitta

    2006-10-01

    During a study on the helminth fauna of Liophis anomalus specimens deposited in the Reptile Collection of the Secci6n Zoología Vertebrados, Facultad de Ciencias, Uruguay, a new genus of Opisthogoniminae was found. Paracotyletrema n. gen. is described from the buccal cavity and esophagus of specimens from Departamento de Flores, Uruguay. This new genus differs from the other 2 Opisthogoniminae, Opisthogonimus and Westella, by having much smaller body size; maximum width at level of posterior end of oral sucker; oral sucker length more than one-fourth of body length; oral sucker and acetabulum separated by a distance of about the diameter of pharynx; cirrus pouch length more than half of body length; and testes in completely coincident zones. The type and only species, Paracotyletrema poncedeleoni n. gen., n. sp., is defined by the following diagnostic characters: mean oral sucker length one-third to one-half of body length; cirrus pouch of about body length, contorted, mainly acetabular; large, round testes in nearly adjacent fields, and an ovary nearly adjacent to right testis. Besides the type locality, Paracotyletrema poncedeleoni has been found in L. anomalus specimens from the Departamentos of Artigas and Treinta y Tres; therefore, it has a widespread distribution in Uruguay.

  2. Ethics, genetics and public policies in Uruguay: newborn and infant screening as a paradigm.

    PubMed

    Larrandaburu, Mariela; Matte, Ursula; Noble, Ana; Olivera, Zully; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa V; Nacul, Luis; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia

    2015-07-01

    Uruguay is a middle-income country and the smallest in South America. Its population is under 3.3 million. The demographic and epidemiological characteristics are similar to those of developed countries, with a high burden associated with congenital anomalies. Infant mortality rate (IMR) decreased from 37/1000 live births, in 1980, to 8.8/1000, in 2013. This is largely explained by medical and social policies. IMR related to congenital anomalies, however, remained unchanged for the last 30 years. Therefore, programmes for prevention of congenital disorders were developed, such as the National Newborn Screening Programme. Mandatory, universal, free infant screening was implemented two decades ago. The Ministry of Public Health created the Comprehensive Plan on Birth Defects and Rare Diseases (PIDCER), to develop a strategic public policy tool enabling comprehensive, universal, quality care during their entire lifetime. Recent national legislation created provisions for newborn and infant screening, including for congenital hypothyroidism, phenylketonuria, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, cystic fibrosis and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, via blood spot test, otoacoustic emissions, systematic physical examination and hip ultrasound. We discuss how this programme was implemented, the current situation of rare diseases, the institution managing disability in Uruguay and the development of new laws based on the MPH's PIDCER. It illustrates how Uruguay is developing public policies in the genomic era, based both on science and bioethics.

  3. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Aichivirus 1 in Wastewater Samples from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Burutarán, L; Lizasoain, A; García, M; Tort, L F L; Colina, R; Victoria, M

    2016-03-01

    Aichivirus 1 (AiV-1) is an enteric virus with 30 nm in diameter, belonging to the genus Kobuvirus in the Picornaviridae family being a causative agent of gastroenteritis in humans. The transmission is via the fecal-oral route, through person to person contact, recreation in contaminated waters, or through the consumption of contaminated food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and the molecular characterization of AiV-1 in wastewater from Uruguay. Biweekly collections from March 2011 to February 2012 were performed in the cities of Bella Unión, Salto, Paysandú, and Fray Bentos, northwestern region of Uruguay. A total of 96 samples were collected; viruses were concentrated by ultracentrifugation, and AiV-1 was detected by using a nested PCR with primers directed to a conserved region (3CD junction) of the viral genome. A high frequency of AiV-1 (n = 54) was observed at all the cities analyzed mainly in the colder months of the year. AiV-1 was not evidenced as an appropriate viral fecal indicator since when compared with other previously detected enteric viruses, no correlation was observed. All 13 characterized AiV-1 belonged to the genotype B after the phylogenetic analysis performed with the sequences obtained from the first round PCR amplicon. This study demonstrates that AiV-1 is a frequently detected enteric viruses present in wastewater and excreted by infected persons in the northwestern region of Uruguay.

  4. Brief Counseling on Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Pregnant Women in Argentina and Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Alemán, Alicia; Morello, Paola; Colomar, Mercedes; Llambi, Laura; Berrueta, Mabel; Gibbons, Luz; Buekens, Pierre; Althabe, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Argentina and Uruguay have a high prevalence of smoking during pregnancy, as well as of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. In this secondary analysis of a trial to implement brief smoking cessation counseling during antenatal care in Argentina and Uruguay, we aim to evaluate the effects of the intervention on the rates of self-reported SHS exposure at home and at work, and on attitudes recalled by non-smoker women enrolled in the intervention group compared with the control group. We randomly assigned (1:1) 20 antenatal care clusters in Argentina and Uruguay to receive a multifaceted intervention to implement brief smoking cessation counseling, which also included questions and counseling regarding SHS exposure, or to receive the standard of care. There was not a statistically significant difference between groups of the intervention’s effect (reduction of exposure to SHS) on any of the three exposure outcome measures (exposure at home, work or other indoor areas) or on the attitudes of women regarding exposure (avoiding breathing SHS and having rooms where smoking is forbidden). This analysis shows that we should not expect reductions in SHS exposure with this modest intervention alone. To achieve such reductions, strategies engaging partners and other household members may be more effective. PMID:28036075

  5. Brief Counseling on Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Pregnant Women in Argentina and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Alemán, Alicia; Morello, Paola; Colomar, Mercedes; Llambi, Laura; Berrueta, Mabel; Gibbons, Luz; Buekens, Pierre; Althabe, Fernando

    2016-12-29

    Argentina and Uruguay have a high prevalence of smoking during pregnancy, as well as of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. In this secondary analysis of a trial to implement brief smoking cessation counseling during antenatal care in Argentina and Uruguay, we aim to evaluate the effects of the intervention on the rates of self-reported SHS exposure at home and at work, and on attitudes recalled by non-smoker women enrolled in the intervention group compared with the control group. We randomly assigned (1:1) 20 antenatal care clusters in Argentina and Uruguay to receive a multifaceted intervention to implement brief smoking cessation counseling, which also included questions and counseling regarding SHS exposure, or to receive the standard of care. There was not a statistically significant difference between groups of the intervention's effect (reduction of exposure to SHS) on any of the three exposure outcome measures (exposure at home, work or other indoor areas) or on the attitudes of women regarding exposure (avoiding breathing SHS and having rooms where smoking is forbidden). This analysis shows that we should not expect reductions in SHS exposure with this modest intervention alone. To achieve such reductions, strategies engaging partners and other household members may be more effective.

  6. Long-term flow forecasts based on climate and hydrologic modeling: Uruguay River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucci, Carlos Eduardo Morelli; Clarke, Robin Thomas; Collischonn, Walter; da Silva Dias, Pedro Leite; de Oliveira, Gilvan Sampaio

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes a procedure for predicting seasonal flow in the Rio Uruguay drainage basin (area 75,000 km2, lying in Brazilian territory), using sequences of future daily rainfall given by the global climate model (GCM) of the Brazilian agency for climate prediction (Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Clima, or CPTEC). Sequences of future daily rainfall given by this model were used as input to a rainfall-runoff model appropriate for large drainage basins. Forecasts of flow in the Rio Uruguay were made for the period 1995-2001 of the full record, which began in 1940. Analysis showed that GCM forecasts underestimated rainfall over almost all the basin, particularly in winter, although interannual variability in regional rainfall was reproduced relatively well. A statistical procedure was used to correct for the underestimation of rainfall. When the corrected rainfall sequences were transformed to flow by the hydrologic model, forecasts of flow in the Rio Uruguay basin were better than forecasts based on historic mean or median flows by 37% for monthly flows and by 54% for 3-monthly flows.

  7. Questioning the "melting pot": analysis of Alu inserts in three population samples from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Pedro C; Mut, Patricia; Ackermann, Elizabeth; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Sans, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The way that immigrants integrate into recipient societies has been discussed for decades, mainly from the perspective of the social sciences. Uruguay, as other American countries, received diffferent waves of European immigrants, although the details of the process of assimilation, when it did occur, are unclear. In this study we used genetic markers to understand the process experienced by the Basques, one of the major migration waves that populated Uruguay, and their relation to other immigrants, as well as to Native American and African descendants. For this purpose, we analyzed the allele frequencies of 10 ALU loci (A25, ACE, APOA1, B65, D1, F13B, PV92, TPA25, HS2.43, and HS4.65) in three samples from Uruguay (two of Basque descendants, one of non-Basque descendants) from two locations: Montevideo and Trinidad. No departure from Hardy-Weinberg expectations was observed, with the exceptions of the APOA1 and D1 loci in the non-Basque descendants' samples. Our data show that the major genetic contribution in the three samples comes from Europe (78-88%), with minor African (10-15%) and Native American (0-10%) contributions. Genetic distances reveal that Basque descendants from Trinidad cluster with Europeans, whereas both Montevideo samples cluster together and are separate from other populations, showing two diffferent types of integration, related to the general characteristics of each regional population. Copyright © 2014 Wayne State University Press, Detroit, Michigan 48201-1309.

  8. Defending strong tobacco packaging and labelling regulations in Uruguay: transnational tobacco control network versus Philip Morris International.

    PubMed

    Crosbie, Eric; Sosa, Particia; Glantz, Stanton A

    2017-03-23

    Describe the process of enacting and defending strong tobacco packaging and labelling regulations in Uruguay amid Philip Morris International's (PMI) legal threats and challenges. Triangulated government legislation, news sources and interviews with policy-makers and health advocates in Uruguay. In 2008 and 2009, the Uruguayan government enacted at the time the world's largest pictorial health warning labels (80% of front and back of package) and prohibited different packaging or presentations for cigarettes sold under a given brand. PMI threatened to sue Uruguay in international courts if these policies were implemented. The Vazquez administration maintained the regulations, but a week prior to President Vazquez's successor, President Mujica, took office on 1 March 2010 PMI announced its intention to file an investment arbitration dispute against Uruguay in the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes. Initially, the Mujica administration announced it would weaken the regulations to avoid litigation. In response, local public health groups in Uruguay enlisted former President Vazquez and international health groups and served as brokers to develop a collaboration with the Mujica administration to defend the regulations. This united front between the Uruguayan government and the transnational tobacco control network paid off when Uruguay defeated PMI's investment dispute in July 2016. To replicate Uruguay's success, other countries need to recognise that strong political support, an actively engaged local civil society and financial and technical support are important factors in overcoming tobacco industry's legal threats to defend strong public health regulations. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. A ‘snapshot’ of the evolution of the Uruguay River (Del Plata Basin): the Salto depositional sequence (Pleistocene, Uruguay, South America)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veroslavsky, G.; Ubilla, M.

    2007-11-01

    This paper provides sedimentological details of the Salto depositional sequence of western Uruguay, which includes the Salto and the Bellaco Formations. These units are interpreted as evidence, in the Uruguayan landscape, of a Pleistocene forebear of the Uruguay River. The Salto depositional sequence, encompasses two depositional cycles: (a) the lower cycle, represented only by the Salto Formation, with conglomeratic sandstones and sandstones intercalated with pelites and fine sandstones; and (b) the upper cycle, represented by the Salto Formation and the Bellaco Formation, characterized by conglomerates and conglomeratic sandstones with horizontal stratification, discontinuous silicified sandy levels and gypsum-clay bodies. The Salto sequence is characterized by braided river deposits, genetically associated with lacustrine or palustrine and possible aeolian sediments. Cyclic alternations of channelized tractive currents and interchannel contexts are indicated. A possible Pleistocene age for the Salto Formation is discussed, in the light of new and preliminary information (thermoluminescence ages) from the lower cycle. There are several lines of evidence indicating semi-arid conditions during the 'Salto event'. Comments on regional correlation are provided, as well as the effects of neotectonic processes.

  10. Atmospheric Circulation Anomalies during Episodes of Enhanced and Reduced Convective Cloudiness over Uruguay.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, Alvaro; Aceituno, Patricio

    2003-10-01

    Regional and large-scale circulation anomalies associated with periods of enhanced and reduced convective cloudiness over Uruguay are studied for austral spring and summer, when rainfall associated with deep convection is more frequent in this region. The analysis was performed at a submonthly timescale, considering that the essential nature of the mechanisms producing rainfall is not well captured by anomalies calculated on a monthly or seasonal basis in regions where precipitation is highly episodic.Periods of enhanced and reduced convective cloudiness over Uruguay are characterized by a marked dipolar structure in the outgoing longwave radiation anomaly field along eastern South America from 10° to 40°S, with the centers of the dipole located over the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) and over a broad region including Uruguay, southern Brazil, and northeastern Argentina. This dipole, which corresponds to one of the key factors of climate dynamics in South America during spring and summer, seems to be part of a much larger wavelike quasi-barotropic structure that includes alternating centers of negative and positive geopotential height and temperature anomalies in the southern portion of the continent, and farther upstream in the southern Pacific. At the regional scale, periods of enhanced convection and rainfall over Uruguay are associated with the following features: a warm-core anticyclonic circulation anomaly in the middle and upper troposphere, centered on 34°S, 45°W, approximately; an intensified Chaco low in northwestern Argentina that favors a reinforced northwesterly flow of warm and moist air from the Amazon basin; and an anomalously strong subtropical jet along eastern South America. Periods with reduced convective cloudiness over Uruguay are characterized by circulation anomalies that are broadly opposite to those described before, although some significant asymmetries in their intensity are documented. No major differences were detected in

  11. Assessing the impact of cigarette package health warning labels: a cross-country comparison in Brazil, Uruguay, and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F; Villalobos, Victor; Szklo, André; Fong, Geoffrey T; Pérez, Cristina; Sebrié, Ernesto; Sansone, Natalie; Figueiredo, Valeska; Boado, Marcelo; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Bianco, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of different health warning labels (HWL). Material and Methods Data from the International Tobacco Control Survey (ITC Survey) were analyzed from adult smokers in Brazil, Uruguay and Mexico, each of which used a different HWL strategy (pictures of human suffering and diseased organs; abstract pictorial representations of risk; and text-only messages, respectively). Main outcomes were HWL salience and cognitive impact. Results HWLs in Uruguay (which was the only country with a HWL on the front of the package) had higher salience than either Brazilian or Mexican packs. People at higher levels of educational attainment in Mexico were more likely to read the text-only HWLs whereas education was unassociated with salience in Brazil or Uruguay. Brazilian HWLs had greater cognitive impacts than HWLs in either Uruguay or Mexico. HWLs in Uruguay generated lower cognitive impacts than the text-only HWLs in Mexico. In Brazil, cognitive impacts were strongest among smokers with low educational attainment. Conclusions This study suggests that HWLs have the most impact when they are prominent (i.e., front and back of the package) and include emotionally engaging imagery that illustrates negative bodily impacts or human suffering due to smoking. PMID:21243191

  12. Report of the procedure of voluntary interruption of pregnancy at a university hospital in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Bentancor, Ana; Hernández, Ana Laura; Godoy, Yamile; Dapueto, Juan J

    2016-07-04

    To describe the constitution and operation of a voluntary interruption of pregnancy team of a university hospital, from the outlook of the mental health team. In this case study, the following aspects were analyzed: 1) historical background; 2) implementation of Law 18,897 of October 22, 2012; and 3) functioning of the program at the Hospital de Clínicas of the Facultad de Medicina (Universidad de la República, Uruguay), taking into account three dimensions: structure, process, and results. Between December 2012 and November 2013, a total of 6,676 voluntary interruptions of pregnancy were reported in Uruguay; out of these, 80 were conducted at the Hospital de Clínicas. The patients' demographic data agreed with those reported at the national level: Of the total patients, 81.0% were aged over 19 years; 6.2% decided to continue with the pregnancy; and only 70.0% attended the subsequent control and received advice on contraception. In its implementation year in Uruguay, we can assess the experience as positive from the point of view of women's health. Our experience as a mental health team at the Hospital de Clínicas, inserted into the multidisciplinary voluntary interruption of pregnancy team, is in the process of assessment and reformulation of practices. Describir la conformación y funcionamiento de un equipo de interrupción voluntaria del embarazo de un hospital universitario, desde la mirada del equipo de salud mental. En este estudio de caso, se analizan los siguientes aspectos: 1) antecedentes históricos; 2) implementación de la Ley 18.897 de 22 de octubre de 2012; y 3) funcionamiento del programa en el Hospital de Clínicas de la Facultad de Medicina (Universidad de la República, Uruguay), teniendo en cuenta tres dimensiones (estructura, proceso y resultados). Entre diciembre de 2012 y noviembre de 2013, se reportaron en Uruguay un total de 6.676 interrupciones voluntarias del embarazo; de ellas, 80 se llevaron a cabo en el Hospital de Clínicas. Los

  13. Smoking Patterns and Receipt of Cessation Services Among Pregnant Women in Argentina and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Berrueta, Mabel; Morello, Paola; Alemán, Alicia; Tong, Van T; Johnson, Carolyn; Dietz, Patricia M; Farr, Sherry L; Mazzoni, Agustina; Colomar, Mercedes; Ciganda, Alvaro; Llambi, Laura; Becú, Ana; Gibbons, Luz; Smith, Ruben A; Buekens, Pierre; Belizán, Jose M; Althabe, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    The 5A's (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange) strategy, a best-practice approach for cessation counseling, has been widely implemented in high-income countries for pregnant women; however, no studies have evaluated implementation in middle-income countries. The study objectives were to assess smoking patterns and receipt of 5A's among pregnant women in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay. Data were collected through administered questionnaires to women at delivery hospitalizations during October 2011-May 2012. Eligible women attended one of 12 maternity hospitals or 21 associated prenatal care clinics. The questionnaire included demographic data, tobacco use/cessation behaviors, and receipt of the 5A's. Self-reported cessation was verified with saliva cotinine. Overall, of 3400 pregnant women, 32.8% smoked at the beginning of pregnancy; 11.9% quit upon learning they were pregnant or later during pregnancy, and 20.9% smoked throughout pregnancy. Smoking prevalence varied by country with 16.1% and 26.7% who smoked throughout pregnancy in Argentina and Uruguay, respectively. Among pregnant smokers in Argentina, 23.8% reported that a provider asked them about smoking at more than one prenatal care visit; 18.5% were advised to quit; 5.3% were assessed for readiness to quit, 4.7% were provided assistance, and 0.7% reported follow-up was arranged. In Uruguay, those percentages were 36.3%, 27.9%, 5.4%, 5.6%, and 0.2%, respectively. Approximately, one in six pregnant women smoked throughout pregnancy in Buenos Aires and one in four in Montevideo. However, a low percentage of smokers received any cessation assistance in both countries. Healthcare providers are not fully implementing the recommended 5A's intervention to help pregnant women quit smoking. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness in Uruguay: results of a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Gallarreta, Marcelo; Furtado, João M; Lansingh, Van C; Silva, Juan Carlos; Limburg, Hans

    2014-10-01

    To investigate and describe the prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment in older adults living in Uruguay. All individuals aged ≥ 50 years old living in randomly selected clusters were eligible to participate. In each census enumeration unit selected, 50 residents aged 50 years and older were chosen to participate in the study using compact segment sampling. The study participants underwent visual acuity (VA) measurement and lens examination; those with presenting VA (PVA) < 20/60 also underwent direct ophthalmoscopy. Moderate visual impairment (MVI) was defined as PVA < 20/60-20/200, severe visual impairment (SVI) was defined as PVA < 20/200-20/400, and blindness was defined as PVA < 20/400, all based on vision in the better eye with available correction. Out of 3 956 eligible individuals, 3 729 (94.3%) were examined. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of blindness was 0.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.5-1.3). Cataract (48.6%) and glaucoma (14.3%) were the main causes of blindness. Prevalence of SVI and MVI was 0.9% (95% CI: 0.5-1.3) and 7.9% (95% CI: 6.0-9.7) respectively. Cataract was the main cause of SVI (65.7%), followed by uncorrected refractive error (14.3%), which was the main cause of MVI (55.2%). Cataract surgical coverage was 76.8% (calculated by eye) and 91.3% (calculated by individual). Of all eyes operated for cataract, 70.0% could see ≥ 20/60 and 15.3% could not see 20/200 post-surgery. Prevalence of blindness in Uruguay is low compared to other Latin American countries, but further reduction is feasible. Due to Uruguay's high cataract surgical coverage and growing proportion of people ≥ 50 years old, the impact of posterior pole diseases as a contributing factor to blindness might increase in future.

  15. Agriculture In Uruguay: New Methods For Drought Monitoring and Crop Identification Using Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessel, J.; Ceccato, P.

    2014-12-01

    Agriculture is a vital resource in the country of Uruguay. Here we propose new methods using remotely sensed data for assisting ranchers, land managers, and policy makers in the country to better manage their crops. Firstly, we created a drought severity index based on the climatological anomalies of land surface temperature (LST) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission (TRMM), and normalized difference water index (NDWI) data also using MODIS. The use of the climatological anomalies on the variables has improved the ability of the index to correlate with known drought indices versus previously published indices, which had not used them. We applied various coefficient schemes and vegetation indices in order to choose the model which best correlated with the drought indices across 10 sites throughout Uruguay's rangelands. The model was tested over summer months from 2009-2013. In years where drought had indeed been a problem in the country (such as 2009) the model showed intense signals of drought. Secondly, we used Landsat images to identify winter and summer crops in Uruguay. We first classified them using ENVI and then used the classifications in an ArcMap model to identify specific crop areas. We first created a polygon of the classifications for soils and vegetation for each month (omitting cloud covered images). We then used the crop growing cycle to identify the times during the year for which specific polygons should be soil and which should be vegetation. By intersecting the soil polygons with the vegetation polygons during their respective time periods during the crop growing cycle we were able to create an accurately identify crops. When compared to a shapefile of proposed crops for the year the model obtained a kappa value of 0.60 with a probability of detection of 0.79 and a false alarm ratio of 0.31 for the south-western study area over the 2013-2014 summer.

  16. Provenance and paleogeography of the Devonian Durazno Group, southern Parana Basin in Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uriz, N. J.; Cingolani, C. A.; Basei, M. A. S.; Blanco, G.; Abre, P.; Portillo, N. S.; Siccardi, A.

    2016-03-01

    A succession of Devonian cover rocks occurs in outcrop and in the subsurface of central-northern Uruguay where they were deposited in an intracratonic basin. This Durazno Group comprises three distinct stratigraphic units, namely the Cerrezuelo, Cordobés and La Paloma formations. The Durazno Group does not exceed 300 m of average thickness and preserves a transgressive-regressive cycle within a shallow-marine siliciclastic shelf platform, and is characterized by an assemblage of invertebrate fossils of Malvinokaffric affinity especially within the Lower Devonian Cordobés shales. The sedimentary provenance of the Durazno Group was determined using petrography, geochemistry, and morphological studies of detrital zircons as well as their U-Pb ages. Sandstone petrography of Cerrezuelo and La Paloma sequences shows that they have a dominantly quartz-feldspathic composition with a minor contribution of other minerals. Whole-rock geochemical data indicate that alteration was strong in each of the three formations studied; chondritic-normalized REE patterns essentially parallel to PAAS, the presence of a negative Eu-anomaly, and Th/Sc and La/Hf ratios point to an average source composition similar to UCC or slightly more felsic. Within the Cerrezuelo Formation, recycling of older volcano-metasedimentary sources is interpreted from Zr/Sc ratios and high Hf, Zr, and REE concentrations. U-Pb detrital zircon age populations of the Cerrezuelo and La Paloma formations indicate that the principal source terranes are of Neoproterozoic age, but include also minor populations derived from Mesoproterozoic and Archean-Paleoproterozoic rocks. A provenance from the Cuchilla Dionisio-Dom Feliciano, Nico Pérez and Piedra Alta terranes of Uruguay and southern Brazil is likely. This study establishes an intracratonic extensional tectonic setting during Durazno time. Considering provenance age sources, regional paleocurrent distributions and the established orogenic history recorded in SW

  17. The incidence of prenatal alcohol exposure in Montevideo Uruguay as determined by meconium analysis.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Janine R; Magri, Raquel; Gareri, Joey N; Koren, Gideon

    2010-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to a wide range of deficits known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Epidemiologic studies regarding alcohol consumption in pregnancy have concentrated on North America, but recent reports have suggested that consumption is significant in many parts of the world. In Uruguay, alcohol consumption has changed into more risky and dangerous patterns and thus has a theoretical risk of having a high rate of prenatal alcohol exposure. This study characterizes the incidence of prenatal alcohol exposure in Montevideo, Uruguay, using a novel biomarker, fatty acid ethyl esters, in meconium as well as a survey to mothers. Nine hundred five meconium samples were collected from Hospital Pereira Rossell and Hospital de Clínicas in Montevideo, Uruguay. A maternal questionnaire was also completed. Meconium was analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters using liquid-liquid and solid phase extraction with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Meconium was also analyzed for other drugs of abuse using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Forty-four percent of meconium samples were above the positive cutoff for fatty acid ethyl esters and represent those newborns with risky prenatal exposure during the final two trimesters of pregnancy. Infants with prenatal alcohol exposure were more likely to have prenatal exposure to tobacco (odds ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-2.20) or any illicit drug (odds ratio, 2.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.98-5.31). Ethyl linoleate was a significant predictor of infant birth weight along with prenatal tobacco exposure, maternal body mass index, and infant sex. This study highlights a 44% incidence of prenatal alcohol exposure.

  18. Life history and assessment of grapevine phylloxera leaf galling incidence on Vitis species in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Vidart, María Valeria; Mujica, María Valentina; Bao, Leticia; Duarte, Felicia; Bentancourt, Carlos María; Franco, Jorge; Scatoni, Iris Beatriz

    2013-12-01

    Grapevine phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch) (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) is a worldwide pest of Vitis species. It has forms that feed on leaves and roots. Root forms predominate on Vitis vinifera (L.) cultivars, while leaf forms predominate on Vitis species from its native American range. Recently, high densities of D. vitifoliae infestations in leaves of V. vinifera in Brazil, Peru, and Uruguay have been reported. The aims of this study were to determine the seasonal development of grape phylloxera, quantify infestation levels on V. vinifera leaves, and compare them with infestation levels on leaves of a rootstock of American origin. Studies were conducted in two vineyards in Uruguay from 2004-2007. Terminal shoots of 3309 C and Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Tannat, Viognier, grafted onto resistant rootstock, were sampled weekly and leaves examined for gall presence and insect life stage. First galls were detected in early October; eggs began to appear within two weeks. Two oviposition peaks occurred by the end of December, and they coincided with bursts of shoot growth. On 3309C rootstock, oviposition peaks were more frequent than on the European cultivars. Based on thermal accumulation, D. vitifoliae could complete eight generations a year in Uruguay. Rootstock 3309C suffered the greatest damage but in some cases was similar to the European cultivars. Damage to Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon and Viognier were also high. There were no galls on Tannat. The 2005-2006 season was characterized by low infestation rates caused by a prolonged drought that affected vegetative growth. There were also differences between vineyards, where the vigorous plants suffering more damage. Leaf galling phylloxera incidence and damage were mainly associated to the cultivar but plant vigor and environmental factors also contributed to increase the incidence.

  19. Testing multicultural robustness of the Child Behavior Checklist in a national epidemiological sample in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Viola, Laura; Garrido, Gabriela; Rescorla, Leslie

    2011-08-01

    Comparisons of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores from 31 societies (Rescorla et al. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 15:13-142 2007) supported the instrument's multicultural robustness, but none of these societies was in South America. The present study tested the multicultural robustness of the 2001 CBCL using data from a national epidemiological survey in Uruguay. Participants were 1,374 6- to 11-year-olds recruited through 65 schools nationwide; 1,098 (80%) had received no mental health or special education services in the past year (non-referred group), whereas 276 (referred group) had been referred for mental health services, had repeated ≥ 2 grades, or had significant developmental disabilities. Mean item ratings, factor structure, and scale internal consistencies were very similar to findings reported by Rescorla et al. (Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 15:13-142 2007) and Ivanova et al. (Journal of Clinical Child and Adoloescent Psychology 36: 405-417 2007). Children from low SES school environments obtained higher problem scores, especially in the referred group. Gender, age, and referral status effects paralleled those in the U.S. Non-referred children obtained somewhat higher mean problem scores in Uruguay than in the U.S., but mean score differences between non-referred and referred children were smaller in Uruguay than the U.S. Findings supporting the CBCL's multicultural robustness in a South American country extend the generalizability of findings reported by Rescorla et al. (Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 15:13-142 2007) for 31 societies.

  20. Smoking Patterns and Receipt of Cessation Services Among Pregnant Women in Argentina and Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Berrueta, Mabel; Morello, Paola; Alemán, Alicia; Tong, Van T.; Johnson, Carolyn; Dietz, Patricia M.; Farr, Sherry L.; Mazzoni, Agustina; Colomar, Mercedes; BInfoTech, Alvaro Ciganda; Llambi, Laura; Becú, Ana; Gibbons, Luz; Smith, Ruben A.; Buekens, Pierre; Belizán, Jose M.; Althabe, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The 5A’s (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange) strategy, a best-practice approach for cessation counseling, has been widely implemented in high-income countries for pregnant women; however, no studies have evaluated implementation in middle-income countries. The study objectives were to assess smoking patterns and receipt of 5A’s among pregnant women in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay. Methods Data were collected through administered questionnaires to women at delivery hospitalizations during October 2011–May 2012. Eligible women attended one of 12 maternity hospitals or 21 associated prenatal care clinics. The questionnaire included demographic data, tobacco use/cessation behaviors, and receipt of the 5A’s. Self-reported cessation was verified with saliva cotinine. Results Overall, of 3400 pregnant women, 32.8% smoked at the beginning of pregnancy; 11.9% quit upon learning they were pregnant or later during pregnancy, and 20.9% smoked throughout pregnancy. Smoking prevalence varied by country with 16.1% and 26.7% who smoked throughout pregnancy in Argentina and Uruguay, respectively. Among pregnant smokers in Argentina, 23.8% reported that a provider asked them about smoking at more than one prenatal care visit; 18.5% were advised to quit; 5.3% were assessed for readiness to quit, 4.7% were provided assistance, and 0.7% reported follow-up was arranged. In Uruguay, those percentages were 36.3%, 27.9%, 5.4%, 5.6%, and 0.2%, respectively. Conclusions Approximately, one in six pregnant women smoked throughout pregnancy in Buenos Aires and one in four in Montevideo. However, a low percentage of smokers received any cessation assistance in both countries. Healthcare providers are not fully implementing the recommended 5A’s intervention to help pregnant women quit smoking. PMID:26117836

  1. The mitochondrial DNA history of a former native American village in northern Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Sans, Mónica; Mones, Pablo; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Barreto, Isabel; Motti, Josefina M B; Coble, Michael D; Bravi, Claudio M; Hidalgo, Pedro C

    2015-01-01

    In 1828, between 8,000 and 15,000 Indians from the Jesuit Missions were brought to Uruguay. There, they were settled in a village, presently named Bella Unión, in the northwest corner of the country. According to historic sources, the Indians abandoned the settlement shortly thereafter, with the village subsequently repopulated by "criollos" and immigrants from abroad. As a first approach to reconstruct the genetic history of the population, data about the living population genetic structure will be used. Based on the analysis of the maternal lineages of the inhabitants of Bella Unión, and of those from two nearby villages, we expect to partially answer what happened with the first and subsequent inhabitants. We analyzed the maternal lineages of the present inhabitants of Bella Unión and neighboring localities through the sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA control region. A total of 64.3%, 5.7%, and 30% of the mtDNAs were of Native, African, and West Eurasian origin, respectively. These figures are quite similar to that of the population of Tacuarembó, which is located in northeastern Uruguay. The four main Native American founding haplogroups were detected, with B2 being the most frequent, while some rare subhaplogroups (B2h, C1b2, D1f1) were also found. When compared with other Native American sequences, near- matches most consistently pointed to an Amazonian Indian origin which, when considered with historical evidence, suggested a probable Guaraní-Missionary-related origin. The data support the existence of a relationship between the historic and present inhabitants of the extreme northwest Uruguay, with a strong contribution of Native Americans to the mitochondrial DNA diversity observed there. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Sewage surveillance reveals the presence of canine GVII norovirus and canine astrovirus in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lizasoain, A; Tort, L F L; García, M; Gómez, M M; Leite, J P G; Miagostovich, M P; Cristina, J; Berois, M; Colina, R; Victoria, Matías

    2015-11-01

    Canine norovirus (NoV) and astrovirus (AstV) were studied in 20 domestic sewage samples collected in two cities in Uruguay. Four samples were characterized as canine AstV after phylogenetic analysis clustering with strains detected in Italy and Brazil in 2008 and 2012, respectively. One sample was characterized as canine NoV and clustered with a strain detected in Hong Kong and recently classified as GVII. This study shows the occurrence of a canine NoV GVII strain for the first time in the American continent and also warns about possible zoonotic infection, since canine strains were detected in domestic sewage.

  3. FY04 Inspection Results for Wet Uruguay Fuel in L-Basin

    SciTech Connect

    VORMELKER, PHILIP

    2005-09-01

    The 2004 visual inspection of four Uruguay nuclear fuel assemblies stored in L-Basin was completed. This was the third inspection of this wet stored fuel since its arrival in the summer of 1998. Visual inspection photographs of the fuel from the previous and the recent inspections were compared and no evidence of significant corrosion was found on the individual fuel plate photographs. Fuel plates that showed areas of pitting in the cladding during the original receipt inspection were also identified during the 2004 inspection. However, a few pits were found on the non-fuel aluminum clamping plates that were not visible during the original and 2001 inspections.

  4. DNA multigene characterization of Fasciola hepatica and Lymnaea neotropica and its fascioliasis transmission capacity in Uruguay, with historical correlation, human report review and infection risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Bargues, María Dolores; Gayo, Valeria; Sanchis, Jaime; Artigas, Patricio; Khoubbane, Messaoud; Birriel, Soledad; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2017-02-01

    Fascioliasis is a pathogenic disease transmitted by lymnaeid snails and recently emerging in humans, in part due to effects of climate changes, anthropogenic environment modifications, import/export and movements of livestock. South America is the continent presenting more human fascioliasis hyperendemic areas and the highest prevalences and intensities known. These scenarios appear mainly linked to altitude areas in Andean countries, whereas lowland areas of non-Andean countries, such as Uruguay, only show sporadic human cases or outbreaks. A study including DNA marker sequencing of fasciolids and lymnaeids, an experimental study of the life cycle in Uruguay, and a review of human fascioliasis in Uruguay, are performed. The characterization of Fasciola hepatica from cattle and horses of Uruguay included the complete sequences of the ribosomal DNA ITS-2 and ITS-1 and mitochondrial DNA cox1 and nad1. ITS-2, ITS-1, partial cox1 and rDNA 16S gene of mtDNA were used for lymnaeids. Results indicated that vectors belong to Lymnaea neotropica instead of to Lymnaea viator, as always reported from Uruguay. The life cycle and transmission features of F. hepatica by L. neotropica of Uruguay were studied under standardized experimental conditions to enable a comparison with the transmission capacity of F. hepatica by Galba truncatula at very high altitude in Bolivia. On this baseline, we reviewed the 95 human fascioliasis cases reported in Uruguay and analyzed the risk of human infection in front of future climate change estimations. The correlation of fasciolid and lymnaeid haplotypes with historical data on the introduction and spread of livestock into Uruguay allowed to understand the molecular diversity detected. Although Uruguayan L. neotropica is a highly efficient vector, its transmission capacity is markedly lower than that of Bolivian G. truncatula. This allows to understand the transmission and epidemiological differences between Andean highlands and non

  5. [Rejecting or prioritizing life? The ambiguities of AIDS biopolitics in Uruguay].

    PubMed

    Reihling, Hanspeter

    2010-06-01

    The biopolitics of aids in Uruguay could be seen between two big poles: the investment and the rejection of life. The productive mode can be expressed in the treatment of children who contracted HIV through mother to child transmission. For these children the infection in many cases becomes an asset until they reach adolescence. Except of some efforts of forced detention and mandatory testing, the public health system as well as NGOs show little interest in assisting adolescence infected or affected by HIV/aids. This is the result of a moral economy which marks people who are able to transmit the virus sexually or who have contracted it through sexual intercourse. Especially HIV positive mothers are seen as irresponsible and dangerous in contraposition to their "pure" offspring. However, this moral discourse hardly takes into account the larger social and economic context in which those mothers contracted the virus and as they faced Antiretroviral Therapy (ART). The life history of an adolescent boy will be told in order to reflect upon the modes of inclusion and exclusion of people living with HIV/aids since the beginning of the epidemic in Uruguay. Although the case is not representative, it identifies dynamics within the Uruguayan health system which are difficult to discern through conventional statistical methods.

  6. Cannabis policy reforms in the Americas: a comparative analysis of Colorado, Washington, and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Bryce

    2014-07-01

    Legal reforms in the Americas are influencing the public debate on cannabis policy. Uruguay and the two US states of Colorado and Washington have taken steps to regulate and legitimize the production, distribution, and use of cannabis and its derivatives. Earlier experiences with medical cannabis in the United States and limited access and production models in Europe have been insightful. However, these reforms are going further still, venturing into a new area of cannabis policy. A lack of empirical evidence regarding the effects of such reforms poses a challenge for policymakers. These examples will inform the design and implementation of any future cannabis policies. Therefore, a clear understanding of the details of each jurisdiction is necessary in developing future legal changes. Literature comparing the models of Uruguay, Colorado, and Washington is thin. This paper is based on an exhaustive examination of the laws, regulations, and discussions with regulators and functionaries of each jurisdiction. The research and analysis herein will provide policymakers with a greater understanding of the laws and regulations relevant to legal cannabis in these three jurisdictions, as well as draw to their attention some potential impacts and challenges of cannabis reform that require additional consideration to ensure public safety and health.

  7. Occupational exposures and risk of adenocarcinoma of the lung in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    De Stefani, Eduardo; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Ronco, Alvaro; Gutiérrez, Luis Piñeyro

    2005-09-01

    To investigate occupational risks of lung adenocarcinoma in Uruguay and to confirm a previously reported increased risk among butchers. We conducted a case-control study among men in four major hospitals in Montevideo, based on interviews to 338 cases of lung adenocarcinoma and 1014 hospital-based controls. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) of lung adenocarcinoma for employment in 22 jobs, after adjustment for tobacco smoking and other potential confounders. The OR was increased for employment as farmer, tractor driver, painter and medical worker, but no trend was suggested for duration of employment. Long-term employment as mason, glass worker or textile worker resulted in an increased OR. The OR for employment as butcher was 1.2 (95% confidence interval 0.7-2.1). The OR increased with increasing duration of self-reported exposure to formaldehyde. Occupational exposures seem to play a limited role in causing lung adenocarcinoma among men in Uruguay. Employment as butcher was not confirmed as an important risk factor.

  8. Evolution of venom antigenaemia and antivenom concentration in patients bitten by snakes in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Morais, Victor; Negrín, Alba; Tortorella, María Noel; Massaldi, Hugo

    2012-11-01

    In this work we describe the first study carried out in Uruguay of venom antigenaemia and antivenom concentration in patients bitten by snakes. Between 50 and 70 snake bite accidents per year are caused in Uruguay by 2 species: Rhinocerophis alternatus and Bothropoides pubescens. The patients are treated with a specific polyvalent antivenom. Gaining insight on the evolution of venom antigenaemia and antivenom concentration in patients is important to improve treatment protocols. Blood samples of 29 patients were analysed to determine venom and antivenom concentrations at different times. Venom was detected in 18 of 19 samples before antivenom administration, with a mean concentration of 57 ng/mL. Most of the patients received 4 or 8 vials to neutralize the venom effects. Only one patient needed a total of 16 vials. He showed a severe envenomation and needed supplementary amounts of antivenom after the fifth day of the snake bite accident to reach normal clotting parameters. Antivenom concentrations were determined at 12 h, 24 h and 15 days after antivenom administration. It was found a faster antivenom decrease between 12 and 24 h than to 24 h to 15 days. This was explained by a different clearance mechanism in each period. In the first phase, the cause would be the neutralization of venom present in the blood whereas in the second phase it would be due to unbound antivenom elimination.

  9. [Fiscal policy, affordability and cross effects in the demand for tobacco products: the case of Uruguay].

    PubMed

    Carbajales, Alejandro Ramos; Curti, Dardo

    2010-01-01

    Uruguay, a country with a solid tobacco control policy since 2005 shows, contrary to expectations, an insignificant decrease in total tobacco products' sales in the last five years. The hypothesis is that on one side, changes in household income and the income elasticity of the demand for cigarettes were important countervailing factors in the demand of both products. The period 2005-2009 shows a large increase of 36% in household real income in Uruguay due to fast economic recovery after the 2002 crisis. The second factor is the interchangeability of roll your own and cigarettes and the impact on the demand of each product as a reaction to tax and price changes. The tax and price of roll your own tobacco remains substantially lower than that of cigarettes. This fact, and the increased substitution of roll your own for cigarettes seems to be the main reasons for the low impact of the policy of tobacco tax and price increases. This paper then consists of a revision of a 2004 study to estimate separate demands for both main tobacco products and obtain estimates for own price, cross price and income elasticities. Then, a simulation study was performed using the elasticities found and two scenarios of increases in household income: moderate (2.5% per year) and high (5% per year) confirming that countries where income is growing fast and with a potential for substitution towards cheaper products require substantial cigarette tax and price increases for a fiscal tobacco control policy to become effective.

  10. Three decades of the history of donation and transplantation in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, I; Bengochea, M; Mizraji, R; Toledo, R; Saldías, M C; Carretto, E; Pérez, H; Castro, A; García, C

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the evolution of the legal framework, health system of donation, and transplantation of cells, tissues, and organs, measured based on processes and rates from 1978 to 2008 in Uruguay. We analyzed 3 decades (1978-1988/1989-1998/1999-2008) by the following evaluation: the legislation, donation and transplantation system, procurement, registration of pre-state of voluntary donations, actual donations and transplantation rates of solid organs (kidneys, heart, liver, and pancreas), and rates of donation and transplantation of tissues (corneal and laminar [skin, amniotic membrane, and fascialata]), of cardiovascular elements (valves and vases), and of ostearticular tissues (bones and tendons). Uruguay has maintained continuous governmental politics in donation and transplantation. In the last decade the elaboration of a strategic plan by promoting Laws and Decrees of Encephalic Death, Presumed Donation and Security of Cells and Tissues, as well as the creation of the Unit Procurement, the registration of nonrelated donors for hematopoietic stem cells, and the re-engineering of tissue banking, has shown a significant increase in deceased donation and cadaveric transplantation, reaching the first highest overall donor rate in Latin America with 24/pmp multiorgan donors.

  11. Genetic heterogeneity and subtyping of human Hepatitis E virus isolates from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Mirazo, Santiago; Ramos, Natalia; Russi, José Carlos; Arbiza, Juan

    2013-05-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an important public health concern in many developing countries causing waterborne outbreaks, as well as sporadic autochthonous hepatitis. It is transmitted primarily by the fecal-oral route. However, zoonotic transmission from animal reservoirs to human has also been suggested. Genotype 3 is the most frequent genotype found in South America and the HEV epidemiology in this region seems to be very complex. However, data about the molecular characterization of HEV isolates of the region is still lacking and further investigation is needed. Our study characterized human HEV strains detected in a 1-year period in Uruguay, by extensive sequence analysis of three regions of the HEV genome. Uruguayan strains were closely related to a set of European strains and in turn, were dissimilar to Brazilian, Argentinean and Bolivian isolates. Additionally, the co-circulation of viral subtypes 3i and 3h was observed. Circulation of subtype 3i had been reported in Argentina and Bolivia whereas sequences of subtype 3h are rare and had never been reported in Latin America. In order to contribute to shedding light over the molecular epidemiology of this emergent infection in the region, we thoroughly analyzed the genetic variability of HEV strains detected in Uruguay, providing the largest dataset of sequences of HEV ever reported in a country in South America.

  12. Clinical spectrum of cutaneous manifestations in renal and renopancreatic recipients in two centers in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Dufrechou, L; Nin, M; Curi, L; Larre Borges, P; Martínez Asuaga, M; Noboa, O; Orihuela, S; González-Martínez, F; Larre Borges, A

    2014-11-01

    Uruguay, with a total population of 3,345,000 inhabitants, is the Latin American country with the second highest number of renal replacement therapies. Long-term immunosuppressant therapy is essential for graft survival but results in reduced immunosurveillance, leading to an increased risk of complications. A variety of dermatological manifestations and a large increase in nonmelanoma skin cancers have been reported in this population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency and clinical spectrum of cutaneous manifestations in renal and renopancreatic recipients in 2 reference centers in Uruguay. Two hundred and six renal or renopancreatic recipients between 21 and 77 years old were evaluated between September 2009 and September 2011. A total of 206 dermatoses were observed; 60% of the patients had at least 1 cutaneous manifestation. The most frequent dermatoses were cutaneous side effects due to immunosuppressive treatment (40.6%), followed by infections (26.1%), miscellaneous causes (18.9%), and malignant and premalignant lesions (14.4%). Transplant recipients represent a high-risk dermatological population. Physicians in transplant units should be aware of the importance of dermatological screening in order to promote early detection of skin cancer.

  13. Public versus private treatment of chronic diseases in seniors: Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Cataife, Guido

    2012-01-01

    This article measures differences in the likelihood of treatment of chronic diseases in elders across types of coverage (private, public and social security) in four major Latin American cities: Buenos Aires (Argentina), Sao Paulo (Brazil), Santiago (Chile) and Montevideo (Uruguay). We used a logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio for treatment of chronic diseases carried by individuals with public, private and social security coverage. The data were from the Survey on health, well-being and aging in Latin America and the Caribbean (SABE) conducted in 1999 and 2000. We find a strong association between possession of public coverage only and treatment failure of chronic diseases in elders in Argentina. We find no significant association for Brazil, Chile and Uruguay. In Buenos Aires, access to private or social security coverage is a necessity for elders because the public sector fails to provide proper treatment. In the remaining cities, private or social security coverage provides similar coverage for chronic diseases in elders compared with the public sector. For this group of countries, the main difference between the former and the latter seems to be in terms of 'luxurious' characteristics, such as the quality of the facilities and waiting times.

  14. Genetic characterization and phylogeography of the wild boar Sus scrofa introduced into Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    García, Graciela; Vergara, Julia; Lombardi, Raúl

    2011-01-01

    The European wild boar Sus scrofa was first introduced into Uruguay, in southern South America during the early decades of the last century. Subsequently, and starting from founder populations, its range spread throughout the country and into the neighbouring Brazilian state Rio Grande do Sul. Due to the subsequent negative impact, it was officially declared a national pest. The main aim in the present study was to provide a more comprehensive scenario of wild boar differentiation in Uruguay, by using mtDNA markers to access the genetic characterization of populations at present undergoing rapid expansion. A high level of haplotype diversity, intermediate levels of nucleotide diversity and considerable population differentiation, were detected among sampled localities throughout major watercourses and catchment dams countrywide. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of two different phylogroups, thereby reflecting two deliberate introduction events forming distantly genetic lineages in local wild boar populations. Our analysis lends support to the hypothesis that the invasive potential of populations emerge from introgressive hybridization with domestic pigs. On taking into account the appreciable differentiation and reduced migration between locales in wild boar populations, management strategies could be effective if each population were to be considered as a single management unit. PMID:21734838

  15. Documentation of subtype C HIV Type 1 strains in Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Carrion, G; Eyzaguirre, L; Montano, S M; Laguna-Torres, V; Serra, M; Aguayo, N; Avila, M M; Ruchansky, D; Pando, M A; Vinoles, Jose; Perez, J; Barboza, A; Chauca, G; Romero, A; Galeano, A; Blair, P J; Weissenbacher, M; Birx, D L; Sanchez, J L; Olson, J G; Carr, J K

    2004-09-01

    HIV subtypes B, F, and BF recombinants have been previously reported in South America. This report describes the presence of HIV-1 subtype C infection in the countries of Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay dating back to at least 1999. Surveillance for uncommon non-B/non-F subtype viruses circulating in South America has been conducted in samples obtained from nine countries. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), dried filter paper (FP), and fresh blood (FB) samples were collected from HIV-positive patients from Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, Chile, Bolivia, Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay. From a total of 2962 HIV seropositive samples examined during a 9-year period (1995-2003), only 11 (0.4%) were found to be infected with non-B/non-F HIV variants. Eight of these 11 strains were determined to be subtype C by heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA). Five of these 8 strains were further characterized by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the protease (Pro) and reverse transcriptase (RT) region of the genome and two were sequenced full length. One of the strains was found to be a unique BC recombinant. The spread of a third subtype of HIV, subtype C, should raise the question of its potential future role in the HIV epidemic in this region.

  16. Population genetic analysis and trichothecene profiling of Fusarium graminearum from wheat in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Pan, D; Mionetto, A; Calero, N; Reynoso, M M; Torres, A; Bettucci, L

    2016-03-11

    Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto (F. graminearum s.s.) is the major causal agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat worldwide, and contaminates grains with trichothecene mycotoxins that cause serious threats to food safety and animal health. An important aspect of managing this pathogen and reducing mycotoxin contamination of wheat is knowledge regarding its population genetics. Therefore, isolates of F. graminearum s.s. from the major wheat-growing region of Uruguay were analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism assays, PCR genotyping, and chemical analysis of trichothecene production. Of the 102 isolates identified as having the 15-ADON genotype via PCR genotyping, all were DON producers, but only 41 strains were also 15-ADON producers, as determined by chemical analysis. The populations were genotypically diverse but genetically similar, with significant genetic exchange occurring between them. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that most of the genetic variability resulted from differences between isolates within populations. Multilocus linkage disequilibrium analysis suggested that the isolates had a panmictic population genetic structure and that there is significant recombination occurs in F. graminearum s.s. In conclusion, tour findings provide the first detailed description of the genetic structure and trichothecene production of populations of F. graminearum s.s. from Uruguay, and expands our understanding of the agroecology of F. graminearum and of the correlation between genotypes and trichothecene chemotypes.

  17. Use of Reproductive Microhabitat by Melanophryniscus montevidensis (Anura: Bufonidae) from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gisela; Maneyro, Raúl

    2016-08-01

    This study describes the reproductive microhabitat of Melanophryniscus montevidensis and its use in two water bodies (WBs) in Barra de la Laguna de Rocha, Uruguay. Monthly field trips were performed between March 2012 and February 2013. Variables related to the WBs and vegetation, as well as parameters linked to the usage the amphibians make of the site (e.g: distance to the border of the pond, water depth and the vegetation use) were recorded. The behavior shown by the individuals during the breeding activity was recorded. This activity occurs in shallow temporary WBs with abundant hydrophilic vegetation. The individuals were found more frequently in areas near the edge of the pond, which has denser vegetation. The calling males were found closer to the border of the pond, and they showed better body condition than the non-calling males. In addition to calling activities, males used alternative tactics to find couples, such as active search of females, and aggressive behaviors, such as male displacing and physical combat. Such behaviors are common in anurans with explosive reproductive dynamics. The characterization of the reproductive microhabitats permits the proposal of strategies for the conservation of the species in Uruguay, given that the loss and fragmentation of habitats is one of the main causes considered for the decrease in their populations.

  18. Fusarium and Aspergillus mycotoxins contaminating wheat silage for dairy cattle feeding in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Del Palacio, Agustina; Bettucci, Lina; Pan, Dinorah

    Wheat is one of the most important cultivated cereals in Uruguay for human consumption; however, when harvest yields are low, wheat is usually used in ensiling for animal feeding. Ensiling is a forage preservation method that allows for storage during extended periods of time while maintaining nutritional values comparable to fresh pastures. Silage is vulnerable to contamination by spoilage molds and mycotoxins because ensilage materials are excellent substrates for fungal growth. The aim of the study was to identify the mycobiota composition and occurrence of aflatoxins and DON from wheat silage. A total of 220 samples of wheat were collected from four farms in the southwest region of Uruguay were silage practices are developed. The main fungi isolated were Fusarium (43%) and Aspergillus (36%), with Fusarium graminearum sensu lato and Aspergillus section Flavi being the most prevalent species. Aflatoxin concentrations in silo bags ranged from 6.1 to 23.3μg/kg, whereas DON levels ranged between 3000μg/kg and 12,400μg/kg. When evaluating aflatoxigenic capacity, 27.5% of Aspergillus section Flavi strains produced AFB1, 5% AFB2, 10% AFG1 and 17.5% AFG2. All isolates of F. graminearum sensu lato produced DON and 15-AcDON. The results from this study contribute to the knowledge of mycobiota and mycotoxins present in wheat silage.

  19. Non-alcoholic beverages and risk of bladder cancer in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    De Stefani, Eduardo; Boffetta, Paolo; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Correa, Pelayo; Ronco, Alvaro L; Brennan, Paul; Ferro, Gilles; Acosta, Giselle; Mendilaharsu, María

    2007-01-01

    Background Bladder cancer is the fourth most frequent malignancy among Uruguayan men. A previous study from Uruguay suggested a high risk of bladder cancer associated with maté drinking. We conducted an additional case-control study in order to further explore the role of non-alcoholic beverages in bladder carcinogenesis. Methods In the time period 1996–2000, 255 incident cases with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder and 501 patients treated in the same hospitals and in the same time period were frequency matched on age, sex, and residence. Both cases and controls were face-to-face interviewed on occupation, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and intake of maté, coffee, tea, and soft drinks. Statistical analysis was carried out by unconditional multiple logistic regression. Results Ever maté drinking was positively associated with bladder cancer (odds ratio [OR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–3.9) and the risk increased for increasing duration and amount of maté drinking. Both coffee and tea were strongly associated with bladder cancer risk (OR for coffee drinking 1.6, 95% CI 1.2–2.3; OR for tea drinking 2.3, 95% CI 1.5–3.4). These results were confirmed in a separate analysis of never-smokers. Conclusion Our results suggest that drinking of maté, coffee and tea may be risk factors for bladder carcinoma in Uruguay. PMID:17394632

  20. Detection of Alpha and Gamma-Proteobacteria in Amblyomma triste (Acari: Ixodidae) from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Venzal, José Manuel; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Portillo, Aránzazu; Mangold, Atilio J; Castro, Oscar; de Souza, Carlos G; Félix, María L; Pérez-Martínez, Laura; Santibánez, Sonia; Oteo, José A

    2008-01-01

    Amblyomma triste is the most prevalent tick species reported in human tick bites in Uruguay and has been found to be infected with Rickettsia parkeri, but no other microorganisms have been reported from this tick. A sample of 254 adults of A. triste was collected by flagging on vegetation in suburban areas in southern Uruguay. Pools of five ticks were assembled and a screening for the DNA from the resulting 51 pools was realized by PCR assays using primers for amplifying a fragment of 16S rRNA gene for members of Anaplasmataceae. Seventeen pools were positive (33%) and the sequenciation of the gene fragment amplified revealed the presence of a putative new Alpha-Proteobacterium (denominated Atri-uru). The phylogenetic analysis showed that this microorganism is closely related to the symbiont of I. ricinus denominated 'Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii' and other associated organisms. This rickettsial symbiont of ticks is included in a recent new clade proposed for the Alpha subclass of the Proteobacteria. The discovery of this bacterium in A. triste is the first evidence of this group of Rickettsiales detected in the Genus Amblyomma, and the first record in South America. Also, in two of 17 positive samples a Gamma-Proteobacterium related to Francisella-like organisms was detected.

  1. Influence of sociodemographic characteristics on different dimensions of household food insecurity in Montevideo, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Máximo; Ferre, Zuleika; Curutchet, María Rosa; Giménez, Ana; Ares, Gastón

    2017-03-01

    To determine the factor structure of the Latin American & Caribbean Household Food Security Scale (ELCSA) and to study the influence of sociodemographic characteristics on each of the identified dimensions in Montevideo, Uruguay. Cross-sectional survey with a representative sample of urban households. Household food insecurity was measured using the ELCSA. The percentage of respondents who gave affirmative responses for each of the items of the ELCSA was determined. Exploratory factor analysis was carried out to determine the ELCSA's factor structure. A probit model was used to determine the impact of some individual and household sociodemographic characteristics on the identified dimensions of food insecurity. Metropolitan area centred on Montevideo, the capital city of Uruguay, April-September 2014. Adults aged between 18 and 93 years (n 742). The percentage of affirmative responses to the items of the ELCSA ranged from 4·4 to 31·7 %. Two factors were identified in the exploratory factor analysis performed on data from households without children under 18 years old, whereas three factors were identified for households with children. The identified factors were associated with different severity levels of food insecurity. Likelihood of experiencing different levels of food insecurity was affected by individual characteristics of the respondent as well as characteristics of the household. The influence of sociodemographic variables varied among the ELCSA dimensions. Household income had the largest influence on all dimensions, which indicates a strong relationship between income and food insecurity.

  2. Breast cancer risk and genetic ancestry: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Carolina; Bertoni, Bernardo; Hidalgo, Pedro C; Artagaveytia, Nora; Ackermann, Elizabeth; Barreto, Isabel; Cancela, Paula; Cappetta, Mónica; Egaña, Ana; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Heinzen, Silvina; Hooker, Stanley; Román, Estela; Sans, Mónica; Kittles, Rick A

    2015-01-01

    Uruguay exhibits one of the highest rates of breast cancer in Latin America, similar to those of developed nations, the reasons for which are not completely understood. In this study we investigated the effect that ancestral background has on breast cancer susceptibility among Uruguayan women. We carried out a case-control study of 328 (164 cases, 164 controls) women enrolled in public hospitals and private clinics across the country. We estimated ancestral proportions using a panel of nuclear and mitochondrial ancestry informative markers (AIMs) and tested their association with breast cancer risk. Nuclear individual ancestry in cases was (mean ± SD) 9.8 ± 7.6% African, 13.2 ± 10.2% Native American and 77.1 ± 13.1% European, and in controls 9.1 ± 7.5% African, 14.7 ± 11.2% Native American and 76.2 ± 14.2% European. There was no evidence of a difference in nuclear or mitochondrial ancestry between cases and controls. However, European mitochondrial haplogroup H was associated with breast cancer (OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.1, 3.5). We have not found evidence that overall genetic ancestry differs between breast cancer patients and controls in Uruguay but we detected an association of the disease with a European mitochondrial lineage, which warrants further investigation.

  3. "Let the "Orientales" Be as Enlightened as They Are Brave": The Digital Divide in the Context of Uruguay's Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capurro, Rafael; Rodríguez Fleitas, Maximiliano

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present two recent information literacy and access initiatives in Uruguay and their necessary historical antecedents, and analyze them from a phenomenological perspective to provide commentary on current philosophical discussions about information and the digital divide. To provide historical context we present a brief history of…

  4. Situation Report--Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to pupulation and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  5. Full-Genome Sequence of Listeria monocytogenes Strain H34, Isolated from a Newborn with Sepsis in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Muchaamba, Francis; Guldimann, Claudia; Tasara, Taurai; Mota, María Inés; Braga, Valeria; Varela, Gustavo; Algorta, Gabriela; Klumpp, Jochen; Jermini, Marco; Stephan, Roger

    2017-06-15

    The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes causes severe disease mainly in the vulnerable populations of the young, old, pregnant, and immunocompromised. Here, we present the genome sequence of L. monocytogenes H34, a serotype 1/2b, lineage I, sequence type 489 (ST489) strain, isolated from a neonatal sepsis case in Uruguay. Copyright © 2017 Muchaamba et al.

  6. 77 FR 65672 - Correction to Notice of Implementation of Determinations Under Section 129 of the Uruguay Round...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... cash deposit rate as part of implementation of its determinations under section 129 of the Uruguay... producer are listed below: Final Determinations: Recalculated Antidumping Duty Cash Deposit Rates Amended Antidumping Duty Cash Deposit Rates (Percent) Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe From the PRC...

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strain MtURU-001, Isolated from a Rapidly Progressing Outbreak in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Greif, Gonzalo; Iraola, Gregorio; Berná, Luisa; Coitinho, Cecilia; Rivas, Carlos M.; Naya, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Despite efficient control programs, large clonal outbreaks of tuberculosis (TB) may arise in low-risk populations. Recently, an unusual TB outbreak was reported in Uruguay, reaching an elevated disease attack rate (53 to 69%). Here, we report the genome sequence of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain associated with this rapidly progressing outbreak, named MtURU-001. PMID:24459279

  8. Rickettsia parkeri: a Rickettsial pathogen transmitted by ticks in endemic areas for spotted fever rickettsiosis in southern Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Venzal, José M; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Portillo, Aránzazu; Mangold, Atilio J; Castro, Oscar; De Souza, Carlos G; Félix, María L; Pérez-Martínez, Laura; Santibánez, Sonia; Oteo, José A

    2012-01-01

    At first Rickettsia conorii was implicated as the causative agent of spotted fever in Uruguay diagnosed by serological assays. Later Rickettsia parkeri was detected in human-biting Amblyomma triste ticks using molecular tests. The natural vector of R. conorii, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has not been studied for the presence of rickettsial organisms in Uruguay. To address this question, 180 R. sanguineus from dogs and 245 A. triste from vegetation (flagging) collected in three endemic localities were screened for spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiosis in southern Uruguay. Tick extracted DNA pools were subjected to PCR using primers which amplify a fragment of the rickettsial gltA gene. Positive tick DNA pools with these primers were subjected to a second PCR round with primers targeting a fragment of the ompA gene, which is only present in SFG rickettsiae. No rickettsial DNA was detected in R. sanguineus. However, DNA pools of A. triste were found to be positive for a rickettsial organism in two of the three localities, with prevalences of 11.8% to 37.5% positive pools. DNA sequences generated from these PCR-positive ticks corresponded to R. parkeri. These findings, joint with the aggressiveness shown by A. triste towards humans, support previous data on the involvement of A. triste as vector of human infections caused by R. parkeri in Uruguay.

  9. Full-Genome Sequence of Listeria monocytogenes Strain H34, Isolated from a Newborn with Sepsis in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Muchaamba, Francis; Guldimann, Claudia; Tasara, Taurai; Mota, María Inés; Braga, Valeria; Varela, Gustavo; Algorta, Gabriela; Jermini, Marco

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes causes severe disease mainly in the vulnerable populations of the young, old, pregnant, and immunocompromised. Here, we present the genome sequence of L. monocytogenes H34, a serotype 1/2b, lineage I, sequence type 489 (ST489) strain, isolated from a neonatal sepsis case in Uruguay. PMID:28619811

  10. Children in Institutions: The Beginning of the End? The Cases of Italy, Spain, Argentina, Chile and Uruguay. Innocenti Insight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llorente, Maria Angeles Garcia; Charlebois, Laura Martinez-Mora; Ducci, Valerio; Farias, Ana Maria

    Noting the growing global consensus on the need to promote family-based alternatives to institutional care for children and adolescents, this report examines efforts to prevent the institutionalization of children in Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Italy, and Spain, focusing on both public and private initiatives, as well as local and national…

  11. Barriers and promoters of an evidenced-based smoking cessation counseling during prenatal care in Argentina and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Colomar, Mercedes; Tong, Van T; Morello, Paola; Farr, Sherry L; Lawsin, Catalina; Dietz, Patricia M; Aleman, Alicia; Berrueta, Mabel; Mazzoni, Agustina; Becu, Ana; Buekens, Pierre; Belizán, José; Althabe, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    In Argentina and Uruguay, 10.3 and 18.3 %, respectively, of pregnant women smoked in 2005. Brief cessation counseling, based on the 5A's model, has been effective in different settings. This qualitative study aims to improve the understanding of factors influencing the provision of smoking cessation counseling during pregnancy in Argentina and Uruguay. In 2010, we obtained prenatal care providers', clinic directors', and pregnant smokers' opinions regarding barriers and promoters to brief smoking cessation counseling in publicly-funded prenatal care clinics in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay. We interviewed six prenatal clinic directors, conducted focus groups with 46 health professionals and 24 pregnant smokers. Themes emerged from three issue areas: health professionals, health system, and patients. Health professional barriers to cessation counseling included inadequate knowledge and motivation, perceived low self-efficacy, and concerns about inadequate time and large workload. They expressed interest in obtaining a counseling script. Health system barriers included low prioritization of smoking cessation and a lack of clinic protocols to implement interventions. Pregnant smokers lacked information on the risks of prenatal smoking and underestimated the difficulty of smoking cessation. Having access to written materials and receiving cessation services during clinic waiting times were mentioned as promoters for the intervention. Women also were receptive to non-physician office staff delivering intervention components. Implementing smoking cessation counseling in publicly-funded prenatal care clinics in Argentina and Uruguay may require integrating counseling into routine prenatal care and educating and training providers on best-practices approaches.

  12. The Teaching of Astronomy in Uruguay. (Spanish Title: La Enseñanza de la Astronomía en Uruguay.) O Ensino da Astronomia no Uruguai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintos Ganón, Reina; Fernández, Julio Angel

    2008-07-01

    We present in this work the development of astronomy in Uruguay since the colony times up to the present, stressing in particular those aspects related to the formal as well as informal teaching of astronomy. The first antecedents of astronomical studies in our country go back to the beginnings of the XVIIIth century related to the scientific expeditions from Europe coming to our shores. The teaching of astronomy was generalized at the high school level as soon as the end of the XIXth century, while itsintroduction at the university level happened much later, around the middle of the last century. We analyze the current situation of this subject, its problems, and some measures to strengthen its development. Se presenta en este trabajo el desarrollo de la astronomía en el Uruguay desde la época colonial hasta el presente, destacando en particular los aspectos vinculados a su enseñanza tanto formal como informal. Los primeros antecedentes de estudios astronómicos datan de la época colonial relacionados con las expediciones científicas del Viejo Mundo que llegaban a nuestras costas. La enseñanza de la Astronomía se generalizó en el ámbito de los estudios secundarios ya a fines del siglo XIX, mientras que en la Universidad su arribo fue mucho más tardío, a mediados del siglo pasado. Se analiza la situación actual de esta disciplina, sus problemas, y algunas medidas para fortalecer su desarrollo. Apresentamos, neste trabalho, o desenvolvimento da Astronomia no Uruguai desde a época colonial até o presente, destacando em particular os aspectos vinculados ao seu ensino tanto formal quanto informal. Os primeiros antecedentes de estudos astronômicos em nosso país datam da época colonial relacionados com as expedições científicas do Velho Mundo que chegavam às nossas costas. O ensino da Astronomia se generalizou no âmbito dos estudos secundários já no final do século XIX, enquanto que sua introdução na universidade foi muito mais tardia, em

  13. [Epidemiological study of hepatitis A and E viruses in different populations in Uruguay].

    PubMed

    Cruells, M R; Mescia, G; Gaibisso, R; Ramírez, M; Gutiérrez, M; Kohen, S; González, M; Russi, J; Chiparelli, H; Ucar, L; Pérez, M T

    1997-01-01

    The hepatitis A and E virus (HAV and HEV) share the fecal-oral mechanism. Hepatitis A is an endemo-epidemic disease in Uruguay but no data on the epidemiologic pattern of the HEV is available. The aims of this study were to update the epidemiologic behavior of the HAV in Montevideo and demonstrate the circulation of the HEV in Uruguay. Two hundred fourteen patients who consulted in the Policlínica de Nutrición y Digestivo were studied, 185 (86%) of whom were anti HAV (HAVAB, Abbot) positive. 81.8% (117/143) of those residents in Montevideo and 95.7% (68/71) of those who were from the inland were anti-HAV positive. From the Montevideo population 55.8% cases under the age of 40 years were anti-HAV positive and occurred in 97.6% of those older (p < 0.001). Considering the health care conditions of the positive patients in Montevideo, 95.6% (43/45) had septic chambers and 75.5% (74/98) disposed of toilet facilities (p < 0.001). It is concluded that although the global prevalence has been maintained since 1982, there is a change in the epidemiologic pattern with greater risk of infection in patients under the age of 40 years proceeding from areas without toilet facilities. The prevalence of total antibodies for HEV (EIA, Abbot) was 2.8% in this population. An association was observed with HAV in 2.2% (4/185). Moreover, a sample of 252 blood donors from the National Blood Service was analyzed with 5 being found to be anti HEV positive, with only 3 (1.2%) being confirmed in the Center for Disease Control in the United States. Although no definitive conclusions may be drawn from the present study, from an epidemiologic point of view, it has been shown that there is evidence of the circulation of HEV in Uruguay, in both the out patient and in blood donor populations.

  14. The role of LATU as national metrology institute of Uruguay and its responsibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robatto, O.; Quagliata, E.; Santo, C.; Sica, A.; Sponton, M.

    2013-09-01

    Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay (LATU) is the National Metrology Institute of Uruguay and has the obligation to maintain the national standards stated by National Law 15298. At present LATU is acting as a secondary laboratory as well as a primary laboratory. LATU was ISO 17025:2005 DKD (Deutscher Kalibrierdienst) accredited from 2001 up to 2007. By that time LATU decided to support its Capabilities of Measurement and Calibration (CMCs) at CIPM-MRA (Mutual Recognition Arrangement between national metrology institutes (NMIs)) by peer assessment. A Peer Review has been done in 2008 in order to get the QSTF (Sistema Interamericano de Metrología, Quality System Task Force) approval. "New "CMCs for Industrial Thermometers have been approved by the JCRB on September 2010. CMCs claimed for Standard Resistance Platinum Thermometers (SPRTs) calibration at fixed points have not been approved yet because there were some requirements of traceability of employed cells that were not fulfilled but will be solved properly. The declared CMCs have been chosen by LATU in order to cover the increasing calibration services required by the industry and the secondary calibration laboratories. To demonstrate its technical competence an support its declared "CMCs" LATU has also participated at bilateral and regional comparisons. In recent years LATU, the National Accreditation Body (OUA), the Standards Institute, the National Institute of Quality and Compliance Bodies have become Members of a new Institution to strengthen the Quality Infrastructure of the country (SUNAMEC). As part of this new activities, LATU is giving training courses to the secondary laboratories performing calibrations in temperature that want to get accredited by the National Accreditation Body and to act as Technical Evaluators or Auditors when required by OUA. It is expected, that in the future and in the frame of new accredited and recognized temperature calibration laboratories, LATU could strengthen its

  15. Epidemic history of major genotypes of hepatitis C virus in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Castells, M; Bello, G; Ifrán, S; Pereyra, S; Boschi, S; Uriarte, R; Cristina, J; Colina, R

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, more than 170 million people are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and every year die more than 350,000 people from HCV-related liver diseases. Recently, HCV was reclassified into seven major genotypes and 67 subtypes. Some subtypes as 1a, 1b and 3a, have become epidemic as a result of the new parenteral transmission routes and are responsible for most HCV infections in Western countries. HCV 1a subtype have been sub-categorized into two separate sub clades. Recent studies based on the analysis of NS5B genome region, reveal that HCV epidemics in Argentina and Brazil are characterized by multiple introductions events of subtypes 1a, 1b and 3a, followed by subsequent local dispersion. There is no data about HCV genotypes circulating in Uruguay and their evolutionary and demographic history. To this end, a total of 153 HCV NS5B gene sequences were obtained from Uruguayan patients between 2005 and 2011. 86 (56%) sequences grouped with subtype 1a, 40 (26%) with subtype 3a and 27 (18%) with subtype 1b. Furthermore, subtype 1a sequences were distributed among both clades, 1 (n=62, 72%) and 2 (n=24, 28%). Four local HCV clades were found: UY-1a(I), UY-1a(II), UY-1a(III) and UY-3a; comprising a 39% of all HCV viruses analyzed in this study. HCV epidemic in Uruguay has been driving by multiple introductions of subtypes 1a, 1b and 3a and by local dissemination of a few country-specific strains. The evolutionary and demographic history of the major Uruguayan HCV clade UY-1a(I) was reconstructed under two different molecular clock rate models and displayed an epidemic history characterized by an initial phase of rapid expansion followed by a more recent reduction of growth rate since 2000-2005. This is the first comprehensive study about the molecular epidemiology and epidemic history of HCV in Uruguay. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Legalizing a market for cannabis for pleasure: Colorado, Washington, Uruguay and beyond.

    PubMed

    Room, Robin

    2014-03-01

    Colorado, Washington state and Uruguay are currently designing legal non-medical markets for cannabis. These clearly contravene the 1961 and 1988 drug conventions; options for what may happen next are discussed. The current provisions in the three regulatory schemes are summarized. From a public health perspective, the emphasis should be on holding down consumption with regulatory measures, but the public health agenda does not seem to be a strong consideration in the implementation of the US schemes, and they are paying little attention to what can be learned from the history of alcohol and tobacco regulation. While alternative paths to a cannabis market under the conventions are noted, the legalization initiatives underline the need to revise the drug conventions, making prohibition of domestic markets an optional matter. Such changes would also ease the path for including alcohol under the conventions, which would be an important step forward in global health. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Occurrence and biodiversity of Aspergillus section Nigri on 'Tannat' grapes in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Garmendia, Gabriela; Vero, Silvana

    2016-01-04

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin which has been found worldwide as a contaminant in wines. It is produced on grapes mainly by molds from Aspergillus section Nigri. This study has demonstrated for the first time the occurrence of black aspergilli on Tannat grapes from Uruguay, in a two year survey. Aspergillus uvarum (uniseriate) and Aspergillus welwitschiae (from Aspergillusniger aggregate) were the prevalent species whereas Aspergillus carbonarius which is considered the main OTA producing species was not detected. OTA production in culture medium was evaluated for native isolates from A. niger aggregate and compared to levels produced by a type strain of A. carbonarius. This work also includes the development of quick and easy molecular methods to identify black aspergilli to species level, avoiding sequencing.

  18. Animal welfare and meat quality: the perspective of Uruguay, a "small" exporter country.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, M; Brito, G; Montossi, F; Soares de Lima, J M; San Julián, R

    2014-11-01

    Public sensitivity towards animal welfare has risen in recent years. Uruguay is a primary meat exporter. Therefore, it is compulsory not only to provide good quality and safe meat, but also to project a welfare friendly image. Uruguayan meat production systems are mainly based on rangeland pastures but, due to international meat prices and the opening of new markets, intensive fattening systems increased. These systems include a wide range of feeding alternatives between pasture and concentrate utilization, involving differences in terms of animal welfare, carcass and meat quality, that require to be studied. Accordingly, some husbandry practices associated mainly with extensive systems must be evaluated, as well as their applicability to international recommendations related to pre-slaughter handling which may not be suitable for local conditions. In the present paper we share scientific results related to the impact of different production systems, husbandry practices and pre-slaughter procedures associated to animal welfare and meat quality in Uruguayan conditions.

  19. Genetic characterization of the Neotropical catfish Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae, Siluriformes) in the Upper Uruguay River

    PubMed Central

    Ribolli, Josiane; de Melo, Cláudio Manoel Rodrigues; Zaniboni-Filho, Evoy

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater fish present unique challenges when one attempts to understand the factors that determine the structure of their populations. Habitat fragmentation is a leading cause of population decline that threatens ecosystems worldwide. In this study, we investigated the conservation status of genetic variability in the Neotropical catfish (Pimelodus maculatus). Specifically, we examined the structure and genetic diversity of this species in a region of the Upper Uruguay River fragmented by natural barriers and dams. There was no genetic structure among the four sites analyzed, indicating the existence of only one population group. A combination of environmental management and genetic monitoring should be used to minimize the impact of impoundment on panmitic populations of migratory fish species. PMID:23271936

  20. Calliobothrium spp. (Eucestoda: Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae) in Mustelus schmitti (Chondrichthyes: Carcharhiniformes) from Argentina and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Verónica A; Brooks, Daniel R

    2002-12-01

    Three species of Calliobothrium inhabit the spiral intestine of Mustelus schmitti in Argentina and Uruguay. Calliobothrium verticillatum australis is redescribed and its taxonomic status modified to species as C. australis. Calliobothrium barbarae n. sp. can be distinguished from all other species of Calliobothrium, which are small bodied, nonlaciniate, and without accessory piece between the bases of axial hook, by worm length, number of segments, cocoon morphology, and hooks shape. Calliobothrium lunae n. sp. is different from other Calliobothrium spp., which are small bodied, nonlaciniate. and have an accessory piece, by the number of segments and testes, hook shape, cocoon morphology, and the presence of ciliumlike projections on the distal surface of muscular pads. Calliobothrium australis is clearly distinguished from other large-bodied, laciniate species of the genus by worm length, number of testes, ovary shape, cocoon morphology, hook shape, and in being hyperapolytic. The oioxenous specificity involving Calliobothrium spp. and Mustelus spp. described by previous authors is confirmed in this study.

  1. Ecology of Triatoma rubrovaria (Hemiptera, Triatominae) in wild and peridomestic environments of Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Salvatella, R; Rosa, R; Basmadjian, Y; Puime, A; Calegari, L; Guerrero, J; Martinez, M; Mendaro, G; Briano, D; Montero, C

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes population structure, spatial distribution and habitat selection of wild and peridomestic populations of Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843). Field studies were carried out at Las Piedras and La Bolsa in the Northern Department of Artigas, Uruguay. A semicircular sampling area, divided in seven or eight triangular sectors was sequentially examined from October 1990 to November 1991. At Las Piedras (typical wild habitat) 1063 T. rubrovaria bugs were collected from 84% of the rocky outcroops ("pedregales"). Abundance varied by season peaking in October-November (spring). Throughout the year, most of the population was made up of third, fourth and fifth instar nymphs; adults were found from October to March. In the peridomestic environment of La Bolsa, however T. rubrovaria was less common and showed a more irregular instar distribution. Colonized ecotopes, were those close to houses. In both sites T. rubrovaria was mainly associated with the geckonid Homonota uruguayensis and the cockroach Blaptica dubia.

  2. Genetic characterization of the Neotropical catfish Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae, Siluriformes) in the Upper Uruguay River.

    PubMed

    Ribolli, Josiane; de Melo, Cláudio Manoel Rodrigues; Zaniboni-Filho, Evoy

    2012-12-01

    Freshwater fish present unique challenges when one attempts to understand the factors that determine the structure of their populations. Habitat fragmentation is a leading cause of population decline that threatens ecosystems worldwide. In this study, we investigated the conservation status of genetic variability in the Neotropical catfish (Pimelodus maculatus). Specifically, we examined the structure and genetic diversity of this species in a region of the Upper Uruguay River fragmented by natural barriers and dams. There was no genetic structure among the four sites analyzed, indicating the existence of only one population group. A combination of environmental management and genetic monitoring should be used to minimize the impact of impoundment on panmitic populations of migratory fish species.

  3. Runoff properties of extreme discharges on Paraná and Uruguay rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, W.; Bischoff, S.; Naumann, G.; Marcuzzi, E.

    2010-05-01

    Climate variability in different spatial scales is a study area which has reached interest in application, especially during de last years. River discharges can be considered as a robust integrator of the properties of the basin; under these premises the goal of this work is to analyse flows from the Paraná and Uruguay rivers in several gauge stations and study the behavior of positive and negative anomalies and their extremes. The variable to be analysed was defined as the number of anomalies with the same sign per year. Results show that the structures are different for both rivers, which implies a different stochastic process. Identical representativeness was found between the anomaly series in each river. The risk estimation of extremes in both rivers indicates that it is possible to establish a decision model. Additionally, the series of annual number of anomalies presented a climatic jump in the seventies, for both rivers.

  4. Tobacco smoke exposure in public places and workplaces after smoke-free policy implementation: a longitudinal analysis of smoker cohorts in Mexico and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, James F; Nayeli Abad-Vivero, Erika; Sebrié, Ernesto M; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Boado, Marcelo; Yong, Hua Hie; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Bianco, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    To determine the prevalence, correlates and changes in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure over the period after comprehensive smoke-free policy implementation in two Latin American countries. Data were analysed from population-based representative samples of adult smokers and recent quitters from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey in Mexico (n = 1766 and 1840, respectively) and Uruguay (n = 1379 and 1411, respectively). Prevalence of SHS exposure was estimated for regulated venues, and generalized estimating equations were used to determine correlates of SHS exposure. Workplace SHS exposure in the last month was similar within and across countries (range: Mexico 20-25%; Uruguay 14-29%). At the most recent restaurant visit, SHS exposure was lower where comprehensive smoke-free policies were implemented (range: Uruguay 6-9%; Mexico City 5-7%) compared with Mexican cities with weaker policies, where exposure remained higher but decreased over time (32-17%). At the most recent bar visit, SHS exposure was common (range: Uruguay 8-36%; Mexico City 23-31%), although highest in jurisdictions with weaker policies (range in other Mexican cities: 74-86%). In Uruguay, males were more likely than females to be exposed to SHS across venues, as were younger compared with older smokers in Mexico. Comprehensive smoke-free policies are more effective than weaker policies, although compliance in Mexico and Uruguay is not as high as desired.

  5. Tobacco smoke exposure in public places and workplaces after smoke-free policy implementation: a longitudinal analysis of smoker cohorts in Mexico and Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Nayeli Abad-Vivero, Erika; Sebrié, Ernesto M.; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Boado, Marcelo; Yong, Hua Hie; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Bianco, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence, correlates and changes in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure over the period after comprehensive smoke-free policy implementation in two Latin American countries. Methods: Data were analysed from population-based representative samples of adult smokers and recent quitters from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey in Mexico (n = 1766 and 1840, respectively) and Uruguay (n = 1379 and 1411, respectively). Prevalence of SHS exposure was estimated for regulated venues, and generalized estimating equations were used to determine correlates of SHS exposure. Results: Workplace SHS exposure in the last month was similar within and across countries (range: Mexico 20–25%; Uruguay 14–29%). At the most recent restaurant visit, SHS exposure was lower where comprehensive smoke-free policies were implemented (range: Uruguay 6–9%; Mexico City 5–7%) compared with Mexican cities with weaker policies, where exposure remained higher but decreased over time (32–17%). At the most recent bar visit, SHS exposure was common (range: Uruguay 8–36%; Mexico City 23–31%), although highest in jurisdictions with weaker policies (range in other Mexican cities: 74–86%). In Uruguay, males were more likely than females to be exposed to SHS across venues, as were younger compared with older smokers in Mexico. Conclusions: Comprehensive smoke-free policies are more effective than weaker policies, although compliance in Mexico and Uruguay is not as high as desired. PMID:23172895

  6. Seasonal Variation of Honeybee Pathogens and its Association with Pollen Diversity in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Antúnez, Karina; Anido, Matilde; Branchiccela, Belén; Harriet, Jorge; Campa, Juan; Invernizzi, Ciro; Santos, Estela; Higes, Mariano; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Zunino, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    Honeybees are susceptible to a wide range of pathogens, which have been related to the occurrence of colony loss episodes reported mainly in north hemisphere countries. Their ability to resist those infections is compromised if they are malnourished or exposed to pesticides. The aim of the present study was to carry out an epidemiological study in Uruguay, South America, in order to evaluate the dynamics and interaction of honeybee pathogens and evaluate their association with the presence of external stress factors such as restricted pollen diversity and presence of agrochemicals. We monitored 40 colonies in two apiaries over 24 months, regularly quantifying colony strength, parasite and pathogen status, and pollen diversity. Chlorinated pesticides, phosphorus, pyrethroid, fipronil, or sulfas were not found in stored pollen in any colony or season. Varroa destructor was widespread in March (end of summer-beginning of autumn), decreasing after acaricide treatments. Viruses ABPV, DWV, and SBV presented a similar trend, while IAPV and KBV were not detected. Nosema ceranae was detected along the year while Nosema apis was detected only in one sample. Fifteen percent of the colonies died, being associated to high V. destructor mite load in March and high N. ceranae spore loads in September. Although similar results have been reported in north hemisphere countries, this is the first study of these characteristics in Uruguay, highlighting the regional importance. On the other side, colonies with pollen of diverse botanical origins showed reduced viral infection levels, suggesting that an adequate nutrition is important for the development of healthy colonies.

  7. Epidemiology and genetic diversity of classic human astrovirus among hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Fernando; Lizasoain, Andrés; Victoria, Matías; Papalardo, Cecilia; Castro, Sebastian; Arreseigor, Edit; López, Patricia; Colina, Rodney

    2017-10-01

    Classic Human Astrovirus (Classic HAstV) are one of the most important causes of pediatric acute gastroenteritis (AGE), after rotaviruses and arguably caliciviruses. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular epidemiology of Classic HAstV from 175 clinical samples, being 153 stools and 22 vomits, collected from pediatric hospitalized patients with AGE in Salto city, Uruguay, from January 2011 to December 2012. Classic HAstV were detected and genotyped by using a qualitative Retro Transcription-Polimerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) directed to the Open Reading Frame-2 (ORF2) region C. Amplicons were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were carried out in order to determine genotypes and lineages. Classic HAstV were detected in 18 out of 175 analyzed samples (10.3%) and 14 of them (78.0%) were successfully sequenced being 6 (42.8%) classified as HAstV-1 (1a lineage), 4 (28.6%) as HAstV-2 (2c lineage), and 4 (28.6%) as HAstV-3 (3c lineage). A higher detection of Classic HAstV infections was observed in autumn for both years of surveillance, and the majority of the positive cases were observed in 2011. The group of children between 2 and 5 years old presented the higher percentage of infections. To our knowledge, the present study represents the first report of astrovirus from acute gastroenteritis cases in Uruguay, evidencing its role as a relevant etiologic agent in severe cases of this disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Zoonotic Potential and Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli in Neonatal Calves in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Umpiérrez, Ana; Bado, Inés; Oliver, Martín; Acquistapace, Sofía; Etcheverría, Analía; Padola, Nora Lía; Vignoli, Rafael; Zunino, Pablo

    2017-09-27

    Escherichia coli is one of the main etiological agents of neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD). The objective of this study was to assess the presence of virulence genes, genetic diversity, and antibiotic resistance mechanisms in E. coli associated with NCD in Uruguay. PCR was used to assess the presence of intimin, Shiga-like toxin, and stable and labile enterotoxin genes. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and oxyimino-cephalosporins was estimated on Müller-Hinton agar plates. Further antibiotic disc-diffusion tests were performed to assess bacterial multi-resistance. The presence of PMQR, ESBL, MCR-1, and integron genes was evaluated. Isolates were typed using ERIC-PCR, and 20 were selected for MLST, adhesion to Hep-2 cells, in vitro biofilm formation, and eukaryotic cytotoxicity. The prevalence of ETEC genes was lower than 3% in each case (estA and elt). Six isolates were EPEC (eae+) and 2 were EHEC/STEC (eae+/stx1+). The results of a diversity analysis showed high genetic heterogenicity among isolates. Additionally, different sequence types, including ST10, ST21, and ST69, were assigned to selected isolates. Thirty-six percent (96/264) of the isolates were fluoroquinolone-resistant, with 61/96 (63.5%) being multidrug-resistant. Additionally, 6 were oxyimino-cephalosporin-resistant. The qnrB, qnrS1, and blaCTX-M-14 genes were detected, whereas no isolates carried the mcr-1 gene. Isolates had the ability to adhere to Hep-2 cells and form biofilms. Only 1 isolate expressed toxins in vitro. E. coli from NCD cases in Uruguay are very diverse, potentially virulent, and may interact with eukaryotic cells. Zoonotic potential, together with resistance traits and the presence of horizontal transfer mechanisms, may play a significant role in infections caused by these microorganisms.

  9. Effect of Uruguay's National 100% Smokefree Law on Emergency Visits for Bronchospasm.

    PubMed

    Kalkhoran, Sara; Sebrié, Ernesto M; Sandoya, Edgardo; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-07-01

    Implementation of smokefree laws is followed by drops in hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases and asthma. The impact of smokefree laws on use of non-hospital medical services has not been assessed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of Uruguay's national 100% smokefree legislation on non-hospital emergency care visits, hospitalizations for bronchospasm, and bronchodilator use. The monthly number of non-hospital emergency care visits and hospitalizations for bronchospasm, as well as monthly puffs of bronchodilators (total and per person), from 3 years prior to the adoption of the 100% smokefree policy on March 1, 2006, through 5 years after the policy were assessed using interrupted time series negative binomial regression. Data analysis was conducted in 2014. The incidence of non-hospital emergency visits for bronchospasm decreased by 15% (incidence rate ratio [IRR]=0.85, 95% CI=0.76, 0.94) following implementation of the law. Hospitalizations for bronchospasm did not change significantly (IRR=0.89, 95% CI=0.66, 1.21). Total monthly puffs of salbutamol and ipratropium administered in the non-hospital emergency setting decreased by 224 (95% CI=-372, -76) and 179 (95% CI=-340, -18.6), respectively, from means of 1,222 and 1,007 before the law. Uruguay's 100% smokefree law was followed by fewer emergency visits for bronchospasm and less need for treatment, supporting adoption of such policies in low- and middle-income countries to reduce the disease burden and healthcare costs associated with smoking. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Basis for a streamflow forecasting system to Rincón del Bonete and Salto Grande (Uruguay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talento, Stefanie; Terra, Rafael

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents the basis for the design of streamflow prediction systems for the hydroelectric dams of Rincón del Bonete (Uruguay) and Salto Grande (Uruguay-Argentina). The prediction is made, independently, for each reservoir and each month of the year with two methodologies: data-driven statistical models and hybrid downscaling that includes atmospheric predictors. We determine a set of potential predictors and then fit linear models coupled with variable selection techniques, under the hypothesis of perfectly known predictors. The predictive skill of the schemes outperforms the climatological forecast throughout the year in both reservoirs (except August in Rincón del Bonete). This remains the case even when the forecast lead does not allow for the use of preceding flows as predictors. While in Rincón del Bonete it is not possible to distinguish a period of high predictability, in Salto Grande, there is a robust signal in March-May and October-December.

  11. Oligosarcus amome (Ostariophysi: Characidae), a new species from the río Uruguay basin, Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Almirón, Adriana; Casciotta, Jorge; Piálek, Lubomír; Doubnerová, Klára; Říčan, Oldřich

    2015-02-05

    Oligosarcus amome is described from tributaries of the arroyo Yabotí-Guazú, río Uruguay basin, Misiones Province, Argentina. This new species can be distinguished from all its congeners by the following combination of characters: presence of two conspicuous series of teeth on premaxilla bearing pentacuspidate teeth in the outer series. Oligosarcus amome is the sister taxon of all remaining analyzed species of the genus excepting O. itau. 

  12. The Battle Era and Labor in Uruguay and U.S. Low-Intensity in Conflict Policy in Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    1Martin Weinstein, Uruguay: The Politics of Failure (Westport, 1975), 92. 22Direccion General de Estadistica , Anuario Estadistica de la Republica Oriental...dominated by immigrants engaged mainly in commerce and financial activities. 32 Most immigrants, however, 30Direccion General de Estadistica , Censo...General de Estadistica , Anuario Estadistico de la Republica Oriental del Urugay, 1901-1915. Montevideo, 1902- 1917. Direccion General de Estadistica

  13. Barriers and Promoters of an Evidenced-Based Smoking Cessation Counseling During Prenatal Care in Argentina and Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Van T.; Morello, Paola; Farr, Sherry L.; Lawsin, Catalina; Dietz, Patricia M.; Aleman, Alicia; Berrueta, Mabel; Mazzoni, Agustina; Becu, Ana; Buekens, Pierre; Belizán, José; Althabe, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    In Argentina and Uruguay, 10.3 and 18.3 %, respectively, of pregnant women smoked in 2005. Brief cessation counseling, based on the 5A’s model, has been effective in different settings. This qualitative study aims to improve the understanding of factors influencing the provision of smoking cessation counseling during pregnancy in Argentina and Uruguay. In 2010, we obtained prenatal care providers’, clinic directors’, and pregnant smokers’ opinions regarding barriers and promoters to brief smoking cessation counseling in publicly-funded prenatal care clinics in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay. We interviewed six prenatal clinic directors, conducted focus groups with 46 health professionals and 24 pregnant smokers. Themes emerged from three issue areas: health professionals, health system, and patients. Health professional barriers to cessation counseling included inadequate knowledge and motivation, perceived low self-efficacy, and concerns about inadequate time and large workload. They expressed interest in obtaining a counseling script. Health system barriers included low prioritization of smoking cessation and a lack of clinic protocols to implement interventions. Pregnant smokers lacked information on the risks of prenatal smoking and underestimated the difficulty of smoking cessation. Having access to written materials and receiving cessation services during clinic waiting times were mentioned as promoters for the intervention. Women also were receptive to non-physician office staff delivering intervention components. Implementing smoking cessation counseling in publicly-funded prenatal care clinics in Argentina and Uruguay may require integrating counseling into routine prenatal care and educating and training providers on best-practices approaches. PMID:25500989

  14. Hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction before and after implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free policy in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Sebrié, Ernesto Marcelo; Sandoya, Edgardo; Hyland, Andrew; Bianco, Eduardo; Glantz, Stanton A; Cummings, K Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Stimulated by the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, many countries in Latin America adopted comprehensive smoke-free policies. In March 2006, Uruguay became the first Latin American country to adopt 100% smoke-free national legislation, which ended smoking in all indoor public places and workplaces, including restaurants and bars. The objective of this study was to evaluate trends in hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease 2 years before and 2 years after the policy was implemented in Uruguay. Methods Reports of hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (International Classification of Disease-10 I21) from 37 hospitals (79% of all hospital admissions in the country), representing the period 2 years before and 2 years after the adoption of a nationwide smoke-free policy in Uruguay (between 1 March 2004 and 29 February 2008), were reviewed. A time series analysis was undertaken to compare the average monthly number of events of hospital admission for AMI before and after the smoke-free law. Results A total of 7949 hospital admissions for AMI were identified during the 4-year study period. Two years after the smoke-free policy was enacted, hospital admissions for AMI fell by 22%. The same pattern and roughly the same magnitude of reduction in AMI admissions were observed for patients seen in public and private hospitals, men, women and people aged 40–65 years and older than 65 years. Conclusions The national smoke-free policy implemented in Uruguay in 2006 was associated with a significant reduction in hospital admissions for AMI. PMID:22337557

  15. Hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction before and after implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free policy in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Sebrié, Ernesto Marcelo; Sandoya, Edgardo; Hyland, Andrew; Bianco, Eduardo; Glantz, Stanton A; Cummings, K Michael

    2013-05-01

    Stimulated by the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, many countries in Latin America adopted comprehensive smoke-free policies. In March 2006, Uruguay became the first Latin American country to adopt 100% smoke-free national legislation, which ended smoking in all indoor public places and workplaces, including restaurants and bars. The objective of this study was to evaluate trends in hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease 2 years before and 2 years after the policy was implemented in Uruguay. Reports of hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (International Classification of Disease-10 I21) from 37 hospitals (79% of all hospital admissions in the country), representing the period 2 years before and 2 years after the adoption of a nationwide smoke-free policy in Uruguay (between 1 March 2004 and 29 February 2008), were reviewed. A time series analysis was undertaken to compare the average monthly number of events of hospital admission for AMI before and after the smoke-free law. A total of 7949 hospital admissions for AMI were identified during the 4-year study period. Two years after the smoke-free policy was enacted, hospital admissions for AMI fell by 22%. The same pattern and roughly the same magnitude of reduction in AMI admissions were observed for patients seen in public and private hospitals, men, women and people aged 40-65 years and older than 65 years. The national smoke-free policy implemented in Uruguay in 2006 was associated with a significant reduction in hospital admissions for AMI.

  16. Mitochondrial DNA in Basque descendants from the city of Trinidad, Uruguay: Uruguayan- or Basque-like population?

    PubMed

    Sans, M; Figueiro, G; Ackermann, E; Barreto, I; Egaña, A; Bertoni, B; Poittevin-Gilmet, E; Maytia, D; Hidalgo, P C

    2011-02-01

    Like other countries in the Americas, during its colonization Uruguay was the recipient of immigrants from several ethnic groups from Europe, as well as of enslaved Africans. After its independence in 1830, Basques were the first group of Europeans to arrive in the country. In this paper, we aim to contribute to the understanding of the process of integration of these migratory waves into the Uruguayan society. For that purpose, individuals of Basque origin from the city of Trinidad, Uruguay, were chosen to participate in this study. Particularly, we wanted to determine if Basque descendants in Uruguay remained relatively isolated or if they mixed with other ethnic groups. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 60 self-identified Basque descendants, taken from a larger sample of subjects with Basque ancestors, was analyzed. The origin of mtDNA haplogroups was 77.8% European, 20.4% Amerindian, and 1.8% African, showing similar frequencies to other Uruguayan regions. Very few sequences showed a clear Basque origin, although other sources such as the Canary Islands are likely. Moreover, genetic distances clearly show that Basque descendants are genetically closer to other Uruguayan groups than to European populations, including Basques. It is possible to conclude that Basques and their descendants in the region of Trinidad did not remain isolated and that their marriage behavior was similar to that of other Uruguayan populations. However, to have a more accurate picture of the way Basques intermarried with other populations in Uruguay, new analyses are needed that take into account paternal lineages as well as biparental genetic markers.

  17. Recent changes in frost days events characteristics in Uruguay-Southeastern South America.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renom, Madeleine; De Mello, Santiago

    2015-04-01

    There are few studies about extreme temperature events in Southeastern South America as is it mentioned in the SREX report (2009), although these events generate human health impacts and big economical looses. Southeastern South America is one of the major agricultural production regions worldwide. Particularly in Uruguay, agricultural production represents a high percentage of the GDP and, in the last 15 years there has been a significant increase in the area used for that economic activity. Although frost is not always is considered as an extreme event it causes, in the case of Uruguay, an impact on society, energy consumption and agricultural losses. Previous studies have shown a negative trend in the occurrence of cold nights (TN10) during winter (June-July-August) and autumn (March-April-May) in Uruguay. This work try to determine if these trends affects the occurrences and characteristics of frost days (Tmin< 0°C). Based on a high-quality daily minimum temperature for 11 meteorological stations that cover the period 1950-2009, we analyzed different features of frost days. Long term trends do not present a clear spatial behaviour suggesting that there is a not clear relationship between the percentile based index (TN10) and a fixed index (FD). At monthly scale, May and September show a negative trend, although these months present a low number of cases that difficult the statistical treatment. It is noticeable that from a decadal point of view the last decade (2000-2009) was the decade with fewer occurrences comparing with the rest, while the 90's is the decade that presents more cases. We also analyzed changes in frost period (FP) which commonly extends from May to September. In general all the stations present a decrease in the FP in accordance with the negative trend detected at monthly scale, suggesting a warming in autumn and spring time. Although we detected different behaviour in two stations, one located inner land and the other located on the

  18. Prevalence and predictors of exposure to multiple metals in preschool children from Montevideo, Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Queirolo, Elena I.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Wright, Robert O.; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.

    2010-01-01

    The extent of children’s exposure to multiple toxic metals is not well described in many developing countries. We examined metals exposures in young children (6 – 37 months) from Montevideo, Uruguay and their mothers (15 – 47 y) participating in a community-based study. Hair samples collected from 180 children and their mothers were analyzed for: lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), and arsenic (As) concentration using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Median metals levels (μg/g) were: Pb 13.69, Mn 1.45, Cd 0.17, As 0.09 for children and Pb 4.27, Mn 1.42, Cd 0.08, As 00.02 for mothers. Of the child and maternal samples, 1.7% and 2.9% were below the limit of detection (LOD) for Cd, and 21% and 38.5% were below the LOD for As, respectively. Correlations between maternal and child levels ranged 0.38–0.55 (p<0.01). Maternal hair metals levels were the strongest predictors of metal concentrations in children’s hair. Girls had significantly lower As levels than boys (p<0.01) but did not differ on other metals. In addition, in bivariate logistic regressions predicting the likelihood that the child would be exposed to multiple metals, hemoglobin <10.5 g/dL (OR=2.12, p<0.05), blood lead (OR=1.17, p<0.01), and the mother being exposed to two or more metals (OR=3.34, p<0.01) were identified as significant predictors of increased likelihood of multiple metals exposure. Older child age (OR=0.96, p<0.05), higher maternal education (OR=0.35, p<0.01), and higher number of household possessions (OR=0.83, p<0.01) were significantly associated with decreased likelihood of multiple metals exposure. Preschool children in Uruguay are exposed to multiple metals at levels that in other studies have been associated with cognitive and behavioral deficits. Sources of exposure, as well as cognitive and behavioral consequences of multiple metals exposure, should be investigated in this population. PMID:20619443

  19. DNA multigene characterization of Fasciola hepatica and Lymnaea neotropica and its fascioliasis transmission capacity in Uruguay, with historical correlation, human report review and infection risk analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gayo, Valeria; Sanchis, Jaime; Artigas, Patricio; Khoubbane, Messaoud; Birriel, Soledad; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Background Fascioliasis is a pathogenic disease transmitted by lymnaeid snails and recently emerging in humans, in part due to effects of climate changes, anthropogenic environment modifications, import/export and movements of livestock. South America is the continent presenting more human fascioliasis hyperendemic areas and the highest prevalences and intensities known. These scenarios appear mainly linked to altitude areas in Andean countries, whereas lowland areas of non-Andean countries, such as Uruguay, only show sporadic human cases or outbreaks. A study including DNA marker sequencing of fasciolids and lymnaeids, an experimental study of the life cycle in Uruguay, and a review of human fascioliasis in Uruguay, are performed. Methodology/Principal findings The characterization of Fasciola hepatica from cattle and horses of Uruguay included the complete sequences of the ribosomal DNA ITS-2 and ITS-1 and mitochondrial DNA cox1 and nad1. ITS-2, ITS-1, partial cox1 and rDNA 16S gene of mtDNA were used for lymnaeids. Results indicated that vectors belong to Lymnaea neotropica instead of to Lymnaea viator, as always reported from Uruguay. The life cycle and transmission features of F. hepatica by L. neotropica of Uruguay were studied under standardized experimental conditions to enable a comparison with the transmission capacity of F. hepatica by Galba truncatula at very high altitude in Bolivia. On this baseline, we reviewed the 95 human fascioliasis cases reported in Uruguay and analyzed the risk of human infection in front of future climate change estimations. Conclusions/Significance The correlation of fasciolid and lymnaeid haplotypes with historical data on the introduction and spread of livestock into Uruguay allowed to understand the molecular diversity detected. Although Uruguayan L. neotropica is a highly efficient vector, its transmission capacity is markedly lower than that of Bolivian G. truncatula. This allows to understand the transmission and

  20. Detection and molecular characterization of Torque Teno Virus (TTV) in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Cancela, Florencia; Ramos, Natalia; Mirazo, Santiago; Mainardi, Victoria; Gerona, Solange; Arbiza, Juan

    2016-10-01

    Torque Teno Virus (TTV), member of Anelloviridae family, is considered a worldwide distributed emergent virus and is currently classified into seven genogroups. Interestingly, the pathogenicity of TTV remains unclear. However, it has been constantly associated to hepatitis cases of unknown etiology (HUE) as well as extensively studied in concurrent infections with Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1). In South America, TTV epidemiological data is scant, involving some studies from Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia and Bolivia. The aim of this work was to investigate for the first time in Uruguay the presence of TTV by a nested-PCR system in 85 human serum samples infected with HBV and/or HCV and/or HIV-1 and in HUE cases. Overall, our results reported a TTV infection rate of 79% (67/85). Furthermore, the molecular characterization of Uruguayan strains revealed that one of them clustered in genogroup 1, while the remaining ones formed separate clusters closely related to genogroup 3, which should be confirmed by complete genome sequencing. Further investigation about TTV circulation in Uruguayan population is needed in order to provide additional information about the genetic variability and TTV epidemiology in South America. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reform of abortion law in Uruguay: context, process and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Wood, Susan; Abracinskas, Lilián; Correa, Sonia; Pecheny, Mario

    2016-11-01

    In October 2012, a new law was approved in Uruguay that allows abortion on demand during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, 14 weeks in the case of rape, and without a time limit when the woman's health is at risk or in the case of foetal anomalies. This paper analyses this legal reform. It is based on 27 individual and group interviews with key informants, and on review of primary documents and the literature. The factors explaining the reform include: secular values in society, favourable public opinion, a persistent feminist movement, effective coalition building, particular party politics, and a vocal public health sector. The content of the new law reflects the tensions between a feminist perspective of women's rights and public health arguments that stop short of fully recognizing women's autonomy. The Uruguayan reform shows that, even in Latin America, abortion can be addressed politically without electoral cost to the parties that promote it. On the other hand, the prevailing public health rationale and conditionalities built into the law during the negotiation process resulted in a law that cannot be interpreted as a full recognition of women's rights, but rather as a modified protectionist approach that circumscribes women's autonomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Patterns of Exposure to Multiple Metals and Associations with Neurodevelopment of Preschool Children from Montevideo, Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Ardoino, Graciela; Coffman, Donna L.; Queirolo, Elena I.; Ciccariello, Daniela; Mañay, Nelly; Ettinger, Adrienne S.

    2015-01-01

    While it is known that toxic metals contribute individually to child cognitive and behavioral deficits, we still know little about the effects of exposure to multiple metals, particularly when exposures are low. We studied the association between children's blood lead and hair arsenic, cadmium, and manganese and their performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III. Ninety-two preschool children (age 13–42 months) from Montevideo, Uruguay, provided a hair sample and 78 had a blood lead level (BLL) measurement. Using latent class analysis (LCA), we identified four groups of exposure based on metal concentrations: (1) low metals, (2) low-to-moderate metals, (3) high lead and cadmium, and (4) high metals. Using the four-group exposure variable as the main predictor, and fitting raw scores on the cognitive, receptive vocabulary, and expressive vocabulary scales as dependent variables, both complete-case and multiple imputation (MI) analyses were conducted. We found no association between multiple-metal exposures and neurodevelopment in covariate-adjusted models. This study demonstrates the use of LCA together with MI to determine patterns of exposure to multiple toxic metals and relate these to child neurodevelopment. However, because the overall study population was small, other studies with larger sample sizes are needed to investigate these associations. PMID:25694786

  3. Package design and nutritional profile of foods targeted at children in supermarkets in Montevideo, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Ana; Saldamando, Luis de; Curutchet, María Rosa; Ares, Gastón

    2017-06-12

    Marketing of unhealthy products has been identified as one of the main characteristics of the food environment that negatively affects children's eating patterns. Restrictions on advertising of unhealthy foods to children have already been imposed in different countries. However, marketing strategies are not limited to broadcast and digital advertising, but also include package design. In this context, the current study aimed to describe the food products targeted at children and sold in supermarkets in Montevideo, Uruguay, in terms of package design and nutrient profile. Two supermarkets in Montevideo were selected for data collection. In each supermarket, all products targeted at children were identified. Products were analyzed in terms of package design and nutritional profile, considering the Pan American Health Organization Nutrient Profile Model. A total of 180 unique products were identified, which included a wide range of product categories. The great majority of the products corresponded to ultra-processed products with excessive amounts of sodium, free sugars, total fat, saturated fat, and/or trans fat, which are not recommended for frequent consumption. Several marketing strategies were identified in the design of packages to attract children's attention and drive their preferences. The most common strategies were the inclusion of cartoon characters, bright colors, childish lettering, and a wide range of claims related to health and nutrition, as well as the products' sensory and hedonic characteristics. The study's findings provide additional evidence on the need to regulate packaging of products targeted at children.

  4. Differences in coprophilous beetle communities structure in Sierra de Minas (Uruguay): a mosaic landscape.

    PubMed

    González-Vainer, Patricia; Morelli, E; Defeo, O

    2012-10-01

    Coprophilous beetles represent an abundant and rich group with critical importance in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Most coprophagous beetles have a stenotopic distribution in relation to vegetation types. Because of this, they are usually very sensitive to environmental changes and are considered well suited as bioindicator organisms. The aim of this study was to analyze variations in coprophilous beetle assemblages in natural and anthropogenic habitats. Coprophilous beetle communities were sampled monthly for 1 year using pitfall traps baited with cow dung, in native xeric upland forests, 15-years-old plantations of Pinus elliottii and pastures in Sierra de Minas, Lavalleja, Uruguay. A total of 7,436 beetles were caught and identified to species or morphospecies level. The most abundant families were Aphodiidae, Scarabaeidae, and Staphylinidae. Differences in species richness, abundance, Shannon index, evenness, and dominance were detected between habitats. Abundances of most frequent families were significantly higher in both kinds of forests. Species richness and diversity of Aphodiidae and Staphylinidae were higher in forests, while Scarabaeidae showed the highest richness and diversity in pine plantations. Species composition significantly differed between habitats. Uroxys terminalis Waterhouse and Ataenius perforatus Harold typified the assemblages in native forests and pine plantations and also discriminated both communities because of their differential pattern of abundance between habitats. Typifying species in pastures were Onthophagus hirculus, Ateuchus robustus (Harold), and Ataenius platensis Blanchard. Habitat type had a strong effect on the coprophilous beetle community structure and composition.

  5. Foods, nutrients and prostate cancer: a case–control study in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Deneo-Pellegrini, H; Stefani, E De; Ronco, A; Mendilaharsu, M

    1999-01-01

    A case–control study of diet and prostate cancer was conducted in Montevideo, Uruguay involving 175 cases and 233 controls. When the highest quartile of intake was compared with the lowest, positive findings were obtained for red meat intake (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1–3.8), desserts (OR 1.8, 95% CI 0.9–3.3), total energy (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0–3.4) and total fat intake (OR 1.8, 95% CI 0.9–3.4). On the other hand, vegetables and fruits (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3–0.9), vitamin C (OR 0.4, 95% 0.2–0.8) and vitamin E (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3–1.1) were associated with reduced risks of prostate cancer. Possible mechanisms are discussed. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10408871

  6. Social policies in Uruguay: a view from the political dimension of community psychology.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ferreyra, Alicia

    2009-03-01

    This paper approaches social policy (SP) from the political perspective considered by Montero (Critical psychology: An introduction, Sage, London, pp 231-244, 1997; Community, Work and Family 1(1):65-78, 1998; Introducción a la Psicología Comunitaria. Desarrollo, conceptos y procesos, Paidos, Buenos Aires, pp 89-114, pp 255-284, 2004; Hacer para transformar. El método en la Psicología Comunitaria, Paidos, Buenos Aires, pp 229-256, 2004) as a paradigmatic dimension of community psychology. The field of SP, the characteristics of certain SPs and the role of SP in the production and reproduction of the subjectivities of those subject to them in Uruguay are described and an analysis given of the challenge posed by going from a compensatory or palliative to a transformative mode of SP. It is proposed that identification of, and understanding and intervention in, psychosocial processes in the field are the keys to maximising the likelihood of SPs assuming a transformative character. Psychosocial aspects and participatory processes implicit in the relationship between the State and civil society are discussed. Finally, some orientations for community psychological intervention in this field of action are proposed.

  7. Early archosauromorph remains from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of north-eastern Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Velozo, Pablo; Meneghel, Melitta; Piñeiro, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    The Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is crucial to understand the impact of the Permo-Triassic mass extinction on the early evolution of the group and its subsequent dominance in Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystems. However, the Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is still very poor in most continents and hampers the identification of global macroevolutionary patterns. Here we describe cranial and postcranial bones from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of northeastern Uruguay that contribute to increase the meagre early archosauromorph record from South America. A basioccipital fused to both partial exoccipitals and three cervical vertebrae are assigned to Archosauromorpha based on apomorphies or a unique combination of characters. The archosauromorph remains of the Buena Vista Formation probably represent a multi-taxonomic assemblage composed of non-archosauriform archosauromorphs and a ‘proterosuchid-grade’ animal. This assemblage does not contribute in the discussion of a Late Permian or Early Triassic age for the Buena Vista Formation, but reinforces the broad palaeobiogeographic distribution of ‘proterosuchid grade’ diapsids in Permo-Triassic beds worldwide. PMID:25737816

  8. Improved dengue fever prevention through innovative intervention methods in the city of Salto, Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Basso, César; García da Rosa, Elsa; Romero, Sonnia; González, Cristina; Lairihoy, Rosario; Roche, Ingrid; Caffera, Ruben M.; da Rosa, Ricardo; Calfani, Marisel; Alfonso-Sierra, Eduardo; Petzold, Max; Kroeger, Axel; Sommerfeld, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Background Uruguay is located at the southern border of Aedes aegypti distribution on the South American sub-continent. The reported dengue cases in the country are all imported from surrounding countries. One of the cities at higher risk of local dengue transmission is Salto, a border city with heavy traffic from dengue endemic areas. Methods We completed an intervention study using a cluster randomized trial design in 20 randomly selected ‘clusters’ in Salto. The clusters were located in neighborhoods of differing geography and economic, cultural and social aspects. Results Entomological surveys were carried out to measure the impact of the intervention on vector densities. Through participatory processes of all stakeholders, an appropriate ecosystem management intervention was defined. Residents collected the abundant small water holding containers and the Ministry of Public Health and the Municipality of Salto were responsible for collecting and eliminating them. Additional vector breeding places were large water tanks; they were either altered so that they could not hold water any more or covered so that oviposition by mosquitoes could not take place. Conclusions The response from the community and national programme managers was encouraging. The intervention evidenced opportunities for cost savings and reducing dengue vector densities (although not to statistically significant levels). The observed low vector density limits the potential reduction due to the intervention. A larger sample size is needed to obtain a statistically significant difference. PMID:25604764

  9. Dynamics of Total Microcystin LR Concentration in Three Subtropical Hydroelectric Generation Reservoirs in Uruguay, South America.

    PubMed

    González-Piana, Mauricio; Fabián, Daniel; Piccardo, Andrea; Chalar, Guillermo

    2017-08-20

    This study analyzed the temporal dynamics of total microcystin LR concentrations between the years of 2012 and 2015 in the Bonete, Baygorria and Palmar hydroelectric generation reservoirs in the central region of the Negro River, Uruguay. The three reservoirs showed differents total microcystin LR concentration, with no significant differences among them. Over 20 sampling dates, the three reservoirs exhibited total microcystin LR concentrations on eight occasions that corresponded to a slight to moderate human health risk according to WHO guideline values for recreational waters. By determining the concentration of microcystin LR in cyanobacterial biomass, we identified cyanobacterial populations that occurred over time with varying degrees of toxin production (maximal 85.4 µg/mm(3)). The microcystin LR concentration in Bonete was positively correlated with temperature (r = 0.587) and cyanobacterial biomass (r = 0.736), in Baygorria with cyanobacterial biomass (r = 0.521), and in Palmar with temperature (r = 0.500) and negatively correlated with ammonia (r = -0.492). Action is needed to reduce the presence of toxic cyanobacteria in these systems. A decrease in the use of agrochemicals and management changes in the reservoir basins could be successful long-term measures.

  10. Genetic variability of hepatitis B virus in Uruguay: D/F, A/F genotype recombinants.

    PubMed

    Lopez, L; Flichman, D; Mojsiejczuk, L; Gonzalez, M V; Uriarte, R; Campos, R; Cristina, J; Garcia-Aguirre, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious global health problem. Approximately 2 billion people worldwide have been infected, and approximately 350 million individuals currently suffer from HBV-induced chronic liver infection, which causes 600,000 deaths annually from chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV is classified in eight genotypes (A-H), and two more have been proposed (I-J). In this paper, complete genome sequences of nine Uruguayan HBV are reported. Five samples belong to genotype F1b and one to genotype A2. Three HBV recombinants were detected: A1/F1b, A2/F1b and D3/F1b. The following mutations were detected: a G1896A substitution, a 33-nucleotide deletion from position 2896 to 2928 in the Pre-S1 region involving Pre-S1 residues 3-13, a 33-nt deletion in the Pre-S1 region involving nt 2913-2945 and Pre-S1 residues 9-19. More F genotypes strains than expected were detected in this study, supporting the hypothesis that there are more people of indigenous origin than declared in our population. Also, one third of the samples analyzed were recombinants. This cannot be explained by the low HBV prevalence in Uruguay, but a high HBV infection rate in drug addicts and dialysis patients could act in favor of multiple-genotype HBV infections that could lead to recombination.

  11. Isolation of Enterobacter cowanii from Eucalyptus showing symptoms of bacterial blight and dieback in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Brady, C L; Venter, S N; Cleenwerck, I; Engelbeen, K; de Vos, P; Wingfield, M J; Telechea, N; Coutinho, T A

    2009-10-01

    This study was performed to identify bacterial strains isolated simultaneously with Pantoea species from Eucalyptus trees showing symptoms of bacterial blight and dieback in Uruguay. Several molecular techniques including 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridization were used to characterize the gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, slime-producing bacterial strains isolated along with Pantoea species from Eucalyptus. Hypersensitivity reactions (HR) and pathogenicity tests were performed on tobacco and Eucalyptus seedlings, respectively. The isolates clustered closely with the type strain of Enterobacter cowanii in both phylogenetic trees constructed. The DNA-DNA similarity between the isolates and the type strain of Ent. cowanii ranged from 88% to 92%. A positive HR was observed on the tobacco seedlings, but no disease symptoms were visible on the inoculated Eucalyptus seedlings. Enterobacter cowanii was isolated from trees with symptoms of bacterial blight although strains of this bacterial species do not appear to be the causal agent of the disease. This study provides the first report of Ent. cowanii isolated from Eucalyptus. Its presence in Eucalyptus tissue suggests that it is an endophyte in trees showing symptoms of blight.

  12. [The experience in Uruguay: the Bill for the Defense of Reproductive Health].

    PubMed

    Xavier, Mónica

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on the recent Uruguayan experience with the debate on sexual and reproductive rights. While the Bill for the Defense of Reproductive Health did not pass in the Senate, both the prior process and the subsequent impacts have been relevant, generating a social debate that is still incipient but has involved the mass media, academia, and the political parties and spawning a discussion that has involved both houses of Congress for the first time. Within this context, an outstanding role has been played by NGOs devoted to the defense of women's rights (especially sexual and reproductive), who established a coordinating body that included the trade union movement, which supported the bill. The debate also led to international ties that projected it beyond the country's borders. The article briefly reviews the background and basis for the bill, the research it entailed, and the international commitments assumed by Uruguay, before concluding with a summary of the bill itself and the challenges it poses in terms of sexual and reproductive rights, specifically with regard to voluntary interruption of pregnancy.

  13. Shear zone evolution and timing of deformation in the Neoproterozoic transpressional Dom Feliciano Belt, Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oriolo, Sebastián; Oyhantçabal, Pedro; Wemmer, Klaus; Heidelbach, Florian; Pfänder, Jörg; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Hueck, Mathias; Hannich, Felix; Sperner, Blanka; Siegesmund, Siegfried

    2016-11-01

    New structural, microstructural and geochronological (U-Pb LA-ICP-MS, Ar/Ar, K-Ar, Rb-Sr) data were obtained for the Dom Feliciano Belt in Uruguay. The main phase of crustal shortening, metamorphism and associated exhumation is recorded between 630 and 600 Ma. This stage is related to the collision of the Río de la Plata and Congo cratons at ca. 630 Ma, which also involved crustal reworking of minor crustal blocks such as the Nico Pérez Terrane and voluminous post-collisional magmatism. Subsequent orogen-parallel sinistral shearing gave rise to further deformation up to ca. 584 Ma and resulted from the onset of the convergence of the Kalahari Craton and the Río de la Plata-Congo cratons. Sinistral shear zones underwent progressive strain localization and retrograde conditions of deformation during crustal exhumation. Dextral ENE-striking shear zones were subsequently active at ca. 550 Ma, coeval with further sinistral shearing along N- to NNE-striking shear zones. The tectonothermal evolution of the Dom Feliciano Belt thus recorded the collision of the Río de la Plata and Congo cratons, which comprised one of the first amalgamated nuclei of Gondwana, and the subsequent incorporation of the Kalahari Craton into Western Gondwana.

  14. Screening for Antimicrobial Activity of Wood Rotting Higher Basidiomycetes Mushrooms from Uruguay against Phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Barneche, Stephanie; Jorcin, Gabriela; Cecchetto, Gianna; Cerdeiras, María Pía; Vázquez, Alvaro; Alborés, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the antimicrobial activity of extracts of wood rotting higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms isolated from Eucalyptus plantations in Uruguay was studied using bacterial and fungal phytopathogens as targets. Fifty-one extracts from mycelia and growth broth were prepared from higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms, from which eight extracts (from Ganoderma resinaceum, Laetiporus sulphureus, Dictyopanus pusillus, and Bjerkandera adusta) showed antimicrobial activity against Xanthomonas vesicatoria, Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium expansum, Botrytis cinerea, and Rhizopus stolonifer as assayed in the qualitative test. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for those fungal extracts was determined and the results showed that L. sulphureus deserved further study, with low MIC values against X. vesicatoria. The antimicrobial activity of L. sulphureus culture broth extracts grown under different culture conditions was evaluated against X. vesicatoria. From the results of these assays, larger-scale cultures for the production of the compound(s) with antimicrobial activity should be performed using malt extract broth, at pH 5, at 20°C and static culture conditions.

  15. Tannat grape composition responses to spatial variability of temperature in an Uruguay's coastal wine region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourment, Mercedes; Ferrer, Milka; González-Neves, Gustavo; Barbeau, Gérard; Bonnardot, Valérie; Quénol, Hervé

    2017-09-01

    Spatial variability of temperature was studied in relation to the berry basic composition and secondary compounds of the Tannat cultivar at harvest from vineyards located in Canelones and Montevideo, the most important wine region of Uruguay. Monitoring of berries and recording of temperature were performed in 10 commercial vineyards of Tannat situated in the southern coastal wine region of the country for three vintages (2012, 2013, and 2014). Results from a multivariate correlation analysis between berry composition and temperature over the three vintages showed that (1) Tannat responses to spatial variability of temperature were different over the vintages, (2) correlations between secondary metabolites and temperature were higher than those between primary metabolites, and (3) correlation values between berry composition and climate variables increased when ripening occurred under dry conditions (below average rainfall). For a particular studied vintage (2013), temperatures explained 82.5% of the spatial variability of the berry composition. Daily thermal amplitude was found to be the most important spatial mode of variability with lower values recorded at plots nearest to the sea and more exposed to La Plata River. The highest levels in secondary compounds were found in berries issued from plots situated as far as 18.3 km from La Plata River. The increasing knowledge of temperature spatial variability and its impact on grape berry composition contributes to providing possible issues to adapt grapevine to climate change.

  16. Tannat grape composition responses to spatial variability of temperature in an Uruguay's coastal wine region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourment, Mercedes; Ferrer, Milka; González-Neves, Gustavo; Barbeau, Gérard; Bonnardot, Valérie; Quénol, Hervé

    2017-05-01

    Spatial variability of temperature was studied in relation to the berry basic composition and secondary compounds of the Tannat cultivar at harvest from vineyards located in Canelones and Montevideo, the most important wine region of Uruguay. Monitoring of berries and recording of temperature were performed in 10 commercial vineyards of Tannat situated in the southern coastal wine region of the country for three vintages (2012, 2013, and 2014). Results from a multivariate correlation analysis between berry composition and temperature over the three vintages showed that (1) Tannat responses to spatial variability of temperature were different over the vintages, (2) correlations between secondary metabolites and temperature were higher than those between primary metabolites, and (3) correlation values between berry composition and climate variables increased when ripening occurred under dry conditions (below average rainfall). For a particular studied vintage (2013), temperatures explained 82.5% of the spatial variability of the berry composition. Daily thermal amplitude was found to be the most important spatial mode of variability with lower values recorded at plots nearest to the sea and more exposed to La Plata River. The highest levels in secondary compounds were found in berries issued from plots situated as far as 18.3 km from La Plata River. The increasing knowledge of temperature spatial variability and its impact on grape berry composition contributes to providing possible issues to adapt grapevine to climate change.

  17. Mobbing in Schools and Hospitals in Uruguay: Prevalence and Relation to Loss of Status.

    PubMed

    Buunk, Abraham P; Franco, Silvia; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Zurriaga, Rosario

    2016-01-19

    In the present study in secondary schools and hospitals in Uruguay (N = 187), we examined the relationship between feeling the victim of mobbing and a perceived loss of status. Nearly all forms of mobbing were more prevalent among hospital employees than among school employees. Among hospital employees, 40.4%, and among school employees, 23.9% reported being the victim of mobbing at least once a week. Being the victim of mobbing was, in both hospitals and schools, more prevalent among older employees, and in hospitals, among employees who were more highly educated and who had been employed for a longer time. Men and women did not differ in reporting that one was a victim of mobbing, but men reported more perceived loss of status than women. However, among women, being the victim of mobbing was much more strongly related to experiencing a loss of status than among men. Several explanations for this gender difference and the practical and theoretical implications of the results are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Mesozoic dykes and sills from Uruguay: Sr - Nd isotope and trace element geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzio, Rossana; Peel, Elena; Porta, Natalia; Scaglia, Fernando

    2017-08-01

    The Mesozoic mafic intrusions in Uruguay comprise dykes and sills grouped as the Cuaró Formation. They are mainly distributed along the southern portion of the Paraná basin, and they are considered part of the Paraná Magmatic Province. They crop out as typically grey moderately altered dykes and sills, characterized by glomero-porphyritic textures, with clusters of plagioclase and occasional clinopyroxene, set in a fine-grained groundmass composed by labradorite, augite and titaniferous magnetite. We present new lithogeochemical results particularly regarding Sr - Nd isotopes to discuss petrogenetic processes. All samples have high 87Sr/86Sr (0.71160-0.70781) and low 143Nd/144Nd ratios (0.512274-0.512585), with epsilon Nd(0) between -4.37 and -7.1. TDM model ages, calculated for 130 Ma, are composed of approximately 1.41-1.61 Ga, except for one dyke with 1.29 Ga. The isotopic data allow their classification as derived from the Gramado magma-type. Trace element geochemistry and isotopic data indicate that the primary magma would be a product of an enriched mantle source with a strong crustal signature, probably due to inherited subduction components and/or assimilation processes.

  19. Nutrient-derived dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer: a factor analysis in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    De Stefani, Eduardo; Ronco, Alvaro L; Boffetta, Paolo; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Correa, Pelayo; Acosta, Gisele; Mendilaharsu, Maria

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the role of nutrients and bioactive related substances in colorectal cancer, we conducted a case-control in Uruguay, which is the country with the highest production of beef in the world. Six hundred and eleven (611) cases afflicted with colorectal cancer and 1,362 controls drawn from the same hospitals in the same time period were analyzed through unconditional multiple logistic regression. This base population was submitted to a principal components factor analysis and three factors were retained. They were labeled as the meat-based, plant-based, and carbohydrates patterns. They were rotated using orthogonal varimax method. The highest risk was positively associated with the meat-based pattern (OR for the highest quartile versus the lowest one 1.63, 95 % CI 1.22-2.18, P value for trend = 0.001), whereas the plant-based pattern was strongly protective (OR 0.60, 95 % CI 0.45-0.81, P value for trend <0.0001. The carbohydrates pattern was only positively associated with colon cancer risk (OR 1.46, 95 % CI 1.02-2.09). The meat-based pattern was rich in saturated fat, animal protein, cholesterol, and phosphorus, nutrients originated in red meat. Since herocyclic amines are formed in the well-done red meat through the action of amino acids and creatine, it is suggestive that this pattern could be an important etiologic agent for colorectal cancer.

  20. Meat, milk and risk of lymphoid malignancies: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    De Stefani, Eduardo; Ronco, Alvaro L; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Boffetta, Paolo; Correa, Pelayo; Barrios, Enrique; Acosta, Gisele; Mendilaharsu, María

    2013-01-01

    In the time period 1996-2004, 697 cases with lymphoid neoplasms and 3606 controls with nonneoplastic conditions were included in a case-control study conducted in the Cancer Institute of Uruguay. They were administered a routine questionnaire that included 8 sections and a food frequency questionnaire focused on intakes of total meat, red meat, salted meat, barbecued meat, processed meat, milk, total vegetables and total fruits, and alcoholic beverages. Lymphoid cancers were analyzed by multiple polytomous regression. Red meat, salted meat, and milk were positively associated with risk of lymphoid cancers [odds ratios (OR) for the highest tertile vs. the lowest one of red meat = 1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37-2.08, OR for whole milk = 2.92, 95% CI 2.63-3.63). On the other hand, plant foods, particularly total fruits, and alcoholic beverages (mainly red wine) were protective. We could conclude that these foods could play a significant role in the etiology of lymphoid malignancies.

  1. Early archosauromorph remains from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of north-eastern Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Ezcurra, Martín D; Velozo, Pablo; Meneghel, Melitta; Piñeiro, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    The Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is crucial to understand the impact of the Permo-Triassic mass extinction on the early evolution of the group and its subsequent dominance in Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystems. However, the Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is still very poor in most continents and hampers the identification of global macroevolutionary patterns. Here we describe cranial and postcranial bones from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of northeastern Uruguay that contribute to increase the meagre early archosauromorph record from South America. A basioccipital fused to both partial exoccipitals and three cervical vertebrae are assigned to Archosauromorpha based on apomorphies or a unique combination of characters. The archosauromorph remains of the Buena Vista Formation probably represent a multi-taxonomic assemblage composed of non-archosauriform archosauromorphs and a 'proterosuchid-grade' animal. This assemblage does not contribute in the discussion of a Late Permian or Early Triassic age for the Buena Vista Formation, but reinforces the broad palaeobiogeographic distribution of 'proterosuchid grade' diapsids in Permo-Triassic beds worldwide.

  2. Improved dengue fever prevention through innovative intervention methods in the city of Salto, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Basso, César; García da Rosa, Elsa; Romero, Sonnia; González, Cristina; Lairihoy, Rosario; Roche, Ingrid; Caffera, Ruben M; da Rosa, Ricardo; Calfani, Marisel; Alfonso-Sierra, Eduardo; Petzold, Max; Kroeger, Axel; Sommerfeld, Johannes

    2015-02-01

    Uruguay is located at the southern border of Aedes aegypti distribution on the South American sub-continent. The reported dengue cases in the country are all imported from surrounding countries. One of the cities at higher risk of local dengue transmission is Salto, a border city with heavy traffic from dengue endemic areas. We completed an intervention study using a cluster randomized trial design in 20 randomly selected 'clusters' in Salto. The clusters were located in neighborhoods of differing geography and economic, cultural and social aspects. Entomological surveys were carried out to measure the impact of the intervention on vector densities. Through participatory processes of all stakeholders, an appropriate ecosystem management intervention was defined. Residents collected the abundant small water holding containers and the Ministry of Public Health and the Municipality of Salto were responsible for collecting and eliminating them. Additional vector breeding places were large water tanks; they were either altered so that they could not hold water any more or covered so that oviposition by mosquitoes could not take place. The response from the community and national programme managers was encouraging. The intervention evidenced opportunities for cost savings and reducing dengue vector densities (although not to statistically significant levels). The observed low vector density limits the potential reduction due to the intervention. A larger sample size is needed to obtain a statistically significant difference. © The author 2015. The World Health Organization has granted Oxford University Press permission for the reproduction of this article.

  3. [Practices of maternal and perinatal care performed in public hospitals of Uruguay].

    PubMed

    Colomar, Mercedes; Belizán, María; Cafferata, María Luisa; Labandera, Ana; Tomasso, Giselle; Althabe, Fernando; Belizán, José M

    2004-09-01

    Quality of care can be measured by the rate of use of beneficial and ineffective or deleterious practices. To perform a survey of the use of maternal and perinatal care practices in public maternities of Uruguay, and to know the opinions and perspectives of the users concerning some of these practices. Cross-sectional hospital based descriptive study. For the prevalence study, a questionnaire filled with data taken from hospital records and a women survey were used. For the opinion study, a women questionnaire during early postpartum period was done. 773 women from 12 hospitals were enrolled in the study. The rate of administration of corticosteroids in women with risk of preterm delivery was < or = 40%. Periconceptional folic acid administration, psychosocial support during labour, active management during the third stage of labour, and supine position of the newborn, showed rates of utilization lower than 35%. Episiotomy and perineal shaving showed rates of use higher than 50%. Some evidence-based beneficial health care practices are still not routinely implemented in public hospitals. Ineffective and even harmful practices are still used.

  4. Rh factor, family history and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Alvaro L; Stoll, Mario; De Stéfani, Eduardo; Maisonneuve, Juan E; Mendoza, Beatriz A; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    To explore possible relationships among blood factors, family history of breast cancer (BC) and the risk of the disease, a case-control study was carried out in Montevideo, Uruguay. Eight hundred and one patients were interviewed, including 252 certified cases of BC and 549 frequency-matched controls. Blood groups (ABO, Rh) were obtained from medical records. Multivariate analyses were performed, adjusting for age, selected menstrual and reproductive factors, and family history of BC as well as of other cancers. We found that the absence of Rh factor (Rh-) was positively associated with the risk of BC (adjusted Odds Ratio [OR]=1.49, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.05-2.11). Stratified analyses by family history of BC showed a strong association for Rh- with a positive history of first degree relatives (OR=3.17, 95% CI 1.06-9.47). Also stratified analyses by family history of other cancers showed a positive association for Rh- with a positive history of first degree relatives (OR=2.08, 95% CI 1.05-4.11). Regarding the implications of an inherited factor like Rh and its associations with the family history of BC, it might increase the probability to generate high-risk individuals if further studies confirm the present preliminary findings.

  5. Prevalence and serotype distribution of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from foods in Montevideo-Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Braga, Valeria; Vázquez, Sylvia; Vico, Victoria; Pastorino, Valeria; Mota, María Inés; Legnani, Marcela; Schelotto, Felipe; Lancibidad, Gustavo; Varela, Gustavo

    The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in foods obtained in retail shops and food industries located in Montevideo-Uruguay, and to identify the serogroups of the obtained isolates. Three-thousand one-hundred and seventy-five food samples (frozen, deli meats, ready-to-eat and cheese) were analyzed. The obtained isolates were serogrouped by multiplex PCR and serotyped by conventional procedure. Genetic comparisons were performed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis on a sub-set of isolates belonging to the same serotype successively recovered from the same establishment. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 11.2% of samples. The highest prevalence was observed in frozen foods (38%), followed by cheese (10%). 1/2b and 4b were the most frequently identified serotypes. In six of 236 analyzed establishments we successively recovered L. monocytogenes isolates belonging to the same serotype. Most of them corresponded to serotype 1/2b. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles suggest that at least 33% of L. monocytogenes 1/2b isolates are genetically related and that may remain viable for prolonged periods. The observed prevalence of L. monocytogenes was lower than reported in neighboring countries. Our findings highlight the role that frozen foods may play in the spread of this pathogen, and the relevance of serotypes 1/2b and 4b. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. First identification of Porcine Circovirus Type 2b mutant in pigs from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Natalia; Mirazo, Santiago; Castro, Gustavo; Arbiza, Juan

    2015-07-01

    Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) is a worldwide distributed virus and is considered an important emerging pathogen related to several distinct disease syndromes in pigs. PCV2 strains are classified into three genotypes: PCV2a, with five subtypes (2A-2E), PCV2b with three subtypes (1A-1C) and PCV2c, only found in Denmark. Recently, several reports suggested the circulation of newly emerging PCV2b mutants (mPCV2b) isolated from pigs with PCVAD in cases of suspected vaccine failure. In this work, we report for the first time the identification of mPCV2b in pigs from Uruguay, providing an additional evidence of a global circulation. Complete genome characterization and phylogenetic analysis reveal that Uruguayan strains, as well as mPCV2b previously reported are closely related to other sequences already classified as PCV2b-1C. Furthermore, results showed that mPCV2b presented different genetic markers in the capsid protein compared with classical PCV2a/b strains. Further investigation about antigenic shift of the mPCV2b strains including the Uruguayan isolates is needed.

  7. Tobacco control campaign in Uruguay: Impact on smoking cessation during pregnancy and birth weight.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jeffrey E; Balsa, Ana Inés; Triunfo, Patricia

    2015-07-01

    We analyzed a nationwide registry of all pregnancies in Uruguay during 2007-2013 to assess the impact of three types of tobacco control policies: (1) provider-level interventions aimed at the treatment of nicotine dependence, (2) national-level increases in cigarette taxes, and (3) national-level non-price regulation of cigarette packaging and marketing. We estimated models of smoking cessation during pregnancy at the individual, provider and national levels. The rate of smoking cessation during pregnancy increased from 15.4% in 2007 to 42.7% in 2013. National-level non-price policies had the largest estimated impact on cessation. The price response of the tobacco industry attenuated the effects of tax increases. While provider-level interventions had a significant effect, they were adopted by relatively few health centers. Quitting during pregnancy increased birth weight by an estimated 188 g. Tobacco control measures had no effect on the birth weight of newborns of non-smoking women.

  8. [Evaluation of Uruguay's antismoking campaign: progress and challenges at ten years].

    PubMed

    Triunfo, Patricia; Harris, Jeffrey; Balsa, Ana

    2016-10-01

    In 2005, shortly after ratifying the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), Uruguay began an ambitious tobacco control campaign that brought the country to the global forefront in the fight against smoking. The wide range of measures implemented in a relatively short period and the rigorousness with which policies were implemented and enforced have few precedents, even in the most developed countries. This paper presents a synthesis and update of several papers by the authors that evaluate different aspects of the campaign ten years following ratification of the FCTC. In particular, these research studies highlight the campaign's aggregate impact on the drop in prevalence of current tobacco consumption in adult and youth populations, and on decisions by pregnant women to quit smoking (1, 2), as well as the relative impact of tax policies in relation to non-price tobacco control measures. The analyses are based on observational studies (at the population or individual level) that use external (Argentina and Chile) and internal (nonsmokers) control groups. Pending challenges in the design of antismoking policies are also discussed.

  9. Patterns of exposure to multiple metals and associations with neurodevelopment of preschool children from Montevideo, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Ardoino, Graciela; Coffman, Donna L; Queirolo, Elena I; Ciccariello, Daniela; Mañay, Nelly; Ettinger, Adrienne S

    2015-01-01

    While it is known that toxic metals contribute individually to child cognitive and behavioral deficits, we still know little about the effects of exposure to multiple metals, particularly when exposures are low. We studied the association between children's blood lead and hair arsenic, cadmium, and manganese and their performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III. Ninety-two preschool children (age 13-42 months) from Montevideo, Uruguay, provided a hair sample and 78 had a blood lead level (BLL) measurement. Using latent class analysis (LCA), we identified four groups of exposure based on metal concentrations: (1) low metals, (2) low-to-moderate metals, (3) high lead and cadmium, and (4) high metals. Using the four-group exposure variable as the main predictor, and fitting raw scores on the cognitive, receptive vocabulary, and expressive vocabulary scales as dependent variables, both complete-case and multiple imputation (MI) analyses were conducted. We found no association between multiple-metal exposures and neurodevelopment in covariate-adjusted models. This study demonstrates the use of LCA together with MI to determine patterns of exposure to multiple toxic metals and relate these to child neurodevelopment. However, because the overall study population was small, other studies with larger sample sizes are needed to investigate these associations.

  10. Chemical signature of two Permian volcanic ash deposits within a bentonite bed from Melo, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Calarge, Liane M; Meunier, Alain; Lanson, Bruno; Formoso, Milton L L

    2006-09-01

    A Permian bentonite deposit at Melo, Uruguay is composed of a calcite-cemented sandstone containing clay pseudomorphs of glass shards (0-0.50 m) overlying a pink massive clay deposit (0.50-2.10 m). The massive bed is composed of two layers containing quartz and smectite or pure smectite respectively. The smectite is remarkably homogeneous throughout the profile: it is a complex mixed layer composed of three layer types whose expandability with ethylene glycol (2EG 1EG or 0EG sheets in the interlayer zone which correspond to low-, medium- and high-charge layers respectively) varies with the cation saturating the interlayer zone. The smectite homogeneity through the profile is the signature of an early alteration process in a lagoonal water which was over saturated with respect to calcite. Compaction during burial has made the bentonite bed a K-depleted closed system in which diagenetic illitization was inhibited. Variations in major, REE and minor element abundances throughout the massive clay deposit suggest that it originated from two successive ash falls. The incompatible element abundances are consistent with that of a volcanic glass fractionated from a rhyolite magma formed in a subduction/collision geological context.

  11. Risk factors and prevention of end stage renal disease in uruguay.

    PubMed

    Mazzuchi, Nelson; Schwedt, Emma; Solá, Laura; González, Carlota; Ferreiro, Alejandro

    2006-01-01

    Uruguay is a developing country with a privileged established program for renal replacement therapy (RRT) for all patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) since 1981. In December 2004, the RRT prevalence reached 916 patients per million population. The ESRD incidence has not changed significantly in the last eight years, differing with what is observed in other countries. In contrast, the ESRD incidence secondary to diabetic nephropathy has shown a permanent increase. The prevention of chronic kidney disease (CKD) began in 1989 with the Program of Prevention and Treatment of Glomerulonephritis (PPTG), being extended in 2002 to all CKD and canalized through the National Program of Renal Healthcare (NPRH) since 2004. The registry of glomerulonephritis has been demonstrated in recent years: patients are referral to nephrologists earlier, there is an increase of the frequency of patients with "clinical remission," and thus there is a decrease of the frequency of ESRD in the first three months after referral. The NPRH has been developed in a progressive way with the involvement of government authorities and the active participation of the nephrologists. A global prevention program, integrating the prevention of CKD, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and diabetes was developed. The first steps of the program have had important achievements: a rational reorientation of nephrologic care in the first level of attention, patient access to renoprotective medications without cost; a registration system of patients, the creation of a formal multidisciplinary team, and the instauration of a continuous medical education program.

  12. First record of Craspedacusta sowerbii Lankester, 1880 (Hydrozoa, Limnomedusae) in a natural freshwater lagoon of Uruguay, with notes on polyp stage in captivity.

    PubMed

    Siquier, M G Failla; Alanis, W S Serra; Debat, C Martinez

    2017-11-01

    The freshwater cnidarian Craspedacusta sowerbii Lankester 1880, has invaded lakes and ponds as well as artificial water bodies throughout the world. The first record in Uruguay corresponding to the jellyfish was made in 1961 in two artificial fountains, with no mention of the polyp form. Although local reports of other related polyp species have been made, information on the benthic form of C. sowerbii is lacking. Here we report the finding of live frustules, solitary individuals, medusae and colonies from a natural lagoon in August 2010, allowing us to observe the morphology and behavior of the polyp stage in captivity. In addition, molecular identification and remarks on the potencial path of introduction are presented. This is the first record in Uruguay of both polyp and medusa stages of C. sowerbii in a natural water body, Del Medio Lagoon (Dpto. de Florida), Uruguay.

  13. First record of Craspedacusta sowerbii Lankester, 1880 (Hydrozoa, Limnomedusae) in a natural freshwater lagoon of Uruguay, with notes on polyp stage in captivity.

    PubMed

    Siquier, M G Failla; Alanis, W S Serra; Debat, C Martinez

    2017-05-04

    The freshwater cnidarian Craspedacusta sowerbii Lankester 1880, has invaded lakes and ponds as well as artificial water bodies throughout the world. The first record in Uruguay corresponding to the jellyfish was made in 1961 in two artificial fountains, with no mention of the polyp form. Although local reports of other related polyp species have been made, information on the benthic form of C. sowerbii is lacking. Here we report the finding of live frustules, solitary individuals, medusae and colonies from a natural lagoon in August 2010, allowing us to observe the morphology and behavior of the polyp stage in captivity. In addition, molecular identification and remarks on the potencial path of introduction are presented. This is the first record in Uruguay of both polyp and medusa stages of C. sowerbii in a natural water body, Del Medio Lagoon (Dpto. de Florida), Uruguay.

  14. Genetic structure of Africanized honeybee populations (Apis mellifera L.) from Brazil and Uruguay viewed through mitochondrial DNA COI-COII patterns.

    PubMed

    Collet, T; Ferreira, K M; Arias, M C; Soares, A E E; Del Lama, M A

    2006-11-01

    Mitochondrial genotypes of Africanized honeybees from Brazil and Uruguay were surveyed by DraI restriction of the COI-COII region. Eleven mitotypes were found, three of which had not previously been described (A28-A30). Out of 775 samples (725 from Brazil, 50 from Uruguay), 197 were A1 and 520 were A4. A1 frequency increases toward the north of Brazil, whereas A4 frequency increases toward the south, a pattern echoing the African distribution. The origin of the A4 and most of the A1 African patterns can be attributed to the introduction of Apis mellifera scutellata into Brazil in 1956. The A29 and A30 patterns have the P1 sequence observed in many Iberian Peninsula samples, which represent the traces of the introductions into Brazil and Uruguay by settlers.

  15. Seroepidemiological survey of Rickettsia spp. in dogs from the endemic area of Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lado, Paula; Costa, Francisco B; Verdes, José M; Labruna, Marcelo B; Venzal, José M

    2015-06-01

    Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis is a vector-borne zoonosis that occurs in some countries of the American continent. Following the first description and determination of the pathogenicity to humans in 2004 in USA, this bacterium has been reported in several South American countries. Human cases have been diagnosed in both Uruguay and Argentina in the past years. This study consisted in a serosurvey of 1000 domestic dogs living in the endemic area of rickettsiosis in Uruguay, where Amblyomma triste is the tick vector. Sera were analyzed by Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA), against antigens of three different rickettsial species: R. rhipicephali, R. felis and R. parkeri. It was determined that 20.3% of the dogs had antibodies that reacted to at least one of the three species tested, taking as cut off ≥64 titers. Furthermore, 140 of the seropositive dogs (14%) had a titer at least 4 times higher to R. parkeri than those of any of the other species, thus, it was considered that the immune response was stimulated by that species in particular. This is the first serological survey in primary hosts for adults of A. triste in Uruguay, and therefore the first prevalence values are reported. Adult A. triste ticks collected from the environment as well as from dogs were analyzed by PCR in order to confirm the current circulation of the agent in the area. In this matter, two out of 28 ticks from dogs, and 3 out of 53 ticks from the environment were positive, and the corresponding sequence analysis revealed 100% similarity with R. parkeri strain maculatum.

  16. High prevalence and infection levels of Nosema ceranae in bumblebees Bombus atratus and Bombus bellicosus from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Arbulo, N; Antúnez, K; Salvarrey, S; Santos, E; Branchiccela, B; Martín-Hernández, R; Higes, M; Invernizzi, C

    2015-09-01

    Nosema ceranae is one of the most prevalent pathogens in Apis mellifera and has recently been found in multiple host species including several species of bumblebees. Prevalence and infection intensity of N. ceranae was determined in two species of native bumblebees from Uruguay. Nosema ceranae was the only microsporidia identified and mean prevalence was 72% in Bombus atratus and 63% in Bombus bellicosus, values much higher than those reported elsewhere. The presence of this pathogen in bumblebees may be threatening not only for bumblebee populations, but also to the rest of the native pollinator community and to honeybees.

  17. Exposures to Particulate Matter from the Eruptions of the Puyehue Volcano and Birth Outcomes in Montevideo, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Balsa, Ana Ines; Caffera, Marcelo; Bloomfield, Juanita

    2016-11-01

    The ashes and dust resulting from the 2011 eruptions of the Puyehue volcano in Chile more than doubled monthly averages of PM10 concentrations in Montevideo, Uruguay. Few studies have taken advantage of natural experiments to assess the relationship between ambient air pollutant concentrations and birth outcomes. In this study we explored the effect of particulate matter with diameter of ≤ 10 μm (PM10) on perinatal outcomes in Uruguay, a middle-income country in South America with levels of PM10 that in general do not exceed the recommended thresholds. The analyzed outcomes are preterm birth, term birth weight, and term low birth weight. We took advantage of the sharp variation in PM10 concentrations due to the Puyehue eruptions to estimate the associations between mother's exposure to PM10 in each trimester of pregnancy and perinatal outcomes. We use birth registries for 2010-2013 and control for covariates, including maternal and pregnancy characteristics, weather, co-pollutants, and calendar quarter and hospital indicators. A 10-μg/m3 increase in exposure to PM10 during the third trimester was associated with a higher likelihood of a preterm birth [odds ratio (OR) = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.19]. The association was robust to different model specifications, and increased with categorical exposure levels (OR for third-trimester PM10 ≥ 70 vs. < 30 μg/m3 = 5.24; 95% CI: 3.40, 8.08). Exposures were not consistently associated with birth weight or low birth weight among term births, though second-trimester exposures were associated with higher birth weight, contrary to expectations. Taking advantage of a natural experiment, we found evidence that exposure to high levels of PM10 during the third trimester of pregnancy may have increased preterm births among women in Montevideo, Uruguay. Citation: Balsa AI, Caffera M, Bloomfield J. 2016. Exposures to particulate matter from the eruptions of the Puyehue Volcano and birth outcomes in Montevideo, Uruguay. Environ

  18. The relationship among depression, parenting stress, and partner support in low-income women from Montevideo, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Ardoino, Graciela I; Queirolo, Elena I; Barg, Gabriel; Ciccariello, Daniela A; Kordas, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and predictors of depression in low-income mothers (n = 99) of young children from Uruguay. We administered the Beck Depression Scale (BDI) and the Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and asked who is responsible for the main tasks of parenting and household care. We found a high prevalence of moderate-to-severe depression (BDI >19 points, 31.3%), with women with t scores > 90 on the PSI being seven times more likely to experience moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms than women with lower PSI scores (p <.01). This is the first investigation of the predictors of depression in urban Uruguayan mothers of low socioeconomic status.

  19. Exposures to Particulate Matter from the Eruptions of the Puyehue Volcano and Birth Outcomes in Montevideo, Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Balsa, Ana Ines; Caffera, Marcelo; Bloomfield, Juanita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The ashes and dust resulting from the 2011 eruptions of the Puyehue volcano in Chile more than doubled monthly averages of PM10 concentrations in Montevideo, Uruguay. Few studies have taken advantage of natural experiments to assess the relationship between ambient air pollutant concentrations and birth outcomes. Objectives: In this study we explored the effect of particulate matter with diameter of ≤ 10 μm (PM10) on perinatal outcomes in Uruguay, a middle-income country in South America with levels of PM10 that in general do not exceed the recommended thresholds. The analyzed outcomes are preterm birth, term birth weight, and term low birth weight. Methods: We took advantage of the sharp variation in PM10 concentrations due to the Puyehue eruptions to estimate the associations between mother’s exposure to PM10 in each trimester of pregnancy and perinatal outcomes. We use birth registries for 2010–2013 and control for covariates, including maternal and pregnancy characteristics, weather, co-pollutants, and calendar quarter and hospital indicators. Results: A 10-μg/m3 increase in exposure to PM10 during the third trimester was associated with a higher likelihood of a preterm birth [odds ratio (OR) = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.19]. The association was robust to different model specifications, and increased with categorical exposure levels (OR for third-trimester PM10 ≥ 70 vs. < 30 μg/m3 = 5.24; 95% CI: 3.40, 8.08). Exposures were not consistently associated with birth weight or low birth weight among term births, though second-trimester exposures were associated with higher birth weight, contrary to expectations. Conclusions: Taking advantage of a natural experiment, we found evidence that exposure to high levels of PM10 during the third trimester of pregnancy may have increased preterm births among women in Montevideo, Uruguay. Citation: Balsa AI, Caffera M, Bloomfield J. 2016. Exposures to particulate matter from the eruptions of the Puyehue

  20. Zircon U-Pb SHRIMP dating of Palaeoproterozoic Isla Mala granitic magmatism in the Rio de la Plata Craton, Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Léo A.; Piñeyro, Daniel; Bossi, Jorge; Leite, Jayme A. D.; McNaughton, Neal J.

    2000-05-01

    An important event of K-rich granitic magmatism occurred at ca. 2.07 Ga in the Rio de la Plata Craton, Uruguay, as determined by U-Pb zircon SHRIMP geochronology of two Isla Mala Suite granitic rocks. Previous indications of Archaean ages are not confirmed. The absence of recrystallization or new zircon growth suggests that the investigated region of the craton remained unaffected by major Meso- or Neoproterozoic orogenies, although less intense deformation may have occurred and remained unregistered in the zircons.

  1. Foraging strategies of Southern sea lion females in the La Plata River Estuary (Argentina-Uruguay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Diego H.; Dassis, Mariela; Ponce de León, Alberto; Barreiro, César; Farenga, Marcelo; Bastida, Ricardo O.; Davis, Randall W.

    2013-04-01

    The stocks of Southern sea lions (Otaria flavescens, SSL) and South American fur seals (SAFS) that breed on coastal islands of Uruguay constitute the most important focal concentration of pinnipeds in South America, with a significant increase in SAFS and a steady decrease of SSL over the past decades. Because females are a key element of population dynamics and no information exists on the post-breeding pup rearing period, we studied the foraging patterns of SSL females in the La Plata River Estuary (LPRE) during mid and late lactation (late austral autumn and winter), analyzing the foraging performance, geographic coverage and ontogenetic differences in foraging strategies for a period of 1-5 months. At-sea movements of 22 SSL females (6 subadults and 16 adults) from Isla de Lobos (IL, 35°01'28"S-54°52'59"W, Uruguay) were monitored using satellite transmitters (SPOT4, SPOT5 and STDR-S16, Wildlife Computers) in 2007 and 2010. An algorithm [McConnell, B.J., Chambers, C., Fedak, M.A., 1992. Foraging ecology of southern elephant seals in relation to the bathymetry and productivity of the Southern Ocean. Antarct. Sci. 4, 393-398.] with a maximum transit speed of 3 m s-1 was applied to the Argos information, resulting in a total of 2522 filtered locations. A daily mean of 3.5±1.74 filtered locations per animal was received. One hundred and eighty three foraging trips (FT) were recorded with no significant differences (p<0.05) between subadults and adults in the duration of FT (6.1±3.15 day), distance traveled per FT (237.2±105.25 km), mean distance from IL (57.2±25.90 km), maximum straight line (Spider) distance (100.2±41.40 km) and transit speed (1.1±1.04 m s-1). SSL showed directional fidelity to foraging sites, indicated by high mean vector (r) values (0.74±0.14) calculated from FT mean bearings. Kernel ranges for 50% and 95% of all FT locations were 5420 km2 and 36,222 km2, respectively, and the extension of the foraging areas appeared to be influenced by

  2. Participatory research towards co-management: lessons from artisanal fisheries in coastal Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Trimble, Micaela; Berkes, Fikret

    2013-10-15

    Participatory research has become increasingly common in natural resources management. Even though participatory research is considered a strategy to facilitate co-management, there is little empirical evidence supporting this. The objective of the present paper is to analyze the contributions of participatory research to help encourage the emergence of co-management, based on a case study in Piriápolis artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay (where management has been top-down). We argue that participatory research involving artisanal fishers, government, and other stakeholders (university scientists and NGOs) can be a key stimulus towards co-management. We build this argument by considering "seven faces" by which co-management can be analyzed: (1) as power sharing; (2) as institution building; (3) as trust building; (4) as process; (5) as learning and knowledge co-production; (6) as problem solving; and (7) as governance. Our findings show that participatory research had an impact on these various faces: (1) power was shared when making research decisions; (2) a multi-stakeholder group (POPA), with a common vision and goals, was created; (3) trust among participants increased; (4) the process of group formation was valued by participants; (5) stakeholders learned skills for participation; (6) two problem-solving exercises were conducted; and (7) a diversity of stakeholders of the initial problem identified by fishers (sea lions' impact on long-line fishery) participated in the process. The case shows that participatory research functions as a platform which enhances learning and knowledge co-production among stakeholders, paving the way towards future co-management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Udder Pathogens Isolated from Dairy Herds in the West Littoral Region of Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    A total of 522 strains belonging to streptococci, enterococci and staphylococci isolated from sub-clinical and clinical cases of bovine mastitis from the west littoral region of Uruguay were analysed for their susceptibility to several antimicrobial agents. The susceptibility patterns were studied by agar disk diffusion methods (ADDM) and broth micro-dilution to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The concentration that inhibits 90% (MIC90) of the analysed strains reported in micrograms per millilitre, for Staphylococcus aureus were > 8, 8, ≤ 0.5, ≤ 4, ≤ 1, ≤ 0.5, > 64, ≤ 0.25, 0.5, ≤ 1 and ≤ 1 to penicillin, ampicillin, oxacillin, cephalotin, gentamicin, erythromycin, oxitetracycline, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, neomycin, and clindamycin, respectively. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) had different values for penicillin (4) and ampicillin (2), while the other antimicrobial agents had the same MIC90 values as reported for S. aureus. The MIC90 values for streptococci were 0.12, 0.25, ≤ 4, 16, ≤ 0.25, 0.5, 0.25 for penicillin, ampicillin, cephalotin, gentamicin, erythromycin, oxytetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, whereas MIC90 for enterococci were 4, 4, 4, ≤ 0.5, 2, > 8 for penicillin, ampicillin, gentamicin, erythromycin, oxytetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, respectively. Of 336 strains of S. aureus, 160 (47.6%) were resistant to penicillin. For 41 CNS strains, 10 (27%) presented penicillin-resistance. All the streptococcal strains were susceptible to penicillin, while 3 (7%) of the 43 enteroccocal strains were resistant. Non significant statistical differences were found between the results obtained by ADDM and broth micro-dilution for classifying bacterial isolates as susceptible or resistant according to the National Committee of Clinical Laboratory Standards. PMID:12071114

  4. Molecular analysis of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 strains from Uruguay: evidence for natural occurring recombination.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Natalia; Mirazo, Santiago; Castro, Gustavo; Arbiza, Juan

    2013-10-01

    Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) is a worldwide distributed virus and is considered an important emerging pathogen related to several distinct disease syndromes in pigs. Genomic structure consists of three major open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 (rep gene) encodes replication-related proteins, ORF2 (cap gene) encodes the capsid protein and ORF3 encodes a protein putatively involved in virus-induced apoptosis. Based on cap gene sequences, PCV2 strains are classified into two main genotypes, PCV2a with five clusters (2A-2E) and PCV2b with three clusters (1A-1C). According to previous theoretical studies, PCV2 strains can eventually undergo intra and inter-genotype recombination, mainly within the rep gene. Ever since, several evidences of recombination in the field have been reported and confirmed this hypothesis. In South America, data regarding molecular characterization of PCV2 strains is still scant. Genotyping studies in the region have concluded that PCV2b is the predominant circulating genotype in the region and till now, no recombinant strains have ever been reported. In this work we thoroughly characterized at the molecular level Uruguayan PCV2 strains by extensive sequence data analysis. Moreover, recombination software tools were applied to explore and characterize eventual occurrence of natural recombination events. Two recombinant PCV2 strains were detected in this study, as a consequence of an inter-genotype recombination event between PCV2b-1A and PCV2a-2D, as the major and minor parent, respectively. According to recombination software analysis, in both cases the event occurred within the ORF1. Herein, extensive viral sequence dataset is provided, including the characterization of the first PCV2 recombinant strains ever reported in South America. Additionally, our results suggested a multi-centered source of PCV2 infection in Uruguay, which probably involved Brazilian and European origins.

  5. Virus in Groundwater: Characterization of transport mechanisms and impacts on an agricultural area in Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamazo, P. A.; Colina, R.; Victoria, M.; Alvareda, E.; Burutaran, L.; Ramos, J.; Lopez, F.; Soler, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many areas of Uruguay groundwater is the only source of water for human consumption and for industrial-agricultural economic activities. Traditionally considered as a safe source, due to the "natural filter" that occurs in porous media, groundwater is commonly used without any treatment. The Uruguayan law requires bacteriological analysis for most water uses, but virological analyses are not mentioned in the legislation. In the Salto district, where groundwater is used for human consumption and for agricultural activities, bacterial contamination has been detected in several wells but no viruses analysis have been performed. The Republic University (UDELAR), with the support of the National Agency for Research and Innovation (ANII), is studying the incidence of virus in groundwater on an intensive agriculture area of the Salto district. In this area water is pumped from the "Salto Aquifer", a free sedimentary aquifer. Below this sedimentary deposit is the "Arapey" basaltic formation, which is also exploited for water productions on its fractured zones. A screening campaign has been performed searching for bacterial and viral contamination. Total and fecal coliforms have been found on several wells and Rotavirus and Adenovirus have been detected. A subgroup of the screening wells has been selected for an annual survey. On this subgroup, besides bacteria and viruses analysis, a standard physical and chemical characterization was performed. Results show a significant seasonal variation on microbiological contamination. In addition to field studies, rotavirus circulation experiments on columns are being performed. The objective of this experiments is to determinate the parameters that control virus transport in porous media. The results of the study are expected to provide an insight into the impacts of groundwater on Salto's viral gastroenterocolitis outbreaks.

  6. Distributional patterns in an insect community inhabiting a sandy beach of Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourglia, Virginia; González-Vainer, Patricia; Defeo, Omar

    2015-12-01

    Most studies of sandy beach macrofauna have been restricted to semiterrestrial species and do not include insects when providing species richness and abundance estimates. Particularly, spatio-temporal patterns of community structure of the entomofauna inhabiting these ecosystems have been scarcely documented. This study assessed spatio-temporal distributional patterns of the night active entomofauna on a beach-dune system of Uruguay, including variations in species richness, abundance and diversity, and their relationship with environmental factors. A deconstructive taxonomic analysis was also performed, considering richness and abundance patterns separately for the most abundant insect Orders (Hymenoptera and Coleoptera) to better understand the factors which drive their patterns. We found clear temporal and across-shore patterns in the insect community inhabiting a land-ocean interface, which matched spatiotemporal variations in the environment. Abundance and species richness were highest in spring and summer, concurrently with high temperatures and low values of sediment moisture and compaction. Multivariate ordinations showed two well-defined species groups, which separated summer, autumn and spring samples from winter ones. Generalized Linear Models allowed us to describe a clear segregation in space of the most important orders of the insect community, with specific preferences for the terrestrial (Hymenoptera) and beach (Coleoptera) fringes. Hymenoptera preferred the dune zone, characterized by high elevation and low sand moisture and compaction levels, whereas Coleoptera preferred gentle slopes and fine and humid sands of the beach. Our results suggest that beach and dune ecosystems operate as two separate components in regard to their physical and biological features. The high values of species richness and abundance of insects reveal that this group has a more significant ecological role than that originally considered so far in sandy beach ecology.

  7. Plastics and microplastics on recreational beaches in Punta del Este (Uruguay): Unseen critical residents?

    PubMed

    Lozoya, J P; Teixeira de Mello, F; Carrizo, D; Weinstein, F; Olivera, Y; Cedrés, F; Pereira, M; Fossati, M

    2016-11-01

    Beaches are social-ecological systems that provide several services improving human well-being. However, as one of the major coastal interfaces they are subject to plastic pollution, one of the most significant global environmental threats at present. For the first time for Uruguayan beaches, this study assessed and quantified the accumulation of plastic and microplastic debris on sandy beaches of the major touristic destination Punta del Este during the austral spring of 2013. Aiming to provide valuable information for decision-making, we performed a detailed analysis of plastic debris, their eventual transport pathways to the coast (from land and sea), and the associated persistent pollutants. The results indicated that the smallest size fractions (<20 mm) were the dominant size range, with fragments and resin pellets as types with the highest number of items. PAHs and PCBs were found in plastic debris, and their levels did not differ from baseline values reported for similar locations. The abundance of plastic debris was significantly and positively correlated with both the presence of possible land-based sources (e.g. storm-water drains, beach bars, beach access, car parking, and roads), and dissipative beach conditions. The analysis of coastal currents suggested some potential deposition areas along Punta del Este, and particularly for resin pellets, although modeling was not conclusive. From a local management point of view, the development and use of indices that allow predicting trends in the accumulation of plastic debris would be critically useful. The time dimension (e.g. seasonal) should also be considered for this threat, being crucial for locations such as Uruguay, where the use of beaches increases significantly during the summer. This first diagnosis aims to generate scientific baseline, necessary for improved management of plastic litter on beaches and their watersheds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary patterns and risk of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    De Stefani, Eduardo; Boffetta, Paolo; Ronco, Alvaro L; Correa, Pelayo; Oreggia, Fernando; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Mendilaharsu, Maria; Leiva, Juan

    2005-01-01

    From 1995 to 2002, a case-control study on food groups and risk of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx was conducted in Montevideo, Uruguay. Two hundred thirty cases were frequency-matched to 460 controls on age, residence, and urban/rural status. The study was restricted to men. The relationship between foods and risk of oral and pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma was examined through: 1) individual food group analysis, 2) factor analysis, and 3) determination of empirical scores. The results were similar. Factor analysis generated 2 patterns, which were labeled as "stew" and "vegetables and fruits." The stew pattern loaded positively on boiled meat, cooked vegetables, potato, and sweet potato. This pattern was directly associated with risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer [odds ratio (OR), 3.75; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.99-7.06; P value for trend=0.0002]. The vegetables and fruits factor loaded positively on raw vegetables, citrus fruits, other fruits, liver, fish, and desserts. This pattern was inversely associated with risk of oropharyngeal carcinoma (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.18-0.64; P value for trend=0.0008). Joint effects of high intake of risk foods and low intake of protective foods were associated with a risk of 12.0 (95% CI, 4.1-34.6). Our study confirms the important role of dietary factors in oral and pharyngeal cancer risk and suggests that the analysis of dietary patterns is a powerful tool to investigate the links between nutrition and cancer.

  9. Dinosaur ichnofauna of the Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous of the Paraná Basin (Brazil and Uruguay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francischini, H.; Dentzien–Dias, P. C.; Fernandes, M. A.; Schultz, C. L.

    2015-11-01

    Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous sedimentary layers are represented in the Brazilian Paraná Basin by the fluvio-aeolian Guará Formation and the Botucatu Formation palaeoerg, respectively, overlapped by the volcanic Serra Geral Formation. In Uruguay, the corresponding sedimentary units are named Batoví and Rivera Members (both from the Tacuarembó Formation), and the lava flows constitute the Arapey Formation (also in Paraná Basin). Despite the lack of body fossils in the mentioned Brazilian formations, Guará/Batoví dinosaur fauna is composed of theropod, ornithopod and wide-gauge sauropod tracks and isolated footprints, as well as theropod teeth. In turn, the Botucatu/Rivera dinosaur fauna is represented by theropod and ornithopod ichnofossils smaller than those from the underlying units. The analysis of these dinosaur ichnological records and comparisons with other global Mesozoic ichnofauna indicates that there is a size reduction in dinosaur fauna in the more arid Botucatu/Rivera environment, which is dominated by aeolian dunes. The absence of sauropod trackways in the Botucatu Sandstone fits with the increasingly arid conditions because it is difficult for heavy animals to walk on sandy dunes, as well as to obtain the required amount of food resources. This comparison between the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous dinosaur fauna in south Brazil and Uruguay demonstrates the influence of aridization on the size of animals occupying each habitat.

  10. A 10-year analysis of the oral squamous cell carcinoma profile in patients from public health centers in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria Laura Cosetti; Wagner, Vivian Petersen; Sant'ana Filho, Manoel; Carrard, Vinicius Coelho; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic, clinical, and therapeutic characteristics and predictive factors of poor prognosis in patients with primary oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in Uruguay. Medical records of patients with the diagnosis of primary OSCC treated between 2000 and 2010 in Uruguayan public hospitals were selected. Data on demographic characteristics, risk factors, clinical features, treatment, and outcome were collected. Associations of independent variables with outcomes were assessed using Pearson chi-squared and Fisher's tests. Of 200 patients with OSCC, 79.4% were men (3.8:1 male:female ratio), with a mean age of 60.75 ± 11.26 years. Tobacco and alcohol consumption were reported by 85.3% and 63.5% of patients, respectively. The most commonly affected location was the tongue (42.5%), with lesions exhibiting ulcerous aspects in 87.9% of cases and pain at the time of diagnosis in 70.4% of cases. One hundred sixty-one (82.1%) patients had advanced-stage (III/IV) OSCC. Surgery was the most common treatment option, and the overall 5-year survival rate was 58.5%. Univariate analysis showed that the predictors of poor prognosis were clinical aspect, size, regional metastasis, clinical stage, and treatment. In Uruguay, OSCC is diagnosed late, which is associated with a low survival rate. Educational and preventive measures and investment to improve early diagnosis should be undertaken.

  11. Lost opportunities for effective management of obstetric conditions to reduce maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity in Argentina and Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Karolinski, Ariel; Mazzoni, Agustina; Belizán, José M; Althabe, Fernando; Bergel, Eduardo; Buekens, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Objective To review the use of evidence-based practices in the care of mothers who died or had severe morbidity attending public hospitals in two Latin American countries. Methods This study is part of a multicenter intervention to increase the use of evidence-based obstetric practice. Data on maternal deaths and women admitted to intensive care units whose deliveries occurred in 24 hospitals in Argentina and Uruguay were analyzed. Primary outcomes were use rates of effective interventions to reduce maternal mortality (MM) and severe maternal morbidity (SMM). Results A total of 106 women were included: 26 maternal deaths and 80 women with SMM. Some effective interventions for severe acute hemorrhage had a high use rate, such as blood transfusion (91%) and timely cesarean delivery (75%), while active management of the third stage of labor (25%) showed a lower rate. The overall use rate of effective interventions was 58% (95% CI, 49%–67%). This implies that 42% of the women did not receive one of the effective interventions to reduce MM and SMM. Conclusion This study shows a low use of effective interventions to reduce MM and SMM in public hospitals in Argentina and Uruguay. Dissemination and implementation of evidence-based practices must be guaranteed to effectively achieve progress on maternal health. PMID:20605151

  12. Lost opportunities for effective management of obstetric conditions to reduce maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity in Argentina and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Karolinski, Ariel; Mazzoni, Agustina; Belizán, José M; Althabe, Fernando; Bergel, Eduardo; Buekens, Pierre

    2010-08-01

    To review the use of evidence-based practices in the care of mothers who died or had severe morbidity attending public hospitals in two Latin American countries. This study is part of a multicenter intervention to increase the use of evidence-based obstetric practice. Data on maternal deaths and women admitted to intensive care units whose deliveries occurred in 24 hospitals in Argentina and Uruguay were analyzed. Primary outcomes were use rates of effective interventions to reduce maternal mortality (MM) and severe maternal morbidity (SMM). A total of 106 women were included: 26 maternal deaths and 80 women with SMM. Some effective interventions for severe acute hemorrhage had a high use rate, such as blood transfusion (91%) and timely cesarean delivery (75%), while active management of the third stage of labor (25%) showed a lower rate. The overall use rate of effective interventions was 58% (95% CI, 49%-67%). This implies that 42% of the women did not receive one of the effective interventions to reduce MM and SMM. This study shows a low use of effective interventions to reduce MM and SMM in public hospitals in Argentina and Uruguay. Dissemination and implementation of evidence-based practices must be guaranteed to effectively achieve progress on maternal health. Copyright 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of anemia, child and family characteristics with elevated blood lead concentrations in preschool children from Montevideo, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Queirolo, Elena I; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Kordas, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    Elevated blood lead levels (BPbs) have been identified in Uruguayan children in the La Teja neighborhood of Montevideo, but the extent of lead exposure in other city areas is unknown. Sources and predictors of exposure also remain understudied in this population. In 2007, the authors screened lead and hemoglobin levels in capillary blood of 222 preschool children from several areas of Montevideo, Uruguay, and identified predictors of elevated BPbs. Mean BPb was 9.0 +/- 6.0 microg/dL and 32.9% of children had levels >or= 10microg/dL. Mean hemoglobin level was 10.5 +/- 1.5 g/dL, with 44.1% having levels <10.5g/dL. Older child age, hemoglobin <10.5g/dL, and putting fingers/toys in the mouth were associated with higher BPbs. Young maternal age, less education, father's job with potential risk of lead exposure, and fewer family possessions were also associated with higher BPbs. Pediatric lead exposure is a public health problem in Uruguay, with children experiencing elevated BPbs at a young age.

  14. Susceptibility of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) to synthetic acaricides in Uruguay: Varroa mites' potential to develop acaricide resistance.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Matías Daniel; Ruffinengo, Sergio Roberto; Mendoza, Yamandú; Ojeda, Pilar; Ramallo, Gustavo; Floris, Iganazio; Eguaras, Martín Javier

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the acaricide susceptibility of Varroa destructor populations from Uruguay, which had never been exposed to synthetic acaricides. It was also to determine whether acaricide resistance to coumaphos occurred in apiaries in which acaricide rotation had been applied. Bioassays with acaricides against mite populations that had never been exposed to synthetic acaricides were performed, also against mite populations in which control failures with coumaphos had been reported. Additionally, coumaphos' effectiveness in honeybee colonies was experimentally tested. The lethal concentration that kills 50% of the exposed animals (LC(50)) for susceptible mite populations amounted to 0.15 μg/Petri dish for coumaphos and to less than 0.3 μg/Petri dish for the other acaricides. Coumaphos LC(50) was above 40 μg/Petri dish for resistant mites. The effectiveness of coumaphos in honeybee colonies parasitized by V. destructor ranged from 17.6% to 93.9%. LC(50) for mite populations susceptible to the most commonly applied miticides was determined, and the first case of coumaphos resistance recorded in Uruguay was established.

  15. Paleo- and Neoproterozoic magmatic and tectonometamorphic evolution of the Isla Cristalina de Rivera (Nico Pérez Terrane, Uruguay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyhantçabal, Pedro; Wagner-Eimer, Martin; Wemmer, Klaus; Schulz, Bernhard; Frei, Robert; Siegesmund, Siegfried

    2012-10-01

    The Isla Cristalina de Rivera crystalline complex in northeastern Uruguay underwent a multistage magmatic and metamorphic evolution. Based on SHRIMP U-Pb zircon, Th-U-Pb monazite (CHIME-EPMA method) and K-Ar age data from key units several events can be recognized: (1) multistage magmatism at 2,171-2,114 Ma, recorded on zircon of the granulitic orthogneisses and their 2,093-2,077 Ma overgrowths; (2) a distinct amphibolite facies metamorphism at ~1,980 Ma, recorded by monazite; (3) greenschist facies reworking and shearing at ca. 606 Ma (monazite and K-Ar on muscovite) along the Rivera Shear Zone, and finally (4) intrusion of the post-tectonic Sobresaliente and Las Flores granites at around 585 Ma. Lithological similarities, geographic proximity and coeval magmatic and metamorphic events indicate a similar tectonometamorphic evolution for the Isla Cristalina de Rivera, the Valentines Block in Uruguay and the Santa María Chico Granulitic Complex in southern Brazil, since at least 2.1 Ga.

  16. First report of Tequus schrottkyi (Konow) (Hymenoptera: Pergidae) in Uruguay, and information about its host plant and biology

    PubMed Central

    González, Andrés; Schmidt, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The sawfly family Pergidae is best represented in South America, and it is the third largest family in the suborder Symphyta. Tequus is a Neotropical genus that has been reported in association with host plants of the genus Solanum (Solanaceae), with little information about the life history of its members. Tequus schrottkyi (Konow, 1906) was described from Paraguay, without any information about its biology and host plant. New information We report the first record of T. schrottkyi from Uruguay, with information on its host plant and details of its biology. The identification was based on morphology, DNA barcode is provided to allow identification using molecular characters. This sawfly species is associated with Solanum commersonii, a native plant common in Uruguay. Tequus schrottkyi presents several generations between March and July. The larvae feed on leaves and spin a silk cocoon in the soil in which they pupate. The adults exhibit sexual dimorphism, the female being larger than the male and with a different color pattern. The eggs are laid individually in the leaf margins into the leaf tissue. The larvae are unpalatable to a generalist predator, possibly due to defensive compounds sequestered from their host plant, known to contain toxic compounds. PMID:26929717

  17. The importance of XRD analysis in provenance and palaeoenvironmental studies of the Piedras de Afilar Formation, Neoproterozoic of Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamoukaghlian, K.; Poiré, D. G.; Gaucher, C.; Uriz, N.; Cingolani, C.; Frigeiro, P.

    2009-04-01

    The Piedras de Afilar Formation crops out in the southeast part of Uruguay, forming part of the Tandilia Terrane (sensu Bossi et al. 2005). Pamoukaghlian et al. (2006) and Gaucher et al. (2008) have published δ13C, δ18O and U/Pb SHRIMP results, which indicate a Neoproterozoic age for this formation. The palaeoenvironment has been defined as a shallow marine platform based on the presence of interference ripples, hummocky and mega-hummocky cross-stratification. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses help to better constrain the palaeoenvironment: the presence of chlorite/smectite found in black shales, suggest a reducing environment, and abundant illite indicates a cold to temperate climate. Provenance studies have been undertaken that utilise a combination of detailed palaeocurrent measurements, petrographic descriptions, XRD analyses, and geochemical isotopic analyses, including U/Pb SHRIMP determinations. Mineral compositional diagrams for sandstones suggest a stable cratonic provenance. Palaeocurrents are mainly from the NNE, indicating a provenance from the cratonic areas of the Tandilia Terrane. The illite crystal index indicates diagenetic to low-metamorphic conditions for the sequence; this is important to confirm that the identified minerals are authigenic. Clay minerals identified by XRD analysis of sandstones from the siliciclastic member are illite (80 - 90%), kaolinite (5 - 10%), and chlorite (5 - 10%). This is consistent with a provenance from the cratonic areas (quartz-feldspar dominated rock types). Isotopic analyses have been undertaken to provide better constraints on the tectonic setting. U/Pb SHRIMP ages for the youngest zircons are 990 Ma (Gaucher et al. 2008), and the basal granite (Granito de la Paz) is 2056 ± 11 Ma (Hartmann et al. 2001), suggesting a provenance from the Archaean basement for the Piedras de Afilar Formation, like its counterparts in the Rio de la Plata Craton. References Bossi, J., Piñeyro, D., Cingolani, C. (2005). El l

  18. Whole-Genome Sequencing of an Isoniazid-Resistant Clinical Isolate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strain MtURU-002 from Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Berná, Luisa; Iraola, Gregorio; Greif, Gonzalo; Coitinho, Cecilia; Rivas, Carlos M.; Naya, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis in Uruguay has been effectively reduced to <30 per 100,000 population, although an increase in nonrisk populations in the last few years is evident. Here, we present the genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain MtURU-002 isolated from a patient showing bilateral pulmonary tuberculosis that was resistant to isoniazid. PMID:25035326

  19. Whole-Genome Sequencing of an Isoniazid-Resistant Clinical Isolate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strain MtURU-002 from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Berná, Luisa; Iraola, Gregorio; Greif, Gonzalo; Coitinho, Cecilia; Rivas, Carlos M; Naya, Hugo; Robello, Carlos

    2014-07-17

    The incidence of tuberculosis in Uruguay has been effectively reduced to <30 per 100,000 population, although an increase in nonrisk populations in the last few years is evident. Here, we present the genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain MtURU-002 isolated from a patient showing bilateral pulmonary tuberculosis that was resistant to isoniazid.

  20. The Admission and Academic Placement of Students from Selected South American Countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay. A Workshop Report, September-October, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldrich-Langen, Caroline, Ed.

    Information about the educational systems of Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay that may be helpful to U.S. college admission officers is presented. For each of the four countries, information is provided on: country facts, the educational system, primary and secondary education, higher education, other institutions, placement recommendations,…

  1. Usbnd Pb detrital zircon ages from some Neoproterozoic successions of Uruguay: Provenance, stratigraphy and tectonic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecoits, Ernesto; Aubet, Natalie R.; Heaman, Larry M.; Philippot, Pascal; Rosière, Carlos A.; Veroslavsky, Gerardo; Konhauser, Kurt O.

    2016-11-01

    The Neoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary successions of Uruguay have been the subject of several sedimentologic, chrono-stratigraphic and tectonic interpretation studies. Recent studies have shown, however, that the stratigraphy, age and tectonic evolution of these units remain uncertain. Here we use new Usbnd Pb detrital zircon ages, combined with previously published geochronologic and stratigraphic data in order to provide more precise temporal constraints on their depositional age and to establish a more solid framework for the stratigraphic and tectonic evolution of these units. The sequence of events begins with a period of tectonic quiescence and deposition of extensive mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sedimentary successions. This is followed by the development of small fault-bounded siliciclastic and volcaniclastic basins and the emplacement of voluminous granites associated with episodic terrane accretion. According to our model, the Arroyo del Soldado Group and the Piedras de Afilar Formation were deposited sometime between ∼1000 and 650 Ma, and represent passive continental margin deposits of the Nico Pérez and Piedra Alta terranes, respectively. In contrast, the Ediacaran San Carlos (<552 ± 3 Ma) and Barriga Negra (<581 ± 6 Ma) formations, and the Maldonado Group (<580-566 Ma) were deposited in tectonically active basins developed on the Nico Pérez and Cuchilla Dionisio terranes, and the herein defined Edén Terrane. The Edén and the Nico Pérez terranes likely accreted at ∼650-620 Ma (Edén Accretionary Event), followed by their accretion to the Piedra Alta Terrane at ∼620-600 Ma (Piedra Alta Accretionary Event), and culminating with the accretion of the Cuchilla Dionisio Terrane at ∼600-560 Ma (Cuchilla Dionisio Accretionary Event). Although existing models consider all the Ediacaran granites as a result of a single orogenic event, recently published age constraints point to the existence of at least two distinct stages of granite generation

  2. Sedimentology, diagenesis and ichnology of Cretaceous and Palaeogene calcretes and palustrine carbonates from Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Zarza, Ana M.; Genise, Jorge F.; Verde, Mariano

    2011-05-01

    The Cretaceous (Mercedes Formation) and Paleogene (Queguay Formation) deposits cropping out in W and S Uruguay comprise two terrestrial limestone units that are very rich in trace fossils. The study of these units permits to propose a sedimentological model for palustrine limestones and calcretes in which the distribution of different types of trace fossils is considered. The study units include three main types of deposit: lacustrine limestones, palustrine limestones and calcretes. The lacustrine limestones are relatively homogeneous and contain gastropods, charophytes and ostracods, but no trace fossils. They were deposited in a relatively more perennial lacustrine environment. The palustrine limestones include four different facies: desiccated mudstones, nodular limestones, granular limestones and gravel-sheets. The desiccated mudstones indicate a lesser degree of pedogenic modification and the granular limestones a higher degree. The gravel-sheets are an indication of the reworking of previous limestones deposits during low lakewater levels. Most of the palustrine limestones (except the gravel sheets) contain the same bioclasts as the lacustrine limestones plus a variety of trace fossils such as Rebuffoichnus sciuttoi, Fictovichnus gobiensis and different ichnospecies of Celliforma. The calcretes are either massive (groundwater) or laminar. The massive calcretes are sandy limestones made up of a carbonate matrix and cements. The laminar calcretes (root mats), which contain alveolar septal structures, occur as centimetre-thick layers and can be seen in all types of deposit. They contain the same trace fossil association as the palustrine limestones; the massive calcretes are poorer in such fossils. The distribution of trace fossils in these environments is under strong facies control and provides good evidence of subaerial exposure and semi-arid climates. All the limestones are partially replaced and cemented by opal and quartz, but in all cases the primary

  3. Sea surface temperature variability off southern Brazil and Uruguay as revealed from historical data since 1854

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavialov, Peter O.; Wainer, Ilana; Absy, JoãO. M.

    1999-09-01

    About 300,000 quality-controlled local reports from ships of opportunity were complemented with the data extracted from global data records to compile monthly series of sea surface temperature (SST) for the period 1854 to 1994 on a grid 1° × 1° in latitude and longitude. These historical data are used to investigate the variability off the coast of southern Brazil and Uruguay in a broad range of temporal scales from seasonal to secular. With respect to behavior at these scales, three distinct areas can be identified in the study region. The first one, located over the shelf and controlled by winter invasions of subantarctic water along with Rio de la Plata and Patos-Mirim discharges, is characterized by large annual range of SST (7° to over 10°C), energetic mean square variability (from 1.4 to 2.2°C2, after removal of seasonal signal), and an extremely high secular trend toward warming (1.2 to 1.6°C per 100 years), especially in the proximity of the estuaries. The second one, an area of the Brazil Current influence, exhibits smaller annual range (5° to 7°C) and mean square variability (1 to 1.4°C2). The secular trend is from 1° to 1.2°C per 100 years, smaller than observed in the shelf, but still high compared to the global average. The third area, which encompasses the eastern deep ocean part of the region away from the influence of either major currents or coastal discharges, exhibits less energetic variability at all examined scales, as compared to the rest of the region. Everywhere in the region, 50 to 80% of interannual variability is associated with periods smaller than 10 years; however, compared to the rest of the region, the shelf zone is characterized by a relatively large contribution from decadal and interdecadal scales. In austral winter a thermal front forms in the study region, separating warm tropical water associated with the Brazil Current and cold subantarctic water flowing northward on the shelf with an admixture of coastal

  4. Pesticide dissipation curves in peach, pear and tomato crops in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Galietta, Giovanni; Egana, Eduardo; Gemelli, Fernando; Maeso, Diego; Casco, Noelia; Conde, Paula; Nunez, Saturnino

    2011-01-01

    Dissipation curves of azoxystrobin and of the neonicotinoids acetamiprid and thiacloprid in peach; azinphos-methyl and carbaryl in pear and azoxystrobin, chlorfenapyr and chlorpyrifos in high-tunnel tomato crops were studied in the Southern region of Uruguay. An analytical methodology based on solid phase extraction (SPE) and detection by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detector (HPLC/DAD) was used for acetamiprid and thiacloprid. Coupled SPE and detection by Gas Chromatography with Mass Selective Detector (GC/MSD) was used for the detection of azinphos-methyl, azoxystrobin, carbaryl, chlorfenapyr and chlorpyrifos residues. Curves were modeled mathematically with Solver program of Microsoft Excel. The best fit for acetamiprid and thiacloprid in peach was achieved with the exponential model (r(2)=0.961 and 0.944, respectively). In the case of peach fruits there is not a Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) for acetamiprid in the Codex Alimentarius, while 0.5 mg/kg is the value rated for thiacloprid. The MRLs accepted by the European Union (EU) are 0.1 mg/kg for acetamiprid and 0.3 mg/kg for thiacloprid. According to the curves determined in these experiments, thiacloprid residues 10 to 12 days after application (daa) were below the MRLs established by both sources. In the case of acetamiprid, 25 daa would be required, according to the exponential mathematical model, to get residues levels below the MRL values established by the EU. For azinphos methyl in pear, the residues detected were mathematically fitted to an exponential model (r(2)=0.999). According to it, residue levels under the MRL established by the EU (0.05 mg/kg) are gotten in our conditions in 20 daa. In plastic tunnel tomato chlorfenapyr residues were not detected from 16 daa, having the dissipation curve an exponential trend. In the same condition, there was not a decay of the azoxystrobin concentration during a 24-day trial, being it around 0.40 ± 0.05 mg/kg.

  5. Sex-stratified and age-adjusted social gradients in tobacco in Argentina and Uruguay: evidence from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    PubMed

    De Maio, F G; Konfino, J; Ondarsuhu, D; Goldberg, L; Linetzky, B; Ferrante, D

    2015-11-01

    To examine social gradients in tobacco use in Argentina and Uruguay, using newly available directly comparable data sets. Secondary analysis of Global Adult Tobacco Survey data from Argentina (N=6645) and Uruguay (N=5581). Social gradients in current tobacco use, exposure to secondhand smoke, and cessation attempt were examined with sex-stratified and age-adjusted logistic regression. Among men, there is evidence of higher odds of being a current smoker among respondents with lower levels of education, but the association is only statistically significant for respondents with less than primary education in Uruguay (OR=2.15, 95% CI 1.22 to 3.77). Similarly, women with lower levels of education have higher odds of being a current smoker in Uruguay. The association between education and exposure to secondhand smoke is broadly similar for both sexes in both countries, with generally higher odds among groups with low education, though the relationship is only statistically significant among men in Uruguay (OR=1.77, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.92). In both countries, respondents with lower levels of education in general have higher odds of having attempted to quit smoking in the past year, although these associations did not attain statistical significance. Social gradients in tobacco use, exposure to secondhand smoke and cessation attempts are broadly similar in both countries. Efforts to evaluate the long-term effects of tobacco control efforts in these countries should monitor how policies affect national averages, and the social gradients that are embedded in aggregate data. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Regional differences in species composition and toxigenic potential among Fusarium head blight isolates from Uruguay indicate a risk of nivalenol contamination in new wheat production areas.

    PubMed

    Umpiérrez-Failache, M; Garmendia, G; Pereyra, S; Rodríguez-Haralambides, A; Ward, T J; Vero, S

    2013-08-16

    Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) are the primary cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat, and frequently contaminate grain with trichothecene mycotoxins that pose a serious threat to food safety and animal health. The species identity and trichothecene toxin potential of 151 FGSC isolates collected from wheat in Uruguay were determined via multilocus genotyping. Although F. graminearum with the 15ADON trichothecene type accounted for 86% of the isolates examined, five different FGSC species and all three trichothecene types were identified in this collection. This is the first report of Fusarium asiaticum, Fusarium brasilicum, Fusarium cortaderiae, and Fusarium austroamericanum from Uruguay. In addition, we observed significant (P<0.001) regional differences in the composition of FGSC species and trichothecene types within Uruguay. Isolates of F. graminearum with the 15ADON type were the most prevalent in western provinces (95%), while F. asiaticum (43%) and the NIV type (61%) predominated in the new wheat production zone in Cerro Largo along Uruguay's eastern border with Brazil. F. graminearum isolates (15ADON type) were significantly (P<0.005) more aggressive on wheat than were isolates from the other species examined (NIV or 3ADON types). However, F. graminearum isolates (15ADON type) were significantly (P<0.05) more sensitive to tebuconazole than isolates from other species (NIV type). These results document substantial heterogeneity among the pathogens responsible for FHB in Uruguay. In addition, the regional predominance of the NIV trichothecene type is of significant concern to food safety and indicates that additional monitoring of nivalenol levels in grain may be required.

  7. A Multifaceted Strategy to Implement Brief Smoking Cessation Counseling During Antenatal Care in Argentina and Uruguay: A Cluster Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Althabe, Fernando; Alemán, Alicia; Berrueta, Mabel; Morello, Paola; Gibbons, Luz; Colomar, Mercedes; Tong, Van T; Dietz, Patricia M; Farr, Sherry L; Ciganda, Alvaro; Mazzoni, Agustina; Llambí, Laura; Becú, Ana; Smith, Ruben A; Johnson, Carolyn; Belizán, José M; Buekens, Pierre M

    2016-05-01

    Argentina and Uruguay have a high prevalence of smoking during pregnancy. However, and despite national recommendations, pregnant women are not routinely receiving cessation counseling during antenatal care (ANC). We evaluated a multifaceted strategy designed to increase the frequency of pregnant women who received a brief smoking cessation counseling based on the 5As (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange). We randomly assigned (1:1) 20 ANC clusters in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay to receive a multifaceted intervention to implement brief smoking cessation counseling into routine ANC, or to receive no intervention. The primary outcome was the frequency of women who recalled receiving the 5As during ANC at more than one visit. Frequency of women who smoked until the end of pregnancy, and attitudes and readiness of ANC providers towards providing counseling were secondary outcomes. Women's outcomes were measured at baseline and at the end of the 14- to 18-month intervention, by administering questionnaires at the postpartum hospital stay. Self-reported cessation was verified with saliva cotinine. The trial took place between October 03, 2011 and November 29, 2013. The rate of women who recalled receiving the 5As increased from 14.0% to 33.6% in the intervention group (median rate change, 22.1%), and from 10.8% to 17.0% in the control group (median rate change, 4.6%; P = .001 for the difference in change between groups). The effect of the intervention was larger in Argentina than in Uruguay. The proportion of women who continued smoking during pregnancy was unchanged at follow-up in both groups and the relative difference between groups was not statistically significant (ratio of odds ratios 1.16, 95% CI: 0.98-1.37; P = .086). No significant changes were observed in knowledge, attitudes, and self-confidence of ANC providers. The intervention showed a moderate effect in increasing the proportion of women who recalled receiving the 5As, with a

  8. Periodontal conditions and associated factors among adults and the elderly: findings from the first National Oral Health Survey in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Susana M; Alvarez, Ramón; Andrade, Ernesto; Piccardo, Virginia; Francia, Alejandro; Massa, Fernando; Correa, Marcos Britto; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of periodontal conditions in the Uruguayan adult and elderly population and its association with socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics. Data from adults (35-44, n = 358) and elderly (65-74, n = 411) who participated in the first National Oral Health Survey, Uruguay, 2011, were used. The survey included a household questionnaire addressing socioeconomic characteristics, and tobacco use. Bleeding on probing (BOP), periodontal pockets (CPI) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were measured by clinical examination. A multivariable analysis was carried out. Considering both age groups, the prevalence of mild/severe periodontal disease was 21.8% and 9.12% for severe periodontal disease. Adjusted analyses revealed an association between high education and all outcomes. Attendance at dental services was negatively associated with BOP and mild to severe periodontitis. Periodontal outcomes were higher in disadvantaged socioeconomic groups. Tobacco consumption has a strong association with periodontal disease in the elderly.

  9. [Characterization of rhizobia causing nodules on leguminous trees native to Uruguay using the rep-PCR technique].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A; Frioni, L

    2003-01-01

    Methods for identifying and following microorganisms in the environment such as soils, water and plant association have been highly developed in recent years. In this study, we used rep-PCR for the characterization of Rhizobium bacteria isolated from legume trees native of Uruguay which permitted to follow them in plant inoculation assays. Among the primers used, ERIC and BOX1AR, the latter allowed the differentiation of isolates from different legumes and the finding of a high level of homology among rhizobia that nodulate the same legume species. Besides, it demonstrated that the profiles of the isolates recovered from nodules of Acacia caven, were identical to the ones used as inoculants; this confirmed the efficiency of these methods to follow these diazotrophs in the environment.

  10. Seasonal variation in genetic population structure of sábalo (Prochilodus lineatus) in the Lower Uruguay River.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Eva Carolina; Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Monzón, Alexander Miguel; Somoza, Gustavo M; Ortí, Guillermo

    2013-09-01

    Prochilodus lineatus is a highly migratory fish species that sustains the most important commercial fishery of Paraná-Paraguay basin. Migratory patterns are poorly known and only few population genetic studies are available for this species in the Upper Paraná. To assess genetic population structure, we genotyped a sample of 93 individuals from the Lower Uruguay River close to Gualeguaychú city (Entre Ríos, Argentina) at three different times, July 2008 (Winter), September 2008 (Spring) and May 2009 (Fall). All individuals were genotyped for 12 microsatellite loci previously found to be informative to assess populations of P. lineatus. Our results show seasonal variation of the genetic sub-structuring at this locality that may be related to the presence of different migratory stocks throughout the year. The Fall sample includes an additional genetic cluster of individuals not detected in Winter and Spring, suggesting that this species should be considered a mixed stock fishery.

  11. Comparison of motives underlying food choice and barriers to healthy eating among low medium income consumers in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gastón; Machín, Leandro; Girona, Alejandra; Curutchet, María Rosa; Giménez, Ana

    2017-05-18

    Interventions aimed at changing dietary patterns should be designed based on the main motives underlying the food choices of specific target populations. The aim of the present study was to identify motives underlying food choice and barriers to healthy eating among consumers in two socioeconomic levels in Uruguay. Eleven focus groups were carried out with a total of 76 participants. Six of the groups involved low income participants and the others were conducted with middle income participants. Discussions were held around frequently consumed products, motives underlying food choices and barriers to healthy eating. Results confirmed the strong influence of income level on motives underlying food choice and barriers to the adoption of healthy eating. Low income participants described their choices as mainly driven by economic factors and satiety, whereas convenience was the main determinant of food selection for middle income participants. Implications for the design of public policies targeted at each group are discussed.

  12. Sustainability of meat production beyond carbon footprint: a synthesis of case studies from grazing systems in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Picasso, Valentín D; Modernel, Pablo D; Becoña, Gonzalo; Salvo, Lucía; Gutiérrez, Lucía; Astigarraga, Laura

    2014-11-01

    Livestock production has been challenged as a large contributor to climate change, and carbon footprint has become a widely used measure of cattle environmental impact. This analysis of fifteen beef grazing systems in Uruguay quantifies the range of variation of carbon footprint, and the trade-offs with other relevant environmental variables, using a partial life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Using carbon footprint as the primary environmental indicator has several limitations: different metrics (GWP vs. GTP) may lead to different conclusions, carbon sequestration from soils may drastically affect the results, and systems with lower carbon footprint may have higher energy use, soil erosion, nutrient imbalance, pesticide ecotoxicity, and impact on biodiversity. A multidimensional assessment of sustainability of meat production is therefore needed to inform decision makers. There is great potential to improve grazing livestock systems productivity while reducing carbon footprint and other environmental impacts, and conserving biodiversity.

  13. New insights into the characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with apple diseases in southern Brazil and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Velho, Aline Cristina; Alaniz, Sandra; Casanova, Leticia; Mondino, Pedro; Stadnik, Marciel J

    2015-04-01

    Colletotrichum species are associated with Apple bitter rot (ABR) and Glomerella leaf spot (GLS). Whereas both apple diseases occur frequently in Brazil, only the former has been reported in Uruguay. This work was aimed at identifying and comparing morpho-cultural characteristics and pathogenic variability of thirty-nine Colletotrichum isolates from both countries. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and β-tubulin (TUB2) allowed the identification of three species causing ABR and GLS in Brazil, i.e., Colletotrichum fructicola, Colletotrichum karstii, and Colletotrichum nymphaeae; and three species causing ABR in Uruguay, i.e., C. fructicola, Colletotrichum theobromicola, and Colletotrichum melonis. Six groups of colony colours were recorded with group 1 (mycelium white to pink and in reverse pinkish) and group 2 (mycelium white to grey and in reverse pinkish) the most frequent. Isolates of C. fructicola and C. theobromicola were sensitive to benomyl, while C. karstii, C. nymphaeae, and C. melonis were resistant. Conidia were predominantly cylindrical for C. fructicola and C. karstii, fusiform for C. nymphaeae and C. melonis, and obclavate for C. theobromicola. Brazilian isolates caused ABR in wounded fruits, but only five in non-wounded ones. Uruguayan isolates produced symptoms in fruits with or without previous wounding. All Brazilian isolates from GLS and twelve from ABR were able to cause GLS symptoms, while a sole Uruguayan ABR-isolate caused leaf spot symptoms. This study gives a better insight on the new species causing apple disease in both countries and discusses their pathogenic potential.

  14. Meiobenthic communities in permanently open estuaries and open/closed coastal lagoons of Uruguay (Atlantic coast of South America)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandratavicius, N.; Muniz, P.; Venturini, N.; Giménez, L.

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to determine if estuarine meiofaunal communities of Uruguay (South America) vary between permanently open estuaries and open/closed coastal lagoons, or if they respond to the sediment composition. In Uruguay, estuaries and coastal lagoons vary in the degree of connectivity to the sea and in the sediment composition; sediments in estuaries are characterized by fine-medium sands but sediments vary from lagoon to lagoon (either fine-medium or coarse sand). Taxa richness (total = 16) showed less temporal variability in lagoons than in estuaries, due to patterns of presence/absence of the less abundant taxa. However, no major response to habitat was found in the most abundant groups: polychaetes (6% of total fauna) were on average 5% more abundant in lagoons than in estuaries. Some level of zonation, within estuaries and lagoons, was found in the most abundant groups, nematodes (63% of total fauna) and copepods (15%) in response to medium and fine sands. In addition, sediment type modulated seasonal patterns in the frequency of presence/absence in ostracods, polychaetes and oligochaetes. For instance, in polychaetes and ostracods the increase in the frequency of absences, occurring from summer to winter, was stronger in lagoons and estuaries dominated by fine sands. The lagoon habitat appears to ameliorate the effects of unfavourable (winter) conditions in less abundant meiofaunal taxa. In summary, sediment fractions explain spatial patterns in the average abundance of organisms (e.g. nematodes) as well as the seasonal changes in frequency of presence/absence (e.g. polychaetes).

  15. Trends in early growth indices in the first 24 months of life in Uruguay over the past decade.

    PubMed

    Bove, Isabel; Campoy, Cristina; Uauy, Ricardo; Miranda, Teresa; Cerruti, Florencia

    2014-12-01

    Early growth is an important indicator of health and wellbeing of children and a good predictor of adult health. The objective of this study was to examine trends and determinants of overweight and stunting among infants aged 0 to 23 month(s) over the past decade (1999-2011) in Uruguay. Data were used from four large representative samples of 11,056 infants aged 0-23 month(s), who attended public and private health services in 1999, 2003, 2007, and 2011, using a similar methodology. Linear regression analysis was used for assessing trends in early growth indices and binary logistic regression to estimate the probability of being stunted and overweight. Although prevalence of overweight fell from 12.5% (1999) to 9.5% (2011) and stunting from 13.6% to 10.9% respectively, both rates remained higher than expected. Low birth- weight (LBW) was the main predictor of stunting [OR 6.5 (5.6-7.6)] and macrosomia of overweight [6.7 (5.3-8.3)]. We did not observe changes in LBW (7.8-8.8%) or macrosomia (5.9-6.7%) over the last decade. Boys showed increased chance of being overweight [OR 1.2 (1.04-1.3)]. Being stunted doubles the chances of being overweight [OR 2.5 (2.2-3.0)]. Overweight [OR 7.1 (6.1-8.3)], LBW [OR 13.2 (11.0-15.9)], and non-breastfed infants [OR 1.9 (1.7-2.1)] showed rapid weight gain. Uruguay has taken positive steps to decline the prevalence of stunting and overweight but both remain excessively high.

  16. Work and health in Latin America: results from the working conditions surveys of Colombia, Argentina, Chile, Central America and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Merino-Salazar, Pamela; Artazcoz, Lucía; Cornelio, Cecilia; Iñiguez, María José Itatí; Rojas, Marianela; Martínez-Iñigo, David; Vives, Alejandra; Funcasta, Lorena; Benavides, Fernando G

    2017-06-01

    To describe working and employment conditions, and health status between non-agricultural employees with a written contract from Colombia, Argentina, Chile, Central America and Uruguay. We compared data from the first working condition surveys (WCS) of Colombia, Argentina, Chile, Central America and Uruguay. For comparative purposes, we selected a subsample of 15 241 non-agricultural employees aged 18-64 years and working with a written contract. We calculated prevalences and 95% CIs for the selected variables on working and employment conditions, and health status, separated by sex. Across all countries, at least 40% of women and 58% of men worked >40 hours a week. The most prevalent exposures were repetitive movements, followed by noise and manual handling, especially among men. Psychosocial exposures were very common among both sexes. Workers in Chile (33.4% of women and 16.6% of men) and Central America (24.3% of women and 19.1% of men) were more likely to report poor self-perceived health and were least likely to do so in Colombia (5.5% of women and 4.2% of men). The percentage of workers reporting occupational injuries was <10% across all countries. This study provides, for the first time, a broad picture of work and health in different Latin American countries, based on the national WCSs available. This allows for a better understanding of occupational health and could serve as a baseline for future research and surveillance of work and health in the Region. However, greater efforts are needed to improve WCSs comparability. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. The Santa Lucia-Aiguá-Merin rifting (Uruguay): an early aborted branch of the South Atlantic break-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossello, E.; López-Gamundí, O. R.; Veroslavsky, G.; de Santa Ana, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Santa Lucía-Aigua-Merin (SaLAM) rift is emplaced in the cratonic basement of SE Uruguay. It covers 450 km from the Rio de La Plata to the southwest to Laguna Merin to the northeast running broadly parallel to the South American plate boundary. It is a narrow, pull apart trough trending N 70° with two distinct depocenters (Santa Lucía and Merin) filled predominantly by Mesozoic volcaniclastic sediments. Alkaline magmatic rocks have been identified in the Minas-Aigua-Lescano uplifted segment that separates both depocenters. The Santa Lucía depocenter or sub basin was filled with a up to 2,500 m thick column of upper Jurassic to Cenozoic volcaniclastic sediments that rest on the structured Precambrian basement. The Merin sub basin is dominated by a thick volcanic sequence associated with a significant gravity anomaly. The SaLAM rift joins southwestard into a triple-junction configuration with the NW-SE trending Salado Basin is was buried by Lower Tertiary to Recent sediments. The SaLAM trough can be interpreted as an aborted branch of the South Atlantic break up; its orientation was probably controlled, at least partially, by the structural grain of the pre-existing Gondwana crystalline basement. Its accessible outcrops provide an excellent opportunity to study the sedimentary, magmatic and tectonic evolution of the early stages of the South Atlantic break up and its potential reactivation during the Andean orogeny that seemed to have affected significant parts of the adjacent large continental platform of Uruguay and Argentina.

  18. Trends in Early Growth Indices in the First 24 Months of Life in Uruguay over the Past Decade

    PubMed Central

    Campoy, Cristina; Uauy, Ricardo; Miranda, Teresa; Cerruti, Florencia

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Early growth is an important indicator of health and wellbeing of children and a good predictor of adult health. The objective of this study was to examine trends and determinants of overweight and stunting among infants aged 0 to 23 month(s) over the past decade (1999-2011) in Uruguay. Data were used from four large representative samples of 11,056 infants aged 0-23 month(s), who attended public and private health services in 1999, 2003, 2007, and 2011, using a similar methodology. Linear regression analysis was used for assessing trends in early growth indices and binary logistic regression to estimate the probability of being stunted and overweight. Although prevalence of overweight fell from 12.5% (1999) to 9.5% (2011) and stunting from 13.6% to 10.9% respectively, both rates remained higher than expected. Low birthweight (LBW) was the main predictor of stunting [OR 6.5 (5.6-7.6)] and macrosomia of overweight [6.7 (5.3-8.3)]. We did not observe changes in LBW (7.8-8.8%) or macrosomia (5.9-6.7%) over the last decade. Boys showed increased chance of being overweight [OR 1.2 (1.04-1.3)]. Being stunted doubles the chances of being overweight [OR 2.5 (2.2-3.0)]. Overweight [OR 7.1 (6.1-8.3)], LBW [OR 13.2 (11.0-15.9)], and non-breastfed infants [OR 1.9 (1.7-2.1)] showed rapid weight gain. Uruguay has taken positive steps to decline the prevalence of stunting and overweight but both remain excessively high. PMID:25895193

  19. [The health-disease-care process from the perspective of the users of a primary care clinic in Montevideo, Uruguay: An analysis of therapeutic trajectories].

    PubMed

    Evia Bertullo, Victoria

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze, using an ethnographic approach, the health-disease-care experiences of the users of a multi-specialty clinic that forms part of the Metropolitan Primary Health Care Network of Uruguay's Public Health Services. The fieldwork was carried out in the northeast of Montevideo from July 2012 to November 2013, combining participant observation in social and care spaces and interviews with more than 20 users. In our analysis of care trajectories we found that people incorporate different practices and beliefs when facing their health problems. The use of biomedical health care services is predominant in Uruguay; nevertheless, people engage in self-care practices and in some cases, in the use of folk, religious/magical or alternative remedies. Medical pluralism is therefore observed in facing certain common ailments or significant experiences of disease.

  20. Hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction before and after implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free policy in Uruguay: experience through 2010.

    PubMed

    Sebrié, Ernesto Marcelo; Sandoya, Edgardo; Bianco, Eduardo; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K Michael; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-11-01

    Comprehensive smoke-free laws have been followed by drops in hospitalisations for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), including in a study with 2 years follow-up for such a law in Uruguay. Multiple linear and negative binomial regressions for AMI admissions (ICD-10 code 121) from 37 hospitals for 2 years before and 4 years after Uruguay implemented a 100% nationwide smoke-free law. Based on 11 135 cases, there was a significant drop of -30.9 AMI admissions/month (95% CI -49.8 to -11.8, p=0.002) following implementation of the smoke-free law. The effect of the law did not increase or decrease over time following implementation (p=0.234). This drop represented a 17% drop in AMI admissions following the law (IRR=0.829, 95% CI 0.743 to 0.925, p=0.001). Adding two more years of follow-up data confirmed that Uruguay's smoke-free law was followed by a substantial and sustained reduction in AMI hospitalisations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Regulating Cannabis Social Clubs: A comparative analysis of legal and self-regulatory practices in Spain, Belgium and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Decorte, Tom; Pardal, Mafalda; Queirolo, Rosario; Boidi, Maria Fernanda; Sánchez Avilés, Constanza; Parés Franquero, Òscar

    2017-05-01

    Cannabis Social Clubs (CSCs) are a model of non-profit production and distribution of cannabis among a closed circuit of adult cannabis users. CSCs are now operating in several countries around the world, albeit under very different legal regimes and in different socio-political contexts. In this paper we describe and compare the legal framework and the self-regulatory practices of Cannabis Social Clubs in three countries (Spain, Belgium, and Uruguay). The objective of our comparative analysis is to investigate how CSCs operate in each of these countries. To foster discussions about how one might regulate CSCs to promote public health objectives, we conclude this paper with a discussion on the balance between adequate governmental control and self-regulatory competences of CSCs. The data used for this analysis stem from independently conducted local studies by the authors in their countries. Although the particular designs of the studies differ, the data in all three countries was collected through similar data collection methods: analysis of (legal and other documents), field visits to the clubs, interviews with staff members, media content analysis. We identified a number of similarities and differences among the CSCs' practices in the three countries. Formal registration as non-profit association seems to be a common standard among CSCs. We found nevertheless great variation in terms of the size of these organisations. Generally, only adult nationals and/or residents are able to join the CSCs, upon the payment of a membership fee. While production seems to be guided by consumption estimates of the members (Spain and Belgium) or by the legal framework (Uruguay), the thresholds applied by the clubs vary significantly across countries. Quality control practices remain an issue in the three settings studied here. The CSCs have developed different arrangements with regards to the distribution of cannabis to their members. By uncovering the current practices of CSCs

  2. The impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in Uruguay: development of tissues quality control and quality management system in the National Multi-Tissue Bank of Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, I; Morales Pedraza, Jorge; Saldías, M C; Pérez Campos, H; Wodowóz, O; Acosta, María; Vicentino, W; Silva, W; Rodríguez, G; Machín, D; Alvarez, O

    2009-05-01

    BNOT was created and regulated in 1977 and started its operation in 1978 according to the Decree No. 86/1977. By the Decree 248/005 is transformed in the National Institute of Donation and Transplantation of Cells, Tissues and Organs (Instituto Nacional de Donación y Trasplante de Células, Tejidos y Organos--INDT). The organisation has been operating within the State University Medical School and the Public Health Secretary and it is the governmental organisation responsible for the regulation, policy and management of donation and transplantation in Uruguay. By the Decree 160/2006 is responsible for human cells and tissues regulation too. The participation of the INDT in the IAEA program facilitated the introduction of the radiation sterilisation technique for the first time in the country. The radiation sterilisation of tissues processed by INDT (ex BNOT), was initially carried out in the 60 Cobalt Industrial Plant in the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina and now is carried out in INDT, using a Gamma Cell 220 Excel, which was provided by the IAEA through the national project URU/7/005. The results of the implementation of tissues, quality control and quality management system, are showed.

  3. Food groups and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    De Stefani, E; Deneo-Pellegrini, H; Ronco, A L; Boffetta, P; Brennan, P; Muñoz, N; Castellsagué, X; Correa, P; Mendilaharsu, M

    2003-10-06

    In the time period January 1998-December 2000, a case-control study on squamous cell cancer of the oesophagus was conducted in Montevideo, Uruguay. The main objective of the study was to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) associated with main food groups. For this purpose, 166 patients afflicted with squamous cell oesophageal cancer and 664 hospitalised controls were frequency matched on age and sex. Both series of patients were administered with a structured questionnaire. Aside from queries related with tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and maté drinking, patients were interviewed with a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) on 64 items, representative of the usual Uruguayan diet. Red meat, salted meat and boiled meat displayed strong direct associations (OR for red meat 2.4, 95% CI 1.4-4.2). On the other hand, fish and total white meat showed moderate protective effect (OR for total white meat 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.9). Total fruit intake displayed a strong inverse association (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.4), whereas total vegetable consumption presented a weak inverse association (OR for total vegetable intake 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.2). These results suggest that vegetables, mainly cooked vegetables, are rich in thermolabile protective substances. On the other hand, boiled (stewed) meat, which is ingested at high temperature could be, like maté, a risk factor for squamous cell cancer of the oesophagus.

  4. Occurrence of Clinical and Sub-Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Herds in the West Littoral Region in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Gianneechini, R; Concha, C; Rivero, R; Delucci, I; López, J Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-nine dairy farms were selected to determine the incidence of clinical mastitis, prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis and bacterial aetiology in the West Littoral Region of Uruguay. In samples taken by the owner and frozen at -20°C during a week the incidence rate of clinical mastitis was determined as 1.2 cases per 100 cow-months at risk. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolated pathogen in 37.5% of 40 milk samples from clinical cases obtained in 1 month. No bacteria grew in the 32.5% of the total samples. A sub-sample including 1077 dairy cows from randomly selected farms was used to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis. These samples were taken on one visit to each farm. The prevalence was 52.4% on a cow basis and 26.7% on an udder quarter basis. In 55.1% of the quarters of the selected animals with more than 300 000 cells/ml there was no growth. The isolated pathogens from sub-clinical cases and their relative frequencies were: Staphylococcus aureus 62.8%, Streptococcus agalactiae 11.3%, Enterococcus sp. 8%, coagulase-negative staphylococci 7.4%, Streptococus uberis 6.4%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae 1.8%, Escherichia coli 1.5% and Staphylococcus hyicus coagulase-positive 0.6%. PMID:12831175

  5. The late Paleozoic palynological diversity in southernmost Paraná (Uruguay), Claromecó and Paganzo basins (Argentina), Western Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beri, Ángeles; Gutiérrez, Pedro R.; Balarino, M. Lucía

    2015-12-01

    This study explores the changes in palynoflora diversity of the late Paleozoic in boreholes DI.NA.MI.GE. 254 (26 samples) and DI.NA.MI.GE. 221 (14 samples) of the Paraná Basin in Uruguay and in 18 surface samples of the La Deheza Formation (Paganzo Basin) and 10 samples of borehole UTAL.CMM1.La Estrella.x-1 (Claromecó Basin) in Argentina. Possible relationships among biostratigraphic zones, diversity levels, facies and climatic evolution patterns in Western Gondwana are studied. Diversity curves of boreholes 221 and 254 and the La Deheza Formation outcrop exhibit similar diversity evolution patterns, i.e., an increase in lower strata diversity and a decrease in upper strata diversity. The disappearance events are determined to be more prominent in biozones of the Cisuralian to the Guadalupian age and less prominent in biozones of the early Cisuralian age. The number of genera raises from the glaciomarine facies, through the deltaic and the marine facies, up to the shallow marine or lagoon facies, in which the disappearance rates become more prominent. . The diversity of the lower part of the La Estrella borehole is lesser than that of the other sequences These diversity, disappearance and appearance behaviors may reflect post-glacial climatic amelioration patterns and the beginning of an arid phase.

  6. Structural evolution of the Sarandí del Yí Shear Zone, Uruguay: kinematics, deformation conditions and tectonic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oriolo, S.; Oyhantçabal, P.; Heidelbach, F.; Wemmer, K.; Siegesmund, S.

    2015-10-01

    The Sarandí del Yí Shear Zone is a crustal-scale shear zone that separates the Piedra Alta Terrane from the Nico Pérez Terrane and the Dom Feliciano Belt in southern Uruguay. It represents the eastern margin of the Río de la Plata Craton and, consequently, one of the main structural features of the Precambrian basement of Western Gondwana. This shear zone first underwent dextral shearing under upper to middle amphibolite facies conditions, giving rise to the reactivation of pre-existing crustal fabrics in the easternmost Piedra Alta Terrane. Afterwards, pure-shear-dominated sinistral shearing with contemporaneous magmatism took place under lower amphibolite to upper greenschist facies conditions. The mylonites resulting from this event were then locally reactivated by a cataclastic deformation. This evolution points to strain localization under progressively retrograde conditions with time, indicating that the Sarandí del Yí Shear Zone represents an example of a thinning shear zone related to the collisional to post-collisional evolution of the Dom Feliciano Belt that occurred between the Meso- to Neoproterozoic (>600 Ma) and late Ediacaran-lower Cambrian times.

  7. Bioavailability, ecotoxicity, and geological characteristics of trace lead in sediments from two sites on Negro River, Uruguay, South America.

    PubMed

    Míguez, Diana M; Huertas, Raquel; Carrara, María V; Carnikián, Agustín; Bouvier, María E; Martínez, María J; Keel, Karen; Pioda, Carolina; Darré, Elena; Pérez, Ramiro; Viera, Santiago; Massa, Enrique

    2012-04-01

    Bioassays of two sites along the Rio Negro in Uruguay indicate ecotoxicity, which could be attributable to trace concentrations of lead in river sediments. Monthly samples at two sites at Baygorria and Bonete locations were analyzed for both particle size and lead. Lead was determined by atomic spectrometry in river water and sediment and particle size by sieving and sedimentation. Data showed that Baygorria's sediments have greater percentage of clay than Bonete's (20.4 and 5.8%, respectively). Lead was measurable in Baygorria's sediments, meanwhile in Bonete's, it was always below the detection limit. In water samples, lead was below detection limit at both sites. Bioassays using sub-lethal growth and survival test with Hyalella curvispina amphipod, screening with bioluminescent bacteria Photobacterium leiognathi, and acute toxicity bioassay with Pimephales promelas fish indicated toxicity at Baygorria, with much less effect at Bonete. Even though no lethal effects could be demonstrated, higher sub-lethal toxicity was found in samples from Baygorria site, showing a possible concentration of the contaminant in the clay fraction.

  8. Petrography and geochemistry of the Arroyo de la Virgen and Isla Mala plutons, southern Uruguay: Early proterozoic tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preciozzi, F.; Bourne, J. H.

    1992-10-01

    The Arroyo de la Virgen pluton (AVP) and the Isla Mala pluton (IMP) are relatively small zoned intrusions of Early Proterozoic age. Radiometric age determinations suggest that the IMP is a composite pluton. The composition of the AVP ranges from granodiorite to leucogranite, whereas that of the IMP ranges from hornblendite to leucogranite. Both intrusions feature hornblende (with relict clinopyroxene cores) and biotite as mafic minerals. Muscovite and garnet are present in the most evolved members of each suite. Development of secondary chlorite, epidote, and sericite is common. Quartz typically has undulose extinction. The plutons are massive except near the margins of the intrusion. Both intrusions feature a calc-alkaline chemistry, have peraluminous indices of approximately 1.0, and were emplaced at relatively high levels in the crust. Application of several tectonic discriminant diagrams suggests that the IMP formed in an active continental-margin type of tectonic environment, whereas the AVP is a subalkaline, post-orogenic pluton. The ages of the IMP leucogranite and the AVP are similar (2290 and 2225 Ma, respectively). The age of the IMP leucogranite represents the minimum reliable age of the principal metamorphic event in southern Uruguay. A number of small dikes were emplaced into both intrusions approximately 300 million years later and represent a distinct phase of intrusive activity in the region.

  9. Viral and bacterial contamination in a sedimentary aquifer in Uruguay: evaluation of coliforms as regional indicators of viral contamination.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamazo, Pablo; Colina, Rodney; Victoria, Matias; Alvareda, Elena; Burutatran, Luciana; Ramos, Julian; Olivera, María; Soler, Joan

    2015-04-01

    In many areas of Uruguay groundwater is the only source of water for human consumption and for industrial-agricultural economic activities. Traditionally considered as a safe source, groundwater is commonly used without any treatment. The Uruguayan law requires bacteriological (fecal) analysis for most water uses, but virological analyses are not mentioned in the legislation. In the Salto district, where groundwater is used for human consumption and for agricultural activities, bacterial contamination has been detected in several wells but no viruses analysis have been performed. The Republic University (UDELAR), with the support of the National Agency for Research and Innovation (ANII), is studying the incidence of virus and fecal bacteria in groundwater on an intensive agriculture area of the Salto district. An initial screening campaign of 44 wells was performed in which, besides total and fecal coliforms, rotavirus and adenovirus were detected. A subgroup of the screening wells (15) where selected for bimonthly sampling during a year. In accordance with literature results, single well data analysis shows that coliform and viral contamination can be considered as independent variables. However, when spatial data is integrated, coliform and viral contamination show linear correlation. In this work we present the survey results, we analyse the temporal incidence of variables like precipitation, temperature and chemical composition in well contamination and we discuss the value of coliforms as global indicator of viral contamination for the Salto aquifer.

  10. Scyphophyllidium uruguayense n. sp. (Eucestoda: Tetraphyllidea) in Mustelus mento (Cope, 1877) (Chondrichthyes: Carcharhiniformes: Triakidae) from La Paloma, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Brooks, D R; Marques, F; Perroni, C; Sidagis, C

    1999-06-01

    A new species of Scyphophyllidium inhabits Mustelus mento near La Paloma, Uruguay. It resembles Scyphophyllidium giganteum from the Atlantic Ocean and specimens identified as S. giganteum from California by having anapolytic strobilae 155-258 mm long, 250-300 craspedote proglottids, scoleces 1.2-1.4 mm wide, necks 34-41 mm long, immature and mature proglottids wider than long, gravid proglottids wider than long to longer than wide, genital pores averaging 28% of proglottid length from the anterior end, relatively flat ovaries with digitiform lobes reaching the lateralmost extent of the testicular field, vitellaria in 2 fields converging toward the proglottid midline, straight and short cirrus sacs, and postvaginal vas deferens. The bothridia of the new species have accessory bothridial suckers that are smaller than those of California specimens; European specimens reportedly lack accessory bothridial suckers. The new species possesses a uterine duct that joins the uterus at the level of the genital atrium and ventral osmoregulatory ducts medial rather than lateral to the dorsal ducts, an arrangement described for Californian but not European specimens. It differs from both European and Californian specimens by having longer cirri, more testes per proglottid, prominent scales covering the neck, and vaginae and uterine ducts coiled immediately preovarially. Pithophorus, Marsupiobothrium, and Scyphophyllidium may form a clade.

  11. Genetic variability of Triatoma rubrovaria (Reduviidae: Triatominae) from Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay as revealed by two different molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, R S; Almeida, C E; Klisiowicz, D R; Costa, J; Pires, M Q; Panzera, F; Bar, M E; Mas-Coma, S; Bargues, M E

    2007-09-01

    Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence analyses were used to assess the genetic population structure of the South American triatomine species Triatomo rubrovario throughout its geographical distribution. To investigate the genetic variability at both intraspecific and intrapopulational levels the RAPD profiles and the nucleotide sequences of the rDNA intergenic spacers, ITS-1 and ITS-2, were analysed and compared. The phenetic analysis based on RAPD profiles show three distinct clusters diverging by similarity coefficients ranging from 0.62 to 0.96. The ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequence variability detected may be considered very high, suggesting reproductive isolation between populations. A total of seven composite haplotypes (CH) were found, among which three are specific for Brazil, other three for Uruguay, and the last one common for the three countries studied. The population studied in Argentina does not represent an independent CH. Sequence analyses proved that the five populations studied are easily differentiable and that there is heterogeneity within each one. True mutations and indels are the responsible of sequence differences between haplotypes and populations, suggesting that divergence processes may presently go on within this species. The large intraspecific variability detected may underlie the known plasticity of T. rubrovaria, making it a potential intradomiciliary invader and consequently an appropriate vector for Chagas disease transmission. Therefore, this triatomine species must be continuously monitored throughout.

  12. Meat Consumption, Related Nutrients, Obesity and Risk of Prostate Cancer: a Case-Control Study in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Stefani, Eduardo De; Boffetta, Paolo L; Ronco, Alvaro; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    In order to determine the role of meat consumption and related nutrients in the etiology of prostate cancer we conducted a case-control study among Uruguayan men in the time period 1998-2007. The study included 464 cases and 472 controls, frequency matched for age and residence. Both series were drawn from the four major public hospitals in Montevideo. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) of prostate cancer by quartiles of meat intake and related nutrients. The highest vs. the lowest quartile of intake of total meat (OR = 5.19, 95 % CI 3.46-7.81), red meat (OR = 4.64, 95 % CI 3.10-6.95), and processed meat (OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.22-2.59) were associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. Meat nutrients were directly associated with the risk of prostate cancer (OR for cholesterol 5.61, 95 % CI 3.75-8.50). Moreover, both total meat and red meat displayed higher risks among obese patients. This study suggests that total and red meat and meat nutrients may play a role in the etiology of prostate cancer in Uruguay.

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori and mechanisms of clarithromycin resistance in strains isolated from patients in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Torres-Debat, M E; Pérez-Pérez, G; Olivares, A; Fernández, L; Raisler, K; González, N; Stein, S; Bazet, M C; Alallón, W; Cohen, H

    2009-11-01

    The prevalence and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori have not yet been investigated in Uruguay. The objective of this study was to assess the susceptibility of H. pylori to the most frequently used antibiotics and to determine the mechanism of resistance to clarithromycin. Seventy-nine isolates were obtained from gastric biopsies of 50 adult patients during two periods, 2001 and 2006. The former group enrolled the general population (GP), the latter group Afro-descendant (AD) subjects. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of clarithromycin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, metronidazole, and levofloxacin were determined using the E-test technique. Amplification was achieved through PCR and nucleic acid sequencing to detect mutations in the site of action of clarithromycin in the rRNA gene 23S. No amoxicillin or tetracycline-resistant strains were found. Clarithromycin resistance was found in 12% of the patients overall: 19.4% resistance in AD patients and no resistance in the GP group. This difference was statistically significant. The highest resistance was seen with metronidazole (36%), present in similar proportions in the two groups: 36.8% (GP) and 35.5% (AD). One GP patient and one AD patient had levofloxacin-resistant strains. Sequencing analysis of gene 23S rRNA showed that only mutation in position 2143 was presented in all clarithromycin-resistant strains.

  14. Assessing the impacts of climate change on winter crop production in Uruguay and Argentina using crop simulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Baethgen, W.E.; Magrin, G.O.

    1995-12-31

    Enhanced greenhouse effect caused by the increase in atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2} and other trace gases could lead to higher global surface temperature and altered hydrological cycles. Most possible climate change scenarios include higher atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, higher temperatures, and changes in precipitation. Three global climate models (GCMs) were applied to generate climate change scenarios for the Pampas region in southern South America. The generated scenarios were then used with crop simulation models to study the possible impact of climate change on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production in the Pampas. The authors evaluated the impact of possible climate change scenarios on wheat and barley production in Uruguay for a wide range of soil and crop management strategies including planting dates, cultivar types, fertilizer management, and tillage practices. They also studied the impact of climate change on wheat production across two transects of the Pampas: north to south transect with decreasing temperature, and east to west transect with decreasing precipitation. Finally, sensitivity analyses were conducted for both, the Uruguayan site and the transects, by increasing daily maximum and minimum temperature by 0, 2, and 4 C, and changing the precipitation by {minus}20, 0, and +20%.

  15. [Detection and characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from clinical cases and food in Uruguay].

    PubMed

    Varela, G; Chinen, I; Gadea, P; Miliwebsky, E; Mota, M I; González, S; González, G; Gugliada, M J; Carbonari, C C; Algorta, G; Bernadá, M; Sabelli, R; Pardo, L; Rivas, M; Schelotto, F

    2008-01-01

    We have assessed the frequency of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coil (STEC) in clinical and food samples as well as studied the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of the recovered strains. One hundred ninety eight fecal samples from children with bloody diarrhea (BD), 14 from children with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), 220 ground beef samples and 4 STEC isolates from other beef-derived products were analyzed. The STEC strains were isolated from 3 (1.5%) children with bloody diarrhea, 1 (7%) from a child with HUS and 4 (1.8%) from ground beef samples. All strains were eae and ehxA positive. The serotypes found were: O157:H7 (9 strains), O26:H11 (2), O111: NM (1) and O145:HNT (1). All O157:H7 STEC strains harbored the eae subtype gamma1, O26:H11 and O145:HNT strains, subtype beta1 and O111:NM strain, subtype gamma2/theta. The STEC strains of the same serogroup showed high genetic diversity. In Uruguay, STEC is not frequently isolated from cases of bloody diarrhea in children. However, all the recovered STEC strains carried the genes associated with severe disease and 2 out of 3 children infected with STEC developed HUS. Ground beef and other food products might be important vehicles for O157:H7 strains.

  16. Acute contact toxicity test of insecticides (Cipermetrina 25, Lorsban 48E, Thionex 35) on honeybees in the southwestern zone of Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas; Mendoza-Spina, Yamandú; Branchiccela, María Belén

    2012-07-01

    Glyphosate-resistant soybean cultivation is expanding rapidly in Uruguay, with its land area having increased by 95 times during the past 10 years. Because of the region's Neotropical conditions, insecticide use is required to ensure adequate soybean productivity. However, in areas shared by soybean crops and beekeepers - such as the southwestern zone of Uruguay (SWZU) - the use of insecticides can increase the risks of honeybee death and honey contamination. Uruguayan commercial and legal guidelines set out practices and field doses designed to prevent acute intoxication with insecticides. However, honeybees in the SWZU are predominantly a polyhybrid subspecies different from that used to set international reference values, and hence they may have a different acute toxicity response, thus rendering such precautions ineffective. The aim of this work was to assess the acute toxicity response of polyhybrid honeybees in the SWZU to cypermethrin (commercial formulation: Cipermetrina 25 Agrin®), chlorpyrifos (commercial formulation: Lorsban 48E®), and endosulfan (commercial formulation: Thionex 35®). Acute toxicity bioassays were conducted to determine the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of each insecticide for the honeybees. The results indicate that, compared with EU reference values, SWZU honeybees have a higher toxicological sensitivity to chlorpyrifos and endosulfan, and a lower toxicological sensitivity to cypermethrin, based on the commercial formulations tested. However, when these results were adjusted according to their field dose equivalents, only chlorpyrifos emerged as a potential problem for beekeeping, as the maximum recommended field dose of Lorsban 48E® for soybean crops in Uruguay is 23 times the corresponding LD(50) for honeybees in the SWZU.

  17. Monitoring the effects of climate and agriculture intensity on nutrient fluxes in lowland streams: a comparison between temperate Denmark and subtropical Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyenola, Guillermo; Meerhof, Mariane; Teixeira de Mello, Franco; González-Bergonzoni, Ivan; Graeber, Daniel; Vidal, Nicolas; Mazzeo, Nestor; Ovesen, Niels; Jeppesen, Erik; Thodsen, Hans; Kronvang, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Climate is changing towards more extreme conditions all over the world. At the same time, land use is becoming more intensive worldwide and particularly in many developing countries, whereas several developed countries are trying to reduce the impacts of intensive agricultural production and lower the excessive nutrient loading and eutrophication symptoms in water bodies. In 2009, we initiated a comparative research project between the subtropical region (Uruguay) and the temperate region (Denmark) to compare the hydrology and nutrient fluxes in paired micro-catchments with extensive production or intensive agriculture. The four selected streams drained catchments of similar size (7 to 19 km2). We have established similarly equipped monitoring stations in the four micro-catchments in spring (November 2009, Uruguay; March 2010, Denmark) to monitor the effects of land use and agriculture intensity on stream hydrology and nutrient concentrations and fluxes under different climate conditions. We have conducted high frequency measurements in the four lowland streams with underwater probes (turbidity, pH, conductivity and oxygen measured every 15 minutes), fortnight grab sampling of water and automatic sampling of composite water samples for nutrient analysis (total and dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus; sampled every four hours and accumulated fortnightly). Moreover, water level and meteorological information (precipitation, air temperature, global radiation, humidity) has been recorded every 10 minutes and instantaneous flow measurements have been conducted at regular intervals, to facilitate the calculation of instantaneous discharge from continuous records of water level (stage-discharge relationships). We will show results of ca. 2 years from this comparative study between Uruguay and Denmark, and the importance of differences in climate and land use will be discussed.

  18. Effectiveness of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against vaccine-type invasive disease among children in Uruguay: an evaluation using existing data.

    PubMed

    Picón, Teresa; Alonso, Lucía; García Gabarrot, Gabriela; Speranza, Noelia; Casas, Mariana; Arrieta, Fernando; Camou, Teresa; Rosa, Raquel; De Oliveira, Lucia Helena; Verani, Jennifer Rabke

    2013-07-02

    The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced into the routine immunization program in Uruguay in March 2008 with a 2-dose primary series (given at 2 and 4 months) plus a booster (at 12 months) and a catch-up campaign (two doses given at 15 and 17 months). We used a case-control methodology and existing laboratory surveillance and immunization registry data from Uruguay to evaluate PCV7 effectiveness against vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (VT-IPD). Cases of VT-IPD (with pneumococcus obtained from a normally sterile site) were identified through the National Reference Laboratory. Age- and neighborhood-matched controls were obtained through a national immunization registry in which all children are enrolled at birth regardless of vaccine receipt; all eligible controls were included. Immunization status of cases and controls was assessed through the immunization registry, and conditional logistic regression was used to calculate PCV7 effectiveness. Between April 2008 and February 2010, 44 cases of VT-IPD among children<5 years were identified; 43 (98%) of those children were located in the registry. Among located case patients, 7 (16.3%) were age-eligible to have received at least one dose of PCV7. A total of 637 matched controls were included. Vaccine effectiveness was 91.3% (95% CI: 46.4, 98.6) for ≥ 1 PCV7 doses and 94.8% (95% CI: 43.1, 99.5) for ≥ 2 PCV7 doses. Using existing data we demonstrated high effectiveness of PCV7 against VT-IPD in Uruguay-a middle-income country using a 2-dose primary series plus a booster dose and a limited catch-up campaign. These data also highlight the utility of surveillance and high-quality immunization registries for evaluating the effectiveness of vaccines.

  19. Soil erosion and mitigation measures on rented and owned fields in Uruguay: the impact of transgenic soya and foreign investors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caon, Lucrezia; Kessler, Aad; Keesstra, Saskia; Cruze, Rick

    2014-05-01

    Governments, companies and individuals with financial capital to invest, are worldwide buying or renting land in developing or third world countries. Uruguay is a developing country whose economy is mainly based on agriculture. Since 2000 many foreigners started to invest in the Uruguayan agricultural sector and to practice intensive large-scale agriculture. The significant presence of foreigners in the country is proven by the fact that almost 360 000 ha out of the 500 000 ha forming the study area were managed by foreigners in 2012. Nowadays farmers have abandoned the traditional crop rotation plan that included pasture to produce grain for export, and transgenic soya (soya RR) became the main crop planted by both foreigners and locals. Besides the high soil erosion rates related to having soya as main crop, planting soya implies the use of glyphosate, a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide leading to important environmental impacts. It is commonly said that foreigners investing in poor countries are exploiting the local natural resources aiming to get the highest possible profit from them. Is this a valid assumption in Uruguay? The purpose of this study was to compare the land management style of foreign and local farmers and to relate it to the soil erosion occurring in the study area. The land tenure (rented or owned fields) and the type of farmer interviewed ("individual farmer" equivalent to L.L.C. or "anonymous society" equivalent to P.L.C.) were taken into consideration during the analysis. Based on what stated by the farmers interviewed, the soil erosion simulations considered the seven most popular crop rotation plans on rented and owned fields, three ideals crop rotation plans, the application of no mitigation measures, and the construction of terraces and conservation buffers. Depending on the crop rotation plan, soils characterized by slope gradients higher than 2 resulted in soil erosion rates higher than the 7 ton/ha/year allowed by law. The highest

  20. Extreme late chronotypes and social jetlag challenged by Antarctic conditions in a population of university students from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Tassino, Bettina; Horta, Stefany; Santana, Noelia; Levandovski, Rosa; Silva, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In humans, a person's chronotype depends on environmental cues and on individual characteristics, with late chronotypes prevailing in youth. Social jetlag (SJL), the misalignment between an individual׳s biological clock and social time, is higher in late chronotypes. Strong SJL is expected in Uruguayan university students with morning class schedules and very late entertainment activities. Sleep disorders have been reported in Antarctic inhabitants, that might be a response to the extreme environment or to the strictness of Antarctic life. We evaluated, for the first time in Uruguay, the chronotypes and SJL of 17 undergraduate students of the First Uruguayan Summer School on Antarctic Research, using Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ) and sleep logs (SL) recorded during 3 phases: pre-Antarctic, Antarctic, and post-Antarctic. The midsleep point of free days corrected for sleep debt on work days (MSFsc,) was used as proxy of individuals' chronotype, whose values (around 6 a.m.) are the latest ever reported. We found a SJL of around 2 h in average, which correlated positively with MSFsc, confirming that late chronotypes generate a higher sleep debt during weekdays. Midsleep point and sleep duration significantly decreased between pre-Antarctic and Antarctic phases, and sleep duration rebounded to significant higher values in the post-Antarctic phase. Waking time, but not sleep onset time, significantly varied among phases. This evidence suggests that sleep schedules more likely depended on the social agenda than on the environmental light-dark shifts. High motivation of students towards Antarctic activities likely induced a subjective perception of welfare non-dependent on sleep duration.

  1. Extreme late chronotypes and social jetlag challenged by Antarctic conditions in a population of university students from Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Tassino, Bettina; Horta, Stefany; Santana, Noelia; Levandovski, Rosa; Silva, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In humans, a person’s chronotype depends on environmental cues and on individual characteristics, with late chronotypes prevailing in youth. Social jetlag (SJL), the misalignment between an individual׳s biological clock and social time, is higher in late chronotypes. Strong SJL is expected in Uruguayan university students with morning class schedules and very late entertainment activities. Sleep disorders have been reported in Antarctic inhabitants, that might be a response to the extreme environment or to the strictness of Antarctic life. We evaluated, for the first time in Uruguay, the chronotypes and SJL of 17 undergraduate students of the First Uruguayan Summer School on Antarctic Research, using Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ) and sleep logs (SL) recorded during 3 phases: pre-Antarctic, Antarctic, and post-Antarctic. The midsleep point of free days corrected for sleep debt on work days (MSFsc,) was used as proxy of individuals’ chronotype, whose values (around 6 a.m.) are the latest ever reported. We found a SJL of around 2 h in average, which correlated positively with MSFsc, confirming that late chronotypes generate a higher sleep debt during weekdays. Midsleep point and sleep duration significantly decreased between pre-Antarctic and Antarctic phases, and sleep duration rebounded to significant higher values in the post-Antarctic phase. Waking time, but not sleep onset time, significantly varied among phases. This evidence suggests that sleep schedules more likely depended on the social agenda than on the environmental light–dark shifts. High motivation of students towards Antarctic activities likely induced a subjective perception of welfare non-dependent on sleep duration. PMID:27226819

  2. Influence of farm resource endowment on possibilities for sustainable development: a case study for vegetable farms in South Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Dogliotti, S; van Ittersum, M K; Rossing, W A H

    2006-02-01

    In different parts of the world, there is an urgent need for redesigning and innovating farming systems. Such a process may be supported by model-based explorations that enable ex-ante evaluation of a broad range of alternatives. Since a variety of viable patterns of farm development exists related to farm resource endowment and farmer's strategy, model-based explorations should be able to capture the existing variation in resource endowment and strategies in order to have impact on strategic farm management. In this paper, we present an overview of the model-based explorative method based on the MILP model Farm Images, applied to explore options for sustainable development of vegetable farms in Canelón Grande, Uruguay. The method is used to gain insight into the impact of current farm resource endowment on the possibilities for sustainable development and on the resource use efficiency at farm scale. We maximized farm income for 128 different farm types in an environment-oriented scenario and in an income-oriented scenario. Farm types were defined by combining 4 farm sizes, 2 labor endowments, 4 irrigation endowments, 2 soil quality combinations and 2 mechanization levels. The results demonstrate a strong impact of farm resource endowment on possibilities for sustainable development, as well as synergy between labor, land and irrigated area on resource-use efficiency at farm scale. Farms with 10ha of land or less, representing 47% of the farms in the Canelón Grande region, could only achieve a family income higher than the average income of Uruguayan families when the irrigated area was ca. 40% of the farm area. The achievement of environmental targets was less costly in terms of income on farms with a low rather than high labor availability per unit area and on farms with irrigation facilities.

  3. Analysis of fishing activity in the Itá reservoir, Upper Uruguay River, in the period 2004-2009.

    PubMed

    Schork, G; Hermes-Silva, S; Zaniboni-Filho, E

    2013-08-01

    This study characterized fishing activity in the reservoir of the Hydroelectric Power Plant of Itá in Brazil. The reservoir is located in the Upper Uruguay River, which forms the border between the states of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. To analyze fishing activity and the composition of ichthyofauna in the reservoir after damming, questionnaires were administered to fishermen in the region between 2004 and 2009. The results showed that fishing in the Itá reservoir can be classified as a subsistence activity performed on small vessels and usually involving the use of drift nets and handlines. Between 2004 and 2009, 292,780.10 kg worth of fish were captured, with an average annual productivity of 3.46 kg ha(-1) yr(-1). We recorded the highest values of catch per unit effort in 2006, with an annual average of 9.69 kg fisherman(-1) day(-1). A total of 27 morphospecies were captured during the sample period; carp, traíra, mandi and jundiá together accounted for almost 60% of the catch. This finding indicates that fishing is centered on the capture of sedentary and short-distance migratory species. Despite their lower abundance, long-distance migratory species continue to be captured. The case of the piracanjuba, a long-distance migratory species reintroduced to the region in 2004 and still present in the catches, is particularly noteworthy. Regarding the fishermen's socioeconomic profile, all were men, most of who have engaged in the activity for more than eleven years, have a low educational level, fish with the aid of family members and list agriculture as their main economic activity.

  4. Erosive tooth wear among 12-year-old schoolchildren: a population-based cross-sectional study in Montevideo, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Loureiro, Licet; Fabruccini Fager, Anunzziatta; Alves, Luana Severo; Alvarez Vaz, Ramón; Maltz, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, extent, severity, intraoral distribution and risk indicators for erosive tooth wear (ETW) among 12-year-old schoolchildren from Montevideo, Uruguay. A population-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted using a representative sample of 1,136 12-year-old schoolchildren attending public and private schools. Parents answered questions on socioeconomic status and general health. Schoolchildren answered questions on dietary and oral hygiene habits. Two calibrated examiners recorded ETW on permanent teeth according to the Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) score system. Logistic regression models were performed to assess the association between the predictor variables and the prevalence of ETW (overall and severe ETW). Odds ratios (OR) and the respective 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. The prevalence of ETW was 52.9%, being mild erosion (BEWE = 1) in the vast majority of cases (48.5%). Severe erosion (BEWE ≥2) was detected in 4.4% of schoolchildren. The overall prevalence of ETW differed significantly between categories of gender and socioeconomic status, but only between gender in the severe ETW analysis. The overall extent of ETW was significantly different between categories of gender, socioeconomic status, and swish before swallow. The extent of severe ETW differed between categories of swish before swallow and brushing frequency. In the logistic regression analysis, no association was found between the studied variables and the overall prevalence of ETW. Males were more likely to have severe ETW than females (OR = 3.22, 95% CI = 1.50-6.89). ETW may be considered a public health problem among 12-year-old-Uruguayan schoolchildren.

  5. ¹⁷⁷Lu-Labeled Agents for Neuroendocrine Tumor Therapy and Bone Pain Palliation in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Balter, Henia; Victoria, Trindade; Mariella, Terán; Javier, Gaudiano; Rodolfo, Ferrando; Andrea, Paolino; Graciela, Rodriguez; Juan, Hermida; Eugenia, De Marco; Patricia, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Lutetium-177 is an emerging radionuclide due its convenient chemical and nuclear properties. In this paper we describe the development and evaluation in Uruguay of the targeted 177Lu labelled radiopharmaceuticals EDTMP (for bone pain palliation) and DOTA-TATE (neuroendocrine tumors). We optimized the preparation of these 177Lu radiopharmaceuticals including radiolabelling, quality control methods, in vitro and in vivo stability and their therapeutic application in patients. Radiation dosimetry aspects of 177Lu are also included. Nine male patients with prostate cancer and four female patients with breast carcinoma with multiple bone metastatic lesions were treated with 177Lu-EDTMP. Four patients with gastroentheropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NET) and one patient with bronchial NET were treated with 1- 3 cycles with a cumulative dose of 4.44-22.2 GBq of 177Lu-DOTA-TATE. Scintigraphic images of the patients treated with 177Lu-EDTMP evidenced high and rapid uptake in bone metastasis, remaining after 7 days post administration. Images allow skeletal visualization with high definition and demonstrate increased uptake in bone metastases. For 177Lu-DOTA-TATE, partial remissions were obtained in 4 patients and the remaining patient did not show significant progression 3 months after the second cycle. No serious adverse effects were registered, even in two patients with confirmed renal disease and high risk for renal disease Dosimetry assessments confirm the predictive value of the personalized therapy with radiolabelled peptides. We found it is possible to accumulate high therapeutic doses in tumours in sequential administrations of 177Lu-DOTA-TATE, increasing the probability of biological response without significant impairment of the renal function in patients with risk factors. These results demonstrate the attractive therapeutic properties of these two 177Lu labelled agents and the feasibility of this metabolic therapy in regions far away from 177Lu producing

  6. Network analysis of cattle movements in Uruguay: Quantifying heterogeneity for risk-based disease surveillance and control.

    PubMed

    VanderWaal, Kimberly L; Picasso, Catalina; Enns, Eva A; Craft, Meggan E; Alvarez, Julio; Fernandez, Federico; Gil, Andres; Perez, Andres; Wells, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock between premises is one of the foremost factors contributing to the spread of infectious diseases of livestock. In part to address this issue, the origin and destination for all cattle movements in Uruguay are registered by law. This information has great potential to be used in assessing the risk of disease spread in the Uruguayan cattle population. Here, we analyze cattle movements from 2008 to 2013 using network analysis in order to understand the flows of animals in the Uruguayan cattle industry and to identify targets for surveillance and control measures. Cattle movements were represented as seasonal and annual networks in which farms represented nodes and nodes were linked based on the frequency and quantity of cattle moved. At the farm level, the distribution of the number of unique farms each farm is connected to through outgoing and incoming movements, as well as the number of animals moved, was highly right-skewed; the majority of farms had few to no contacts, whereas the 10% most highly connected farms accounted for 72-83% of animals moved annually. This extreme level of heterogeneity in movement patterns indicates that some farms may be disproportionately important for pathogen spread. Different production types exhibited characteristic patterns of farm-level connectivity, with some types, such a dairies, showing consistently higher levels of centrality. In addition, the observed networks were characterized by lower levels of connectivity and higher levels of heterogeneity than random networks of the same size and density, both of which have major implications for disease dynamics and control strategies. This represents the first in-depth analysis of farm-level livestock movements within South America, and highlights the importance of collecting livestock movement data in order to understand the vulnerability of livestock trade networks to invasion by infectious diseases.

  7. Preliminary AMS Study in Cretaceous Igneous Rocks of Valle Chico Complex, Uruguay: Statistical Determination of Magnetic Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcelona, H.; Mena, M.; Sanchez-Bettucci, L.

    2009-05-01

    The Valle Chico Complex, at southeast Uruguay, is related Paraná-Etendeka Province. The study involved basaltic lavas, quarz-syenites, and rhyolitic and trachytic dikes. Samples were taken from 18 sites and the AMS of 250 specimens was analyzed. The AMS is modeled by a second order tensor K and it graphical representation is a symmetric ellipsoid. The axes relations determine parameters which describe different properties like shape, lineation, and foliation, degree of anisotropy and bulk magnetic susceptibility. Under this perspective, one lava, dike, or igneous body can be considered a mosaic of magnetic susceptibility domains (MSD). The DSM is an area with specific degree of homogeneity in the distribution of parameters values and cinematic conditions. An average tensor would weigh only one MSD, but if the site is a mosaic, subsets of specimens with similar parameters can be created. Hypothesis tests can be used to establish parameter similarities. It would be suitable considered as a MSD the subsets with statistically significant differences in at least one of its means parameters, and therefore, be treated independently. Once defined the MSDs the tensor analysis continues. The basalt-andesitic lavas present MSD with an NNW magnetic foliation, dipping 10. The K1 are sub-horizontal, oriented E-W and reprsent the magmatic flow direction. The quartz-syenites show a variable magnetic fabric or prolate ellipsoids mayor axes dispose parallel to the flow direction (10 to the SSE). Deformed syenites show N300/11 magnetic foliation, consistent with the trend of fractures. The K1 is subvertical. The MSD defined in rhyolitic dikes have magnetic foliations consistent with the structural trend. The trachytic dikes show an important indetermination in the magnetic response. However, a 62/N90 magnetic lineation was defined. The MSDs obtained are consistent with the geological structures and contribute to the knowledge of the tectonic, magmatic and kinematic events.

  8. Pregnant Women's Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Receipt of Screening and Brief Advice by Prenatal Care Providers in Argentina and Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Van T.; Morello, Paola; Alemán, Alicia; Johnson, Carolyn; Dietz, Patricia M.; Farr, Sherry L.; Mazzoni, Agustina; Berrueta, Mabel; Colomar, Mercedes; Ciganda, Alvaro; Becú, Ana; Gonzalez, Maria G. Bittar; Llambi, Laura; Gibbons, Luz; Smith, Ruben A.; Buekens, Pierre; Belizán, José M.; Althabe, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure has negative effects on maternal and infant health. SHS exposure among pregnant women in Argentina and Uruguay has not been previously described, nor has the proportion of those who have received screening and advice to avoid SHS during prenatal care. Women who attended one of 21 clusters of publicly-funded prenatal care clinics were interviewed regarding SHS exposure during pregnancy at their delivery hospitalization during 2011–2012. Analyses were conducted using SURVEYFREQ procedure in SAS version 9.3 to account for prenatal clinic clusters. Of 3,427 pregnant women, 43.4 % had a partner who smoked, 52.3 % lived with household members who smoked cigarettes, and 34.4 % had no or partial smoke-free home rule. Of 528 pregnant women who worked outside of the home, 21.6 % reported past month SHS exposure at work and 38.1 % reported no or partial smoke-free work policy. Overall, 35.9 % of women were exposed to SHS at home or work. In at least one prenatal care visit, 67.2 % of women were screened for SHS exposure, and 56.6 % received advice to avoid SHS. Also, 52.6 % of women always avoided SHS for their unborn baby's health. In summary, a third of pregnant women attending publicly-funded prenatal clinics were exposed to SHS, and only half of pregnant women always avoided SHS for their unborn baby's health. Provider screening and advice rates can be improved in these prenatal care settings, as all pregnant women should be screened and advised of the harms of SHS and how to avoid it. PMID:25427876

  9. Archean crust in the Rio de la Plata Craton, Uruguay — SHRIMP U Pb zircon reconnaissance geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Léo A.; Campal, Néstor; Santos, João Orestes S.; McNaughton, Neal J.; Bossi, Jorge; Schipilov, Alejandro; Lafon, Jean-Michel

    2001-11-01

    Two Archean units were detected in the center of the Nico Pérez Terrane of the Rio de la Plata Craton in Uruguay, the La China Complex, a deformed granite-greenstone belt and the Las Tetas Complex, a deformed sedimentary platform cover. Reconnaissance dating of zircons from three samples by U-Pb sensitive high-mass resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) indicates that the two units are amongst the oldest Archean continental remnants in South America. The La China metatonalite has zircons with igneous cores (3.41 Ga) with metamorphic rims between 3.10 and 2.7 Ga. A muscovite quartzite from the Las Tetas Complex has detrital zircons with ages between 3.26 and 3.14 Ga, while the main source of the Las Tetas metaconglomerate was dated by zircon at about 2.76 Ga. The interpretation is that a ∼3410 Ma greenstone belt was thrust-stacked with a 2.7 Ga carbonate-quartzite-pelite-conglomerate platform cover, so that granite-greenstone piles are positioned on top of cover rocks. The La China greenstone belt has intercalations of subvertical decameter-sized layers of talc-chlorite-tremolite schists with mafic and ultramafic amphibolites, a presumed volcanic komatiite/basalt sequence. The Las Tetas platform cover is a layered sequence of metamorphosed limestones, quartzites, conglomerates and pelites. Stromatolites occur in the carbonate sequence, whereas the pelites are now staurolite schists. The characterization of Archean continental remnants in the center of the Nico Pérez Terrane requires a reevaluation of the internal structure of the Rio de la Plata Craton. Important consequences emerge from this investigation for the understanding of the oldest environments in the South American crust and for the reconstruction of Archean paleocontinents.

  10. Pregnant women's secondhand smoke exposure and receipt of screening and brief advice by prenatal care providers in Argentina and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Tong, Van T; Morello, Paola; Alemán, Alicia; Johnson, Carolyn; Dietz, Patricia M; Farr, Sherry L; Mazzoni, Agustina; Berrueta, Mabel; Colomar, Mercedes; Ciganda, Alvaro; Becú, Ana; Bittar Gonzalez, Maria G; Llambi, Laura; Gibbons, Luz; Smith, Ruben A; Buekens, Pierre; Belizán, José M; Althabe, Fernando

    2015-06-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure has negative effects on maternal and infant health. SHS exposure among pregnant women in Argentina and Uruguay has not been previously described, nor has the proportion of those who have received screening and advice to avoid SHS during prenatal care. Women who attended one of 21 clusters of publicly-funded prenatal care clinics were interviewed regarding SHS exposure during pregnancy at their delivery hospitalization during 2011-2012. Analyses were conducted using SURVEYFREQ procedure in SAS version 9.3 to account for prenatal clinic clusters. Of 3,427 pregnant women, 43.4 % had a partner who smoked, 52.3 % lived with household members who smoked cigarettes, and 34.4 % had no or partial smoke-free home rule. Of 528 pregnant women who worked outside of the home, 21.6 % reported past month SHS exposure at work and 38.1 % reported no or partial smoke-free work policy. Overall, 35.9 % of women were exposed to SHS at home or work. In at least one prenatal care visit, 67.2 % of women were screened for SHS exposure, and 56.6 % received advice to avoid SHS. Also, 52.6 % of women always avoided SHS for their unborn baby's health. In summary, a third of pregnant women attending publicly-funded prenatal clinics were exposed to SHS, and only half of pregnant women always avoided SHS for their unborn baby's health. Provider screening and advice rates can be improved in these prenatal care settings, as all pregnant women should be screened and advised of the harms of SHS and how to avoid it.

  11. Isolation and Characterization of Alfalfa-Nodulating Rhizobia Present in Acidic Soils of Central Argentina and Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    del Papa, María F.; Balagué, Laura J.; Sowinski, Susana Castro; Wegener, Caren; Segundo, Eduardo; Abarca, Francisco Martínez; Toro, Nicolás; Niehaus, Karsten; Pühler, Alfred; Aguilar, O. Mario; Martínez-Drets, Gloria; Lagares, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of alfalfa-nodulating rhizobia from acid soils of different locations in Central Argentina and Uruguay. A collection of 465 isolates was assembled, and the rhizobia were characterized for acid tolerance. Growth tests revealed the existence of 15 acid-tolerant (AT) isolates which were able to grow at pH 5.0 and formed nodules in alfalfa with a low rate of nitrogen fixation. Analysis of those isolates, including partial sequencing of the genes encoding 16S rRNA and genomic PCR-fingerprinting with MBOREP1 and BOXC1 primers, demonstrated that the new isolates share a genetic background closely related to that of the previously reported Rhizobium sp. Or191 recovered from an acid soil in Oregon (B. D. Eardly, J. P. Young, and R. K. Selander, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:1809–1815, 1992). Growth curves, melanin production, temperature tolerance, and megaplasmid profiles of the AT isolates were all coincident with these characteristics in strain Or191. In addition to the ability of all of these strains to nodulate alfalfa (Medicago sativa) inefficiently, the AT isolates also nodulated the common bean and Leucaena leucocephala, showing an extended host range for nodulation of legumes. In alfalfa, the time course of nodule formation by the AT isolate LPU 83 showed a continued nodulation restricted to the emerging secondary roots, which was probably related to the low rate of nitrogen fixation by the largely ineffective nodules. Results demonstrate the complexity of the rhizobial populations present in the acidic soils represented by a main group of N2-fixing rhizobia and a second group of ineffective and less-predominant isolates related to the AT strain Or191. PMID:10103231

  12. Prevalence of Salmonella enterica in Poultry and Eggs in Uruguay during an Epidemic Due to Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis▿

    PubMed Central

    Betancor, L.; Pereira, M.; Martinez, A.; Giossa, G.; Fookes, M.; Flores, K.; Barrios, P.; Repiso, V.; Vignoli, R.; Cordeiro, N.; Algorta, G.; Thomson, N.; Maskell, D.; Schelotto, F.; Chabalgoity, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is frequently associated with food-borne disease worldwide. Poultry-derived products are a major source. An epidemic of human infection with S. Enteritidis occurred in Uruguay, and to evaluate the extent of poultry contamination, we conducted a nationwide survey over 2 years that included the analysis of sera from 5,751 birds and 12,400 eggs. Serological evidence of infection with Salmonella group O:9 was found in 24.4% of the birds. All positive sera were retested with a gm flagellum-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and based on these results, the national prevalence of S. Enteritidis infection was estimated to be 6.3%. Salmonellae were recovered from 58 of 620 pools made up of 20 eggs each, demonstrating a prevalence of at least 1 in every 214 eggs. Surprisingly, the majority of the isolates were not S. Enteritidis. Thirty-nine isolates were typed as S. Derby, 9 as S. Gallinarum, 8 as S. Enteritidis, and 2 as S. Panama. Despite the highest prevalence in eggs, S. Derby was not isolated from humans in the period of analysis, suggesting a low capacity to infect humans. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis of S. Derby and S. Enteritidis revealed more than 350 genetic differences. S. Derby lacked pathogenicity islands 13 and 14, the fimbrial lpf operon, and other regions encoding metabolic functions. Several of these regions are present not only in serovar Enteritidis but also in all sequenced strains of S. Typhimurium, suggesting that these regions might be related to the capacity of Salmonella to cause food-borne disease. PMID:20484605

  13. Phylogenetic analyses of Norovirus strains detected in Uruguay reveal the circulation of the novel GII.P7/GII.6 recombinant variant.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Álvaro; Tort, Fernando López; Victoria, Matías; Fumian, Tulio M; Miagostovich, Marize P; Leite, José Paulo G; Cristina, Juan; Colina, Rodney

    2014-12-01

    Noroviruses (NoV) are one of the major etiological agent of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) outbreaks worldwide. Distinct NoV genotypes have been associated with different transmission patterns and disease severity in humans. Therefore, it is important to identify genetically different NoV genotypes circulating in a particular region. However, genotyping has become a challenge due to recombination events occurring mainly nearby ORF1/ORF2 junction of NoV genome, leading to distinct genotypes with polymerase and capsid regions derived from parenteral strains. Taking this into account, ORF1/ORF2 sequences were obtained from NoV strains collected from patients with AGE in Uruguay. This study reveals in silico evidences of recombination events taking place in four out of six strains analyzed for which its polymerase gene and its capsid region correspond to GII.P7 and to GII.6 genotype, respectively. These results also reveal the circulation of a GII.P7/GII.6 recombinant variant in the natural populations of NoV strains in the northwestern region of Uruguay. As far as we know this is the first report about the circulation of a NoV GII.P7/GII.6 recombinant variant in the Americas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Parasitism by larval tapeworms genus Spirometra in South American amphibians and reptiles: new records from Brazil and Uruguay, and a review of current knowledge in the region.

    PubMed

    Oda, Fabrício H; Borteiro, Claudio; da Graça, Rodrigo J; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo R; Crampet, Alejandro; Guerra, Vinicius; Lima, Flávia S; Bellay, Sybelle; Karling, Letícia C; Castro, Oscar; Takemoto, Ricardo M; Pavanelli, Gilberto C

    2016-12-01

    Spargana are plerocercoid larvae of cestode tapeworms of the genus Spirometra, Family Diphyllobothriidae, parasitic to frogs, reptiles, birds and mammals. This parasitic disease in humans can be transmitted through the use and consumption of amphibians and reptiles. The available knowledge about Spirometra in South America is scarce, and there are only a few reports on the occurrence of sparganum in amphibians and reptiles, many of them published in old papers not easily available to researchers. In this work we present a review on this topic, provide new records in two species of amphibians and 7 species of reptiles from Brazil and Uruguay respectively. We also summarize current knowledge of Spirometra in the continent, along with an updated of host taxonomy. We could gather from the literature a total of 15 studies about amphibian and reptile hosts, published between 1850 and 2016, corresponding to 43 case reports, mostly from Brazil (29) and Uruguay (8), Argentina (3), Peru (2), and Venezuela (1); the majority of them related to reptiles (five lizards and 26 snake species), and 14 corresponded to amphibians (9 anurans). Plerocercoid larvae were located in different organs of the hosts, such as subcutaneous tissue, coelomic cavity, peritoneum, and musculature. The importance of amphibians and reptiles in the transmission of the disease to humans in South America is discussed. Relevant issues to be studied in the near future are the taxonomic characterization of Spirometra in the region and the biological risk of reptile meat for aboriginal and other rural communities.

  15. Phage-host interactions in Streptococcus thermophilus: Genome analysis of phages isolated in Uruguay and ectopic spacer acquisition in CRISPR array

    PubMed Central

    Achigar, Rodrigo; Magadán, Alfonso H.; Tremblay, Denise M.; Julia Pianzzola, María; Moineau, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Three cos-type virulent Streptococcus thermophilus phages were isolated from failed mozzarella production in Uruguay. Genome analyses showed that these phages are similar to those isolated elsewhere around the world. The CRISPR1 and CRISPR3 arrays of the three S. thermophilus host strains from Uruguay were also characterized and similarities were noted with previously described model strains SMQ-301, LMD-9 and DGCC7710. Spontaneous bacteriophage-insensitive S. thermophilus mutants (BIMs) were obtained after challenging the phage-sensitive wild-type strain Uy02 with the phage 128 and their CRISPR content was analyzed. Analysis of 23 BIMs indicated that all of them had acquired at least one new spacer in their CRISPR1 array. While 14 BIMs had acquired spacer at the 5′-end of the array, 9 other BIMs acquired a spacer within the array. Comparison of the leader sequence in strains Uy02 and DGCC7710 showed a nucleotide deletion at position -1 in Uy02, which may be responsible for the observed ectopic spacer acquisition. Analysis of the spacer sequences upstream the newly acquired ectopic spacer indicated presence of a conserved adenine residue at position -2. This study indicates that natural strains of S. thermophilus can also acquire spacers within a CRISPR array. PMID:28262818

  16. Hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction before and after implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free policy in Uruguay: experience through 2010

    PubMed Central

    Sebrié, Ernesto Marcelo; Sandoya, Edgardo; Bianco, Eduardo; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K Michael; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-01-01

    Background Comprehensive smoke-free laws have been followed by drops in hospitalisations for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), including in a study with 2 years follow-up for such a law in Uruguay. Methods Multiple linear and negative binomial regressions for AMI admissions (ICD-10 code 121) from 37 hospitals for 2 years before and 4 years after Uruguay implemented a 100% nationwide smoke-free law. Results Based on 11 135 cases, there was a significant drop of −30.9 AMI admissions/month (95% CI −49.8 to −11.8, p=0.002) following implementation of the smoke-free law. The effect of the law did not increase or decrease over time following implementation (p=0.234). This drop represented a 17% drop in AMI admissions following the law (IRR=0.829, 95% CI 0.743 to 0.925, p=0.001). Conclusions Adding two more years of follow-up data confirmed that Uruguay’s smoke-free law was followed by a substantial and sustained reduction in AMI hospitalisations. PMID:25324157

  17. Phage-host interactions in Streptococcus thermophilus: Genome analysis of phages isolated in Uruguay and ectopic spacer acquisition in CRISPR array.

    PubMed

    Achigar, Rodrigo; Magadán, Alfonso H; Tremblay, Denise M; Julia Pianzzola, María; Moineau, Sylvain

    2017-03-06

    Three cos-type virulent Streptococcus thermophilus phages were isolated from failed mozzarella production in Uruguay. Genome analyses showed that these phages are similar to those isolated elsewhere around the world. The CRISPR1 and CRISPR3 arrays of the three S. thermophilus host strains from Uruguay were also characterized and similarities were noted with previously described model strains SMQ-301, LMD-9 and DGCC7710. Spontaneous bacteriophage-insensitive S. thermophilus mutants (BIMs) were obtained after challenging the phage-sensitive wild-type strain Uy02 with the phage 128 and their CRISPR content was analyzed. Analysis of 23 BIMs indicated that all of them had acquired at least one new spacer in their CRISPR1 array. While 14 BIMs had acquired spacer at the 5'-end of the array, 9 other BIMs acquired a spacer within the array. Comparison of the leader sequence in strains Uy02 and DGCC7710 showed a nucleotide deletion at position -1 in Uy02, which may be responsible for the observed ectopic spacer acquisition. Analysis of the spacer sequences upstream the newly acquired ectopic spacer indicated presence of a conserved adenine residue at position -2. This study indicates that natural strains of S. thermophilus can also acquire spacers within a CRISPR array.

  18. Methane Emission and Milk Production of Dairy Cows Grazing Pastures Rich in Legumes or Rich in Grasses in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Dini, Yoana; Gere, José; Briano, Carolina; Manetti, Martin; Juliarena, Paula; Picasso, Valentin; Gratton, Roberto; Astigarraga, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary GHGs emissions are relevant in evaluating environmental impact of farming systems. Methane (CH4) produced by enteric fermentation accounts for half of all anthropogenic emissions of GHGs in Uruguay, where ruminant production is based on year round grazing of forages. Here we compared milk production and CH4 emissions by dairy cows grazing two contrasting mixed pastures (rich in legumes or rich in grasses) using the SF6 tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-days periods. There were no differences in milk or CH4 production between the contrasting pastures, probably because of the high herbage allowance that enabled selective grazing by cows. Abstract Understanding the impact of changing pasture composition on reducing emissions of GHGs in dairy grazing systems is an important issue to mitigate climate change. The aim of this study was to estimate daily CH4 emissions of dairy cows grazing two mixed pastures with contrasting composition of grasses and legumes: L pasture with 60% legumes on Dry Matter (DM) basis and G pasture with 75% grasses on DM basis. Milk production and CH4 emissions were compared over two periods of two weeks during spring using eight lactating Holstein cows in a 2 × 2 Latin square design. Herbage organic matter intake (HOMI) was estimated by chromic oxide dilution and herbage organic matter digestibility (OMD) was estimated by faecal index. Methane emission was estimated by using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-day periods. OMD (0.71) and HOMI (15.7 kg OM) were not affected by pasture composition. Milk production (20.3 kg/d), milk fat yield (742 g/d) and milk protein yield (667 g/d) were similar for both pastures. This may be explained by the high herbage allowance (30 kg DM above 5 cm/cow) which allowed the cows to graze selectively, in particular in grass sward. Similarly, methane emission expressed as absolute value (368 g/d or 516 L/d) or expressed as

  19. Complex Bedforms and Complex Water Masses: A Case Study from the Tertiary to Present-day, Pelotas Basin, Offshore Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, P.; Badalini, G.; Wrigley, S.; Walker, R.; Argent, J.; Hernandez-Molina, J.; de Santa Ana, H.; Soto, M.; Tomasini, J.

    2015-12-01

    Contour currents are commonly associated with bedform development on modern seabeds yet there is a general paucity of published examples from the ancient record. Recently acquired 3D seismic data, covering over 13000km2 of the Pelotas Basin, offshore Uruguay, provides a unique opportunity to study the architecture and development of a variety of bedform. The data shows that, throughout the Tertiary, contour currents were the dominant control on sedimentation along the Uruguayan margin. The first evidence of contour current activity is during the Early Tertiary in the form of a major regional unconformity that, even though it was fully subaqueous, does not show any major features associated with downslope sedimentation. In the mid-slope region, the unconformity coincides with an extensive (1500km2) intra-slope scour-field orientated parallel to the slope. Individual scours are up to 40m deep, 500m wide and 3km long. Coeval with these scours are a group of coalesced basin floor scours, which run parallel to the base of slope and extend over 400km2. Individual scours exhibit an asymmetric shape - similar to giant flute marks - that are up to 150m deep, 20km wide and extend for at least 40km along slope. The development of these scoured areas shows clear evidence of two major north-flowing water masses. Directly above this regional unconformity are a series of ribbon-like bedforms that developed oblique to the slope. Individual bedforms are up to 40km in length with wavelengths of 5km and heights up to 100m. These bedforms are overlain by a set of barchan-like dunes, up to 30km in length with wavelengths of 10km. Individual dunes are in the order of 100m thick and stack to form an overall package up to 500m thick. These features show a clear change from erosion/bypass to deposition/reworking that is linked to a decrease in ocean current velocity and/ or sediment supply. The features observed suggest a complex oceanic regime was present throughout the Tertiary that

  20. Zinc in plasma and breast milk in adolescents and adults in pregnancy and pospartum: a cohort study in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Severi, Cecilia; Hambidge, Michael; Krebs, Nancy; Alonso, Rafael; Atalah, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la edad como factor de riego para el déficit nutricional de zinc en el embarazo y en el posparto y la correlación entre la concentración de zinc plasmático y de la leche materna. Diseño: Estudio de cohorte de 151 embarazadas adolescentes y 161 adultas con < 14 semanas de gestación al primer control prenatal, seleccionadas en 16 centros públicos de salud de primer nivel de atención de Uruguay. Se obtuvieron datos socio demográficos y se determinó zinc plasmático al primer control prenatal y 4 meses posparto (± 1 mes). En el último control se midió también la concentración de zinc en la leche materna. Resultados: La media de concentración de zinc plasmático a las 14 semanas de gestación fue 84.4 ± 3.6 ug. /dl sin diferencias significativas con las adultas (85.2 ± 13.6 ug/dl). La prevalencia de hipozincemia fue relativamente baja, sin diferencias entre los grupos (14.6% en adolescentes y 12.3% en adultas). La concentración de zinc en la leche materna fue similar en adolescentes y adultas (1.2 CI 1.1-1.4 mg. /L en el grupo total). No se encontró correlación entre el nivel plasmático de zinc materno y la concentración en la leche en adultas y una débil correlación en el grupo de adolescentes (-0.27, P <0.05). Conclusión: La prevalencia de hipozincemia en el embarazo es relativamente baja y similar entre adultas y adolescentes. No se observó relación entre la edad materna y los niveles plasmáticos de zinc post parto en la madre ni en la leche materna. La concentración de zinc plasmático materno no se correlacionó con el zinc en la leche materna.

  1. Epigenetic formation of amethyst-bearing geodes from Los Catalanes gemological district, Artigas, Uruguay, southern Paraná Magmatic Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, L. C.; Hartmann, L. A.; Vasconcellos, M. A. Z.; Medeiros, J. T. N.; Theye, T.

    2009-07-01

    Giant geodes (up to 4 m long) in the massive central portions of altered basalt lavas from the Paraná Magmatic Province, southern Brazil and Uruguay, form a world-class source of amethyst and agate. Although the origin of the cavities has been ascribed to degassing of the lava at > 1150 °C, field evidence is conclusive that the giant amethyst-agate-filled geodes were formed by hydrothermal processes at low temperatures. We propose an epigenetic and hydrothermal model for the origin of giant geodes. This model includes hydrothermal brecciation during an early brittle stage and the late formation of the cavities (geodes). In the brittle stage an overpressured aqueous fluid affected the basalt in a P, T field delimited by temperatures between 100 and 150 °C and vapor pressures between 1.2 and 5.5 bar. The fluids were capable of lifting the roof and fracturing the host rock along new subhorizontal and subvertical fractures and breccias in the massive lava. The formation of these structures occurred at shallow depths, unit-by-unit. To open the cavities, dissolution of the now altered basalt to clay minerals is necessary. The process is closely linked to the highest alteration grade of mineralized lavas in Los Catalanes gemological district. Dissolution processes are observed in micrometer-scale in the studied basalts. The primary mineralogy, consisting of labradorite (± andesine) +augite + pigeonite + mesostasis (K-rich), was altered during the interaction of large volumes of hot aqueous fluid with the rock. The alteration of pigeonite and its replacement by smectite is observed around the cavities, followed by the precipitation of amorphous silica and microcrystalline quartz in clay-rich sites. Associated zeolites (heulandite + clinoptilolite) fill the newly formed cavities in progressive stages of hydrothermal alteration. Our data indicate that the temperatures were less than 200 °C and probably less than 150 °C; cavity formation occurred after alteration of the

  2. An optimized clarithromycin-free 14-day triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication achieves high cure rates in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Dacoll, Cristina; Sánchez-Delgado, Jordi; Balter, Henia; Pazos, Ximena; Di Pace, María; Sandoya, Gabriela; Cohen, Henry; Calvet, Xavier

    Strong acid inhibition increases cure rates with triple therapy and 14-day are more effective than 7-day treatments. The combination of amoxicillin plus metronidazole at full doses has been shown to overcome metronidazole resistance and to achieve good eradication rates even in patients harboring resistant strains. No previous studies have been reported in Latin-America with this optimized triple-therapy scheme. The aim of the present study was to assess the eradication rate and tolerance of a new first-line treatment regimen associating strong acid inhibition, amoxicillin and metronidazole. Patients from the Clínica de Gastroenterología of the Hospital de Clínicas (Montevideo, Uruguay) were included. Hp status was mainly assessed by at least one of the following: histologyor urea breath test (UBT). A 14-day treatment was prescribed comprising esomeprazole 40mg twice a day plus amoxicillin 1g and metronidazole 500mg, both three times a day. H. pylori cure was assessed by UBT. Forty-one patients were enrolled. Mean age was 53.3±13 years and 17.1% of patients were male. Main indications for treatment were: functional dyspepsia (27.5%), gastritis (45%), gastric or duodenal erosions (20%), gastric ulcer (5%) and intestinal metaplasia (2.5%). H. pylori eradication was achieved in 33 of the 37 patients who returned for follow-up. Eradication rates were 80.5% (95% CI: 68.4-92.6) by intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis and 89.2% (95% CI; 79.2-99.2) per protocol (PP). No major side effects were reported; 26 patients (65.8%) complained of mild side effects (nausea, diarrhea and headache). Cure rates of this triple therapy including esomeprazole, amoxicillin and metronidazole were 81% per ITT and the treatment was well tolerated. These optimal results with a simple clarithromycin-free triple therapy are better than described for standard triple therapy but there is still room for improvement to reach the desired target of 90% per ITT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S

  3. Mesoproterozoic evolution of the Río de la Plata Craton in Uruguay: at the heart of Rodinia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaucher, Claudio; Frei, Robert; Chemale, Farid; Frei, Dirk; Bossi, Jorge; Martínez, Gabriela; Chiglino, Leticia; Cernuschi, Federico

    2011-04-01

    Mesoproterozoic volcanosedimentary units and tectonic events occurring in the Río de la Plata Craton (RPC) are reviewed. A belt consisting of volcanosedimentary successions exhibiting greenschist-facies metamorphism is exposed in the eastern RPC (Nico Pérez Terrane) in Uruguay. The Parque UTE Group consists of basic volcanics and gabbros at the base (1,492 ± 4 Ma, U-Pb on zircon), carbonates in its middle part and interbedded carbonates, shales and acid volcanics (1,429 ± 21 Ma, U-Pb on zircon) at the top. The Mina Verdún Group is made up of rhyolites and acid pyroclastics at its base and top, and Conophyton-bearing limestones and massive dolostones in the middle. A U-Pb LA-ICP MS zircon age of 1,433 ± 6 Ma is reported here for lapilli-tuffs at the base of the Mina Verdún Group (Cerro de las Víboras Formation). This age shows that the Mina Verdún Group immediately postdates the Parque UTE Group, a fact supported by carbon isotope chemostratigraphy. Both units were deformed and metamorphosed between 1.25 and 1.20 Ga, as shown by K-Ar and Ar-Ar ages. This tectonic event affected most of the RPC and led to the accretion of the Nico Pérez Terrane to the remainder of the RPC along the Sarandí del Yí megashear. We report a U-Pb LA-ICP MS zircon age (upper intercept) of 3,096 ± 45 Ma for metatonalites of the La China Complex (Nico Pérez Terrane), which yield a lower intercept age of 1,252 Ma. A proto-Andean, Mesoproterozoic belt is envisaged to account for abundant Mesoproterozoic detrital zircon ages occurring in Ediacaran sandstones of the RPC. If the RPC is fringed at both sides by Mesoproterozoic, Grenville-aged belts it is likely that it occupied a rather central position in Rodinia. A possible location between Laurentia and the Kalahari Craton, and to the south of Amazonia, is suggested.

  4. Molecular study of Porcine Circovirus type 2 in wild boars and domestic pigs in Uruguay from 2010 to 2014: Predominance of recombinant circulating strains.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Natalia; Porley, Dario; Mirazo, Santiago; Castro, Gustavo; Cabrera, Karina; Lozano, Alejandra; Arbiza, Juan

    2017-09-27

    Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a worldwide distributed pathogen and one of the most economically relevant swine infections. Four genotypes have been recognized and it is well known that PCV2a, PCV2b and PCV2d have a global distribution. However, the information about recombinant strains circulation and their influence in driving PCV2 evolution is a poorly studied area. In Uruguay, PCV2 associated symptoms began to be frequently observed in pigs from different farms since 2010. The main purpose of this study was to thoroughly investigate the molecular epidemiology of PCV2 in nationwide swine herds and free-living wild boars during the period 2010-2014, providing an extensive viral sequence dataset. Surprisingly, the findings revealed a predominance of recombinant strains circulation, evidencing for the first time in the field that PCV2 recombination can lead to the emergence of strains able to compete and potentially displace parental ones. In addition, the circulation of the genotypes PCV2d (29%), PCV2b (10.5%) and PCV2a (7.9%) were also observed. Since 2013, a high circulation of PCV2d was identified in the country and probably reflected the recent global scenario of the emergence of this genotype. In addition, fluctuations in the frequency of PCV2 infection in the period evaluated may suggest a limitation of biosecurity strategies implemented in Uruguay for the disease control, including the instability of vaccination practices. On the other hand, the sustained PCV2 infection observed in wild boar population and the similarity among circulating viral strains from these animals and domestic pigs, suggested that wild animals could serve as permanent reservoir of the disease. Altogether, this work put forward that many factors play a role in PCV2 heterogeneity including rapid viral spread and evolution, recombination, wide movement within national boundaries and multiples introduction events resulting of international trade. Continuous monitoring of viral

  5. Mosquito-Producing Containers, Spatial Distribution, and Relationship between Aedes aegypti Population Indices on the Southern Boundary of its Distribution in South America (Salto, Uruguay)

    PubMed Central

    Basso, César; Caffera, Ruben M.; García da Rosa, Elsa; Lairihoy, Rosario; González, Cristina; Norbis, Walter; Roche, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted in the city of Salto, Uruguay, to identify mosquito-producing containers, the spatial distribution of mosquitoes and the relationship between the different population indices of Aedes aegypti. On each of 312 premises visited, water-filled containers and immature Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were identified. The containers were counted and classified into six categories. Pupae per person and Stegomyia indices were calculated. Pupae per person were represented spatially. The number of each type of container and number of mosquitoes in each were analyzed and compared, and their spatial distribution was analyzed. No significant differences in the number of the different types of containers with mosquitoes or in the number of mosquitoes in each were found. The distribution of the containers with mosquito was random and the distribution of mosquitoes by type of container was aggregated or highly aggregated. PMID:23128295

  6. The genesis of the amethyst geodes at Artigas (Uruguay) and the paleohydrology of the Guaraní aquifer: structural, geochemical, oxygen, carbon, strontium isotope and fluid inclusion study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morteani, Giulio; Kostitsyn, Y.; Preinfalk, C.; Gilg, H. A.

    2010-06-01

    The amethyst-bearing geodes found in the flood basalts of the Arapey formation at Artigas (Uruguay) were formed as protogeodes by bubbles of CO2-rich basalt-derived fluids. The formation of the celadonite rim and the lining of the geodes by agate followed by quartz and amethyst were driven by the artesian water of the Guaraní aquifer percolating the basalts from below. The temperature of the amethyst formation is estimated from fluid inclusion data to be between 50° and 120°C. Oxygen stable isotope data suggest a crystallization temperature of calcite of about only 24°C. The actual wellhead temperature of the water produced from the Guaraní aquifer in the study area is around 29°C.

  7. Stable isotope and mineralogical investigation of the genesis of amethyst geodes in the Los Catalanes gemological district, Uruguay, southernmost Paraná volcanic province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Lauren C.; Hartmann, Leo A.; Ronchi, Luiz H.; Berner, Zsolt; Theye, Thomas; Massonne, Hans J.

    2011-03-01

    Stable isotopes (C, O, S) and mineralogical studies of the world-class amethyst-geode deposits of the Los Catalanes gemological district, Uruguay, constrain processes operative during mineral deposition. The mineralized basaltic andesites from the Cretaceous Paraná volcanic province are intensely altered to zeolites (clinoptilolite) and clay minerals. Variations in the δ18O values of silica minerals in geodes (chalcedony, quartz, and amethyst) are much larger and the values generally somewhat lower (21.2-31.5‰) in the Uruguayan deposits than in the Ametista do Sul area of southern Brazil. The range of δ34S values (-15.0 to -0.3‰) of altered basaltic rocks requires (in addition to sulfur of magmatic origin) the involvement of 34S-depleted sedimentary sulfur from bacterial sulfate reduction. The results delimit the mineralizing processes to a post-eruption environment characterized by low temperature and strong interaction of the lava flows with meteoric water.

  8. Arroyo del Vizcaíno, Uruguay: a fossil-rich 30-ka-old megafaunal locality with cut-marked bones

    PubMed Central

    Fariña, Richard A.; Tambusso, P. Sebastián; Varela, Luciano; Czerwonogora, Ada; Di Giacomo, Mariana; Musso, Marcos; Bracco, Roberto; Gascue, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Human–megafauna interaction in the Americas has great scientific and ethical interest because of its implications on Pleistocene extinction. The Arroyo del Vizcaíno site near Sauce, Uruguay has already yielded over 1000 bones belonging to at least 27 individuals, mostly of the giant sloth Lestodon. The assemblage shows some taphonomic features suggestive of human presence, such as a mortality profile dominated by prime adults and little evidence of major fluvial transport. In addition, several bones present deep, asymmetrical, microstriated, sharp and shouldered marks similar to those produced by human stone tools. A few possible lithic elements have also been collected, one of which has the shape of a scraper and micropolish consistent with usage on dry hide. However, the radiocarbon age of the site is unexpectedly old (between 27 and 30 thousand years ago), and thus may be important for understanding the timing of the peopling of America. PMID:24258717

  9. Mosquito-producing containers, spatial distribution, and relationship between Aedes aegypti population indices on the southern boundary of its distribution in South America (Salto, Uruguay).

    PubMed

    Basso, César; Caffera, Ruben M; García da Rosa, Elsa; Lairihoy, Rosario; González, Cristina; Norbis, Walter; Roche, Ingrid

    2012-12-01

    A study was conducted in the city of Salto, Uruguay, to identify mosquito-producing containers, the spatial distribution of mosquitoes and the relationship between the different population indices of Aedes aegypti. On each of 312 premises visited, water-filled containers and immature Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were identified. The containers were counted and classified into six categories. Pupae per person and Stegomyia indices were calculated. Pupae per person were represented spatially. The number of each type of container and number of mosquitoes in each were analyzed and compared, and their spatial distribution was analyzed. No significant differences in the number of the different types of containers with mosquitoes or in the number of mosquitoes in each were found. The distribution of the containers with mosquito was random and the distribution of mosquitoes by type of container was aggregated or highly aggregated.

  10. Chemical stratigraphy of the Paraná basalt succession in western Uruguay: further evidence for the diachronous nature of the Paraná magma types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, S. P.; Peate, D. W.; Hawkesworth, C. J.; Mantovani, M. S. M.

    1999-11-01

    An important issue in the study of continental flood basalt provinces concerns whether chemically defined magma types have chronological significance. Relevant to this debate, we present important findings based on new major and trace element geochemical data on lavas from three drill holes in western Uruguay which intersect up to 718 m of the Paraná basalt succession. The lava pile here consists of Paranapanema lavas overlain by widespread Gramado lavas and one rare Esmeralda lava. The occurrence of Paranapanema lavas beneath Gramado lavas is the reverse of the magma type stratigraphy of the Paraná flood basalt pile further north in Brazil. This provides evidence, independent of isotopic dating, that in the Paraná, magma types are not chronostratigraphic. The simultaneous eruption of different magma types suggests that the spatial and temporal distribution of magma types reflects the sub-crustal distribution of distinct source regions inferred to lie within the lithospheric mantle.

  11. Arroyo del Vizcaíno, Uruguay: a fossil-rich 30-ka-old megafaunal locality with cut-marked bones.

    PubMed

    Fariña, Richard A; Tambusso, P Sebastián; Varela, Luciano; Czerwonogora, Ada; Di Giacomo, Mariana; Musso, Marcos; Bracco, Roberto; Gascue, Andrés

    2014-01-07

    Human-megafauna interaction in the Americas has great scientific and ethical interest because of its implications on Pleistocene extinction. The Arroyo del Vizcaíno site near Sauce, Uruguay has already yielded over 1000 bones belonging to at least 27 individuals, mostly of the giant sloth Lestodon. The assemblage shows some taphonomic features suggestive of human presence, such as a mortality profile dominated by prime adults and little evidence of major fluvial transport. In addition, several bones present deep, asymmetrical, microstriated, sharp and shouldered marks similar to those produced by human stone tools. A few possible lithic elements have also been collected, one of which has the shape of a scraper and micropolish consistent with usage on dry hide. However, the radiocarbon age of the site is unexpectedly old (between 27 and 30 thousand years ago), and thus may be important for understanding the timing of the peopling of America.

  12. [Demand and costs of medical care according to age and sex among the insured members of the Medical Association Assistance Center of Uruguay].

    PubMed

    Meerhoff, R; Rígoli, F

    1992-04-01

    This study analyzes the demand and use of medical services in terms of age and sex for outpatient care and hospitalization provided to the 272,000 members of the Medical Association Assistance Center in Uruguay, a prepaid nonprofit insurance plan. Individual records were organized into annual usage by five-year age groups and reveal that use of services--consultations, drugs, and hospitalization--increases exponentially after the age of 50. Women utilize from 15% to 41% more services than men. The cost of services shows the same trend. For those over 84 years of age, this cost is US$598 per year, with an average institutional cost of US$166. The study also quantifies differences in risk by age and sex and draws conclusions regarding price and admission policies for new members of collective medical care institutions, which in July 1990 covered 51% of the Uruguayan population.

  13. Detection of Common, Emerging and Uncommon VP4, and VP7 Human Group A Rotavirus Genotypes from Urban Sewage Samples in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Tort, Luis Fernando Lopez; Victoria, Matías; Lizasoain, Andrés; García, Mariana; Berois, Mabel; Cristina, Juan; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Gómez, Mariela Martínez; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira; Colina, Rodney

    2015-12-01

    Environmental approach has proven to be a useful tool for epidemiological studies demonstrating through environmental studies the diversity of viruses circulating in a given population. The aim of this study was to perform a phylogenetic characterization of the group A rotavirus (RVA) glycoprotein (G)- and protease-sensitive (P)-genotypes obtained from sewage samples (n = 116) collected in six cities of Uruguay during March 2011 to April 2013. A worldwide standardized semi-nested multiplex RT-PCR (SNM RT-PCR) protocol directed against VP4 and VP7 genes were conducted for RVA detection and consensual DNA fragments were submitted to nucleotide sequencing. P and/or G genotype was successfully determined by phylogenetic analysis in 61% (n = 37) of the positive samples obtained by SNM RT-PCR (n = 61). The RVA genotypes were as follow: G1 (n = 2), G2 (n = 14), G3 (n = 5), G12 (n = 2), P[4] (n = 4), P[8] (n = 16), and P[3] (n = 2). Interestingly, through phylogenetic analysis, emerging, and uncommon human genotypes could be detected. Results obtained from the comparison of RVA genotypes detected in the current study and Uruguayan RVA strains previously described for contemporary clinical pediatric cases showed that monitoring sewage may be a good screening option for a rapid and economical overview of the circulating genotypes in the surrounding human population and a useful approximation to study RVA epidemiology in a future vaccine monitoring program. The present study represents the first report in Uruguay that describes the phylogenetic diversity of RVA from urban sewage samples.

  14. Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines on the Incidence of Pneumonia in Hospitalized Children after Five Years of Its Introduction in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Hortal, María; Estevan, Miguel; Meny, Miguel; Iraola, Inés; Laurani, Hilda

    2014-01-01

    Background Data on the burden of pneumococcal disease and the most frequent serotypes demonstrated that invasive disease and pneumonia were important manifestations affecting children under 5 years of age. Therefore, pneumococcal diseases prevention became a public health priority. Uruguay was the first Latin American country to incorporate PCV7 into its National Immunization Program. The aim of this study is to compare the incidence rates for hospitalized pneumonia in children from the pre PCV introduction period and the following five years of PCVs application in Uruguay. Methods and Findings Population-based surveillance of pneumonia hospitalization rates, in children, less than 14 years of age, had been performed prior pneumococcal vaccination, and continued following PCV7 introduction and PCV13 replacement, using the same methodology. Hospitalized children with pneumonia were enrolled from January 1, 2009 through December 31st, 2012. The study was carried out in an area with a population of 238,002 inhabitants of whom 18, 055 were under five years of age. Patients with acute lower respiratory infections for whom a chest radiograph was performed on admission were eligible. Digitalized radiographs were interpreted by a reference radiologist, using WHO criteria. Pneumonia was confirmed in 2,697 patients, 1,267 with consolidated and 1,430 with non consolidated pneumonia of which incidence decrease, between 2009 and 2012, was 27.3% and 46.4% respectively. 2001–2004 and 2009–2012 comparison showed a significant difference of 20.4% for consolidated pneumonia hospitalizations. A significant incidence decline was recorded among children 6 to 35 months of age. Conclusions An overall significant reduction in pneumonia hospitalizations was observed following the introduction of PCV7 and furthermore following the change to PCV13. PMID:24905093

  15. Molecular epidemiology of group A rotavirus among children admitted to hospital in Salto, Uruguay, 2011-2012: first detection of the emerging genotype G12.

    PubMed

    Tort, Luis Fernando López; Victoria, Matías; Lizasoain A, Andrés; Castells, Matías; Maya, Leticia; Gómez, Mariela Martínez; Arreseigor, Edit; López, Patricia; Cristina, Juan; Leite, Jose Paulo Gagliardi; Colina, Rodney

    2015-05-01

    Group A rotavirus (RVA) is the most important etiologic agent of infant acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide. Detection and molecular characterization of RVA in Salto department, Northwestern region of Uruguay, was conducted on 175 clinical samples, being 153 stool and 22 vomit samples, collected from hospitalized children with AGE, between 0-15 years old, from two hospitals of Salto city during 2011 and 2012. RVA was detected and genotyped by seminested multiplex RT-PCR in order to determine G- and P-genotypes. Positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were carried out in order to determine lineages and sub-lineages. RVA were detected in 64 (37%) of the samples and the G and P genotypes observed were: 6% G1P[8], 23% G2P[4]/G2P[X]/GXP[4], 23% G3P[8]/G3P[X], 14% G12P[8]/G12P[X], 16% GXP[8], 1,5% G12P[9], 3% G2P[4]/[8], and 16% non-typeable. VP7 and VP4 genotypes related to DS-1 like gene constellation were prevalent during 2011 and those VP7 and VP4 genotypes related to Wa-like constellation were prevalent during 2012 (mainly represented by G3P[8]). Interestingly, RVA was detected in vomit samples in a high prevalence (41%). RVA was observed mainly in the age group between 1 and 5 years old (75% of the cases), and seasonality with a high detection rate in winter season was observed for the two consecutive years of surveillance. To our knowledge, this study represents the first detection and molecular characterization of RVA in Salto department, Northwestern region of Uruguay; and the first identification of the emerging genotype G12 in the country.

  16. Impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on the incidence of pneumonia in hospitalized children after five years of its introduction in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Hortal, María; Estevan, Miguel; Meny, Miguel; Iraola, Inés; Laurani, Hilda

    2014-01-01

    Data on the burden of pneumococcal disease and the most frequent serotypes demonstrated that invasive disease and pneumonia were important manifestations affecting children under 5 years of age. Therefore, pneumococcal diseases prevention became a public health priority. Uruguay was the first Latin American country to incorporate PCV7 into its National Immunization Program. The aim of this study is to compare the incidence rates for hospitalized pneumonia in children from the pre PCV introduction period and the following five years of PCVs application in Uruguay. Population-based surveillance of pneumonia hospitalization rates, in children, less than 14 years of age, had been performed prior pneumococcal vaccination, and continued following PCV7 introduction and PCV13 replacement, using the same methodology. Hospitalized children with pneumonia were enrolled from January 1, 2009 through December 31st, 2012. The study was carried out in an area with a population of 238,002 inhabitants of whom 18, 055 were under five years of age. Patients with acute lower respiratory infections for whom a chest radiograph was performed on admission were eligible. Digitalized radiographs were interpreted by a reference radiologist, using WHO criteria. Pneumonia was confirmed in 2,697 patients, 1,267 with consolidated and 1,430 with non consolidated pneumonia of which incidence decrease, between 2009 and 2012, was 27.3% and 46.4% respectively. 2001-2004 and 2009-2012 comparison showed a significant difference of 20.4% for consolidated pneumonia hospitalizations. A significant incidence decline was recorded among children 6 to 35 months of age. An overall significant reduction in pneumonia hospitalizations was observed following the introduction of PCV7 and furthermore following the change to PCV13.

  17. Smoke-free policies and the social acceptability of smoking in Uruguay and Mexico: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project

    PubMed Central

    Boado, Marcelo; Sebrié, Ernesto M.; Bianco, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Little research has been conducted to determine the psychosocial and behavioral impacts of smoke-free policies in middle-income countries. Methods Cross-sectional data were analyzed from the 2006 waves of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation. Survey comparing adult smokers in Mexico (n = 1,080), where smoke-free legislation at that time was weak, and Uruguay (n = 1,002), where comprehensive smoke-free legislation was implemented. Analyses aimed to determine whether exposure to smoke-free policies and perceived antismoking social norms were associated with smokers’ receiving cues about the bothersome nature of secondhand smoke (SHS), with smokers’ reactance against such cues, and with smokers’ level of support for smoke-free policies in different venues. Results In bivariate analyses, Uruguayan smokers were more likely than Mexican smokers to experience verbal anti-SHS cues, lower reactance against anti-SHS cues, stronger antismoking societal norms, and stronger support for 100% smoke-free policies in enclosed workplaces, restaurants, and bars. In multivariate models for both countries, the strength of voluntary smoke-free policies at home was independently associated with support for smoke-free policies across all venues queried, except for in bars among Uruguayans. Perceived strength of familial antismoking norms was consistently associated with all indicators of the social acceptability of smoking in Uruguay but only with the frequency of receiving anti-SHS verbal cues in Mexico. Discussion These results are generally consistent with previous research indicating that comprehensive smoke-free policies are likely to increase the social unacceptability of smoking and that resistance against such policies is likely to diminish once such policies are in place. PMID:19380383

  18. Area Handbook for Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Thomas E.; And Others

    This volume is one of 62 in a series of handbooks designed to be useful to military and other personnel who need a convenient compilation of basic facts about the social, economic, political, and military institutions and practices of various countries. The emphasis is on objective description of the nation's present society and the kinds of…

  19. Sediment Dynamics and Geohazards offshore Uruguay and Northern Argentina: First Results from the multi-disciplinary Meteor-Cruise M78-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krastel, Sebastian; Freudenthal, Tim; Hanebuth, Till; Preu, Benedict; Schwenck, Tilmann; Strasser, Michael; Violante, Roberto; Wefer, Gerold; Winkelmann, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    About 90% of the sediments generated by weathering and erosion on land get finally deposited at the ocean margins. The sediment distribution processes and landscape evolution on land are relatively well understood, but comparably little is known about the role and relative importance of marine sediment dynamics in controlling the architectural evolution of ocean margins. Important players include hemi-pelagic settling, down-slope and current-controlled along-slope sediment transport, depositional and post-depositional sedimentary processes (e.g. consolidation and diagenesis), as well as the destabilization of sediment bodies and their erosion. Submarine landslides in this context thus may represent an important sediment transport process, but also a major geo-hazard due to the increasing number of offshore constructions as well as their potential to instantaneously displace large water masses triggering waves in densely populated coastal areas. Here we present first results from a seagoing expedition that aimed at investigating the interaction processes of sediment redistribution, partitioning, deposition and diagenesis from the coast to the deep-sea along the western South-Atlantic passive continental margin. During RV Meteor Cruise M78/3 in May-July 2009 the shelf, slope and rise offshore Argentina and Uruguay have been investigated by means of hydroacoustic and seismic mapping as well as geological sampling with conventional coring tools as well as the new MARUM seafloor drill rig (MeBo) that revealed recovery of geological strata sampled from up to 50m below seafloor. The working area is characterized by a high amount of fluvial input by the Rio de la Plata river. The continental slope is relatively wide and shows average slope gradients between 1 and 2.5 but locally higher slope gradients may occur (>5). The transition for the continental rise with low slope gradients is found in ~ 3000m water depth. The working area is located in a highly dynamic

  20. Post-collisional, Late Neoproterozoic, high-Ba-Sr granitic magmatism from the Dom Feliciano Belt and its cratonic foreland, Uruguay: Petrography, geochemistry, geochronology, and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, Pablo; Oyhantçabal, Pedro; Dadd, Kelsie

    2017-04-01

    Post-collisional, granitic magmatism with high-barium-strontium (HiBaSr) content and shoshonitic affinity has been recently recognized both in the southern section of the Dom Feliciano Belt of Uruguay and its cratonic foreland. This group of granitic rocks has a distinctive age, mineralogy, chemistry and field characteristics. New zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS data for three of the plutons confirm their Late Neoproterozoic age; 634 ± 7.3 (Sierra de los Caracoles), 604 ± 3.0 Ma (Cortez Blanco) and 597 ± 3.6 Ma (Guayabo). Similar ages were published previously for the Solis de Mataojo Granitic Complex (584 ± 13 Ma) as well as Las Flores (586 ± 2.7 Ma) and Sobresaliente plutons (585 ± 2.5 Ma). Mineral assemblages of the studied quartz-monzonites, granodiorites and monzogranites comprise quartz, orthoclase and microcline, plagioclase (Ab10-30), hornblende, green biotite, apatite, titanite and allanite. They plot predominantly in the high-K calc-alkaline field with the exception of a few that plot in the shoshonitic field; characteristically they are relatively high in Na2O (normally > 4.5%) in acid varieties (SiO2 > 65%) decreasing to between 3 and 4% for more basic types; K2O normally exceeds 3.5% but can be as low as < 2% in the basic varieties. The Uruguayan HiBaSr granitoids show high abundances of Ba (> 700 ppm), Sr (> 500 ppm) and light REEs alongside low Nb, Ta and heavy REEs. The Eu anomalies are negligible to slightly positive. Intermediate initial 87Sr/86Sr values (0.7077 to 0.7090) and very low initial epsilon Nd values (- 15.8 to - 19.3) at 600 Ma with high Nd TDM (2.2-2.8 Ga) suggest a recycling of ancient Paleoproterozoic to Late Archaean sources. Late Neoproterozoic granitoids of Uruguay have been emplaced within a post-collisional tectonic setting controlled by major shear zones and strike-slip fault zones. Current field and analytical data suggest that these granitoids could have been mostly generated through the partial melting of an intermediate to

  1. Zircon and titanite U Pb SHRIMP geochronology of Neoproterozoic felsic magmatism on the eastern border of the Rio de la Plata Craton, Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Léo A.; Santos, João Orestes S.; Bossi, Jorge; Campal, Néstor; Schipilov, Alejandro; McNaughton, Neal J.

    2002-06-01

    The Neoproterozoic reactivation of the eastern border of the Rio de la Plata Craton in Uruguay has major significance in the Precambrian geology of South America because it occurred on the southernmost extension of the 4000 km long Brasiliano cycle belt. The reactivated belt is known to be mostly Neoproterozoic in age, but three major geological events are dated for the first time in this investigation by the sensitive, high-mass resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP II). The syntectonic Rocha syenogranite intruded the Cuchilla Dionisio Terrane at 762±8 Ma, within the time span of the São Gabriel orogeny of the Brasiliano cycle. The Puntas del Santa Lucı´a monzogranite intruded the Nico Pérez Terrane at 633±8 Ma, during the Dom Feliciano orogeny, which is the main thermal peak of the Brasiliano cycle in South America. This monzogranite was metamorphosed at 607±7 Ma. The Cerro Aguirre dacite, a volcanic rock from the Piriápolis foreland basin, crystallized at 571±8 Ma during one of the latest events of the Brasiliano cycle. Inherited zircon cores from the Rocha syenogranite yielded ages near 2.0 Ga, a possible indication of Paleoproterozoic basement in the terrane.

  2. Magnetic studies and U Pb geochronology of the Uruguayan dyke swarm, Rio de la Plata craton, Uruguay: paleomagnetic and economic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halls, Henry C.; Campal, Nestor; Davis, Don W.; Bossi, Jorge

    2001-09-01

    A U-Pb age on baddeleyite of 1790±5 Ma has been obtained from a single dyke of the Uruguayan tholeiitic dyke swarm from the Rio de la Plata craton. Palaeomagnetic results from this and 10 other dykes yield two components, one (A) has the following paleomagnetic parameters: declination=12°, inclination=-16°, α95=7°, latitude of paleopole=61°, longitude=-31°, dp=4°, dm=7°, paleolatitude=-8°, whereas another (B), about 20° steeper, has a direction closer to the present Earth's field direction in Uruguay. Neither magnetisation is considered primary, although the A component may represent a composite between B and a primary component. A field test for the primary nature of the remanences was inconclusive, and no primary pole positions of similar age from other South American cratons are available for comparison. The magnetic results demonstrate that darker-coloured andesite dykes that are sought for facing and monument stone (as 'black granite') can be easily differentiated from more andesi-basaltic, lighter coloured, less valuable dykes of the same swarm, using aeromagnetic data. The results suggest that a high resolution airborne magnetic survey could constitute an important exploration tool for the Uruguayan 'black granite' industry.

  3. Quality of the blood pressure phenotype in the GEnotipo, Fenotipo y Ambiente de la hipertensión arterial en UruguaY (GEFA-HT-UY) study.

    PubMed

    Luzardo, Leonella; Sottolano, Mariana; Lujambio, Inés; Robaina, Sebastián; Thijs, Lutgarde; da Rosa, Alicia; Krul, Nadia; Carusso, Florencia; Ríos, Ana C; Olascoaga, Alicia; Noboa, Oscar; Staessen, Jan A; Boggia, José

    2014-12-01

    In the ongoing GEnotipo, Fenotipo y Ambiente de la HiperTensión Arterial en UruguaY (GEFA-HT-UY) study, we applied standardized epidemiological methods to determine complex phenotypes including blood pressure (BP). In this report, we present the quality control of the conventionally measured BP. Three trained observers measured BP five times consecutively in the seated position at each of two home visits and one clinic visit according to the guidelines of the European Society of Hypertension. On 1 December 2013, 4379 single BP readings in 170 participants were available for analysis. Fewer BP readings than the five planned per contact occurred only at one home visit. Among observers, the frequency of identical consecutive readings for systolic or diastolic BP varied from 0 to 4.2%. The occurrence of odd readings ranged from 0.1 to 0.6%. Only 21.6% of the systolic and diastolic BP readings ended on zero (expected 20%). At home visits, there was a progressive decline in BP from the first to the fifth reading. The average of the five BP readings also decreased from the first to the second home visit (-5.63/-2.34 mmHg). Our study highlighted the necessity to implement a stringent quality control of the conventionally measured BP. The procedures set up in the GEFA-HT-UY study are resulting in a well-defined BP phenotype, which is consistent with that in other population studies.

  4. The basement of the Punta del Este Terrane (Uruguay): an African Mesoproterozoic fragment at the eastern border of the South American Río de La Plata craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basei, Miguel A. S.; Peel, Elena; Sánchez Bettucci, Leda; Preciozzi, Fernando; Nutman, Allen P.

    2011-04-01

    The Punta del Este Terrane (eastern Uruguay) lies in a complex Neoproterozoic (Brasiliano/Pan-African) orogenic zone considered to contain a suture between South American terranes to the west of Major Gercino-Sierra Ballena Suture Zone and eastern African affinities terranes. Zircon cores from Punta del Este Terrane basement orthogneisses have U-Pb ages of ca. 1,000 Ma, which indicate an lineage with the Namaqua Belt in Southwestern Africa. U-Pb zircon ages also provide the following information on the Punta del Este terrane: the orthogneisses containing the ca. 1,000 Ma inheritance formed at ca. 750 Ma; in contrast to the related terranes now in Africa, reworking of the Punta del Este Terrane during Brasiliano/Pan-African orogenesis was very intense, reaching granulite facies at ca. 640 Ma. The termination of the Brasiliano/Pan-African orogeny is marked by formation of acid volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks at ca. 570 Ma (Sierra de Aguirre Formation), formation of late sedimentary basins (San Carlos Formation) and then intrusion at ca. 535 Ma of post-tectonic granitoids (Santa Teresa and José Ignacio batholiths). The Punta del Este Terrane and unrelated western terranes represented by the Dom Feliciano Belt and the Río de La Plata Craton were in their present positions by ca. 535 Ma.

  5. Characteristics of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) Strains Isolated from Skin and Soft-Tissue Infections in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Lorena; Machado, Virginia; Mollerach, Marta; Mota, María Inés; Tuchscherr, Lorena P. N.; Gadea, Pilar; Gardella, Noella; Sordelli, Daniel O.; Vola, Magdalena; Schelotto, Felipe; Varela, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed 90 nonduplicates community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) strains isolated from skin and soft-tissue infections. All strains were mecA positive. Twenty-four of the 90 strains showed inducible macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance. All strains produced α-toxin; 96% and 100% of them displayed positive results for lukS-F and cna genes, respectively. Eigthy-five strains expressed capsular polysaccharide serotype 8. Six different pulsotypes were discriminated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and three predominant groups of CA-MRSA strains (1, 2, and 4) were identified, in agreement with phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. Strains of group 1 (pulsotype A, CP8+, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)+) were the most frequently recovered and exhibited a PFGE band pattern identical to other CA-MRSA strains previously isolated in Uruguay and Brazil. Three years after the first local CA-MRSA report, these strains are still producing skin and soft-tissue infections demonstrating the stability over time of this community-associated emerging pathogen. PMID:20016669

  6. On the mammals collected by Friedrich Sellow in Brazil and Uruguay (1814-1831), with special reference to the types and their provenance.

    PubMed

    Garbino, Guilherme S T; Nogueira, Marcelo R

    2017-01-17

    From 1814 to 1831, the Prussian naturalist Friedrich Sellow collected 263 mammals in Brazil and Uruguay. Upon receiving the specimens, the curator of the Berlin Zoological Museum, Martin Lichtenstein, removed the original labels and replaced with ones containing more generalized locations. As a consequence, several type specimens have now dubious type localities. We examined these types as well as geographically restricted mammals collected by Sellow. In some cases, there are inconsistencies between the specimen label and the collection catalog regarding the collecting locality. We conclude that the locality information on the lectotype of the tent-making bat Uroderma bilobatum is mistakenly identified, and therefore, we restrict it to "eastern Brazil". We designate a lectoype for Azara's agouti, Dasyprocta azarae, and restrict its type locality to the region travelled by Sellow in São Paulo. Although there are no recent records of the woolly giant rat, Kunsia tomentosus, from its type locality, the species may have been recently extirpated from the area. Two primate specimens supposedly collected by Sellow, a silvery marmoset, Mico argentatus, and a black tamarin, Saguinus niger, occur only in the Amazonia of northern Brazil, outside the route travelled by the naturalist, and are more likely to have been collected by Sieber. Our investigations stress the importance of collecting vouchers for verifying species occurrence records and establishing a solid taxonomy.

  7. Determinants and geographical variation in the distribution of depression in the Southern cone of Latin America: A population-based survey in four cities in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Daray, F M; Rubinstein, A L; Gutierrez, L; Lanas, F; Mores, N; Calandrelli, M; Poggio, R; Ponzo, J; Irazola, V E

    2017-10-01

    Depression is one of the major contributors to the global burden of diseases; however, population-based data in South America are limited. We conducted a population-based cross sectional study with 7524 participants, aged 35-74 years old, recruited between February 2010 and December 2011 from randomly selected samples in 4 cities (Bariloche and Marcos Paz, Argentina; Temuco, Chile; and Pando-Barros Blancos, Uruguay). Major Depressive Episode (MDE) was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) - 9. The overall prevalence of MDE was 14.6% (95% CI: 13.6, 15.6). However, there was a geographical variability of up to 3.7 folds between different cities being 5.6% (95% CI: 4.6, 6.7) in Marcos Paz, Argentina; 9.5% (95% CI: 8.2, 10.9) in Bariloche, Argentina; 18.1% (95% CI: 16.3, 20.0) in Temuco, Chile, and 18.2 (95% CI: 16.3, 20.2) in Pando-Barros Blancos, Uruguay. The multivariate model showed that, adjusted by location, being female, being between 35 and 44 years old, having experienced at least one stressful life event, currently smoking, and having a history of chronic medical diseases were independently associated with an increased risk of MDE, while having higher education and being married or living with a partner reduced the risk of MDE. These results are representative of the selected cities included in the study. As such extrapolation to the general populations of Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay should be done with caution CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a high prevalence and variability of MDE in the Southern Cone of Latin America. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiple cardiometabolic risk factors in the Southern Cone of Latin America: a population-based study in Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Adolfo L; Irazola, Vilma E; Calandrelli, Matias; Elorriaga, Natalia; Gutierrez, Laura; Lanas, Fernando; Manfredi, Jose A; Mores, Nora; Olivera, Hector; Poggio, Rosana; Ponzo, Jacqueline; Seron, Pamela; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Bazzano, Lydia A; He, Jiang

    2015-03-15

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death, and its mortality is increasing in Latin America. However, population-based data on cardiovascular disease risk factors are sparse in these countries. A total of 7524 men and women, aged 35 to 74 years old, were recruited between February 2010 and December 2011 from randomly selected samples in 4 cities (Bariloche and Marcos Paz, Argentina; Temuco, Chile; and Pando-Barros Blancos, Uruguay) in the Southern Cone of Latin America. Cardiovascular risk factors were measured using standard methods by trained and certified observers. Approximately 85.5% of adults ate less than five servings of fruit or vegetables per day, 35.2% engaged in low physical activity, and 29.7% currently smoked cigarettes. The prevalences of obesity, central obesity, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome were 35.7%, 52.9%, 40.8%, 2.0%, 58.4%, 12.4%, and 37.4%, respectively. The proportion of individuals with ≥3 cardiovascular risk factors, including low intake of fruit and vegetables, low physical activity, current cigarette smoking, obesity or central obesity, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, dyslipidemia, and diabetes, was 68.3%, and the proportion of individuals with ≥3 cardiometabolic risk factors, including obesity or central obesity, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, dyslipidemia, and diabetes, was 22.9%. Cardiovascular disease risk factors are highly prevalent in the general population in the Southern Cone of Latin America. These data suggest that national efforts on the prevention, treatment, and control of cardiovascular risk factors should be a public health priority in the Southern Cone of Latin America. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Multiple Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in the Southern Cone of Latin America: A Population-based Study in Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Adolfo L.; Irazola, Vilma E.; Calandrelli, Matias; Elorriaga, Natalia; Gutierrez, Laura; Lanas, Fernando; Manfredi, Jose A.; Mores, Nora; Olivera, Hector; Poggio, Rosana; Ponzo, Jacqueline; Seron, Pamela; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Bazzano, Lydia A.; He, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death, and its mortality is increasing in Latin America. However, population-based data on cardiovascular disease risk factors are sparse in these countries. Methods A total of 7,524 men and women, aged 35 to 74 years old, were recruited between February 2010 and December 2011 from randomly selected samples in 4 cities (Bariloche and Marcos Paz, Argentina; Temuco, Chile; and Pando-Barros Blancos, Uruguay) in the Southern Cone of Latin America. Cardiovascular risk factors were measured using standard methods by trained and certified observers. Results Approximately 85.5% of adults ate less than five servings of fruit or vegetables per day, 35.2% engaged in low physical activity, and 29.7% currently smoked cigarettes. The prevalences of obesity, central obesity, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome were 35.7%, 52.9%, 40.8%, 2.0%, 58.4%, 12.4%, and 37.4%, respectively. The proportion of individuals with ≥3 cardiovascular risk factors, including low intake of fruit and vegetables, low physical activity, current cigarette smoking, obesity or central obesity, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, dyslipidemia, and diabetes, was 68.3%, and the proportion of individual with ≥3 cardiometabolic risk factors, including obesity or central obesity, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, dyslipidemia, and diabetes, was 22.9%. Conclusions Cardiovascular disease risk factors are highly prevalent in the general population in the Southern Cone of Latin America. These data suggest that national efforts on the prevention, treatment, and control of cardiovascular risk factors should be a public health priority in the Southern Cone of Latin America. PMID:25662056

  10. The Use of Legal, Illegal, and Roll-you-own Cigarettes to Increasing Tobacco Excise Taxes and Comprehensive Tobacco Control Policies-Findings from the ITC Uruguay Survey

    PubMed Central

    Curti, Dardo; Shang, Ce; Ridgeway, William; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Background Little research has been done to examine whether smokers switch to illegal or roll-your-own (RYO) cigarettes in response to a change in their relative price. Objective This paper explores how relative prices between three cigarette forms (manufactured legal, manufactured illegal, and RYO cigarettes) are associated with the choice of one form over another after controlling for covariates, including sociodemographic characteristics, smokers’ exposure to anti-smoking messaging, health warning labels, and tobacco marketing. Methods Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were employed to analyse the association between the price ratio of two different cigarette forms and the usage of one form over the other. Findings A 10% increase in the relative price ratio of legal to RYO cigarettes is associated with 4.6% increase in the probability of consuming RYO over manufactured legal cigarettes (P≤0.05). In addition, more exposure to anti-smoking messaging is associated with lower odds of choosing RYO over manufactured legal cigarettes (P≤0.05). Non-significant associations exist between the manufactured illegal to legal cigarette price ratios and choosing manufactured illegal cigarettes, suggesting that smokers do not switch to manufactured illegal cigarettes as prices of legal ones increase. However, these non-significant findings may be due to lack of variation in the price ratio measures. In order to improve the effectiveness of increased taxes and prices in reducing smoking, policy makers need to narrow price variability in the tobacco market. Moreover, increasing anti-smoking messaging reduces tax avoidance in the form of switching to cheaper RYO cigarettes in Uruguay. PMID:25740084

  11. Adolescent injuries in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, and Uruguay: Results from the 2012-2013 Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS).

    PubMed

    Beck, Naja I; Arif, Issra; Paumier, Michelle F; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2016-12-01

    The goals of this study were to identify the proportion of early adolescents in southern South America who were injured in the past year, to identify risk behaviours and other exposures associated with injuries, and to evaluate the most common types and causes of injury in this population. We used complex samples analysis to examine cross-sectional data from more than 35,000 students from all four countries in South America that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) in 2012-2013. The proportion of students reporting at least one injury in the past year that required medical treatment or caused at least one full day of missed school or usual activities was 27.1% in Argentina, 29.5% in Uruguay, 30.9% in Chile, and 36.8% in Bolivia. Significantly more boys than girls reported injuries. Injured students were more likely than non-injured students to report anxiety-induced insomnia, being physically attacked, being in a physical fight, and being lonely in the past year, and they were also more likely to report being bullied, using tobacco, drinking alcohol, and missing school in the past month. For both boys and girls, the most common type of injury reported was a broken bone or dislocated joint and the most common injury cause was the student falling. However, most students were not able to provide a specific answer to either question. The GSHS has been conducted in 100 low- and middle-income countries and territories around the world, and new waves of data collection are currently being planned and implemented. The utility of the injury data from the GSHS would be improved if the injury type and cause response items were updated to better capture information about self-harm, sports injuries, and other statistics that will provide a stronger foundation for evidence-based injury prevention interventions in adolescent populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The use of legal, illegal and roll-your-own cigarettes to increasing tobacco excise taxes and comprehensive tobacco control policies: findings from the ITC Uruguay Survey.

    PubMed

    Curti, Dardo; Shang, Ce; Ridgeway, William; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-07-01

    Little research has been done to examine whether smokers switch to illegal or roll-your-own (RYO) cigarettes in response to a change in their relative price. This paper explores how relative prices between three cigarette forms (manufactured legal, manufactured illegal and RYO cigarettes) are associated with the choice of one form over another after controlling for covariates, including sociodemographic characteristics, smokers' exposure to antismoking messaging, health warning labels and tobacco marketing. Generalised estimating equations were employed to analyse the association between the price ratio of two different cigarette forms and the usage of one form over the other. A 10% increase in the relative price ratio of legal to RYO cigarettes is associated with a 4.6% increase in the probability of consuming RYO cigarettes over manufactured legal cigarettes (p≤0.05). In addition, more exposure to antismoking messaging is associated with a lower odds of choosing RYO cigarettes over manufactured legal cigarettes (p≤0.05). Non-significant associations exist between the manufactured illegal to legal cigarette price ratios and choosing manufactured illegal cigarettes, suggesting that smokers do not switch to manufactured illegal cigarettes as prices of legal ones increase. However, these non-significant findings may be due to lack of variation in the price ratio measures. To improve the effectiveness of increased taxes and prices in reducing smoking, policymakers need to narrow price variability in the tobacco market. Moreover, increasing antismoking messaging reduces tax avoidance in the form of switching to cheaper RYO cigarettes in Uruguay. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Timing of deformation in the Sarandí del Yí Shear Zone, Uruguay: Implications for the amalgamation of western Gondwana during the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano-Pan-African Orogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oriolo, Sebastián.; Oyhantçabal, Pedro; Wemmer, Klaus; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Benowitz, Jeffrey; Pfänder, Jörg; Hannich, Felix; Siegesmund, Siegfried

    2016-03-01

    U-Pb and Hf zircon (sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe -SHRIMP- and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry -LA-ICP-MS-), Ar/Ar hornblende and muscovite, and Rb-Sr whole rock-muscovite isochron data from the mylonites of the Sarandí del Yí Shear Zone, Uruguay, were obtained in order to assess the tectonothermal evolution of this crustal-scale structure. Integration of these results with available kinematic, structural, and microstructural data of the shear zone as well as with geochronological data from the adjacent blocks allowed to constrain the onset of deformation along the shear zone at 630-625 Ma during the collision of the Nico Pérez Terrane and the Río de la Plata Craton. The shear zone underwent dextral shearing up to 596 Ma under upper to middle amphibolite facies conditions, which was succeeded by sinistral shearing under lower amphibolite to upper greenschist facies conditions until at least 584 Ma. After emplacement of the Cerro Caperuza granite at 570 Ma, the shear zone underwent only cataclastic deformation between the late Ediacaran and the Cambrian. The Sarandí del Yí Shear Zone is thus related to the syncollisional to postcollisional evolution of the amalgamation of the Río de la Plata Craton and the Nico Pérez Terrane. Furthermore, the obtained data reveal that strain partitioning and localization with time, magmatism emplacement, and fluid circulation are key processes affecting the isotopic systems in mylonitic belts, revealing the complexity in assessing the age of deformation of long-lived shear zones.

  14. Review of species of the Astyanax bimaculatus "caudal peduncle spot"
    subgroup sensu Garutti & Langeani (Characiformes, Characidae) from the rio La Plata and rio São Francisco drainages and coastal systems of southern Brazil and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lucena, Carlos Alberto S De; Soares, Helena Gouvea

    2016-01-28

    The species of the Astyanax bimaculatus 'caudal peduncle spot' subgroup of the drainages of the rios La Plata and São Francisco, as well as southeastern coastal systems of Brazil and Uruguay, are revised. Two nominal species are considered valid and are redescribed: Astyanax lacustris and A. abramis. Astyanax jacuhiensis, A. asuncionensis and A. altiparanae are recognized as new junior synonyms of A. lacustris. Bertoniolus paraguayensisis recognized as a new junior synonym of A. abramis. The names Astyanax orbignyanus, A. vittatus, and A. borealis are considered species inquirendae. Notes on A. maculisquamis, included in the 'caudal peduncle spot' subgroup from rio Guaporé (rio Madeira drainage), and Astyanax bahiensis from Bahia, mistakenly considered of the same subgroup, are presented.

  15. A lost species or the loss of stripes? The case of Contomastix lizards from Cabo Polonio, Uruguay, with observations on C. lacertoides (Duméril & Bibron) and Cnemidophorus grandensis Cope (Squamata, Teiidae).

    PubMed

    Borteiro, Claudio; Kolenc, Francisco; Prigioni, Carlos; Lyra, Mariana L; Baldo, Diego

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this manuscript is the reevaluation of the taxonomic status of the teiid lizard Contomastix charrua, known only from Cabo Polonio, a small coastal rocky outcrop in southeastern Uruguay. This species was erected on the basis of the presence of a second pair of ceratobranchials and longer cornua in the hyoid bone, in addition to a reduced expression of the pattern of coloration as compared with C. lacertoides. Nevertheless, we found that both species have indistinguishable hyoid morphology, bearing C. lacertoides a noticeable second pair of ceratobranchials. Besides, we realized that the pattern of coloration in this species is more variable than previously considered. As a result of the present work, C. charrua is included in the synonymy of C. lacertoides. In addition, we provide some observations on the holotype of Cnemidophorus grandensis, a junior synonym of C. lacertoides.

  16. [The health system of Uruguay].

    PubMed

    Aran, Daniel; Laca, Hernán

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Uruguayan health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, the level and distribution of its health expenditure, the physical, material and human resources available, its stewardship functions, the institutions in charge of information and research, and the level and type of citizen's participation in the operation and evaluation of the system. The most recent policy innovations are also discussed, including the creation of the National Comprehensive Health System, the National Health Insurance, the National Health Fund and the Comprehensive Health Care Program. Finally, the impact of these innovations in health expenditure, fairness of health financing, coverage levels and main health indicators is analyzed.

  17. Deaf Community Mobilization in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    There are more than 50 million (or approximately 15%) persons with disabilities living in Latin America and the Caribbean: 80 percent live in impoverished conditions, lack employment, and encounter social exclusion. Deaf and hard of hearing persons are particularly impacted as they are frequently denied access to most sectors of society. This…

  18. Deaf Community Mobilization in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    There are more than 50 million (or approximately 15%) persons with disabilities living in Latin America and the Caribbean: 80 percent live in impoverished conditions, lack employment, and encounter social exclusion. Deaf and hard of hearing persons are particularly impacted as they are frequently denied access to most sectors of society. This…

  19. Chytridiomycosis in frogs from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Borteiro, Claudio; Cruz, Juan Carlos; Kolenc, Francisco; Aramburu, Andrea

    2009-04-06

    Amphibian chytridiomycosis caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is reported in Uruguayan native amphibians for the first time. Histological evidence of infection was observed in tadpoles of Hypsiboas pulchellus, Odontophrynus maisuma, Physalaemus henselii, and Scinax squalirostris. The effects of chytridiomycosis on these species are still unknown. However, the disease is of potential concern for the conservation of the apparently declining species P. henselii and also for O. maisuma, given its restricted distribution in habitats which are being increasingly disturbed.

  20. The Mitrione Kidnapping in Uruguay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the U.S. Department of State, and by The RAND Corporation using its own research funds. The RAND...RAND Note reports other outputs of sponsored research for general distribution. Publications of The RAND Corporation do not neces- sarily reflect the...opinions or policies of the sponsors of RAND research. Published by The RAND Corporation 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, C:A 90406

  1. Scaling Up of an Innovative Intervention to Reduce Risk of Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika Transmission in Uruguay in the Framework of an Intersectoral Approach with and without Community Participation.

    PubMed

    Basso, César; García da Rosa, Elsa; Lairihoy, Rosario; Caffera, Ruben M; Roche, Ingrid; González, Cristina; da Rosa, Ricardo; Gularte, Alexis; Alfonso-Sierra, Eduardo; Petzold, Max; Kroeger, Axel; Sommerfeld, Johannes

    2017-08-07

    To contribute to the prevention of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika, a process of scaling up an innovative intervention to reduce Aedes aegypti habitats, was carried out in the city of Salto (Uruguay) based on a transdisciplinary analysis of the eco-bio-social determinants. The intervention in one-third of the city included the distributions of plastic bags for all households to collect all discarded water containers that were recollected by the Ministry of Health and the Municipality vector control services. The results were evaluated in 20 randomly assigned clusters of 100 households each, in the intervention and control arm. The intervention resulted in a significantly larger decrease in the number of pupae per person index (as a proxy for adult vector abundance) than the corresponding decrease in the control areas (both areas decreased by winter effects). The reduction of intervention costs ("incremental costs") in relation to routine vector control activities was 46%. Community participation increased the collaboration with the intervention program considerably (from 48% of bags handed back out of the total of bags delivered to 59% of bags handed back). Although the costs increased by 26% compared with intervention without community participation, the acceptability of actions by residents increased from 66% to 78%.

  2. Prevalence of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in children seeking dental care at the Schools of Dentistry of the University of Buenos Aires (Argentina) and University of la Republica (Uruguay).

    PubMed

    Biondi, Ana M; López Jordi, María del C; Cortese, Silvina G; Alvarez, Licet; Salveraglio, Inés; Ortolani, Andrea M

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to compare the prevalence of MIH in children seeking dental care spontaneously at the Department of Comprehensive Children's Dentistry of the University of Buenos Aires (UBA) and Department of Pediatric Dentistry of the University of La República (UdelaR) and to analyze the distribution according to year of birth, sex, age, number of affected teeth and maximum degree of severity in molars and incisors. During 2010, nine pediatric dentists from both schools (Kappa = 0.94) assessed all children born between 1993 and 2003 whose 4 first molars and 8 permanent incisors had erupted. Specially designed charts were used to record sex, year of birth, institution, presence of MIH, number of affected incisors and molars and maximum degree of severity for each tooth. Two groups were formed: UBA: A (n = 512) and UdelaR: B (n = 463). 975 children (11.6 +/- 2.67 years) were evaluated. The prevalence of MIH in the total sample was 6.56%, without significant differences between A and B (p = 0.76). There was no significant difference between groups regarding age (p = 0. 95) or sex (p = 0.30). A significant increase was found in both institutions according to year of birth during the study period. (A: p = 0.0017) B: p = 0. 0058). The results of this study show a similar prevalence of MIH among patients seeking dental care at the Schools of Dentistry of the University of Buenos Aires (Argentina) and University of la República (Uruguay). No significant difference was found comparing the distribution by sex, affected teeth or severity of each tooth. A highly significant positive correlation was found regarding the year of birth. The relevance of MIH as an emerging pathology requires studies on larger samples covering the entire countries.

  3. CTX-M-15 in combination with aac(6')-Ib-cr is the most prevalent mechanism of resistance both in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, including K. pneumoniae ST258, in an ICU in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Bado, Inés; Gutiérrez, Claudia; García-Fulgueiras, Virginia; Cordeiro, Nicolás F; Araújo Pirez, Lucía; Seija, Verónica; Bazet, Cristina; Rieppi, Gloria; Vignoli, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to determine the extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-EcKp) clones circulating in an intensive care unit (ICU) in Uruguay between August 2010 and July 2011, (ii) to characterise the ESBL and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes of the studied isolates and (iii) to determine the virulotype of the clinical isolates. Clinical and gut-colonising ESBL-EcKp from ICU patients were studied. Bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination were performed using a VITEK(®)2 system. Detection of ESBL, KPC and PMQR genes was performed by PCR and sequencing. Clonality was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). In total, 54 ESBL-EcKp isolates (40 K. pneumoniae and 14 E. coli), with or without PMQR genes, were recovered from 30 of 68 inpatients. Forty-seven isolates were CTX-M-15-producers (36 as a single ESBL and 11 together with CTX-M-14). In addition, four isolates produced CTX-M-14, two produced CTX-M-2 and one produced SHV-5. No carbapenemases were detected either in E. coli or K. pneumoniae isolates. Among the ESBL-producing isolates, 42 also harboured PMQR genes: 27 aac(6')-Ib-cr; 14 aac(6')-Ib-cr and qnrB; and a single isolate carrying only qnrB. K. pneumoniae ST258, ST48 and ST16 and E. coli ST10 and ST405 were detected in 46/54 isolates, including 9 clinical isolates. In conclusion, non-KPC-producing K. pneumoniae ST258 harbouring different ESBL and PMQR genes was the main clone disseminated in the ICU. Extensive surveillance measures must be implemented to prevent the emergence of acquired plasmid-encoded blaKPC by ST258 K. pneumoniae.

  4. Allodemic distribution of plasmids co-harbouring blaCTX-M-15/aac(6')-Ib-cr/qnrB in Klebsiella pneumoniae is the main source of extended-spectrum β-lactamases in Uruguay's paediatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Fulgueiras, V; Araujo, L; Bado, I; Cordeiro, N F; Mota, M I; Laguna, G; Algorta, G; Vignoli, R

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to describe the characteristics of clinical isolates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing enterobacteria (EPE) in Uruguay's paediatric hospital. ESBLs, qnr alleles and aac(6')-Ib-cr were sought and characterised in EPE isolated between March 2010 and March 2012. Transfer of resistance determinants was assessed by conjugation. Incompatibility (Inc) groups, plasmid toxin-antitoxin systems (TAS) and plasmid size were determined in transconjugants. Clonality was analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Multilocus sequence typing was done for ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. A total of 77 EPE isolates were characterised, comprising 43% K. pneumoniae, 19.5% Serratia marcescens, 19.5% Escherichia coli, 17% Enterobacter cloacae and 1% Klebsiella oxytoca. ESBLs belonged mainly to the blaCTX-M family (69.6%) [blaCTX-M-15 (45%) and blaCTX-M-2 (31%)]. The aac(6')-Ib-cr/qnrB duplex was the most frequently detected plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance mechanism; this association was detected in K. pneumoniae harbouring blaCTX-M-15. Transconjugants were obtained for 71% of the EPE. Amongst transconjugants, certain combinations were found between ESBLs and Inc group, e.g. IncA/C-blaCTX-M-2, IncHI1/HI2-blaCTX-M-9 and IncHI1/HI2-blaSHV-12. In addition, the combination ccdAB-blaCTX-M-15 was also found. K. pneumoniae isolates harbouring blaCTX-M-15/aac(6')-Ib-cr/qnrB showed allodemic behaviour, with a predominance of ST14, ST45 and ST48. In this study, epidemiological changes in ESBL distribution could be explained by the spread of K. pneumoniae harbouring blaCTX-M-15/aac(6')-Ib-cr/qnrB, encoded mainly on conjugative plasmids featuring ccdAB TAS. Since reports of TAS in K. pneumoniae plasmids are scarce, new strategies are needed to combat intrinsic selection pressure exerted by the association, in conjugative plasmids, of resistance mechanisms with TAS. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer

  5. Cultural Diversity Awareness Inventory = Inventario Sobre el Reconocimiento de Diversas Culturas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Gertrude B.

    This booklet features a checklist designed to help persons who are involved in providing direct services to culturally diverse, young special needs children to assess their attitudes, beliefs, and behavior toward these children. The booklet also contains suggestions and lists of print, film, and filmstrip resources for developing a school program…

  6. [Epidemics and medical conundrums: Uruguay, 1918-1919].

    PubMed

    Serrón, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to establish the type of connection that existed between the responses implemented by the Uruguayan state and dominant medical knowledge in the form of health policies during the influenza epidemic of 1918-1919. The problem can be split into two aspects: What were the most salient lines of medical thought on confronting the influenza epidemic of 1918-1919? And how was medical knowledge linked to the actions undertaken by the Uruguayan state? Answers will be sought through an indicial inquiry for two reasons. Firstly, the sources consulted present a very high degree of dispersion and heterogeneity and secondly, the writer is in an exploratory phase of the problem.

  7. Perceptions of abuse in nursing home care relationships in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Figueredo Borda, Natalie; Yarnoz, Adelaida Zabalegui

    2015-03-01

    To describe the care relationships between caregivers and elderly people in Uruguayan nursing homes. A qualitative study with an ethnographic approach conducted at nine nursing homes for elderly people located in four Uruguayan departments. Twenty-three purposively and theoretically selected participants were interviewed and observed between January 2011 and January 2012. Study of relationships among caregivers, managers, and residents revealed a number of issues: perception and experience of elder abuse, suffering when faced with death, and existential pain. A cultural context of discrimination against the elderly and other factors converge to perpetuate elder abuse and suffering in care homes: the lack of adequate regulations covering safety and quality of care, lack of a care model and regular inspections, absence of minimum training requirements for caregivers, and lack of support in situations that have psychic and spiritual repercussions. The inclusion of nurses could promote the development of educational interventions to modify abusive conduct. Nursing home managers need knowledge, skills, and communication strategies to identify and manage inappropriate behavior. An urgent review of nursing home regulations is required to protect elderly people's rights. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. 78 FR 68327 - Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... inspections of facilities, records, and operations. Chronic Wasting Disease One commenter objected to the lack of inspection for chronic wasting disease. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible... foot-and-mouth disease. DATES: Effective Date: November 29, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  9. A Formative Approach to National Assessments: The Case of Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravela, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a case of national achievement assessment at the primary level within a formative approach. Many countries experience an increasing obligation to attach high stakes to national assessments, which results in greater pressure on teachers and schools. The author's view is that this kind of approach is…

  10. Geomagnetically induced currents in Uruguay: Sensitivity to modelling parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caraballo, R.

    2016-11-01

    According to the traditional wisdom, geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) should occur rarely at mid-to-low latitudes, but in the last decades a growing number of reports have addressed their effects on high-voltage (HV) power grids at mid-to-low latitudes. The growing trend to interconnect national power grids to meet regional integration objectives, may lead to an increase in the size of the present energy transmission networks to form a sort of super-grid at continental scale. Such a broad and heterogeneous super-grid can be exposed to the effects of large GIC if appropriate mitigation actions are not taken into consideration. In the present study, we present GIC estimates for the Uruguayan HV power grid during severe magnetic storm conditions. The GIC intensities are strongly dependent on the rate of variation of the geomagnetic field, conductivity of the ground, power grid resistances and configuration. Calculated GIC are analysed as functions of these parameters. The results show a reasonable agreement with measured data in Brazil and Argentina, thus confirming the reliability of the model. The expansion of the grid leads to a strong increase in GIC intensities in almost all substations. The power grid response to changes in ground conductivity and resistances shows similar results in a minor extent. This leads us to consider GIC as a non-negligible phenomenon in South America. Consequently, GIC must be taken into account in mid-to-low latitude power grids as well.

  11. [Impact of tobacco control policy on teenager population in Uruguay].

    PubMed

    Abascal, Winston; Lorenzo, Ana

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the evolution of the prevalence of tobacco use, comparing data obtained from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in 2007 and 2014 editions. Data from the World Youth Tobacco Survey 2007 and 2014 were compared. Tobacco control measures implemented in the period under review were also analyzed. Data shows a decrease in 30-day cigarette consumption in population aged 13 to 15 years: from 20.2% in 2007 to 8.2% in 2014. No significant differences were found between the sexes. Susceptibility to become a smoker in the next year decreased from 25.8% in 2007 to 16.6% in 2014. The implementation, almost simultaneously, of measures included in WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, is an effective strategy to achieve the objectives of reducing the prevalence of tobacco use.

  12. Measuring ICTs Adoption in Health Care Facilities in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Muxí, Cecilia; Gil, Juan; Martínez, Elisa; Arispe, Betania; Occhiuzzi, Rossana; Lozano, Juan; Forcella, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) has gained an important role to enhance healthcare systems by increasing access to services, and improving the quality and equity of care. In order to evaluate the stage of ICTs adoption in the Uruguayan healthcare system, the Governmental Salud.uy Program carried out a national survey to establish the baseline for ICTs adoption, as well as define a set of indicators so as to evaluate the progress on this topic. Data was recorded following the OECD methodology.

  13. 76 FR 10266 - Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ...-and-mouth disease. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before April 25, 2011... introduction into the United States of various animal diseases, including rinderpest and foot-and-mouth disease... on the feet and in the mouth, particular attention must be paid to the head and feet during these...

  14. Reconnaissance evaluation of Honduran geothermal sites. Una evaluacion por medio de reconocimiento de seis areas geotermicas en Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, D.; Fakundiny, R.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-12-01

    Six geothermal spring sites were selected on the basis of preliminary investigations conducted in Honduras over the last decade and were evaluated in terms of their development potential. Of the six, the Platanares and San Ignacio sites have high base temperatures and high surface fluid discharge rates and appear to have the best potential for further development as sources of electrical power. A third site, Azacualpa, has a high enough base temperature and discharge rate to be considered as a back-up, but the logistical problems involved in geophysical surveys make it less attractive than the two primary sites. Of the remaining three sites, Pavana may be a source of direct-use heat for local agricultural processing. Sambo Creek and El Olivar have either severe logistical problems that would impede further investigation and development or base temperatures and flow rates that are too low to warrant detailed investigation at this time.

  15. STABLE ISOTOPES IN ECOLOGICAL STUDIES: NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN MIXING MODELS (URUGUAY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable isotopes are increasingly being used as tracers in ecological studies. One application uses isotopic ratios to quantify the proportional contributions of multiple sources to a mixture. Examples include pollution sources for air or water bodies, food sources for animals, ...

  16. Plastic ingestion by a generalist seabird on the coast of Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Javier; Burgues, María Fernanda; Carrizo, Daniel; Machín, Emanuel; Teixeira-de Mello, Franco

    2016-06-15

    We analyzed plastic ingestion by Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus) from 806 pellets collected between 2011 and 2013. Employing a Raman spectroscopy, we characterized those polymers used to produce the plastics ingested. Debris was recorded in 143 pellets (%FO=17.7%, n=202, 92.58g). Plastic was found in 119 pellets (%FO=83%) and non-plastic occurred in 56 pellets (%FO=39%). The most important debris category was plastic film with 55.3% (n=79). Plastic bags were observed in 19 pellets (%FO=2.4%, weight=25.02g). Glass was the second most important component (%FO=18.9%) followed by plastic fragments (%FO=17.8%). Plastic debris represented the 65.3% of the debris fragments (n=132, weight=58.84g), and was composed by polyethylene (52%), polypropylene (26%), polyamide (12%), polystyrene (6%), polyvinyl chloride (2%), and polyethylene terephthalate (2%). How plastics were obtained by gulls and the effects on individuals are discussed, as well as environmental considerations about plastic pollution on coastal environments.

  17. Foraminiferal responses to polluted sediments in the Montevideo coastal zone, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Burone, Leticia; Venturini, Natalia; Sprechmann, Peter; Valente, Paulo; Muniz, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    A study of foraminiferal assemblages was carried out in 24 sediment samples collected from the Montevideo coastal zone (south-eastern coastal region of South America) to assess the response of the benthic foraminifera to the polluted sediments. The area is affected by different pollutants such as sewage, hydrocarbons and heavy metals derived from different sources. Biological data were analyzed with multivariate techniques of cluster analysis and a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed for abiotic factors. The results allowed the recognition of different species assemblages corresponding to different sub-environments, which reflected the prevalent ecological conditions. The Montevideo Bay, particularly, its inner part showed an extremely poor foraminiferal fauna-including a totally azoic station-and high percentages of abnormal tests, when compared with the adjacent Punta Carretas and Punta Yeguas zones. Mean faunal density showed a strong relationship with organic matter, oxygen and heavy metal concentrations, as well as redox potential and pH values of each sub-environment. Although the adjacent zones presented a moderate pollution degree, it was noticed that a positive effect on the foraminiferal density specially on Ammonia tepida, caused by the sewage pipe located in Punta Carretas, a pure organic contamination. Differences among foraminiferal assemblages seemed to be related to the combined action of the several kinds of pollutants and the natural abiotic variables, like the rapid salinity changes that occurred in this area.

  18. Conserving the grassland Important Bird Areas (IBAs) of southern South America: Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Brazil

    Treesearch

    Adrian S. Di Giacomo; Santiago Krapovickas

    2005-01-01

    In the southern part of South America, knowledge about bird species distribution is still not used as a tool for land use planning and conservation priority-setting. BirdLife International’s Important Bird Areas (IBA) Program is an appropriate vehicle for analyzing existing information about birds, and to generate new data where necessary. IBA inventories...

  19. Hot infusions and risk of colorectal cancer in Uruguay: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ronco, A L; De Stefani, E; Lasalvia-Galante, E; Mendoza, B; Vazquez, A; Sanchez, G

    2017-08-23

    The evidence of possible roles for the most common hot infusions intake (tea and coffee) in the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) needs additional data. Regarding 'mate' intake (infusion of Ilex paraguariensis herb), a previous multi-site study reported lack of association for its highest intake on CRC risk. The present study was conducted to better understand the associations between the intake of this and other infusions and CRC risk. Patients (611 CRC incident cases and 2394 controls, all belonging to public hospitals) were interviewed through a questionnaire, including socio-demographic, reproductive and lifestyle variables, and a food-frequency questionnaire of 64 items, analyzing tea, 'mate' and coffee intake (consumer status, daily intake, age at start and at quit). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated through unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for relevant potential confounders. Tea and coffee intake displayed significant and inverse associations with CRC risk, mainly among men (OR=0.54, 95% CI 0.38-0.76 for tea and OR=0.59, 95% CI 0.41-0.85 for coffee). Mate intake showed a significant inverse association among women (OR=0.50, 95% CI 0.33-0.77), with a marginal heterogeneity between sexes (P=0.07). Concerning age strata, tea intake displayed inverse associations in all ages, whereas 'mate' and coffee intake showed stronger inverse associations for age ⩾70, suggesting a gradient along time. We found evidence of different significant inverse associations for tea, 'mate' and coffee intake and CRC risk. To our knowledge, this is the first epidemiologic study reporting inverse results on 'mate' intake and CRC, which are explained by a stronger association among women.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 23 August 2017; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2017.130.

  20. Sustainable Innovation Strategies in Education: OLPC Case Studies in Ethiopia and Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiatordi, Andrea; Pischetola, Magda

    In the Knowledge Society great importance is given to sharing knowledge and information. The ICTs not only provide a very efficient infrastructure for this task, they also have radically changed the way we interact and access information. This effect is even more consistent among the younger generations, who were born and raised in an era when network communications were already nearly as common as any other service. This also means they met another generation, the one of their parents and teachers who did not experience the same immersion in technology as they did. A sort of conflict arises from this encounter: children who have been exposed to such a wide range of possibilities are taught by adults who consolidated a method based on analogical instruments and who think using different patterns. It seems necessary, given this scenario, to spend a great deal of effort in integrating teachers' methodologies with ICTs in order to create a better environment for children's education. This paper reflects on two different experiences from One Laptop Per Child deployments. The project, which is the largest attempt in the world to promote one-to-one computing in primary schools, is particularly interesting for the role it is having in changing the student-teacher relationship. Giving a laptop to every child in a country does not seem to be enough to reform a school system: strong effort must be made to teach the teachers how to better use these new resources in order to improve the quality of their pupils' learning experience. This means that the whole process must be sustainable and participated. The two environments studied are Ethiopian primary school classes and Uruguayan schools for children with special needs: in both cases the role of technology is critical for sustainable innovation. In the first case, there is evidence that the teachers need to be taught how to use the ICTs to enhance the quality of their work, while in the second case they need to learn how to use assistive technology to make the classroom environment really inclusive. Both researches tend to highlight the important role of ICTs for social inclusion and suggest strategies to use one-to-one technologies for this purpose.

  1. Distance Education for Physicians: Adaptation of a Canadian Experience to Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llambi, Laura; Margolis, Alvaro; Toews, John; Dapueto, Juan; Esteves, Elba; Martinez, Elisa; Forster, Thais; Lopez, Antonio; Lockyer, Jocelyn

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The production of online high-quality continuing professional development is a complex process that demands familiarity with effective program and content design. Collaboration and sharing across nations would appear to be a reasonable way to improve quality, increase access, and reduce costs. Methods: In this case report, the…

  2. Aureobasidium pullulans as a biocontrol agent of postharvest pathogens of apples in Uruguay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The yeast, Aureobasidium pullulans, was the microorganism most frequently recovered from the surface of apple fruit (cv. Red Delicious) stored in commercial cold chambers for six months. In the present work, ten isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans were assayed to determine if they could control blu...

  3. Enteropathogens Associated with Acute Diarrhea in Children from Households with High Socioeconomic Level in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Batthyány, Lara; Bianco, María Noel; Pérez, Walter; Pardo, Lorena; Algorta, Gabriela; Robino, Luciana; Suárez, Ramón; Navarro, Armando; Pírez, María Catalina; Schelotto, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diarrhea, a common disease of children, deserves permanent monitoring in all social groups. To know the etiology and clinical manifestations of acute diarrhea in children up to 5 years of age from high socioeconomic level households, we conducted a descriptive, microbiological, and clinical study. Stools from 59 children with acute community-acquired diarrhea were examined, and their parents were interviewed concerning symptoms and signs. Rotavirus, adenovirus, and norovirus were detected by commercially available qualitative immunochromatographic lateral flow rapid tests. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, and Shigella were investigated by standard bacteriological methods and diarrheagenic E. coli by PCR assays. We identified a potential enteric pathogen in 30 children. The most frequent causes of diarrhea were enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), viruses, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Only 2 patients showed mixed infections. Our data suggest that children with viral or Campylobacter diarrhea were taken to the hospital earlier than those infected with EPEC. One child infected with STEC O26 developed “complete” HUS. The microbiological results highlight the importance of zoonotic bacteria such as atypical EPEC, Campylobacter, STEC, and Salmonella as pathogens associated with acute diarrhea in these children. The findings also reinforce our previous communications about the regional importance of non-O157 STEC strains in severe infant food-borne diseases. PMID:25861274

  4. Effects of Freshwater Discharge in Sandy Beach Populations: The Mole Crab Emerita brasiliensis in Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lercari, D.; Defeo, O.

    1999-10-01

    Sandy beaches are ecosystems which are heavily affected by human activities. An example of this is freshwater discharges, which are known to change salinity, temperature and nutrient regimes and degrade nearshore environments. However, the effects of this kind of disturbance on sandy beach fauna have been little studied. This paper reports the spatial effects of a man-made freshwater canal discharge on the population structure, abundance and reproductive characteristics of the sandy beach mole crab Emerita brasiliensis. Along the 22 km of sandy beach sampled, the mole crab showed a marked longshore variability in population structure and abundance. Abundance of different population components (juveniles, males, females and ovigerous females) significantly decreased towards the canal. Population structure by sex and size, individual weight, fecundity and female maturity patterns at size also displayed a non-linear response to the distance from the freshwater discharge. Only the size structure of males did not follow this pattern. For males, spatial heterogeneity enhanced the detection of density-dependence at less disturbed sites. The authors conclude that artificial freshwater discharges could significantly influence the distribution, abundance and life-history traits of the biota of sandy beaches, and that further study of these ecosystems should include human activities as important factors affecting spatial and temporal trends. The need to consider different spatial and temporal scales in order to detect the effect of anthropogenically-driven impacts in sandy beach populations is stressed.

  5. Diet patterns and risk of squamous cell oesophageal carcinoma: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    De Stefani, Eduardo; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Ronco, Alvaro L; Boffetta, Paolo; Correa, Pelayo; Mendilaharsu, Maria; Acosta, Gisele; Quarneti, Aldo; Silva, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Oesophageal cancer presents high incidence rates in the so-called Brazilian-Uruguayan belt. The present study included 1,170 participants (234 cases and 936 controls) which were analyzed by unconditional multiple logistic regression in order to examine risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OESCC) associated with several food groups. Boiled red meat (OR 2.59, 95%CI 1.69-3.97), lamb meat (OR 1.64, 95%CI 1.07-2.51), processed meat (OR 1.49, 95%CI 1.01-2.21), whole milk (OR 1.78, 1.19-1.68), fresh vegetables and fruits (OR 0.42, 95%CI 0.27-0.63), mate consumption (OR 2.04, 95%CI 1.32- 3.16), and black tea (OR 0.10, 95%CI 0.04-0.28) were significantly associated with risk of OESCC. Hot beverages (mate) and hot foods (boiled meat) appear to be important determinants in the risk of OESCC, allowing the penetration of carcinogens in tobacco and alcohol into the oesophageal mucosa.

  6. Pressure Politics and Free Trade: Influence of the Services Industry on the Uruguay Round

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-16

    markets Fmally Destler identifies an zmbahce of effort between companies ‘E E Schattschnelder, Pol~tm. Pressures and the Tanff (New York Prenuce-Hall...wrth expanding markets tend to concentrate on busmess and desire less government interference whereas embattled compames are more hkely to exert...and what It wants from us “’ Servrces industry arguments resonated wrth the executive branch for two reasons Fust, USTR, aware of Congressional

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-59 - Fresh citrus fruit from Uruguay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... at all times during the movement of the fruit to the United States and must be intact upon arrival of... if harvested green and if the phytosanitary certificate accompanying the lemons contains an additional declaration stating that the lemons were harvested green between May 15 and August 31. (ii) If...

  8. [Invasive Streptococcus pyogenes diseases 2005-2013: Pediatric Hospital Pereira Rossell Uruguay].

    PubMed

    Vomero, Alejandra; García, Gabriela; Pandolfo, Soledad; Zunino, Carlos; Ambrosoni, María; Algorta, Gabriela; Pírez, M Catalina

    2014-12-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes infection causes a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Invasive disease (ID) is defined by the isolation of the microorganism from sterile sites. To analyze the clinical, epidemiological and molecular characteristics of ID by S.pyogenes in children hospitalized at Pediatric Hospital Pereira Rossell, from January 2005 to January 2013. A descriptive retrospective study was done in cases with isolation of S.pyogenes from sterile sites. Epidemiological variables, disease characteristics, laboratory parameters, treatment regimen received, hospitalization days and clinical outcome were analyzed. The presence of 4 genes encoding for virulence factors and chromosome profile studied by pulsed-field electrophoresis were done in the isolated strains. A total of 42 cases (rate: 4.6 out of 10,000 admissions) were detected, from which 32 were analyzed. Average age was 44.7 months (14/32 < 2 years of age). In 5 cases, the portal of entry was identified. Clinical presentations were: osteoarticular infections (n = 15), shock (n = 6), skin and soft-tissue infections (n = 5), pneumonia (n = 3) and bacteremias (n = 3). Twenty cases required surgical procedures and 13 required intensive care admission. Average hospital stay was 17 days and one patient died. Molecular studies were performed in five strains; 4 different toxin profiles and pulsotypes were identified. The incidence of ID at our hospital is similar to other series in the region. A better knowledge of clinical presentation and its relation with molecular characteristics represents a challenge.

  9. Impact of universal varicella vaccination on 1-year-olds in Uruguay: 1997–2005

    PubMed Central

    Quian, J; Rüttimann, R; Romero, C; Dall’Orso, P; Cerisola, A; Breuer, T; Greenberg, M; Verstraeten, T

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Varicella vaccination was introduced at the end of 1999 into the Uruguayan immunisation schedule for children aged 12 months. Varilrix (Oka strain; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) has been the only vaccine used since then and coverage has been estimated to exceed 90% since the start of the universal varicella vaccination programme. We assessed the impact of the Uruguayan varicella vaccination programme during 2005, 6 years after its introduction. Methods: Information on hospitalisations was collected from the main paediatric referral hospital and information on medical consultations for varicella was collected from two private health insurance systems in Montevideo. The proportion of hospitalisations due to varicella and the proportion of ambulatory visits for varicella since the introduction of the vaccine were compared between 1999 and 2005 and 1997 and 1999 in the following age groups: <1 year, 1–4 years, 5–9 years and 10–14 years. Results: By 2005, the proportion of hospitalisations due to varicella among children, was reduced by 81% overall and by 63%, 94%, 73% and 62% in the <1, 1–4, 5–9 and 10–14 years age groups, respectively. The incidence of ambulatory visits for varicella among children was reduced by 87% overall and by 80%, 97%, 81% and 65% in the <1, 1–4, 5–9 and 10–14 years age groups, respectively. Conclusions: The burden of varicella has decreased substantially in Uruguayan children since the introduction of the varicella vaccination, including those groups outside the recommended vaccination age. It is expected to decrease further as more cohorts of children are vaccinated and herd immunity increases. PMID:18456699

  10. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Uruguay 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Paulo; Ávalos, Beatrice; Burn, Tracey; Morduchowicz, Alejandro; Radinger, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The effective use of school resources is a policy priority across OECD countries. The "OECD Reviews of School Resources" explore how resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. The series considers four types of resources: financial resources, such as…

  11. Emergence of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Uruguay: infection control and molecular characterization

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, C; Ingold, A; Echeverría, N; Acevedo, A; Vignoli, R; García-Fulgueiras, V; Viroga, J; Gonzalez, O; Odizzio, V; Etulain, K; Nuñez, E; Albornoz, H; Borthagaray, G; Galiana, A

    2014-01-01

    We describe the first outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-KP), the infection control measures adopted and the shift in resistance patterns of isolates during antibiotic treatment. The ST258 KPC-KP strain exhibited a multiresistant antibiotic phenotype including co-resistance to gentamycin, colistin and tigecycline intermediate susceptibility. Isolates before and after treatment had different behaviour concerning their antibiotic susceptibility and the population analysis profile study. A progressive increase in the aminoglycosides (acquiring amicacin resistance) and β-lactam MICs, and a decreased susceptibility to fosfomycin was observed throughout the administration of combined antimicrobial regimens including meropenem. A high meropenem resistance KPC-KP homogeneous population (MIC 256 Jg/mL), could arise from the meropenem heterogeneous low-level resistance KPC-KP population (MIC 8 Jg/mL), by the selective pressure of the prolonged meropenem therapy. The kpc gene was inserted in a Tn4401 isoform a, and no transconjugants were detected. The core measures adopted were successful to prevent evolution towards resistance dissemination. PMID:25356345

  12. Testing Multicultural Robustness of the Child Behavior Checklist in a National Epidemiological Sample in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viola, Laura; Garrido, Gabriela; Rescorla, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Comparisons of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores from 31 societies (Rescorla et al. "Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders" 15:13-142 2007) supported the instrument's multicultural robustness, but none of these societies was in South America. The present study tested the multicultural robustness of the 2001 CBCL using data…

  13. Case studies of tobacco dependence treatment in Brazil, England, India, South Africa and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Raw, Martin; McNeill, Ann; Murray, Rachael

    2010-10-01

    The aims of this study are to describe the tobacco dependence treatment systems in five countries at different stages of development of their systems, and from different income levels and regions of the world, and to draw some lessons from their experiences that might be useful to other countries. METHODS AND DATA SOURSES: Data were drawn from an earlier survey of treatment services led by M.R. and A.M., from Party reports to the Secretariat of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and from correspondents in the five countries. These data were entered onto a standard template by the authors, discussed with the correspondents to ensure they were accurate and to help us interpret them, and then the templates were used as a basis to write prose descriptions of the countries' treatment systems, with additional summary data presented in tables. Two of the middle-income countries have based their treatment on specialist support and both consequently have very low population coverage for treatment. Two countries have integrated broad-reach approaches, such as brief advice with intensive specialist support; these countries are focusing currently upon monitoring performance and guaranteeing quality. Cost is a significant barrier to improving treatment coverage and highlights the importance of using existing infrastucture as much as possible. Perhaps not surprisingly the greatest challenges appear to be faced by large, lower-income countries that have prioritized more intensive but low-reach approaches to treatment, rather than developing basic infrastructure, including brief advice in primary care and quitlines. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. A ten-year follow-up of human leptospirosis in Uruguay: an unresolved health problem.

    PubMed

    Schelotto, Felipe; Hernández, Elba; González, Sabina; Del Monte, Alicia; Ifran, Silvana; Flores, Karina; Pardo, Lorena; Parada, Daniel; Filippini, Mercedes; Balseiro, Victoria; Geymonat, Juan Pablo; Varela, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Leptospira spp. are delicate bacteria that cannot be studied by usual microbiological methods. They cause leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease transmitted to humans through infected urine of wild or domestic animals. We studied the incidence of this disease in the Uruguayan population, its epidemiologic and clinical features, and compared diagnostic techniques. After examining 6,778 suspect cases, we estimated that about 15 infections/100,000 inhabitants occurred yearly, affecting mainly young male rural workers. Awareness about leptospirosis has grown among health professionals, and its lethality has consequently decreased. Bovine infections were probably the principal source of human disease. Rainfall volumes and floods were major factors of varying incidence. Most patients had fever, asthenia, myalgias or cephalalgia, with at least one additional abnormal clinical feature. 30-40% of confirmed cases presented abdominal signs and symptoms, conjunctival suffusion and altered renal or urinary function. Jaundice was more frequent in patients aged > 40 years. Clinical infections followed an acute pattern and their usual outcome was complete recovery. Laboratory diagnosis was based on indirect micro-agglutination standard technique (MAT). Second serum samples were difficult to obtain, often impairing completion of diagnosis. Immunofluorescence was useful as a screening test and for early detection of probable infections.

  15. Black dimensional stones: Geology, technical properties and deposit characterization of the dolerites from Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Demarco, M.; Oyhantçabal, P.; Stein, K.-J.; Siegesmund, S.

    2012-04-01

    Dimensional stones with a black color occupy a prominent place on the international market. Uruguayan dolerite dikes of andesitic and andesitic-basaltic composition are mined for commercial blocks of black dimensional stones. A total of 16 dikes of both compositions were studied and samples collected for geochemical and petrographical analysis. Color measurements were performed on different black dimensional stones in order to compare them with the Uruguayan dolerites. Samples of the two commercial varieties (Absolute Black and Moderate Black) were obtained for petrophysical analysis (e.g. density, porosity, uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strength, etc.). Detailed structural analyses were performed in several quarries. Geochemistry and petrography determines the intensity of the black color. When compared with commercial samples from China, Brazil, India and South Africa, among others, the Uruguayan dolerite Absolute Black is the darkest black dimensional stone analyzed. In addition, the petrophysical properties of the Uruguayan dolerites make them one of the highest quality black dimensional stones. Structural analyses show that five joint sets have been recognized: two sub-vertical joints, one horizontal and two diagonal. These joint sets are one of the most important factors that control the deposits, since they control the block size distribution and the amount of waste material.

  16. 78 FR 8435 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus Hybrids and Fortunella

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ...-exclusionary packinghouse. The fruit would have to be safeguarded by an insect-proof mesh, screen, or plastic... cartons or containers, or covered with insect-proof screen or plastic tarpaulin. These safeguards would... demonstrated to be effective in reducing the numbers of X. citri subsp. citri cells or similar bacteria. In...

  17. Emergence of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Uruguay: infection control and molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Marquez, C; Ingold, A; Echeverría, N; Acevedo, A; Vignoli, R; García-Fulgueiras, V; Viroga, J; Gonzalez, O; Odizzio, V; Etulain, K; Nuñez, E; Albornoz, H; Borthagaray, G; Galiana, A

    2014-05-01

    We describe the first outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-KP), the infection control measures adopted and the shift in resistance patterns of isolates during antibiotic treatment. The ST258 KPC-KP strain exhibited a multiresistant antibiotic phenotype including co-resistance to gentamycin, colistin and tigecycline intermediate susceptibility. Isolates before and after treatment had different behaviour concerning their antibiotic susceptibility and the population analysis profile study. A progressive increase in the aminoglycosides (acquiring amicacin resistance) and β-lactam MICs, and a decreased susceptibility to fosfomycin was observed throughout the administration of combined antimicrobial regimens including meropenem. A high meropenem resistance KPC-KP homogeneous population (MIC 256 Jg/mL), could arise from the meropenem heterogeneous low-level resistance KPC-KP population (MIC 8 Jg/mL), by the selective pressure of the prolonged meropenem therapy. The kpc gene was inserted in a Tn4401 isoform a, and no transconjugants were detected. The core measures adopted were successful to prevent evolution towards resistance dissemination.

  18. Genetic diversity of wild germplasm of "yerba mate" (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Cascales, Jimena; Bracco, Mariana; Poggio, Lidia; Gottlieb, Alexandra Marina

    2014-12-01

    The "yerba mate" tree, Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil., is a crop native to subtropical South America, marketed for the elaboration of the highly popular "mate" beverage. The Uruguayan germplasm occupies the southernmost area of the species distribution range and carries adaptations to environments that considerably differ from the current production area. We characterized the genetic variability of the germplasm from this unexplored area by jointly analyzing individuals from the diversification center (ABP, Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay) with 19 nuclear and 11 plastidic microsatellite markers. For the Uruguayan germplasm, we registered 55 alleles (18 % private), and 80 genotypes (44 % exclusive), whereas 63 alleles (28.6 % private) and 81 genotypes (42 % exclusive) were recorded for individuals from ABP. Only two plastidic haplotypes were detected. Distance-based and multilocus genotype analyses showed that individuals from ABP intermingle and that the Uruguayan germplasm is differentiated in three gene-pools. Significant positive correlations between genetic and geographic distances were detected. Our results concur in that ABP individuals harbor greater genetic variation than those from the tail of the distribution, as to the number of alleles (1.15-fold), He (1.19-fold), Rs (1.39-fold), and the between-group genetic distances (1.16-fold). Also the shape of the genetic landscape interpolation analysis suggests that the genetic variation decays southward towards the Uruguayan territory. We showed that Uruguayan germplasm hosts a combination of nuclear alleles not present in the central region, constituting a valuable breeding resource. Future conservation efforts should concentrate in collecting numerous individuals of "yerba mate" per site to gather the existent variation.

  19. 78 FR 41259 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    .... The commenter added that this interval is inconsistent with other systems approach methodologies... of entry, the fruit will have to be produced in accordance with a systems approach that includes... quarantine concern and has been produced in accordance with the systems approach. These actions will allow...

  20. STABLE ISOTOPES IN ECOLOGICAL STUDIES: NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN MIXING MODELS (URUGUAY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable isotopes are increasingly being used as tracers in ecological studies. One application uses isotopic ratios to quantify the proportional contributions of multiple sources to a mixture. Examples include pollution sources for air or water bodies, food sources for animals, ...

  1. 77 FR 52683 - Implementation of Determinations Under Section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act: Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... Tires, and Sacks from the PRC. Given the number and complexity of the issues involved, the Department... respect to each of the issues addressed in WTO DS 379. Specifically, the Department issued the preliminary... 1930,'' upon a written request from the USTR, the Department shall issue a determination that...

  2. Population structure and admixture in Cerro Largo, Uruguay, based on blood markers and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Sans, Mónica; Merriwether, D Andrew; Hidalgo, Pedro C; Bentancor, Nilo; Weimer, Tania A; Franco, Maria Helena L P; Alvarez, Inés; Kemp, Brian M; Salzano, Francisco M

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies of the Uruguayan population revealed different amounts of Amerindian and African genetic contributions. Our previous analysis of Afro-Uruguayans from the capital city of the Department of Cerro Largo showed a high proportion of African genes, and the effects of directional mating involving Amerindian women. In this paper, we extended the analysis to a sample of more than 100 individuals representing a random sample of the population of the whole Department. Based on 18 autosomal markers and one X-linked marker, we estimated 82% European, 8% Amerindian, and 10% African contributions to their ancestry, while from seven mitochondrial DNA site-specific polymorphic markers and sequences of hypervariable segment I, we determined 49% European, 30% Amerindian, and 21% African maternal contributions. Directional matings between Amerindian women and European men were detected, but differences involving Africans were not significant. Data about the specific origins of maternal lineages were also provided, and placed in a historical context.

  3. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Uruguay 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Paulo; Ávalos, Beatrice; Burn, Tracey; Morduchowicz, Alejandro; Radinger, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The effective use of school resources is a policy priority across OECD countries. The "OECD Reviews of School Resources" explore how resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. The series considers four types of resources: financial resources, such as…

  4. [Health personnel: graduates from the medical school of the University of the Republic, Uruguay].

    PubMed

    Meerhoff, R

    1987-01-01

    The article summarizes the initial findings of a study of the medical labor market, done by the Uruguayan Planning Office and cofinanced by PAHO. The survey, starting in 1880 for graduates and in 1915 for students, brings out the exponential growth of their numbers, the growing participation of women--who are now a majority in the profession--and other indicators that affect health services. The conclusion is that there should be an explicit policy on the training of medical manpower.

  5. An objective determination of blue star groupings in the Andromeda galaxy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battinelli, P.; Efremov, Y.; Magnier, E. A.

    1996-10-01

    We have used an objective method, the Path Linkage Criterion (PLC), to identify large groupings of young stars in the Andromeda Galaxy. Previously, work has been done to objectively identify the structures which correspond in size to the OB associations observed in the Galaxy and Magellanic Clouds (Magnier et al. 1993). In this work, we attempt to identify structures which correspond to the 500 pc-sized complexes described by Efremov et al. (1987) and to test for a hierarchical arrangement of the observed structures. We find that complex-sized structures can naturally be identified using the PLC, and that there is indeed a hierarchical arrangement of the complexes and associations identified.

  6. The Nature of Recognition in TEFL Teachers' Lives (La naturaleza del reconocimiento en la vida de los maestros de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes Gillingsde González, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This article aims at sharing a vital issue that emerged from the findings of a qualitative research study into collective responses of teachers of English as a foreign language to an extended change process in their Mexican university context from 1989 to 2003. The data generation process employed was comprised of semi-structured interviews as…

  7. Seroincidence and Phylogeny of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections in a Cohort of Commercial Sex Workers in Montevideo, Uruguay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Laboratories of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Av. 8 de Octubre 2720 1er piso 11600, Montevideo, Uru- guay, Telephone: 598- 2 -487-2516, Fax: 598- 2 -480...other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). 2 Cross-sectional seroepidemiologic studies have consistently reported higher HIV prevalences among female...OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 2005 2 . REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SEROINCIDENCE AND PHYLOGENY OF HUMAN

  8. 37 CFR 201.33 - Procedures for filing Notices of Intent to Enforce a restored copyright under the Uruguay Round...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Lack of subject matter protection in the case of sound recordings fixed before February 15, 1972; or (C... legibly in dark, preferably black, ink, on 81/2 by 11 inch white paper of good quality, with at least a... actors, screenwriter, animator; for photographs or books: subject matter; for books: editor,...

  9. 77 FR 36257 - Notice of Implementation of Determination Under Section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ...). Solvay Solexis SpA (formerly Granular Granular Ausimont SpA) \\16\\. Polytetrafluoroe Polytetrafluoroethyl... Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin from Solvay Solexis S.p.A 79.45 79.45 Italy (2006/07). Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in...

  10. Progress of National Multi-tissue Bank in Uruguay in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Tissue Banking Programme.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Inés; Del Carmen Saldías, Ma; Wodowoz, Olga; Pérez Campos, Héctor; Machin, Daniel; Silva, Walter; Sueta, Patricia; Pérez, Natalia; Acosta Md, Ma del Carmen

    2003-01-01

    The transplant law of 1971 based on informed consent, allows people to register their willingness to be a donor upon death. Since 1978 the governmental Institution, the National Bank of Organs and Tissues (BNOT), have been regulated the organ and tissue donation. Important progress was implemented in the BNOT and specially in the National Multi-tissue Bank (NMTB). Since 2001 with the participation in the IAEA Tissue Banking Programme, Quality System Management has been implemented in the NMTB. New bio-production for radiosterilized tissues for the first time and improved procedures were carried out. As a result an increased production of high-quality tissues was obtained and distributed for clinical use.

  11. 37 CFR 201.33 - Procedures for filing Notices of Intent to Enforce a restored copyright under the Uruguay Round...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., music, motion picture, sound recording, book, etc.); (B) Name of author(s); (C) Source country; (D... (COHD) file through the Library of Congress electronic information system LC MARVEL through the Internet.... Alternative title(s) (if any): 4. Type of work: (e.g. painting, sculpture, music, motion picture,...

  12. 37 CFR 201.33 - Procedures for filing Notices of Intent to Enforce a restored copyright under the Uruguay Round...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., music, motion picture, sound recording, book, etc.); (B) Name of author(s); (C) Source country; (D... (COHD) file through the Library of Congress electronic information system LC MARVEL through the Internet.... Alternative title(s) (if any): 4. Type of work: (e.g. painting, sculpture, music, motion picture,...

  13. 37 CFR 201.33 - Procedures for filing Notices of Intent to Enforce a restored copyright under the Uruguay Round...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... information: (A) Type of work (painting, sculpture, music, motion picture, sound recording, book, etc.); (B... (COHD) file through the Library of Congress electronic information system LC MARVEL through the Internet.... Alternative title(s) (if any): 4. Type of work: (e.g. painting, sculpture, music, motion picture,...

  14. Talking about Teaching: A Study of the Professional Uses of Email by Secondary School Teachers in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunberg, Jorge; Armellini, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Teacher collegiality has been highlighted as a crucial factor in educational change and professional development. Secondary school teachers have been consistently found to feel isolated from their colleagues, with few opportunities and mechanisms for collegial support and exchange. Research suggests that computer-mediated communication, and…

  15. New constraints on oceanographic vs. seismic control on submarine landslide initiation: a geotechnical approach off Uruguay and northern Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Fei; Strasser, Michael; Preu, Benedict; Hanebuth, Till J. J.; Krastel, Sebastian; Kopf, Achim

    2014-10-01

    Submarine landslides are common along the Uruguayan and Argentinean continental margin, but size, type and frequency of events differ significantly between distinct settings. Previous studies have proposed sedimentary and oceanographic processes as factors controlling slope instability, but also episodic earthquakes have been postulated as possible triggers. However, quantitative geotechnical slope stability evaluations for this region and, for that matter, elsewhere in the South Atlantic realm are lacking. This study quantitatively assesses continental slope stability for various scenarios including overpressure and earthquake activity, based on sedimentological and geotechnical analyses on three up to 36 m long cores collected on the Uruguayan slope, characterized by muddy contourite deposits and a locus of landslides (up to 2 km3), and in a canyon-dominated area on the northern Argentinean slope characterized by sandy contourite deposits. The results of shear and consolidation tests reveal that these distinct lithologies govern different stability conditions and failure modes. The slope sectors are stable under present-day conditions (factor of safety >5), implying that additional triggers would be required to initiate failure. In the canyon area, current-induced oversteepening of weaker sandy contourite deposits would account for frequent, small-scale slope instabilities. By contrast, static vs. seismic slope stability calculations reveal that a peak ground acceleration of at least 2 m/s2 would be required to cause failure of mechanically stronger muddy contourite deposits. This implies that, also along the western South Atlantic passive margin, submarine landslides on open gentle slopes require episodic large earthquakes as ultimate trigger, as previously postulated for other, northern hemisphere passive margins.

  16. 76 FR 66892 - Notice of Implementation of Determination Under Section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Round Agreements Act and Revocation of the Antidumping Duty Order on Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof... regarding the investigation of diamond sawblades and parts thereof (``Diamond Sawblades'') from the Republic... Act: Antidumping Measures on Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof from the Republic of...

  17. Results of high-risk neutropenia therapy of hematology–oncology patients in a university hospital in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Boada Burutaran, Matilde; Guadagna, Regina; Grille, Sofia; Stevenazzi, Mariana; Guillermo, Cecilia; Diaz, Lilian

    2014-01-01

    Background Febrile neutropenia is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in hematology–oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy. The management of febrile neutropenia is typically algorithm-driven. The aim of this study was to assess the results of a standardized protocol for the treatment of febrile neutropenia. Methods A retrospective cohort study (2011–2012) was conducted of patients with high-risk neutropenia in a hematology–oncology service. Results Forty-four episodes of 17 patients with a median age of 48 years (range: 18–78 years) were included. The incidence of febrile neutropenia was 61.4%. The presence of febrile neutropenia was associated with both the duration and severity of neutropenia. Microbiological agents were isolated from different sources in 59.3% of the episodes with bacteremia isolated from blood being the most prevalent (81.3%). Multiple drug-resistant gram-negative bacilli were isolated in 62.5% of all microbiologically documented infections. Treatment of 63% of the episodes in which the initial treatment was piperacillin/tazobactam needed to be escalated to meropenem. The mortality rate due to febrile neutropenia episodes was 18.5%. Conclusion The high rate of gram-negative bacilli resistant to piperacillin/tazobactam (front-line antibiotics in our protocol) and the early need to escalate to carbapenems raises the question as to whether it is necessary to change the current protocol. PMID:25638764

  18. Measurement and interpretation of strain in the syntectonic Solı´s de Mataojo Granitic Complex, Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyhantçabal, Pedro; Heimann, Adriana; Miranda, Sara

    2001-05-01

    The Neoproterozoic Solı´s de Mataojo Granitic Complex is an intrusive body, elongate north-south, emplaced in the Sarandı´ del Yı´-Arroyo Solı´s Grande Shear Zone. In the present work, a quantification of the magmatic strain has been made by analysis of fabric, enclave geometry and minor structures. Structural evidence indicates that deformation began in the magmatic state and continued through the sub-solidus stage. The observed distribution of magmatic foliations and lineations, the fabric, the geometry of the enclaves and the late to post-magmatic structures, are related to a non-coaxial flattening regime that took place after the emplacement, and late in the magmatic history. These structures reveal that magmatic strain involved a shortening of the order of 80% with a simple shear component ( γ) between 3 and 4.5. The solid-state deformation records an additional mean γ of 2.7.

  19. [Feeding pattern of Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843) (Hemiptera, Triatominae) in peridomiciliary habitats, of a rural area of Uruguay].

    PubMed

    Salvatella, R; Calegari, L; Puime, A; Basmadjian, Y; Rosa, R; Guerrero, J; Martinez, M; Mendaro, G; Briano, D; Montero, C

    1994-01-01

    It has been studied the feeding patterns of Triatoma rubrovaria (wild triatominae bug, and intradomiciliary secondary vector of T. cruzi) in a rural area of "La Bolsa" (Department of Artigas). Agar double diffusion test were used for analyze the blood meal, from 120 insects, which were confronted to 13 antisera. It has 251 identify blood meals, and the most frequently was mammalian host (73%), but it has a variable source of feeding (mammals, birds, reptiles and cockroach), including humans rate 8% of the total. The identify of haemolimphe as feed, place this triatominae bug as an intermediary vector between predator and haematophagous. The most usual mammals are dasypodides and bovines. The frequence of human blood meal near the dwellings, shows its potentiality as vectors. Therefore, the peridomicile is an area of interaction between, domestic, wild and sinantropic host. The trypanosomic infection's rate at peridomiciles was lesser those at wild areas.

  20. Interactions between environmental factors can hide isolation by distance patterns: a case study of Ctenomys rionegrensis in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Kittlein, Marcelo J; Gaggiotti, Oscar E

    2008-01-01

    Identifying the factors responsible for the structuring of genetic diversity is of fundamental importance for biodiversity conservation. However, arriving at such understanding is difficult owing to the many factors involved and the potential interactions between them. Here, we present an example of how such interactions can preclude us from arriving at a complete characterization of the demographic history and genetic structure of a species. Ctenomys rionegrensis is a species with restricted dispersal abilities and, as such, should exhibit an isolation by distance (IBD) pattern, which previous studies were unable to uncover. It was therefore concluded that this species underwent a recent population expansion. Using a novel hierarchical Bayesian method, we show that the inability to detect the IBD pattern is due to the interaction between elevation and geographical distance. We posit that populations in low areas suffer periodic floods that may reduce local population sizes, increasing genetic drift, a process that masks the effect of distance on genetic differentiation. Our results do not refute the possibility that the populations of C. rionegrensis underwent a recent population expansion but they indicate that an alternative scenario described by a metapopulation model at or near migration-drift equilibrium cannot be excluded either. PMID:18682369

  1. 37 CFR 201.33 - Procedures for filing Notices of Intent to Enforce a restored copyright under the Uruguay Round...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., music, motion picture, sound recording, book, etc.); (B) Name of author(s); (C) Source country; (D.... Alternative title(s) (if any): 4. Type of work: (e.g. painting, sculpture, music, motion picture,...

  2. Association between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Health-Related Quality of Life among Patients at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Jonathan P. W.; Rienzi, Edgardo G.; Lavie, Carl J.; Blair, Steven N.; Pate, Russell R.

    2015-01-01

    To date, few studies have examined the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in populations at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Purpose To examine the association between objectively measured CRF and physical and mental components of HRQoL in a Uruguayan cohort at risk for developing CVD. Methods Patient data records from 2002–2012 at the Calidad de Vida Center were examined. To assess CRF, participants performed a submaximal exercise test. During the evaluation, participants also completed the SF-36, a HRQoL measure comprised of eight dimensions that are summarized by physical and mental component scores (PCS and MCS, respectively). ANCOVA was used to examine the relationship between HRQoL dimensions and CRF. Logistic regression was then used to compare the odds of having a HRQoL component score above the norm across CRF. All analyses were performed separately for males and females with additional stratified analyses across age and BMI conducted among significant trends. Results A total of 2,302 subjects were included in the analysis. Among females, a significant relationship was observed between CRF and vitality, physical functioning, physical role, bodily pain, and general health dimensions. However, for males the only dimension found to be significantly associated with CRF was physical health. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant linear trend (p<0.001) for PCS scores above the norm across CRF levels was observed for females only. Conclusion Among females with one or more risk factors for developing CVD, higher levels of CRF were positively associated with the vitality and physical dimensions of HRQoL, as well as the overall PCS. However, among males the only dimension associated with CRF was physical functioning. Future studies should examine this relationship among populations at risk for developing CVD in more detail and over time. PMID:25901358

  3. 76 FR 74771 - Notice of Implementation of Determination Under Section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... from the Republic of Korea (``SSSS''). The Department issued its determination on November 4, 2011... SSSS from Korea \\1\\ by applying the calculation methodology described in Antidumping Proceedings..., Pohang Iron & Steel Co., Ltd.'s entries of SSSS which were entered, or withdrawn from warehouse,...

  4. Legal termination of pregnancy as an opportunity for expanding postabortion contraception: Experience at the Pereira Rossell Hospital, Montevideo, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Nozar, Fernanda; Greif, Diego; Coppola, Francisco; Fiol, Verónica; Briozzo, Leonel

    2016-08-01

    To determine to what extent women adopted highly effective contraceptive methods after a legal abortion. The data available during a period before and another period after liberalization of the abortion law were reviewed. The data gathering was incomplete and reliable only during certain periods, which were used in the study. There was an increase in the proportion of women who returned for contraception and in the proportion who used any method and long-acting methods; however, no contraception was administered immediately after abortion and only 16% of all women treated started to use a long-acting method during the period after the law was liberalized. The proposed objective was not being achieved, the recommended guidelines were not being followed, and data gathering was incomplete. Good intentions are not enough and it is always necessary to evaluate the performance of a program. The results indicate that immediate reforms are necessary in postabortion contraception services. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Talking about Teaching: A Study of the Professional Uses of Email by Secondary School Teachers in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunberg, Jorge; Armellini, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Teacher collegiality has been highlighted as a crucial factor in educational change and professional development. Secondary school teachers have been consistently found to feel isolated from their colleagues, with few opportunities and mechanisms for collegial support and exchange. Research suggests that computer-mediated communication, and…

  6. Surveys in Argentina and Uruguay reveal Cyrtobagous salviniae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) populations adapted to survive temperate climates in southeastern USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cyrtobagous salviniae is widely used in several countries, including the United States, South Africa and Australia, for the biological control of Salvinia molesta. Despite success in tropical and subtropical regions, C. salviniae establishment is inconsistent in temperate regions, and therefore popu...

  7. Micronucleus test in fishes as indicators of environmental quality in subestuaries of the Río de la Plata (Uruguay).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel; Villar, Silvia; Acuña Plavan, Alicia

    2015-02-28

    Genotoxic agents may exert damage that may be active through following generations. Micronuclei are cytoplasmic chromatin masses outside the main cell nucleus, indicators of chromosomal damage. This study applied micronuclei test to evaluate genetic damage of fish in three breeding and nursery areas of commercially important fishes exposed to differing degrees of anthropogenic impact: Pando, Solís Chico and Solís Grande sub-estuaries. The micronuclei test revealed differences in the presence and concentrations of genotoxic components in these sub-estuaries. Fish in the urban and industrialized Pando sub-estuary presented the highest percentages of micronuclei. The absence of seasonal changes in micronuclei in Pando fish could be explained by physical characteristics of the sub-estuary and by regional weather conditions. Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes, 1835) was the species most susceptible to genotoxic components. It is recommended the use of a battery of biomarkers to better explain the health of organisms in that important nursery area.

  8. Selenium, copper, zinc, iron and manganese content of seven meat cuts from Hereford and Braford steers fed pasture in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, M C; Ramos, A; Saadoun, A; Brito, G

    2010-03-01

    Tenderloin (T), eye of rump (E), striploin (S), eye round (ER), tri-tip (TT), rib-eye roll (RR) and three rib plate-flank on (RP) meat cuts were evaluated. Selenium contents ranged between 0.42 and 1.20 mg/kg wet tissue (wt) in Hereford (H) breed and between 0.49 and 1.3 mg/kg wt in Braford (B) breed. In H and B breeds, T, TT and RP, and TT and RP were the richest cuts in selenium, respectively. Copper contents ranged between 0.25 and 1.04 mg/kg wt in H, and between 0.19 and 1.09 mg/kg wt in B. In H breed, RP had significantly more Cu than ER, TT, and RR. In B breed, ER and RR show a significant lower Cu level in comparison to the other meat cuts. Zinc contents ranged between 23 and 72.7 mg/kg wt in H, and between 23 and 63.9 mg/kg wt in B. RP is the richest cut in Zn compared to the other cuts in the two breeds. Iron contents ranged between 16.4 and 48.2 mg/kg wt in H, and between 14.2 and 47.9 mg/kg wt in B. In H breed, RR shows a lower content compared to the other cuts, except RP and S. In B breed, RR had the lowest level of Fe compared to the other cuts, except RP and T. Manganese contents ranged between 0.05 and 0.17 mg/kg wt in H, and between 0.04 and 0.48 mg/kg wt in B. In H no differences were detected between cuts. In B breed, ER cut shows the highest level of Mn. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Nitrous oxide emission, nitrification, denitrification and nitrogen mineralization during rice growing season in 2 soils from Uruguay].

    PubMed

    Illarze, Gabriela; Del Pino, Amabelia; Riccetto, Sara; Irisarri, Pilar

    2017-09-23

    Microbial processes such as mineralization, nitrification and denitrification regulate nitrogen dynamics in the soil. The last two processes may produce nitrous oxide (N2O). In this work N2O fluxes were quantified at four moments of the rice cycle, sowing, tillering, panicle initiation and maturity, in two sites that differed mainly in their soil organic matter (OM) content, Salto (higher OM) and Treinta y Tres. Potential net N mineralization, ammonium oxidation and denitrification as well as the most probable numbers (MPN) of ammonia oxidizers and denitrifiers were determined. Potential N mineralization did not vary with the soil type and increased at rice maturity. Neither ammonia oxidation potential nor MPN were different among the soils. However, the soil with higher OM exhibited higher activity and MPN of denitrifiers, irrespective of the rice stage. In turn, at the latest phases of the crop, the MPN of denitrifiers increased coinciding with the highest mineralization potential and mineral N content of the soil. Significant differences in N2O flux were observed in Salto, where the highest emissions were detected at rice maturity, after the soil was drained (44.2 vs 20.8g N-N2O/ha d in Treinta y Tres). This work shows the importance of considering the soil type and end-of-season drainage of the rice field to elaborate GHGs (greenhouse gases) inventories. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. 37 CFR 1.701 - Extension of patent term due to examination delay under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... secrecy order under 35 U.S.C. 181; and/or (3) Appellate review by the Patent Trial and Appeal Board or by... that under appellate review. If an application is remanded by a panel of the Patent Trial and Appeal Board and the remand is the last action by a panel of the Patent Trial and Appeal Board prior to the...

  11. 37 CFR 1.701 - Extension of patent term due to examination delay under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... designs, filed on or after June 8, 1995, and before May 29, 2000). 1.701 Section 1.701 Patents, Trademarks... Act (original applications, other than designs, filed on or after June 8, 1995, and before May 29, 2000). (a) A patent, other than for designs, issued on an application filed on or after June 8, 1995...

  12. 37 CFR 1.701 - Extension of patent term due to examination delay under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... designs, filed on or after June 8, 1995, and before May 29, 2000). 1.701 Section 1.701 Patents, Trademarks... Act (original applications, other than designs, filed on or after June 8, 1995, and before May 29, 2000). (a) A patent, other than for designs, issued on an application filed on or after June 8, 1995...

  13. 37 CFR 1.701 - Extension of patent term due to examination delay under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... designs, filed on or after June 8, 1995, and before May 29, 2000). 1.701 Section 1.701 Patents, Trademarks... Act (original applications, other than designs, filed on or after June 8, 1995, and before May 29, 2000). (a) A patent, other than for designs, issued on an application filed on or after June 8, 1995...

  14. 37 CFR 1.701 - Extension of patent term due to examination delay under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... designs, filed on or after June 8, 1995, and before May 29, 2000). 1.701 Section 1.701 Patents, Trademarks... Act (original applications, other than designs, filed on or after June 8, 1995, and before May 29, 2000). (a) A patent, other than for designs, issued on an application filed on or after June 8, 1995...

  15. First report of a clinical isolate of Leclercia adecarboxylata harbouring multiple resistance genes in Uruguay and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    García-Fulgueiras, Virginia; Seija, Verónica; Aguerrebere, Paula; Cordeiro, Nicolás F; Vignoli, Rafael

    2014-06-01

    Here we report the detection of a Leclercia adecarboxylata strain, isolated from a case of osteomyelitis, harbouring multiple antibiotic resistance genes encoded on a 450-kb IncHI1/HI2 conjugative plasmid (pLa12). The plasmid carried a complex class 1 integron with the genetic array intI1-aac(6')-Ib-cr-blaOXA-1-catB3-arr3-qacEΔ1-sul1-ISCR1; in addition, a blaDHA-1-like allele linked to ampR-qacEΔ1-sul1 as well as blaSHV-12, blaTEM-1 and qnrB4-like genes were found. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of L. adecarboxylata harbouring transferable resistance genes to quinolones, chloramphenicol and rifampicin as well as a plasmidic class C β-lactamase.

  16. Learning to Teach and Professional Identity: Images of Personal and Professional Recognition (Aprender a enseñar e identidad profesional: imágenes de reconocimiento personal y profesional)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fajardo Castañeda, J. Alberto

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate how pre-service teachers construct their professional identities from the interplay between participation in a teacher community and their systems of knowledge and beliefs. A group of six Colombian pre-service teachers in the final stage of their five-year teacher education programme were the research participants.…

  17. A mineral reconnaissance sampling manual for Costa Rica: Central American energy and resoure project. Manual para muestreo en el reconocimiento mineral de Costa Rica: Proyecto Centroamericano de energia y recursos naturales

    SciTech Connect

    Bolivar, S.

    1987-06-01

    This manual describes field procedures for the collection of stream-sediment and rock samples as part of the Mineral Resource Assessment of Costa Rica. It provides guidelines to be followed by personnel collecting, treating, or otherwise handling samples taken as part of this program. The objectives of the manual are to ensure that all samples are collected uniformly and consistent techniques are employed throughout the program. If this is done, the data from this study can be used to identify areas with potential for mineralization. This manual can also be used as a guideline for future geochemical sampling programs in Costa Rica.

  18. Pneumococcal Meningitis Before and After Universal Vaccination With Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines 7/13, Impact on Pediatric Hospitalization in Public and Nonpublic Institutions, in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Pírez, María Catalina; Mota, María Inés; Giachetto, Gustavo; Sánchez Varela, Mercedes; Galazka, Jeannette; Gutierrez, Stella; Varela, Adriana; Picón, Teresa; Algorta, Gabriela

    2017-10-01

    This is the first study showing the impact of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal meningitis in Latin America; a significant (63.5%) reduction in hospitalization was observed during the first 6 years after starting vaccination. A 90% reduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines 7/13 serotypes was observed (P < 0.0001). After vaccination, all strains were penicillin susceptible. Mortality had a reduction of 71%.

  19. [Comparison of the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization among children with different health care coverage in the cities of Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Montevideo (Uruguay)].

    PubMed

    López Jordi, María del Carmen; Cortese, Silvina G; Álvarez, Licet; Salveraglio, Inés; Ortolani, Andrea M; Biondi, Ana M

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) among children with different health care coverage in Buenos Aires and Montevideo. An observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study was designed, considering children born from 1993-2003 who were seen in the Chairs of Comprehensive Children's Dentistry (Universidad de Buenos Aires) and of Pediatric Dentistry (Universidad de la República) and at five private dental offices between April and December 2010. Two groups were defined: A (Buenos Aires; n=1,090) and B (Montevideo; n=626). The clinical diagnosis was carried out with calibrated examiners (Kappa: 0.94) using the Mathu-Muju and Wright criteria. The prevalence of MIH was found to be 16.1% in A and 12.3% in B (p=0.03), with statistically significant differences between the public and private care sectors in both groups (A p=0.0008; B p=0.0004) and a positive correlation between MIH and year of birth (A p=0.001; B p=0.005). The results show that MIH is an emerging pathology and that MIH prevalence is related to year of birth and access to health care.

  20. Structure dynamics of a fish community over ten years of formation in the reservoir of the hydroelectric power plant in upper Uruguay River.

    PubMed

    Schork, G; Zaniboni-Filho, E

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the structure of the fish assemblage in the ten years following the closing of the lake of the Itá Hydroelectric Power Plant. Seasonal collections were conducted from 2001 to 2010. During this period, 44,834 fish were captured, totaling 3,818.01 kg, among 8 orders, 24 families and 84 species. In general, profound changes were not observed in the fish assemblage in the ten years after the formation of the Itá lake. Few species changed in dominance over time, while many were rare in the environment. The ichthyofauna in the reservoir was dominated by small and medium size opportunist species that conduct short or no migratory movements. Among the most abundant, six species were responsible for more than 50% of the numeric representation: Steindachnerina brevipinna, Astyanax fasciatus, Apareiodon affinis, Hypostomus isbrueckeri, Iheringichthys labrosus and Loricariichthys anus. The increase in the representation of the later species stood out. The biomass was dominated by Steindachneridion scriptum, Prochilodus lineatus, I. laborsus, Schizodon nasutus, Hoplias malabaricus, Acestrorhynchus pantaneiro, Hoplias lacerdae, H. isbrueckeri and L. anus. Despite the presence of large migrators in the region of the reservoir, their vulnerability was revealed by the low numeric abundance and accidental capture. The k-dominance curve of numerical abundance and biomass indicates a moderately disturbed community, in which the representation of small species was also important to the amounts of biomass.

  1. Brain death epidemiology in Uruguay and utilization of the Glasgow coma score in acute brain injured patients as a predictor of brain death.

    PubMed

    Mizraji, R; Perez-Protto, S; Etchegaray, A; Castro, A; Lander, M; Buccino, E; Severo, L; Alvarez, I

    2009-10-01

    The knowledge of brain death (BD) epidemiology and the acute brain injury (ABI) progression profile are relevant to improve public health programs, organ procurement strategies, as well as intensive care unit (ICU) protocols aiming to increase the detection of potential donors. The aim of this study was to analyze the BD epidemiology and the ABI progression profile among subjects admitted to ICUs with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) < or = 8. This was a prospective, observational study of BD reported to the National Institute of Donation and Transplantation from 2000-2006. The patients with ABI and GCS < or = 8 who were admitted to 5 ICUs with In-hospital Transplant Coordination were analyzed over the period of 2005-2007. The BD detection increased from 28.7 in 2000 to 58.5 BD pmp in 2006. The real donor global rate increased from 10 to 24.6 pmp from 2000 to 2006. The ABI patients with GCS < or = 8 had a global mortality rate of 56%, including 23.4% who evolved to BD. This study showed a 200% increment of detected BD and 150% of real donors, although these results are still below the international figures. GCS follow-up appeared to be a good tool to predict the BD outcome. The follow-up of patients with ABI allowed us to improve our BD detection strategy.

  2. The turbidity front as a habitat for Acartia tonsa (Copepoda) in the Río de la Plata, Argentina-Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derisio, Carla; Braverman, Mara; Gaitán, Esteban; Hozbor, Constanza; Ramírez, Fernando; Carreto, José; Botto, Florencia; Gagliardini, Domingo A.; Acha, E. Marcelo; Mianzan, Hermes

    2014-01-01

    Acartia tonsa is one of the most abundant copepod species in estuaries worldwide. In the Río de la Plata, its highest densities appear to occur in an area of low quality food (detritus): the turbidity front (TF). The objective of this study was to understand how trophic and oceanographic drivers contribute to the high densities of A. tonsa in the Río de la Plata TF. The patterns of spatial distribution and density of this species were analyzed in relation to oceanographic and biological attributes of the system. The egg production rate (EPR) in the TF was evaluated as a measure of fitness, and a stable isotope analysis indicated the possible sources of organic matter in the species' diet. This study confirmed that the highest observed densities of A. tonsa were mostly associated with the TF, where high suspended matter and low Chl-a occur. Immediately offshore from the TF, decreased copepod densities and the maximum Chl-a values were found. Females close to the estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) had a lower EPR than those closer to the high Chl-a concentrations. Within the TF, A. tonsa apparently fed on detritus close to the ETM and phytoplankton close to the edge of the TF. The report includes a discussion of how retention processes, two layered flow and the life history strategy of A. tonsa could be contributing to the development of high densities (more than 10,000 ind m- 3) of this species in the inner estuarine zone, despite the poor quality of food available for development in that area. A. tonsa can live and prosper in areas with high turbidity and low chlorophyll concentrations. This trait exemplifies the plasticity of this species and helps explain why it is a key species in many worldwide estuaries.

  3. Geochemistry of the Neoproterozoic (800-767 Ma) Cerro Bori orthogneisses, Dom Feliciano Belt in Uruguay: tectonic evolution of an ancient continental arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, C.; Porcher, C. C.; Fernandes, L. A. D.; Masquelin, H.; Koester, E.; Conceição, R. V.

    2013-10-01

    The Cerro Bori orthogneisses, crystallized between ca. 800 and 767 Ma, are composed of a sequence of mafic gneisses, with dioritic-gabbroic and dioritic composition tectonically interleaved with a sequence of tonalitic and granodioritic gneisses. These rocks intruded the Chafalote paragneisses (metapelites, semipelites, carbonate and mafic rocks) and they were metamorphosed of high P-T conditions at ca. 676-654 Ma. This paper presents the first major and trace geochemical signatures, as well as Sm and Pb isotopic composition for the Cerro Bori orthogneisses, which allow distinguishing three different groups of rocks. Type I rocks are mafic gneisses with tholeiitic affinity, whereas the Type II rocks are tonalitic and granodioritic gneisses with calc-alkaline affinity. The third type is composed of biotite-rich mafic gneisses with potassic and ultrapotassic affinities. All the three types of rocks have negative ℰND values (between -2.12 and -6.67) and old TDM ages (between 1.2 and 2.0 Ga), indicating that the process of crustal assimilation/contamination was an important process, together with fractional crystallization. An continental arc tectonic setting is suggested to this association of rocks between 800 and 767 Ma. This subduction suggests the existence of an ocean between Rio de La Plata and adjacent cratons during the break up of the Rodinia supercontinent.

  4. Regional differences in species composition and toxigenic potential among Fusarium head blight isolates from Uruguay indicate a risk of nivalenol contamination in new wheat production areas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) are the primary cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat, and frequently contaminate grain with trichothecene mycotoxins that pose a serious threat to food safety and animal health. The species identity and trichothecene toxin potential...

  5. Teacher Collegiality and Electronic Communication: A Study of the Collaborative Uses of E-Mail by Secondary School Teachers in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grnberg, Jorge; Armellini, Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    Teacher collegiality has been consistently highlighted in recent years as a crucial factor in the success of processes of educational change and professional development. Consequently, there is considerable interest both from researchers and practitioners, in investigating strategies capable of supporting interactions and collaborations between…

  6. Variability in terrigenous sediment supply offshore of the Río de la Plata (Uruguay) recording the continental climatic history over the past 1200 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Laura; García-Rodríguez, Felipe; Hanebuth, Till J. J.

    2016-03-01

    The continental shelf adjacent to the Río de la Plata (RdlP) exhibits extremely complex hydrographic and ecological characteristics which are of great socioeconomic importance. Since the long-term environmental variations related to the atmospheric (wind fields), hydrologic (freshwater plume), and oceanographic (currents and fronts) regimes are little known, the aim of this study is to reconstruct the changes in the terrigenous input into the inner continental shelf during the late Holocene period (associated with the RdlP sediment discharge) and to unravel the climatic forcing mechanisms behind them. To achieve this, we retrieved a 10 m long sediment core from the RdlP mud depocenter at 57 m water depth (GeoB 13813-4). The radiocarbon age control indicated an extremely high sedimentation rate of 0.8 cm per year, encompassing the past 1200 years (AD 750-2000). We used element ratios (Ti / Ca, Fe / Ca, Ti / Al, Fe / K) as regional proxies for the fluvial input signal and the variations in relative abundance of salinity-indicative diatom groups (freshwater versus marine-brackish) to assess the variability in terrigenous freshwater and sediment discharges. Ti / Ca, Fe / Ca, Ti / Al, Fe / K and the freshwater diatom group showed the lowest values between AD 850 and 1300, while the highest values occurred between AD 1300 and 1850. The variations in the sedimentary record can be attributed to the Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA), both of which had a significant impact on rainfall and wind patterns over the region. During the MCA, a weakening of the South American summer monsoon system (SAMS) and the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ), could explain the lowest element ratios (indicative of a lower terrigenous input) and a marine-dominated diatom record, both indicative of a reduced RdlP freshwater plume. In contrast, during the LIA, a strengthening of SAMS and SACZ may have led to an expansion of the RdlP river plume to the far north, as indicated by higher element ratios and a marked freshwater diatom signal. Furthermore, a possible multidecadal oscillation probably associated with Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) since AD 1300 reflects the variability in both the SAMS and SACZ systems.

  7. Variability in terrigenous sediment supply offshore of the Rio de la Plata (Uruguay) recording the continental climatic history over the past 1200 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, L.; García-Rodríguez, F.; Hanebuth, T. J. J.

    2015-04-01

    The continental shelf adjacent to the Río de la Plata (RdlP) exhibits extremely complex hydrographic and ecological characteristics which are of great socio-economic importance. Since the long-term environmental variations related to the atmospheric (wind fields), hydrologic (freshwater plume), and oceanographic (currents and fronts) regimes are little known, the aim of this study is to reconstruct the changes in the terrigenous input into the inner continental shelf during the Late Holocene period (associated with the RdlP sediment discharge) and to unravel the climatic forcing mechanisms behind them. To achieve this, we retrieved a 10 m long sediment core from the RdlP mud depocenter at a depth of 57 m (GeoB 13813-4). The radiocarbon age control indicated an extremely high sedimentation rate of 0.8 cm per year, encompassing the past 1200 years (750-2000 AD). We used element ratios (Ti / Ca, Fe / Ca, Ti / Al, Fe / K) as regional proxies for the fluvial input signal, and the variations in relative abundance of salinity-indicative diatom groups (freshwater vs. marine-brackish) to assess the variability in terrigenous water and sediment discharge. Ti / Ca, Fe / Ca, Ti / Al, Fe / K and the freshwater diatom group showed the lowest values between 850 and 1300 AD, while the highest values occurred between 1300 and 1850 AD. The variations in the sedimentary record can be attributed to such regional and global climatic episodes as the Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA), both of which had a significant impact on rainfall and wind patterns over the region. During the MCA, a northward migration of the Intertropical Confluence Zone (ITCZ) could explain the lowest element ratios (indicative of a lower terrigenous input) and a marine-dominated diatom record, both indicative of a reduced RdlP freshwater plume. In contrast during the LIA, the southward migration of the ITCZ accompanied by El Niño-like state conditions may have led to an expansion of RdlP river plume far to the north, as indicated by higher element ratios and a marked freshwater diatom signal. During the current warm period (i.e., after 1900 AD), the highest values in the element ratios and a pronounced marine to marine-brackish diatom record was found. This discordance between diatom record and sediment supply during the last century could be the consequence of an anthropogenic impact on the drainage basin and the RdlP system, expressed by the artificial increase in metal concentrations in the offshore sediments.

  8. Taxonomic Treatment of Solanum Section Petota (Wild Potatoes) in Catálogo de Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, y sur del Brasil)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solanum section Petota (Solanaceae), which includes the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its wild relatives, contains over 150 wild species distributed from the southwestern U.S.A. (38°N) to central Argentina and adjacent Chile (41°S). This catalog includes all species from the Southern Con...

  9. Meat consumption, cooking methods, mutagens, and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    De Stefani, Eduardo; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Ronco, Alvaro L; Boffetta, Paolo; Correa, Pelayo; Aune, Dagfinn; Mendilaharsu, María; Acosta, Gisele; Silva, Cecilia; Landó, Gabriel; Luaces, María E

    2012-01-01

    The role of meat in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (ESCC) has been considered conflictive. For this reason, we decided to conduct a case-control study on meat consumption and ESCC. Data included 234 newly diagnosed and microscopically examined ESCC and 2,020 controls with conditions not related to tobacco smoking nor alcohol drinking and without changes in their diets. We studied total meat, red meat, beef, lamb, processed meat, poultry, fish, total white meat, liver, fried meat, barbecued meat, boiled meat, heterocyclic amines, nitrosodimethylamine, and benzo[a]pyrene in relation with the risk of ESCC. Red meat, lamb, and boiled meat were directly associated with the risk of ESCC, whereas total white meat, poultry, fish, and liver were mainly protective against this malignancy.

  10. Teacher Collegiality and Electronic Communication: A Study of the Collaborative Uses of E-Mail by Secondary School Teachers in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grnberg, Jorge; Armellini, Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    Teacher collegiality has been consistently highlighted in recent years as a crucial factor in the success of processes of educational change and professional development. Consequently, there is considerable interest both from researchers and practitioners, in investigating strategies capable of supporting interactions and collaborations between…

  11. Scanning and mobile multi-axis DOAS measurements of SO2 and NO2 emissions from an electric power plant in Montevideo, Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frins, E.; Bobrowski, N.; Osorio, M.; Casaballe, N.; Belsterli, G.; Wagner, T.; Platt, U.

    2014-12-01

    In March 2012 the emissions of NO2 and SO2 from a power station located on the east side of Montevideo Bay (34° 53‧ 10″ S, 56° 11‧ 49″ W) were quantified by simultaneously using mobile and scanning multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (in the following mobile DOAS and scanning DOAS, respectively). The facility produces electricity by means of two technologies: internal combustion motors and steam generators. The motors are powered with centrifuged heavy oil and produce a maximum power of 80 MW approximately. The steam generators produce approximately 305 MW and are powered with heavy fuel oil. We compare the emissions obtained from the measured slant column densities (mobile DOAS and scanning DOAS) with the emissions estimated from fuel mass balance. On one occasion it was possible to distinguish between the two types of sources, observing two plumes with different SO2 and NO2 emission rates. During the period of the campaign the mean SO2 emission flux was determined to be 0.36 (±0.12) kg s-1 and 0.26 (±0.09) kg s-1 retrieved from mobile and scanning DOAS respectively, while the calculated SO2 flux from the sulphur content of the fuel was 0.34 (±0.03) kg s-1. The average NO2 flux calculated from mobile DOAS was determined to be 11 (±3) × 10-3 kg s-1. Using the scanning DOAS approach a mean NO2 flux of 5.4 (±1.7) × 10-3 kg s-1 was obtained, which is significantly lower than by the mobile measurements. The differences between the results of mobile MAX-DOAS measurements and scanning DOAS measurements are most probably caused by the variability and the limited knowledge of the wind speed and direction.

  12. Gallbladder carcinoma in the "Hospital de Clinicas" of Uruguay: 1998-2002. A clinicopathologic study of five cases in 802 cholecystectomies.

    PubMed

    Barcia, Juan José; Rodríguez, Ana; Siri, Leonardo; Masllorens, Ana; Szwebel, Patricia; Acosta, Gisĕle

    2004-02-01

    Five cases of primary carcinoma of the gallbladder are presented. The cases were identified after a study of 802 cholecystectomies in a period of 5 years. The patients are three women and two men between the ages of 43 and 60 years (mean, 55.8 years). In three cases the clinical diagnosis was that of carcinoma, while in two other patients the clinical diagnosis was that of acute cholecystitis. Grossly, all cases were characterized by a gray-white diffuse or focal plaque-like thickening of the gallbladder wall, with loss of the normal velvety mucosal surface and fibrosis of the organ. Histologically, four cases belong to moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and were characterized by infiltrative, irregularly shaped and sized glands, islands, nests, and cords. The cells showed pleomorphic nuclei with clumped chromatin and frequent single nucleoli. One case was a mucinous adenocarcinoma characterized by large pools of mucoid material with neoplastic glands and cells "floating" within. Pathologic staging was pT3 in three cases; pT2 in one case; and pT2N1 in one other case. The present study highlights the importance of careful gross and histopathologic evaluation of gallbladders otherwise removed with the history of chronic or acute cholecystitis. In addition, it highlights the incidence of gallbladder carcinoma in a particular institution.

  13. 15 CFR 2015.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-containing products established as a result of the Uruguay Round Agreements, approved by the Congress in section 101 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (Pub. L. 103-465). In particular, this party provides...

  14. 78 FR 76276 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Ovine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Collection; Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... regulations for the importation of ovine meat from Uruguay into the United States. ] DATES: We will consider...: For information on the regulations for the importation of ovine meat from Uruguay, contact Dr....

  15. 12th International Congress of Neuroethology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-14

    attendees Amphibian Brains Behavior and Evolution March 29, 2016 Presidencia de Ia Republica , Montevideo, Uruguay Organizers: Kim Hoke, USA; Lauren...attendees Neuroethology of Disease Vector Insects March 29, 2016 Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Ia Republica , Montevideo, Uruguay Organizers: Claudio...29, 2016 Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Ia Republica , Montevideo, Uruguay Organizers: Walter Farina, Argentina; Jean Marc Devaud, France LOC

  16. Planificacion linguistica y constitucion de un bloque regional: El caso del Mercosur (Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uraguay) y de Chile (Language Planning and the Constitution of a Regional Bloc: The Case of Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay) and Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chareille, Samantha

    2003-01-01

    The common market of the South is a new linguistic and cultural area. The resurgence of innermost identities within member states proves that Mercosur identity can neither be universal nor specific. The outcome of this quest for identity will depend on the ability to carefully handle an area of cultural diversity and a place of common allegiance…

  17. Planificacion linguistica y constitucion de un bloque regional: El caso del Mercosur (Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uraguay) y de Chile (Language Planning and the Constitution of a Regional Bloc: The Case of Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay) and Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chareille, Samantha

    2003-01-01

    The common market of the South is a new linguistic and cultural area. The resurgence of innermost identities within member states proves that Mercosur identity can neither be universal nor specific. The outcome of this quest for identity will depend on the ability to carefully handle an area of cultural diversity and a place of common allegiance…

  18. 7 CFR 319.74-2 - Conditions governing the entry of cut flowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Macedonia, Malaysia, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, Republic of South Africa, Russia, San Marino, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Tunisia, Ukraine, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yugoslavia; the...

  19. Detection, Classification, and Density Estimation of Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Cooperative Institute for Marine Resources Studies SCORE Southern California Offshore Range MEER eV Mamiferos , Encuentros, Educación, Reconocimiento...whale recordings from the eastern Beaufort Sea MEER ( Mamiferos , Encuentros, Educación, Reconocimiento) – short-finned pilot whale recordings from the

  20. Dictatorships and Repression against the Universities: The Transition to Military Rule in Latin America and the Impact on Enrollments in the Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astin, Paul

    This paper focuses on the transition to military rule in Brazil (1964), Uruguay (1973), Chile (1973), and Argentina (1976) and examines the argument that the disciplines which lend themselves to analysis of the social order, such as the social sciences and humanities, are most often the target of political repression. Argentina, Uruguay, and Chile…

  1. Dictatorships and Repression against the Universities: The Transition to Military Rule in Latin America and the Impact on Enrollments in the Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astin, Paul

    This paper focuses on the transition to military rule in Brazil (1964), Uruguay (1973), Chile (1973), and Argentina (1976) and examines the argument that the disciplines which lend themselves to analysis of the social order, such as the social sciences and humanities, are most often the target of political repression. Argentina, Uruguay, and Chile…

  2. Never Too Early.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Alicia; And Others

    The approach to English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction for preschool children at Instituto Crandon, a private elementary-secondary school in Uruguay is described. First, characteristics of Uruguay and its educational system are outlined, stressing the advantages of temperate physical environment and high literacy rate. Then background…

  3. Juana P. Manso (1819-1875)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwell, Myriam

    2005-01-01

    This article profiles Juana P. Manso, who was a writer, translator, journalist, teacher and precursor of feminism in Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil. In 1840 she moved with her family to Montevideo (Uruguay), exiled under the regime of Juan Manuel de Rosas, who was governing the territory of the United Provinces of the River Plate. During Rosas'…

  4. Juana P. Manso (1819-1875)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwell, Myriam

    2005-01-01

    This article profiles Juana P. Manso, who was a writer, translator, journalist, teacher and precursor of feminism in Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil. In 1840 she moved with her family to Montevideo (Uruguay), exiled under the regime of Juan Manuel de Rosas, who was governing the territory of the United Provinces of the River Plate. During Rosas'…

  5. Chagas Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... if they: ■ Have lived in rural areas of Mexico, Central America or South America, in countries such ... El Salvador, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay or Venezuela ■ ...

  6. First case of Mycobacterium heckeshornense cavitary lung disease in the Latin America and Caribbean region

    PubMed Central

    Coitinho, C.; Greif, G.; van Ingen, J.; Laserra, P.; Robello, C.; Rivas, C.

    2015-01-01

    A case of cavitary pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium heckeshornense in Uruguay is described. This is the first case reported in the Latin America and Caribbean region, showing that this species is a worldwide opportunistic human pathogen. PMID:26909156

  7. Equal Remuneration Convention (ILO No. 100).

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    The government of Uruguay ratified this UN International Labor Organization convention on equal remuneration on November 16, 1989, and the Government of Zimbabwe ratified this Convention on December 14, 1989.

  8. 77 FR 10743 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... between the U.S. Gulf Coast and ports in Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Brazil, and Panama. It would also..., Dominican Republic, Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay. Agreement No.: 012156. Title: Slot Purchase Agreement...

  9. Phenrica littoralis a potential candidate for the biological control of alligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides: redscription of the adult, first description of immature stages and biological notes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flea beetles of aliligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides (Martius) Grisebach (Amaranthaceae), were collected in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Brazil. Species in the genera Disonycha Chevrolat, Agasicles Jacoby Systena Chevrolat and Phenrica Bechyne were frequently found on this weed. Phenric...

  10. 37 CFR 202.12 - Restored copyrights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Uruguay Round Agreements Act, Public Law 103-465. (b) Definitions. (1) For the purposes of this section... giving the title of the work, nature of the work (for example: computer program, database, videogame,...

  11. An Indicator of Informal Empire: Patterns of U.S. Navy Cruising on Overseas Stations, 1869-1897.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    during the war of Argentina , Brazil, and Uruguay with Paraguay and in 1893 and 1894 during the Brazilian naval revolution; and it fell to one ship...because of the endemic po- litical disorder in both Argentina and Uruguay. Gaps did occur, however, usually between May and October while some ships...except by ships transiting Cape Horn. The main U.S. diplomatic posts in the area, including all of the coastal consulates in Argentina and Uru- guay

  12. Accuracy and reaction time in recognition of facial emotions in people with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Parada-Fernández, Pamela; Oliva-Macías, Mireia; Amayra, Imanol; López-Paz, Juan F; Lázaro, Esther; Martínez, Óscar; Jometón, Amaia; Berrocoso, Sarah; García de Salazar, Héctor; Pérez, Manuel

    2015-11-16

    Introduccion. La expresion facial emocional constituye una guia basica en la interaccion social y, por lo tanto, las alteraciones en su expresion o reconocimiento implican una limitacion importante para la comunicacion. Por otro lado, el deterioro cognitivo y la presencia de sintomas depresivos, que se encuentran comunmente en los pacientes con esclerosis multiple, no se sabe como influyen en el reconocimiento emocional. Objetivo. Considerar la evaluacion del tiempo de reaccion y precision en la respuesta de reconocimiento de expresiones faciales de las personas afectadas por esclerosis multiple y valorar las posibles variables que pueden modular el reconocimiento de emociones, como la depresion y las funciones cognitivas. Sujetos y metodos. El estudio tiene un diseño no experimental transversal con una sola medicion. La muestra esta compuesta por 85 participantes, 45 con diagnostico de esclerosis multiple y 40 sujetos control. Resultados. Los sujetos con esclerosis multiple revelaban diferencias significativas tanto en el tiempo de reaccion y la precision de respuesta en pruebas neuropsicologicas en comparacion con el grupo control. Se identificaron modelos explicativos en el reconocimiento emocional. Conclusion. Los sujetos con esclerosis multiple se enfrentan a dificultades en el reconocimiento de emociones faciales, y se observaron diferencias en la memoria, atencion, velocidad de procesamiento y sintomatologia depresiva en relacion con el grupo control.

  13. Aedes aegypti from temperate regions of South America are highly competent to transmit dengue virus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti is extensively spread throughout South America where it has been responsible for large dengue epidemics during the last decades. Intriguingly, dengue transmission has not been reported in Uruguay and is essentially prevalent in subtropical northern Argentina which borders Uruguay. Methods We assessed vector competence for dengue virus (DENV) of Ae. aegypti populations collected in subtropical Argentina (Corrientes) as well as temperate Uruguay (Salto) and Argentina (Buenos Aires) in 2012 using experimental oral infections with DENV-2. Mosquitoes were incubated at 28°C and examined at 14 and 21 days p.i. to access viral dissemination and transmission. Batches of the Buenos Aires mosquitoes were also incubated at 15°C and 20°C. Results Although mosquitoes from temperate Uruguay and Argentina were competent to transmit DENV, those from subtropical Argentina were more susceptible, displaying the highest virus titters in the head and presenting the highest dissemination of infection and transmission efficiency rates when incubated at 28°C. Interestingly, infectious viral particles could be detected in saliva of mosquitoes from Buenos Aires exposed to 15°C and 20°C. Conclusions There is a potential risk of establishing DENV transmission in Uruguay and for the spread of dengue outbreaks to other parts of subtropical and temperate Argentina, notably during spring and summer periods. PMID:24373423

  14. Immigration status and HIV-risk related behaviors among female sex workers in South America.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Christian T; Mosquera, Carlos; Serra, Margarita; Gianella, Alberto; Avila, Maria M; Laguna-Torres, Victor; Carr, Jean K; Montano, Silvia M; Sanchez, José L

    2008-03-01

    This study compares immigrant (i.e., foreigner) with non-immigrant (i.e., local/native) HIV-related risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSW) in South America. A total of 1,845 FSW were enrolled in Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Uruguay. According to their nationality, 10.1% of participants were immigrant FSW. Immigrant FSW were more likely to be younger in Argentina; to work in a disco/bar in Bolivia; to be single and use illegal drugs in Ecuador; and to work in a brothel, consume alcohol, and have sex with foreign clients in Uruguay. HIV-related sexual and drug use behaviors were more common among immigrant FSW in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Uruguay. Country-specific HIV/STI prevention and control programs should be developed for immigrant FSW populations in South America.

  15. A cross-country comparison of secondhand smoke exposure among adults: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    PubMed

    King, Brian A; Mirza, Sara A; Babb, Stephen D

    2013-07-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) from burning tobacco products causes disease and premature death among non-smoking adults and children. The objective of this study was to determine the nature, extent and demographic correlates of SHS exposure among adults in low- and middle-income countries with a high burden of tobacco use. Data were obtained from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), a nationally representative household survey of individuals 15 years of age or older. Interviews were conducted during 2008-2010 in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, the Philippines, Poland, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay and Vietnam. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the prevalence and correlates of SHS exposure in homes, workplaces, government buildings, restaurants, public transportation and healthcare facilities. Exposure to SHS in the home ranged from 17.3% (Mexico) to 73.1% (Vietnam). Among those who work in an indoor area outside the home, SHS exposure in the workplace ranged from 16.5% (Uruguay) to 63.3% (China). Exposure to SHS ranged from 6.9% (Uruguay) to 72.7% (Egypt) in government buildings, 4.4% (Uruguay) to 88.5% (China) in restaurants, 5.4% (Uruguay) to 79.6% (Egypt) on public transportation, and 3.8% (Uruguay) to 49.2% (Egypt) in healthcare facilities. A large proportion of adults living in low- and middle-income countries are exposed to SHS in their homes, workplaces, and other public places. Countries can enact and enforce legislation requiring 100% smoke-free public places and workplaces, and can also conduct educational initiatives to reduce SHS exposure in homes.

  16. A cross-country comparison of secondhand smoke exposure among adults: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    PubMed Central

    King, Brian A; Mirza, Sara A; Babb, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Objective Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) from burning tobacco products causes disease and premature death among non-smoking adults and children. The objective of this study was to determine the nature, extent and demographic correlates of SHS exposure among adults in low- and middle-income countries with a high burden of tobacco use. Methods Data were obtained from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), a nationally representative household survey of individuals 15 years of age or older. Interviews were conducted during 2008–2010 in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, the Philippines, Poland, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay and Vietnam. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the prevalence and correlates of SHS exposure in homes, workplaces, government buildings, restaurants, public transportation and healthcare facilities. Results Exposure to SHS in the home ranged from 17.3% (Mexico) to 73.1% (Vietnam). Among those who work in an indoor area outside the home, SHS exposure in the workplace ranged from 16.5% (Uruguay) to 63.3% (China). Exposure to SHS ranged from 6.9% (Uruguay) to 72.7% (Egypt) in government buildings, 4.4% (Uruguay) to 88.5% (China) in restaurants, 5.4% (Uruguay) to 79.6% (Egypt) on public transportation, and 3.8% (Uruguay) to 49.2% (Egypt) in healthcare facilities. Conclusions A large proportion of adults living in low-and middle-income countries are exposed to SHS in their homes, workplaces, and other public places. Countries can enact and enforce legislation requiring 100% smoke-free public places and workplaces, and can also conduct educational initiatives to reduce SHS exposure in homes. PMID:23019273

  17. First case of peritoneal cystic echinococcosis in a domestic cat caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (genotype 1) associated to feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Castro, Oscar F; Crampet, Alejandro; Bartzabal, Álvaro; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Grimm, Felix; Deplazes, Peter

    2014-04-01

    A new cystic echinococcosis case in a cat in Uruguay is reported herein. The cat was taken to a veterinary clinic in Rocha city, Uruguay, due to dyspnea, constipation and abdominal enlargement. During surgery a large quantity of cysts was retrieved from the abdominal cavity. The cysts were morphologically studied and confirmed as Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (genotype 1) by molecular tools using cytochrome oxidase submit 1 and small subunit ribosomal RNA gene as target genes. Moreover, for the first time a coinfection with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was detected. FIV-induced immunosuppression could be a determining factor in the development of cystic echinococcosis in cats.

  18. CTC Sentinel. Volume 7, Issue 4, April 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    7 Ibid. 8 For details, see the following state law: Ley Numero 701 De Reconocimiento, Derechos y Cultura de los Pueb- los y Comunidades Indigenas...clan, see “La historia de la última gen- eración de Sendero: el clan Quispe Palomino,” Panorama, August 18, 2013; “Clan Quispe Palomino es una poderosa

  19. New Demands and Policies on Higher Education in the Mercosur: A Comparative Study on Challenges, Resources, and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrechea, Enrique Martinez; Castro, Adriana Chiancone

    2009-01-01

    This article attempts to analyze the main tendencies of the higher education systems and policies within the Mercosur, a regional bloc composed by Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. The article discusses some global trends and describes the process of educational integration in the Mercosur as well as the higher education systems of each of…

  20. Library Professionals' Education in the Mercosur Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Oliveira, Ely Francina Tannuri; Guimaraes, Jose Augusto Chaves

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with library professionals education in Mercosur--the Common Market of South America--established on 29 March, 1991 to expand the national markets of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, and promote free circulation of goods, services and production agents in that region. The paper presents, through a descriptive study, the…