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Sample records for complicated intra-abdominal infection

  1. [Pylephlebitis: a rare but possible complication of intra-abdominal infections].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bru, Susana; Nofuentes-Riera, Carmen; García-Marín, Andrés; Luri-Prieto, Paloma; Morales-Calderón, Miguel; García-García, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Pylephlebitis or septic thrombophlebitis of the portal venous system is a rare but serious complication of intra-abdominal infections which drain into the portal venous system. Its diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion and imaging tests, mainly a computed tomography scan, given the lack of specificity of the signs and symptoms. Spread of septic emboli is the major cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to analyse patients diagnosed in our hospital. Retrospective descriptive study of patients diagnosed with pylephlebitis in our hospital. Four patients were included, 3 men and one woman. In 3 cases it was acute cholecystitis that led to the diagnosis of pylephlebitis at the same time as the intra-abdominal infection. Emergency surgery was performed in one case, whilst the other 2 were treated conservatively. Blood cultures were performed in all cases, and empirical antibiotic treatment was used. In the only case of acute appendicitis, diagnosis of pylephlebitis was achieved during the study of postoperative fever, with empirical antibiotic treatment also being started. The haematologist was requested to start the required anticoagulation therapy in all cases. Pylephlebitis is a rare complication of intra-abdominal infections that may make lead to a worse outcome. A high level of suspicion is required as well as imaging tests to make an early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  2. Antibiotic management of complicated intra-abdominal infections in adults: The Asian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kurup, Asok; Liau, Kui-Hin; Ren, Jianan; Lu, Min-Chi; Navarro, Narciso S.; Farooka, Muhammad Waris; Usman, Nurhayat; Destura, Raul V.; Sirichindakul, Boonchoo; Tantawichien, Terapong; Lee, Christopher K.C.; Solomkin, Joseph S.

    2014-01-01

    Regional epidemiological data and resistance profiles are essential for selecting appropriate antibiotic therapy for intra-abdominal infections (IAIs). However, such information may not be readily available in many areas of Asia and current international guidelines on antibiotic therapy for IAIs are for Western countries, with the most recent guidance for the Asian region dating from 2007. Therefore, the Asian Consensus Taskforce on Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections (ACT-cIAI) was convened to develop updated recommendations for antibiotic management of complicated IAIs (cIAIs) in Asia. This review article is based on a thorough literature review of Asian and international publications related to clinical management, epidemiology, microbiology, and bacterial resistance patterns in cIAIs, combined with the expert consensus of the Taskforce members. The microbiological profiles of IAIs in the Asian region are outlined and compared with Western data, and the latest available data on antimicrobial resistance in key pathogens causing IAIs in Asia is presented. From this information, antimicrobial therapies suitable for treating cIAIs in patients in Asian settings are proposed in the hope that guidance relevant to Asian practices will prove beneficial to local physicians managing IAIs. PMID:25568794

  3. [Septic shock due to community-acquired complicated intra-abdominal infection treated with ertapenem: outcome in 25 cases].

    PubMed

    Maseda, E; Lillo, M; Fernández, L; Villagrán, M J; Gómez-Rice, A; Ramasco, F

    2008-04-01

    To assess the effectiveness of ertapenem in patients admitted to a surgical intensive care unit with septic shock due to community-acquired complicated intra-abdominal infection. Patients undergoing emergency surgery for community-acquired complicated intra-abdominal infection were enrolled prospectively. All patients were given intravenous ertapenem at a rate of 1 g/24 h and the guidelines of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign were applied. Outcome measures were duration of antibiotic therapy, mean length of stay in the surgical intensive care unit (ICU), antibiotic failure, and death while in the surgical ICU. Twenty-five patients with a mean (SD) age of 74 (14) years were enrolled. The origin of infection was the colon in 56% of the cases; most patients (76%) had generalized peritonitis. The mean stay in the surgical ICU was 10 (7) days. The mean duration of antibiotic therapy was 5.8 (1.26) days. Antibiotic failure occurred in 12%. Mortality in the surgical ICU was 28%. Our findings suggest that patients with community-acquired intra-abdominal infection and septic shock have a good chance of survival when treated according to the guidelines of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign. Ertapenem seems to give good results when used in this setting.

  4. Recent developments in antibiotic agents for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shang-Yi; Huang, Chung-Hao; Ko, Wen-Chien; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) is becoming increasingly difficult because of the widespread emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms. In this review, we discuss the effectiveness of several new antibiotics for the treatment of cIAIs, including new β-lactamase inhibitor combinations (BLICs) and tetracycline-class drugs, recently developed aminoglycosides and quinolones, and novel lipoglycopeptides and oxazolidinones. Of the new BLICs, ceftolozane/tazobactam is associated with adequate clinical cure rates in patients with cIAIs. Currently, two new β-lactamase inhibitors, namely avibactam and MK-7655, are under development for clinical use in the treatment of cIAIs. Eravacycline, a novel, fully synthetic tetracycline-class drug, has been shown in Phase II and III clinical trials to be more potent than tigecycline against a significant number of multidrug-resistant organisms causing cIAIs. Plazomicin, a next-generation aminoglycoside, is a promising agent for treatment of cIAIs due to multidrug-resistant pathogens. Of the recently developed quinolones, delafloxacin and finafloxacin have been shown to be effective against pathogens that survive and multiply in mildly acidic environments, although further clinical studies examining their clinical utility in the treatment of cIAIs are warranted. Oritavancin, a new semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide agent, has been demonstrated to be a potent antibiotic in the treatment of cIAIs due to drug-resistant Gram-positive organisms. Several other new antibiotics in development also show promise and will hopefully broaden the possibilities for treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections due to MDR pathogens.

  5. The cost-effectiveness of cefepime plus metronidazole versus imipenem/cilastatin in the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infection.

    PubMed

    Barie, Philip S; Rotstein, Ori D; Dellinger, E Patchen; Grasela, Thaddeus H; Walawander, Cynthia A

    2004-01-01

    Our objective was to compare the economic benefits of cefepime plus metronidazole with those of imipenem/cilastatin in the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections. We used a retrospective analysis of clinical outcomes and health resource utilization data collected during a randomized, double-blind, multi-center clinical trial. Seventeen university-affiliated hospitals in the United States and Canada participated, as did 323 patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections. Decision analysis was conducted using a decision node of cefepime vs. imipenem, and chance nodes that included an Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score of #15 versus .15; a need for posttreatment surgical procedures; and clinical outcomes. Effectiveness of treatment was measured by differences in the length and cost of hospital stays, the number and cost of surgical procedures after treatment, cure rates, and the cost of antibiotics. Also evalulated were the incremental costs of cure (i.e., the costs of additional cures). Comparing cefepime plus metronidazole with imipenem/cilastatin, the expected cost of patient care was $8,218 versus $10,414, respectively, and the cost-effectiveness ratio per cure was $10,058 versus $13,685. For severely ill patients (APACHE II score .15), the expected cost was $12,962 versus $23,153, and the cost-effectiveness ratio per cure was $15,321 versus $64,313. Cefepime plus metronidazole was more cost-effective than imipenem/cilastatin in the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections, primarily because of fewer post-treatment surgical procedures and shorter hospital stays. The primary advantage accrued to severely ill patients who had an APACHE II score .15.

  6. Clinical response and mortality in tigecycline complicated intra-abdominal infection and complicated skin and soft-tissue infection trials.

    PubMed

    Bassetti, Matteo; McGovern, Paul C; Wenisch, Christoph; Meyer, R Daniel; Yan, Jean Li; Wible, Michele; Rottinghaus, Scott T; Quintana, Alvaro

    2015-09-01

    An imbalance in all-cause mortality was noted in tigecycline phase 3 and 4 comparative clinical trials across all studied indications. We investigated clinical failure and mortality in phase 3 and 4 complicated skin and soft-tissue infection (cSSTI) and complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAI) tigecycline trials using descriptive analyses of a blinded adjudication of mortality and multivariate regression analyses. Attributable mortality analyses of cSSTI revealed death due to infection in 0.1% of each treatment group (P=1.000). In cIAI, there were no significant differences between tigecycline (1.2%) and comparator (0.7%) subjects who died due to infection (P=0.243). For cIAI clinical failure, treatment interaction with organ dysfunction was observed with no difference observed between clinical cure for tigecycline (85.4%) and comparator (76.7%) treatment groups (odds ratio=0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.28-1.19). Tigecycline-treated subjects had more adverse events of secondary pneumonias (2.1% vs. 1.2%) and more adverse events of secondary pneumonias with an outcome of death (0.5% vs. 0.1%). These analyses do not suggest that tigecycline is a factor either for failure (cSSTI and cIAI studies) or for death (cIAI studies). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pharmacoeconomics of ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole vs. piperacillin-tazobactam for complicated intra-abdominal infections.

    PubMed

    Paladino, Joseph A; Gilliland-Johnson, Kristin K; Adelman, Martin H; Cohn, Stephen M

    2008-06-01

    A series of 459 hospitalized adults with complicated intra-abdominal infections participated in a randomized, double-blind, multicenter clinical trial. The present study was conducted to add a pharmacoeconomic analysis to the results. A cost-effectiveness analysis from the perspective of the hospital provider was carried out. Decision analysis was used to illustrate outcomes and to provide a basis on which to conduct a sensitivity analysis. Cost-effectiveness ratios, representing the cost per expected successfully treated patient, were calculated to determine the most cost-effective alternative. Among 244 economically evaluable patients, enrolled from 34 centers in the U.S. and Canada, 131 patients received ciprofloxacin-metronidazole (75% clinical success rate), and 113 received piperacillin-tazobactam (65% clinical success rate; p = 0.06). Switch to oral antibiotics was possible for 81 patients who received ciprofloxacin-metronidazole (85% clinical success rate) and 67 piperacillin-tazobactam patients (70% clinical success rate; p = 0.027). The mean hospital cost was US$10,662 +/- 7,793 for patients in the ciprofloxacin-metronidazole group and $10,009 +/- 7,023 for patients in the piperacillin-tazobactam group (p = 0.492). Significantly lower costs were documented for patients who could be switched to oral antibiotics than for those continued on intravenous antibiotic orders ($8,684 +/- 4,120 vs. $12,945 +/- 10,204, respectively; p < 0.001). Patients with appendicitis had lower mean hospital costs than those with other infections ($7,169 +/- 3,705 vs. $12,097 +/- 8,342, respectively; p < 0.001). The cost-effectiveness ratios were $14,216:1 for patients in the ciprofloxacin-metronidazole group and $15,398:1 for patients in the piperacillin-tazobactam group. The mean hospital costs associated with ciprofloxacin-metronidazole were similar to those of piperacillin-tazobactam for the treatment of adults with complicated intra-abdominal infections. Lower costs were

  8. Intra-Abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome after Abdominal Wall Reconstruction: Quaternary Syndromes?

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, A W; Nickerson, D; Roberts, D J; Rosen, M J; McBeth, P B; Petro, C C; Berrevoet, Frederik; Sugrue, M; Xiao, Jimmy; Ball, C G

    2017-06-01

    Reconstruction with reconstitution of the container function of the abdominal compartment is increasingly being performed in patients with massive ventral hernia previously deemed inoperable. This situation places patients at great risk of severe intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome if organ failure ensues. Intra-abdominal hypertension and especially abdominal compartment syndrome may be devastating systemic complications with systematic and progressive organ failure and death. We thus reviewed the pathophysiology and reported clinical experiences with abnormalities of intra-abdominal pressure in the context of abdominal wall reconstruction. Bibliographic databases (1950-2015), websites, textbooks, and the bibliographies of previously recovered articles for reports or data relating to intra-abdominal pressure, intra-abdominal hypertension, and the abdominal compartment syndrome in relation to ventral, incisional, or abdominal hernia repair or abdominal wall reconstruction. Surgeons should thus consider and carefully measure intra-abdominal pressure and its resultant effects on respiratory parameters and function during abdominal wall reconstruction. The intra-abdominal pressure post-operatively will be a result of the new intra-peritoneal volume and the abdominal wall compliance. Strategies surgeons may utilize to ameliorate intra-abdominal pressure rise after abdominal wall reconstruction including temporizing paralysis of the musculature either temporarily or semi-permanently, pre-operative progressive pneumoperitoneum, permanently removing visceral contents, or surgically releasing the musculature to increase the abdominal container volume. In patients without complicating shock and inflammation, and in whom the abdominal wall anatomy has been so functionally adapted to maximize compliance, intra-abdominal hypertension may be transient and tolerable. Intra-abdominal hypertension/abdominal compartment syndrome in the specific setting of

  9. Recommendations for intra-abdominal infections consensus report

    PubMed Central

    Avkan-Oğuz, Vildan; Baykam, Nurcan; Sökmen, Selman; Güner, Rahmet; Agalar, Fatih; Alp, Emine; Doğrul, Ahmet; Turhan, Özge; Ağalar, Canan; Kurtaran, Behice; Geçim, İbrahim Ethem; Özaras, Reşat; Yılmaz, Gürdal; Akbulut, Ayhan; Koksal, İftihar

    2016-01-01

    Guidelines include the recommendations of experts from various specialties within a topic in consideration of data specific to each country. However, to date there has not been a guideline standardizing the nomenclature and offering recommendations for intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in Turkey. This is mainly due to the paucity of laboratory studies regarding the clinical diagnosis and treatment of IAIs or the sensitivity of microorganisms isolated from patients with IAIs. However, due to the diversification of host characteristics and advancements in technological treatment methods, it has become imperative to ‘speak a common language’. For this purpose May 2015, a group of 15 experts in intra-abdominal infections, under the leadership of the Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology Specialty Society of Turkey (EKMUD) and with representatives from the Turkish Surgical Association, Turkish Society of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Hernia Society, Turkish Society of Hepato-pancreato-biliary Surgery, and the Turkish Society of Hospital Infections and Control, was formed to analyze relevant studies in the literature. Ultimately, the suggestions for adults found in this consensus report were developed using available data from Turkey, referring predominantly to the 2010 guidelines for diagnosing and managing complicated IAIs in adults and children by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the Surgical Infection Society. The recommendations are presented in two sections, from the initial diagnostic evaluation of patients to the treatment approach for IAI. This Consensus Report was presented at the EKMUD 2016 Congress in Antalya and was subsequently opened for suggestions on the official websites of the Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology Specialty Society of Turkey and Turkish Surgical Association for one month. The manuscript was revised according to the feedback received. PMID:28149134

  10. A Practical Predictive Index for Intra-abdominal Septic Complications After Primary Anastomosis for Crohn's Disease: Change in C-Reactive Protein Level Before Surgery.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Lugen; Li, Yi; Wang, Honggang; Zhu, Weiming; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Jianfeng; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2015-08-01

    Postoperative intra-abdominal septic complications are difficult to manage in Crohn's disease, which makes prevention especially important. The purpose of this study was to examine the risk factors for intra-abdominal septic complications after primary anastomosis for Crohn's disease and to seek a practical predictive index for intra-abdominal septic complications. This was a retrospective study. The study was conducted in a tertiary referral hospital. Based on a computerized database of 344 patients with Crohn's disease who underwent primary anastomosis between 2004 and 2013, the patients were placed into an intra-abdominal septic complications group and a group without intra-abdominal septic complications. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors, and the predictive accuracy of possible predictors was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curves. Overall, 39 patients (11.34%) developed intra-abdominal septic complications. Preoperative C-reactive protein level >10 mg/L was found to be an independent risk factor (p < 0.01) for intra-abdominal septic complications. For prediction of intra-abdominal septic complications, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that a C-reactive protein cutoff of 14.50 mg/L provided negative and positive predictive values of 96.84% and 34.07%. In addition, the change in C-reactive protein levels over the 2 weeks before surgery was greater in the intra-abdominal septic complications group than the group with no intra-abdominal septic complications (p < 0.01), and the directions of change were opposite, upward in the former and downward in the latter. Apart from being a risk factor for intra-abdominal septic complications (p < 0.01), receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the change in C-reactive protein levels before surgery had a negative predictive value for intra-abdominal septic complications of 98.66% and a positive predictive value of 76

  11. Antimicrobials: a global alliance for optimizing their rational use in intra-abdominal infections (AGORA).

    PubMed

    Sartelli, Massimo; Weber, Dieter G; Ruppé, Etienne; Bassetti, Matteo; Wright, Brian J; Ansaloni, Luca; Catena, Fausto; Coccolini, Federico; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M; Coimbra, Raul; Moore, Ernest E; Moore, Frederick A; Maier, Ronald V; De Waele, Jan J; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Griffiths, Ewen A; Eckmann, Christian; Brink, Adrian J; Mazuski, John E; May, Addison K; Sawyer, Rob G; Mertz, Dominik; Montravers, Philippe; Kumar, Anand; Roberts, Jason A; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Watkins, Richard R; Lowman, Warren; Spellberg, Brad; Abbott, Iain J; Adesunkanmi, Abdulrashid Kayode; Al-Dahir, Sara; Al-Hasan, Majdi N; Agresta, Ferdinando; Althani, Asma A; Ansari, Shamshul; Ansumana, Rashid; Augustin, Goran; Bala, Miklosh; Balogh, Zsolt J; Baraket, Oussama; Bhangu, Aneel; Beltrán, Marcelo A; Bernhard, Michael; Biffl, Walter L; Boermeester, Marja A; Brecher, Stephen M; Cherry-Bukowiec, Jill R; Buyne, Otmar R; Cainzos, Miguel A; Cairns, Kelly A; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrian; Chandy, Sujith J; Che Jusoh, Asri; Chichom-Mefire, Alain; Colijn, Caroline; Corcione, Francesco; Cui, Yunfeng; Curcio, Daniel; Delibegovic, Samir; Demetrashvili, Zaza; De Simone, Belinda; Dhingra, Sameer; Diaz, José J; Di Carlo, Isidoro; Dillip, Angel; Di Saverio, Salomone; Doyle, Michael P; Dorj, Gereltuya; Dogjani, Agron; Dupont, Hervé; Eachempati, Soumitra R; Enani, Mushira Abdulaziz; Egiev, Valery N; Elmangory, Mutasim M; Ferrada, Paula; Fitchett, Joseph R; Fraga, Gustavo P; Guessennd, Nathalie; Giamarellou, Helen; Ghnnam, Wagih; Gkiokas, George; Goldberg, Staphanie R; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Gomi, Harumi; Guzmán-Blanco, Manuel; Haque, Mainul; Hansen, Sonja; Hecker, Andreas; Heizmann, Wolfgang R; Herzog, Torsten; Hodonou, Adrien Montcho; Hong, Suk-Kyung; Kafka-Ritsch, Reinhold; Kaplan, Lewis J; Kapoor, Garima; Karamarkovic, Aleksandar; Kees, Martin G; Kenig, Jakub; Kiguba, Ronald; Kim, Peter K; Kluger, Yoram; Khokha, Vladimir; Koike, Kaoru; Kok, Kenneth Y Y; Kong, Victory; Knox, Matthew C; Inaba, Kenji; Isik, Arda; Iskandar, Katia; Ivatury, Rao R; Labbate, Maurizio; Labricciosa, Francesco M; Laterre, Pierre-François; Latifi, Rifat; Lee, Jae Gil; Lee, Young Ran; Leone, Marc; Leppaniemi, Ari; Li, Yousheng; Liang, Stephen Y; Loho, Tonny; Maegele, Marc; Malama, Sydney; Marei, Hany E; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Marwah, Sanjay; Massele, Amos; McFarlane, Michael; Melo, Renato Bessa; Negoi, Ionut; Nicolau, David P; Nord, Carl Erik; Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Omari, AbdelKarim H; Ordonez, Carlos A; Ouadii, Mouaqit; Pereira Júnior, Gerson Alves; Piazza, Diego; Pupelis, Guntars; Rawson, Timothy Miles; Rems, Miran; Rizoli, Sandro; Rocha, Claudio; Sakakushev, Boris; Sanchez-Garcia, Miguel; Sato, Norio; Segovia Lohse, Helmut A; Sganga, Gabriele; Siribumrungwong, Boonying; Shelat, Vishal G; Soreide, Kjetil; Soto, Rodolfo; Talving, Peep; Tilsed, Jonathan V; Timsit, Jean-Francois; Trueba, Gabriel; Trung, Ngo Tat; Ulrych, Jan; van Goor, Harry; Vereczkei, Andras; Vohra, Ravinder S; Wani, Imtiaz; Uhl, Waldemar; Xiao, Yonghong; Yuan, Kuo-Ching; Zachariah, Sanoop K; Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Zakrison, Tanya L; Corcione, Antonio; Melotti, Rita M; Viscoli, Claudio; Viale, Perluigi

    2016-01-01

    Intra-abdominal infections (IAI) are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in high-risk patients. The cornerstones in the management of complicated IAIs are timely effective source control with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is important in the management of intra-abdominal infections and must be broad enough to cover all likely organisms because inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy is associated with poor patient outcomes and the development of bacterial resistance. The overuse of antimicrobials is widely accepted as a major driver of some emerging infections (such as C. difficile), the selection of resistant pathogens in individual patients, and for the continued development of antimicrobial resistance globally. The growing emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms and the limited development of new agents available to counteract them have caused an impending crisis with alarming implications, especially with regards to Gram-negative bacteria. An international task force from 79 different countries has joined this project by sharing a document on the rational use of antimicrobials for patients with IAIs. The project has been termed AGORA (Antimicrobials: A Global Alliance for Optimizing their Rational Use in Intra-Abdominal Infections). The authors hope that AGORA, involving many of the world's leading experts, can actively raise awareness in health workers and can improve prescribing behavior in treating IAIs.

  12. Comparison of sequential intravenous/oral ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole with intravenous ceftriaxone plus metronidazole for treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections.

    PubMed

    Wacha, Hannes; Warren, Brian; Bassaris, Harry; Nikolaidis, Paul

    2006-08-01

    Intra-abdominal infections are a substantial clinical problem and an important cause of morbidity and death in the hospital. Optimal treatment requires both source control and antibiotic therapy. Sequential intravenous (IV) to oral therapy may improve patient convenience and reduce total health care costs. In this randomized, double-blind trial, the efficacy of sequential IV-to-oral ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole was compared with ceftriaxone plus metronidazole in adult patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections. The trial enrolled 531 patients, who began with IV therapy. Patients who improved clinically were switched to oral therapy on day three or later. The clinical and bacteriological responses four to six weeks after the end of therapy and the safety of the two regimens were assessed. To maintain blinding, the patients received placebo IV in the ciprofloxacin group or placebo orally in the ceftriaxone group. A total of 475 patients (235 ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole, 240 ceftriaxone plus metronidazole) were valid for evaluation of efficacy. All patients were included in the safety analysis. Of the patients valid for efficacy, 78% of the ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole group and 81% of the ceftriaxone plus metronidazole group were eligible for a switch to oral therapy. The clinical success rates were 98.9% and 96.9%, respectively, which were statistically equivalent. The clinical success rates for all patients, including those on continuous IV therapy, were 90.6% and 87.9%. Source control was achieved in more than 90% of the patients. The bacteriological eradication rates were similar in the two groups. Bacterial complications (e.g., surgical site infections, abscesses) were encountered more often in the ceftriaxone plus metronidazole group. Sequential ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole IV-to-oral therapy was statistically equivalent to ceftriaxone plus metronidazole. The switch to oral therapy with ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole was as

  13. Global validation of the WSES Sepsis Severity Score for patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections: a prospective multicentre study (WISS Study).

    PubMed

    Sartelli, Massimo; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M; Catena, Fausto; Griffiths, Ewen A; Di Saverio, Salomone; Coimbra, Raul; Ordoñez, Carlos A; Leppaniemi, Ari; Fraga, Gustavo P; Coccolini, Federico; Agresta, Ferdinando; Abbas, Asrhaf; Abdel Kader, Saleh; Agboola, John; Amhed, Adamu; Ajibade, Adesina; Akkucuk, Seckin; Alharthi, Bandar; Anyfantakis, Dimitrios; Augustin, Goran; Baiocchi, Gianluca; Bala, Miklosh; Baraket, Oussama; Bayrak, Savas; Bellanova, Giovanni; Beltràn, Marcelo A; Bini, Roberto; Boal, Matthew; Borodach, Andrey V; Bouliaris, Konstantinos; Branger, Frederic; Brunelli, Daniele; Catani, Marco; Che Jusoh, Asri; Chichom-Mefire, Alain; Cocorullo, Gianfranco; Colak, Elif; Costa, David; Costa, Silvia; Cui, Yunfeng; Curca, Geanina Loredana; Curry, Terry; Das, Koray; Delibegovic, Samir; Demetrashvili, Zaza; Di Carlo, Isidoro; Drozdova, Nadezda; El Zalabany, Tamer; Enani, Mushira Abdulaziz; Faro, Mario; Gachabayov, Mahir; Giménez Maurel, Teresa; Gkiokas, Georgios; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Gonsaga, Ricardo Alessandro Teixeira; Guercioni, Gianluca; Guner, Ali; Gupta, Sanjay; Gutierrez, Sandra; Hutan, Martin; Ioannidis, Orestis; Isik, Arda; Izawa, Yoshimitsu; Jain, Sumita A; Jokubauskas, Mantas; Karamarkovic, Aleksandar; Kauhanen, Saila; Kaushik, Robin; Kenig, Jakub; Khokha, Vladimir; Kim, Jae Il; Kong, Victor; Koshy, Renol; Krasniqi, Avidyl; Kshirsagar, Ashok; Kuliesius, Zygimantas; Lasithiotakis, Konstantinos; Leão, Pedro; Lee, Jae Gil; Leon, Miguel; Lizarazu Pérez, Aintzane; Lohsiriwat, Varut; López-Tomassetti Fernandez, Eudaldo; Lostoridis, Eftychios; Mn, Raghuveer; Major, Piotr; Marinis, Athanasios; Marrelli, Daniele; Martinez-Perez, Aleix; Marwah, Sanjay; McFarlane, Michael; Melo, Renato Bessa; Mesina, Cristian; Michalopoulos, Nick; Moldovanu, Radu; Mouaqit, Ouadii; Munyika, Akutu; Negoi, Ionut; Nikolopoulos, Ioannis; Nita, Gabriela Elisa; Olaoye, Iyiade; Omari, Abdelkarim; Ossa, Paola Rodríguez; Ozkan, Zeynep; Padmakumar, Ramakrishnapillai; Pata, Francesco; Pereira Junior, Gerson Alves; Pereira, Jorge; Pintar, Tadeja; Pouggouras, Konstantinos; Prabhu, Vinod; Rausei, Stefano; Rems, Miran; Rios-Cruz, Daniel; Sakakushev, Boris; Sánchez de Molina, Maria Luisa; Seretis, Charampolos; Shelat, Vishal; Simões, Romeo Lages; Sinibaldi, Giovanni; Skrovina, Matej; Smirnov, Dmitry; Spyropoulos, Charalampos; Tepp, Jaan; Tezcaner, Tugan; Tolonen, Matti; Torba, Myftar; Ulrych, Jan; Uzunoglu, Mustafa Yener; van Dellen, David; van Ramshorst, Gabrielle H; Vasquez, Giorgio; Venara, Aurélien; Vereczkei, Andras; Vettoretto, Nereo; Vlad, Nutu; Yadav, Sanjay Kumar; Yilmaz, Tonguç Utku; Yuan, Kuo-Ching; Zachariah, Sanoop Koshy; Zida, Maurice; Zilinskas, Justas; Ansaloni, Luca

    2015-01-01

    To validate a new practical Sepsis Severity Score for patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) including the clinical conditions at the admission (severe sepsis/septic shock), the origin of the cIAIs, the delay in source control, the setting of acquisition and any risk factors such as age and immunosuppression. The WISS study (WSES cIAIs Score Study) is a multicenter observational study underwent in 132 medical institutions worldwide during a four-month study period (October 2014-February 2015). Four thousand five hundred thirty-three patients with a mean age of 51.2 years (range 18-99) were enrolled in the WISS study. Univariate analysis has shown that all factors that were previously included in the WSES Sepsis Severity Score were highly statistically significant between those who died and those who survived (p < 0.0001). The multivariate logistic regression model was highly significant (p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.54) and showed that all these factors were independent in predicting mortality of sepsis. Receiver Operator Curve has shown that the WSES Severity Sepsis Score had an excellent prediction for mortality. A score above 5.5 was the best predictor of mortality having a sensitivity of 89.2 %, a specificity of 83.5 % and a positive likelihood ratio of 5.4. WSES Sepsis Severity Score for patients with complicated Intra-abdominal infections can be used on global level. It has shown high sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio that may help us in making clinical decisions.

  14. Clinical characteristics of ceftriaxone plus metronidazole in complicated intra-abdominal infection

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Empirical antibiotics in complicated intra-abdominal infection (c-IAI), such as secondary peritonitis are a first step of treatment. Empirical antibiotic regimen is very diverse. Ceftriaxone plus metronidazole regimen (CMR) is one of the empirical antibiotic regimens used in treatment of c-IAI. However, although CMR is a widely used empirical antibiotic regimen, study regarding success, failure or efficacy of CMR has been poorly understood. This retrospective study is conducted to compare the clinical efficacy of this regimen in c-IAI according to clinical characteristics. Methods The subjects were patients in this hospital who were diagnosed as secondary peritonitis between 2009 and 2013. Retrospective analysis was performed based on the records made after surgery regarding clinical characteristics including albumin level, blood pressure, pulse rate, respiration rate, smoking, age, sex, body mass index, hemoglobin, coexisting disease, leukocytosis, and APACHE (acute physiology and chronic health evaluation) II score. Results A total of 114 patients were enrolled. In univariated analysis, the success and failure of CMR showed significant association with preoperative low albumin, old age, and preoperative tachycardia. In multivariated analysis, low albumin and preoperative tachycardia were significant. Conclusion It is thought that an additional antibiotic treatment plan is necessary in patients with low albumin and tachycardia when the empirical antibiotic regimen is CMR in c-IAI. Conduct of research through well-designed prospective randomized clinical study is also necessary in order to evaluate the appropriateness of CMR and decide on a proper empirical antibiotic regimen between many regimens in c-IAI based on our country. PMID:26131444

  15. Intra-abdominal infection combined with intra-abdominal hypertension aggravates the intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Ren, Jianan; Wu, Xiuwen; Li, Jieshou

    2018-02-28

    Some patients with intra-abdominal infection (IAI) may develop intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) during treatment. The present study investigated the impact of IAI combined with IAH on the intestinal mucosal barrier in a rabbit model. Forty-eight New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: (i) IAI and IAH; (ii) IAI alone; (iii) IAH alone; and (iv) Control group. IAI model: cecal ligation and puncture for 48 h; IAH model: raised intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) of 20 mmHg for 4 h. Pathological changes in intestinal mucosa were confirmed by light and scanning electron microscopy. FITC-conjugated dextran (FITC-dextran) by gavage was used to measure intestinal mucosal permeability in plasma. Endotoxin, d-Lactate, and diamine oxidase (DAO) in plasma were measured to determine intestinal mucosal damage. Malonaldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and GSH in ileum tissues were measured to evaluate intestinal mucosal oxidation and reducing state. Histopathologic scores were significantly higher in the IAI and IAH group, followed by IAI alone, IAH alone, and the control group. FITC-dextran, d-Lactate, DAO, and endotoxin in plasma and MDA in ileum tissues had similar trends. GSH and SOD were significantly lowest the in IAI and IAH group. Occludin levels were lowest in the ileums of the IAI and IAH group. All differences were statistically significant ( P -values <0.001). IAI combined with IAH aggravates damage of the intestinal mucosal barrier in a rabbit model. The combined effects were significantly more severe compared with a single factor. IAI combined with IAH should be prevented and treated effectively. © 2018 The Author(s).

  16. Phase 2, Dose-Ranging Study of Relebactam with Imipenem-Cilastatin in Subjects with Complicated Intra-abdominal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lucasti, Christopher; Vasile, Liviu; Sandesc, Dorel; Venskutonis, Donatas; McLeroth, Patrick; Lala, Mallika; Rizk, Matthew L.; Brown, Michelle L.; Losada, Maria C.; Pedley, Alison; Kartsonis, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Relebactam (REL [MK-7655]) is a novel class A/C β-lactamase inhibitor intended for use with imipenem for the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections. REL restores imipenem activity against some resistant strains of Klebsiella and Pseudomonas. In this multicenter, double-blind, controlled trial (NCT01506271), subjects who were ≥18 years of age with complicated intra-abdominal infection were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive 250 mg REL, 125 mg REL, or placebo, each given intravenously (i.v.) with 500 mg imipenem-cilastatin (IMI) every 6 h (q6h) for 4 to 14 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of microbiologically evaluable (ME) subjects with a favorable clinical response at discontinuation of i.v. therapy (DCIV). A total of 351 subjects were randomized, 347 (99%) were treated, and 255 (73%) were ME at DCIV (55% male; mean age, 49 years). The most common diagnoses were complicated appendicitis (53%) and complicated cholecystitis (17%). Thirty-six subjects (13%) had imipenem-resistant Gram-negative infections at baseline. Both REL doses plus IMI were generally well tolerated and demonstrated safety profiles similar to that of IMI alone. Clinical response rates at DCIV were similar in subjects who received 250 mg REL plus IMI (96.3%) or 125 mg REL plus IMI (98.8%), and both were noninferior to IMI alone (95.2%; one-sided P < 0.001). The treatment groups were also similar with respect to clinical response at early and late follow-up and microbiological response at all visits. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic simulations show that imipenem exposure at the proposed dose of 500 mg IMI with 250 mg REL q6h provides coverage of >90% of carbapenem-resistant bacterial strains. PMID:27503659

  17. Phase 2, Dose-Ranging Study of Relebactam with Imipenem-Cilastatin in Subjects with Complicated Intra-abdominal Infection.

    PubMed

    Lucasti, Christopher; Vasile, Liviu; Sandesc, Dorel; Venskutonis, Donatas; McLeroth, Patrick; Lala, Mallika; Rizk, Matthew L; Brown, Michelle L; Losada, Maria C; Pedley, Alison; Kartsonis, Nicholas A; Paschke, Amanda

    2016-10-01

    Relebactam (REL [MK-7655]) is a novel class A/C β-lactamase inhibitor intended for use with imipenem for the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections. REL restores imipenem activity against some resistant strains of Klebsiella and Pseudomonas In this multicenter, double-blind, controlled trial (NCT01506271), subjects who were ≥18 years of age with complicated intra-abdominal infection were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive 250 mg REL, 125 mg REL, or placebo, each given intravenously (i.v.) with 500 mg imipenem-cilastatin (IMI) every 6 h (q6h) for 4 to 14 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of microbiologically evaluable (ME) subjects with a favorable clinical response at discontinuation of i.v. therapy (DCIV). A total of 351 subjects were randomized, 347 (99%) were treated, and 255 (73%) were ME at DCIV (55% male; mean age, 49 years). The most common diagnoses were complicated appendicitis (53%) and complicated cholecystitis (17%). Thirty-six subjects (13%) had imipenem-resistant Gram-negative infections at baseline. Both REL doses plus IMI were generally well tolerated and demonstrated safety profiles similar to that of IMI alone. Clinical response rates at DCIV were similar in subjects who received 250 mg REL plus IMI (96.3%) or 125 mg REL plus IMI (98.8%), and both were noninferior to IMI alone (95.2%; one-sided P < 0.001). The treatment groups were also similar with respect to clinical response at early and late follow-up and microbiological response at all visits. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic simulations show that imipenem exposure at the proposed dose of 500 mg IMI with 250 mg REL q6h provides coverage of >90% of carbapenem-resistant bacterial strains. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Meropenem: an updated review of its use in the management of intra-abdominal infections.

    PubMed

    Lowe, M N; Lamb, H M

    2000-09-01

    Meropenem is a carbapenem antibacterial agent with a broad spectrum of activity which encompasses gram-negative, gram-positive and anaerobic bacteria. Like other carbapenems, meropenem is stable against chromosomal and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. In patients with moderate to severe intra-abdominal infections, empirical monotherapy with meropenem achieved clinical response rates ranging from 91 to 100% in 7 randomised comparative trials. Efficacy rates were similar to those of imipenem/cilastatin (94 to 97%), clindamycin plus tobramycin (93%) and, overall, to cefotaxime plus metronidazole (75 to 100%), although there were differences between trials versus this combination regimen. According to limited data, meropenem also achieved clinical response rates of over 80% in patients with severe intra-abdominal infections. Meropenem is well tolerated, the most common adverse events being diarrhoea, rash, nausea/vomiting and inflammation at the injection site which are reported in <2.5% of patients each. Meropenem also has an improved CNS tolerability profile compared with imipenem/cilastatin. Extensive comparative clinical data demonstrate that meropenem can be used effectively as empirical monotherapy in moderate to severe intra-abdominal infections. It also shows potential in the most severe forms of infection, although experience in this infection type remains limited. Compared with standard combination regimens, meropenem offers the benefits of ease of administration without the need for monitoring. It also offers improved CNS tolerability compared with imipenem/cilastatin with the option of a higher maximum dosage, which may be a particular advantage in patients with severe intra-abdominal infections.

  19. Epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-negative aerobic bacteria causing intra-abdominal infections during 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Hawser, Stephen; Hoban, Daryl J; Badal, Robert E; Bouchillon, Samuel K; Biedenbach, Douglas; Hackel, Meredith; Morrissey, Ian

    2015-02-01

    The study for monitoring antimicrobial resistance trends (SMART) surveillance program monitors the epidemiology and trends in antibiotic resistance of intra-abdominal pathogens to currently used therapies. The current report describes such trends during 2010-2011. A total of 25,746 Gram-negative clinical isolates from intra-abdominal infections were collected and classified as hospital-associated (HA) if the hospital length of stay (LOS) at the time of specimen collection was ≥48 hours, community-associated (CA) if LOS at the time of specimen collection was <48 hours, or unknown (no designation given by participating centre). A total of 92 different species were collected of which the most common was Escherichia coli: 39% of all isolates in North America to 55% in Africa. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the second most common pathogen: 11% of all isolates from Europe to 19% of all isolates from Asia. Isolates were from multiple intra-abdominal sources of which 32% were peritoneal fluid, 20% were intra-abdominal abscesses, and 16.5% were gall bladder infections. Isolates were further classified as HA (55% of all isolates), CA (39% of all isolates), or unknown (6% of all isolates). The most active antibiotics tested were imipenem, ertapenem, amikacin, and piperacillin-tazobactam. Resistance rates to all other antibiotics tested were high. Considering the current data set and high-level resistance of intra-abdominal pathogens to various antibiotics, further monitoring of the epidemiology of intra-abdominal infections and their susceptibility to antibiotics through SMART is warranted.

  20. Ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    Goodlet, Kellie J; Nicolau, David P; Nailor, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) represent a large proportion of all hospital admissions and are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the intensive care unit. Rising rates of multidrug resistant organisms (MDRO), including extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae and carbapenem-nonsusceptible Pseudomonas spp., for which there are few remaining active antimicrobial agents, pose an increased challenge to clinicians. Patients with frequent exposures to the health care system or multiple recurrent IAIs are at increased risk for MDRO; however, treatment options have traditionally been limited, in some cases necessitating the utilization of last-line agents with unfavorable side-effect profiles. Ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam are two new cephalosporin and β-lactamase inhibitor combinations with recent US Food and Drug Administration approvals for the treatment of cIAI in combination with metronidazole. Ceftolozane/tazobactam has demonstrated excellent in vitro activity against MDR and extensively drug-resistant Pseudomonas spp., including carbapenem-nonsusceptible strains, while ceftazidime/avibactam effectively inhibits a broad range of β-lactamases, making it an excellent option for the treatment of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Both agents were shown to be noninferior to meropenem for treatment of cIAI in Phase III trials; however, reduced responses in patients with renal impairment at baseline highlight the importance of routine serum creatinine monitoring and ongoing dose adjustments. This review highlights in vitro and in vivo data of these two agents and suggests their proper place in cIAI treatment to ensure adequate therapy in our most at-risk patients while sparing unnecessary use in patients without MDRO risk factors. PMID:27942218

  1. Correlation between intra-abdominal pressure and pulmonary volumes after superior and inferior abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Cleva, Roberto de; Assumpção, Marianna Siqueira de; Sasaya, Flavia; Chaves, Natalia Zuniaga; Santo, Marco Aurelio; Fló, Claudia; Lunardi, Adriana C; Jacob Filho, Wilson

    2014-07-01

    Patients undergoing abdominal surgery are at risk for pulmonary complications. The principal cause of postoperative pulmonary complications is a significant reduction in pulmonary volumes (FEV1 and FVC) to approximately 65-70% of the predicted value. Another frequent occurrence after abdominal surgery is increased intra-abdominal pressure. The aim of this study was to correlate changes in pulmonary volumes with the values of intra-abdominal pressure after abdominal surgery, according to the surgical incision in the abdomen (superior or inferior). We prospectively evaluated 60 patients who underwent elective open abdominal surgery with a surgical time greater than 240 minutes. Patients were evaluated before surgery and on the 3rd postoperative day. Spirometry was assessed by maximal respiratory maneuvers and flow-volume curves. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured in the postoperative period using the bladder technique. The mean age of the patients was 56 ± 13 years, and 41.6% 25 were female; 50 patients (83.3%) had malignant disease. The patients were divided into two groups according to the surgical incision (superior or inferior). The lung volumes in the preoperative period showed no abnormalities. After surgery, there was a significant reduction in both FEV1 (1.6 ± 0.6 L) and FVC (2.0 ± 0.7 L) with maintenance of FEV1/FVC of 0.8 ± 0.2 in both groups. The maximum intra-abdominal pressure values were similar (p=0.59) for the two groups. There was no association between pulmonary volumes and intra-abdominal pressure measured in any of the groups analyzed. Our results show that superior and inferior abdominal surgery determines hypoventilation, unrelated to increased intra-abdominal pressure. Patients at high risk of pulmonary complications should receive respiratory care even if undergoing inferior abdominal surgery.

  2. [Clinical and microbiological characteristics of complicated intra-abdominal infection in Colombia: a multicenter study].

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Marta; Cuesta, Diana P; Flórez, Luz E; Correa, Adriana; Llanos, Carmen E; Isaza, Berenice; Vanegas, Stella; Osorio, Johanna; Casanova, Lucía; Villegas, María V

    2016-06-01

    Complicated community-acquired intra-abdominal infections (CA-cIAI) are a common cause of acute abdomen. To identify the clinical and microbiology profile of CA-cIAI in four Colombian hospitals. This is a prospective, descriptive study, between 08-2012 and 09-2014, including patients with CA-cIAI > 15 years. Data collected included: socio-demographic, clinical, diagnosis, and isolates of the first culture obtained aseptically during surgery with antimicrobial susceptibility. 192 patients were included, 62% men, median age 47.3 years. Co-morbidities were present in 38.4%, 13% had been hospitalized in the previous year 13%, and 9.4% had received antibiotics in the last 6 months; 44.3% were admitted for appendicitis, 17.7% for peritonitis and 16.7% for bowel perforation. CA-cIAI were assessed as moderate in 64.1% of the cases and were treated with ampicillin/sulbactam (SAM) and ertapenem. In 70.8% of cases a bacteria was isolated: 65.1% were gramnegative rods (80.0% Escherichia coli, 44.8% of them susceptible to pipercillin/tazobactam, 65.7% to SAM; 11.2 % were K.pneumoniae, 85% was susceptible for SAM; 16.7% were grampositive cocci (28.1% Streptococci viridans group). The median hospital stay was 7 days and 15.1% died. E. coli, K. pneumoniae and S. viridans were the main organisms to consider in an empiric therapy for CA-cIAI and it is important to know the local epidemiology in order to choose the right antibiotic.

  3. Impact of Percutaneous Drainage on Outcome of Intra-abdominal Infection Associated With Pediatric Perforated Appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Bonadio, William; Langer, Miriam; Cueva, Julie; Haaland, Astrid

    2017-10-01

    Perforated appendicitis can result in potentially serious complications requiring prolonged medical care. The optimal approach to successfully managing this condition is controversial. Review of 80 consecutive cases of pediatric acute perforated appendicitis with intra-abdominal infection (IAI) medically managed with parenteral antibiotics and percutaneous drainage (PD) during a 7-year period. All patients received broad spectrum parenteral antibiotic therapy. One-third were hospitalized for >2 weeks. IAI was identified on admission in 60% compared with developing during hospitalization in 40% of cases. Before performing PD, the mean duration of antibiotic therapy in those who developed IAI during hospitalization was 6 days. IAI cultures yielded 127 bacterial isolates; polymicrobial infection occurred in 65% of cases. Only 7% of aspirates were sterile. The most common pathogens were Escherichia coli (82%), of which 5 isolates exhibited extended-spectrum β-lactamase production, and streptococci (40%). At the time of PD, 60% were febrile (mean duration of in-hospital fever, 7.5 days); 67% defervesced within 24 hours after the procedure. Posthospitalization abdominal complications (recurrent IAI or appendicitis) occurred in one-third of patients. Children with perforated appendicitis and IAI often have a complicated and prolonged clinical course. Medical management consisting solely of parenteral antibiotic therapy is frequently ineffective in resolving IAI. Rapid clinical improvement commonly follows PD.

  4. [Interventional Radiology for Intra-Abdominal Abscess after Gastrectomy].

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Norihiro; Fujitani, Kazumasa; Kawada, Junji; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Nakatsuka, Rie; Miyazaki, Susumu; Danno, Katsuki; Motoori, Masaaki; Kubota, Masaru; Matsuda, Chu; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Iwase, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Yasuhiro

    2015-11-01

    Approximately 20% of patients develop some complications after gastrectomy. These complications should be treated appropriately to achieve a positive outcome. The records of 6 patients with postoperative intra-abdominal abscesses treated with interventional radiology (IVR) were analyzed. The cause of abscess was anastomotic leakage in 4 patients and contaminated surgery after gastric perforation in 2 patients. Intra-abdominal abscesses were detected on postoperative day 12 (median), and an IVR-guided drainage tube was inserted with a median interval of 1 day. The drainage tube was kept in place for 26 days (median), and patients were discharged 6.5 days (median) after drainage tube removal. No patients were converted to open surgery. Early IVR-guided drainage was essential and effective for intra-abdominal abscess treatment after gastrectomy.

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Ceftazidime-Avibactam Plus Metronidazole Versus Meropenem in the Treatment of Complicated Intra-abdominal Infection: Results From a Randomized, Controlled, Double-Blind, Phase 3 Program

    PubMed Central

    Mazuski, John E.; Gasink, Leanne B.; Armstrong, Jon; Broadhurst, Helen; Stone, Greg G.; Rank, Douglas; Llorens, Lily; Newell, Paul; Pachl, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background. When combined with ceftazidime, the novel non–β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam provides a carbapenem alternative against multidrug-resistant infections. Efficacy and safety of ceftazidime-avibactam plus metronidazole were compared with meropenem in 1066 men and women with complicated intra-abdominal infections from 2 identical, randomized, double-blind phase 3 studies (NCT01499290 and NCT01500239). Methods. The primary end point was clinical cure at test-of-cure visit 28–35 days after randomization, assessed by noninferiority of ceftazidime-avibactam plus metronidazole to meropenem in the microbiologically modified intention-to-treat (mMITT) population (in accordance with US Food and Drug Administration guidance), and the modified intention-to-treat and clinically evaluable populations (European Medicines Agency guidance). Noninferiority was considered met if the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval for between-group difference was greater than the prespecified noninferiority margin of −12.5%. Results. Ceftazidime-avibactam plus metronidazole was noninferior to meropenem across all primary analysis populations. Clinical cure rates with ceftazidime-avibactam plus metronidazole and meropenem, respectively, were as follows: mMITT population, 81.6% and 85.1% (between-group difference, −3.5%; 95% confidence interval −8.64 to 1.58); modified intention-to-treat, 82.5% and 84.9% (−2.4%; −6.90 to 2.10); and clinically evaluable, 91.7% and 92.5% (−0.8%; −4.61 to 2.89). The clinical cure rate with ceftazidime-avibactam plus metronidazole for ceftazidime-resistant infections was comparable to that with meropenem (mMITT population, 83.0% and 85.9%, respectively) and similar to the regimen's own efficacy against ceftazidime-susceptible infections (82.0%). Adverse events were similar between groups. Conclusions. Ceftazidime-avibactam plus metronidazole was noninferior to meropenem in the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal

  6. Pelvic drainage during removal of dialysis catheter decreases the risk of subsequent intra-abdominal complications in refractory peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chih-Yang; Huang, Wei-Chieh; Huang, Chun-Kai; Huang, Chien-Wei; Chou, Nan-Hua; Lee, Po-Tsang; Fang, Hua-Chang; Chou, Kang-Ju; Chen, Chien-Liang

    2015-11-01

    Some patients with refractory peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis continue to develop intra-abdominal complications despite removal of the peritoneal catheter. Repeated percutaneous drainage or open laparotomy is often required, and mortality is not uncommon. The benefits of pelvic drainage placement during catheter removal in decreasing these complications and interventions remain unproven. Forty-six patients with refractory peritonitis who underwent removal of a Tenckhoff catheter between 1991 and 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Twelve patients had pelvic drainage using closed active suction devices during catheter removal (drainage group). The remaining 34 patients underwent catheter removal without drainage (non-drainage group). The outcomes measured were the development of intra-abdominal complications and the requirement for repeated percutaneous drainage or open laparotomy within 90 days after the catheter removal. Baseline characteristics were similar with the exception of a higher median number of previous peritonitis episodes in the drainage group compared with the non-drainage group (2 vs 0, P = 0.02). During the follow-up period, intra-abdominal complications occurred in 15 (44%) of 34 patients in the non-drainage group, compared with one (8%) of 12 patients in the drainage group (P = 0.03). Twelve (35%) patients in the non-drainage group required repeated percutaneous drainage or open laparotomy for management, compared with zero (0%) patients in the drainage group (P = 0.02). Drain tubes were removed at a median of 6 days (inter-quartile range: 5-10) without complications. In the management of refractory peritonitis, pelvic drainage during removal of dialysis catheter decreases the risk of subsequent intra-abdominal complications and invasive interventions. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  7. [Experience of the three-stage strategy for intestinal fistula complicated with complex abdominal infection].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qingchuan; Li, Xuzhao; Li, Xiaohua; Wang, Juan

    2017-03-25

    Intestinal fistula, as a serious complication after abdominal surgery, not only leads to a series of pathophysiological changes such as fluid loss, malnutrition and organ dysfunction, but also causes the severe abdominal infection, which often threatens the life of patients. How to make the diagnosis and give the treatment of intestinal fistula is the key to save the lives of high-risk patients. In our hospital, during the past course of diagnosis and treatment for intestinal fistula complicated with severe abdominal infection, based on the combination of literatures at home and abroad with our clinical experiences for many years, an effective three-stage prevention and treatment strategy was formed gradually, which included early diagnosis, effective treatment of infection source, open drainage of abdominal infection and early enteral nutrition support. This strategy subverts the traditional concept of surgery alone, and becomes an effective means to save patients with severe abdominal infection.

  8. Immune Protection against Lethal Fungal-Bacterial Intra-Abdominal Infections.

    PubMed

    Lilly, Elizabeth A; Ikeh, Melanie; Nash, Evelyn E; Fidel, Paul L; Noverr, Mairi C

    2018-01-16

    trained innate immunity. IMPORTANCE Polymicrobial intra-abdominal infections are clinically devastating infections with high mortality rates, particularly those involving fungal pathogens, including Candida species. Even in patients receiving aggressive antimicrobial therapy, mortality rates remain unacceptably high. There are no available vaccines against IAI, which is complicated by the polymicrobial nature of the infection. IAI leads to lethal systemic inflammation (sepsis), which is difficult to target pharmacologically, as components of the inflammatory response are also needed to control the infection. Our studies demonstrate that prior inoculation with low-virulence Candida species provides strong protection against subsequent lethal infection with C. albicans and S. aureus Surprisingly, protection is long-lived but not mediated by adaptive (specific) immunity. Instead, protection is dependent on cells of the innate immune system (nonspecific immunity) and provides protection against other virulent Candida species. This discovery implies that a form of trained innate immunity may be clinically effective against polymicrobial IAI. Copyright © 2018 Lilly et al.

  9. Intra-Abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Association with Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in the Endovascular Era: Vigilance Remains Critical

    PubMed Central

    Bozeman, Matthew C.; Ross, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are common complications of ruptured abdominal aortoiliac aneurysms (rAAAs) and other abdominal vascular catastrophes even in the age of endovascular therapy. Morbidity and mortality due to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ failure (MOF) are significant. Recognition and management of IAH are key critical care measures which may decrease morbidity and improve survival in these vascular patients. Two strategies have been utilized: expectant management with prompt decompressive laparotomy upon diagnosis of threshold levels of IAH versus prophylactic, delayed abdominal closure based upon clinical parameters at the time of initial repair. Competent management of the abdominal wound with preservation of abdominal domain is also an important component of the care of these patients. In this review, we describe published experience with IAH and ACS complicating abdominal vascular catastrophes, experience with ACS complicating endovascular repair of rAAAs, and techniques for management of the abdominal wound. Vigilance and appropriate management of IAH and ACS remains critically important in decreasing morbidity and optimizing survival following catastrophic intra-abdominal vascular events. PMID:22454763

  10. Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome in association with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in the endovascular era: vigilance remains critical.

    PubMed

    Bozeman, Matthew C; Ross, Charles B

    2012-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are common complications of ruptured abdominal aortoiliac aneurysms (rAAAs) and other abdominal vascular catastrophes even in the age of endovascular therapy. Morbidity and mortality due to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ failure (MOF) are significant. Recognition and management of IAH are key critical care measures which may decrease morbidity and improve survival in these vascular patients. Two strategies have been utilized: expectant management with prompt decompressive laparotomy upon diagnosis of threshold levels of IAH versus prophylactic, delayed abdominal closure based upon clinical parameters at the time of initial repair. Competent management of the abdominal wound with preservation of abdominal domain is also an important component of the care of these patients. In this review, we describe published experience with IAH and ACS complicating abdominal vascular catastrophes, experience with ACS complicating endovascular repair of rAAAs, and techniques for management of the abdominal wound. Vigilance and appropriate management of IAH and ACS remains critically important in decreasing morbidity and optimizing survival following catastrophic intra-abdominal vascular events.

  11. A Complicated Thread: Abdominal Actinomycosis in a Young Woman with Crohn Disease.

    PubMed

    Nahum, Ari; Filice, Gregory; Malhotra, Ashish

    2017-01-01

    Crohn disease is a chronic inflammatory condition that primarily affects the gastrointestinal tract. Typical manifestations include fever, weight loss, fatigue, and abdominal pain, and abdominal abscesses and fistulae are frequent complications. Abdominal actinomycosis is a subacute or indolent disease associated with Actinomyces spp. Symptoms can be very similar to those of Crohn disease, and fistulae are also common. Since ulcerations in the intestinal tract are thought to be caused by Actinomyces escaping from the gut lumen and establishing intra-abdominal infection, it seems likely that abdominal actinomycosis may occur in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. We report a case of abdominal actinomycosis in a woman with active Crohn disease.

  12. Ceftolozane/Tazobactam Plus Metronidazole for Complicated Intra-abdominal Infections in an Era of Multidrug Resistance: Results From a Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase 3 Trial (ASPECT-cIAI)

    PubMed Central

    Solomkin, Joseph; Hershberger, Ellie; Miller, Benjamin; Popejoy, Myra; Friedland, Ian; Steenbergen, Judith; Yoon, Minjung; Collins, Sylva; Yuan, Guojun; Barie, Philip S.; Eckmann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background. Increasing antimicrobial resistance among pathogens causing complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) supports the development of new antimicrobials. Ceftolozane/tazobactam, a novel antimicrobial therapy, is active against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and most extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Enterobacteriaceae. Methods. ASPECT-cIAI (Assessment of the Safety Profile and Efficacy of Ceftolozane/Tazobactam in Complicated Intra-abdominal Infections) was a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial. Hospitalized patients with cIAI received either ceftolozane/tazobactam (1.5 g) plus metronidazole (500 mg) every 8 hours or meropenem (1 g) every 8 hours intravenously for 4–14 days. The prospectively defined objectives were to demonstrate statistical noninferiority in clinical cure rates at the test-of-cure visit (24–32 days from start of therapy) in the microbiological intent-to-treat (primary) and microbiologically evaluable (secondary) populations using a noninferiority margin of 10%. Microbiological outcomes and safety were also evaluated. Results. Ceftolozane/tazobactam plus metronidazole was noninferior to meropenem in the primary (83.0% [323/389] vs 87.3% [364/417]; weighted difference, −4.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], −8.91 to .54) and secondary (94.2% [259/275] vs 94.7% [304/321]; weighted difference, −1.0%; 95% CI, −4.52 to 2.59) endpoints, meeting the prespecified noninferiority margin. In patients with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, clinical cure rates were 95.8% (23/24) and 88.5% (23/26) in the ceftolozane/tazobactam plus metronidazole and meropenem groups, respectively, and 100% (13/13) and 72.7% (8/11) in patients with CTX-M-14/15 ESBLs. The frequency of adverse events (AEs) was similar in both treatment groups (44.0% vs 42.7%); the most common AEs in either group were nausea and diarrhea. Conclusions. Treatment with ceftolozane/tazobactam plus metronidazole was noninferior to

  13. Moxifloxacin in Pediatric Patients with Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections: Results of the MOXIPEDIA Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Stefan; Emil, Sherif G S; Engelis, Arnis; Digtyar, Valeri; Criollo, Margarita; DiCasoli, Carl; Stass, Heino; Willmann, Stefan; Nkulikiyinka, Richard; Grossmann, Ulrike

    2018-01-18

    This study was designed to evaluate primarily the safety and also the efficacy of moxifloxacin (MXF) in children with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs). In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, controlled study, 451 pediatric patients aged 3 months to 17 years with cIAIs were treated with intravenous/oral MXF (N = 301) or comparator (COMP, intravenous ertapenem followed by oral amoxicillin/clavulanate; N = 150) for 5 to 14 days. Doses of MXF were selected based on the results of a Phase 1 study in pediatric patients (NCT01049022). The primary endpoint was safety, with particular focus on cardiac and musculoskeletal safety; clinical and bacteriological efficacy at test of cure were also investigated. The proportion of patients with adverse events (AEs) was comparable between the two treatment arms (MXF: 58.1% and COMP: 54.7%). The incidence of drug-related AEs was higher in the MXF arm than the COMP arm (14.3% and 6.7%, respectively). No cases of QTc interval prolongation-related morbidity or mortality were observed. The proportion of patients with musculoskeletal AEs was comparable between treatment arms; no drug-related events were reported. Clinical cure rates were 84.6% and 95.5% in the MXF and COMP arms, respectively, in patients with confirmed pathogen(s) at baseline. MXF treatment was well tolerated in children with cIAIs. However, a lower clinical cure rate was observed with MXF treatment compared with COMP. This study does not support a recommendation of MXF for children with cIAIs when alternative more efficacious antibiotics with better safety profile are available.

  14. Morphology-Independent Virulence of Candida Species during Polymicrobial Intra-abdominal Infections with Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Evelyn E.; Peters, Brian M.; Fidel, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    Intra-abdominal polymicrobial infections cause significant morbidity and mortality. An experimental mouse model of Candida albicans-Staphylococcus aureus intra-abdominal infection (IAI) results in 100% mortality by 48 to 72 h postinoculation, while monomicrobial infections are avirulent. Mortality is associated with robust local and systemic inflammation without a requirement for C. albicans morphogenesis. However, the contribution of virulence factors coregulated during the yeast-to-hypha transition is unknown. This also raised the question of whether other Candida species that are unable to form hyphae are as virulent as C. albicans during polymicrobial IAI. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of non-albicans Candida (NAC) species with various morphologies and C. albicans transcription factor mutants (efg1/efg1 and cph1/cph1) to induce synergistic mortality and the accompanying inflammation. Results showed that S. aureus coinoculated with C. krusei or C. tropicalis was highly lethal, similar to C. albicans, while S. aureus-C. dubliniensis, S. aureus-C. parapsilosis, and S. aureus-C. glabrata coinoculations resulted in little to no mortality. Local and systemic interleukin-6 (IL-6) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels were significantly elevated during symptomatic and/or lethal coinfections, and hypothermia strongly correlated with mortality. Coinoculation with C. albicans strains deficient in the transcription factor Efg1 but not Cph1 reversed the lethal outcome. These results support previous findings and demonstrate that select Candida species, without reference to any morphological requirement, induce synergistic mortality, with IL-6 and PGE2 acting as key inflammatory factors. Mechanistically, signaling pathways controlled by Efg1 are critical for the ability of C. albicans to induce mortality from an intra-abdominal polymicrobial infection. PMID:26483410

  15. Morphology-Independent Virulence of Candida Species during Polymicrobial Intra-abdominal Infections with Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Nash, Evelyn E; Peters, Brian M; Fidel, Paul L; Noverr, Mairi C

    2016-01-01

    Intra-abdominal polymicrobial infections cause significant morbidity and mortality. An experimental mouse model of Candida albicans-Staphylococcus aureus intra-abdominal infection (IAI) results in 100% mortality by 48 to 72 h postinoculation, while monomicrobial infections are avirulent. Mortality is associated with robust local and systemic inflammation without a requirement for C. albicans morphogenesis. However, the contribution of virulence factors coregulated during the yeast-to-hypha transition is unknown. This also raised the question of whether other Candida species that are unable to form hyphae are as virulent as C. albicans during polymicrobial IAI. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of non-albicans Candida (NAC) species with various morphologies and C. albicans transcription factor mutants (efg1/efg1 and cph1/cph1) to induce synergistic mortality and the accompanying inflammation. Results showed that S. aureus coinoculated with C. krusei or C. tropicalis was highly lethal, similar to C. albicans, while S. aureus-C. dubliniensis, S. aureus-C. parapsilosis, and S. aureus-C. glabrata coinoculations resulted in little to no mortality. Local and systemic interleukin-6 (IL-6) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels were significantly elevated during symptomatic and/or lethal coinfections, and hypothermia strongly correlated with mortality. Coinoculation with C. albicans strains deficient in the transcription factor Efg1 but not Cph1 reversed the lethal outcome. These results support previous findings and demonstrate that select Candida species, without reference to any morphological requirement, induce synergistic mortality, with IL-6 and PGE2 acting as key inflammatory factors. Mechanistically, signaling pathways controlled by Efg1 are critical for the ability of C. albicans to induce mortality from an intra-abdominal polymicrobial infection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Management of intra-abdominal infections: recommendations by the WSES 2016 consensus conference.

    PubMed

    Sartelli, Massimo; Catena, Fausto; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M; Ansaloni, Luca; Biffl, Walter L; Boermeester, Marja A; Ceresoli, Marco; Chiara, Osvaldo; Coccolini, Federico; De Waele, Jan J; Di Saverio, Salomone; Eckmann, Christian; Fraga, Gustavo P; Giannella, Maddalena; Girardis, Massimo; Griffiths, Ewen A; Kashuk, Jeffry; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Khokha, Vladimir; Kluger, Yoram; Labricciosa, Francesco M; Leppaniemi, Ari; Maier, Ronald V; May, Addison K; Malangoni, Mark; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Mazuski, John; Montravers, Philippe; Peitzman, Andrew; Pereira, Bruno M; Reis, Tarcisio; Sakakushev, Boris; Sganga, Gabriele; Soreide, Kjetil; Sugrue, Michael; Ulrych, Jan; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Viale, Pierluigi; Moore, Ernest E

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the consensus conference on the management of intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) which was held on July 23, 2016, in Dublin, Ireland, as a part of the annual World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) meeting. This document covers all aspects of the management of IAIs. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation recommendation is used, and this document represents the executive summary of the consensus conference findings.

  17. Modified laparoscopic placement of peritoneal dialysis catheter with intra-abdominal fixation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Quanquan; Jiang, Xinxin; Shen, Xiaogang; Yu, Fangyan; Tu, Qiudi; Chen, Wangfang; Ye, Qing; Behera, Tapas Ranjan; He, Qiang

    2017-08-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a commonly accepted method of treating end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Various laparoscopic techniques for the placement of PD catheter have been described. In this study, we developed a novel modified laparoscopic technique for PD catheter placement and evaluated the early results. A straight Tenckhoff PD catheter was placed employing the modified technique in 39 consecutive patients with ESRD from May 2013 to April 2016. The technique is laparoscopically guided intra-abdominal fixation of the PD catheter tip at one point by using suture passer hernia forceps. Individual information including sex, age, primary disease etiology, complications, surgical duration, morbidity, mortality and catheter survival was collected and analyzed. The modified laparoscopic procedure was effectively performed in all patients with a mean operative time of 45 ± 7 min. No conversions from laparoscopy to open surgery of catheter placement occurred. There was one case showing early pericatheter leakage. There were no serious complications, such as bleeding, abdominal wall hernias, distal catheter cuff extrusion and infections of the exit site or tunnel during surgery or the postoperative duration. No mortality was observed in this group of patients. The 6-month follow-up study showed 100% catheter-related complication-free survival. Our modified laparoscopic intra-abdominal fixation technique using suture passer hernia forceps is a simple and safe method for PD catheter placement and is effective in minimizing the risk of catheter migration.

  18. Conservative management of post-appendicectomy intra-abdominal abscesses.

    PubMed

    Ben Dhaou, Mahdi; Ghorbel, Sofiene; Chouikh, Taieb; Charieg, Awatef; Nouira, Faouzi; Ben Khalifa, Sonia; Khemakhem, Rachid; Jlidi, Said; Chaouachi, Béji

    2010-10-14

    Appendicitis is the most common abdominal inflammatory process in children which were sometimes followed by complications including intra-abdominal abscess. This later needs classically a surgical drainage. We evaluated the efficacy of antibiotic treatment and surgical drainage. Hospital records of children treated in our unit for intra-abdominal post appendectomy abscesses over a 6 years period were reviewed retrospectively. This study investigates a series of 14 children from 2 to 13 years of age with one or many abscesses after appendectomy, treated between 2002 and 2007. Seven underwent surgery and the others were treated with triple antibiotherapy. The two groups were comparable. For the 7 patients who receive medical treatment alone, it was considered efficient in 6 cases (85%) with clinical, biological and radiological recovery of the abscess. There was one failure (14%). The duration of hospitalization from the day of diagnosis of intra-abdominal abscess was approximately 10.28 days (range 7 to 14 days). In the other group, the efficacy of treatment was considered satisfactory in all cases. The duration of hospitalization was about 13 days (range: 9 to 20). Compared to surgical drainage, antibiotic management of intra-abdominal abscesses was a no invasive treatment with shorter hospitalization.

  19. Conservative management of post-appendicectomy intra-abdominal abscesses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Appendicitis is the most common abdominal inflammatory process in children which were sometimes followed by complications including intra-abdominal abscess. This later needs classically a surgical drainage. We evaluated the efficacy of antibiotic treatment and surgical drainage. Methods Hospital records of children treated in our unit for intra-abdominal post appendectomy abscesses over a 6 years period were reviewed retrospectively. Results This study investigates a series of 14 children from 2 to 13 years of age with one or many abscesses after appendectomy, treated between 2002 and 2007. Seven underwent surgery and the others were treated with triple antibiotherapy. The two groups were comparable. For the 7 patients who receive medical treatment alone, it was considered efficient in 6 cases (85%) with clinical, biological and radiological recovery of the abscess. There was one failure (14%). The duration of hospitalization from the day of diagnosis of intra-abdominal abscess was approximately 10.28 days (range 7 to 14 days). In the other group, the efficacy of treatment was considered satisfactory in all cases. The duration of hospitalization was about 13 days (range: 9 to 20). Conclusion Compared to surgical drainage, antibiotic management of intra-abdominal abscesses was a no invasive treatment with shorter hospitalization. PMID:20946659

  20. Addressing social influences reduces antibiotic duration in complicated abdominal infection: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Broom, Jennifer; Tee, Chin Li; Broom, Alex; Kelly, Mark D; Scott, Tahira; Grieve, David A

    2018-03-06

    Antimicrobial therapy for intra-abdominal infections is often inappropriately prolonged. An intervention addressing factors influencing the duration of intravenous antibiotic use was undertaken. This study reports the antibiotic prescribing patterns before and after the intervention and a qualitative analysis of the experience of the intervention. Quantitative: A retrospective audit of patients with complicated intra-abdominal infection before and after a multifaceted persuasive intervention was performed. Qualitative: Semi-structured interviews were performed to evaluate which elements of the intervention were perceived to be effective. An intervention including collaborative inter-specialty and inter-professional educational meetings, and education of all professional streams was undertaken. Quantitative: Twenty-three patients before and 22 patients after the intervention were included. The total duration of antibiotics decreased significantly following the intervention (9.2 versus 6.6 days P = 0.02). The duration of intravenous antibiotics did not change significantly (5.4 versus 4.5 days, P = 0.06). Qualitative: Eighteen health-care professionals participated. Thematic analysis indicated that a collaborative approach between senior surgical and infectious disease specialists in the pre-intervention stage led to perceived ownership and leadership of the intervention by the surgical team, which was thought critical to the success of the intervention. Conversely, the ability of nurses and pharmacists to influence antibiotic practice was considered limited and a poster promoting the intervention was perceived as ineffective. Consultant leadership and specialty ownership of the process were perceived to be critical in the success of the intervention. Antibiotic stewardship programs which address social factors may have greater efficacy to optimize antimicrobial prescribing. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  1. Intra-abdominal pressure during swimming.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, S; Ogita, F; Huang, Z; Kurobe, K; Nagira, A; Tanaka, T; Takahashi, H; Hirano, Y

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to determine the intra-abdominal pressure during front crawl swimming at different velocities in competitive swimmers and to clarify the relationships between stroke indices and changes in intra-abdominal pressure. The subjects were 7 highly trained competitive collegiate male swimmers. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured during front crawl swimming at 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 m · s(-1) and during the Valsalva maneuver. Intra-abdominal pressure was taken as the difference between minimum and maximum values, and the mean of 6 stable front crawl stroke cycles was used. Stroke rate and stroke length were also measured as stroke indices. There were significant differences in stroke rate among all velocities (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in stroke length by velocity. Significant within-subject correlations between intra-abdominal pressure and stroke rate or stroke length (P < 0.01) were observed, although there were no significant correlations between intra-abdominal pressure and stroke indices when controlling for swimming velocity. These findings do not appear to support the effectiveness of trunk training performed by competitive swimmers aimed at increasing intra-abdominal pressure. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Morphogenesis Is Not Required for Candida albicans-Staphylococcus aureus Intra-Abdominal Infection-Mediated Dissemination and Lethal Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Evelyn E.; Peters, Brian M.; Palmer, Glen E.; Fidel, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Intra-abdominal polymicrobial infections cause significant morbidity and mortality. An established experimental mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus-Candida albicans intra-abdominal infection results in ∼60% mortality within 48 h postinoculation, concomitant with amplified local inflammatory responses, while monomicrobial infections are avirulent. The purpose of this study was to characterize early local and systemic innate responses during coinfection and determine the role of C. albicans morphogenesis in lethality, a trait involved in virulence and physical interaction with S. aureus. Local and systemic proinflammatory cytokines were significantly elevated during coinfection at early time points (4 to 12 h) compared to those in monoinfection. In contrast, microbial burdens in the organs and peritoneal lavage fluid were similar between mono- and coinfected animals through 24 h, as was peritoneal neutrophil infiltration. After optimizing the model for 100% mortality within 48 h, using 3.5 × 107 C. albicans (5× increase), coinfection with C. albicans yeast-locked or hypha-locked mutants showed similar mortality, dissemination, and local and systemic inflammation to the isogenic control. However, coinfection with the yeast-locked C. albicans mutant given intravenously (i.v.) and S. aureus given intraperitoneally (i.p.) failed to induce mortality. These results suggest a unique intra-abdominal interaction between the host and C. albicans-S. aureus that results in strong inflammatory responses, dissemination, and lethal sepsis, independent of C. albicans morphogenesis. PMID:24891104

  3. Successful medical management of intra-abdominal abscesses in 4 adult horses

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Dalia; Kelmer, Gal; Steinman, Amir; Sutton, Gail A.

    2013-01-01

    Four adult horses with large intra-abdominal abscesses, suspected to be complications of strangles, were treated with systemic antibiotics alone and made a full recovery. The 100% survival rate is significantly better than other reported survival rates. The median duration of treatment (35 days) was shorter than in most previous reports. This study suggests that penicillin G can be used for successful treatment of strangles associated intra-abdominal abscesses in horses. PMID:23904639

  4. Severity and treatment of "occult" intra-abdominal injuries in blunt trauma victims.

    PubMed

    Parreira, José G; Oliari, Camilla B; Malpaga, Juliano M D; Perlingeiro, Jacqueline A G; Soldá, Silvia C; Assef, José C

    2016-01-01

    to assess the severity and treatment of "occult" intra-abdominal injuries in blunt trauma victims. Retrospective analysis of charts and trauma register data of adult blunt trauma victims, admitted without abdominal pain or alterations in the abdominal physical examination, but were subsequently diagnosed with intra-abdominal injuries, in a period of 2 years. The severity was stratified according to RTS, AIS, OIS and ISS. The specific treatment for abdominal injuries and the complications related to them were assessed. Intra-abdominal injuries were diagnosed in 220 (3.8%) out of the 5785 blunt trauma victims and 76 (34.5%) met the inclusion criteria. The RTS and ISS median (lower quartile, upper quartile) were 7.84 (6.05, 7.84) and 25 (16, 34). Sixty seven percent had a GCS≥13 on admission. Injuries were identified in the spleen (34), liver (33), kidneys (9), intestines (4), diaphragm (3), bladder (3) and iliac vessels (1). Abdominal injuries scored AIS≥3 in 67% of patients. Twenty-one patients (28%) underwent laparotomy, 5 of which were nontherapeutic. The surgical procedures performed were splenectomy (8), suturing of the diaphragm (3), intestines (3), bladder (2), kidneys (1), enterectomy/anastomosis (1), ligation of the common iliac vein (1), and revascularization of the common iliac artery (1). Angiography and embolization of liver and/or spleen injuries were performed in 3 cases. Three patients developed abdominal complications, all of which were operatively treated. There were no deaths directly related to the abdominal injuries. Severe "occult" intra-abdominal injuries, requiring specific treatment, may be present in adult blunt trauma patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of developing of intra abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Aim: This review seeks to define IAH and ACS, identify the aetiology and presentation of IAH and ACS, identify IAP measurement techniques, identify current management and discuss the implications of IAH and ACS for nursing practice. A search of the electronic databases was supervised by a health librarian. The electronic data bases Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Medline, EMBASE, and the World Wide Web was undertaken from 1996- January 2011 using MeSH and key words which included but not limited to: abdominal compartment syndrome, intra -abdominal hypertension, intra-abdominal pressure in adult populations met the search criteria and were reviewed by three authors using a critical appraisal tool. Data derived from the retrieved material are discussed under the following themes: (1) etiology of intra-abdominal hypertension; (2) strategies for measuring intra-abdominal pressure (3) the manifestation of abdominal compartment syndrome; and (4) the importance of nursing assessment, observation and interventions. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have the potential to alter organ perfusion and compromise organ function. PMID:24499574

  6. Peripheral blood leucocytes show differential expression of tumour progression-related genes in colorectal cancer patients who have a postoperative intra-abdominal infection: a prospective matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Alonso, S; Mayol, X; Nonell, L; Salvans, S; Pascual, M; Pera, M

    2017-05-01

    Anastomotic leak is associated with higher rates of recurrence after surgery for colorectal cancer. However, the mechanisms responsible are unknown. We hypothesized that the infection-induced inflammatory response may induce overexpression of tumour progression-related genes in immune cells. The aim was to investigate the effect of postoperative intra-abdominal infection on the gene expression patterns of peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) after surgery for colorectal cancer. Prospective matched cohort study. Patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer were included. Patients who had anastomotic leak or intra-abdominal abscess were included in the infection group (n = 23) and matched with patients without complications for the control group (n = 23). PBL were isolated from postoperative blood samples. Total RNA was extracted and hybridized to the Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST microarray. Patients in the infection group displayed 162 upregulated genes and 146 downregulated genes with respect to the control group. Upregulated genes included examples coding for secreted cytokines involved in tumour growth and invasion (S100P, HGF, MMP8, MMP9, PDGFC, IL1R2). Infection also upregulated some proangiogenic genes (CEP55, TRPS1) and downregulated some inhibitors of angiogenesis (MME, ALOX15, CXCL10). Finally, some inhibitors (HP, ORM1, OLFM4, IRAK3) and activators (GNLY, PRF1, FGFBP2) of antitumour immunity were upregulated and downregulated, respectively, suggesting that the inflammatory environment caused by a postoperative infection favours immune evasion mechanisms of the tumour. Analysis of PBL shows differential expression of certain tumour progression-related genes in colorectal cancer patients who have a postoperative intra-abdominal infection, which in turn may promote the growth of residual cancer cells to become recurrent tumours. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility of gram-negative pathogens isolated from patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections in South African hospitals (SMART Study 2004-2009): impact of the new carbapenem breakpoints.

    PubMed

    Brink, Adrian J; Botha, Roelof F; Poswa, Xoliswa; Senekal, Marthinus; Badal, Robert E; Grolman, David C; Richards, Guy A; Feldman, Charles; Boffard, Kenneth D; Veller, Martin; Joubert, Ivan; Pretorius, Jan

    2012-02-01

    The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) follows trends in resistance among aerobic and facultative anaerobic gram-negative bacilli (GNB) isolated from complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) in patients around the world. During 2004-2009, three centralized clinical microbiology laboratories serving 59 private hospitals in three large South African cities collected 1,218 GNB from complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) and tested them for susceptibility to 12 antibiotics according to the 2011 Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Enterobacteriaceae comprised 83.7% of the isolates. Escherichia coli was the species isolated most commonly (46.4%), and 7.6% of these were extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive. The highest ESBL rate was documented for Klebsiella pneumoniae (41.2%). Overall, ertapenem was the antibiotic most active against susceptible species for which it has breakpoints (94.6%) followed by amikacin (91.9%), piperacillin-tazobactam (89.3%), and imipenem-cilastatin (87.1%), whereas rates of resistance to ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin were documented to be 29.7%, 28.7%, 22.5%, and 21.1%, respectively. Multi-drug resistance (MDR), defined as resistance to three or more antibiotic classes, was significantly more common in K. pneumoniae (27.9%) than in E. coli (4.9%; p<0.0001) or Proteus mirabilis (4.1%; p<0.05). Applying the new CLSI breakpoints for carbapenems, susceptibility to ertapenem was reduced significantly in ESBL-positive E. coli compared with ESBL-negative isolates (91% vs. 98%; p<0.05), but this did not apply to imipenem-cilastatin (95% vs. 99%; p=0.0928). A large disparity between imipenem-cilastatin and ertapenem susceptibility in P. mirabilis and Morganella morganii was documented (24% vs. 96% and 15% vs. 92%, respectively), as most isolates of these two species had imipenem-cilastatin minimum inhibitory concentrations in the 2-4 mcg/mL range, which

  8. Dynamics of albumin synthetic response to intra-abdominal abscess in patients with gastrointestinal fistula.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bo; Ren, Jianan; Han, Gang; Chen, Yu; A, Jiye; Gu, Guosheng; Chen, Jun; Wang, Gefei; Li, Jieshou

    2014-04-01

    Low serum albumin concentration is a predictor of failure of source control for intra-abdominal infection. However, data on dynamics of albumin synthesis in these patients and to what extent these changes contribute to hypoalbuminemia are relatively scarce. We investigated in a group of patients with gastrointestinal fistula the dynamic response of liver albumin synthesis to intra-abdominal abscess and how these related to hypoalbuminemia and circulating endocrine hormone profiles. Eight gastrointestinal fistula patients scheduled to undergo percutaneous abscess sump drainage were enrolled prospectively to measure albumin synthesis rates at different stages of the inflammatory response (immediately after diagnosis and 7 d following sump drainage when clinical signs of intra-abdominal sepsis had been eradicated). Eight age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched intestinal fistula patients were studied as control patients. Consecutive arterial blood samples were drawn during a primed-constant infusion (priming dose: 4 micromol·kg(-1), infusion rate: 6 micromol·kg(-1)·min(-1)) to determine the incorporation rate of L-[ring-(2)H5]-phenylalanine directly into plasma albumin using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Patients suffering from intra-abdominal infection had reduced plasma albumin and total plasma protein concentrations, compared with control patients. Albumin fractional synthesis rates in patients with intra-abdominal abscess were decreased, compared with those in the control group. When the source of infection was removed, albumin synthesis rates returned to control values, whereas albumin concentrations did not differ significantly from the corresponding concentrations in control subjects and patients with intra-abdominal abscess. Despite nutritional intervention, albumin synthesis rate is decreased in intestinal fistula patients with intra-abdominal abscess; albumin synthesis returns to control values during convalescence.

  9. Dynamics of Albumin Synthetic Response to Intra-Abdominal Abscess in Patients with Gastrointestinal Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bo; Han, Gang; Chen, Yu; A, Jiye; Gu, Guosheng; Chen, Jun; Wang, Gefei; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Low serum albumin concentration is a predictor of failure of source control for intra-abdominal infection. However, data on dynamics of albumin synthesis in these patients and to what extent these changes contribute to hypoalbuminemia are relatively scarce. We investigated in a group of patients with gastrointestinal fistula the dynamic response of liver albumin synthesis to intra-abdominal abscess and how these related to hypoalbuminemia and circulating endocrine hormone profiles. Methods: Eight gastrointestinal fistula patients scheduled to undergo percutaneous abscess sump drainage were enrolled prospectively to measure albumin synthesis rates at different stages of the inflammatory response (immediately after diagnosis and 7 d following sump drainage when clinical signs of intra-abdominal sepsis had been eradicated). Eight age-, sex-, and body mass index–matched intestinal fistula patients were studied as control patients. Consecutive arterial blood samples were drawn during a primed-constant infusion (priming dose: 4 micromol·kg−1, infusion rate: 6 micromol·kg−1·min−1) to determine the incorporation rate of L-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine directly into plasma albumin using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Results: Patients suffering from intra-abdominal infection had reduced plasma albumin and total plasma protein concentrations, compared with control patients. Albumin fractional synthesis rates in patients with intra-abdominal abscess were decreased, compared with those in the control group. When the source of infection was removed, albumin synthesis rates returned to control values, whereas albumin concentrations did not differ significantly from the corresponding concentrations in control subjects and patients with intra-abdominal abscess. Conclusion: Despite nutritional intervention, albumin synthesis rate is decreased in intestinal fistula patients with intra-abdominal abscess; albumin synthesis returns to

  10. Intra-Abdominal and Intra-Thoracic Pressures during Lifting and Jumping,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    12,15,16,20). The oblique and transverse abdominal muscles, but not the rectus abdominus, have been shown via electromyography (EM0) to be primary...RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Intra- abdominal and intra-thoracic pressures during lifting and...pressure (ITP) and intra- abdominal pressure (lAP) during lifting and jumping, 11 males were monitored as they performed the dead lift (DL), slide row

  11. Postoperative intra-abdominal collections using a sodium hyaluronate-carboxymethylcellulose (HA-CMC) barrier at the time of laparotomy for ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancers.

    PubMed

    Leitao, Mario M; Natenzon, Anna; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R; Chi, Dennis S; Sonoda, Yukio; Levine, Douglas A; Gardner, Ginger J; Barakat, Richard R

    2009-11-01

    To determine whether HA-CMC was associated with the development of postoperative intra-abdominal collections in patients undergoing laparotomy for ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal malignancies. We retrospectively identified all laparotomies performed for these malignancies from March 1, 2005 to December 31, 2007. The use of HA-CMC was identified. Laparotomies for malignant bowel obstruction or repair of fistulae were excluded. Intra-abdominal collections, non-infected and infected, were defined as localized intraperitoneal fluid accumulations in the absence of re-accumulating ascites. All other complications were also captured. Appropriate statistical tests were applied using SPSS 15.0. We identified 219 laparotomies with HA-CMC and 204 without HA-CMC. Upper abdominal resections were performed in 65/219 (30%) HA-CMC cases compared to 39/204 (19%) cases without HA-CMC (P=0.01). The rates of large bowel and/or rectal resections were similar in both cohorts. Intra-abdominal collections were seen in 18/219 (8.2%) HA-CMC cases compared to 5/204 (2.5%) cases without HA-CMC (P=0.009). HA-CMC was independently associated with the diagnosis of a postoperative intra-abdominal collection (P=0.01). All but 2 collections developed in patients undergoing debulking procedures. HA-CMC appears to be associated with a higher rate of postoperative intra-abdominal collections. This seems to be greatest in patients who are undergoing a debulking procedure.

  12. Intra-abdominal abscess demonstrating an unusually large intra-abdominal pattern on an indium-111 leukocyte scan

    SciTech Connect

    Black, R.R.; Fernandez-Ulloa, M.; ter Penning, B.

    1988-12-01

    Indium-111 WBC imaging of a patient with occult septicemia revealed a large focal pattern of radiopharmaceutical distribution within the abdominal cavity at 24 hours post radiopharmaceutical administration. This finding was felt to represent a large intra-abdominal abscess. A five liter peritoneal abscess was found at surgery. This case illustrates an unusual presentation of an intra-abdominal abscess.

  13. Validation of a coding algorithm for intra-abdominal surgeries and adhesion-related complications in an electronic medical records database

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Frank I; Mamtani, Ronac; Haynes, Kevin; Goldberg, David S; Mahmoud, Najjia N.; Lewis, James D

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Epidemiological data on adhesion-related complications following intra-abdominal surgery are limited. We tested the accuracy of recording of these surgeries and complications within The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a primary care database within the United Kingdom. METHODS Individuals within THIN from 1995–2011 with an incident intra-abdominal surgery and subsequent bowel obstruction (SBO) or adhesiolysis were identified using diagnostic codes. To compute positive predictive values (PPVs), requests were sent to treating physicians of patients with these diagnostic codes to confirm the surgery, SBO, or adhesiolysis code. Completeness of recording was estimated by comparing observed surgical rates within THIN to expected rates derived from the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) dataset within England. Cumulative incidence rates of adhesion-related complications at 5 years were compared to a previously published cohort within Scotland. RESULTS 217 of 245 (89%) questionnaires were returned (180 SBO and 37 adhesiolysis). The PPV of codes for surgery was 94.5% (95%CI: 91–97%). 88.8% of procedure types were correctly coded. The PPV for SBO and adhesiolysis was 86.1% (95% CI: 80–91%) and 89.2% (95% CI: 75–97%), respectively. Colectomy, appendectomy, and cholecystectomy rates within THIN were 99%, 95%, and 84% of rates observed in national HES data, respectively. Cumulative incidence rates of adhesion related complications following colectomy, appendectomy, and small bowel surgery were similar to those published previously. CONCLUSIONS Surgical procedures, SBO, and adhesiolysis can be accurately identified within THIN using diagnostic codes. THIN represents a new tool for assessing patient-specific risk factors for adhesion-related complications and long term outcomes. PMID:26860870

  14. Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome in pediatrics. A review.

    PubMed

    Thabet, Farah Chedly; Ejike, Janeth Chiaka

    2017-10-01

    To consolidate pediatric intensivists' understanding of the pathophysiology, definition, incidence, monitoring, and management of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS); and to highlight the characteristics related to the pediatric population. This is a narrative review article that utilized a systematic search of the medical literature published in the English language between January 1990 and august 2016. Studies were identified by conducting a comprehensive search of Pub Med databases. Search terms included "intra-abdominal hypertension and child", "intra-abdominal hypertension and pediatrics", "abdominal compartment syndrome and child", and "abdominal compartment syndrome and pediatrics". Intra-abdominal hypertension and ACS are associated with a number of pathophysiological disturbances and increased morbidity and mortality. These conditions have been well described in critically ill adults. In children, the IAH and the ACS have a reported incidence of 13% and 0.6 to 10% respectively; they carry similar prognostic impact but are still under-diagnosed and under-recognized by pediatric health care providers. Intra-abdominal hypertension and ACS are conditions that are regularly encountered in critically ill children. They are associated with an increased morbidity and mortality. Early recognition, prevention and timely management of this critical condition are necessary to improve its outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Emodin on Preventing Postoperative Intra-Abdominal Adhesion Formation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Guangbing; Wu, Yunhua; Gao, Qi; Zhou, Cancan; Wang, Kai; Shen, Cong; Wang, Guanghui; Wang, Kang; Sun, Xuejun; Li, Xuqi

    2017-01-01

    Postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions are a major complication after abdominal surgery. Although various methods have been used to prevent and treat adhesions, the effects have not been satisfactory. Emodin, a naturally occurring anthraquinone derivative and an active ingredient in traditional Chinese herbs, exhibits a variety of pharmacological effects. In our study, we demonstrated the effect of emodin treatment on preventing postoperative adhesion formation. A total of 48 rats were divided into six groups. Abdominal adhesions were created by abrasion of the cecum and its opposite abdominal wall. In the experimental groups, the rats were administered daily oral doses of emodin. On the seventh day after operation, the rats were euthanized, and blood and pathological specimens were collected. Abdominal adhesion formation was evaluated by necropsy, pathology, immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analyses. Abdominal adhesions were markedly reduced by emodin treatment. Compared with the control group, collagen deposition was reduced and the peritoneal mesothelial completeness rate was higher in the emodin-treated groups. Emodin had anti-inflammatory effects, reduced oxidative stress, and promoted the movement of the intestinal tract ( P < 0.05). Emodin significantly reduced intra-abdominal adhesion formation in a rat model.

  16. Traumatic abdominal hernia complicated by necrotizing fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Aleix; Garrigós-Ortega, Gonzalo; Gómez-Abril, Segundo Ángel; Martí-Martínez, Eva; Torres-Sánchez, Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a critical illness involving skin and soft tissues, which may develop after blunt abdominal trauma causing abdominal wall hernia and representing a great challenge for physicians. A 52-year-old man was brought to the emergency department after a road accident, presenting blunt abdominal trauma with a large non-reducible mass in the lower-right abdomen. A first, CT showed abdominal hernia without signs of complication. Three hours after ICU admission, he developed hemodynamic instability. Therefore, a new CT scan was requested, showing signs of hernia complication. He was moved to the operating room where a complete transversal section of an ileal loop was identified. Five hours after surgery, he presented a new episode of hemodynamic instability with signs of skin and soft tissue infection. Due to the high clinical suspicion of necrotizing fasciitis development, wide debridement was performed. Following traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH), patients can present unsuspected injuries in abdominal organs. Helical CT can be falsely negative in the early moments, leading to misdiagnosis. Necrotizing fasciitis is a potentially fatal infection and, consequently, resuscitation measures, wide-spectrum antibiotics, and early surgical debridement are required. This type of fasciitis can develop after blunt abdominal trauma following wall hernia without skin disruption.

  17. Jávea consensus guidelines for the treatment of Candida peritonitis and other intra-abdominal fungal infections in non-neutropenic critically ill adult patients.

    PubMed

    Pemán, Javier; Aguilar, Gerardo; Valía, Juan Carlos; Salavert, Miguel; Navarro, David; Zaragoza, Rafael

    Although the management of the invasive candidiasis has improved in the last decade, controversial issues yet remain, especially in the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to Candida peritonitis and other forms of intra-abdominal fungal infections. We sought to identify core clinical knowledge about intra-abdominal fungal infections and to achieve high-agreement recommendations required to care for critically ill adult patients with Candida peritonitis and other forms of intra-abdominal fungal infection. A biregional Spanish survey, to elucidate the consensus about the already mentioned fungal infections by means of the Delphi technique, was conducted anonymously by e-mail with 29 multidisciplinary experts in invasive fungal infections from 14 hospitals in the Valencia and Murcia communities during 2014. Respondents included intensivists, anesthesiologists, microbiologists, pharmacologists, and infectious disease specialists, who answered 31 questions prepared by a coordination group after a strict review of the literature from the 5 previous years. The educational objectives spanned 6 categories: epidemiology, microbiological diagnosis, clinical diagnosis, antifungal treatment, de-escalation therapy, and special situations. The agreement required among the panelists for each item to be selected had to be higher than 70%. After extracting the recommendations from the selected items, a meeting at which the experts were asked to validate the previously selected recommendations in a second round of scoring took place. After the second round, 36 recommendations were validated according to the following distribution: epidemiology (5), microbiological diagnosis (4), clinical diagnosis (4), antifungal treatment (3), de-escalation therapy (4), and special situations (16). Treatment of Candida peritonitis and other forms of intra-abdominal fungal infections in ICU patients requires a broad range of knowledge application and skills that our recommendations address. Based

  18. Effect of Emodin on Preventing Postoperative Intra-Abdominal Adhesion Formation

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Guangbing; Zhou, Cancan; Wang, Guanghui; Wang, Kang

    2017-01-01

    Background Postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions are a major complication after abdominal surgery. Although various methods have been used to prevent and treat adhesions, the effects have not been satisfactory. Emodin, a naturally occurring anthraquinone derivative and an active ingredient in traditional Chinese herbs, exhibits a variety of pharmacological effects. In our study, we demonstrated the effect of emodin treatment on preventing postoperative adhesion formation. Materials and Methods A total of 48 rats were divided into six groups. Abdominal adhesions were created by abrasion of the cecum and its opposite abdominal wall. In the experimental groups, the rats were administered daily oral doses of emodin. On the seventh day after operation, the rats were euthanized, and blood and pathological specimens were collected. Abdominal adhesion formation was evaluated by necropsy, pathology, immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analyses. Results Abdominal adhesions were markedly reduced by emodin treatment. Compared with the control group, collagen deposition was reduced and the peritoneal mesothelial completeness rate was higher in the emodin-treated groups. Emodin had anti-inflammatory effects, reduced oxidative stress, and promoted the movement of the intestinal tract (P < 0.05). Conclusion Emodin significantly reduced intra-abdominal adhesion formation in a rat model. PMID:28831292

  19. Complicated acute appendicitis presenting as a rapidly progressive soft tissue infection of the abdominal wall: a case report.

    PubMed

    Beerle, Corinne; Gelpke, Hans; Breitenstein, Stefan; Staerkle, Ralph F

    2016-12-01

    We report a case of a rare complication of acute appendicitis with perforation through the abdominal wall. The case points out that an intraabdominal origin should be considered in patients presenting with rapidly spreading soft tissue infections of the trunk. A 58-year-old European woman presented to our hospital with a 1-week history of severe abdominal pain accompanied by rapidly spreading erythema and emphysema of the lower abdomen. On admission, the patient was in septic shock with leukocytosis and elevation of C-reactive protein. Among other diagnoses, necrotizing fasciitis was suspected. Computed tomography showed a large soft tissue infection with air-fluid levels spreading through the lower abdominal wall. During the operation, we found a perforated appendicitis breaking through the fascia and causing a rapidly progressive soft tissue infection of the abdominal wall. Appendicitis was the origin of the soft tissue infection. The abdominal wall was only secondarily involved. Even though perforated appendicitis as an etiology of a rapidly progressive soft tissue infection of the abdominal wall is very rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abdominal wall cellulitis. The distinction between rapidly spreading subcutaneous infection with abscess formation and early onset of necrotizing fasciitis is often difficult and can be confirmed only by surgical intervention.

  20. Intra-abdominal pressure: an integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Milanesi, Rafaela; Caregnato, Rita Catalina Aquino

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is a growing request for measuring intra-abdominal pressure in critically ill patients with acute abdominal pain to be clarified. Summarizing the research results on measurement of vesical intra-abdominal pressure and analyzing the level of evidence were the purposes of this integrative literature review, carried out based on the databases LILACS, MEDLINE and PubMed, from 2005 to July 2012. Twenty articles were identified, in that, 12 literature reviews, 4 descriptive and exploratory studies, 2 expert opinions, one prospective cohort study and one was an experience report. The vesical intra-abdominal pressure measurement was considered gold standard. There are variations in the technique however, but some common points were identified: complete supine position, in absence of abdominal contracture, in the end of expiration and expressed in mmHg. Most research results indicate keeping the transducer zeroed at the level of the mid-axillary line at the iliac crest level, and instill 25mL of sterile saline. Strong evidence must be developed. PMID:26958978

  1. Gallic Acid Attenuates Postoperative Intra-Abdominal Adhesion by Inhibiting Inflammatory Reaction in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Guangbing; Wu, Yunhua; Gao, Qi; Shen, Cong; Chen, Zilu; Wang, Kang; Yu, Junhui

    2018-01-01

    Background Intra-abdominal adhesion is one of the most common complications after abdominal surgery. The efficacy of current treatments for intra-abdominal adhesion is unsatisfactory. In this study, we investigated the effect of gallic acid on the prevention and treatment of intra-abdominal adhesions after abdominal surgery using an intra-abdominal adhesion rat model. Material/Methods The experimental rats were randomly divided into the sham operation group, the control group, the chitosan group, and 3 gallic acid groups of different concentrations. All rats except those in the sham operation group received cecal abrasion to induce adhesion. From the first postoperative day, the rats in the gallic acid groups were administered different concentrations of gallic acid in a 2-ml gavage daily. All rats were sacrificed on postoperative day 7, and the degree of intra-abdominal adhesion was evaluated by the naked eye. The amount of collagen deposited between the injured peritoneal tissues was assessed by Sirius red staining. Serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) were measured by ELISA. Western blot was used to detect the level of NF-κB phosphorylation in the injured peritoneal or adhesion tissues of the rats. Results Compared with the control group, the scores of intra-abdominal adhesions in the rats treated with larger doses of gallic acid were significantly decreased, and the degree of inflammation and fibrosis was also significantly decreased. Gallic acid significantly reduced IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β1 serum levels. NF-κB phosphorylation in the higher gallic acid groups was significantly reduced. Conclusions Gallic acid inhibits the formation of postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions in rats by inhibiting the inflammatory reaction and fibrogenesis. Gallic acid is a promising drug for preventing intra-abdominal adhesions. PMID:29429982

  2. Intra-abdominal pressure: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Milanesi, Rafaela; Caregnato, Rita Catalina Aquino

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing request for measuring intra-abdominal pressure in critically ill patients with acute abdominal pain to be clarified. Summarizing the research results on measurement of vesical intra-abdominal pressure and analyzing the level of evidence were the purposes of this integrative literature review, carried out based on the databases LILACS, MEDLINE and PubMed, from 2005 to July 2012. Twenty articles were identified, in that, 12 literature reviews, 4 descriptive and exploratory studies, 2 expert opinions, one prospective cohort study and one was an experience report. The vesical intra-abdominal pressure measurement was considered gold standard. There are variations in the technique however, but some common points were identified: complete supine position, in absence of abdominal contracture, in the end of expiration and expressed in mmHg. Most research results indicate keeping the transducer zeroed at the level of the mid-axillary line at the iliac crest level, and instill 25mL of sterile saline. Strong evidence must be developed. RESUMO Em pacientes críticos com quadros abdominais agudos a esclarecer é crescente a solicitação da aferição da pressão intra-abdominal. Sintetizar resultados de pesquisas sobre a mensuração da pressão intra-abdominal pela via vesical e analisar o nível de evidência foram os objetivos desta revisão integrativa da literatura, realizada nas bases LILACS, MEDLINE e PubMed, no período de 2005 a julho de 2012. Identificaram-se 20 artigos, sendo 12 revisões de literatura, 4 estudos exploratório-descritivos, 2 opiniões de especialistas, 1 estudo de coorte prospectivo e 1 relato de experiência. O método vesical para mensuração da pressão intra-abdominal foi considerado padrão-ouro. Existem variações na técnica, entretanto pontos em comum foram identificados: posição supina completa, na ausência de contratura abdominal, ao final da expiração e expressa em mmHg. A maioria indica posicionar o ponto zero do

  3. Postoperative intra-abdominal collections using a sodium hyaluronate-carboxymethylcellulose (HA-CMC) barrier at the time of laparotomy for uterine or cervical cancers.

    PubMed

    Leitao, Mario M; Byrum, Graham V; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R; Brown, Carol L; Chi, Dennis S; Sonoda, Yukio; Levine, Douglas A; Gardner, Ginger J; Barakat, Richard R

    2010-11-01

    A prior analysis of patients undergoing laparotomy for ovarian malignancies at our institution revealed an increased rate of intra-abdominal collections using HA-CMC film during debulking surgery. The primary objective of the current study was to determine whether the use of HA-CMC is associated with the development of postoperative intra-abdominal collections in patients undergoing laparotomy for uterine or cervical malignancies. We retrospectively identified all laparotomies performed for these malignancies from 3/1/05 to 12/31/07. We identified cases involving the use of HA-CMC via billing records and operative reports. Intra-abdominal collections were defined as localized intraperitoneal fluid accumulations in the absence of re-accumulating ascites. We noted incidences of intra-abdominal collections, as well as other complications. Appropriate statistical tests were applied using SPSS 15.0. We identified 169 laparotomies in which HA-CMC was used and 347 in which HA-CMC was not used. The following were statistically similar in both cohorts: age, body mass index (BMI), primary site, surgery for recurrent disease, prior intraperitoneal surgery, and extent of current surgery. Intra-abdominal collections were seen in 6 (3.6%) of 169 HA-CMC cases compared to 10 (2.9%) of 347 non-HA-CMC cases (p=0.7). The rate of infected collections was similar in both groups (1.2% vs. 1.4%). In the subgroup that underwent tumor debulking, intra-abdominal collections were seen in 3 (11.5%) of 26 HA-CMC cases compared to 2 (5.4%) of 37 non-HA-CMC cases (p=0.6). HA-CMC use does not appear to be associated with postoperative intra-abdominal collections in patients undergoing laparotomy for uterine or cervical cancer. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of the risk factor on the abdominal complications in colon injury management.

    PubMed

    Torba, M; Gjata, A; Buci, S; Bushi, G; Zenelaj, A; Kajo, I; Koceku, S; Kagjini, K; Subashi, K

    2015-01-01

    The management of colon injuries has distinctly evolved over the last three decades. However, trauma surgeons often find themselves in a dilemma, whether to perform a diversion or to perform a primary repair. The purpose of this study is to evaluate risk factors in colon injury management and their influence on abdominal complications. This is a prospective study conducted at a national level I trauma center in Tirana, Albania from January 2009 to December 2012. The data with respect to demographics, physiological risk factors, intraoperative findings, and surgical procedures were collected. Colonic injury-related morbidity and mortality were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed by assessing the influence of risk factors on abdominal complications. Of the 157 patients treated with colon injury, was performed a primary repair in 107 (68.15%) of the patients and a diversion in the remaining 50 (31.85%). The mean PATI was 18.6, while 37 (23.6%) of patients had PATI greater than 25. The complications and their frequencies according to the surgical technique used (primay repair vs diversion respectively) includes: wound infections (9.3% vs 50%), anastomotic leak (1.8% vs 8.7%), and intra-abdominal abscess (1.8% vs 6.5%). The multivariate analysis identified two independent risk factors for abdominal complications: transfusions of 4 units of blood within the first 24 hours (OR = 1.2 95% CI (1.03 - 1.57) p =0.02), and diversion (OR = 9.6, 95% CI 4.4 - 21.3, p<0.001). Blood transfusions of more than 4 units within the first 24 hours and diversion during the management of destructive colon injuries are both independent risk factors for abdominal complications. The socioeconomic impact and the need for a subsequent operation in colostomy patients are strong reasons to consider primary repair in the management of colon injuries.

  5. Abdominal compartment syndrome--the prevention and treatment of possible lethal complications following hip arthroscopy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ciemniewska-Gorzela, Kinga; Piontek, Tomasz; Szulc, Andrzej

    2014-11-14

    Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome have been increasingly recognized as a hip arthroscopy complication over the past decade. In the absence of consensus definitions and treatment guidelines, the diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome remains variable from institution to institution. We report the occurrence of the extravasation of fluid into the abdomen during arthroscopic treatment of femoroacetabular impingement combined with resection of trochanteric bursa and our management of the condition in a 55-year old Caucasian woman. We present an algorithm of treatment of abdominal compartment syndrome, as a hip arthroscopy complication, according to the consensus definitions and recommendations of the World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome. In the algorithm options, we have included paracentesis and percutaneous catheter decompression as the main point of treatment. Our algorithm will have a broader clinical impact on orthopedic surgery, anesthesiology and emergency medicine.

  6. Could an abdominal drainage be avoided in complicated acute appendicitis? Lessons learned after 1300 laparoscopic appendectomies.

    PubMed

    Schlottmann, Francisco; Reino, Romina; Sadava, Emmanuel E; Campos Arbulú, Ana; Rotholtz, Nicolás A

    2016-12-01

    Complicated appendicitis (CA) may be a risk factor for postoperative intra-abdominal abscess formation (IAA). In addition, several publications have shown an increased risk of postoperative collection after laparoscopic appendectomy. Most surgeons prefer to place a drain to collect contaminated abdominal fluid to prevent consequent abscess formation. We aimed to evaluate the utility of placing an intra-abdominal drain in laparoscopic appendectomy for complicated acute appendicitis. From January 2005 to June 2015 all charts of consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic appendectomy for CA were revised. CA was defined as a perforated appendix with associated peritonitis. The sample was divided into two groups, G1: intra-abdominal drain and G2: no drain. Demographics, operative factors and 30-day postoperative complications were analyzed. In the study period 1300 laparoscopic appendectomies were performed. Laparoscopic findings showed that 17.3% of the surgeries were for complicated acute appendicitis (225 patients). Fifty-six patients (25%) were in G1 and 169 patients (75%) in G2. No significant differences in clinical presentation and demographics were found (p: NS). G1 had an increased conversion rate (G1: 19.6% vs. G2: 7.1%; p: 0.007). No differences were found in the overall morbidity (G1: 32.1% vs. G2: 21.3%, p: NS). The rate of postoperative IAA was 14.2% in G1 and 8.9% in G2 (p: NS). Length of stay was higher in G1 (G1: 5.2 days vs. G2 2.9 days, p: 0.001). There was no mortality in either group. The placement of intra-abdominal drain in complicated acute appendicitis may not present benefits and may even lengthen hospital stay. These observations suggest that there is no need of using a drain in laparoscopic appendectomy for complicated acute appendicitis. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Carbapenem-resistant Lactobacillus intra-abdominal infection in a renal transplant recipient with a history of probiotic consumption.

    PubMed

    Vanichanan, Jakapat; Chávez, Violeta; Wanger, Audrey; De Golovine, Aleksandra M; Vigil, Karen J

    2016-12-01

    Lactobacillus sp. is a low virulence bacterium, which rarely causes infection in immunocompetent individuals and usually is considered a contaminant. Normally this organism is susceptible to β-lactam antibiotics, yet resistant strains have been reported. Here, we report a case of a 60-year-old renal transplant recipient who developed an intra-abdominal abscess which grew a carbapenem-resistant Lactobacillus casei. This is significant since it is the first report of a clinical isolate of Lactobacillus sp. that demonstrated both microbiological and clinical resistance to carbapenem use. Moreover, the probiotic supplement that the patient had taken also grew a similar organism raising the concern of probiotic associated infection in immunocompromised individual.

  8. Therapeutic Role of Interleukin 22 in Experimental Intra-abdominal Klebsiella pneumoniae Infection in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Mingquan; Horne, William; McAleer, Jeremy P; Pociask, Derek; Eddens, Taylor; Good, Misty; Gao, Bin; Kolls, Jay K

    2016-01-04

    Interleukin 22 (IL-22) is an IL-10-related cytokine produced by T helper 17 (Th17) cells and other immune cells that signals via IL-22 receptor alpha 1 (IL-22Ra1), which is expressed on epithelial tissues, as well as hepatocytes. IL-22 has been shown to have hepatoprotective effects that are mediated by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling. However, it is unclear whether IL-22 can directly regulate antimicrobial programs in the liver. To test this hypothesis, hepatocyte-specific IL-22Ra1 knockout (Il22Ra1(Hep-/-)) and Stat3 knockout (Stat3(Hep-/-)) mice were generated and subjected to intra-abdominal infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae, which results in liver injury and necrosis. We found that overexpression of IL-22 or therapeutic administration of recombinant IL-22 (rIL-22), given 2 h postinfection, significantly reduced the bacterial burden in both the liver and spleen. The antimicrobial activity of rIL-22 required hepatic Il22Ra1 and Stat3. Serum from rIL-22-treated mice showed potent bacteriostatic activity against K. pneumoniae, which was dependent on lipocalin 2 (LCN2). However, in vivo, rIL-22-induced antimicrobial activity was only partially reduced in LCN2-deficient mice. We found that rIL-22 also induced serum amyloid A2 (SAA2) and that SAA2 had anti-K. pneumoniae bactericidal activity in vitro. These results demonstrate that IL-22, through IL-22Ra1 and STAT3 singling, can induce intrinsic antimicrobial activity in the liver, which is due in part to LCN2 and SAA2. Therefore, IL-22 may be a useful adjunct in treating hepatic and intra-abdominal infections. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Pancreaticojejunal bridge-anastomosis: a novel option for surgeon to preserve pancreatic body and tail in urgent reoperation for intra-abdominal massive hemorrhage after pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Dai, Xianwei; Bu, Xianmin; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2010-10-01

    Postoperative intra-abdominal massive bleeding is a rare and life-threatening complication associated with pancreaticoduodenectomy. Completion pancreatectomy (CP) was usually performed during reexploration for the complication. The management could decrease the complications, such as the pancreatic leakage or intraluminal infection after reexploration, but could increase mortality during the perioperative period. It also could result in loss of pancreatic function forever. This study evaluated an alternative surgical management for intra-abdominal massive hemorrhage to prevent pancreas function, simplify the surgical processes, and decrease the mortality of relaparotomy. Outcome after pancreaticojejunal bridge-anastomosis (PJBA) performed between January 2006 and June 2009 was compared with that after CP performed between February 1984 and December 2005. Between February 1984 and June 2009, 963 patients underwent the Whipple procedure (PD) or pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodectomy (PPPD). Pancreatic leakage occurred in 103 patients (10.7%); 22 cases (21.4%) developed into intra-abdominal massive bleeding. Nonsurgical procedures of transarterial embolization (TAE) were performed in ten (45.45%) patients, of whom one died (10%). Twelve (54.55%) underwent reoperation. Five had CP with one death (20%). Pancreatic remnant was preserved by pancreaticojejunal bridge-anastomosis (PJBA) in seven patients with no deaths. The reexploration time was 340 +/- 48.2 min vs. 247.9 +/- 40.8 min (P < 0.01) for CP and PJBA group and the blood loss was 2,180 +/- 526.3 ml vs. 1,628.6 +/- 325.1 ml (P < 0.05). In-hospital time for CP was less than that for PJBA (P < 0.05). All patients with CP still developed endocrine insufficiency ("brittle" diabetes) and diarrhea (exocrine insufficiency). There were no evidences of exocrine and endocrine insufficiency in patients with PJBA. Pancreaticojejunal bridge-anastomosis is an easy, simple, and safe procedure for intra-abdominal massive

  10. Profiling of Candida albicans Gene Expression During Intra-abdominal Candidiasis Identifies Biologic Processes Involved in Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shaoji; Clancy, Cornelius J.; Xu, Wenjie; Schneider, Frank; Hao, Binghua; Mitchell, Aaron P.; Nguyen, M. Hong

    2013-01-01

    Background. The pathogenesis of intra-abdominal candidiasis is poorly understood. Methods. Mice were intraperitoneally infected with Candida albicans (1 × 106 colony-forming units) and sterile stool. nanoString assays were used to quantitate messenger RNA for 145 C. albicans genes within the peritoneal cavity at 48 hours. Results. Within 6 hours after infection, mice developed peritonitis, characterized by high yeast burdens, neutrophil influx, and a pH of 7.9 within peritoneal fluid. Organ invasion by hyphae and early abscess formation were evident 6 and 24 hours after infection, respectively; abscesses resolved by day 14. nanoString assays revealed adhesion and responses to alkaline pH, osmolarity, and stress as biologic processes activated in the peritoneal cavity. Disruption of the highly-expressed gene RIM101, which encodes an alkaline-regulated transcription factor, did not impact cellular morphology but reduced both C. albicans burden during early peritonitis and C. albicans persistence within abscesses. RIM101 influenced expression of 49 genes during intra-abdominal candidiasis, including previously unidentified Rim101 targets. Overexpression of the RIM101-dependent gene SAP5, which encodes a secreted protease, restored the ability of a rim101 mutant to persist within abscesses. Conclusions. A mouse model of intra-abdominal candidiasis is valuable for studying pathogenesis and C. albicans gene expression. RIM101 contributes to persistence within intra-abdominal abscesses, at least in part through activation of SAP5. PMID:24006479

  11. Does this adult patient have a blunt intra-abdominal injury?

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Daniel K; Simel, David L; Wisner, David H; Holmes, James F

    2012-04-11

    Blunt abdominal trauma often presents a substantial diagnostic challenge. Well-informed clinical examination can identify patients who require further diagnostic evaluation for intra-abdominal injuries after blunt abdominal trauma. To systematically assess the precision and accuracy of symptoms, signs, laboratory tests, and bedside imaging studies to identify intra-abdominal injuries in patients with blunt abdominal trauma. We conducted a structured search of MEDLINE (1950-January 2012) and EMBASE (1980-January 2012) to identify English-language studies examining the identification of intra-abdominal injuries. A separate, structured search was conducted for studies evaluating bedside ultrasonography. We included studies of diagnostic accuracy for intra-abdominal injury that compared at least 1 finding with a reference standard of abdominal computed tomography, diagnostic peritoneal lavage, laparotomy, autopsy, and/or clinical course for intra-abdominal injury. Twelve studies on clinical findings and 22 studies on bedside ultrasonography met inclusion criteria for data extraction. Critical appraisal and data extraction were independently performed by 2 authors. The prevalence of intra-abdominal injury in adult emergency department patients with blunt abdominal trauma among all evidence level 1 and 2 studies was 13% (95% CI, 10%-17%), with 4.7% (95% CI, 2.5%-8.6%) requiring therapeutic surgery or angiographic embolization of injuries. The presence of a seat belt sign (likelihood ratio [LR] range, 5.6-9.9), rebound tenderness (LR, 6.5; 95% CI, 1.8-24), hypotension (LR, 5.2; 95% CI, 3.5-7.5), abdominal distention (LR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.9-7.6), or guarding (LR, 3.7; 95% CI, 2.3-5.9) suggest an intra-abdominal injury. The absence of abdominal tenderness to palpation does not rule out an intra-abdominal injury (summary LR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.46-0.80). The presence of intraperitoneal fluid or organ injury on bedside ultrasound assessment is more accurate than any history and

  12. Intra cranial complications of tuberculous otitis media.

    PubMed

    Prakash, M; Johnny, J Carlton

    2015-04-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the most common infections in the world. It is seen that tuberculous otitis media (TOM) is almost secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis. In this review we have tried to deal with all the aspects of the intra cranial complications of TOM such as tuberculoma, otitic hydrocephalus, brain abscess and tuberculous meningitis. The aspects covered in this review are the pathology, clinical features, and investigations of the intra cranial manifestations.

  13. Intra cranial complications of tuberculous otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, M.; Johnny, J. Carlton

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the most common infections in the world. It is seen that tuberculous otitis media (TOM) is almost secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis. In this review we have tried to deal with all the aspects of the intra cranial complications of TOM such as tuberculoma, otitic hydrocephalus, brain abscess and tuberculous meningitis. The aspects covered in this review are the pathology, clinical features, and investigations of the intra cranial manifestations. PMID:26015748

  14. Prophylactic antibiotics for penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Brand, Martin; Grieve, Andrew

    2013-11-18

    Penetrating abdominal trauma occurs when the peritoneal cavity is breached. Routine laparotomy for penetrating abdominal injuries began in the 1800s, with antibiotics first being used in World War II to combat septic complications associated with these injuries. This practice was marked with a reduction in sepsis-related mortality and morbidity. Whether prophylactic antibiotics are required in the prevention of infective complications following penetrating abdominal trauma is controversial, however, as no randomised placebo controlled trials have been published to date. There has also been debate about the timing of antibiotic prophylaxis. In 1972 Fullen noted a 7% to 11% post-surgical infection rate with pre-operative antibiotics, a 33% to 57% infection rate with intra-operative antibiotic administration and 30% to 70% infection rate with only post-operative antibiotic administration. Current guidelines state there is sufficient class I evidence to support the use of a single pre-operative broad spectrum antibiotic dose, with aerobic and anaerobic cover, and continuation (up to 24 hours) only in the event of a hollow viscus perforation found at exploratory laparotomy. To assess the benefits and harms of prophylactic antibiotics administered for penetrating abdominal injuries for the reduction of the incidence of septic complications, such as septicaemia, intra-abdominal abscesses and wound infections. Searches were not restricted by date, language or publication status. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2013, issue 12 of 12), MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index- Science (CPCI-S) and PubMed. Searches were last conducted in January 2013. All randomised controlled trials of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma versus no

  15. The influence of the risk factor on the abdominal complications in colon injury management

    PubMed Central

    TORBA, M.; GJATA, A.; BUCI, S.; BUSHI, G.; ZENELAJ, A.; KAJO, I.; KOCEKU, S.; KAGJINI, K.; SUBASHI, K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The management of colon injuries has distinctly evolved over the last three decades. However, trauma surgeons often find themselves in a dilemma, whether to perform a diversion or to perform a primary repair. The purpose of this study is to evaluate risk factors in colon injury management and their influence on abdominal complications. Patients and methods This is a prospective study conducted at a national level I trauma center in Tirana, Albania from January 2009 to December 2012. The data with respect to demographics, physiological risk factors, intraoperative findings, and surgical procedures were collected. Colonic injury-related morbidity and mortality were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed by assessing the influence of risk factors on abdominal complications. Results Of the 157 patients treated with colon injury, was performed a primary repair in 107 (68.15%) of the patients and a diversion in the remaining 50 (31.85%). The mean PATI was 18.6, while 37 (23.6%) of patients had PATI greater than 25. The complications and their frequencies according to the surgical technique used (primay repair vs diversion respectively) includes: wound infections (9.3% vs 50%), anastomotic leak (1.8% vs 8.7%), and intra-abdominal abscess (1.8% vs 6.5%). The multivariate analysis identified two independent risk factors for abdominal complications: transfusions of 4 units of blood within the first 24 hours (OR = 1.2 95% CI (1.03 –1.57) p =0.02), and diversion (OR = 9.6, 95% CI 4.4 – 21.3, p<0.001). Conclusion Blood transfusions of more than 4 units within the first 24 hours and diversion during the management of destructive colon injuries are both independent risk factors for abdominal complications. The socioeconomic impact and the need for a subsequent operation in colostomy patients are strong reasons to consider primary repair in the management of colon injuries. PMID:26017103

  16. Severe retroperitoneal and intra-abdominal bleeding after stapling procedure for prolapsed haemorrhoids (PPH); diagnosis, treatment and 6-year follow-up of the case.

    PubMed

    Safadi, Wajdi; Altshuler, Alexander; Kiv, Sakal; Waksman, Igor

    2014-10-30

    Procedure for prolapsed haemorrhoids (PPH) is a popular treatment of haemorrhoids. PPH has the advantages of a shorter operation time, minor degree of postoperative pain, shorter hospital stay and quicker recovery but may be followed by several postoperative complications. Rectal bleeding, acute pain, chronic pain, rectovaginal fistula, complete rectal obliteration, rectal stenosis, rectal pocket, tenesmus, faecal urgency, faecal incontinence, rectal perforation, pelvic sepsis and rectal haematoma have all been reported as postoperative complications of PPH. Additionally, one rare complication of the procedure is intra-abdominal bleeding. There are a few case reports describing intra-abdominal bleeding after the procedure. We report a case of a 26-year-old man who developed severe intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal haemorrhage after PPH. The diagnosis was made on the second postoperative day by CT of the abdomen and pelvis. The patient was treated conservatively and had an uneventful recovery. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  17. Intra-abdominal fat accumulation is a hypertension risk factor in young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Takeoka, Atsushi; Tayama, Jun; Yamasaki, Hironori; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Ogawa, Sayaka; Saigo, Tatsuo; Kawano, Hiroaki; Abiru, Norio; Hayashida, Masaki; Maeda, Takahiro; Shirabe, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Accumulation of intra-abdominal fat is related to hypertension. Despite this, a relationship between hypertension and intra-abdominal fat in young adulthood is not clear. In this study, we verify whether intra-abdominal fat accumulation increases a hypertension risk in young adult subjects. In a cross-sectional study, intra-abdominal fat area was measured using a dual bioelectrical impedance analysis instrument in 697 university students (20.3 ± 0.7 years, 425 men). Blood pressure and anthropometric factors were measured. Lifestyle variables including smoking, drinking, physical activity, and eating behavior were assessed with questionnaire. High blood pressure risk (systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mm Hg) with increasing intra-abdominal fat area was evaluated. Participants were divided into 5 groups according to their intra-abdominal fat area (≤24.9, 25–49.9, 50–74.9, 75–99.9, and ≥100 cm2). As compared with the values of the smallest intra-abdominal fat area group, the crude and lifestyle-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were elevated in larger intra-abdominal fat area groups [OR 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66–2.80; OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.60–7.57; OR 7.71, 95% CI 2.75–22.22; OR 18.74, 95% CI 3.93–105.64, respectively). The risk increase was observed only in men. Intra-abdominal fat accumulation is related to high blood pressure in men around 20 years of age. These results indicate the importance of evaluation and reduction of intra-abdominal fat to prevent hypertension. PMID:27828861

  18. Laparoscopic treatment of abdominal complications following ventriculoperitoneal shunt

    PubMed Central

    Grigorean, VT; Onose, G; Popescu, M; Strambu, V; Sandu, AM

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is the evaluation of laparoscopic treatment in abdominal complications following ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt. Methods: We report a retrospective study including 17 patients with abdominal complications secondary to VP shunt for hydrocephalus, laparoscopically treated in our department, between 2000 and 2007. Results: Patients' age ranged from 1 to 72 years old (mean age 25.8 years old). Male: female ratio was 1.4. Abdominal complications encountered were: shunt disconnection with intraperitoneal distal catheter migration 47.05% (8/17), infections 23.52% (4/17) such as abscesses and peritonitis, pseudocysts 11.76% (2/17), CSF ascites 5.88% (1/17), inguinal hernia 5.88% (1/17), and shunt malfunction due to excessive length of intraperitoneal tube 5.88% (1/17). Free–disease interval varies from 1 day to 21 years, depending on the type of complication, short in peritoneal irritation syndrome and abscesses (days) and long in ascites, pseudocysts(months– years). Laparoscopic treatment was: extraction of the foreign body in shunt disconnection with intraperitoneal distal catheter migration, evacuation, debridement, lavage and drainage for pseudocysts, abscess and peritonitis, shortening of the tube in shunt malfunction due to excessive length of intraperitoneal tube a nd hernioraphy. One diagnostic laparoscopy was performed in a peritoneal irritation syndrome, which found only CSF ascites. There were no conversions to open surgery. The overall mortality was of 5.88% and postoperative morbidity was of 11.76%. In 7 patients operated for abscesses, peritonitis, pseudocysts, and CSF ascites the shunting system was converted in to a ventriculocardiac shunt. Conclusions: Abdominal complication following VP shunt can be successfully performed laparoscopically. Abdominal surgery required, in selected cases, the repositioning of the distal catheter, frequently as a ventriculocardiac shunt. There are abdominal complications with no indication of

  19. Does intra-abdominal fluid increase the resting energy expenditure?

    PubMed

    Zarling, E J; Grande, A; Hano, J

    1997-10-01

    In patients with intra-abdominal fluid collection, caloric needs are based on an estimated dry weight. This is done because intra-abdominal fluid has been assumed to be metabolically inactive. One recent study of patients with slowly resolving ascites suggested otherwise. In our study, the effect of intra-abdominal fluid on the resting energy expenditure (REE) and apparent lean body mass was determined in 10 stable patients requiring peritoneal dialysis. For each subject, in both the empty and full state, we measured REE by indirect calorimetry, and body composition by the bioelectric impedance method. In the full state, the VCO2 was significantly increased (210 +/- 11 versus 197 +/- 9 mL/min, P < 0.02) compared with the empty state. This caused an increase in the calculated resting energy expenditure (1531 +/- 88 kcal/d empty versus 1593 +/- 94 kcal/d full, P < 0.05). The magnitude of increase in REE was similar to the expected calories derived from glucose absorbed out of the dialysate. Estimates of body fat, lean body mass, and total water also were not affected by the intra-abdominal fluid. We conclude that intra-abdominal fluid will not affect the measured REE and hence may be considered to be metabolically inactive.

  20. Abdominal Complications after Severe Burns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    abdominal compartment syndrome, schemic bowel, biliary disease, peptic ulcer disease and astritis requiring laparotomy, small bowel obstruction, rimary fungal...abdominal complications was 25%, with Curl- ng’s ulcer the most common malady (54% of the total), ollowed by esophageal lesions (17%), hemorrhagic...complications in- luded trauma exploratory laparotomy, abdominal com- artment syndrome, ischemic bowel, biliary disease, peptic lcer disease and gastritis, large

  1. In vitro comparison of intra-abdominal hypertension development after different temporary abdominal closure techniques.

    PubMed

    Benninger, Emanuel; Labler, Ludwig; Seifert, Burkhardt; Trentz, Otmar; Menger, Michael D; Meier, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    To compare volume reserve capacity (VRC) and development of intra-abdominal hypertension after different in vitro temporary abdominal closure (TAC) techniques. A model of the abdomen was designed. The abdominal wall was simulated with polychloroprene, a synthetic rubber compound. A lentil-shaped defect of 150 cm(2) was cut into the anterior aspect of the abdominal wall. TAC of this defect was performed by a zipper system (ZS), a bag silo closure (BSC), or a vacuum assisted closure (VAC) with subatmospheric pressures ranging from 0- to 200 mmHg. The model with intact abdominal wall served as reference. The model was filled with water to baseline level. The intra-abdominal pressure was increased in 2 mmHg steps from baseline level (6 mmHg) to 40 mmHg by adding volume to the system according to a standardized protocol. VRC with corresponding intra-abdominal pressure were analyzed and compared for the different TAC techniques. VRC was the highest after BSC at all pressure levels studied (P < 0.05). VAC and ZS resulted in significantly lower VRC compared with BSC and reference (P < 0.05). The magnitude of negative pressure on the VAC did not significantly influence the VRC. In the present in vitro model, BSC demonstrated the highest VRC of all evaluated TAC techniques. Different levels of subatmospheric pressures applied to the VAC did not affect VRC. The results for ZS and VAC indicate that these TAC techniques may increase the risk for recurrent intra-abdominal hypertension and should therefore not be used in high-risk patients during the initial phase after abdominal decompression.

  2. Orchiopexy for intra-abdominal testes: factors predicting success.

    PubMed

    Stec, Andrew A; Tanaka, Stacy T; Adams, Mark C; Pope, John C; Thomas, John C; Brock, John W

    2009-10-01

    Intra-abdominal testes can be treated with several surgical procedures. We evaluated factors influencing the outcome of orchiopexy for intra-abdominal testis. We retrospectively reviewed 156 consecutive orchiopexies performed for intra-abdominal testis, defined as a nonpalpable testis on examination and located in the abdomen at surgery. All surgical approaches were included in the study. Primary outcome was the overall success rate and secondary outcomes were success based on surgical approach, age and a patent processus vaginalis. Success was considered a testis with normal texture and size compared to the contralateral testis at followup. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine factors predictive of success. The overall success rate of all orchiopexies was 79.5%. Median patient age at orchiopexy was 12 months and mean followup was 16 months. Of the patients 117 had a patent processus vaginalis at surgery. One-stage abdominal orchiopexy was performed in 92 testes with 89.1% success. Of these cases 32 were performed laparoscopically with 96.9% success. One-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy was performed in 27 testes and 2-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy was performed in 37 with success in 63.0% and 67.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that 1-stage orchiopexy without vessel division had more successful outcomes than 1 and 2-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy (OR 0.24, p = 0.007 and 0.29, p = 0.19, respectively). Neither age at surgery nor an open internal ring was significant (p = 0.49 and 0.12, respectively). The overall success of orchiopexy for intra-abdominal testis is 79.5%. While patient selection remains a critical factor, 1-stage orchiopexy without vessel division was significantly more successful and a laparoscopic approach was associated with the fewest failures for intra-abdominal testes.

  3. Temporary abdominal closure with zipper-mesh device for management of intra-abdominal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Utiyama, Edivaldo Massazo; Pflug, Adriano Ribeiro Meyer; Damous, Sérgio Henrique Bastos; Rodrigues, Adilson Costa; Montero, Edna Frasson de Souza; Birolini, Claudio Augusto Vianna

    2015-01-01

    to present our experience with scheduled reoperations in 15 patients with intra-abdominal sepsis. we have applied a more effective technique consisting of temporary abdominal closure with a nylon mesh sheet containing a zipper. We performed reoperations in the operating room under general anesthesia at an average interval of 84 hours. The revision consisted of debridement of necrotic material and vigorous lavage of the involved peritoneal area. The mean age of patients was 38.7 years (range, 15 to 72 years); 11 patients were male, and four were female. forty percent of infections were due to necrotizing pancreatitis. Sixty percent were due to perforation of the intestinal viscus secondary to inflammation, vascular occlusion or trauma. We performed a total of 48 reoperations, an average of 3.2 surgeries per patient. The mesh-zipper device was left in place for an average of 13 days. An intestinal ostomy was present adjacent to the zipper in four patients and did not present a problem for patient management. Mortality was 26.6%. No fistulas resulted from this technique. When intra-abdominal disease was under control, the mesh-zipper device was removed, and the fascia was closed in all patients. In three patients, the wound was closed primarily, and in 12 it was allowed to close by secondary intent. Two patients developed hernia; one was incisional and one was in the drain incision. the planned reoperation for manual lavage and debridement of the abdomen through a nylon mesh-zipper combination was rapid, simple, and well-tolerated. It permitted effective management of severe septic peritonitis, easy wound care and primary closure of the abdominal wall.

  4. Intra-abdominal fungal pseudomycetoma in two cats.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Matheus V; Laisse, Cláudio J M; Vargas, Thainã P; Wouters, Flademir; Boabaid, Fabiana M; Pavarini, Saulo P; Ferreiro, Laerte; Driemeier, David

    Pseudomycetomas are deep cutaneous to subcutaneous lesions caused by Microsporum canis mainly described in Persian cats, with few reports of intra-abdominal location. This report describes the clinical signs and lesions of intra-abdominal pseudomycetomas caused by M. canis in two Persian cats. Two Persian cats with a history of previous laparotomy (ovariohysterectomy and nephrostomy) and fecal impaction were examined. Cat #1 was euthanized and subjected to necropsy, histopathology and mycological evaluation. Cat #2 presented with chronic dermatophytosis, and an intra-abdominal mass, that was subjected to histopathology evaluation. Cat #1 presented at necropsy a white-grayish, firm mass (6cm×3.5cm×2.8cm) in the uterine cervix. Cat #2 presented a firm whitish mass (6.5cm×1.5cm×0.5cm) located close to the left kidney. Histologically, both masses contained multifocal granules with hyphae and spores surrounded by Splendore-Hoeppli reaction, with a pyogranulomatous inflammatory infiltrate and fibrous connective tissue proliferation in the periphery. Hyphae and spores exhibited marked Grocott and periodic acid-Schiff staining. M. canis was identified by fungal isolation in cat #1. Pseudomycetoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cats, especially in Persian cats presenting with an intra-abdominal mass. Entrance of the agent into the cavity can occur during laparotomy. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Complicated infective endocarditis: a case series.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Seop; Kang, Min-Kyung; Cho, A Jin; Seo, Yu Bin; Kim, Kun Il

    2017-05-08

    Infective endocarditis is associated with not only cardiac complications but also neurologic, renal, musculoskeletal, and systemic complications related to the infection, such as embolization, metastatic infection, and mycotic aneurysm. We report three cases (the first patient is Chinese and the other two are Koreans) of complicated infective endocarditis; two of the cases were associated with a mycotic aneurysm, and one case was associated with a splenic abscess. One case of a patient with prosthetic valve endocarditis was complicated by intracerebral hemorrhage caused by mycotic aneurysm rupture. A second case of a patient with right-sided valve endocarditis associated with a central catheter was complicated by an abdominal aortic mycotic aneurysm. The third patient had a splenic infarction and abscess associated with infected cardiac thrombi. Complicated infective endocarditis is rare and is associated with cardiac, neurologic, renal, musculoskeletal, and systemic complications related to infection, such as embolization, metastatic infection, and mycotic aneurysm. Infective endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is more frequently associated with complications. Because the mortality rate increases when complications develop, aggressive antibiotic therapy and surgery, combined with specific treatments for the complications, are necessary.

  6. Intra-abdominal fat: Comparison of computed tomography fat segmentation and bioimpedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Finch, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Intra-abdominal fat is an important factor in determining the metabolic syndrome/insulin resistance, and thus the risk of diabetes and ischaemic heart disease. Computed Tomography (CT) fat segmentation represents a defined method of quantifying intra-abdominal fat, with attendant radiation risks. Bioimpedance spectroscopy may offer a method of assessment without any risks to the patients. A comparison is made of these two methods. This was a preliminary study of the utility of multifrequency bioimpedance spectroscopy of the mid abdomen as a measure of intra-abdominal fat, by comparison with fat segmentation of an abdominal CT scan in the -30 to -190 HU range. There was a significant (P < 0.01) correlation between intra-abdominal fat and mid-upper arm circumference, as well as the bioimpedance parameter, the R/S ratio. Multivariate analysis showed that these were the only independant variables and allowed the derivation of a formula to estimate intra-abdominal fat: IAF = 0.02 × MAC - 0.757 × R/S + 0.036. Circumabdominal bioimpedance spectroscopy may prove a useful method of assessing intra-abdominal fat, and may be suitable for use in studies to enhance other measures of body composition, such as mid-upper arm circumference.

  7. The cardio-respiratory effects of intra-abdominal hypertension: Considerations for critical care nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Martin; Craft, Judy

    2018-02-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension can be classified as either primary or secondary. Primary intra-abdominal hypertension is often associated through trauma or diseases of the abdominopelvic region such as pancreatitis or abdominal surgery, while secondary intra-abdominal hypertension is the result of extra-abdominal causes such as sepsis or burns. The critically ill patient offers some challenges in monitoring in particular secondary intra-abdominal hypertension because of the effects of fluid resuscitation, the use of inotropes and positive pressure ventilation. Recent work suggests that intensive care unit nurses are often unaware of the secondary effects of intra-abdominal pressure and therefore this is not monitored effectively. Therefore being aware of the cardio-respiratory effects may alert theintensive care nurse nurse to the development of intra-abdominal hypertension. The aim of this paper is to discuss the pathophysiology associated with the cardio-respiratory effects seen with intra-abdominal hypertension in the critically ill. In particular it will discuss how intra-abdominal hypertension can inadvertently be overlooked because of the low flow states that it produces which could be misconstrued as something else. It will also discuss how intra-abdominal hypertension impedes ventilation and respiratory mechanics which can often result in a non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. To close, the paper will offer some implications for critical care nursing practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bromelain: a natural proteolytic for intra-abdominal adhesion prevention.

    PubMed

    Sahbaz, Ahmet; Aynioglu, Oner; Isik, Hatice; Ozmen, Ulku; Cengil, Osman; Gun, Banu Dogan; Gungorduk, Kemal

    2015-02-01

    Peritoneal adhesions are pathological fibrous connections between peritoneal surfaces resulting from incomplete peritoneal repair. Adhesions cause various health problems ranging from pelvic pain and bowel obstruction to infertility. To date, no effective agent exists for intra-abdominal adhesion prevention. Bromelain is the crude extract of the pineapple and it has fibrinolytic, antithrombotic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Bromelain has been shown to be effective for removing necrotic tissues and has been found to be effective for treating various wounds, inflammatory conditions, and thrombotic pathologies. In the present study, we evaluated bromelain as a novel agent for preventing intra-abdominal adhesions. Group 1 (control group): Adhesions were produced by cecal abrasion method, and no treatment was applied. Group 2 (i.p. bromelain-treated group): After adhesion formation, 10 mg/kg/BW of bromelain dissolved in 1 mL saline solution was applied intraperitoneally for 10 days. Group 3 (i.p. saline-treated group): After adhesion formation, 1 mL saline solution was applied intraperitoneally for 10 days. On postoperative day 10, all animals were sacrificed. All 30 rats survived surgery. Throughout the follow-up period, no complications were observed. Statistically significant differences were found between the groups with regards to macroscopic adhesion scores, inflammation, fibrosis and neo-vascularization (p < 0.001, <0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.002, respectively). Macroscopic and histopathologic (inflammation, fibrosis, neo-vascularization) adhesion scores were lowest in the bromelain-treated group. Bromelain, acting through its barrier, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and proteolytic effects and without increasing bleeding tendency or having any adverse effects on wound healing, may be a suitable agent for intra-abdominal adhesion prevention. Copyright © 2015 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Value and limitations of transpulmonary pressure calculations during intra-abdominal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Cortes-Puentes, Gustavo A; Gard, Kenneth E; Adams, Alexander B; Faltesek, Katherine A; Anderson, Christopher P; Dries, David J; Marini, John J

    2013-08-01

    To clarify the effect of progressively increasing intra-abdominal pressure on esophageal pressure, transpulmonary pressure, and functional residual capacity. Controlled application of increased intra-abdominal pressure at two positive end-expiratory pressure levels (1 and 10 cm H2O) in an anesthetized porcine model of controlled ventilation. Large animal laboratory of a university-affiliated hospital. Eleven deeply anesthetized swine (weight 46.2 ± 6.2 kg). Air-regulated intra-abdominal hypertension (0-25 mm Hg). Esophageal pressure, tidal compliance, bladder pressure, and end-expiratory lung aeration by gas dilution. Functional residual capacity was significantly reduced by increasing intra-abdominal pressure at both positive end-expiratory pressure levels (p ≤ 0.0001) without corresponding changes of end-expiratory esophageal pressure. Above intra-abdominal pressure 5 mm Hg, plateau airway pressure increased linearly by ~ 50% of the applied intra-abdominal pressure value, associated with commensurate changes of esophageal pressure. With tidal volume held constant, negligible changes occurred in transpulmonary pressure due to intra-abdominal pressure. Driving pressures calculated from airway pressures alone (plateau airway pressure--positive end-expiratory pressure) did not equate to those computed from transpulmonary pressure (tidal changes in transpulmonary pressure). Increasing positive end-expiratory pressure shifted the predominantly negative end-expiratory transpulmonary pressure at positive end-expiratory pressure 1 cm H2O (mean -3.5 ± 0.4 cm H2O) into the positive range at positive end-expiratory pressure 10 cm H2O (mean 0.58 ± 1.2 cm H2O). Despite its insensitivity to changes in functional residual capacity, measuring transpulmonary pressure may be helpful in explaining how different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure influence recruitment and collapse during tidal ventilation in the presence of increased intra-abdominal pressure and in

  10. Options for Closure of the Infected Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Chris A.; Rosenberger, Laura H.; Politano, Amani D.; Davies, Stephen W.; Riccio, Lin M.; Sawyer, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The infected abdomen poses substantial challenges to surgeons, and often, both temporary and definitive closure techniques are required. We reviewed the options available to close the abdominal wall defect encountered frequently during and after the management of complicated intra-abdominal infections. Methods A comprehensive review was performed of the techniques and literature on abdominal closure in the setting of intra-abdominal infection. Results Temporary abdominal closure options include the Wittmann Patch, Bogota bag, vacuum-assisted closure (VAC), the AbThera™ device, and synthetic or biologic mesh. Definitive reconstruction has been described with mesh, components separation, and autologous tissue transfer. Conclusion Reconstructing the infected abdomen, both temporarily and definitively, can be accomplished with various techniques, each of which is associated with unique advantages and disadvantages. Appropriate judgment is required to optimize surgical outcomes in these complex cases. PMID:23216525

  11. Early Versus Delayed Source Control in Open Abdomen Management for Severe Intra-abdominal Infections: A Retrospective Analysis on 111 Cases.

    PubMed

    Rausei, Stefano; Pappalardo, Vincenzo; Ruspi, Laura; Colella, Antonio; Giudici, Simone; Ardita, Vincenzo; Frattini, Francesco; Rovera, Francesca; Boni, Luigi; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo

    2018-03-01

    Time to source control plays a determinant prognostic role in patients having severe intra-abdominal infections (IAIs). Open abdomen (OA) management became an effective treatment option for peritonitis. Aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between time to source control and outcome in patients presenting with abdominal sepsis and treated by OA. We retrospectively analyzed 111 patients affected by abdominal sepsis and treated with OA from May 2007 to May 2015. Patients were classified according to time interval from first patient evaluation to source control. The end points were intra-hospital mortality and primary fascial closure rate. The in-hospital mortality rate was 21.6% (24/111), and the primary fascial closure rate was 90.9% (101/111). A time to source control ≥6 h resulted significantly associated with a poor prognosis and a lower fascial closure rate (mortality 27.0 vs 9.0%, p = 0.04; primary fascial closure 86 vs 100%, p = 0.02). We observed a direct increase in mortality (and a reduction in closure rate) for each 6-h delay in surgery to source control. Early source control using OA management significantly improves outcome of patients with severe IAIs. This damage control approach well fits to the treatment of time-related conditions, particularly in case of critically ill patients.

  12. Reconstruction of infected abdominal wall defects using latissimus dorsi free flap.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Wha; Han, Sang Chul; Hwang, Kyu Tae; Ahn, Byung Kyu; Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Youn Hwan

    2013-12-01

    Infected abdominal defects are a challenge to surgeons. In this study, we describe 10 cases in which the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap was used for successful reconstruction of abdominal wall defects severely infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Retrospective review of 10 patients with abdominal wall defects that were reconstructed using the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap between 2002 and 2010. All patients had abdominal defects with hernias, combined with MRSA infections. The sizes of the flaps ranged from 120 to 364 cm(2) . The deep inferior epigastric artery was the recipient vessel in nine patients and the internal mammary vessels were used for one patient. There were no complications relating to the flaps, although there were other minor complications including wound dehiscence, haematoma and fluid correction. After reconstruction, there were no signs of infection during follow-up periods, and the patients were satisfied with the final results. Reconstruction using the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap, including muscle fascia structures, is a potential treatment option for severely infected large abdominal wall defects. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  13. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair complicated by spondylodiscitis and iliaco-enteral fistula.

    PubMed

    de Koning, Heleen D; van Sterkenburg, Steven M M; Pierie, Maurice E N; Reijnen, Michel M P J

    2008-06-01

    Infections of abdominal aortic endografts are rare. There are no reports on the association with spondylodiscitis. We report a case of a 74-year-old man who underwent endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and subsequently femorofemoral bypass placement due to occlusion of the right limb of the endograft. Six months later, he presented with rectal bleeding, weight loss, back pain, and low abdominal pain. Computed tomography revealed extensive abscess formation with air in and around the endograft and psoas muscles, in continuity with destructive spondylodiscitis L3-4. There was a small bowel loop in close proximity to the occluded right leg of the endograft, which was filled with air bubbles. An axillofemoral bypass was created followed by a laparotomy. Intra-operatively, an iliaco-enteral fistula was found. The small bowel defect was sutured, the endograft completely removed, and the infrarenal aorta and both common iliac arteries were closed. Necrotic fragments of the former L3-4 disk were removed. The postoperative course was uneventful. Seven months postoperatively, the patient had recovered well. Iliaco-enteric fistula and spondylodiscitis are rare complications of aortic aneurysm repair. This is the first report of spondylodiscitis after EVAR.

  14. The effects of nursing activities on the intra-abdominal pressure of patients at risk for intra-abdominal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rosemary K

    2017-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) occurs frequently in critically ill patients, and adds to their morbidity and mortality. There is no published evidence on the effects of nursing activities on the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) for patients at risk of IAH. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of hygiene care on the IAP of patients at risk for IAH. Hygiene care was provided to 34 at-risk patients. IAP was measured prior to initiating the hygiene care, immediately after and 10 minutes later. This was a quasi-experimental, pre-test/ post-test design. The 10 minute post-hygiene care measurement of the IAP was significantly lower than the pre or immediate post-measurement of the IAP. There were no significant changes in the mean arterial pressure (MAP) or the abdominal perfusion pressure (APP). It is safe and possibly therapeutic to provide hygiene care to patients at risk for IAH.

  15. Predictors of "occult" intra-abdominal injuries in blunt trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Parreira, José Gustavo; Malpaga, Juliano Mangini Dias; Olliari, Camilla Bilac; Perlingeiro, Jacqueline A G; Soldá, Silvia C; Assef, José Cesar

    2015-01-01

    to assess predictors of intra-abdominal injuries in blunt trauma patients admitted without abdominal pain or abnormalities on the abdomen physical examination. We conducted a retrospective analysis of trauma registry data, including adult blunt trauma patients admitted from 2008 to 2010 who sustained no abdominal pain or abnormalities on physical examination of the abdomen at admission and were submitted to computed tomography of the abdomen and/or exploratory laparotomy. Patients were assigned into: Group 1 (with intra-abdominal injuries) or Group 2 (without intra-abdominal injuries). Variables were compared between groups to identify those significantly associated with the presence of intra-abdominal injuries, adopting p<0.05 as significant. Subsequently, the variables with p<0.20 on bivariate analysis were selected to create a logistic regression model using the forward stepwise method. A total of 268 cases met the inclusion criteria. Patients in Group I were characterized as having significantly (p<0.05) lower mean AIS score for the head segment (1.0 ± 1.4 vs. 1.8 ± 1.9), as well as higher mean AIS thorax score (1.6 ± 1.7 vs. 0.9 ± 1.5) and ISS (25.7 ± 14.5 vs. 17,1 ± 13,1). The rate of abdominal injuries was significantly higher in run-over pedestrians (37.3%) and in motorcyclists (36.0%) (p<0.001). The resultant logistic regression model provided 73.5% accuracy for identifying abdominal injuries. The variables included were: motorcyclist accident as trauma mechanism (p<0.001 - OR 5.51; 95%CI 2.40-12.64), presence of rib fractures (p<0.003 - OR 3.00; 95%CI 1.47-6.14), run-over pedestrian as trauma mechanism (p=0.008 - OR 2.85; 95%CI 1.13-6.22) and abnormal neurological physical exam at admission (p=0.015 - OR 0.44; 95%CI 0.22-0.85). Intra-abdominal injuries were predominantly associated with trauma mechanism and presence of chest injuries.

  16. Responses of intra-abdominal pressure and abdominal muscle activity during dynamic trunk loading in man.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, A G

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare interactions between the abdominal musculature and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during controlled dynamic and static trunk muscle loading. Myoelectric activity was recorded in six subjects from the rectus abdominis, obliquus externus, obliquus internus, transversus abdominis and erector spinae muscles using surface and intra-muscular fine-wire electrodes. The IAP was recorded intra-gastrically. Trunk flexions and extensions were performed lying on one side on a swivel table. An adjustable brake provided different friction loading conditions, while adding weights to an unbraked swivel table afforded various levels of inertial loading. During trunk extensions at all friction loads, IAP was elevated (1.8-7.2 kPa) with concomitant activity in transversus abdominis and obliquus internus muscles--little or no activity was seen from rectus abdominis and obliquus externus muscles. For inertia loading during trunk extension, IAP levels were somewhat lower (1.8-5.6 kPa) and displayed a second peak when abdominal muscle activity occurred in the course of decelerating the movement. For single trunk flexions with friction loading, IAP was higher than that seen in extension conditions and increased with added resistance. For inertial loading during trunk flexion, IAP showed two peaks, the larger first peak matched peak forward acceleration and general abdominal muscle activation, while the second corresponded to peak deceleration and was accompanied by activity in transversus abdominis and erector spinae muscles. It was apparent that different loading strategies produced markedly different patterns of response in both trunk musculature and intra-abdominal pressure.

  17. Immune Protection against Lethal Fungal-Bacterial Intra-Abdominal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Lilly, Elizabeth A.; Ikeh, Melanie; Nash, Evelyn E.; Fidel, Paul L.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Polymicrobial intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) are clinically prevalent and cause significant morbidity and mortality, especially those involving fungi. Our laboratory developed a mouse model of IAI and demonstrated that intraperitoneal inoculation with Candida albicans or other virulent non-albicans Candida (NAC) species plus Staphylococcus aureus resulted in 70 to 80% mortality in 48 to 72 h due to robust local and systemic inflammation (sepsis). Surprisingly, inoculation with Candida dubliniensis or Candida glabrata with S. aureus resulted in minimal mortality, and rechallenge of these mice with lethal C. albicans/S. aureus (i.e., coninfection) resulted in >90% protection. The purpose of this study was to define requirements for C. dubliniensis/S. aureus-mediated protection and interrogate the mechanism of the protective response. Protection was conferred by C. dubliniensis alone or by killed C. dubliniensis plus live S. aureus. S. aureus alone was not protective, and killed S. aureus compromised C. dubliniensis-induced protection. C. dubliniensis/S. aureus also protected against lethal challenge by NAC plus S. aureus and could protect for a long-term duration (60 days between primary challenge and C. albicans/S. aureus rechallenge). Unexpectedly, mice deficient in T and B cells (Rag-1 knockouts [KO]) survived both the initial C. dubliniensis/S. aureus challenge and the C. albicans/S. aureus rechallenge, indicating that adaptive immunity did not play a role. Similarly, mice depleted of macrophages prior to rechallenge were also protected. In contrast, protection was associated with high numbers of Gr-1hi polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) in peritoneal lavage fluid within 4 h of rechallenge, and in vivo depletion of Gr-1+ cells prior to rechallenge abrogated protection. These results suggest that Candida species can induce protection against a lethal C. albicans/S. aureus IAI that is mediated by PMNLs and postulated to be a unique form of

  18. The association between Chance fractures and intra-abdominal injuries revisited: a multicenter review.

    PubMed

    Tyroch, Alan H; McGuire, Emmett L; McLean, Susan F; Kozar, Rosemary A; Gates, Keith A; Kaups, Krista L; Cook, Charles; Cowgill, Sarah M; Griswold, John A; Sue, Larry A; Craun, Michael L; Price, Jan

    2005-05-01

    The association between Chance fractures and intra-abdominal injuries is reported to be as high as 89 per cent. Because prior studies were small series or case reports, we conducted a multicenter review to learn the true association between Chance fractures and intra-abdominal injuries as well as diagnostic trends. Trauma registry data, medical records, and radiology reports from 7 trauma centers were used to characterize 79 trauma patients with Chance fractures. Initial methods of abdominal assessment were computed tomography (CT) scan (79%), clinical examination (16%), and diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) (5%). Twenty-six (33%) patients had intraabdominal injuries of which hollow viscus injuries predominated (22%). Twenty patients (25%) underwent laparotomy. The presence of an abdominal wall contusion and automobile restraint use were highly predictive of intra-abdominal injury and the need for laparotomy. The association between a Chance fracture and intra-abdominal injury is not as high as previously reported. CT scan has become the primary modality to assess the abdominal cavity of patients with Chance fractures, whereas the role of DPL has diminished.

  19. An intra-abdominal abscess or "rind" as a consequence of peritoneal dialysis-associated pseudomonas peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Culpepper, R Michael; Gore, Sarah; Rutecki, Gregory W

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal CT imaging has defined characteristics of two pathological entities specific to peritoneal dialysis patients. Both are associated with serious peritoneal complications. One is comprised of ascites accompanied by septation and loculated fluid pockets as a complication of bacterial peritonitis. The other is the syndrome of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis. We present the evolution of a single, thick-walled fluid collection as a consequence of relapsing Pseudomonas aeruginosa peritonitis. The entity had distinctive features differing from either of the two previously described entities, and to our knowledge, has not been described previously. Our patient's radiological evolution resembled the formation of a pleural or peritoneal "rind." Peritonitis, as a result of Pseudomonas aeruginosa , may lead to "rind" formation as described with empyemas and is distinct from previously described intra-abdominal pathologies in peritoneal dialysis patients.

  20. Use of methylene blue in the prevention of recurrent intra-abdominal postoperative adhesions.

    PubMed

    Neagoe, Octavian C; Ionica, Mihaela; Mazilu, Octavian

    2018-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of methylene blue in preventing recurrent symptomatic postoperative adhesions. Methods Patients with a history of >2 surgeries for intra-abdominal adhesion-related complications were selected for this study. Adhesiolysis surgery was subsequently performed using administration of 1% methylene blue. The follow-up period was 28.5 ± 11.1 months. Results Data were available from 20 patients (seven men and 13 women) whose mean ± SD age was 51.2 ± 11.4 years. Adhesions took longer to become symptomatic after the first abdominal surgery when the initial pathology was malignant compared with benign. However, the recurrence of adhesions after a previous adhesiolysis surgery had a similar time onset regardless of the initial disease. Following adhesiolysis surgery with methylene blue, the majority of patients did not present with symptoms associated with adhesion complications (i.e., chronic abdominal pain, bowel obstruction) for the length of the follow-up period. Conclusions The use of methylene blue during adhesiolysis surgery appears to reduce the recurrence of adhesion-related symptoms, suggesting a beneficial effect in the prevention of adhesion formation.

  1. Laparoscopic Stephen-Fowler stage procedure: appropriate management for high intra-abdominal testes.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Amit; Joshi, Milind; Mishra, Pankaj; Gupta, Rahul; Sanghvi, Beejal; Parelkar, Sandesh

    2010-03-01

    The length of testicular vessels is the main length-limiting factor to bring down the testes in the scrotum. Fowler and Stephen proposed the division of testicular vessels, high and as far from the testes as possible to maintain collateral blood supply, to treat high intra-abdominal testes. Cortesi introduced the diagnostic laparoscopy and Jorden first did the laparoscopic orchiopexy for nonpalpable testes. We had done Fowler-Stephen staged orchiopexy for high intra-abdominal testes, in which both stages were done laparoscopically. In total, 17 testes of 13 patients had undergone laparoscopic staged Fowler-Stephen orchiopexy. The decision to perform a staged Fowler-Stephen orchiopexy was based on the distance of the testis from the deep inguinal ring on laparoscopy. If distance was more than 2.5 cm, then we proceeded to a laparoscopic staged Fowler-Stephen orchiopexy. In the first stage, testicular vessels were cauterized by bipolar diathermy. Laparoscopic second-stage Fowler-Stephen procedure was done 6 months after the first stage. Patients were regularly followed, and the success of the procedure was assessed by the size of the testes and the position in the scrotum. Testicular vascularity was assessed by color Doppler ultrasonography. There was no testicular atrophy on second stage and on follow-up. All testes were in the scrotum with good size on follow-up. There was no complication related to laparoscopy. In cases of high intra-abdominal testes, the staged Fowler-Stephen procedure should be the procedure of choice. This procedure yields a high success rate. Transaction of vessels by bipolar diathermy is a very safe, cost-effective method.

  2. Intra-abdominal fat accumulation is a hypertension risk factor in young adulthood: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Takeoka, Atsushi; Tayama, Jun; Yamasaki, Hironori; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Ogawa, Sayaka; Saigo, Tatsuo; Kawano, Hiroaki; Abiru, Norio; Hayashida, Masaki; Maeda, Takahiro; Shirabe, Susumu

    2016-11-01

    Accumulation of intra-abdominal fat is related to hypertension. Despite this, a relationship between hypertension and intra-abdominal fat in young adulthood is not clear. In this study, we verify whether intra-abdominal fat accumulation increases a hypertension risk in young adult subjects.In a cross-sectional study, intra-abdominal fat area was measured using a dual bioelectrical impedance analysis instrument in 697 university students (20.3 ± 0.7 years, 425 men). Blood pressure and anthropometric factors were measured. Lifestyle variables including smoking, drinking, physical activity, and eating behavior were assessed with questionnaire. High blood pressure risk (systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mm Hg) with increasing intra-abdominal fat area was evaluated.Participants were divided into 5 groups according to their intra-abdominal fat area (≤24.9, 25-49.9, 50-74.9, 75-99.9, and ≥100 cm). As compared with the values of the smallest intra-abdominal fat area group, the crude and lifestyle-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were elevated in larger intra-abdominal fat area groups [OR 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66-2.80; OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.60-7.57; OR 7.71, 95% CI 2.75-22.22; OR 18.74, 95% CI 3.93-105.64, respectively). The risk increase was observed only in men.Intra-abdominal fat accumulation is related to high blood pressure in men around 20 years of age. These results indicate the importance of evaluation and reduction of intra-abdominal fat to prevent hypertension.

  3. Serum bactericidal activities of moxifloxacin and levofloxacin against aerobic and anaerobic intra-abdominal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Stein, Gary E; Schooley, Sharon; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Citron, Diane M; Nicolau, David P; Goldstein, Ellie J C

    2008-02-01

    We studied the serum bactericidal activity (SBA) of moxifloxacin and levofloxacin against common pathogens associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections. Ten healthy volunteers received a single dose of moxifloxacin (400 mg) and levofloxacin (750 mg) and serum samples were collected at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24h after the dose of each drug. Bactericidal titers in serum over time were determined for aerobic gram-negative bacilli (Escherichia coli, Klebseilla pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae) and anaerobic bacteria (Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Prevotella bivia, and Finegoldia magna). Both fluoroquinolones provided rapid (2h) attainment and prolonged (24h) SBA (titers > or = 1:8) against each of the aerobic bacilli studied. SBA was observed for at least 12h against B. fragilis strains with MICs < or = 2 microg/ml to moxifloxacin and < or = 4 microg/ml to levofloxacin. Prolonged (12h) SBA (titers > or = 1:2) was also observed against isolates of B. thetaiotaomicron, P. bivia, and F. magna with moxifloxacin < or = MICs 2 microg/ml.

  4. Endoloops or endostapler use in laparoscopic appendectomy for acute uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis : No difference in infectious complications.

    PubMed

    van Rossem, Charles C; van Geloven, Anna A W; Schreinemacher, Marc H F; Bemelman, Willem A

    2017-01-01

    The most appropriate closure for the appendicular stump with either endoloops or an endostapler in laparoscopic appendectomy remains unclear and under debate because of limited and conflicting evidence. In a 2-month prospective, observational, resident-led nationwide cohort study, patients undergoing laparoscopic appendectomy for both uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis were analysed. Logistic regression analyses were performed for identifying the possible effect of stump closure type and other risk factors for infectious complications. Laparoscopic appendectomy for acute appendicitis was performed in 1369 patients in 62 hospitals; endoloops were used in 76.7 % and an endostapler in other patients. Median operating time was not different between endoloop and endostapler use (42.0 vs. 44.0 min, P = 0.243). A superficial surgical site infection was seen in 2.0 % after uncomplicated appendicitis and in 0.8 % after complicated appendicitis. The intra-abdominal abscess rate was 1.9 % after uncomplicated and 11.0 % after complicated appendicitis. No significant effect of stump closure type was observed for any infectious complication (OR 1.05; 95 % CI 0.625-1.766, P = 0.853) or an intra-abdominal abscess (OR OR 0.96; 95 % CI 0.523-1.768, P = 0.899). In multivariable analysis, complicated appendicitis was identified as the only independent risk factor for an intra-abdominal abscess (OR 6.26; 95 % CI 3.454-11.341, P < 0.001). The infectious complication rate is not influenced by the type of appendicular stump closure with either endoloops or an endostapler in this study. If technically feasible, closure with endoloops is advised for cost considerations.

  5. Comparison of superior vena cava and femoroiliac vein pressure according to intra-abdominal pressure.

    PubMed

    Ait-Oufella, Hafid; Boelle, Pierre-Yves; Galbois, Arnaud; Baudel, Jean-Luc; Margetis, Dimitri; Alves, Mikael; Offenstadt, Georges; Maury, Eric; Guidet, Bertrand

    2012-06-28

    Previous studies have shown a good agreement between central venous pressure (CVP) measurements from catheters placed in superior vena cava and catheters placed in the abdominal cava/common iliac vein. However, the influence of intra-abdominal pressure on such measurements remains unknown. We conducted a prospective, observational study in a tertiary teaching hospital. We enrolled patients who had indwelling catheters in both superior vena cava (double lumen catheter) and femoroiliac veins (dialysis catheter) and into the bladder. Pressures were measured from all the sites, CVP, femoroiliac venous pressure (FIVP), and intra-abdominal pressure. A total of 30 patients were enrolled (age 62 ± 14 years; SAPS II 62 (52-76)). Fifty complete sets of measurements were performed. All of the studied patients were mechanically ventilated (PEP 3 cmH20 (2-5)). We observed that the concordance between CVP and FIVP decreased when intra-abdominal pressure increased. We identified 14 mmHg as the best intra-abdominal pressure cutoff, and we found that CVP and FIVP were significantly more in agreement below this threshold than above (94% versus 50%, P = 0.002). We reported that intra-abdominal pressure affected agreement between CVP measurements from catheter placed in superior vena cava and catheters placed in the femoroiliac vein. Agreement was excellent when intra-abdominal pressure was below 14 mmHg.

  6. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery for intra-abdominal emergency conditions.

    PubMed

    Bingener, J; Ibrahim-zada, I

    2014-01-01

    Patient benefits from natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) are of interest in acute-care surgery. This review provides an overview of the historical development of NOTES procedures, and addresses their current uses and limitations for intra-abdominal emergency conditions. A PubMed search was carried out for articles describing NOTES approaches for appendicectomy, percutaneous gastrostomy, hollow viscus perforation and pancreatic necrosectomy. Pertinent articles were reviewed and data on available outcomes synthesized. Emergency conditions in surgery tax the patient's cardiovascular and respiratory systems, and fluid and electrolyte balance. The operative intervention itself leads to an inflammatory response and blood loss, thus adding to the physiological stress. NOTES provides a minimally invasive alternative access to the peritoneal cavity, avoiding abdominal wall incisions. A clear advantage to the patient is evident with the implementation of an endoscopic approach to deal with inadvertently displaced percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes and perforated gastroduodenal ulcer. The NOTES approach appears less invasive for patients with infected pancreatic necrosis, in whom it allows surgical debridement and avoidance of open necrosectomy. Transvaginal appendicectomy is the second most frequently performed NOTES procedure after cholecystectomy. The NOTES concept has provided a change in perspective for intramural and transmural endoscopic approaches to iatrogenic perforations during endoscopy. NOTES approaches have been implemented in clinical practice over the past decade. Selected techniques offer reduced invasiveness for patients with intra-abdominal emergencies, and may improve outcomes. Steady future development and adoption of NOTES are likely to follow as technology improves and surgeons become comfortable with the approaches. © 2013 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Intra-abdominal sepsis following pancreatic resection: incidence, risk factors, diagnosis, microbiology, management, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Behrman, Stephen W; Zarzaur, Ben L

    2008-07-01

    Intra-abdominal sepsis (IAS) following pancreatectomy is associated with the need for therapeutic intervention and may result in mortality. We retrospectively reviewed patients developing IAS following elective pancreatectomy. Risk factors for the development of sepsis were assessed. The microbiology of these infections was ascertained. The number and type of therapeutic interventions required and infectious-related mortality were recorded. One hundred ninety-six patients had a pancreatectomy performed, 32 (16.3%) of who developed IAS. Infected abdominal collections were diagnosed and therapeutically managed at a mean of 11.8 days after the index procedure (range, 4-33). Eleven of 32 (34%) of these infections were diagnosed on or before postoperative day 6, 10 of who had Whipple procedures. Statistically significant risk factors included an overt pancreatic fistula (18.8% vs 5.5%) and a soft pancreatic remnant (74.2% vs 42.3%), but not the lack of intra-abdominal drainage, an antecedent immunocompromised state, postoperative hemorrhage, or the preoperative placement of a biliary stent. Fifty-five per cent had polymicrobial infections and 26 per cent of isolates were resistant organisms. Nineteen per cent and 48 per cent of patients had an isolate positive for fungus and a Gram-positive organism, respectively. Forty-seven therapeutic interventions were used, including 10 reoperations. Length of stay was significantly prolonged in those with IAS (28.5 vs 15.2 days) and mortality was higher (15.6% vs 1.8%). We conclude: 1) septic morbidity after pancreatectomy is associated with a soft pancreatic remnant and an overt pancreatic fistula and in this series resulted in a prolonged length of stay and a significant increase in procedure-related mortality; 2) infected fluid collections may occur very early in the postoperative period before frank abscess formation, and an early threshold for diagnostic imaging and/or therapeutic intervention should be entertained in those

  8. Twisted intra-abdominal cyst in a neonate: a surprise revelation.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ferzine; Telugu, Ramesh Babu; Karl, Immanuel Sampath

    2017-08-08

    We, herein, present a male neonate with an antenatally detected intra-abdominal cyst who presented at 18 days of life at which time, the ultrasound revealed a 5×4 cm cyst. Since he was asymptomatic, we planned to repeat the ultrasound a month later and operate if the cyst showed no regression. However, a week later, he presented with an acute abdomen, irritable cry and a repeat ultrasound showing a larger (8×6 cm) cystic mass with debris within. He was taken up for an emergency laparotomy. Intraoperatively, the cyst was found arising from the left lateral abdominal wall free from all structures with a twisted pedicle. Histopathology surprisingly revealed seminiferous tubules within the cyst wall with the vas deferens, thus confirming the diagnosis of a torsion of intra-abdominal testis. Hence, we emphasise the importance of examining for an undescended testis when dealing with a male neonate presenting with a cystic intra-abdominal mass. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. 2017 update of the WSES guidelines for emergency repair of complicated abdominal wall hernias.

    PubMed

    Birindelli, Arianna; Sartelli, Massimo; Di Saverio, Salomone; Coccolini, Federico; Ansaloni, Luca; van Ramshorst, Gabrielle H; Campanelli, Giampiero; Khokha, Vladimir; Moore, Ernest E; Peitzman, Andrew; Velmahos, George; Moore, Frederick Alan; Leppaniemi, Ari; Burlew, Clay Cothren; Biffl, Walter L; Koike, Kaoru; Kluger, Yoram; Fraga, Gustavo P; Ordonez, Carlos A; Novello, Matteo; Agresta, Ferdinando; Sakakushev, Boris; Gerych, Igor; Wani, Imtiaz; Kelly, Michael D; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Faro, Mario Paulo; Tarasconi, Antonio; Demetrashvili, Zaza; Lee, Jae Gil; Vettoretto, Nereo; Guercioni, Gianluca; Persiani, Roberto; Tranà, Cristian; Cui, Yunfeng; Kok, Kenneth Y Y; Ghnnam, Wagih M; Abbas, Ashraf El-Sayed; Sato, Norio; Marwah, Sanjay; Rangarajan, Muthukumaran; Ben-Ishay, Offir; Adesunkanmi, Abdul Rashid K; Lohse, Helmut Alfredo Segovia; Kenig, Jakub; Mandalà, Stefano; Coimbra, Raul; Bhangu, Aneel; Suggett, Nigel; Biondi, Antonio; Portolani, Nazario; Baiocchi, Gianluca; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Scibé, Rodolfo; Sugrue, Michael; Chiara, Osvaldo; Catena, Fausto

    2017-01-01

    Emergency repair of complicated abdominal wall hernias may be associated with worsen outcome and a significant rate of postoperative complications. There is no consensus on management of complicated abdominal hernias. The main matter of debate is about the use of mesh in case of intestinal resection and the type of mesh to be used. Wound infection is the most common complication encountered and represents an immense burden especially in the presence of a mesh. The recurrence rate is an important topic that influences the final outcome. A World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) Consensus Conference was held in Bergamo in July 2013 with the aim to define recommendations for emergency repair of abdominal wall hernias in adults. This document represents the executive summary of the consensus conference approved by a WSES expert panel. In 2016, the guidelines have been revised and updated according to the most recent available literature.

  10. Evaluation of abdominal pain in the AIDS patient.

    PubMed Central

    Potter, D A; Danforth, D N; Macher, A M; Longo, D L; Stewart, L; Masur, H

    1984-01-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a recently recognized entity characterized by a deficiency in cell mediated immune response. The syndrome is manifested by the development of otherwise rare malignant neoplasms and severe life-threatening opportunistic infections. Case histories of five AIDS patients evaluated for abdominal pain are presented to demonstrate the unusual spectrum of intra-abdominal pathology that may be encountered in the AIDS patient. As the number of patients with AIDS continues to escalate, surgical evaluation and intervention will be required more frequently. An understanding of this syndrome and its complications is mandatory for the surgeon to adequately evaluate AIDS patients with abdominal pain. PMID:6322708

  11. Cost-effectiveness of ceftolozane/tazobactam plus metronidazole versus piperacillin/tazobactam as initial empiric therapy for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections based on pathogen distributions drawn from national surveillance data in the United States.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Vimalanand S; Solomkin, Joseph S; Medic, Goran; Foo, Jason; Borse, Rebekah H; Kauf, Teresa; Miller, Benjamin; Sen, Shuvayu S; Basu, Anirban

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among gram-negative pathogens in complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) has increased. In the absence of timely information on the infecting pathogens and their susceptibilities, local or regional epidemiology may guide initial empirical therapy and reduce treatment failure, length of stay and mortality. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of ceftolozane/tazobactam + metronidazole compared with piperacillin/tazobactam in the treatment of hospitalized US patients with cIAI at risk of infection with resistant pathogens. We used a decision-analytic Monte Carlo simulation model to compare the costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) of persons infected with nosocomial gram-negative cIAI treated empirically with either ceftolozane/tazobactam + metronidazole or piperacillin/tazobactam. Pathogen isolates were randomly drawn from the Program to Assess Ceftolozane/Tazobactam Susceptibility (PACTS) database, a surveillance database of non-duplicate bacterial isolates collected from patients with cIAIs in medical centers in the USA from 2011 to 2013. Susceptibility to initial therapy was based on the measured susceptibilities reported in the PACTS database determined using standard broth micro-dilution methods as described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Our model results, with baseline resistance levels from the PACTS database, indicated that ceftolozane/tazobactam + metronidazole dominated piperacillin/tazobactam, with lower costs ($44,226/patient vs. $44,811/patient respectively) and higher QALYs (12.85/patient vs. 12.70/patient, respectively). Ceftolozane/tazobactam + metronidazole remained the dominant choice in one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Based on surveillance data, ceftolozane/tazobactam is more likely to be an appropriate empiric therapy for cIAI in the US. Results from a decision-analytic simulation model indicate that use of

  12. Change in Intra-Abdominal Fat Predicts the Risk of Hypertension in Japanese Americans.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Catherine A; Kahn, Steven E; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Leonetti, Donna L; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-07-01

    In Japanese Americans, intra-abdominal fat area measured by computed tomography is positively associated with the prevalence and incidence of hypertension. Evidence in other populations suggests that other fat areas may be protective. We sought to determine whether a change in specific fat depots predicts the development of hypertension. We prospectively followed up 286 subjects (mean age, 49.5 years; 50.4% men) from the Japanese American Community Diabetes Study for 10 years. At baseline, subjects did not have hypertension (defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg) and were not taking blood pressure or glucose-lowering medications. Mid-thigh subcutaneous fat area, abdominal subcutaneous fat area, and intra-abdominal fat area were directly measured by computed tomography at baseline and 5 years. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds of incident hypertension over 10 years in relation to a 5-year change in fat area. The relative odds of developing hypertension for a 5-year increase in intra-abdominal fat was 1.74 (95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.37), after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, baseline intra-abdominal fat, alcohol use, smoking status, and weekly exercise energy expenditure. This relationship remained significant when adjusted for baseline fasting insulin and 2-hour glucose levels or for diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes mellitus classification. There were no significant associations between baseline and change in thigh or abdominal subcutaneous fat areas and incident hypertension. In conclusion, in this cohort of Japanese Americans, the risk of developing hypertension is related to the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat rather than the accrual of subcutaneous fat in either the thigh or the abdominal areas. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Activity of temocillin in a lethal murine model of infection of intra-abdominal origin due to KPC-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, K; Chau, F; Guérin, F; Massias, L; Lefort, A; Cattoir, V; Fantin, B

    2016-07-01

    Temocillin is a 6-α-methoxy derivative of ticarcillin that shows in vitro activity against Enterobacteriaceae producing Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC). Our objective was to assess in vivo temocillin activity against KPC-producing Escherichia coli. Isogenic derivatives of the WT E. coli CFT073 producing KPC-2, KPC-3 or OXA-48 were constructed. An experimental murine model of intra-abdominal infection with sepsis was used. Mice were treated subcutaneously with temocillin 200 mg/kg every 2 h for 24 h, reproducing the duration of time that the free serum concentration of temocillin exceeded the MIC in humans with a regimen of 2 g every 12 h or 2 g every 8 h. Blood, peritoneal fluid (PF) and spleen were collected; 24 h survival and sterility rates were assessed. Temocillin MICs were 8, 16, 32, and 256 mg/L for the susceptible strain and KPC-2-, KPC-3-, and OXA-48-producing strains, respectively. In mice treated with temocillin, significant bacterial reduction was obtained in PF, blood, and spleen for the susceptible strain and KPC-2- and KPC-3-producing strains (P < 0.001) but not for the OXA-48-producing strain. Sterility rates in PF were 53%, 10%, 0% and 0% (P < 0.001) and sterility rates in blood were 77%, 40%, 3% and 0% (P < 0.001), while survival rates were 97%, 97%, 57%, 0% (P < 0.001) for mice infected with the susceptible strain and KPC-2-, KPC-3- and OXA-48-producing strains, respectively. In a lethal-infection model with bacteraemia from intra-abdominal origin, temocillin retained significant activity in PF, blood and spleen and prevented death in mice by effectively working against KPC-producing E. coli with temocillin MICs ≤16 mg/L. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Medical Versus Interventional Treatment of Intra-Abdominal Abscess in Patients With Crohn Disease.

    PubMed

    Graham, Emily; Rao, Krishna; Cinti, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    Few studies exist to guide the treatment approach to intra-abdominal abscesses in Crohn disease, which can include antimicrobials alone or in conjunction with percutaneous drainage or surgery. The primary aim of this study is to review outcomes from different treatment approaches to intra-abdominal abscess in Crohn disease. Medical records were reviewed for patients admitted to the University of Michigan health care system with Crohn disease and intra-abdominal abscess over a 4-year period. Outcomes were compared among medical and interventional approaches. The χ 2 test was used to test for statistical significance. Of the 33 patients included, 13 were in the medical group and 20 were in the interventional group. Abscess recurrence/nonresolution occurred in 31% of patients in the medical group and 25% of patients in the interventional group ( P = .7). In this study, there was no significant difference in outcome between medical and interventional therapy for intra-abdominal abscess in Crohn disease.

  15. Mechanical Intestinal Obstruction in a Porcine Model: Effects of Intra-Abdominal Hypertension. A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Margallo, F. M.; Latorre, R.; López-Albors, O.; Wise, R.; Malbrain, M. L. N. G.; Castellanos, G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mechanical intestinal obstruction is a disorder associated with intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. As the large intestine intraluminal and intra-abdominal pressures are increased, so the patient’s risk for intestinal ischaemia. Previous studies have focused on hypoperfusion and bacterial translocation without considering the concomitant effect of intra-abdominal hypertension. The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a mechanical intestinal obstruction model in pigs similar to the human pathophysiology. Materials and Methods Fifteen pigs were divided into three groups: a control group (n = 5) and two groups of 5 pigs with intra-abdominal hypertension induced by mechanical intestinal obstruction. The intra-abdominal pressures of 20 mmHg were maintained for 2 and 5 hours respectively. Hemodynamic, respiratory and gastric intramucosal pH values, as well as blood tests were recorded every 30 min. Results Significant differences between the control and mechanical intestinal obstruction groups were noted. The mean arterial pressure, cardiac index, dynamic pulmonary compliance and abdominal perfusion pressure decreased. The systemic vascular resistance index, central venous pressure, pulse pressure variation, airway resistance and lactate increased within 2 hours from starting intra-abdominal hypertension (p<0.05). In addition, we observed increased values for the peak and plateau airway pressures, and low values of gastric intramucosal pH in the mechanical intestinal obstruction groups that were significant after 3 hours. Conclusion The mechanical intestinal obstruction model appears to adequately simulate the pathophysiology of intestinal obstruction that occurs in humans. Monitoring abdominal perfusion pressure, dynamic pulmonary compliance, gastric intramucosal pH and lactate values may provide insight in predicting the effects on endorgan function in patients with mechanical intestinal obstruction. PMID

  16. Abdominal compartment syndrome related to noninvasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    De Keulenaer, Bart L; De Backer, Adelard; Schepens, Dirk R; Daelemans, Ronny; Wilmer, Alexander; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2003-07-01

    To study the effects of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) on intra-abdominal pressure. Single case report from a tertiary teaching hospital. A 65-year-old man who experienced a sudden respiratory and cardiovascular collapse during NIPPV. This was caused by gastric overdistension due to aerophagia followed by raised intra-abdominal pressure leading to intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. The respiratory and cardiovascular problems resolved immediately after the introduction of a nasogastric tube. This resulted in normalization of IAP. This is the first case reported of an abdominal compartment syndrome related to NIPPV. Clinicians should be aware of this possible complication while using NIPPV.

  17. Abdominal intra-compartment syndrome - a non-hydraulic model of abdominal compartment syndrome due to post-hepatectomy hemorrhage in a man with a localized frozen abdomen due to extensive adhesions: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Alexsander K; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Ball, Chad G

    2016-09-15

    Postoperative hemorrhage is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality following liver resection. It typically presents early within the postoperative period, and conservative management is possible in the majority of cases. We present a case of late post-hepatectomy hemorrhage associated with overt abdominal compartment syndrome resulting from a localized functional compartment within the abdomen. A 68-year-old white man was readmitted with sudden onset of upper abdominal pain, vomiting, and hemodynamic instability 8 days after an uneventful hepatic resection for metachronous colon cancer metastasis. A frozen abdomen with adhesions due to complicated previous abdominal surgeries was encountered at the first intervention, but the surgery itself and initial recovery were otherwise unremarkable. Prompt response to fluid resuscitation at admission was followed by a computed tomography of his abdomen that revealed active arterial hemorrhage in the liver resection site and hemoperitoneum (estimated volume <2 L). Selective arteriography successfully identified and embolized a small bleeding branch of his right hepatic artery. He remained hemodynamically stable, but eventually developed overt abdominal compartment syndrome. Surgical exploration confirmed a small volume of ascites and blood clots (1.2 L) under significant pressure in his supramesocolic region, restricted by his frozen lower abdomen, which we evacuated. Dramatic improvement in his ventilatory pressure was immediate. His abdomen was left open and a negative pressure device was placed for temporary abdominal closure. The fascia was formally closed after 48 hours. He was discharged home at postoperative day 6. Intra-abdominal pressure and radiologic findings of intra-abdominal hemorrhage should be carefully interpreted in patients with extensive intra-abdominal adhesions. A high index of suspicion and detailed understanding of abdominal compartment mechanics are paramount for the timely diagnosis of

  18. Intra-abdominal solid organ injuries: an enhanced management algorithm.

    PubMed

    Kokabi, Nima; Shuaib, Waqas; Xing, Minzhi; Harmouche, Elie; Wilson, Kenneth; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari; Khosa, Faisal

    2014-11-01

    The organ injury scale grading system proposed by the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma provides guidelines for operative versus nonoperative management in solid organ injuries; however, major shortcomings of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma injury scale may become apparent with low-grade injuries, in which conservative management may fail. Nonoperative management of common intra-abdominal solid organ injuries relies increasingly on computed tomographic findings and other clinical factors, including patient age, presence of concurrent injuries, and serial clinical assessments. Familiarity with characteristic imaging features is essential for the prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment of blunt abdominal trauma. In this pictorial essay, the spectrum of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma organ injury scale grading system is illustrated, and a multidisciplinary management algorithm for common intra-abdominal solid organ injuries is proposed. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. More complicated than it looks: The vagaries of calculating intra-abdominal pressure

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Nadia M.; Shaw, Janet M.; Nygaard, Ingrid E.; Coleman, Tanner J.; Hsu, Yvonne; Egger, Marlene; Hitchcock, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Activities thought to induce high intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), such as lifting weights, are restricted in women with pelvic floor disorders. Standardized procedures to assess IAP during activity are lacking and typically only focus on maximal IAP, variably defined. Our intent in this methods paper is to establish the best strategies for calculating maximal IAP and to add area under the curve and first moment of the area as potentially useful measures in understanding biologic effects of IAP. Thirteen women completed a range of activities while wearing an intra-vaginal pressure transducer. We first analyzed various strategies heuristically using data from 3 women. The measure that appeared to best represent maximal IAP was an average of the three, five or ten highest values, depending on activity, determined using a top down approach, with peaks at least 1 second apart using algorithms written for Matlab computer software, we then compared this strategy with others commonly reported in the literature quantitatively using data from 10 additional volunteers. Maximal IAP calculated using the top down approach differed for some, but not all, activities compared to the single highest peak or to averaging all peaks. We also calculated area under the curve, which allows for a time component, and first moment of the area, which maintains the time component while weighting pressure amplitude. We validated methods of assessing IAP using computer-generated sine waves. We offer standardized methods for assessing maximal, area under the curve and first moment of the area for IAP to improve future reporting and application of this clinically relevant measure in exercise science. PMID:23439349

  20. Getting the invite list right: a discussion of sepsis severity scoring systems in severe complicated intra-abdominal sepsis and randomized trial inclusion criteria.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, Matti; Coccolini, Federico; Ansaloni, Luca; Sartelli, Massimo; Roberts, Derek J; McKee, Jessica L; Leppaniemi, Ari; Doig, Christopher J; Catena, Fausto; Fabian, Timothy; Jenne, Craig N; Chiara, Osvaldo; Kubes, Paul; Kluger, Yoram; Fraga, Gustavo P; Pereira, Bruno M; Diaz, Jose J; Sugrue, Michael; Moore, Ernest E; Ren, Jianan; Ball, Chad G; Coimbra, Raul; Dixon, Elijah; Biffl, Walter; MacLean, Anthony; McBeth, Paul B; Posadas-Calleja, Juan G; Di Saverio, Salomone; Xiao, Jimmy; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W

    2018-01-01

    Severe complicated intra-abdominal sepsis (SCIAS) is a worldwide challenge with increasing incidence. Open abdomen management with enhanced clearance of fluid and biomediators from the peritoneum is a potential therapy requiring prospective evaluation. Given the complexity of powering multi-center trials, it is essential to recruit an inception cohort sick enough to benefit from the intervention; otherwise, no effect of a potentially beneficial therapy may be apparent. An evaluation of abilities of recognized predictive systems to recognize SCIAS patients was conducted using an existing intra-abdominal sepsis (IAS) database. All consecutive adult patients with a diffuse secondary peritonitis between 2012 and 2013 were collected from a quaternary care hospital in Finland, excluding appendicitis/cholecystitis. From this retrospectively collected database, a target population (93) of those with either ICU admission or mortality were selected. The performance metrics of the Third Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock based on both SOFA and quick SOFA, the World Society of Emergency Surgery Sepsis Severity Score (WSESSSS), the APACHE II score, Manheim Peritonitis Index (MPI), and the Calgary Predisposition, Infection, Response, and Organ dysfunction (CPIRO) score were all tested for their discriminant ability to identify this subgroup with SCIAS and to predict mortality. Predictive systems with an area under-the-receiving-operating characteristic (AUC) curve > 0.8 included SOFA, Sepsis-3 definitions, APACHE II, WSESSSS, and CPIRO scores with the overall best for CPIRO. The highest identification rates were SOFA score ≥ 2 (78.4%), followed by the WSESSSS score ≥ 8 (73.1%), SOFA ≥ 3 (75.2%), and APACHE II ≥ 14 (68.8%) identification. Combining the Sepsis-3 septic-shock definition and WSESSS ≥ 8 increased detection to 80%. Including CPIRO score ≥ 3 increased this to 82.8% (Sensitivity-SN; 83% Specificity-SP; 74%. Comparatively, SOFA

  1. Primary intra-abdominal malignant fibrous histiocytoma: a highly aggressive tumor.

    PubMed

    Salemis, Nikolaos S; Gourgiotis, Stavros; Tsiambas, Evangelos; Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Karameris, Andreas; Tsohataridis, Efstathios

    2010-12-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma of late adult life occurring predominantly in the extremities. Primary intra-abdominal MFH is a very rare occurrence. The aim of this study is to describe a very rare case of an intra-abdominal MFH with a highly aggressive clinical course. A 67-year-old male was referred to our department with a 2-week history of dull lower abdominal pain and a gradually enlarging right lower abdominal mass, which he first noticed 2 months prior to admission. Computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated a mass in the right iliac fossa. On exploratory laparotomy, a tumor was found in the right iliac fossa attached to the parietal lateral peritoneum without any evidence of invasion into the adjacent structures. Complete excision of the tumor with clear margins was performed. Histological and immunohistochemical examinations showed a MFH. One month after surgery, while on adjuvant chemotherapy, the patient was readmitted with dyspnea and a slightly palpable mass in the area of the previous radical resection. CT scan revealed local tumor recurrence along with multiple pulmonary metastatic deposits. Unfortunately, despite treatment, the patient died of progressive disease 5 weeks later. Primary intra-abdominal MFH is a very rare but aggressive malignancy with a high tendency of local recurrence and metastatic spread. Early detection and complete surgical excision with clear margins is the treatment of choice. In some cases, however, the tumor can exhibit a highly aggressive clinical course despite radical surgery and adjuvant therapy.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of ceftolozane/tazobactam plus metronidazole compared with piperacillin/tazobactam as empiric therapy for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections based on the in-vitro surveillance of bacterial isolates in the UK.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Vimalanand; Foo, Jason; Ahir, Harblas; Sarpong, Eric; Merchant, Sanjay

    2017-08-01

    An increase in the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among gram-negative pathogens has been noted recently. A challenge in empiric treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAI) is identifying initial appropriate antibiotic therapy, which is associated with reduced length of stay and mortality compared with inappropriate therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of ceftolozane/tazobactam + metronidazole compared with piperacillin/tazobactam (commonly used in this indication) in the treatment of patients with cIAI in UK hospitals. A decision-analytic Monte Carlo simulation model was used to compare costs (antibiotic and hospitalization costs) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) of patients infected with gram-negative cIAI and treated empirically with either ceftolozane/tazobactam + metronidazole or piperacillin/tazobactam. Bacterial isolates were randomly drawn from the Program to Assess Ceftolozane/Tazobactam Susceptibility (PACTS) database, a surveillance database of non-duplicate bacterial isolates collected from patients in the UK infected with gram-negative pathogens. Susceptibility to initial empiric therapy was based on the measured susceptibilities reported in the PACTS database. Ceftolozane/tazobactam + metronidazole was cost-effective when compared with piperacillin/tazobactam, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of £4,350/QALY and 0.36 hospitalization days/patient saved. Costs in the ceftolozane/tazobactam + metronidazole arm were £2,576/patient, compared with £2,168/patient in the piperacillin/tazobactam arm. The ceftolozane/tazobactam + metronidazole arm experienced a greater number of QALYs than the piperacillin/tazobactam arm (14.31/patient vs 14.21/patient, respectively). Ceftolozane/tazobactam + metronidazole remained cost-effective in one-way sensitivity and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Economic models can help to identify the appropriate choice of

  3. Intra-Abdominal Candidiasis: The Importance of Early Source Control and Antifungal Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Vergidis, Pascalis; Clancy, Cornelius J.; Shields, Ryan K.; Park, Seo Young; Wildfeuer, Brett N.; Simmons, Richard L.; Nguyen, M. Hong

    2016-01-01

    Intra-abdominal candidiasis (IAC) is poorly understood compared to candidemia. We described the clinical characteristics, microbiology, treatment and outcomes of IAC, and identified risk factors for mortality. We performed a retrospective study of adults diagnosed with IAC at our center in 2012–2013. Risk factors for mortality were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. We identified 163 patients with IAC, compared to 161 with candidemia. Types of IAC were intra-abdominal abscesses (55%), secondary peritonitis (33%), primary peritonitis (5%), infected pancreatic necrosis (5%), and cholecystitis/cholangitis (3%). Eighty-three percent and 66% of secondary peritonitis and abscesses, respectively, stemmed from gastrointestinal (GI) tract sources. C. albicans (56%) and C. glabrata (24%) were the most common species. Bacterial co-infections and candidemia occurred in 67% and 6% of patients, respectively. Seventy-two percent of patients underwent an early source control intervention (within 5 days) and 72% received early antifungal treatment. 100-day mortality was 28%, and highest with primary (88%) or secondary (40%) peritonitis. Younger age, abscesses and early source control were independent predictors of survival. Younger age, abscesses and early antifungal treatment were independently associated with survival for IAC stemming from GI tract sources. Infectious diseases (ID) consultations were obtained in only 48% of patients. Consulted patients were significantly more likely to receive antifungal treatment. IAC is a common disease associated with heterogeneous manifestations, which result in poor outcomes. All patients should undergo source control interventions and receive antifungal treatment promptly. It is important for the ID community to become more engaged in treating IAC. PMID:27123857

  4. Intra-abdominal fat measurement by ultrasonography: association with anthropometry and metabolic syndrome in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Novais, Rommel L R; Café, Ana Carolina C; Morais, Aisha A; Bila, Wendell C; Santos, Gilson D da S; Lopes, Carlos Alexandre de O; Belo, Vinícius S; Romano, Márcia Christina C; Lamounier, Joel A

    2018-04-27

    To associate intra-abdominal fat thickness measured by ultrasonography to the factors related to metabolic syndrome and to determine cutoff points of intra-abdominal fat measurement associated with a greater chance of metabolic syndrome in adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study, with 423 adolescents from public schools. Intra-abdominal fat was measured by ultrasonography. Anthropometric data were collected, and biochemical analyses were performed. Intra-abdominal fat was measured by ultrasonography, showing a statistically significant association with the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (p=0.037), body mass index (p<0.001), elevated triglyceride levels (p=0.012), decreased plasma HDL levels (p=0.034), and increased systemic blood pressure values (p=0.023). Cutoff values of intra-abdominal fat thickness measurements were calculated by ultrasound to estimate the individuals most likely to develop metabolic syndrome. In the logistic regression models, the cutoff values that showed the highest association with metabolic syndrome in males were 4.50, 5.35, 5.46, 6.24, and 6.50cm for the ages of 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18/19 years, respectively. In the female gender, the cutoff values defined for the same age groups were 4.46, 4.55, 4.45, 4.90, and 6.46cm. In an overall analysis using the ROC curve, without gender and age stratification, the cut-off of 3.67cm showed good sensitivity, but low specificity. Ultrasonography is a useful method to estimate intra-abdominal adipose tissue in adolescents, which is associated with the main factors related to obesity and metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. [Prediction of intra-abdominal hypertension risk in patients with acute colonic obstruction under epidural analgesia].

    PubMed

    Stakanov, A V; Potseluev, E A; Musaeva, T S

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the study was to identify prediction possibility of direct current potential level for intra-abdominal hypertension risk in patients with acute colonic obstruction under preoperative epidural analgesia. Prospective analysis of the preoperative period was carried out in 140 patients with acute colonic obstruction caused by colon cancer. Relations between preoperative level of permanent capacity and risk of intra-abdominal hypertension was identified Direct current potential level is an independent predictor of intra-abdominal hypertension. Diagnostic significance increases from first to fifth hour of preoperative period according to AUROC data from 0.821 to 0.905 and calibration 6.9 (p > 0.37) and 4.7 (p > 0.54) by Hosmer-Lemeshou criteria. The use of epidural analgesia in the complex intensive preoperative preparation is pathogenically justified. It reduces intra-abdominal hypertension in patients with acute colonic obstruction.

  6. Surgical site infections in an abdominal surgical ward at Kosovo Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Raka, Lul; Krasniqi, Avdyl; Hoxha, Faton; Musa, Ruustem; Mulliqi, Gjyle; Krasniqi, Selvete; Kurti, Arsim; Dervishaj, Antigona; Nuhiu, Beqir; Kelmendi, Baton; Limani, Dalip; Tolaj, Ilir

    2007-12-01

    Abdominal surgical site infections (SSI) cause substantial morbidity and mortality for patients undergoing operative procedures. We determined the incidence of and risk factors for SSI after abdominal surgery in the Department of Abdominal Surgery at the University Clinical Centre of Kosovo (UCCK). Prospective surveillance of patients undergoing abdominal surgery was performed between December 2005 and June 2006. CDC definitions were followed to detect SSI and study forms were based on Europe Link for Infection Control through Surveillance (HELICS) protocol. A total of 253 surgical interventions in 225 patients were evaluated. The median age of patients was 42 years and 55.1% of them were male. The overall incidence rate of SSI was 12%. Follow-up was achieved for 84.1% of the procedures. For patients with an SSI, the median duration of hospitalization was 9 days compared with 4 days for those without an SSI (p2, use of antibiotic prophylaxis and NNIS class of >2 were all significant at p < .001. The SSI rates for the NNIS System risk classes 0, 1 and 2-3 were 4.2%, 46.7% and 100%, respectively. SSI caused considerable morbidity among surgical patients in UCCK. Appropriate active surveillance and infection control measures should be introduced during preoperative, intra-operative, and postoperative care to reduce infection rates.

  7. Posttransplant complications in adult recipients of intestine grafts without bowel decontamination.

    PubMed

    Clouse, Jared W; Kubal, Chandrashekhar A; Fridell, Jonathan A; Mangus, Richard S

    2018-05-01

    Selective digestive decontamination is commonly used to decrease lumenal bacterial flora. Preoperative bowel decontamination may be associated with a lower wound infection rate but has not been shown to decrease risk of intra-abdominal abscess or lower leak rate for enteric anastomoses. Alternatively, the decontamination disrupts the normal flora of the gastrointestinal tract and may affect normal physiology, including immunologic function. This study reports complication rates of an intestine transplant program that has never used bowel decontamination. All adult patients who underwent intestine transplant from 2003 to 2015 at a single center were reviewed. Posttransplant complications included intra-abdominal abscess, enteric fistula, and leak from the enteric anastomosis. Viral, fungal, and bacterial infections in the first year after transplant are reported. There were 184 adult patients who underwent deceased donor intestine transplant during the study period. Among these patients, 30% developed an infected postoperative fluid collection, 4 developed an enteric fistula (2%), and 16 had an enteric or anastomotic leak (8%). The rate of any bacterial infection was 91% in the first year, with a wound infection rate of 25%. Fungal infection occurred in 47% of patients. Rejection rates were 55% at 1 y for isolated intestine patients and 17% for multivisceral (liver inclusive) patients. Among this population of intestine transplant patients in which no bowel decontamination was used, rates of surgical complications, infections, and rejection were similar to those reported by other centers. Bowel decontamination provides no identifiable benefit in intestine transplantation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Abdominal wall reconstruction following removal of a chronically infected mid-urethral tape.

    PubMed

    Walker, Helen; Brooker, Thomas; Gelman, Wolf

    2009-10-01

    We report a rare postoperative complication of a mid-urethral tape. The patient presented with a chronic infection resistant to treatment with several weeks of antibiotics, with eventual surgical removal, and the resulting complications of an infected incisional hernia and vesico-cutaneous fistula required reconstruction of the abdominal wall with Permacol and excision of the vesico-cutaneous fistula. We also look briefly at the impact of health tourism on the National Health Service.

  9. Wireless system for monitoring Intra-abdominal pressure in patient with severe abdominal pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolovskiy, S. S.; Shtotskiy, Y. V.; Leljanov, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    The paper discusses an experimental design of the wireless system for monitoring intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) using Bluetooth Low Energy technology. The possibility of measuring IAP via the bladder using a wireless pressure sensor with a hydrophobic bacteria filter between the liquid transmitting medium and the sensor element is grounded.

  10. Intra-abdominal drain fracture following pancreatic necrosectomy.

    PubMed

    Campbell, W; Wallace, W; Gibson, E; McCallion, K

    2011-06-01

    We describe a rare case of iatrogenic fracture of an intra-abdominal tube drain (Portex Robinson drain, Smiths Medical, Kent, UK) in a 74-year-old man. The fracture occurred at the level of an additionally placed fenestration and was identified on CT scanning prior to retrieval at planned re-laparotomy. This case highlights the potential dangers of modifying pre-formed drains and recommends against this practice.

  11. The Accuracy of Urinalysis in Predicting Intra-Abdominal Injury Following Blunt Traumas.

    PubMed

    Sabzghabaei, Anita; Shojaee, Majid; Safari, Saeed; Hatamabadi, Hamid Reza; Shirvani, Reza

    2016-01-01

    In cases of blunt abdominal traumas, predicting the possible intra-abdominal injuries is still a challenge for the physicians involved with these patients. Therefore, this study was designed, to evaluate the accuracy of urinalysis in predicting intra-abdominal injuries. Patients aged 15 to 65 years with blunt abdominal trauma who were admitted to emergency departments were enrolled. Abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) scan with intravenous contrast and urinalysis were requested for all the included patients. Demographic data, trauma mechanism, the results of urinalysis, and the results of abdominopelvic CT scan were gathered. Finally, the correlation between the results of abdominopelvic CT scan, and urinalysis was determined. Urinalysis was considered positive in case of at least one positive value in gross appearance, blood in dipstick, or red blood cell count. 325 patients with blunt abdominal trauma were admitted to the emergency departments (83% male with the mean age of 32.63±17.48 years). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios of urinalysis, were 77.9% (95% CI: 69.6-84.4), 58.5% (95% CI: 51.2-65.5), 56% (95% CI: 48.5-63.3), 79.6% (95% CI: 71.8-85.7), 1.27% (95% CI: 1.30-1.57), and 0.25% (95% CI: 0.18-0.36), respectively. The diagnostic value of urinalysis in prediction of blunt traumatic intra-abdominal injuries is low and it seems that it should be considered as an adjuvant diagnostic tool, in conjunction with other sources such as clinical findings and imaging.

  12. Fallopian Tube Herniation through Left Sided Abdominal Drain Site.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Khalid; Masood, Jovaria

    2016-06-01

    Intra-abdominal drains have been used since long to prevent intra-abdominal collection, and detect any anastomotic leaks. We report a case of left sided fallopian tube herniation from a left lower abdominal drain site in a 27-year female who underwent caesarian section for breach presentation. Several complications related to drain usage has been described but left sided fallopian tube prolapse through drain site has not been reported in literature.

  13. Low-dose dacarbazine-doxorubicin therapy against intra-abdominal desmoid tumors.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Oshiro, Ryota; Nishimura, Junichi; Uemura, Mamoru; Haraguchi, Naotsugu; Hata, Taishi; Takemasa, Ichiro; Mizushima, Tsunekazu; Sekimoto, Mitsugu; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki

    2013-05-01

    Intra-abdominal desmoid tumor is a life-threatening disease. Studies have shown that dacarbazine (DTIC)-doxorubicin (DOX) (D-D) therapy is the most effective treatment. However, myelosuppression is a major problem, and cardiac muscle disorders due to DOX limit the number of administration cycles, whereas it usually requires a long time to achieve tumor shrinkage. To resolve these issues, we introduced low-dose D-D therapy to 3 patients employing 50 mg/m² DOX and 600-700 mg/m² DTIC per cycle, which permits repeated administration cycles up to 10-11 times. Case 1 was a 23-year-old female with a sporadic recurrent mesenterium desmoid tumor located in the pelvis (maximum diameter, 8 cm). Cases 2 and 3 were a 33-year-old female and a 36-year-old male. Both patients had intra-abdominal mesenterium desmoid tumors (maximum diameter 9.6 and 9.0 cm, respectively) that were generated after proctocolectomy due to familial adenomatous polyposis. No severe adverse events occurred during the therapy. With the aid of sulindac and tamoxifen after low-dose D-D therapy, the first two patients achieved a complete response, and the third patient achieved a partial response and awaits further tumor shrinkage. Our experience indicates that low-dose DT-D therapy is a safe and effective regimen for patients with intra-abdominal desmoid tumors.

  14. The effect of increased intra-abdominal pressure on orbital subarachnoid space width and intraocular pressure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Su-Meng; Wang, Ning-Li; Zuo, Zhen-Tao; Chen, Wei-Wei; Yang, Di-Ya; Li, Zhen; Cao, Yi-Wen

    2018-02-01

    In accordance with the trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference theory, decreasing the trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference can relieve glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Increased intracranial pressure can also reduce optic nerve damage in glaucoma patients, and a safe, effective and noninvasive way to achieve this is by increasing the intra-abdominal pressure. The purpose of this study was to observe the changes in orbital subarachnoid space width and intraocular pressure at elevated intra-abdominal pressure. An inflatable abdominal belt was tied to each of 15 healthy volunteers, aged 22-30 years (12 females and 3 males), at the navel level, without applying pressure to the abdomen, before they laid in the magnetic resonance imaging machine. The baseline orbital subarachnoid space width around the optic nerve was measured by magnetic resonance imaging at 1, 3, 9, and 15 mm behind the globe. The abdominal belt was inflated to increase the pressure to 40 mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa), then the orbital subarachnoid space width was measured every 10 minutes for 2 hours. After removal of the pressure, the measurement was repeated 10 and 20 minutes later. In a separate trial, the intraocular pressure was measured for all the subjects at the same time points, before, during and after elevated intra-abdominal pressure. Results showed that the baseline mean orbital subarachnoid space width was 0.88 ± 0.1 mm (range: 0.77-1.05 mm), 0.77 ± 0.11 mm (range: 0.60-0.94 mm), 0.70 ± 0.08 mm (range: 0.62-0.80 mm), and 0.68 ± 0.08 mm (range: 0.57-0.77 mm) at 1, 3, 9, and 15 mm behind the globe, respectively. During the elevated intra-abdominal pressure, the orbital subarachnoid space width increased from the baseline and dilation of the optic nerve sheath was significant at 1, 3 and 9 mm behind the globe. After decompression of the abdominal pressure, the orbital subarachnoid space width normalized and returned to the baseline value. There was no significant difference in the

  15. Effect of Increased Intra-abdominal Pressure on Liver Histology and Hemodynamics: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    ANTONIOU, EFSTATHIOS A; KAIRI, EVI; MARGONIS, GEORGIOS A; ANDREATOS, NIKOLAOS; SASAKI, KAZUNARI; DAMASKOS, CHRISTOS; GARMPIS, NIKOLAOS; SAMAHA, MARIO; ARGYRA, ERIPHYLI; POLYMENEAS, GEORGE; WEISS, MATTHEW J; PAWLIK, TIMOTHY M; VOROS, DIONYSIOS; KOURAKLIS, GREGORY

    2018-01-01

    Background: While reduction of portal venous (PV) blood flow has been described in animal models of intra-abdominal hypertension, reports on compensatory changes in hepatic arterial (HA) flow, known as the hepatic arterial buffer response are controversial. Materials and Methods: Pneumoperitoneum with helium was induced in 13 piglets. Hemodynamic measurements and pathological assessment were conducted at baseline and during the three subsequent phases: Phase A: 45 minutes with a stable intra-abdominal pressure of 25 mmHg; phase B: 45 minutes with a stable intra-abdominal pressure of 40 mmHg; and phase C during which the abdomen was re-explored and reperfusion of the liver was allowed to take place. Results: Phase B pressure was significantly greater than phase A pressure in both the PV and the inferior vena cava, demonstrating a positive association between escalating intra-abdominal hypertension and the pressure in these two vessels (all p<0.001). In contrast, HA pressure was comparable between baseline and phase A, while it tended to decrease in phase B. Regarding histology, the most notable abnormality was the presence of inflammatory infiltrates and hepatocyte necrosis. Conclusion: Helium-insufflation increased PV pressure with a partial compensatory decrease of HA pressure. Nonetheless, findings consistent with hepatic ischemia were observed on pathology. PMID:29275303

  16. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (133). Retained placenta from an intra-abdominal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Win, T; Tang, P H; Lim, T Y

    2011-01-01

    A 29-year-old Indonesian woman presented with abdominal pain seven months after an intra-abdominal pregnancy. Ultrasonography revealed a cystic mass in the pelvis and magnetic resonance imaging showed an umbilical stump within it, indicating a retained placenta. This was removed surgically, and on histology, an infarcted placenta was confirmed.

  17. Treatment of Intra-abdominal Abscesses in Crohn’s Disease – A Nationwide Analysis of Patterns and Outcomes of Care

    PubMed Central

    Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N; McGinley, Emily L

    2013-01-01

    Background Abdominal abscesses are a common complication in Crohn’s disease (CD). Percutaneous drainage of such abscesses has become increasingly popular and may deliver outcomes comparable to surgical treatment; however, such comparative data are limited from single center studies. There have been no nationally representative studies comparing different treatment modalities for abdominal abscesses. Methods We identified all adult CD-related non-elective hospitalizations from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample 2007 that were complicated by an intra-abdominal abscess. Treatment modality was categorized into 3 strata – medical treatment alone, percutaneous drainage, and surgery. We analyzed the nationwide patterns in the treatment and outcomes of each treatment modality and examined for patient demographic, disease, or hospital-related disparities in treatment and outcome. Results There were an estimated 3,296 hospitalizations for abdominal abscesses in patients with CD. Approximately 39% were treated by medical treatment alone, 29% with percutaneous drainage, and 32% with surgery with a significant increase in the use of percutaneous drainage since 1998 (7%). Co-morbidity burden, admission to a teaching hospital, and complicated Crohn’s disease (fistulae, stricture) were associated with non-medical treatment. Use of percutaneous drainage was more common in teaching hospitals. Mean time to percutaneous drainage and surgical treatment were 4.6 and 3.3 days respectively and early intervention was associated with significantly shorter hospitalization. Conclusions We describe the nationwide pattern in the treatment of abdominal abscesses and demonstrate an increase in the use of percutaneous drainage for the treatment of this subgroup. Early treatment intervention was predictive of shorter hospitalization. PMID:23392744

  18. Operative treatment of intra-articular calcaneal fractures with calcaneal plates and its complications

    PubMed Central

    Rak, Vaclav; Ira, Daniel; Masek, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Background: In a retrospective study we analysed intra-articular calcaneal fracture treatment by comparing results and complications related to fracture stabilization with nonlocking calcaneal plates and locking compression plates. Materials and Methods: We performed 76 osteosynthesis (67 patients) of intra-articular calcaneal fractures using the standard extended lateral approach from February 2004 to October 2007. Forty-two operations using nonlocking calcaneal plates (group A) were performed during the first three years, and 34 calcaneal fractures were stabilized using locking compression plates (group B) in 2007. In the Sanders type IV fractures, reconstruction of the calcaneal shape was attempted. Depending on the type of late complication, we performed subtalar arthroscopy in six cases, arthroscopically assisted subtalar distraction bone block arthrodesis in six cases, and plate removal with lateral-wall decompression in five cases. The patients were evaluated by the AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot Scale. Results: Wound healing complications were 7/42 (17%) in group A and 1/34 (3%) in group B. No patient had deep osseous infection or foot rebound compartment syndrome. Preoperative size of Böhler's angle correlated with postoperative clinical results in both groups. There were no late complications necessitating corrective procedure or arthroscopy until December 2008 in Group B. All late complications ccurred in Group A. The overall results according to the AOFAS Ankle Hindfoot Scale were good or excellent in 23/42 (55%) in group A and in 30/34 (85%) in group B. Conclusion: Open reduction and internal fixation of intra-articular calcaneal fractures has become a standard surgical method. Fewer complications and better results related to treatment with locking compression plates confirmed in comparison to nonlocking ones were noted for all Sanders types of intra-articular calcaneal fractures. Age and Sanders type IV fractures are not considered to be the contraindications

  19. Surgical site infections in an abdominal surgical ward at Kosovo Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Raka, Lul; Krasniqi, Avdyl; Hoxha, Faton; Musa, Ruustem; Mulliqi, Gjyle; Krasniqi, Selvete; Kurti, Arsim; Dervishaj, Antigona; Nuhiu, Beqir; Kelmendi, Baton; Limani, Dalip; Tolaj, Ilir

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal surgical site infections (SSI) cause substantial morbidity and mortality for patients undergoing operative procedures. We determined the incidence of and risk factors for SSI after abdominal surgery in the Department of Abdominal Surgery at the University Clinical Centre of Kosovo (UCCK). Prospective surveillance of patients undergoing abdominal surgery was performed between December 2005 and June 2006. CDC definitions were followed to detect SSI and study forms were based on Europe Link for Infection Control through Surveillance (HELICS) protocol. A total of 253 surgical interventions in 225 patients were evaluated. The median age of patients was 42 years and 55.1% of them were male. The overall incidence rate of SSI was 12%. Follow-up was achieved for 84.1% of the procedures. For patients with an SSI, the median duration of hospitalization was 9 days compared with 4 days for those without an SSI (p < 0.001). Surgical procedures were classified as emergent in 53.3% of cases. Superficial incisional SSI was most common (55%). Clinical infections were culture positive in 40.7% of cases. Duration of operation, duration of preoperative stay, wound class, ASA score > 2, use of antibiotic prophylaxis and NNIS class of > 2 were all significant at p < .001. The SSI rates for the NNIS System risk classes 0, 1 and 2-3 were 4.2%, 46.7% and 100%, respectively. SSI caused considerable morbidity among surgical patients in UCCK. Appropriate active surveillance and infection control measures should be introduced during preoperative, intra-operative, and postoperative care to reduce infection rates.

  20. Transvesical Intra-Abdominal Pressure Measurement in Newborn: What Is the Optimal Saline Volume Instillation?

    PubMed

    Defontaine, Anne; Tirel, Olivier; Costet, Nathalie; Beuchée, Alain; Ozanne, Bruno; Gaillot, Théophile; Arnaud, Alexis Pierre; Wodey, Eric

    2016-02-01

    To determine the optimal saline volume bladder instillation to measure intravesical pressure in critically ill newborns weighing less than 4.5 kg, and to establish a reference of intra-abdominal pressure value in this population. Prospective monocentric study. Neonatal ICU and PICU. Newborns, premature or not, weighing less than 4.5 kg who required a urethral catheter. Patients were classified into two groups according to whether they presented a risk factor for intra-abdominal hypertension. Nine intravesical pressure measures per patient were performed after different volume saline instillation. The first one was done without saline instillation and then by increments of 0.5 mL/kg to a maximum of 4 mL/kg. Linear models for repeated measurements of intravesical pressure with unstructured covariance were used to analyze the variation of intravesical pressure measures according to the conditions of measurement (volume instilled). Pairwise comparisons of intravesical pressure adjusted mean values between instillation volumes were done using Tukey tests, corrected for multiple testing to determine an optimal instillation volume. Forty-seven patients with completed measures (nine instillations volumes) were included in the analysis. Mean intravesical pressure values were not significantly different when measured after instillation of 0.5, 1, or 1.5 mL/kg, whereas measures after instillation of 2 mL/kg or more were significantly higher. The median intravesical pressure value in the group without intra-abdominal hypertension risk factor after instillation of 1 mL/kg was 5 mm Hg (2-6 mm Hg). The optimal saline volume bladder instillation to measure intra-abdominal pressure in newborns weighing less than 4.5 kg was 1 mL/kg. Reference intra-abdominal pressure in this population was found to be 5 mm Hg (2-6 mm Hg).

  1. Intra-peritoneal chronic loculation in peritoneal dialysis patients - a new medical management approach.

    PubMed

    Mitoiu, Dan; David, Cristiana; Peride, Ileana; Niculae, Andrei; Mureşan, Alin; Ciocâlteu, Alexandru; Geavlete, Bogdan Florin; Checheriţă, Ionel Alexandru

    2014-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) limitation as renal replacement therapy is mostly due to peritonitis and complications. Formation and persistence of intra-abdominal loculations is often under-diagnosed. Encapsulated peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a life-threatening complication, but malnutrition, recurrent peritonitis and early membrane failure are insidious enemies that need to be emphasized. It is important to highlight the persistence of intra-abdominal fluid collection after clinical resolution of peritonitis in PD patients and to indicate a new medical management approach for an early diagnosis. During five years, we selected PD peritonitis cases followed by a six months interval free of infections. Ninety-seven subjects were followed at six months and one year after the first peritonitis. Tomography had been performed to patients presenting a positive inflammatory state without a specific infectious cause. Subjects presenting documented localized fluid collection (31 cases) were divided into: drug-treated group and those undergoing laparoscopy by a new surgery technique (seven patients); a comparison regarding the clinical state and biohumoral parameters was assessed in both groups. The prevalence of intra-abdominal loculation following an apparent resolved peritonitis was high (31.9%). The cases undergoing laparoscopy presented a better evolution - improved clinical status (p=0.001), higher hemoglobin values (p=0.06), significant lower doses of erythropoietin requirement (p=0.03), improved dialysis adequacy (p=0.005) and inflammatory state. In cases with confirmed fluid encapsulated loculation, an active attitude (screening imaging protocol and laparoscopic exploration) appears to be mandatory, decreasing the risk of EPS, a serious complication which pathology and treatment are incompletely understood.

  2. Lessons Learned With Laparoscopic Management of Complicated Grades of Acute Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Junior, Cleber Soares; Costa, Evandro de Freitas Campos; Alves, Paula de Assis Pereira; de Faria, Carolina Vieira; Cangussu, Igor Vitoi; Costa, Luisa Pires; Gomes, Camila Couto; Gomes, Felipe Couto

    2014-01-01

    Background Laparoscopy has not been consolidated as the approach of first choice in the management of complicated appendicitis. Methodological flaws and absence of disease stratification criteria have been implicated in that less evidence. The objective is to study the safe and effectiveness of laparoscopy in the management of complicated appendicitis according to laparoscopic grading system. Method From January 2008 to January 2011, 154 consecutive patients who underwent a laparoscopic appendectomy for complicated appendicitis were evaluated in the prospective way. The patient’s age ranged from 12 to 75 years old (31.7 ± 13.3) and 58.3% were male. Complicated appendicitis refers to gangrenous and/or perforated appendix and were graded as 3A (segmental necrosis), 3B (base necrosis), 4A (abscess), 4B (regional peritonitis) and 5 (diffuse peritonitis). The outcomes including operative time, infection complication, operative complications and conversion rate were chosen to evaluate the procedure. Results The grade 3A was the most frequent with 50 (32.4%) patients. The mean operative time was 69.4 ± 26.3 minutes. The grade 4A showed the highest mean operative time (80.1 ± 26.7 minutes). The wound and intra-abdominal infection rates were 2.6 and 4.6%, respectively. The base necrosis was the most important factor associated with the conversion (5.2%). The grades 4A and 5 were associated with greater possibility of intra-abdominal collection. There were no operative complications. Conclusion The laparoscopic management of all complicated grades of acute appendicitis is safe and effective and should be the procedure of first choice. The laparoscopic grading system allows us to assess patients in the same disease stage. PMID:24883151

  3. Effect of Increased Intra-abdominal Pressure on Liver Histology and Hemodynamics: An Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Efstathios A; Kairi, Evi; Margonis, Georgios A; Andreatos, Nikolaos; Sasaki, Kazunari; Damaskos, Christos; Garmpis, Nikolaos; Samaha, Mario; Argyra, Eriphyli; Polymeneas, George; Weiss, Matthew J; Pawlik, Timothy M; Voros, Dionysios; Kouraklis, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    While reduction of portal venous (PV) blood flow has been described in animal models of intra-abdominal hypertension, reports on compensatory changes in hepatic arterial (HA) flow, known as the hepatic arterial buffer response are controversial. Pneumoperitoneum with helium was induced in 13 piglets. Hemodynamic measurements and pathological assessment were conducted at baseline and during the three subsequent phases: Phase A: 45 minutes with a stable intra-abdominal pressure of 25 mmHg; phase B: 45 minutes with a stable intra-abdominal pressure of 40 mmHg; and phase C during which the abdomen was re-explored and reperfusion of the liver was allowed to take place. Phase B pressure was significantly greater than phase A pressure in both the PV and the inferior vena cava, demonstrating a positive association between escalating intra-abdominal hypertension and the pressure in these two vessels (all p<0.001). In contrast, HA pressure was comparable between baseline and phase A, while it tended to decrease in phase B. Regarding histology, the most notable abnormality was the presence of inflammatory infiltrates and hepatocyte necrosis. Helium-insufflation increased PV pressure with a partial compensatory decrease of HA pressure. Nonetheless, findings consistent with hepatic ischemia were observed on pathology. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  4. The role of interventional radiology in the management of surgical complications after pancreatoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Sanjay, Pandanaboyana; Kellner, Maximiliane; Tait, Iain Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluates the role of interventional radiology (IR) in the management of postoperative complications after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). Methods A total of 120 consecutive patients were reviewed to identify IR procedures performed for early complications after PD. Results Findings showed that 24 patients (20.0%) required urgent radiological or surgical re-intervention for early complications, including 11 instances of post-pancreatectomy haemorrhage (PPH), six intra-abdominal abscesses, two bile leaks, one pancreatic fistula and one bowel ischaemia. Three of 24 complications were managed by surgery and 21 were managed by IR. Two of 11 PPHs involved intraluminal haemorrhage (ILH) and nine involved intra-abdominal haemorrhage (IAH). One ILH was managed conservatively and one required surgical intervention. In eight of nine patients with IAH, the bleeding site was identified on computed tomography angiography, and endovascular stenting or coil embolization were performed. No patient required a re-look laparotomy following IR for haemorrhage or intra-abdominal abscess. Overall, three of 120 patients required an urgent re-look laparotomy for early complications. Conclusions Rates of major morbidity after PD remain high. However, many significant complications (PPH, pancreatic fistula, intra-abdominal abscess) can be managed by IR, reducing the need for reoperation. Re-look surgery is still required in a small percentage (2.5%) of patients. PMID:23134182

  5. Analysis of urobilinogen and urine bilirubin for intra-abdominal injury in blunt trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Gorchynski, Julie; Dean, Kevin; Anderson, Craig L

    2009-05-01

    To determine the point prevalence of urine bilirubin, urine hemoglobin and urobilinogen in blunt trauma patients, and to evaluate its utility as a screening tool for intra-abdominal injury. Data analysis of 986 consecutive trauma patients of which 698 were adult blunt trauma patients. Five-hundred sixteen subjects had a urinalysis and a CT scan of the abdomen/pelvis or exploratory laparotomy. We reviewed initial urinalysis results from trauma patients in the emergency department (ED) for the presence of urine hemoglobin, uroblinogen and urine bilirubin. Computed tomography (CT) scan results and operative reports were reviewed from the trauma registry for evidence of liver laceration, spleen laceration, bowel or mesenteric injuries. There were 73 injuries and 57/516 patients (11%) with intra-abdominal injury. Urinalysis was positive for urobilinogen in 28/516 (5.4%) patients, urine bilirubin in 15/516 (2.9%) patients and urine hemoglobin in 313/516 (61%) patients. Nineteen/forty-seven (4%) subjects had liver lacerations, 28/56 (5%) splenic lacerations, and 15/5 (3%) bowel or mesenteric injury. Comparing the proportion of patients that had urobilinogen detected in the group with and without intra-abdominal injury, 8/28 (29%) subjects with urobilinogen, 5/15 (33%) subjects with bilirubin and 47/313 (15%) subjects with urine hemoglobin were found to have liver lacerations, spleen lacerations, or bowel/mesenteric injuries. Preexisting liver or biliary conditions were not statistically associated with elevation of urine bilirubin, urine hemoglobin or urobilinogen on initial urinalysis after blunt abdominal trauma. Point prevalence for urobilinogen, urine bilirubin and urine hemoglobin are 5.43% (28/516), 2.91% (15/516) and 60.7% (313/516) respectively. The utility of the initial routine urinalysis in the ED for adult blunt abdominal trauma patients should not be used as a screening tool for the evaluation of intra-abdominal injury.

  6. Copious Irrigation Versus Suction Alone During Laparoscopic Appendectomy for Complicated Appendicitis in Adults.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fengbo; Wang, He; Zhang, Fengjuan; Zhang, Xinming; Xing, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Shenglin; Zhang, Haifeng; Wang, Ye

    2017-05-09

    The objective of this study was to determine whether copious irrigation of peritoneal cavity during laparoscopic appendectomy for complicated appendicitis effectively reduces the incidence of postoperative complications and improves the postoperative recovery in adults compared with suction alone. In this prospective randomized trial, adult patients with complicated appendicitis were randomized to "irrigation and suction"(IS) group or "suction only"(SO) group. All surgery was performed with a standardized 3-port laparoscopic approach. The IS group received peritoneal irrigation with a minimum of 2000 mL sterile normal saline. The study primary outcomes included wound infection and postoperative intra-abdominal abscess. The study secondary outcomes included duration of operation, first anal exsufflation time, duration of hospital stay and hospital charges. Chi-squared and t-tests were used to analyze the study data. Between January 2015 and June 2016, a total of 260 patients with complicated appendicitis were enrolled in the study. The peritoneal irrigation resulted in a longer operation time (51.6 ± 16.1 vs. 41.5 ± 15.2 min, p <0.001). There was no significant difference in the rate of wound infection between the two groups. However, the patients who received irrigation had a lower postoperative intra-abdominal abscess rate (3.1% vs. 9.2%, p = 0.039), earlier anal exsufflation (25.2 ± 16.5 vs. 30.7 ± 18.1 hr, p = 0.011), shorter hospital stay (10.2 ± 2.5 vs. 12.5 ± 2.8 days, p <0.001) and lower hospital charges (¥14,592 ± 2,251 vs. 16,674 ± 2,163, p <0.001) compared to those received suction alone. The study findings revealed that copious irrigation of peritoneal cavity during laparoscopic appendectomy could decrease the incidence of postoperative intra-abdominal abscess in adult patients with complicated appendicitis. These patients also had faster postoperative recovery and lower hospital charges.

  7. Genetic variations in toll-like receptor 4 in Mexican-Mestizo patients with intra-abdominal infection and/or pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Osorio, Carlos A; Lima, Guadalupe; Herrera-Caceres, Jaime O; Villegas-Torres, Beatriz E; Zuñiga, Joaquin; Ponce-de-Leon, Sergio; Llorente, Luis; Sifuentes-Osornio, Jose

    2013-06-01

    Sepsis is a leading cause of death around the world, and 73-83% of all sepsis cases requiring attention in intensive care units are linked to intra-abdominal infection (IAI) or pneumonia. The activation of innate immunity is central to the manifestation of sepsis, and toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 plays an important role in this activation process. The 299G and 399I alleles of TLR4 have been linked with an increased risk of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) infections and septic shock in some populations. This case-control study evaluated the prevalence of D299G/T399I polymorphisms in Mexican patients with IAI and/or pneumonia and in healthy controls. Genotyping revealed that 1 in 44 patients (2.3%; CI 95%: 0.05-12.0%) and 4 in 126 controls (3.2%; CI 95%: 0.9-7.9%) were heterozygous for both the D299G and T399l polymorphisms (OR: 0.71, CI 95%: 0.01-7.44, p = NS), confirming the co-segregation of these alleles in this population. Furthermore, the patients with a GNB infection and severe sepsis were not carriers of the risk alleles. In summary, this report shows that the frequency of the D299G and T399I polymorphisms in Mexican-Mestizos is lower than anticipated in comparison with other ethnic groups, emphasizing the variable distribution of TLR4 polymorphisms among different populations. Consequently, this study was not able to detect associations between TLR4 polymorphisms and sepsis in this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Abdominal compartment syndrome: a rare complication of plication of the diaphragm.

    PubMed

    Phadnis, Joideep; Pilling, John E; Evans, Timothy W; Goldstraw, Peter

    2006-07-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome is an increasingly recognized phenomenon. We report the case of an otherwise fit and healthy 42-year-old man who underwent plication of the right hemidiaphragm for idiopathic phrenic paresis. His postoperative recovery was complicated by abdominal compartment syndrome, which was managed conservatively. We believe this is the only report of this complication after diaphragmatic plication and one of very few reported thoracic causes of abdominal compartment syndrome.

  9. Differentiation between intra-abdominal neoplasms and abscesses in horses, using clinical and laboratory data: 40 cases (1973-1988).

    PubMed

    Zicker, S C; Wilson, W D; Medearis, I

    1990-04-01

    The medical records of 25 horses with intra-abdominal neoplasms and 15 horses with intra-abdominal abscesses were reviewed. Common clinical signs of disease observed by owners of horses in both groups included anorexia, weight loss, fever, signs of colic, and depression. Clinical laboratory abnormalities included leukocytosis, hyperfibrinogenemia, hypoalbuminemia, and hypocalcemia. There was considerable overlap of laboratory test results within and between the 2 groups of horses. Peritoneal fluid was classified as an exudate in 12 of 15 horses with intra-abdominal abscesses and in 14 of 25 horses with intra-abdominal neoplasms. Cytologic examination of peritoneal fluid yielded an accurate diagnosis in 11 of 25 horses with neoplasia and in 3 of 15 horses with abscesses. A mean number of 1.45 cytologic analyses/horse was needed to diagnose neoplasms in the 11 horses in which the analysis was successful in definitively diagnosing the condition.

  10. Leisure-time physical activity and intra-abdominal fat in young adulthood: A monozygotic co-twin control study.

    PubMed

    Rottensteiner, Mirva; Leskinen, Tuija; Järvelä-Reijonen, Elina; Väisänen, Karoliina; Aaltonen, Sari; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M

    2016-05-01

    To investigate differences in abdominal fat compartments between young adult monozygotic twin pairs discordant for leisure-time physical activity. Ten young adult male monozygotic twin pairs (age range 32-36 years) discordant for leisure-time physical activity during the past 3 years were systematically selected from a population-based Finnish twin cohort. Magnetic resonance image at the level of the L2-L3 intervertebral disc was used to predict intra-abdominal and subcutaneous abdominal fat masses. Dietary intake was assessed with a 4-day food diary. Inactive twins had 31% more intra-abdominal fat than their active co-twins (mean difference 0.52 kg, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.91, P = 0.016), whereas the difference in subcutaneous abdominal fat was only 13% (P = 0.21) and 3% in body mass index (P = 0.28). Intraperitoneal fat mass was 41% higher among inactive twins compared to their active co-twins (mean difference 0.41 kg, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.70, P = 0.012). Dietary intake did not differ between co-twins. A lower level of physical activity is related to greater accumulation of intra-abdominal fat among healthy adult males in their mid-30s. The findings highlight the importance of leisure-time physical activity independent of genes and diet in the prevention of intra-abdominal fat accumulation from early adulthood onward. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  11. Ethnic influences on the relations between abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity, liver fat, and cardiometabolic risk profile: the International Study of Prediction of Intra-Abdominal Adiposity and Its Relationship With Cardiometabolic Risk/Intra-Abdominal Adiposity.

    PubMed

    Nazare, Julie-Anne; Smith, Jessica D; Borel, Anne-Laure; Haffner, Steven M; Balkau, Beverley; Ross, Robert; Massien, Christine; Alméras, Natalie; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2012-10-01

    Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk (CMR) may be related to patterns of ethnic-specific body fat distribution. We aimed to identify differences across ethnic groups in interrelations between BMI, abdominal adiposity, liver fat, and CMR profile. In the International Study of Prediction of Intra-Abdominal Adiposity and Its Relationship With Cardiometabolic Risk/Intra-Abdominal Adiposity, 297 physicians recruited 4504 patients (from 29 countries). In the current cross-sectional analyses, 2011 whites, 166 African Caribbean blacks, 381 Hispanics, 1192 East Asians, and 347 Southeast Asians were included. Computed tomography was used to assess abdominal fat distribution and to estimate liver fat content. Anthropometric variables and CMR profile were measured. Higher ranges of BMI were associated with higher levels of visceral [visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] and deep subcutaneous [deep subcutaneous adipose tissue (DSAT)] adiposity, with significant ethnic differences regarding the slope of these relations. Despite lower absolute BMI values, East Asians presented the largest accumulation of VAT but the lowest accumulation of DSAT with increasing adiposity. The association of BMI with liver fat did not differ between ethnic groups. Liver fat and DSAT were positively correlated with VAT with no ethnic variation. All ethnic groups had a similar association between a 1-SD increase in VAT, DSAT, or liver fat with hypertension, type 2 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol concentration, or high C-reactive protein concentration. Ethnicity significantly affects abdominal adiposity and liver fat partitioning, and East Asians have the most deleterious abdominal fat distribution. Irrespective of ethnicity, abdominal and hepatic fat depots are strongly interrelated and increased with obesity. Higher amounts of VAT or liver fat are associated with a more deteriorated CMR profile in all ethnic groups.

  12. Surgical removal of intra-abdominal intrauterine devices at one center in a 20-year period.

    PubMed

    Ertopcu, Kenan; Nayki, Cenk; Ulug, Pasa; Nayki, Umit; Gultekin, Emre; Donmez, Aysegul; Yildirim, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    To review 20 years of experience of the removal of intra-abdominal intrauterine devices (IUDs) and to compare the surgical methods used. In a retrospective study, charts dating from between September 1, 1992, and August 31, 2012, were reviewed. Patients were eligible for inclusion when they had an IUD surgically removed by minilaparotomy or laparoscopy at a tertiary referral center in Izmir, Turkey. Among the 36 eligible women, 18 (50%) had undergone laparoscopy and 18 (50%) had undergone minilaparotomy. Mean operation length was 55.3±6.3 minutes in the laparoscopy group and 29.1±4.2 minutes in the minilaparotomy group (P=0.008). Conversion to full laparotomy was necessary in 4 (22%) women in the laparoscopy group and 1 (6%) in the minilaparotomy group (P=0.02). Perioperative complications were observed in 5 (14%) women, with no difference in frequency between groups (P=0.09). Total cost of medical/surgical procedures was US$436.4±35.4 for the laparoscopy group and $323.4±21.3 for the minilaparotomy group (P=0.04). Minilaparotomy seems to be an important alternative to laparoscopy for the removal of intra-abdominal IUDs. This procedure should be an integral part of gynecologic surgical training. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of prosthetic materials for abdominal wall reconstruction in the presence of contamination and infection.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, G L; Richardson, J D; Malangoni, M A; Tobin, G R; Ackerman, D; Polk, H C

    1985-01-01

    Abdominal wall defects resulting from trauma, invasive infection, or hernia present a difficult problem for the surgeon. In order to study the problems associated with the prosthetic materials used for abdominal wall reconstruction, an animal model was used to simulate abdominal wall defects in the presence of peritonitis and invasive infection. One hundred guinea pigs were repaired with either polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) or polypropylene mesh (PPM). Our experiments included intra-operative contamination with Staphylococcus aureus. We found significantly fewer organisms (p less than 0.05) adherent to the PTFE than to the PPM when antibiotics were administered after surgery, as well as when no antibiotics were given. In the presence of peritonitis, we found no real difference in numbers of intraperitoneal bacteria present whether PTFE or PPM was used. In all instances, the PTFE patches produced fewer adhesions and were more easily removed. From these experiments, it appears that PTFE may be associated with fewer problems than PPM in the presence of contamination and infection. Images FIG. 1. PMID:3159353

  14. The role of interventional radiology in the management of surgical complications after pancreatoduodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Sanjay, Pandanaboyana; Kellner, Maximiliane; Tait, Iain Stephen

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluates the role of interventional radiology (IR) in the management of postoperative complications after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). A total of 120 consecutive patients were reviewed to identify IR procedures performed for early complications after PD. Findings showed that 24 patients (20.0%) required urgent radiological or surgical re-intervention for early complications, including 11 instances of post-pancreatectomy haemorrhage (PPH), six intra-abdominal abscesses, two bile leaks, one pancreatic fistula and one bowel ischaemia. Three of 24 complications were managed by surgery and 21 were managed by IR. Two of 11 PPHs involved intraluminal haemorrhage (ILH) and nine involved intra-abdominal haemorrhage (IAH). One ILH was managed conservatively and one required surgical intervention. In eight of nine patients with IAH, the bleeding site was identified on computed tomography angiography, and endovascular stenting or coil embolization were performed. No patient required a re-look laparotomy following IR for haemorrhage or intra-abdominal abscess. Overall, three of 120 patients required an urgent re-look laparotomy for early complications. Rates of major morbidity after PD remain high. However, many significant complications (PPH, pancreatic fistula, intra-abdominal abscess) can be managed by IR, reducing the need for reoperation. Re-look surgery is still required in a small percentage (2.5%) of patients. © 2012 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-negative bacteria causing intra-abdominal infections in China: SMART China 2011.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Yang, Qiwen; Xiao, Meng; Chen, Minjun; Badal, Robert E; Xu, Yingchun

    2014-01-01

    The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends program monitors the activity of antibiotics against aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli (GNBs) from intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in patients worldwide. In 2011, 1 929 aerobic and facultative GNBs from 21 hospitals in 16 cities in China were collected. All isolates were tested using a panel of 12 antimicrobial agents, and susceptibility was determined following the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Among the Gram-negative pathogens causing IAIs, Escherichia coli (47.3%) was the most commonly isolated, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.1%), and Acinetobacter baumannii (8.3%). Enterobacteriaceae comprised 78.8% (1521/1929) of the total isolates. Among the antimicrobial agents tested, ertapenem and imipenem were the most active agents against Enterobacteriaceae, with susceptibility rates of 95.1% and 94.4%, followed by amikacin (93.9%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (87.7%). Susceptibility rates of ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and cefepime against Enterobacteriaceae were 38.3%, 38.3%, 61.1%, and 50.8%, respectively. The leastactive agent against Enterobacteriaceae was ampicillin/sulbactam (25.9%). The extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) rates among E. coli, K. pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Proteus mirabilis were 68.8%, 38.1%, 41.2%, and 57.7%, respectively. Enterobacteriaceae were the major pathogens causing IAIs, and the most active agents against the study isolates (including those producing ESBLs) were ertapenem, imipenem, and amikacin. Including the carbapenems, most agents exhibited reduced susceptibility against ESBL-positive and multidrug-resistant isolates.

  16. Temporary Abdominal Closure Combined With an Irrigating System Utilizing Hypochlorous Acid Solution to Decrease Abdominal Mucopurulence

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Marc R.; Quan, Asia N.; Weir, Alexandra S.; Foster, Kevin N.; Caruso, Daniel M.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Leaving the abdominal cavity open is a well-described and frequently utilized technique in the treatment of severe intra-abdominal sepsis. Irrigation through a negative pressure wound therapy device is a technique employed to assist in the closure of wounds as well as the reduction of bacterial contamination. Furthermore, hypochlorous acid has been found to be safe and effective in microorganismal elimination from extremity wounds. There is no literature regarding the infusion of hypochlorous solution into the abdominal cavity for intra-abdominal sepsis or mucopurulent abscesses or biofilm. Objectives: A 47-year-old man with granulomatosis polyangiitis was started on weekly rituximab. After 4 infusions, skin sloughing, ultimately diagnosed as toxic epidermal necrolysis, developed. During the hospital course, he developed sepsis and bowel perforation necessitating an exploratory laparotomy. The abdomen was left open with a temporary abdominal closure using the Abthera open abdomen negative wound therapy device; however, the abdomen remained infected with visually diffuse, thickening mucopurulence despite multiple washouts. Therefore, a VAC Vera-Flo irrigation device was combined with the Abthera open abdomen negative wound therapy device and cyclical irrigation of hypochlorous acid. After 72 hours, the purulence visually was improved and no adverse events were recorded with the placement of intra-abdominal hypochlorous acid. Conclusions: The combination of two medical devices for the intra-abdominal instillation of irrigation is considered “off-label use” from the manufacturer's recommendations. In addition, the repeated instillation of hypochlorous acid solution has not been described but was noted to have visually decreased the contaminated effluent within the intra-abdominal fluid. PMID:29527250

  17. Is intra-bladder pressure measurement a reliable indicator for raised intra-abdominal pressure? A prospective comparative study.

    PubMed

    Al-Abassi, Abdulla Ahmed; Al Saadi, Azan Saleh; Ahmed, Faisal

    2018-06-19

    Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) can be measured by several indirect methods; however, the urinary bladder is largely preferred. The aim of this study was to compare intra-bladder pressure (IBP) at different levels of IAPs and assess its reliability as an indirect method for IAP measurement. We compared IBP with IAP in twenty-one patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia. Measurements were recorded at increasing levels of insufflation pressures to approximately 22 mmHg. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated to establish the relationship between the two pressure measurements and Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess the limits of agreement between the two methods of measurements. The urinary bladder pressures reflected well the pressures in the abdominal cavity. Pearson correlation coefficient showed a good correlation between the two measurement techniques (r = 0.966, p < 0.0001) and Bland-Altman analysis indicated that the 95% limits of agreement between the two methods ranged from - 2.83 to 2.64. This range is accepted both clinically and according to the recommendations of the World Society of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (WSACS). Our study showed that IBP measurement is a simple, minimally invasive method that may reliably estimates IAP in patients placed in supine position. Measurements for pressures higher than 12 mmHg may be less reliable. When applied clinically, this should alert the clinician to take safety measures to avoid abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS).

  18. Relationship between intra-abdominal pressure and trunk EMG.

    PubMed

    McGill, S M; Sharratt, M T

    1990-05-01

    Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) has been proposed as an important mechanism in manual lifting and breathing mechanics. Direct (invasive) measures of IAP have required the swallowing of a radio transducer or insertion of a pressure sensor into the rectum or down the oesophagus to the stomach. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between a non-invasive method (EMG) and IAP. Several tasks involving abdominal muscle activation were performed to assess whether or not IAP played a common role in these tasks. IAP and EMG from rectus abdominis, the abdominal obliques, intercostals and erector spinae were measured. Peak IAP reached 340 mmHg (valsalva) for one subject but most values were less than 100 mmHg for tasks other than valsalva. The IAP and EMG data provide some insight into the role of IAP during the performance of specific tasks. Peak IAP within 60 ms of the onset of vigorous abdominal activation indicated the importance of a very rapid pressure response to abdominal muscle activation. The correlations between various muscle EMG time histories and IAP exceeded 0·80 for only two activities (i.e. r(2) = 0·82 between the intercostals and IAP during valsalva manoeuvres). These data suggest that no unifying hypothesis exists to explain the role of IAP for a wide variety of movement tasks; rather, the role of IAP is task specific. Copyright © 1990. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Implanting intra-abdominal radiotransmitters with external whip antennas in ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korschgen, C.E.; Kenow, K.P.; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, A.; Green, W.L.; Dein, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a surgical procedure for implanting intra-abdominal radiotransmitters with external whip antennas in captive mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Transmitters were implanted in the abdominal cavity and the antennas exited through the caudal abdominal wall and skin. Birds with implanted transmitters developed mild to moderate localized air sac reactions. These reactions involved adhesions of the right anterior abdominal air sac to the liver with contractions around the transmitters and antenna catheters. The adhesions were reinforced by a proliferation of connective tissue and lined by multinucleated giant cells (foreign body reaction). Casual observation indicated that neither behavior nor activity of the birds was altered by the histological reaction to the transmitter implant. No increase in systemic lesions (particularly liver or kidney) could be correlated with the histological reactions. Our evaluations indicate that the procedure is a reliable method for radiomarking ducks and the technique has been successfully used in 2 field studies.

  20. Postoperative Adhesion Development Following Cesarean and Open Intra-Abdominal Gynecological Operations

    PubMed Central

    Awonuga, Awoniyi O.; Fletcher, Nicole M.; Saed, Ghassan M.; Diamond, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology of adhesion development, the impact of physiological changes associated with pregnancy on markers of adhesion development, and the clinical implications of adhesion development following cesarean delivery (CD). Although peritoneal adhesions develop after the overwhelming majority of intra-abdominal and pelvic surgery, there is evidence in the literature that suggests that patients having CD may develop adhesions less frequently. However, adhesions continue to be a concern after CD, and are likely significant, albeit on average less than after gynecological operations, but with potential to cause significant delay in the delivery of the baby with serious, lifelong consequences. Appreciation of the pathophysiology of adhesion development described herein should allow a more informed approach to the rapidly evolving field of intra-abdominal adhesions and should serve as a reference for an evidence-based approach to consideration for the prevention and treatment of adhesions. PMID:21775773

  1. Assessment of adhesion formation to intra-abdominal polypropylene mesh and polytetrafluoroethylene mesh.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Brent D; Pratt, Broc L; Pollinger, Harrison S; Backus, Charles L; Kercher, Kent W; Sing, R F; Heniford, B Todd

    2003-10-01

    The development of intra-abdominal adhesions, bowel obstruction, and enterocutaneous fistulas are potentially severe complications related to the intraperitoneal placement of prosthetic biomaterials. The purpose of this study was to determine the natural history of adhesion formation to polypropylene mesh and two types of polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) mesh when placed intraperitoneally in a rabbit model that simulates laparoscopic ventral hernia repair. Thirty New Zealand white rabbits were used for this study. A 10-cm midline incision was performed for intra-abdominal access and a 2 cm x 2 cm piece of mesh (n = 60) was sewn to an intact peritoneum on each side of the midline. Two types of ePTFE mesh (Dual Mesh and modified Dual Mesh, W.L. Gore & Assoc., Flagstaff, AZ) and polypropylene mesh were compared. The rate of adhesion formation was evaluated by direct visualization using microlaparoscopy (2-mm endoscope/trocar) at 7 days, 3 weeks, 9 weeks, and 16 weeks after mesh implantation. Adhesions to the prosthetic mesh were scored for extent (%) using the Modified Diamond Scale (0 = 0%, 1 50%). At necropsy the mesh was excised en bloc with the anterior abdominal wall for histological evaluation of mesothelial layer growth. The mean adhesion score for the polypropylene mesh was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than Dual Mesh at 9 weeks and 16 weeks and modified Dual Mesh at 7 days, 9 weeks, and 16 weeks. Fifty-five percent (n = 11) of the polypropylene mesh had adhesions to small intestine or omentum at necropsy compared to 30% (n = 6) of the Dual Mesh and 20% (n = 4) of the modified Dual Mesh. There was a significantly greater percentage (P < 0.003) of ePTFE mesh mesothelialized at explant (modified Dual Mesh 44.2%; Dual Mesh 55.8%) compared to the polypropylene mesh (12.9%). Serial microlaparoscopic evaluation of intraperitoneally implanted polypropylene mesh and ePTFE mesh in a rabbit model revealed a progression of adhesions to

  2. Replacement of the Thoracoabdominal Aorta after Endovascular Abdominal Aneurysm Repair for Ruptured Infected Aneurysm: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Nobuo; Tamura, Kentaro; Sakaguchi, Taichi; Chikazawa, Genta; Yoshitaka, Hidenori

    2017-01-01

    A 73-year-old man underwent emergency endovascular abdominal aneurysm repair (EVAR) for a ruptured infected abdominal aortic aneurysm. Two years after EVAR, he was admitted with a spiking fever and left lower back pain. Computed tomography scan revealed not only recurrent graft infection with psoas abscess but also infection around the orifice of the superior mesenteric artery. Because conservative medical therapy with antibiotics could not control the infection, we performed complete removal of the infected stent graft, debridement of psoas abscess, and in situ replacement of the thoracoabdominal aorta using rifampicin-soaked prosthetic grafts, followed by the omental flap. He was discharged with no complications. PMID:29034025

  3. Experimental intra-abdominal hypertension influences airway pressure limits for lung protective mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Cortes-Puentes, Gustavo A; Cortes-Puentes, Luis A; Adams, Alexander B; Anderson, Christopher P; Marini, John J; Dries, David J

    2013-06-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) may complicate monitoring of pulmonary mechanics owing to their impact on the respiratory system. However, recommendations for mechanical ventilation of patients with IAH/ACS and the interpretation of thoracoabdominal interactions remain unclear. Our study aimed to characterize the influence of elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on airway plateau pressure (PPLAT) and bladder pressure (PBLAD). Nine deeply anesthetized swine were mechanically ventilated via tracheostomy: volume-controlled mode at tidal volume (VT) of 10 mL/kg, frequency of 15, inspiratory-expiratory ratio of 1:2, and PEEP of 1 and 10 cm H2O (PEEP1 and PEEP10, respectively). A tracheostomy tube was placed in the peritoneal cavity, and IAP levels of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mm Hg were applied, using a continuous positive airway pressure system. At each IAP level, PBLAD and airway pressure measurements were performed during both PEEP1 and PEEP10. PBLAD increased as experimental IAP rose (y = 0.83x + 0.5; R = 0.98; p < 0.001 at PEEP1). Minimal underestimation of IAP by PBLAD was observed (-2.5 ± 0.8 mm Hg at an IAP of 10-25 mm Hg). Applying PEEP10 did not significantly affect the correlation between experimental IAP and PBLAD. Approximately 50% of the PBLAD (in cm H2O) was reflected by changes in PPLAT, regardless of the PEEP level applied. Increasing IAP did not influence hemodynamics at any level of IAP generated. With minimal underestimation, PBLAD measurements closely correlated with experimentally regulated IAP, independent of the PEEP level applied. For each PEEP level applied, a constant proportion (approximately 50%) of measured PBLAD (in cm H2O) was reflected in PPLAT. A higher safety threshold for PPLAT should be considered in the setting of IAH/ACS as the clinician considers changes in VT. A strategy of reducing VT to cap PPLAT at widely recommended values may not be

  4. [Intra-abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumour].

    PubMed

    Briseño-Hernández, Andrés Alejandro; Quezada-López, Deissy Roxana; Corona-Cobián, Lilia Edith; Castañeda-Chávez, Agar; Duarte-Ojeda, Alfonso Tonatiuh; Macías-Amezcua, Michel Dassaejv

    2015-01-01

    The desmoplastic small round cell tumour is a rare and aggressive intra-abdominal neoplasia, with only 200 cases reported, and a higher incidence in men and predilection for the second decade of life. Histologically characterized by the presence of small nests of undifferentiated tumour cells, wrapped in fibrous desmoplastic stroma. A 24 year old male started with abdominal pain of 4 weeks onset in the right upper quadrant, colic type, sporadic, self-limiting and accompanied by early satiety, decreased appetite, and involuntary weight loss of 10 kg in 3 months. At the time of admission the abdomen was globular, with decreased peristalsis, soft, depressible. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed multiple enlarged lymph nodes in the abdominal-pelvic cavity. A laparotomy was performed, with a subsequent omentum resection due to the presence of multiple tumours, which microscopically were characterised by groups of small, round, blue cells, separated by a desmoplastic stroma. The immunohistochemistry was positive for desmin (> 75%), epithelial membrane antigen (> 75%), CD99 (> 50%), and S100 (25%), concluding with an abdominal tumour of small, round, blue cells as a diagnosis. Chemotherapy treatment was initiated based on IMAP plus GM-CSF. The desmoplastic small round cell tumour is a rare neoplasia, with diagnostic complexity and a lethal course. Its clinical presentation is unspecific. Histologically, it is classified as an aggressive soft tissue sarcoma that shares similar characteristics with the family of the small and blue cells tumours. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. Reconstruction of Abdominal Wall of a Chronically Infected Postoperative Wound with a Rectus Abdominis Myofascial Splitting Flap

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sung Kyu; Kang, Seok Joo; Kim, Jin Woo; Kim, Young Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Background If a chronically infected abdominal wound develops, complications such as peritonitis and an abdominal wall defect could occur. This could prolong the patient's hospital stay and increase the possibility of re-operation or another infection as well. For this reason, a solution for infection control is necessary. In this study, surgery using a rectus abdominis muscle myofascial splitting flap was performed on an abdominal wall defect. Methods From 2009 to 2012, 5 patients who underwent surgery due to ovarian rupture, cesarean section, or uterine myoma were chosen. In each case, during the first week after operation, the wound showed signs of infection. Surgery was chosen because the wounds did not resolve with dressing. Debridement was performed along the previous operation wound and dissection of the skin was performed to separate the skin and subcutaneous tissue from the attenuated rectus muscle and Scarpa's fascial layers. Once the anterior rectus sheath and muscle were adequately mobilized, the fascia and muscle flap were advanced medially so that the skin defect could be covered for reconstruction. Results Upon 3-week follow-up after a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap operation, no major complication occurred. In addition, all of the patients showed satisfaction in terms of function and esthetics at 3 to 6 months post-surgery. Conclusions Using a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap has many esthetic and functional benefits over previous methods of abdominal defect treatment, and notably, it enabled infection control by reconstruction using muscle. PMID:23362477

  6. Uterine Perforation with Intra-Abdominal Clostridium perfringens Gas Gangrene: A Rare and Fatal Infection.

    PubMed

    Kashan, David; Muthu, Nagarajan; Chaucer, Benjamin; Davalos, Fidencio; Bernstein, Michael; Chendrasekhar, Akella

    2016-06-01

    Background: Clostridium perfringens gas gangrene is an extremely rare and fatal infection. Necrosis of the myometrium is rarely seen and has only been recorded in 18 cases to date. Of these 18 reported cases, only 5 have occurred in nonpregnant women. This article presents the 6th case of myometrium necrosis from C. perfringens. Case: A 72-year-old woman, gravida 2, para 2, presented with abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. After examinations, laboratory testing, and several surgical interventions, she was found to have C. perfringens infection and advanced high-grade serous adenocarcinoma of the endometrium with >50% invasion into the myometrium. Results: Despite the surgical interventions and use of several antibiotics, this patient did not improve. She was weaned from treatment per her advance directive and died after weaning. Conclusions: Awareness of the many etiologies for peritonitis is of great importance when a fatal infection may be the cause of the condition. Correct diagnosis and proper treatment is essential for the survival of patients infected with C. perfringens . (J GYNECOL SURG 32:182).

  7. WSES guidelines for emergency repair of complicated abdominal wall hernias

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Emergency repair of complicated abdominal hernias is associated with poor prognosis and a high rate of post-operative complications. A World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) Consensus Conference was held in Bergamo in July 2013, during the 2nd Congress of the World Society of Emergency Surgery with the goal of defining recommendations for emergency repair of abdominal wall hernias in adults. This document represents the executive summary of the consensus conference approved by a WSES expert panel. PMID:24289453

  8. Hyperandrogenism Accompanies Increased Intra-Abdominal Fat Storage in Normal Weight Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Women.

    PubMed

    Dumesic, Daniel A; Akopians, Alin L; Madrigal, Vanessa K; Ramirez, Emmanuel; Margolis, Daniel J; Sarma, Manoj K; Thomas, Albert M; Grogan, Tristan R; Haykal, Rasha; Schooler, Tery A; Okeya, Bette L; Abbott, David H; Chazenbalk, Gregorio D

    2016-11-01

    Normal weight polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women may have altered adipose structure-function underlying metabolic dysfunction. This study examines whether adipose structure-functional changes exist in normal weight PCOS women and correlate with hyperandrogenism and/or hyperinsulinemia. This is a prospective cohort study. The setting was an academic medical center. Six normal weight PCOS women and 14 age- and body mass index-matched normoandrogenic ovulatory (NL) women were included. All women underwent circulating hormone and metabolic measurements; frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance testing; total body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; abdominal magnetic resonance imaging; and SC abdominal fat biopsy. Circulating hormones and metabolites, body fat and its distribution, and adipocyte size were compared between PCOS and NL women, and were correlated with each other in all women. Circulating LH and androgen levels were significantly greater in PCOS than NL women, as were fasting insulin levels, pancreatic β-cell responsiveness to glucose, and total abdominal fat mass. Intra-abdominal fat mass also was significantly increased in PCOS women and was positively correlated with circulating androgen, fasting insulin, triglyceride, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in all women. SC abdominal fat mass was not significantly increased in PCOS women, but contained a greater proportion of small SC abdominal adipocytes that positively correlated with serum androgen levels in all women. Hyperandrogenism in normal weight PCOS women is associated with preferential intra-abdominal fat deposition and an increased population of small SC abdominal adipocytes that could constrain SC adipose storage and promote metabolic dysfunction.

  9. The focused abdominal sonography for trauma examination can reliably identify patients with significant intra-abdominal hemorrhage in life-threatening pelvic fractures.

    PubMed

    Christian, Nicole Townsend; Burlew, Clay Cothren; Moore, Ernest E; Geddes, Andrea E; Wagenaar, Amy E; Fox, Charles J; Pieracci, Fredric M

    2018-06-01

    The focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST) examination has been reported to be unreliable in pelvic fracture patients. Additionally, given the advent of new therapeutic interventions, such as resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA), rapid identification of intra-abdominal hemorrhage compared with Zone III hemorrhage may guide different therapeutic strategies. We hypothesized that FAST is reliable for detecting clinically significant intra-abdominal hemorrhage in the face of complex pelvic fractures. Our pelvic fracture database of all hemodynamically unstable patients requiring intervention from January 1, 2005, to July 1, 2015, was reviewed. The FAST examination was compared with operative and computed tomography (CT) scan findings. Confirmatory evaluation for FAST(-) patients was considered positive if therapeutic intervention was required. During the study period, 81 patients in refractory shock with FAST imaging in our emergency department (ED) underwent pelvic packing. Mean age was 45 ± 2 years and Injury Severity Score was 50 ± 1.5. The FAST examination was negative in 53 patients; 52 patients did not require operative intervention for abdominal bleeding while one patient required splenectomy. The FAST examination was positive in 28 patients; 26 had findings confirmed by CT or laparotomy while two patients did not have intra-abdominal hemorrhage on further evaluation. The sensitivity and specificity for FAST in this population was 96% and 96%, respectively, positive predictive value was 93%, and negative predictive value was 98%. The false-negative and -positive rates for FAST were 2% and 7%. Focused abdominal sonography for trauma examination reliably identifies clinically significant hemoperitoneum in life-threatening, pelvic fracture related hemorrhage. The incidence of a false-negative FAST in this unstable pelvic fracture population was 2%. FAST results may be used when determining the role of REBOA in these

  10. Effect of abdominal negative-pressure wound therapy on the measurement of intra-abdominal pressure.

    PubMed

    García, Alberto Federico; Sánchez, Álvaro Ignacio; Gutiérrez, Álvaro José; Bayona, Juan Gabriel; Naranjo, María Paula; Lago, Sebastián; Puyana, Juan Carlos

    2018-07-01

    In critically ill surgical patients undergoing abdominal negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT), it remains uncertain whether or not intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) measurements should be obtained when NPWT is activated. We aimed to determine agreement between IAP measured with and without NPWT. In this analytic cross-sectional study, critically ill surgical adults (≥18 y) requiring abdominal NPWT for temporary abdominal closure after a damage control laparotomy were selected. Patients with urinary tract injuries or with pelvic packing were excluded. Paired IAP measures were performed in the same patient, with and without NPWT; two different operators performed the measures unaware of the other's result. Bland-Altman methods assessed the agreement between the two measures. Subgroup analyses (trauma and nontrauma) were performed. There were 198 IAP measures (99 pairs) in 38 patients. Mean IAP with and without NPWT were 8.33 (standard deviation 4.01) and 8.65 (standard deviation 4.04), respectively. Mean IAP difference was -0.323 (95% confidence interval -0.748 to 0.101), and reference range for difference was -4.579 to 3.932 (P = 0.864). From 112 IAP measures (56 pairs) in 21 trauma patients, mean IAP difference was -0.268 (95% confidence interval -0.867 to 0.331), and reference range for the difference was -4.740 to 4.204 (P = 0.427). There was no statistically significant disagreement in IAP measures. IAP could be measured with or without NPWT. In critically ill surgical patients with abdominal NPWT for temporary abdominal closure, monitoring and management of IAP either with or without NPWT is recommended. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The evaluation of the effect of body positioning on intra-abdominal pressure measurement and the effect of intra-abdominal pressure at different body positioning on organ function and prognosis in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Yi, Min; Leng, Yuxin; Bai, Yu; Yao, Gaiqi; Zhu, Xi

    2012-04-01

    Current literatures confirmed the widespread and frequent development of both intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) among the critically ill with a significant associated risk of organ failure and increased mortality. The 2004 International ACS Consensus Conference committee proposed that intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) be measured in complete supine position; however, the supine position of intensive care unit (ICU) patients (<30° of bed increase) presented a significant risk for ventilator-associated pneumonia. Therefore, the potential contribution of head of bed (HOB) position in elevating IAP should be considered. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of body positioning on IAP measurement and the effect of IAP at different body positions on organ function and prognosis in critically ill patients. A prospective cohort study to investigate the effect of different patient positioning on IAP, organ function, and prognosis was conducted on 88 patients admitted to a medical-surgical ICU. On admission, patients' epidemiological data and risk factors for IAH were studied; daily mean IAPs, abdominal perfusion pressure, filtration gradient, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, sequential organ failure assessment score, and multiple organ dysfunction scores were registered; next, conventional hemodynamic variables, intrathoracic blood volume index, global end-diastolic volume index and extravascular lung water using the pulse contour cardiac output system were recorded. Intra-abdominal pressures were recorded through a bladder catheter every 4 hours on the first day. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured with the patient HOB increases from 0° to 45°. Mean arterial pressure was recorded simultaneously, whereas abdominal perfusion pressure and filtration gradient (FG) were also calculated simultaneously. The main results of this study were the incidence of IAH (28.4%) and ACS (2.3%) in ICU patients

  12. Role of tissue expansion in abdominal wall reconstruction: A systematic evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Wooten, Kimberly E; Ozturk, Cemile Nurdan; Ozturk, Can; Laub, Peter; Aronoff, Nell; Gurunluoglu, Raffi

    2017-06-01

    Tissue expanders (TEs) can be used to assist primary closure of complicated hernias and large abdominal wall defects. However, there is no consensus regarding the optimal technique, use, or associated risk of TE in abdominal wall reconstruction. A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases was conducted to identify articles reporting abdominal wall reconstruction with TE techniques. English articles published between 1980 and 2016 were included on the basis of the following inclusion criteria: two-stage TE surgical technique, >3 cases, reporting of postoperative complications, hernia recurrence, and patient-based clinical data. Fourteen studies containing 103 patients (85 adults and 18 children) were identified for analysis. Most patients presented with a skin-grafted ventral hernia (n = 86). The etiology of the hernia was from trauma or prior abdominal surgery. The remaining patients had TE placed before organ transplantation (n = 12) or for congenital abdominal wall defects (n = 5). The location for expander placement was subcutaneous (n = 74), between the internal and external obliques (n = 26), posterior to the rectus sheath (n = 2), and intra-peritoneal (n = 1). Postoperative infections and implant-related problems were the most commonly reported complications after Stage I. The most common complication after Stage II was recurrent hernia, which was observed in 12 patients (11.7%). Five patients with TE died. Complications and mortality were more prevalent in children, immunosuppressed patients, and those with chronic illnesses. Tissue expansion for abdominal wall reconstruction can be successfully used for a variety of carefully selected patients with an acceptable complication and risk profile. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hyperandrogenism Accompanies Increased Intra-Abdominal Fat Storage in Normal Weight Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Women

    PubMed Central

    Akopians, Alin L.; Madrigal, Vanessa K.; Ramirez, Emmanuel; Margolis, Daniel J.; Sarma, Manoj K.; Thomas, Albert M.; Grogan, Tristan R.; Haykal, Rasha; Schooler, Tery A.; Okeya, Bette L.; Abbott, David H.; Chazenbalk, Gregorio D.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Normal weight polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women may have altered adipose structure-function underlying metabolic dysfunction. Objective: This study examines whether adipose structure-functional changes exist in normal weight PCOS women and correlate with hyperandrogenism and/or hyperinsulinemia. Design: This is a prospective cohort study. Setting: The setting was an academic medical center. Patients: Six normal weight PCOS women and 14 age- and body mass index-matched normoandrogenic ovulatory (NL) women were included. Intervention(s): All women underwent circulating hormone and metabolic measurements; frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance testing; total body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; abdominal magnetic resonance imaging; and SC abdominal fat biopsy. Main Outcome Measure(s): Circulating hormones and metabolites, body fat and its distribution, and adipocyte size were compared between PCOS and NL women, and were correlated with each other in all women. Results: Circulating LH and androgen levels were significantly greater in PCOS than NL women, as were fasting insulin levels, pancreatic β-cell responsiveness to glucose, and total abdominal fat mass. Intra-abdominal fat mass also was significantly increased in PCOS women and was positively correlated with circulating androgen, fasting insulin, triglyceride, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in all women. SC abdominal fat mass was not significantly increased in PCOS women, but contained a greater proportion of small SC abdominal adipocytes that positively correlated with serum androgen levels in all women. Conclusion: Hyperandrogenism in normal weight PCOS women is associated with preferential intra-abdominal fat deposition and an increased population of small SC abdominal adipocytes that could constrain SC adipose storage and promote metabolic dysfunction. PMID:27571186

  14. Expression of ceramide-metabolising enzymes in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal human adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflammation and increased ceramide concentrations characterise adipose tissue of obese women with high liver fat content compared to equally obese women with normal liver fat content. The present study characterises enzymes involved in ceramide metabolism in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal adipose tissue. Methods Pathways leading to increased ceramide concentrations in inflamed versus non-inflamed adipose tissue were investigated by quantifying expression levels of key enzymes involved in ceramide metabolism. Sphingomyelinases (sphingomyelin phosphodiesterases SMPD1-3) were investigated further using immunohistochemistry to establish their location within adipose tissue, and their mRNA expression levels were determined in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal adipose tissue from both non-obese and obese subject. Results Gene expression levels of sphingomyelinases, enzymes that hydrolyse sphingomyelin to ceramide, rather than enzymes involved in de novo ceramide synthesis, were higher in inflamed compared to non-inflamed adipose tissue of obese women (with high and normal liver fat contents respectively). Sphingomyelinases were localised to both macrophages and adipocytes, but also to blood vessels and to extracellular regions surrounding vessels within adipose tissue. Expression levels of SMPD3 mRNA correlated significantly with concentrations of different ceramides and sphingomyelins. In both non-obese and obese subjects SMPD3 mRNA levels were higher in the more inflamed intra-abdominal compared to the subcutaneous adipose tissue depot. Conclusions Generation of ceramides within adipose tissue as a result of sphingomyelinase action may contribute to inflammation in human adipose tissue. PMID:22974251

  15. Postoperative antibiotic use and the incidence of intra-abdominal abscess in the setting of suppurative appendicitis: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Bae, Esther; Dehal, Ahmed; Franz, Vanessa; Joannides, Michael; Sakis, Nicholas; Scurlock, Joshua; Nguyen, Patrick; Hussain, Farabi

    2016-12-01

    Although guidelines exist for postoperative antibiotic use in acute appendicitis that is perforated, gangrenous, or simple/uncomplicated, there are less data about its use in suppurative appendicitis. Here, we targeted this subgroup of patients to determine whether postoperative antibiotic administration affects incidence of intra-abdominal abscess formation. We retrospectively examined 1,192 patients who underwent laparoscopic appendectomy for acute appendicitis at Kaiser Permanente Fontana Hospital between August 2010 and August 2013. Suppurative appendicitis was described for 143 (12%) patients. Fifty-two patients received postoperative antibiotics for at least 1 week on discharge home, 91 did not. Of 143 patients with suppurative appendicitis, 1 (1.9%) who received postoperative antibiotics came back with an intra-abdominal abscess within 1 month. Of the 91 patients in the no antibiotic group, 1 (1.1%) came back with an intra-abdominal abscess. The administration of postoperative antibiotic in the setting of suppurative appendicitis has no effect on the rate of intra-abdominal abscess formation. Routine postoperative antibiotics may not be necessary in this patient population, and more evidence is needed to justify its use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 77 FR 59928 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections: Developing Drugs for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    .... A wide variety of bacterial pathogens are responsible for cIAIs, including Gram-negative aerobic bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and anaerobic bacteria, and there are also mixed infections. This draft...

  17. Regression of sporadic intra-abdominal desmoid tumour following administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Keita; Yoshikawa, Reigetsu; Yanagi, Hidenori; Gega, Makoto; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Hashimoto-Tamaoki, Tomoko; Hirota, Syozo; Tsujimura, Tohru; Tomita, Naohiro

    2008-01-01

    Background Desmoid tumours or fibromatoses are rare entities characterized by the benign proliferation of fibroblasts, which can be life-threatening due to their locally aggressive properties. Surgery is widely accepted as the first line of treatment for extra-abdominal desmoids; however, it is not recommended for intra-abdominal desmoids because of the high-risk of recurrence and difficulties with the operation. Here, we report on a patient with sporadic intra-abdominal desmoid tumours, who showed partial response following the intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Case presentation A 73-year-old man presented with swelling and pain of the right leg. Computed tomography showed an abnormal multilocular soft-tissue mass (95 × 70 mm) in the right pelvis, which was revealed by biopsy to be a desmoid tumour. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the tumour cells expressed vimentin, but not smooth-muscle actin, CD34, or desmin. Very few Ki-67-positive cells were found. Non-cytotoxic treatment with etodolac (200 mg/day) was chosen because of the patient's age, lack of bowel obstruction, and the likelihood of prostate cancer. Two years after the commencement of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration, computed tomography showed a decrease in tumour size (63 × 49 mm), and the disappearance of intratumoural septa. Conclusion Our case report suggests that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug treatment should be taken into consideration for use as first-line treatment in patients with sporadic intra-abdominal desmoid tumours. PMID:18257933

  18. Short-term complications in intra- and extra-articular anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Comparison with the literature on isolated intra-articular reconstruction. A multicenter study by the French Arthroscopy Society.

    PubMed

    Panisset, J C; Pailhé, R; Schlatterer, B; Sigwalt, L; Sonnery-Cottet, B; Lutz, C; Lustig, S; Batailler, C; Bertiaux, S; Ehkirch, F P; Colombet, P; Steltzlen, C; Louis, M L; D'ingrado, P; Dalmay, F; Imbert, P; Saragaglia, D

    2017-12-01

    Lateral tenodesis (LT) is performed to limit the risk of iterative tear following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in at-risk patients. By adding an extra procedure to isolated ACL graft, LT reconstruction increases operating time and may complicate postoperative course. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the rate of early complications. The study hypothesis was that associating ALL reconstruction to ACL reconstruction does not increase the complications rate found with isolated ACL reconstruction. A prospective multicenter study included 392 patients: 70% male; mean age, 29.9 years; treated by associated ACL and LT reconstruction. All adverse events were inventoried. Mean hospital stay was 2 days, with 46% day-surgery. Walking was resumed at a mean 27 days, with an advantage for patients treated by the hamstring technique. The early postoperative complications rate was 12%, with 1.7% specifically implicating LT reconstruction: pain, hematoma, stiffness in flexion and extension, and infection. There was a 5% rate of surgical revision during the first year, predominantly comprising arthrolysis for extension deficit. The 1-year recurrence rate was 2.8%. The complications rate for combined intra- and extra-articular reconstruction was no higher than for isolated intra-articular ACL reconstruction, with no increase in infection or stiffness rates. The rate of complications specific to ALL reconstruction was low, at 1.7%, and mainly involved fixation error causing lateral soft-tissue impingement. IV, prospective multicenter study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Pylephlebitis: incidence and prognosis in a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Belhassen-García, Moncef; Gomez-Munuera, Mercedes; Pardo-Lledias, Javier; Velasco-Tirado, Virginia; Perez-Persona, Ernesto; Galindo-Perez, Inmaculada; Alvela-Suárez, Lucia; Romero-Alegría, Angela; Muñoz-Bellvis, Luis; Cordero-Sánchez, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Septic thrombophlebitis of the portal vein or its branches, most often secondary to intra-abdominal infection is known as pylephlebitis. The frequency and the prognosis of this complication are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the global and relative incidence of the most frequent intra-abdominal infections and the real prognosis of this disease. An observational retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital (University Hospital of Salamanca, Spain) from January 1999 to December 2008. A total of 7796 patients with intra-abdominal infection were evaluated, of whom 13 (0.6%) had been diagnosed with pylephlebitis. Diverticulitis was the most frequent underlying process, followed by biliary infection. Early mortality was 23%. Survivors had no recurrences, but one of them developed portal cavernomatosis. Pylephlebitis is a rare complication of intra-abdominal infection, with a high early mortality, but with a good prognosis for survivors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  20. Surgical management of intrauterine devices migrated towards intra-abdominal structures: 20-year experience of a tertiary center.

    PubMed

    Adiyeke, M; Sanci, M; Karaca, I; Gökçü, M; Töz, E; Ocal, E

    2015-01-01

    To share surgical management experiences of intra-abdominal intrauterine devices (IUDs) in tertiary center. A total of 27 patients were retrospectively analyzed. This retrospective study was conducted between September 1992 and April 2013 at Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Tepecik Research and Training Hospital, Izmir, Turkey. Demographic findings, diagnostic methods, and operative notes of patients were obtained from the patient file. Of the 27 IUDs, nine (33.3%) were in omentum, four (15%) were in Douglas pouch, one in left sacrouterine ligament, one in uterovesical space and one in fundus posterior, six (22%) in left adnexial region, one in abdominal wall, one was subdiaphragmatic, one in ligamentum latum, and one in jejunum. Almost all of the patients had TCu-380 A IUDs. Seventeen patients (63%) were managed by laparoscopy, whereas laparotomy was required in ten (37%). Adhesions were found in 23 of 27 (85%) patients with varying degrees. In four cases the incision was extended due to adhesions. A missing string was the first finding of an intra-abdominal IUD. Pelvic ultrasonography, X-ray, and hysteroscopy methods should be performed in order to detect the localization of IUD in case of a missing string. Surgical approach should be the first treatment option for intra-abdominal IUDs.

  1. High-intensity focused ultrasound treatment for intra-abdominal desmoid tumors: a report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yulan; Huang, Yanqin; Zhou, Meiqi; Ying, Xiao; Hu, Xiaoye

    2016-04-01

    Desmoid tumors are rare clonal fibroblastic proliferations that can arise at abdominal or extra-abdominal sites. Complete surgical resection is the primary treatment for resectable desmoid tumors, but a high rate of local recurrence has been reported even after complete resection. For patients with a recurrent tumor, the goals of treatment are to control the recurrence, maintain quality of life, and prolong survival. Radiofrequency ablation, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and other medical therapies can be used as alternative methods, but there are considerable controversies over the roles of these methods in the management of desmoid tumors. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a minimally invasive and effective method for treatment of solid tumors. We used HIFU to treat four patients with intra-abdominal desmoid tumors from June 2011 to September 2013. Post-procedural pain was seen in all patients. One patient had an intra-abdominal abscess and another suffered a slight injury to the femoral nerve. The patients were followed up for 19-46 months (mean 34 months) until April 2015. The tumor in one patient disappeared, and no tumor progression was observed in the other patients.

  2. The use of anti-gravity suits for the control of critical intra-abdominal hemmorhage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kravik, S.; Landmark, K.

    1980-01-01

    The history and use as well as the physiology of the use of antigravity suits for the control of critical intra-abdominal hemorrhages is reviewed. The use of this suit is highly recommended, especially for first aid.

  3. [Predictive value of procalcitonin in postoperative intra-abdominal infections after definitive operation of intestinal fistulae].

    PubMed

    Ren, Huajian; Wang, Gefei; Gu, Guosheng; Hu, Qiongyuan; Li, Guanwei; Hong, Zhiwu; Wu, Xiuwen; Ren, Jianan

    2017-05-25

    To investigate the predictive value of procalcitonin(PCT) in postoperative intra-abdominal infections (IAI) after definitive operation of intestinal fistulae(IF). With the exclusion of emergence operation, preoperative clinical infection, preoperative renal or hepatic dysfunction, and age less than 18 years, a total of 356 consecutive patients who underwent elective digestive tract reconstruction of intestinal fistulae from February 2012 to December 2015 at Intestinal Fistula Center of Jinling Hospital were prospectively enrolled in the study. All the patients were divided into IAI group (26 cases, 21 of anastomosis leakage and 5 of peritoneal abscess) and non-IAI group (330 cases) based on the existence of postoperative IAI. The non-IAI group was then divided into two subgroups of other infection (93 cases) and non-infection(237 cases) according to the presence of other infections. Plasma PCT level, serum CRP concentration and WBC count were assessed preoperatively and on postoperative days (PODs) 1, 3, 5, 7 by immunofluorescence, turbidimetry and automatic blood analyzer, respectively. The predictive value of each marker for IAI was calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. There was no significant difference in general clinical data between IAI and non-IAI group (all P>0.05). The proportions of multi-IF (53.8%, 14/26) and colectomy (61.5%, 16/26) in IAI group were higher than those of non-IAI group [20.0% (66/330), χ 2 =15.847, P=0.000 and 31.2%(103/330), χ 2 =9.961, P=0.002]. Differences of preoperative PCT, CRP and WBC levels among IAI, other infection and non-infection groups were not significant. These three markers all increased obviously and immediately after surgery. PCT and WBC values reached the peak point on POD 1, whereas CRP on POD 3. In IAI group, mean PCT values were (5.4±4.2) μg/L, (2.9±1.9) μg/L and (1.6±1.8) μg/L on POD 1, POD 3 and POD 5, respectively, which were higher than those of other infection group [(4.2±8

  4. Risk Assessment of Abdominal Wall Thickness Measured on Pre-Operative Computerized Tomography for Incisional Surgical Site Infection after Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Tongyoo, Assanee; Chatthamrak, Putipan; Sriussadaporn, Ekkapak; Limpavitayaporn, Palin; Mingmalairak, Chatchai

    2015-07-01

    The surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication of abdominal operation. It relates to increased hospital stay, increased healthcare cost, and decreased patient's quality of life. Obesity, usually defined by BMI, is known as one of the risks of SSI. However, the thickness of subcutaneous layers of abdominal wall might be an important local factor affecting the rate of SSI after the abdominal operations. The objective of this study is to assess the importance of the abdominal wall thickness on incisional SSI rate. The subjects of the present study were patients who had undergone major abdominal operations at Thammasat University Hospital between June 2013 and May 2014, and had been investigated with CT scans before their operations. The demographic data and clinical information of these patients were recorded. The thickness ofsubcutaneous fatty tissue from skin down to the most superficial layer of abdominal wall muscle at the surgical site was measured on CT images. The wound infectious complication was reviewed and categorized as superficial and deep incisional SSIfollowing the definition from Centersfor Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines. The significance ofeach potentialfactors on SSI rates was determined separately with student t-test for quantitative data and χ2-test for categorical data. Then all factors, which had p < 0.10, were included into the multivariate logistic regression analysis and were analyzed with significance at p < 0.05. One hundred and thirty-nine patients were included in this study. They all underwent major abdominal surgery and had had pre-operative CTscans. Post-operative SSI was 25.2% (35/139), superficial and deep types in 27 and 8 patients, respectively. The comparison of abdominal wall thickness between patients with and without infection was significantly different (20.0 ± 8.4 mm and 16.0 ± 7.2 mm, respectively). When the thickness at 20 mm was used as the cut-off value, 43 of 139 patients had abdominal wall

  5. Incentive spirometry for prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications in upper abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Michele Mf; El Dib, Regina; Smith, Andrew F; Matos, Delcio

    2009-07-08

    Upper abdominal surgical procedures are associated with a high risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. The risk and severity of postoperative pulmonary complications can be reduced by the judicious use of therapeutic manoeuvres that increase lung volume. Our objective was to assess the effect of incentive spirometry (IS) compared to no therapy, or physiotherapy including coughing and deep breathing, on all-cause postoperative pulmonary complications and mortality in adult patients admitted for upper abdominal surgery. To assess the effects of incentive spirometry compared to no such therapy (or other therapy) on all-cause postoperative pulmonary complications (atelectasis, acute respiratory inadequacy) and mortality in adult patients admitted for upper abdominal surgery. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2006, Issue 3), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS (from inception to July 2006). There were no language restrictions. We included randomized controlled trials of incentive spirometry in adult patients admitted for any type of upper abdominal surgery, including patients undergoing laparoscopic procedures. Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We included 11 studies with a total of 1754 participants. Many trials were of only moderate methodological quality and did not report on compliance with the prescribed therapy. Data from only 1160 patients could be included in the meta-analysis. Three trials (120 patients) compared the effects of incentive spirometry with no respiratory treatment. Two trials (194 patients) compared incentive spirometry with deep breathing exercises. Two trials (946 patients) compared incentive spirometry with other chest physiotherapy. All showed no evidence of a statistically significant effect of incentive spirometry. There was no evidence that incentive spirometry is effective in the prevention of pulmonary complications. We found no evidence

  6. Evaluation of the effects of laparotomy and laparoscopy on the immune system in intra-abdominal sepsis--a review.

    PubMed

    Karantonis, Fotios-Filippos; Nikiteas, Nikolaos; Perrea, Despina; Vlachou, Antonia; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J; Tsigris, Christos; Kostakis, Alkiviadis

    2008-01-01

    This review portrays the most common experimental models of intra-abdominal sepsis. Additionally, it outlines the facts that distinguish laparotomy from laparoscopy, in respect to the immune response, when comparing these two techniques in experimental models of intra-abdominal sepsis. It describes the consequences of pneumoperitoneum and trauma produced by laparoscopy or laparotomy, respectively, on bacterial translocation and immunity. Furthermore, we report the few efforts that have been made in clinical settings, where surgeons have attempted to utilize laparoscopy as a therapeutic module when treating peritonitis or sepsis of abdominal origin. Certainly there is a need for more research in order to fortify the role of pneumoperitoneum in sepsis of abdominal origin. It seems that minimally invasive surgery will inevitably gain acceptance by surgeons, as evidence points that by inflicting less trauma the healing response is expected to be more efficient, especially in septic patients.

  7. Intra-Abdominal Cooling System Limits Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury During Robot-Assisted Renal Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Meier, R P H; Piller, V; Hagen, M E; Joliat, C; Buchs, J-B; Nastasi, A; Ruttimann, R; Buchs, N C; Moll, S; Vallée, J-P; Lazeyras, F; Morel, P; Bühler, L

    2018-01-01

    Robot-assisted kidney transplantation is feasible; however, concerns have been raised about possible increases in warm ischemia times. We describe a novel intra-abdominal cooling system to continuously cool the kidney during the procedure. Porcine kidneys were procured by standard open technique. Groups were as follows: Robotic renal transplantation with (n = 11) and without (n = 6) continuous intra-abdominal cooling and conventional open technique with intermittent 4°C saline cooling (n = 6). Renal cortex temperature, magnetic resonance imaging, and histology were analyzed. Robotic renal transplantation required a longer anastomosis time, either with or without the cooling system, compared to the open approach (70.4 ± 17.7 min and 74.0 ± 21.5 min vs. 48.7 ± 11.2 min, p-values < 0.05). The temperature was lower in the robotic group with cooling system compared to the open approach group (6.5 ± 3.1°C vs. 22.5 ± 6.5°C; p = 0.001) or compared to the robotic group without the cooling system (28.7 ± 3.3°C; p < 0.001). Magnetic resonance imaging parenchymal heterogeneities and histologic ischemia-reperfusion lesions were more severe in the robotic group without cooling than in the cooled (open and robotic) groups. Robot-assisted kidney transplantation prolongs the warm ischemia time of the donor kidney. We developed a novel intra-abdominal cooling system that suppresses the noncontrolled rewarming of donor kidneys during the transplant procedure and prevents ischemia-reperfusion injuries. © 2017 The Authors. American Journal of Transplantation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  8. Significance of computed tomography finding of intra-abdominal free fluid without solid organ injury after blunt abdominal trauma: time for laparotomy on demand.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Ismail; Tawfek, Zainab; Abdelrahman, Yassir; Siddiuqqi, Tariq; Abdelrahman, Husham; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Hassani, Ammar; Tuma, Mazin; Peralta, Ruben; Zarour, Ahmad; Yakhlef, Sawsan; Hamzawi, Hazim; Al-Thani, Hassan; Latifi, Rifat

    2014-06-01

    Optimal management of patients with intra-abdominal free fluid found on computed tomography (CT) scan without solid organ injury remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of CT scan findings of free fluid in the management of blunt abdominal trauma patients who otherwise have no indications for laparotomy. During the 3-year study period, all patients presenting with blunt abdominal trauma who underwent abdominal CT examination were retrospectively reviewed. All hemodynamically stable patients who presented with abdominal free fluid without solid organ injury on CT scan were analyzed for radiological interpretation, clinical management, operative findings, and outcome. A total of 122 patients were included in the study, 91 % of whom were males. The mean age of the patients was 33 ± 12 years. A total of 34 patients underwent exploratory laparotomy, 31 of whom had therapeutic interventions. Small bowel injuries were found in 12 patients, large bowel injuries in ten, and mesenteric injuries in seven patients. One patient had combined small and large bowel injury, and one had traumatic gangrenous appendix. In the remaining three patients, laparotomy was non-therapeutic. A total of 36 patients had associated pelvic fractures and 33 had multiple lumbar transverse process fractures. Detection of intra-peritoneal fluid by CT scan is inaccurate for prediction of bowel injury or need for surgery. However, the correlation between CT scan findings and clinical course is important for optimal diagnosis of bowel and mesenteric injuries.

  9. The outcomes and complications of pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure): Cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Karim, Sherko Abdullah Molah; Abdulla, Karzan Seerwan; Abdulkarim, Qalandar Hussein; Rahim, Fattah Hama

    2018-04-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is one of the most difficult and complex surgery that carries a high rate of major complications, including delayed gastric emptying (DGE), pancreatic fistula, bleeding, intra-abdominal collection, and pulmonary complications. In this study, we have tried to demonstrate the outcomes, and rates of complications from patients who had undergone this procedure by our surgical team. This retrospective study has been constructed on 98 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy from May 2010 to November 2017 in three different hospitals of the Sulaimanyah governorate in the Kurdistan region of Iraq by the same surgical team. Data was collected from the medical records of patients. A preoperative work up had done for all patients, including those who are necessary for anesthesia fitness and those for staging assessment. None of the operated patients received any types of neoadjuvant therapy. Out of all 98 patients who underwent PD, the most common complication was wound infection (23.5%), followed by pancreatic leak (21.4%). The pulmonary complication rate was 17.3%, while the intra-abdominal collection rate was 12.2%. In 12.2% of our patients we faced postoperative bleeding, with five patients having to be reopened for this reason. About 77.3% of patients that underwent preoperative ERCP had difficult bile duct dissection. There was an association between preoperative ERCP and difficult bile duct dissection (P Value < 0.001). Outcomes of our surgical team compared to the published data of some other centers. Preoperative ERCP seems to make difficulty in bile duct dissection during PD. Copyright © 2018 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Resistance among Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens isolated from hospitalized patients with intra-abdominal and urinary tract infections in Latin American countries: SMART 2013-2015.

    PubMed

    Karlowsky, James A; Hoban, Daryl J; Hackel, Meredith A; Lob, Sibylle H; Sahm, Daniel F

    Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) are important etiologic agents of nosocomial infection that are frequently resistant to broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens were collected from hospitalized patients in 11 Latin American countries from 2013 to 2015 as part of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) global surveillance program. In total, 2113 isolates from intra-abdominal infections (IAI) and 970 isolates from urinary tract infections (UTI) were tested against antimicrobial agents using standardized CLSI broth microdilution methodology. Of the agents tested, amikacin demonstrated the highest rates of susceptibility (%) for K. pneumoniae (92.2, 92.3), Enterobacter spp. (97.5, 92.1), and P. aeruginosa (85.3, 75.2) isolates from both IAI and UTI, respectively. Ertapenem (68.5, 62.6) and imipenem (79.2, 75.9) showed substantially higher rates of susceptibility (%) than other β-lactams, including piperacillin-tazobactam (35.9, 37.4) against ESBL-positive isolates of K. pneumoniae from IAI and UTI, respectively. Rates of susceptibility to all agents tested against A. baumannii were ≤30.9%. Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens isolated from Latin America demonstrated compromised in vitro susceptibility to commonly prescribed broad-spectrum, parenteral antimicrobial agents. Continued surveillance is warranted. New antimicrobial agents with potent activity against Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens are urgently needed. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Open abdomen treatment for septic patients with gastrointestinal fistula: from fistula control to definitive closure.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jianan; Yuan, Yujie; Zhao, Yunzhao; Gu, Guosheng; Wang, Gefei; Chen, Jun; Fan, Chaogang; Wang, Xinbo; Li, Jieshou

    2014-04-01

    The use of open abdomen in the management of gastrointestinal fistula complicated with severe intra-abdominal infection is uncommon. This study was designed to evaluate outcomes of our staged approach for the infected open abdomen. Patients who had gastrointestinal fistula and underwent open abdomen treatment were retrospectively reviewed. Various materials such as polypropylene mesh and a modified sandwich package were used to achieve temporary abdominal closure followed by skin grafting when the granulation bed matured. A delayed definitive operation was performed for final abdominal closure without implant of prosthetic mesh. Between 1999 and 2009, 56 (68.3%) of 82 patients survived through this treatment. Among them, 42 patients achieved final abdominal closure. Spontaneous fistula closure occurred in 16 patients with secondary fistula recorded in six patients. Besides, wound complications occurred in 13 patients with two cases for pulmonary infection. Within a 12-month follow-up period after definitive closure, no additional fistula was recorded excluding planned ventral hernia repair. Open abdomen treatment was effective for gastrointestinal fistula complicated by severe intra-abdominal infection. A delayed and deliberate operative strategy aiming at fistula excision and fascial closure, with simultaneous abdominal wall reconstruction, was required for the infected open abdomen.

  12. Intra- and Postoperative Complications of Lateral Maxillary Sinus Augmentation in Smokers vs Nonsmokers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Samaneh; Fotouhi, Akbar; Moslemi, Neda; Chinipardaz, Zahra; Kolahi, Jafar; Paknejad, Mojgan

    This meta-analysis and systematic review focused on the following question: Does tobacco smoking increase the risk of intra- or postoperative complications of lateral maxillary sinus floor elevation? The following electronic databases were searched up to and including November 2015 without language restriction: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Scopus, Sirous, and Doaj. Studies were included if rates of intra-or postoperative complications of sinus floor elevation in smokers and nonsmokers were recorded separately. The following complications were assessed: sinus membrane perforation, bleeding, wound dehiscence, wound infection, sinusitis, hematoma, and oroantral fistula. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme was used to assess the risk of bias in included studies. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to assess the number of each complication in smokers and nonsmokers. Out of 929 eligible publications, 11 articles were included. Meta-analysis of the studies revealed a significantly increased risk of developing wound dehiscence after sinus floor elevation among smokers compared with nonsmokers (Risk Ratio [RR]: 7.82; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.38, 25.74; P = .0007). Moreover, risk of developing wound infection was greater in smokers when prospective studies were included in the meta-analysis (RR: 5.33; 95% CI: 1.34, 21.25; P = .02). However, the meta-analysis of included studies did not show significant differences between smokers and nonsmokers concerning risk of sinus membrane perforation and bleeding during sinus floor elevation (P = .46 and P = .33, respectively). Considering the lack of randomized controlled trials and the small number of included studies, the results indicate that smoking seems to be associated with increased risk of wound dehiscence and infection after the sinus augmentation procedure.

  13. Abdominal drainage versus no drainage post gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Chen, Junqiang; Su, Ka; Dong, Zhiyong

    2011-08-10

    Gastrectomy remains the primary therapeutic method for resectable gastric cancer. Thought of as an important measure to reduce post-operative complications and mortality, abdominal drainage was used widely after gastrectomy for gastric cancer in previous decades. The benefits of abdominal drainage have been questioned by researchers in recent years. The objectives of this review were to access the benefits and harms of routine abdominal drainage post gastrectomy for gastric cancer. We searched the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (Central/CCTR) in The Cochrane Library (2010, Issue 10), including the Specialised Registers of the Cochrane Upper Gastrointestinal and Pancreatic Diseases (UGPD) Group; MEDLINE (via Pubmed, 1950 to October, 2010); EMBASE (1980 to October, 2010); and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) Database (1979 to October, 2010). We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing abdominal drain versus no drain in patients who had undergone gastrectomy (not considering the scale of gastrectomy and the extent of lymphadenectomy; irrespective of language, publication status, and the type of drain). We excluded RCTs comparing one drain with another. From each trial, we extracted the data on the methodological quality and characteristics of the included studies, mortality (30-day mortality), re-operations, post-operative complications (pneumonia, wound infection, intra-abdominal abscess, anastomotic leak, drain-related complications), operation time, length of post-operative hospital stay and initiation of soft diet. For dichotomous data, we calculated the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD) and 95% CI. We tested heterogeneity using the Chi(2) test. We used a fixed-effect model for data analysis with RevMan software but we used a random-effects model if the P value of the Chi(2) test was less than 0.1. We included four RCTs involving 438 patients (220

  14. Abdominal drainage versus no drainage post-gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Chen, Junqiang; Su, Ka; Dong, Zhiyong

    2015-05-11

    Gastrectomy remains the primary therapeutic method for resectable gastric cancer. Thought of as an important measure to reduce post-operative complications and mortality, abdominal drainage has been used widely after gastrectomy for gastric cancer in previous decades. The benefits of abdominal drainage have been questioned by researchers in recent years. The objectives of this review were to assess the benefits and harms of routine abdominal drainage post-gastrectomy for gastric cancer. We searched the Cochrane Upper Gastrointestinal and Pancreatic Diseases (UGPD) Group Specialised Register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library (2014, Issue 11); MEDLINE (via PubMed) (1950 to November 2014); EMBASE (1980 to November 2014); and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) Database (1979 to November 2014). We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing an abdominal drain versus no drain in patients who had undergone gastrectomy (not considering the scale of gastrectomy and the extent of lymphadenectomy); irrespective of language, publication status, and the type of drain. We excluded RCTs comparing one drain with another. We adhered to the standard methodological procedures of The Cochrane Collaboration. From each included trial, we extracted the data on the methodological quality and characteristics of the participants, mortality (30-day mortality), re-operations, post-operative complications (pneumonia, wound infection, intra-abdominal abscess, anastomotic leak, drain-related complications), operation time, length of post-operative hospital stay, and initiation of a soft diet. For dichotomous data, we calculated the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). For continuous data, we calculated mean difference (MD) and 95% CI. We tested heterogeneity using the Chi(2) test. We used a fixed-effect model for data analysis with RevMan software, but we used a random-effects model if the P value of

  15. Pharmacokinetic study of anidulafungin in ICU patients with intra-abdominal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Dupont, H; Massias, L; Jung, B; Ammenouche, N; Montravers, P

    2017-05-01

    Only limited pharmacokinetic data are available for anidulafungin in ICU patients, especially in patients treated for severe intra-abdominal infection (IAI). This was a prospective multicentre observational study in ICU patients with suspected yeast IAI. All patients received an intravenous loading dose of 200 mg of anidulafungin, followed by 100 mg/day. Thirteen blood samples were drawn between day 1 and day 5 for pharmacokinetic analysis. Samples were analysed by an HPLC-tandem MS method. Demographics and SAPS2 and SOFA scores were recorded. Fourteen patients with a median age (IQR) of 62 years (48-70) and with a mean BMI of 30.5 kg/m 2 were included from three centres; 57.1% were women. Their median (IQR) SAPS2 score was 54 (45-67) and their median (IQR) SOFA score was 8 (7-12). Six patients with community-acquired IAI and eight patients with nosocomial-acquired IAI were included. Twelve yeasts were isolated: six Candida albicans , two Candida glabrata , two Candida tropicalis , one Candida parapsilosis and one Candida krusei . Pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows [mean (% coefficient of variation)]: C max (mg/L) = 6.0 (29%); T max (h) = 1.6 (25.8%); C min (mg/L) = 3.2 (36.8%); AUC 0-24 (mg·h/L) = 88.9 (38.6%); t 1/2 (h) = 42.1 (68.2%); CL (L/h) = 1.2 (42.3%); and V (L) = 72.8 (87.8%). A two-compartment model best described the anidulafungin concentrations in the population pharmacokinetic study. The pharmacokinetic parameters of anidulafungin in critically ill ICU patients with complicated IAI are similar to those observed in the literature. However, an increased V and a longer t 1/2 were observed in this study. (EudraCT No. 2010-018695-25). © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Differences in the rate of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae colonisation or Clostridium difficile infection following frontline treatment with tigecycline vs. meropenem for intra-abdominal infections.

    PubMed

    Bartoletti, Michele; Tedeschi, Sara; Pascale, Renato; Raumer, Luigi; Maraolo, Alberto Enrico; Palmiero, Giulia; Tumietto, Fabio; Cristini, Francesco; Ambretti, Simone; Giannella, Maddalena; Lewis, Russell Edward; Viale, Pierluigi

    2018-03-01

    We hypothesised that treatment with a tigecycline-based antimicrobial regimen for intra-abdominal infection (IAI) could be associated with lower rates of subsequent carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) colonisation or Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) compared with a meropenem-based regimen. We performed a retrospective, single-centre, matched (1:1) cohort analysis of all patients who received at least 5 days of empirical or targeted tigecycline (TIG)- or meropenem (MER)-based treatment regimens for IAI over a 50-month period. Patients with previous CRE colonisation and CDI were excluded. Risk factors for CRE and CDI were assessed with a Cox regression model that included treatment duration as a time-dependent variable. Thirty-day mortality was assessed with Kaplan-Meier curves. We identified 168 TIG-treated and 168 MER-treated patients. The cumulative incidence rate ratio of CDI was 10-fold lower in TIG-treated vs. MER-treated patients (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.10/1000 patient-days, 95%CI 0.002-0.72, P = 0.007), but similar incidence rates were found for CRE colonisation (IRR 1.39/1000 patient-days, 95%CI 0.68-2.78, P = 0.36). In a multivariate Cox regression model, the receipt of a TIG- vs. MER-based regimen was associated with significantly lower rates of CDI (HR 0.07, 95%CI 0.03-0.71, P = 0.02), but not CRE (HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.45-2.83, P = 0.80). All-cause 30-day mortality was similar in the two groups (P = 0.46). TIG-based regimens for IAI were associated with a 10-fold lower incidence of CDI compared with MER-based regimens, but there was no difference in the incidence of CRE colonisation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  17. Drain site evisceration of fallopian tube, another reason to discourage abdominal drain: report of a case and brief review of literature.

    PubMed

    Saini, Pradeep; Faridi, M S; Agarwal, Nitin; Gupta, Arun; Kaur, Navneet

    2012-04-01

    Placement of a drain following abdominal surgery is common despite a lack of convincing evidence in the current literature to support this practice. The use of intra-abdominal drain is associated with many potential and serious complications. We report a drain site evisceration of the right fallopian tube after the removal of an intra-abdominal drain. The drain was placed in the right iliac fossa in a patient who underwent a lower segment Caesarean section (LSCS) for meconium liquor with fetal distress. The Pfannenstiel incision made for LSCS was reopened and the protruding inflamed fimbrial end of the right fallopian tube was excised. The patient made an uneventful recovery. Routine intra-abdominal prophylactic drain following an abdominal surgery including LSCS should be discouraged.

  18. Anaphylaxis, Intra-Abdominal Infections, Skin Lacerations, and Behavioral Emergencies: A Literature Review of Austere Analogs for a near Earth Asteroid Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chough, Natacha G.; Watkins, Sharmi; Menon, Anil S.

    2012-01-01

    As space exploration is directed towards destinations beyond low-Earth orbit, the consequent new set of medical risks will drive requirements for new capabilities and more resources to ensure crew health. The Space Medicine Exploration Medical Conditions List (SMEMCL), developed by the Exploration Medical Capability element of the Human Research Program, addresses the risk of "unacceptable health and mission outcomes due to limitations of in-flight medical capabilities". It itemizes 85 evidence-based clinical requirements for eight different mission profiles and identifies conditions warranting further research and technology development. Each condition is given a clinical priority for each mission profile. Four conditions -- intra-abdominal infections, skin lacerations, anaphylaxis, and behavioral emergencies -- were selected as a starting point for analysis. A systematic literature review was performed to understand how these conditions are treated in austere, limited-resource, space-analog environments (i.e., high-altitude and mountain environments, submarines, military deployments, Antarctica, isolated wilderness environments, in-flight environments, and remote, resource-poor, rural environments). These environments serve as analogs to spaceflight because of their shared characteristics (limited medical resources, delay in communication, confined living quarters, difficulty with resupply, variable time to evacuation). Treatment of these four medical conditions in austere environments provides insight into medical equipment and training requirements for exploration-class missions.

  19. Intra-abdominal pedicled rectus abdominis muscle flap for treatment of high-output enterocutaneous fistulae: case reports and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Carey, Joseph N; Sheckter, Clifford C; Watt, Andrew J; Lee, Gordon K

    2013-08-01

    Despite advances in nutritional supplementation, sepsis management, percutaneous drainage and surgical technique, enterocutaneous fistulae remain a considerable source of morbidity and mortality. Use of adjunctive modalities including negative pressure wound therapy and fibrin glue have been shown to improve the rapidity of fistula closure; however, the overall rate of closure remains poor. The challenge of managing chronic, high-output proximal enterocutaneous fistulae can be successfully achieved with appropriate medical management and intra-abdominal placement of pedicled rectus abdominis muscle flaps. We report two cases of recalcitrant high output enterocutaneous fistulae that were treated successfully with pedicled intra-abdominal rectus muscle flaps. Indications for pedicled intra-abdominal rectus muscle flaps include persistent patency despite a reasonable trial of non-operative intervention, failure of traditional operative interventions (serosal patch, Graham patch), and persistent electrolyte and nutritional abnormalities in the setting of a high-output fistula. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Access-related complications - an analysis of 6023 consecutive laparoscopic hernia repairs.

    PubMed

    2001-01-01

    In order to investigate incidence rates and types of access-related complications that may occur during laparoscopic hernioplasty, we carried out a systematic analysis of our collected results. The aim was to identify risk factors and to develop useful modifications of the surgical technique and the instrumentation used. Since we first introduced laparoscopic hernioplasty in our clinic, we have carried out standardised, prospective documentation of relevant data from all consecutive operations in an electronic database. We performed a systematic analysis of access-related complications and their possible influencing factors, taking into special account the type of instruments used, port-site and prior intra-abdominal operations. Between April 1993 and March 2000, 4857 consecutive patients received a total of 6023 laparoscopic hernia repairs. In 510 patients three-edged, sharp trocars were used and in 4347 patients conical obturators were used to insert the port. The incidence of access-related complications was 0.9% (44/4857) in the total collection (incision hernias 0.5%, bleeding from abdominal-wall vessels 0.2%, bowel injury 0.06%, wound infections 0.06%). Injuries to intra-abdominal or retroperitoneal vessels were not observed. A differentiated analysis of the various trocar types, taking into consideration the number of inserted ports, showed that for incisions outside the linea alba the incidence of bleeding from abdominal-wall vessels was 12 times higher (0.7%, 7/1020 versus 0.06%, 5/8694). The incidence of incision hernias increased significantly (1.2%, 12/1020 versus 0.02%, 2/8694; p = 0.03) when three-edged trocars were used, as opposed to conical obturators. Our results demonstrate that, outside the linea alba, three-edged trocars should no longer be used for portinsertion. The results of our differentiated analysis of laparoscopic hernia repairs, taking into account the type of obturator, the port-site and number of ports inserted, also can be applied

  1. Infectious complications following duodenal and/or pancreatic trauma.

    PubMed

    Tyburski, J G; Dente, C J; Wilson, R F; Shanti, C; Steffes, C P; Carlin, A

    2001-03-01

    Patients with pancreatic and/or duodenal trauma often have a high incidence of infectious complications. In this study we attempted to find the most important risk factors for these infections. A retrospective review of the records of 167 patients seen over 7 years (1989 through 1996) at an urban Level I trauma center for injury to the duodenum and/or pancreas was performed. Fifty-nine patients (35%) had isolated injury to the duodenum (13 blunt, 46 penetrating), 81 (49%) had isolated pancreatic trauma (18 blunt, 63 penetrating), and 27 (16%) had combined injuries (two blunt, 25 penetrating). The overall mortality rate was 21 per cent and the infectious morbidity rate was 40 per cent. The majority of patients had primary repair and/or drainage as treatment of their injuries. Patients with pancreatic injuries (alone or combined with a duodenal injury) had a much higher infection rate than duodenal injuries. The patients with duodenal injuries had significantly lower penetrating abdominal trauma indices, number of intra-abdominal organ injuries, and incidence of hypothermia. On multivariate analysis independent factors associated with infections included hypothermia and the presence of a pancreatic injury. Although injuries to the pancreas and duodenum often coexist it is the pancreatic injury that contributes most to the infectious morbidity.

  2. Juvenile granulosa cell tumor arising from intra-abdominal testis in newborn: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Partalis, Nikolaos; Tzardi, Maria; Barbagadakis, Sophia; Sakellaris, George

    2012-05-01

    In the present case, the neonate presented with a left-sided abdominal mass and an empty left scrotum. Abdominal ultrasonography showed well-defined cystic formation, and laparotomy revealed a tumor arising from an intra-abdominal left testis. The carcinoembryonic antigen and neuron-specific enolase levels were within normal limits, and the serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin and α-fetoprotein levels were within age-related normal values. The findings from the immunochemistry tests confirmed the diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Multidetector CT of expected findings and complications after contemporary inguinal hernia repair surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tonolini, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Inguinal hernia repair (IHR) with prosthetic mesh implantation is the most common procedure in general surgery, and may be performed using either an open or laparoscopic approach. This paper provides an overview of contemporary tension-free IHR techniques and materials, and illustrates the expected postoperative imaging findings and iatrogenic injuries. Emphasis is placed on multidetector CT, which represents the ideal modality to comprehensively visualize the operated groin region and deeper intra-abdominal structures. CT consistently depicts seroma, mesh infections, hemorrhages, bowel complications and urinary bladder injuries, and thus generally provides a consistent basis for therapeutic choice. Since radiologists are increasingly requested to investigate suspected iatrogenic complications, this paper aims to provide an increased familiarity with early CT studies after IHR, including complications and normal postoperative appearances such as focal pseudolesions, in order to avoid misinterpretation and inappropriate management. PMID:27460285

  4. Intraoperative intra-articular injection of gentamicin: will it decrease the risk of infection in total shoulder arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Lovallo, Jeffrey; Helming, Jarrett; Jafari, S Mehdi; Owusu-Forfie, Afia; Donovan, Skye; Minnock, Christopher; Adib, Farshad

    2014-09-01

    Deep infection is a debilitating complication after shoulder arthroplasty. Intra-articular injection of antibiotic can give a higher concentration compared with intravenous administration. We hypothesized that a group of patients given an intra-articular, intraoperative injection of gentamicin would report a lower infection rate than a group without local antibiotics. Between 2005 and 2011, the senior author performed 507 shoulder arthroplasties. We retrospectively reviewed all of those cases. All patients were administered systemic prophylactic antibiotics. Beginning in June 2007, patients were also injected with 160 mg of gentamicin in the glenohumeral joint at the end of their surgery. Patient records were examined for preexisting medical conditions, type of surgery, and presence of infection. Patients receiving surgery before 2007 were compared with those after to determine the effect of prophylactic gentamicin administration in preventing deep infection associated with surgery. All patients were observed for a minimum of 1 year. Of the 507 surgeries, 164 were performed before 2007 (without intra-articular injection of gentamicin; group A) and 343 were performed with addition of gentamicin (group B). In group A, 5 patients presented with infection (3.0%) compared with 1 in group B (0.29%). The gender, mean age, mean body mass index, and prevalence of comorbidities were similar between the groups. The data from this study support the conclusion that intra-articular intraoperative gentamicin administration may reduce postoperative infection. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Association of postoperative pulmonary complications with delayed mobilisation following major abdominal surgery: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Haines, K J; Skinner, E H; Berney, S

    2013-06-01

    Previous Australian studies reported that postoperative pulmonary complications affect 13% of patients undergoing upper abdominal laparotomy. This study measured the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications, risk factors for the diagnosis of postoperative pulmonary complications and barriers to physiotherapy mobilisation in a cohort of patients undergoing high-risk abdominal surgery. Prospective, observational cohort study. Two surgical wards in a tertiary Australian hospital. Seventy-two patients undergoing high-risk abdominal surgery (participants in a larger trial evaluating a novel model of medical co-management). Incidence of, and risk factors for, postoperative pulmonary complications, barriers to mobilisation and length of stay. The incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications was 39%. Incision type and time to mobilise away from the bed were independently associated with a diagnosis of postoperative pulmonary complications. Patients were 3.0 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 8.0) times more likely to develop a postoperative pulmonary complication for each postoperative day they did not mobilise away from the bed. Fifty-two percent of patients had a barrier to mobilisation away from the bed on the first postoperative day, with the most common barrier being hypotension, although cessation criteria were not defined objectively by physiotherapists. Development of a postoperative pulmonary complication increased median hospital length of stay (16 vs 13 days; P=0.046). This study demonstrated an association between delayed postoperative mobilisation and postoperative pulmonary complications. Randomised controlled trials are required to test the role of early mobilisation in preventing postoperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing high-risk upper abdominal surgery. Copyright © 2012 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Intra-Abdominal Hypertension Causes Bacterial Growth in Lungs: An Animal Study

    PubMed Central

    Papakrivou, Eleni; Manoulakas, Efstratios; Mitroudi, Magda; Tepetes, Konstantinos; Papazoglou, Konstantinos; Zakynthinos, Epaminondas

    2017-01-01

    To study the effect of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) on the frequency of pneumonia with an experimental study, thirteen Sprague-Dawley rats were included. Eight out of thirteen animals were randomly assigned to receive 10 ml of benzalkonium chloride 0.2% (megacolon group) and five animals received 10 ml NaCl 0.9% (controls). Animals were anaesthetized by intramuscular delivery of ketamine. The incidence of positivity for bacteria lung tissue cultures and mesenteric lymph node cultures was assessed at the 21st day after animals' sacrification, or before in case of death. All megacolon group animals presented progressive increase of the abdomen and increased IAP (≥10 mmHg) whereas the frequency of their evacuations was almost eliminated. Controls presented normal evacuations, no sign of abdominal distention, and normal IAP. In megacolon group animals, there was evidence of significant amount of bacteria in lung cultures. In contrast, no bacteria were found in control animals. PMID:28357400

  7. Intra-abdominal primary monophasic synovial sarcoma with hemangiopericytoma-like areas.

    PubMed

    Rao, Lakshmi; Jaiprakash, Padmapriya; Palankar, Nagaraj; Gowda, Vinay

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of retroperitoneal intra-abdominal primary monophasic synovial sarcoma (SS) with hemangiopericytomatous (HPC) pattern in a 25-year-old male arising from the triangular ligament on the superior surface of liver encasing the inferior vena cava (IVC) and masquerading as a hepatic tumor. A large heterogeneously enhancing, well defined, lobulated, exophytic lesion was seen involving segment VIII of the liver with foci of calcification in the periphery. A biopsy, followed by total resection of the tumor, showed a spindle cell sarcoma with HPC pattern, which was consistent with monophasic SS on histology and immunohistochemistry. The unusual clinical presentation, radiology, pathology, and differential diagnosis will be discussed in detail.

  8. Evaluation of intra-abdominal vasectomy in llamas and alpacas.

    PubMed

    Bravo, P W; Sumar, J

    1991-11-01

    A method of intra-abdominal vasectomy (deferentectomy), using a laparoscopic technique in llamas and alpacas, was evaluated. Food was withheld from 14 animals for 24 hours before sedation and laparoscopy. The ductus deferens was located close to the bladder, and a 2- to 3-cm section of ductus deferens was resected with the aid of a pair of hook scissors. The procedure was completed in 5 to 8 minutes, and animals did not have any adverse effects. Forty-five days after vasectomy, animals were used for detecting sexually receptive females or inducing ovulation during reproductive physiologic studies. The procedure did not impair libido and had no effect on male sexual behavior for many years. The technique is simpler, safer, and faster than the traditional external approach.

  9. Polypropylene-based composite mesh versus standard polypropylene mesh in the reconstruction of complicated large abdominal wall hernias: a prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Kassem, M I; El-Haddad, H M

    2016-10-01

    To compare polypropylene mesh positioned onlay supported by omentum and/or peritoneum versus inlay implantation of polypropylene-based composite mesh in patients with complicated wide-defect ventral hernias. This was a prospective randomized study carried out on 60 patients presenting with complicated large ventral hernia in the period from January 2012 to January 2016 in the department of Gastrointestinal Surgery unit and Surgical Emergency of the Main Alexandria University Hospital, Egypt. Large hernia had an abdominal wall defect that could not be closed. Patients were divided into two groups of 30 patients according to the type of mesh used to deal with the large abdominal wall defect. The study included 38 women (63.3 %) and 22 men (37.7 %); their mean age was 46.5 years (range, 25-70). Complicated incisional hernia was the commonest presentation (56.7 %).The operative and mesh fixation times were longer in the polypropylene group. Seven wound infections and two recurrences were encountered in the propylene group. Mean follow-up was 28.7 months (2-48 months). Composite mesh provided, in one session, satisfactory results in patients with complicated large ventral hernia. The procedure is safe and effective in lowering operative time with a trend of low wound complication and recurrence rates.

  10. Effects of intra-abdominal pressure increase on intestinal ischemia and bacterial translocation in experimental sepsis model.

    PubMed

    Kesici, Ugur; Kesici, Sevgi; Polat, Erdal; Agca, Birol; Turkmen, Ulku A; Ozcan, Deniz; Sari, Musa K

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the safety of laparoscopic intervention for diagnosis and treatment at 8 mm Hg pressure in one-hour period on acute peritonitis related intra-abdominal sepsis model. In this study, we included 32 female Wistar-Albino rats, weighing 250 +/- 20 g, and divided them into 4 groups. This study was conducted in Istanbul University Experimental Medical Research Institution (DETAE) laboratory from April to May 2009. Intra-abdominal sepsis was created with intraperitoneal (i.p.) one mL (109 CFU/mL) Escherichia coli (E. coli) injection, and pneumoperitoneum was formed with CO2 insufflation at 8 mm Hg pressure for one hour i.p. The rats were administered with: Group 1 - one mL i.p. isotonic saline; Group 2 - one mL i.p. isotonic saline + pneumoperitoneum; Group 3 - i.p E. coli; and Group 4 - i.p. E.coli + pneumoperitoneum. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 15 for Windows (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA). Fever and leukocyte values were considered high in Groups 3 and 4 compared with Groups 1 and 2 (p=0.001). The administered reproduction ratio of the E. coli strain was determined as 0% in Groups 1 and 2, and 100% in Groups 3 and 4. In this study, as pneumoperitoneum was formed for one hour at 8 mm Hg pressure, in case of intra-abdominal derived sepsis where emergency intervention is needed, we consider that laparoscopic approaches with low pressure may be used safely for diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Doppler ultrasonography in living donor liver transplantation recipients: Intra- and post-operative vascular complications

    PubMed Central

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Attia, Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Living-donor liver transplantation has provided a solution to the severe lack of cadaver grafts for the replacement of liver afflicted with end-stage cirrhosis, fulminant disease, or inborn errors of metabolism. Vascular complications remain the most serious complications and a common cause for graft failure after hepatic transplantation. Doppler ultrasound remains the primary radiological imaging modality for the diagnosis of such complications. This article presents a brief review of intra- and post-operative living donor liver transplantation anatomy and a synopsis of the role of ultrasonography and color Doppler in evaluating the graft vascular haemodynamics both during surgery and post-operatively in accurately defining the early vascular complications. Intra-operative ultrasonography of the liver graft provides the surgeon with useful real-time diagnostic and staging information that may result in an alteration in the planned surgical approach and corrections of surgical complications during the procedure of vascular anastomoses. The relevant intra-operative anatomy and the spectrum of normal and abnormal findings are described. Ultrasonography and color Doppler also provides the clinicians and surgeons early post-operative potential developmental complications that may occur during hospital stay. Early detection and thus early problem solving can make the difference between graft survival and failure. PMID:27468207

  12. Methamphetamine consumption and life-threatening abdominal complications: A case report.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaojing; Huang, Haiyan; Yang, Le; Liu, Hong; Li, Yongfeng; Xia, Qin; Yuan, Shiying; Yao, Shanglong

    2018-05-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is increasing rapidly all over the world and becoming a significant public health concern in China. However, abdominal complications secondary to METH abuse are usually overlooked. We describe an unusual case of gangrenous cholecystitis and small intestinal ischemia due to METH abuse. In this report, a 44-year-old male patient with abdominal pain and hematochezia has a history of crystal meth abuse. The patient was diagnosed as septic shock, paralytic ileus, gangrenous cholecystitis, and small intestinal ischemia due to METH abuse based on computed tomography (CT) scan, endoscopy examination, laparotomy, and pathology. Antishock treatment, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and exploratory laparotomy were given. The patient survived. Six months later, he tolerated oral intake and stopped using crystal METH. Visceral ischemia should be considered if an adult patient with a history of METH abuse is accompanied by abdominal pain and hematochezia.

  13. [A Case in Which a Patient Was Operated for Intra-Abdominal Desmoid Tumors after Total Colectomy in FAP].

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Minako; Ikeda, Kimimasa; Higashiguchi, Kimiya; Kobayashi, Teruyuki; Sakai, Kenji; Koyama, Taichi; Doi, Takasi; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Murakami, Masakazu; Kurokawa, Eiji; Nakamichi, Itsuko

    2015-11-01

    The patient was a 22-year-old woman with FAP, who had undergone laparoscopic total colectomy 3 years previously. She presented to our hospital with a high fever and abdominal pain. Large hard tumors were palpated in the right lower abdomen and pelvis. Blood examination showed an inflammatory response. CT scan revealed 17 cm diameter solid tumors. At surgery, 2 tumors arising from the mesentery of the small intestine were found, neither of which invaded any organs. We performed tumor extirpation with partial resection of the duodenum, ileum, right fallopian tube and rectum. A jejunal stoma was formed, leaving a length of remnant intestine of about 120 cm. The histopathological diagnosis was given as desmoid tumor with infection. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the 9th postoperative day. Desmoid tumor is the second most common cause of death in FAP patients. Although desmoids can also occur in the extremities, most FAP patients develop intra-abdominal tumors. Despite being histologically benign, they are locally infiltrative and can cause death through invasion and destruction of adjacent vital structures and organs. Here, we report a case of desmoid tumors with FAP with reference to the literature.

  14. Intra-gastric pressures in neonates receiving bubble CPAP.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Prashant; Gupta, Neeraj; Jain, Akanksha; Upadhyay, Pramod; Puliyel, Jacob

    2015-02-01

    To study intra-gastric pressures in neonates receiving bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP) by nasopharyngeal prong. Twenty seven neonates were recruited for the study. BCPAP pressure of 6 cm water was used in all the neonates. A pressure sensor attached to orogastric tube, measured the intra-gastric pressure prior to starting BCPAP and again between 30 and 90 min of BCPAP. The clinical variables like Downe's score, oxygen saturation, venous blood gas pH, pCO(2) and abdominal girth were recorded alongside with pressure readings. BCPAP resulted in improvement (p < 0.05) in parameters of respiratory distress such as Downe's score (DS), oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) and venous blood gas parameters (pH, pCO(2)). There was no statistical significant increase in intra-gastric pressures (p = 0.834). There were no gastrointestinal complications; abdominal distention, necrotising enterocolitis or gastric perforation during the study. Nasopharyngeal BCPAP at 6 cm of water pressure is an effective modality of treating babies with respiratory distress and the present study shows that it is not associated with a significant rise in intra-gastric pressures.

  15. Incentive spirometry for prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications in upper abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento Junior, Paulo; Módolo, Norma S P; Andrade, Sílvia; Guimarães, Michele M F; Braz, Leandro G; El Dib, Regina

    2014-02-08

    This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 3.Upper abdominal surgical procedures are associated with a high risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. The risk and severity of postoperative pulmonary complications can be reduced by the judicious use of therapeutic manoeuvres that increase lung volume. Our objective was to assess the effect of incentive spirometry compared to no therapy or physiotherapy, including coughing and deep breathing, on all-cause postoperative pulmonary complications and mortality in adult patients admitted to hospital for upper abdominal surgery. Our primary objective was to assess the effect of incentive spirometry (IS), compared to no such therapy or other therapy, on postoperative pulmonary complications and mortality in adults undergoing upper abdominal surgery.Our secondary objectives were to evaluate the effects of IS, compared to no therapy or other therapy, on other postoperative complications, adverse events, and spirometric parameters. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 8), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS (from inception to August 2013). There were no language restrictions. The date of the most recent search was 12 August 2013. The original search was performed in June 2006. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of IS in adult patients admitted for any type of upper abdominal surgery, including patients undergoing laparoscopic procedures. Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We included 12 studies with a total of 1834 participants in this updated review. The methodological quality of the included studies was difficult to assess as it was poorly reported, so the predominant classification of bias was 'unclear'; the studies did not report on compliance with the prescribed therapy. We were able to include data from only 1160 patients in the meta-analysis. Four trials (152

  16. Incentive spirometry decreases respiratory complications following major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Westwood, K; Griffin, M; Roberts, K; Williams, M; Yoong, K; Digger, T

    2007-12-01

    Pulmonary complications are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality following major abdominal surgery. Chest physiotherapy aims to decrease the likelihood of these complications and hasten recovery. Exercises aimed at maximising inspiratory effort are the most beneficial for the patients. The incentive spirometer is a handheld device that patients use to achieve effective inspiration. In a nonrandomised pilot study of 263 patients we have found that the addition of the incentive spirometer, as part of an intensive post-operative physiotherapy programme, decreased the occurrence of pulmonary complications (6 vs 17%, p = 0.01) and length of stay on the surgical high dependency unit (3.1 vs 4 days p = 0.03). The two groups were comparable when age, sex, smoking history, the need for emergency surgery and post-operative analgesia were compared.

  17. Meta-analysis: effect of preoperative infliximab use on early postoperative complications in patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z; Wu, Q; Wang, F; Wu, K; Fan, D

    2012-11-01

    Infliximab is widely used in severe and refractory ulcerative colitis (UC). The results of clinical studies are inconsistent on whether preoperative infliximab use increases early postoperative complications in UC patients. To determine the clinical safety and efficacy of preoperative infliximab treatment in UC patients with regard to short-term outcomes following abdominal surgery. PubMed, Embase databases were searched for controlled observational studies comparing postsurgical morbidity in UC patients receiving infliximab preoperatively with those not on infliximab. The primary endpoint was total complication rate. Secondary endpoints included the rate of infectious and non-infectious complications. We calculated pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as summary measures. A total of 13 studies involving 2933 patients were included in our meta-analysis. There was no significant association between infliximab therapy preoperatively and total (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.87-1.37, P = 0.47), infectious (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.51-2.38, P = 0.81) and non-infectious (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.76-1.59, P = 0.61) postoperative complications respectively. Infliximab might be a protective factor against infection for the use within 12 weeks prior to surgery (OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.22-0.83, P = 0.01). No publication bias was found. Preoperative infliximab use does not increase the risk of early postoperative complications in patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing abdominal surgery. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Intra and post-operative complications of esophageal achalasia.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, Luigi; Peri, Andrea; Tinozzi, Francesco Paolo; Zonta, Sandro; di Stefano, Michele; Meloni, Federica; Pietrabissa, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate and discuss all the potential complications affecting morbidity of patients treated with surgery for primary achalasia. A review of the available English literature published to date has been conducted. All articles reporting surgical experience in achalasia were examined and then were selected only those specifically inherent to the topic at issue. Mucosal perforation is the main intra-operative complication while persistence or recurrence of the disease and gastro-esophageal reflux are those mostly affecting patients afterwards, even at long-term follow-up. A few other less common morbidities, as well as the technical considerations useful to minimize and manage each complication mentioned, are reported. Minimally invasive surgery for achalasia consent to treat patients with a low rate of perioperative complications that can be managed with conservative approach in the majority of cases. Risk of esophageal cancer exists in these patients and remains although surgical therapy. Laparoscopic Heller myotomy along with partial fundoplication is a safe and effective procedure that should be considered as the treatment of choice at first evaluation of achalasic patients rather than endoscopic techniques. Robotic technology may add further contribution in diminishing perioperative complications.

  19. Helicobacter pylori infection, serum pepsinogens, and pediatric abdominal pain: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Eias; Naamna, Medhat; Mawassy, Kadri; Beer-Davidson, Gany; Muhsen, Khitam

    2017-08-01

    The significance of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in pediatric abdominal pain remains poorly recognized. We examined associations of H. pylori infection and serum pepsinogens (PGs), as non-invasive markers of gastritis, with pediatric abdominal pain. A case-control study was conducted among 99 children aged 5-17 years admitted to one hospital for abdominal pain (cases) without an apparent organic reason. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, sera were tested and compared with 179 controls for anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and PGI and PGII levels. Multivariable analysis was performed to adjust for potential confounders. H. pylori IgG sero-positivity was 34.3 and 36.3% in cases and controls, respectively, P = 0.7. H. pylori-infected children had higher median PGI and PGII levels and a lower PGI/PGII ratio than uninfected children. Cases infected with H. pylori had a higher median PGII level (P < 0.001) and lower PGI/PGII ratio (P = 0.036) than controls infected with H. pylori. The percentage of cases with PGII ≥7.5 μg/L, as indication for antral inflammation, was higher than in controls: 58.6 versus 44.7%, P = 0.027. Children with PGII levels ≥7.5 μg/L had increased risk for abdominal pain: adjusted prevalence ratio 1.73 [95% confidence intervals 1.02, 2.93], P = 0.039. Children with increased serum PGII levels, as an indication of gastritis, are more likely to have abdominal pain. Serum PGs can be a useful non-invasive marker for gastritis, in evaluating children with severe abdominal pain with no apparent organic reason. What is Known: • The significance of Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatric abdominal pain remains debated. • Serum pepsinogens (PGs), non-invasive markers of gastric inflammation, were rarely utilized in assessing the association between H. pylori in pediatric abdominal pain of unknown origin. What is New: • High serum PGII level, as an indication of gastritis, rather than H. pylori

  20. [Abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Sido, B; Grenacher, L; Friess, H; Büchler, M W

    2005-09-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma is much more frequent than penetrating abdominal trauma in Europe. As a consequence of improved quality of computed tomography, even complex liver injuries are increasingly being treated conservatively. However, missed hollow viscus injuries still remain a problem, as they considerably increase mortality in multiply injured patients. Laparoscopy decreases the rate of unnecessary laparotomies in perforating abdominal trauma and helps to diagnose injuries of solid organs and the diaphragm. However, the sensitivity in detecting hollow viscus injuries is low and the role of laparoscopy in blunt abdominal injury has not been defined. If intra-abdominal bleeding is difficult to control in hemodynamically unstable patients, damage control surgery with packing of the liver, total splenectomy, and provisional closure of hollow viscus injuries is of importance. Definitive surgical treatment follows hemodynamic stabilization and restoration of hemostasis. Injuries of the duodenum and pancreas after blunt abdominal trauma are often associated with other intra-abdominal injuries and the treatment depends on their location and severity.

  1. Journal of Special Operations Medicine. Volume 7, Edition 1, Winter 2007. Training Supplement: USSOCOM Medic Certification Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Complicated intra-abdominal infections Complicated skin infections Pneumonia Complicated UTI , including pyelonephritis Acute pelvic infections Drug of...nitroimidazole derivatives. Pregnancy (first trimester in patients with Trichomoniasis). Administer with caution to patients with CNS diseases. Use with caution...under 12 years Dehydration Use with caution in pregnancy . Dosage: Patient in shock, bleeding not controlled: hold fluid and control bleeding. Patient

  2. The Impact of Perioperative Hormonal Therapy for Breast Cancer on Transverse Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous Flap Abdominal Complications.

    PubMed

    Huber, Katherine M; Clayman, Eric; Kumar, Ambuj; Smith, Paul

    2018-06-01

    The pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap is a reliable reconstructive option in breast cancer patients; however, it carries known risk of donor site hernia formation. Some hormonal therapy drugs have been associated with hernia formation in animal models. Minimal data exist concerning impact of hormonal therapy for breast cancer on abdominal donor site complications after breast reconstruction. Patients who underwent TRAM flap for breast cancer or high-risk status at a single institution by the senior author from 2003 to 2015 were identified. Charts were reviewed. Patient demographics, comorbidities, treatments, and abdominal complications were recorded. Patients were divided into groups based on use of hormonal therapy as well as exposure to specific drugs. Statistical analyses were performed. A total of 358 patients were included. Overall hernia rate was 5.9%. About 231 (64.5%) patients had hormonal therapy, whereas 127 (35.5%) did not. Difference in hernia formation was not statistically significant between the hormonal therapy group (6.9%) and the no hormonal therapy group (3.9%; P = 0.359). Patients exposed to tamoxifen and those exposed to anastrozole had no significant difference in complication rates compared with the no hormonal therapy group, whereas patients exposed to letrozole had increased rate of hernia (13.5%; P = 0.037) and infection (21.6%; P = 0.013) compared with the no hormonal therapy group (3.9% and 7.1%, respectively). Hormonal therapy is a useful adjunct for chemoprevention in breast cancer; however, use of letrozole in patients undergoing reconstruction with pedicled TRAM can lead to increase in certain complication rates.

  3. Piperacillin/tazobactam: a pharmacoeconomic review of its use in moderate to severe bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Young, M; Plosker, G L

    2001-01-01

    Piperacillin/tazobactam is a beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combination with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against most Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic bacteria and anaerobic bacteria. Piperacillin/tazobactam is effective and well-tolerated in patients with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), intra-abdominal infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and febrile neutropenia. In comparative clinical trials against various other antibacterial regimens, piperacillin/tazobactam has shown higher clinical success rates, particularly in the treatment of patients with intra-abdominal infections and febrile neutropenia. Cost analyses of piperacillin/tazobactam have been variable, in part, because of differences in specific costs included. Three US cost analyses found that piperacillin/tazobactam had lower total medical costs than clindamycin plus gentamicin or imipenem/cilastatin in intra-abdominal infections, and ticarcillin/ clavulanic acid in community-acquired pneumonia. Piperacillin/tazobactam plus amikacin had lower total costs than ceftazidime plus amikacin in another cost analysis of patients with febrile neutropenic episodes modelled in nine European countries. However, piperacillin/tazobactam plus tobramycin was more costly than ceftazidime plus tobramycin in hospital-acquired pneumonia in a US cost analysis. In cost-effectiveness analyses, all studies of intra-abdominal infections, pneumonia and febrile neutropenic episodes consistently reported lower costs per unit of effectiveness versus comparators. Piperacillin/tazobactam was dominant (greater efficacy and lower costs) versus imipenem/cilastatin in intra-abdominal infections and ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin or meropenem in pneumonia. Piperacillin/tazobactam plus amikacin was dominant over ceftazidime plus amikacin in the treatment of febrile neutropenic episodes. In a cost-effectiveness analysis of skin and soft tissue infection, piperacillin/tazobactam had lower costs per

  4. Blunt abdominal trauma in children.

    PubMed

    Schonfeld, Deborah; Lee, Lois K

    2012-06-01

    This review will examine the current evidence regarding pediatric blunt abdominal trauma and the physical exam findings, laboratory values, and radiographic imaging associated with the diagnosis of intra-abdominal injuries (IAI), as well as review the current literature on pediatric hollow viscus injuries and emergency department disposition after diagnosis. The importance of the seat belt sign on physical examination and screening laboratory data remains controversial, although screening hepatic enzymes are recommended in the evaluation of nonaccidental trauma to identify occult abdominal organ injuries. Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) has modest sensitivity for hemoperitoneum and IAI in the pediatric trauma patient. Patients with concern for undiagnosed IAI, including bowel injury, may be considered for hospital admission and serial abdominal exams without an increased risk of complications, if an exploratory laparotomy is not performed emergently. Although the FAST exam is not recommended as the sole screening tool to rule out IAI in hemodynamically stable trauma patients, it may be used in conjunction with the physical exam and laboratory findings to identify children at risk for IAI. Children with a normal physical exam and normal abdominal CT may not require routine hospitalization after blunt abdominal trauma.

  5. Effect of Gender on the Total Abdominal Fat, Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Abdominal Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Tissue among Indian Hypertensive Patients.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Jaya Prakash; Kumari, Savita; Jain, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    Abdominal obesity is a better marker of adverse metabolic profile than generalized obesity in hypertensive subjects. Further, gender has effect on adiposity and its distribution. Effect of gender on obesity and the distribution of fat in different sub-compartments of abdomen among Indian hypertensive subjects. This observational study included 278 adult subjects (Males-149 & Females-129) with essential hypertension from a tertiary care centre in north India over one year. A detailed history taking and physical examination including anthropometry were performed in all patients. Total Abdominal Fat (TAF) and abdominal adipose tissue sub-compartments like Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue (IAAT) and Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Tissue (SCAT) were measured using the predictive equations developed for Asian Indians. Female hypertensive subjects had higher Body Mass Index (BMI) with more overweight (BMI ≥ 23kg/m(2)), and obesity (BMI≥ 25 kg/m(2)). Additionally, they had higher prevalence of central obesity based on both Waist Circumference (WC) criteria (WC≥ 90 cm in males and WC≥ 80 cm in females) and TAF criteria {≥245.6 cm(2) (males) and ≥203.46 cm(2) (females)} than male patients. But there was no difference in the prevalence of central obesity based on Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) criteria (WHR ≥0.90 in males and WHR ≥ 0.85 in females) between two genders. High TAF & IAAT were present in more females although there was no difference in the distribution of high SCAT between two genders. Female hypertensive subjects were more obese with higher abnormal TAF & IAAT compared to male patients. However, there was no difference in the distribution of high SCAT among them.

  6. Acute appendicitis complicated with necrotizing fasciitis in a patient with adult-onset Still's disease: A case report.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zheng-Hao; Chiu, Yu-Chen; Ho, Li-Lu; Fan, Hsiu-Lung; Lu, Chun-Chi

    2018-02-01

    Adult-onset Still disease (AOSD) is a rare systemic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology characterized by evanescent salmon-pink rash, spiking fever, arthralgia/ arthritis, and lymphadenopathy. AOSD sometimes was fatal when it is complicated by macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) or hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Nonetheless, the literature provides no recommendations for treatment of AOSD patients with severe sepsis. A previously healthy 65-year-old man with history of AOSD was referred to our hospital for persistent right lower quadrant abdominal pain for 2 days. One week later, an abdominal wall abscess and hematoma developed by extravasation from the inferior epigastric vessels, complicated by necrotizing fasciitis of the right thigh and groin region. To our best knowledge, this case was the first reported case of a perforated appendix complicated with necrotizing fasciitis in a patient with AOSD. The patient was diagnosed as acute appendicitis complicated with necrotizing fasciitis and abdominal wall abscess. This case received intravenous tigecycline injection and daily 10 mg prednisolone initially, and shifted to daily intravenous hydrocortisone 200 mg for suspected MAS or HLH. This patient underwent surgical intervention and debridement for necrotizing fasciitis. The patient's symptoms progressed worse rapidly. He died from cytomegalovirus viremia and bacterial necrotizing fasciitis complicated by septic shock. (1) The steroid dose was difficult to titrate when AOSD complicated by sepsis. The differential diagnosis from MAS/HLH with bacterial/viral infection related severe sepsis was difficult but critical for decision making from clinicians and rheumatologists. (2) The conservative treatment with antibiotics for perforated appendix is safe but has a higher failure rate in immunocomprised patients such as systemic lupus erythematosus and AOSD. Early surgical intervention might contribute to better outcome. (3) The abdominal wall abscess

  7. Complications of infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Mocchegiani, R; Nataloni, M

    2009-12-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a lethal disease if not promptly treated with antibiotics, either in association with surgery or not. The incidence of disease has not decreased over the last decades due to the change of risk conditions. Complications of IE may involve cardiac structures when the infection spreads within the heart, or extra cardiac ones when the cause is usually from embolic origin; they may also be due to medical treatment or to the septic condition itself. A variety of complications may occur in most of patients. The literature reports one complication of IE in 57%, two in 26% and three or more in about 14% of patients examined. The frequency of specific complications depends on variables as the infecting pathogen, duration of disease before therapy and type of treatment. However it is often difficult to assess the true incidence of complications because the published reviews in literature are frequently based on retrospective chart reviews and different diagnostic criteria are used. The decision over either indication or timing of surgery should be individualized and based on a multidisciplinary approach involving at least cardiologists and cardiac surgeons. Congestive heart failure (CHF) is the most important complication of IE, which has the greatest impact on prognosis. Periannular abscesses are a relatively common complication of IE (42% to 85% of cases during surgery or at autopsy respectively), associated with a higher morbidity and mortality. Systemic embolization occurs in 22% to 50% of cases; emboli may involve major arteries, mostly affecting the central nervous system, but also other organs. Splenic abscess is a rare complication of IE, due to direct seeding of spleen by an embolus or bacterial seeding of a bland infarction. Neurological complications develop in 20% to 40% of patients with IE and represent a dangerous subset of complications. Mycotic aneurysms are rare, resulting from diffusion of infection to the vessel wall. Actually

  8. Preincisional intraparietal Augmentin in abdominal operations.

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, A. V.; Evans, M.; Smith, G. M.

    1989-01-01

    A total of 624 consecutive eligible patients undergoing abdominal operations received a single preoperative dose of amoxycillin/clavulanic acid (1.2 g Augmentin) for the prophylaxis of surgical wound infection. They were randomised to have the antibiotic injected intravenously at induction of anaesthesia (n = 328) or infiltrated subcutaneously along the line of the proposed incision (n = 296). The incidence of wound infections was considerably lower in the group given the antibiotic into the abdominal wall (8.4% compared with 15.9%--chi 2 = 7.90, P = 0.005). No significant differences were found in the incidence of other major or minor infective or non-infective postoperative complications between the groups. It is concluded that preincisional intraparietal injection is more effective than intravenous injection of Augmentin for the prophylaxis of surgical wound infection. PMID:2523210

  9. Don't Forget the Abdominal Wall: Imaging Spectrum of Abdominal Wall Injuries after Nonpenetrating Trauma.

    PubMed

    Matalon, Shanna A; Askari, Reza; Gates, Jonathan D; Patel, Ketan; Sodickson, Aaron D; Khurana, Bharti

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal wall injuries occur in nearly one of 10 patients coming to the emergency department after nonpenetrating trauma. Injuries range from minor, such as abdominal wall contusion, to severe, such as abdominal wall rupture with evisceration of abdominal contents. Examples of specific injuries that can be detected at cross-sectional imaging include abdominal muscle strain, tear, or hematoma, including rectus sheath hematoma (RSH); traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH); and Morel-Lavallée lesion (MLL) (closed degloving injury). These injuries are often overlooked clinically because of (a) a lack of findings at physical examination or (b) distraction by more-severe associated injuries. However, these injuries are important to detect because they are highly associated with potentially grave visceral and vascular injuries, such as aortic injury, and because their detection can lead to the diagnosis of these more clinically important grave traumatic injuries. Failure to make a timely diagnosis can result in delayed complications, such as bowel hernia with potential for obstruction or strangulation, or misdiagnosis of an abdominal wall neoplasm. Groin injuries, such as athletic pubalgia, and inferior costochondral injuries should also be considered in patients with abdominal pain after nonpenetrating trauma, because these conditions may manifest with referred abdominal pain and are often included within the field of view at cross-sectional abdominal imaging. Radiologists must recognize and report acute abdominal wall injuries and their associated intra-abdominal pathologic conditions to allow appropriate and timely treatment. © RSNA, 2017.

  10. Cost effectiveness of ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole versus imipenem-cilastatin in the treatment of intra-abdominal infections.

    PubMed

    Walters, D J; Solomkin, J S; Paladino, J A

    1999-11-01

    To compare the cost effectiveness of sequential intravenous (i.v.) to oral ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole (CIP/MTZ i.v./PO) with that of i.v. ciprofloxacin plus i.v. metronidazole (CIP/MTZ i.v.) and i.v. imipenem-cilastatin (IMI i.v.) in patients with intra-abdominal infections. Patients enrolled in a double-blind randomised clinical trial were eligible for inclusion into this cost-effectiveness analysis. Decision analysis was used to characterise the economic outcomes between groups and provide a structure upon which to base the sensitivity analyses. 1996 cost values were used throughout. The economic perspective of the analysis was that of a hospital provider. Among 446 economically evaluable patients, 176 could be switched from i.v. to oral administration. The 51 patients randomised to CIP/MTZ i.v./PO who received active oral therapy had a success rate of 98%, mean duration of therapy of 9.1 days and mean cost of $US7678. There were 125 patients randomized to either CIP/MTZ i.v. or IMI i.v. who received oral placebo while continuing on active i.v. antibacterials; their success rate was 94%, mean duration of therapy was 10.1 days and mean cost was $US8774 (p = 0.029 vs CIP/MTZ i.v./PO). Of the 270 patients who were unable to receive oral administration, 97 received IMI i.v. and had a success rate of 75%, mean duration of therapy of 13.8 days and a mean cost of $US12,418, and 173 received CIP/MTZ i.v. and had a success rate of 77%, mean duration of therapy of 13.4 days and mean cost of $US12,219 (p = 0.26 vs IMI i.v.). In patients able to receive oral therapy, sequential i.v. to oral treatment with ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole was cost effective compared with full i.v. courses of ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole or imipenem-cilastatin. In patients unable to receive oral therapy, no difference in mean cost was found between i.v. imipenem-cilastatin or i.v. ciprofloxacin plus i.v. metronidazole.

  11. [The cutaneous groin flap for coverage of a full-thickness abdominal wall defect].

    PubMed

    Doebler, O; Spierer, R

    2010-08-01

    A full-thickness defect of the abdominal wall is rare and may occur as a complication of extended abdominal surgery procedures. We report about a 69-year-old patient who was presented to our department with a full-thickness abdominal wall defect and a fully exposed collagen-mesh for reconstructive wound closure. 13 operations with resections of necrotic parts of the abdominal wall were performed following a complicated intraabdominal infection. After debridement and mesh explantation, closure of the remaining defect of the lower abdominal region was achieved by a cutaneous groin flap. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  12. Complex sacral abscess 8 years after abdominal sacral colpopexy.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sarah A; Tulikangas, Paul K; LaSala, Christine A; Lind, Lawrence R

    2011-08-01

    Sacral colpopexy is an effective, durable repair for women with apical vaginal or uterovaginal prolapse. There are few reports of serious complications diagnosed in the remote postoperative period. A 74-year-old woman presented 8 years after undergoing posthysterectomy abdominal sacral colpopexy using polypropylene mesh. Posterior vaginal mesh erosion had been diagnosed several months before presentation. She suffered severe infectious complications including an infected thrombus in the inferior vena cava, sacral osteomyelitis, and a complex abscess with presacral and epidural components. Surgical exploration revealed an abscess cavity surrounding the mesh. Although minor complications commonly occur after sacral colpopexy using abdominal mesh, serious and rare postoperative infectious complications may occur years postoperatively.

  13. Preventing infective complications relating to induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Mary, Nirmala; Mahmood, Tahir A

    2010-08-01

    Infective complications following induced abortions are still a common cause of morbidity and mortality. This review focusses on defining the strategies to improve care of women seeking an induced abortion and to reduce infective complications. We have considered the evidence for screening and cost-effectiveness for antibiotic prophylaxis. Current evidence suggests that treating all women with prophylactic antibiotics in preference to screening and treating is the most cost-effective way of reducing infective complications following induced abortions. The final strategy to prevent infective complications should be individualized for each region/area depending on the prevalence of organisms causing pelvic infections and the resources available. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Complications of intra-cardial placement of silastic central venous catheter in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Soong, W J; Jeng, M J; Hwang, B

    1996-01-01

    A three-year prospective study was undertaken to determine the incidence and early complications from intra-cardiac placement of percutaneous central venous catheter (CVC). CVC was inserted by using "Catheter-through-needle" technique, and the insertion length was measured by body surface landmark. CVC course and tip location were routinely checked by roentgenography. Echocardiography was performed in case of arrhythmia. After analysis of 784 CVCs, 104 (13.3%) were proved to be intra-cardial, as located by either roentgenography or echocardiography. However, catheters passed via the upper trunk (14.5%) were significantly (p < 0.05) more intra-cardially located than those via the lower trunk (4.8%). Catheters which passed via the right upper trunk veins (basilic, cephalic, or external jugular veins) were also more intra-cardially located than those via their left veins counterparts, but the finding was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The mean body weight (3.1 +/- 2.4 kg) in the intra-cardial placement group was significantly (p < 0.05) less than that in the non-intracardial placement group (7.9 +/- 4.5 kg). In intra-cardial placement patients, 32 cases (30.8%) had episode(s) of cardiac arrhythmia including 31 premature ventricular depolarization and 1 supra-ventricular tachycardia. All cases showed the presence of intra-ventricular catheter. All arrhythmias ceased abruptly after the catheters were pulled from the hearts. No other early complications were observed. the incidence of the intracardiac placement of CVC is high, especially in small infants or when the insertion via the upper trunk. Short term intra-cardiac catheter placement has a benign clinical course except that the intraventricular catheter may cause arrhythmia. However, this kind of arrhythmia can be resolved spontaneously by withdrawing the catheter.

  15. Surgical treatment of intra-articular calcaneal fractures.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, John J; Zgonis, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Most intra-articular calcaneal fractures are a result of high-energy trauma. The operative management of calcaneal fractures has been based on achieving anatomic reduction and minimizing complications of the compromised soft tissue envelope. The traditional extensile lateral approach offers advantages of achieving adequate fracture reduction with the risk of wound-healing complications and infection. Limited open reduction and internal fixation techniques with or without using external fixation focuses on achieving fracture reduction with less risk of wound complications but higher risk of malunion. This article discusses key points of operative management for various intra-articular calcaneal fracture patterns and clinical presentations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Novel Diagnostic Aid for Detection of Intra-Abdominal Adhesions to the Anterior Abdominal Wall Using Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Randall, David; Fenner, John; Gillott, Richard; Ten Broek, Richard; Strik, Chema; Spencer, Paul; Bardhan, Karna Dev

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Abdominal adhesions can cause serious morbidity and complicate subsequent operations. Their diagnosis is often one of exclusion due to a lack of a reliable, non-invasive diagnostic technique. Development and testing of a candidate technique are described below. Method. During respiration, smooth visceral sliding motion occurs between the abdominal contents and the walls of the abdominal cavity. We describe a technique involving image segmentation and registration to calculate shear as an analogue for visceral slide based on the tracking of structures throughout the respiratory cycle. The presence of an adhesion is attributed to a resistance to visceral slide resulting in a discernible reduction in shear. The abdominal movement due to respiration is captured in sagittal dynamic MR images. Results. Clinical images were selected for analysis, including a patient with a surgically confirmed adhesion. Discernible reduction in shear was observed at the location of the adhesion while a consistent, gradually changing shear was observed in the healthy volunteers. Conclusion. The technique and its validation show encouraging results for adhesion detection but a larger study is now required to confirm its potential.

  17. A Novel Diagnostic Aid for Detection of Intra-Abdominal Adhesions to the Anterior Abdominal Wall Using Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Randall, David; Fenner, John; Gillott, Richard; ten Broek, Richard; Strik, Chema; Spencer, Paul; Bardhan, Karna Dev

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Abdominal adhesions can cause serious morbidity and complicate subsequent operations. Their diagnosis is often one of exclusion due to a lack of a reliable, non-invasive diagnostic technique. Development and testing of a candidate technique are described below. Method. During respiration, smooth visceral sliding motion occurs between the abdominal contents and the walls of the abdominal cavity. We describe a technique involving image segmentation and registration to calculate shear as an analogue for visceral slide based on the tracking of structures throughout the respiratory cycle. The presence of an adhesion is attributed to a resistance to visceral slide resulting in a discernible reduction in shear. The abdominal movement due to respiration is captured in sagittal dynamic MR images. Results. Clinical images were selected for analysis, including a patient with a surgically confirmed adhesion. Discernible reduction in shear was observed at the location of the adhesion while a consistent, gradually changing shear was observed in the healthy volunteers. Conclusion. The technique and its validation show encouraging results for adhesion detection but a larger study is now required to confirm its potential. PMID:26880884

  18. Prenatal diagnosis of intra-abdominal cystic lesions by fetal ultrasonography: diagnostic agreement between prenatal and postnatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Marchitelli, Giulia; Stirnemann, Julien; Acanfora, Marta Maddalena; Rousseau, Veronique; Salomon, Laurent J; Ville, Yves

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic agreement between the prenatal diagnosis of intra-abdominal cystic lesions made by ultrasound examination and the postnatal diagnosis. We reviewed all consecutive cases referred for an anechoic abdominal cyst from 2009 to 2013. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis was compared with postnatal diagnosis. Prenatal diagnosis was defined as 'correct' if a specific prenatal diagnosis or one of the possible diagnoses was confirmed postnatally, as 'not confirmed' if the postnatal examination revealed no abnormalities and as 'incorrect' if the postnatal diagnosis was different from those suggested prenatally. Seventy-three cases were included, and prenatal diagnoses were made at a median gestational age of 27 weeks (range: 13-36). Correct diagnoses were made in 66 cases (90.4%), including four in which the lesion resolved spontaneously in utero; two diagnoses were 'not confirmed' postnatally, and one was incorrect (a prenatal diagnosis of intestinal duplication was in fact an anorectal malformation). Postnatal diagnosis was not achieved in four cases: None of them required surgery, and clinical follow-up was favorable. The abdominal cysts were isolated in 52 cases (71%) and associated with other anomalies in 21 cases (29%). Aneuploidies were diagnosed in three cases (all trisomy 21). Eight cases underwent termination of pregnancy; there were no fetal deaths and one neonatal death. Postnatal surgery was performed in 30 out of 65 liveborn infants (46.1%). Overall diagnostic agreement between prenatal and postnatal diagnosis of fetal intra-abdominal cystic lesions is high. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Comparison of Intraperitoneal Honey and Sodium Hyaluronate-Carboxymethylcellulose (Seprafilm™) for the Prevention of Postoperative Intra-Abdominal Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Emre, Arif; Akin, Murat; Isikgonul, Ipek; Yuksel, Osman; Anadol, Ahmet Ziya; Cifter, Cagatay

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal surgery can lead to postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions (PIAAs) with significant morbidity and mortality. This study compares the use of honey with a standard bioresorbable membrane (Seprafilm™) to prevent the formation of PIAAs in rats. METHODS: Thirty rats underwent laparotomy, and PIAAs were induced by scraping the cecum. The animals were divided into three groups, each containing ten rats. Group 1 (control) represented the cecal abrasion group, with no intraperitoneal administration of any substance. Group 2 (honey group) underwent cecal abrasion and intraperitoneal administration of honey. Group 3 (Seprafilm™ group) underwent cecal abrasion and intraperitoneal Seprafilm™ application. RESULTS: Group 1 exhibited higher adhesion scores for adhesions between the abdominal wall and the organs. Groups 2 and 3 had decreased adhesive attachments to the intra-abdominal structures. Compared to group 1, the incidence of adhesion formation was lower in both group 2 (p=0.001) and group 3 (p=0.001). The incidence of fibrosis was also lower in group 2 (p=0.016) and group 3 (p=0.063) compared to group 1. There was no significant difference between the histopathological fibrosis scores for the rats in group 2 and those in group 3 (p= 0.688). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that both honey and Seprafilm™ decrease the incidence of PIAAs in the rat cecal abrasion model. Although the mechanism of action is not clear, intraperitoneal administration of honey reduced PIAAs. The outcome of this study demonstrates that honey is as effective as Seprafilm™ in preventing PIAAs. PMID:19488596

  20. Modified Multivisceral Transplant After Acute Abdominal Trauma.

    PubMed

    Nikeghbalian, Saman; Alaa Eldin, Ahmed; Aliakbarian, Mohsen; Kazemi, Kourosh; Shamsaeefar, Alireza; Gholami, Siavash; Malekhosseini, Seyed Ali

    2016-04-01

    A 50-year-old man sustained blunt abdominal trauma in a motor vehicle accident. He underwent exploratory laparotomy on the day of trauma, and severe bleeding from the base of the small bowel mesentery was controlled by mass ligation and through-and-through suturing. After transfer to our center, repeat exploratory laparotomy showed ischemic small intestine, ischemic right colon, and severe pancreatic trauma. The severely injured organs were excised including the entire small bowel, pancreas, spleen, stomach, and right hemicolon. The next day, a modified multivisceral transplant was performed including stomach, pancreaticoduodenal complex, and small bowel transplant. Postoperative complications included an intra-abdominal collection that was drained percutaneously with ultrasonographic guidance and severe rejection that was treated with anti-thymocyte globulin. In summary, for select patients who have severe abdominal trauma may be treated with acute multivisceral transplant.

  1. Epidural analgesia in a child with sickle cell disease complicated by acute abdominal pain and priapism.

    PubMed

    Labat, F; Dubousset, A M; Baujard, C; Wasier, A P; Benhamou, D; Cucchiaro, G

    2001-12-01

    We describe a case of a 9-yr-old child with sickle cell disease complicated by abdominal vaso-occlusive crisis and priapism. Both complications were successfully treated with a combination of epidural local anesthetics and morphine.

  2. Neurological complications of Zika virus infection.

    PubMed

    Carod-Artal, Francisco Javier

    2018-05-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) disease is a vector-borne infectious disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, ZIKV has caused outbreaks in most American countries. Areas covered: Publications about neurological complications of ZIKV infection retrieved from pubmed searchers were reviewed, and reference lists and relevant articles from review articles were also examined. Vertical/intrauterine transmission leads to congenital infection and causes microcephaly and congenital ZIKV syndrome. ZIKV preferentially infects human neural progenitor cells and triggers cell apoptosis. ZIKV RNA has been identified in foetal brain tissue and brains of microcephalic infants who died; amniotic fluid and placentas of pregnant mothers; and umbilical cord, cerebro-spinal fluid and meninges of newborns. The increase in the number of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) cases during the ZIKV outbreak in the Americas provides epidemiological evidence for the link between ZIKV infection and GBS. Less frequently reported ZIKV neurological complications include encephalitis/meningoencephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, myelitis, cerebrovascular complications (ischemic infarction; vasculopathy), seizures and encephalopathy, sensory polyneuropathy and sensory neuronopathy. Analysis of GBS incidence could serve as an epidemiological 'marker' or sentinel for ZIKV disease and other neurological complications associated to ZIKV. Expert commentary: An expanding spectrum of neurological complications associated with ZIKV infection is being recognised.

  3. Radiological features of primitive neuroectodermal tumors in intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal regions: A series of 18 cases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youming; Xiao, Desheng; Yin, Hongling; Long, Xueying; Li, Li; Zai, Hongyan; Chen, Minfeng; Li, Wenzheng; Sun, Lunquan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To characterize the imaging and clinicopathological features of primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) arising in intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal regions. Methods Eighteen patients with histopathologically proven intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal PNET were enrolled; computed tomography was performed for all cases, and magnetic resonance imaging was performed for a single case. Typical computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings, including morphology, texture and enhancement features, as well as clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis data were retrospectively analyzed. Results Of eighteen PNET patients, fifteen were male and three were female, with a median age of 36 years (range, 2–65 years). The onset of symptoms was most often nonspecific and insidious. The mean tumor diameter was 7.2 cm (range, 3.0–12.1 cm), with necrosis in fifteen cases, cystic changes in eight, partition structure in five, calcification in five, hemorrhage in two, and mural nodules in one. Contrast enhanced computed tomography showed multiple tiny feeding arteries within the masses in six cases, resulting in a crab-like appearance, and mild ring enhancement pattern in five cases. Eleven cases showed surrounding invasion and metastasis. Of the eighteen PNET cases, nine cases showed smooth, well-defined margins, and nine cases had irregular, ill-defined margins. A median survival was 10.0±1.6 months. However, chemotherapy had efficacy on patients even those with advanced disease. Conclusions Primary intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal PNETs are rare, and imaging features documented here may help the diagnosis of this severe disease. Notably, two signs present in retroperitoneal PNET tumors, including a mild ring enhancement pattern and a crab-like appearance of the tiny feeding arteries, may have the potential to help us improve the ability to make a relatively reliable diagnosis. PMID:28319177

  4. [The influnence of dachengqi tang on acute lung injury and intra abdominal hypertension in rats with acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Wan, Mei-Hua; Li, Juan; Tang, Wen-Fu; Gong, Han-Lin; Chen, Guang-Yuan; Xue, Ping; Zhao, Xian-Lin; Xia, Qing

    2011-09-01

    To test the hypothesis "lung and large intestine are interior exteriorly related" through investgating into the effect of Dacheng qi tang (DCQT) on intra abdominal hypertension (IAH) and acute lung injury (ALI) in rats with acute pancreatitis. Male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups with ten rats for each group: rats with sham-operations (SO); rats with acute necrosis pancreatitis (ANP); rats with ANP plus DCQT treatment. ANP was induced by retrograde infusion of 5% taurocholic acid into pancreatic duct. Two hours after operations, 10 mL/kg of normal saline was orally adminstered to the rats in both SO and ANP groups, whereas 10 mL/kg DCQT was adminstered to the rats in the treatment group. Aterial blood, pancreas and lung tissues were collected for biomarkers and histopathology 24 hours after operations. Intra-abdominal pressure and intestinal propulsion rate were also measured. RESULTS; DCQT treatment reduced intra-abdominal pressure and improved intestinal propulsion rate compared with those treated with saline (P < 0.05). The ANP rats treated with DCQT had lower wet to dry weight ratio, and milder myeloperoxidase activity and histopathology changes in pancreas and lung than those treated with saline (P < 0.05). Higher pressure of oxygen (PO2) was found in the rats treated with DCQT, while no difference in PCO2 was found between the DCQT and ANP groups (P > 0.05). Only two rats in the ANP group died. DCQT can effectively relieve IAH and cure ALI at the same time in rats with acute pancreatitis. The result provides evidence to support the hypothesis "lung and large intestine are interior exteriorly related".

  5. Nonsurgical management of complicated splenic rupture in infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Jenni, Fabienne; Lienhardt, Barbara; Fahrni, Gabriela; Yuen, Bernd

    2013-07-01

    We report on a 35-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with acute abdominal pain, postural hypotension, and tachycardia after having been diagnosed with Epstein-Barr virus infection 1 week before. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography revealed splenic rupture, and the patient underwent successful proximal angiographic embolization of the splenic artery. The course was complicated by painful splenic necrosis and respiratory insufficiency due to bilateral pleural effusions. Six weeks later, he additionally developed severe sepsis with Propionibacterium granulosum due to an intrasplenic infected hematoma, which required drainage. All complications were treated without surgical splenectomy, and the patient finally made a full recovery.

  6. Evaluation of intra- and extra-epithelial secretory IgA in chlamydial infections

    PubMed Central

    Armitage, Charles W; O’Meara, Connor P; Harvie, Marina C G; Timms, Peter; Wijburg, Odilia L; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulin A is an important mucosal antibody that can neutralize mucosal pathogens by either preventing attachment to epithelia (immune exclusion) or alternatively inhibit intra-epithelial replication following transcytosis by the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR). Chlamydia trachomatis is a major human pathogen that initially targets the endocervical or urethral epithelium in women and men, respectively. As both tissues contain abundant secretory IgA (SIgA) we assessed the protection afforded by IgA targeting different chlamydial antigens expressed during the extra- and intra-epithelial stages of infection. We developed an in vitro model using polarizing cells expressing the murine pIgR together with antigen-specific mouse IgA, and an in vivo model using pIgR−/− mice. Secretory IgA targeting the extra-epithelial chlamydial antigen, the major outer membrane protein, significantly reduced infection in vitro by 24% and in vivo by 44%. Conversely, pIgR-mediated delivery of IgA targeting the intra-epithelial inclusion membrane protein A bound to the inclusion but did not reduce infection in vitro or in vivo. Similarly, intra-epithelial IgA targeting the secreted protease Chlamydia protease-like activity factor also failed to reduce infection. Together, these data suggest the importance of pIgR-mediated delivery of IgA targeting extra-epithelial, but not intra-epithelial, chlamydial antigens for protection against a genital tract infection. PMID:24827556

  7. Predictors of major complications after elective abdominal surgery in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Simões, Claudia M; Carmona, Maria J C; Hajjar, Ludhmila A; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Landoni, Giovanni; Belletti, Alessandro; Vieira, Joaquim E; de Almeida, Juliano P; de Almeida, Elisangela P; Ribeiro, Ulysses; Kauling, Ana L; Tutyia, Celso; Tamaoki, Lie; Fukushima, Julia T; Auler, José O C

    2018-05-09

    Patients undergoing abdominal surgery for solid tumours frequently develop major postoperative complications, which negatively affect quality of life, costs of care and survival. Few studies have identified the determinants of perioperative complications in this group. We performed a prospective observational study including all patients (age > 18) undergoing abdominal surgery for cancer at a single institution between June 2011 and August 2013. Patients undergoing emergency surgery, palliative procedures, or participating in other studies were excluded. Primary outcome was a composite of 30-day all-cause mortality and infectious, cardiovascular, respiratory, neurologic, renal and surgical complications. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictive factors for major perioperative adverse events. Of a total 308 included patients, 106 (34.4%) developed a major complication during the 30-day follow-up period. Independent predictors of postoperative major complications were: age (odds ratio [OR] 1.03 [95% CI 1.01-1.06], p = 0.012 per year), ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) physical status greater than or equal to 3 (OR 2.61 [95% CI 1.33-5.17], p = 0.003), a preoperative haemoglobin level lower than 12 g/dL (OR 2.13 [95% CI 1.21-4.07], p = 0.014), intraoperative use of colloids (OR 1.89, [95% CI 1.03-4.07], p = 0.047), total amount of intravenous fluids (OR 1.22 [95% CI 0.98-1.59], p = 0.106 per litre), intraoperative blood losses greater than 500 mL (2.07 [95% CI 1.00-4.31], p = 0.043), and hypotension needing vasopressor support (OR 4.68 [95% CI 1.55-27.72], p = 0.004). The model had good discrimination with the area under the ROC curve being 0.80 (95% CI 0.75-0.84, p < 0.001). Our findings suggest that a perioperative strategy aimed at reducing perioperative complications in cancer surgery should include treatment of preoperative anaemia and an optimal fluid strategy

  8. Diffuse abdominal gallium-67 citrate uptake in salmonella infections

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, I.; Koren, A.

    1987-11-01

    Two pediatric patients with salmonella infections (one with typhoid fever and the second with salmonella C2 gastroenteritis), had a diffuse abdominal uptake of Ga-67 citrate. The possible explanation for this finding is discussed. Salmonella infection should be included as a cause in the differential diagnosis of diffuse accumulation of Ga-67 citrate.

  9. Effect of major abdominal surgery on the host immune response to infection.

    PubMed

    Buttenschoen, Klaus; Fathimani, Kamran; Buttenschoen, Daniela Carli

    2010-06-01

    The present review summarizes key studies on the effects of major abdominal surgery on the host response to infection published during the last 18 months. Surgical trauma causes stereotyped systemic proinflammatory and compensatory anti-inflammatory reactions. It is leukocyte reprogramming rather than general immune suppression. The list of recent findings is long. Preoperative infectious challenge was found to increase survival. Obesity is associated with increased production of interleukin-17A in peritonitis. Abdominal surgery alters expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs). The acute phase reaction down-regulates the transcription factor carbohydrate response element binding protein. Myosin light chain kinase activation is a final pathway of acute tight junction regulation of gut barrier and zonula occludens 1 protein is an essential effector. The brain is involved in regulating the immune and gut system. Elimination of lipopolysaccharide is challenging. Th1/Th2 ratio is lowered in patients with postoperative complications. Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways can inhibit tissue damage. The new substance PXL01 prevents adhesions. Postoperative infection causes incisional hernias. Hypothermia reduced human leukocyte antigen DR surface expression and delayed tumor necrosis factor clearance. Systems biology identified interferon regulatory factor 3 as the negative regulator of TLR signaling. Protective immunity could contribute defeating surgical infections. Systemic inflammation is the usual response to trauma. All organs seem to be involved and linked up in cybernetic systems aiming at reconstitution of homeostasis. Although knowledge is still fragmentary, it is already difficult to integrate known facts and new technologies are required for information processing. Defining criteria to develop therapeutic strategies requires much more insight into molecular mechanisms and cybernetics of organ systems.

  10. Prophylactic intra-peritoneal drain placement following pancreaticoduodenectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-Chao; Szatmary, Peter; Zhu, Jing-Qiang; Xiong, Jun-Jie; Huang, Wei; Gomatos, Ilias; Nunes, Quentin M; Sutton, Robert; Liu, Xu-Bao

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To conduct a meta-analysis comparing outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) with or without prophylactic drainage. METHODS: Relevant comparative randomized and non-randomized studies were systemically searched based on specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Postoperative outcomes were compared between patients with and those without routine drainage. Pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95%CI were calculated using either fixed effects or random effects models. RESULTS: One randomized controlled trial and four non-randomized comparative studies recruiting 1728 patients were analyzed. Patients without prophylactic drainage after PD had significantly higher mortality (OR = 2.32, 95%CI: 1.11-4.85; P = 0.02), despite the fact that they were associated with fewer overall complications (OR = 0.62, 95%CI: 0.48-0.82; P = 0.00), major complications (OR = 0.75, 95%CI: 0.60-0.93; P = 0.01) and readmissions (OR = 0.77, 95%CI: 0.60-0.98; P = 0.04). There were no significant differences in the rates of pancreatic fistula, intra-abdominal abscesses, postpancreatectomy hemorrhage, biliary fistula, delayed gastric emptying, reoperation or radiologic-guided drains between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Indiscriminate abandonment of intra-abdominal drainage following PD is associated with greater mortality, but lower complication rates. Future randomized trials should compare routine vs selective drainage. PMID:25741162

  11. The LIPPSMAck POP (Lung Infection Prevention Post Surgery - Major Abdominal - with Pre-Operative Physiotherapy) trial: study protocol for a multi-centre randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Boden, Ianthe; Browning, Laura; Skinner, Elizabeth H; Reeve, Julie; El-Ansary, Doa; Robertson, Iain K; Denehy, Linda

    2015-12-15

    Post-operative pulmonary complications are a significant problem following open upper abdominal surgery. Preliminary evidence suggests that a single pre-operative physiotherapy education and preparatory lung expansion training session alone may prevent respiratory complications more effectively than supervised post-operative breathing and coughing exercises. However, the evidence is inconclusive due to methodological limitations. No well-designed, adequately powered, randomised controlled trial has investigated the effect of pre-operative education and training on post-operative respiratory complications, hospital length of stay, and health-related quality of life following upper abdominal surgery. The Lung Infection Prevention Post Surgery - Major Abdominal- with Pre-Operative Physiotherapy (LIPPSMAck POP) trial is a pragmatic, investigator-initiated, bi-national, multi-centre, patient- and assessor-blinded, parallel group, randomised controlled trial, powered for superiority. Four hundred and forty-one patients scheduled for elective open upper abdominal surgery at two Australian and one New Zealand hospital will be randomised using concealed allocation to receive either i) an information booklet or ii) an information booklet, plus one additional pre-operative physiotherapy education and training session. The primary outcome is respiratory complication incidence using standardised diagnostic criteria. Secondary outcomes include hospital length of stay and costs, pneumonia diagnosis, intensive care unit readmission and length of stay, days/h to mobilise >1 min and >10 min, and, at 6 weeks post-surgery, patient reported complications, health-related quality of life, and physical capacity. The LIPPSMAck POP trial is a multi-centre randomised controlled trial powered and designed to investigate whether a single pre-operative physiotherapy session prevents post-operative respiratory complications. This trial standardises post-operative assisted ambulation and

  12. Congenital intra-abdominal bilateral juvenile granulosa cell tumors of the testis associated with constitutional loss of material from chromosome 4.

    PubMed

    Yu, David C; Pathak, Bhavana; Vargas, Sara O; Javid, Patrick J; Hisama, Fuki M; Wilson, Jay M; Linden, Bradley C

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile granulosa cell tumor (JGCT) is an uncommon gonadal stromal tumor that occurs rarely in the testis. We report a newborn boy with bilateral intra-abdominal JGCT presenting with abdominal distention and respiratory distress at birth. He was taken to the operating room emergently, and 2 large masses connected by gubernacula to the inguinal canals were resected. Associated abnormalities included a constitutional chromosome 4 abnormality, polymicrogyria, and renal cysts. This report describes a rare presentation of JGCT with abdominal compression and expands the literature to include bilateral testicular involvement. Additionally, it is the 1st report of JGCT associated with a chromosome 4 abnormality, highlighting a genetic region that may be important in JGCT development.

  13. Expiratory Flow Limitation as a Risk Factor for Pulmonary Complications After Major Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Spadaro, Savino; Caramori, Gaetano; Rizzuto, Chiara; Mojoli, Francesco; Zani, Gianluca; Ragazzi, Riccardo; Valpiani, Giorgia; Dalla Corte, Francesca; Marangoni, Elisabetta; Volta, Carlo Alberto

    2017-02-01

    Postoperative pulmonary complications are major causes of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Although several risk factors have been associated with postoperative pulmonary complications, they are not consistent between studies and, even in those studies in which these factors were identified, the predictive power is low. We hypothesized that postoperative pulmonary complications would correlate with the presence of intraoperative expiratory flow limitation. Candidates for this prospective observational study were patients undergoing general anesthesia for major abdominal surgery. Preoperative data collection included age, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, smoking and dyspnea history, and room air PO2. Expiratory flow limitation was assessed intraoperatively using the positive end-expiratory pressure test. Postoperative data collection included the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications. Of the 330 patients we enrolled, 31% exhibited expiratory flow limitation. On univariate analysis, patients with expiratory flow limitation were more likely to have postoperative pneumonia (5% vs 0%, P < .001) and acute respiratory failure (11% vs 1%, P < .001) and a longer length of hospital stay (7 vs 9 days, P < .01). Multivariate analysis identified that expiratory flow limitation increased the risk of developing postoperative pulmonary complications by >50% (risk ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-4.2). Age and Medical Research Council dyspnea score were also significant multivariate risk factors for pulmonary complications. Our results show that intraoperative expiratory flow limitation correlates with that of postoperative pulmonary complication after major abdominal surgery. Further work is needed to better understand the relevance of expiratory flow limitation on postoperative pulmonary outcomes.

  14. Multicellular detachment generates metastatic spheroids during intra-abdominal dissemination in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Al Habyan, Sara; Kalos, Christina; Szymborski, Joseph; McCaffrey, Luke

    2018-05-23

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological cancer, where survival rates have had modest improvement over the last 30 years. Metastasis of cancer cells is a major clinical problem, and patient mortality occurs when ovarian cancer cells spread beyond the confinement of ovaries. Disseminated ovarian cancer cells typically spread within the abdomen, where ascites accumulation aids in their transit. Metastatic ascites contain multicellular spheroids, which promote chemo-resistance and recurrence. However, little is known about the origin and mechanisms through which spheroids arise. Using live-imaging of 3D culture models and animal models, we report that epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells, the most common type of ovarian cancer, can spontaneously detach as either single cells or clusters. We report that clusters are more resistant to anoikis and have a potent survival advantage over single cells. Using in vivo lineage tracing, we found that multicellular spheroids arise preferentially from collective detachment, rather than aggregation in the abdomen. Finally, we report that multicellular spheroids from collective detachment are capable of seeding intra-abdominal metastases that retain intra-tumoral heterogeneity from the primary tumor.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens isolated from hospitalized patients with intra-abdominal and urinary tract infections in Asia-Pacific countries: SMART 2013-2015.

    PubMed

    Karlowsky, James A; Hoban, Daryl J; Hackel, Meredith A; Lob, Sibylle H; Sahm, Daniel F

    2017-01-01

    Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter spp.) are responsible for increases in antimicrobial-resistant infections worldwide. We determined in vitro susceptibilities to eight parenteral antimicrobial agents using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution methodology for Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens isolated from hospitalized patients with intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) (n=3052) and urinary tract infections (UTIs) (n=1088) in 11 Asia-Pacific countries/regions from 2013 to 2015. Amikacin (98.3, 96.4 %), imipenem (97.1, 95.5 %) and ertapenem (95.3, 93.2 %) demonstrated the highest rates of susceptibility for isolates of K. pneumoniae from IAI and UTI, respectively, whereas susceptibility to advanced-generation cephalosporins was <84 and <71 %, respectively. K. pneumoniae with an extended-spectrum β-lactamase-positive phenotype were more common in UTI (27.1 %) than IAI (16.2 %). Imipenem and amikacin were the most active agents against extended-spectrum β-lactamase-positive K. pneumoniae from IAI (95.1, 91.8 %) and UTI (94.9, 92.3 %), respectively, whereas <54 % were susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam. Against Enterobacter spp. and P. aeruginosa, amikacin demonstrated the highest rates of susceptibility for isolates from IAI (99.7, 95.5 %) and UTI (90.9, 91.5 %), respectively. K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp. and P. aeruginosa from urine demonstrated lower susceptibility to levofloxacin (74.1, 81.8 and 73.8 %) than from IAI (87.6, 91.8 and 85.4 %). For A. baumannii, rates of susceptibility to all agents tested were <43 %. We conclude that the studied Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens demonstrated reduced susceptibility to commonly prescribed advanced-generation cephalosporins, piperacillin-tazobactam and levofloxacin, while amikacin and carbapenems were the most active. Ongoing surveillance to monitor evolving resistance trends and

  16. [An analysis of clinical characteristic and related risk factors in 208 cirrhotic patients complicated with infections].

    PubMed

    Zhang, G H; Wang, M; Wang, L; Wang, X M; Wang, Y; Ou, X J; Jia, J D

    2018-02-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical features and risk factors of cirrhotic patients complicated with infections. Methods: The clinical and laboratory characteristics of cirrhotic patients complicated with infections hospitalized from April 2014 to June 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Relevant risk factors for infection and mortality were explored. Results: The overall incidence of infections was 17.6% in 1 670 hospitalized cirrhotic patients. Among the recruited 208 patients in this study, alcoholic, viral hepatitis B or C and autoimmune liver diseases accounted for 29.8% (62/208), 26.0% (54/208), and 22.1% (46/208), respectively. The most common infection site was respiratory tract (70.2%), followed by urinary tract, intestinal and intra-abdomen. Forty-six pathogens were isolated from 32 patients, including 22 (47.8%) Gram negative bacteria, 16 (34.8%) Gram positive bacteria and 2(4.3%) mycobacterium tuberculosis, 5 (10.9%) fungi and 1 (2.2%) mycoplasma. The mortality in patients with nosocomial infections (16.7%,7/42) was higher than that in patients with community-acquired infections (6.0%,10/166, P =0.025). All 17 deaths occurred in decompensated cirrhosis. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that hepatic encephalopathy and prothrombin time were independent risk factors of mortality. Conclusions: Patients with decompensated cirrhosis are more susceptible to infections. Hepatic encephalopathy and prothrombin time are independent risk factors for death.

  17. Value of a step-up diagnosis plan: CRP and CT-scan to diagnose and manage postoperative complications after major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Straatman, Jennifer; Cuesta, Miguel A; Gisbertz, Suzanne S; Van der Peet, Donald L

    2014-12-01

    Postoperative complications frequently follow major abdominal surgery and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and treatment of complications is associated with improved patient outcome. In this study we assessed the value of a step-up diagnosis plan by C-reactive protein and CT-scan (computed tomography-scan) imaging for detection of postoperative complications following major abdominal surgery.An observational cohort study was conducted of 399 consecutivepatients undergoing major abdominal surgery between January 2009 and January 2011. Indication for operation, type of surgery, postoperative morbidity, complications according to the Clavien-Dindo classification and mortality were recorded. Clinical parameters were recorded until 14 days postoperatively or until discharge. Regular C-reactive protein (CPR) measurements in peripheral blood and on indication -enhanced CT-scans were performed.Eighty-three out of 399 (20.6 %) patients developed a major complication in the postoperative course after a median of seven days (IQR 4-9 days). One hundred and thirty two patients received additional examination consisting of enhanced CT-scan imaging, and treatment by surgical reintervention or intensive care observation. CRP levels were significantly higher in patients with postoperative complications. On the second postoperative dayCRP levels were on average 197.4 mg/L in the uncomplicated group, 220.9 mg/L in patients with a minor complication and 280.1 mg/L in patients with major complications (p < 0,001).CT-scan imaging showed a sensitivity of 91.7 % and specificity of 100 % in diagnosis of major complications. Based on clinical deterioration and the increase of CRP, an additional enhanced CT-scan offered clear discrimination between patients with major abdominal complications and uncomplicated patients. Adequate treatment could then be accomplished.

  18. Limb salvage following iatrogenic arterial injury: complications of cardiac support using intra-aortic balloon pumps.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Adam; Waldin, Owen; Slim, Hani; Brar, Ranjeet

    2016-06-06

    This is a unique case report describing complex limb salvage in a patient who experienced acute limb ischaemia due to a complication of intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) counterpulsation. This case focuses on a patient who had an IABP counterpulsation device inserted following myocardial infarction, requiring urgent coronary artery bypass grafting for acute coronary syndrome. Postoperatively, the IABP could not be removed, with consequent iliac thrombosis and acute limb ischaemia. Emergency femoral-to-femoral crossover bypass was performed using a polytetrafluoroethylene graft. A portion of the IABP balloon tip was entrapped and retained, however, and became the focus of delayed septicaemia, resulting in graft infection and wound breakdown 6 weeks later. Explantation of the residual balloon tip, ligation of the right external iliac artery and redo femoral-femoral crossover using the great saphenous vein were successfully performed. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  19. Vascular complications following intra-aortic balloon pump implantation: an updated review

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Monique M; Lorusso, Roberto; Al Awami, Fatima; Matteuci, Francesco; Parise, Orlando; Lozekoot, Pieter; Bonacchi, Massimo; Maessen, Jos G; Johnson, Daniel M; Gelsomino, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    Background: The use of the intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) as a support device remains controversial due to the fact that a number of studies have shown no benefit in end mortality whilst using this device. One of the reasons for this could be the increase in vascular complications when using the pump. Therefore, the aim of the present review was to assess the current literature available with regards to IABP vascular complications during the clinical situation. Methods: A literature search was performed, searching for IABP complications in adult human studies between 1990 and 2016. Results: A total of 20 reports were identified as fitting the criteria of this study. The majority of vascular complications were limb ischemia, bleeding or mesenteric ischemia. The overall incidence of vascular complications ranged from 0.94% to 31.1%. Diabetes, peripheral vascular disease and hypertension, as well as smoking were all identified as risk factors for complications following IABP. Furthermore, studies supported the use of sheathless balloon insertion to reduce the risk of complications. Conclusion: Major vascular complications, including limb and mesenteric ischemia as well as bleeding and hemorrhage, have been associated with IABP. However, the incidence of these complications was generally low. Further studies are still required to truly understand the risk/benefit associated with the use of IABP. PMID:28816093

  20. Timed Stair Climbing is the Single Strongest Predictor of Perioperative Complications in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Sushanth; Contreras, Carlo M; Singletary, Brandon; Bradford, T Miller; Waldrop, Mary G; Mims, Andrew H; Smedley, W Andrew; Swords, Jacob A; Thomas N, Wang; Martin J, Heslin

    2016-01-01

    Background Current methods to predict patients' peri-operative morbidity utilize complex algorithms with multiple clinical variables focusing primarily on organ-specific compromise. The aim of the present study is to determine the value of a timed stair climb (SC) in predicting peri-operative complications for patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Study Design From March 2014 to July 2015, 362 patients attempted SC while being timed prior to undergoing elective abdominal surgery. Vital signs were measured before and after SC. Ninety day post-operative complications were assessed by the Accordion Severity Grading System. The prognostic value of SC was compared to the ACS NSQIP risk calculator. Results A total of 264 (97.4%) patients were able to complete SC. SC time directly correlated to changes in both mean arterial pressure and heart rate as an indicator of stress. An Accordion grade 2 or higher complication occurred in 84 (25%) patients. There were 8 mortalities (2.4%). Patients with slower SC times had an increased complication rate (P<0.0001). In multivariable analysis SC time was the single strongest predictor of complications (OR=1.029, P<0.0001), and no other clinical co-morbidity reached statistical significance. Receiver operative characteristic curves predicting post-operative morbidity by SC time was superior to that of the ACS risk calculator (AUC 0.81 vs. 0.62, P<0.0001). Additionally slower patients had a greater deviation from predicted length of hospital stay (P=0.034) Conclusions SC provides measurable stress, accurately predicts post-operative complications, and is easy to administer in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Larger patient populations with a diverse group of operations will be needed to further validate the use of SC in risk prediction models. PMID:26920993

  1. Update of incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility trends of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from Chinese intra-abdominal infection patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Yang, Qiwen; Liao, Kang; Ni, Yuxing; Yu, Yunsong; Hu, Bijie; Sun, Ziyong; Huang, Wenxiang; Wang, Yong; Wu, Anhua; Feng, Xianju; Luo, Yanping; Chu, Yunzhuo; Chen, Shulan; Cao, Bin; Su, Jianrong; Duan, Qiong; Zhang, Shufang; Shao, Haifeng; Kong, Haishen; Gui, Bingdong; Hu, Zhidong; Badal, Robert; Xu, Yingchun

    2017-12-18

    To evaluate in vitro susceptibilities of aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacterial (GNB) isolates from intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) to 12 selected antimicrobials in Chinese hospitals from 2012 to 2014. Hospital acquired (HA) and community acquired (CA) IAIs were collected from 21 centers in 16 Chinese cities. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) status and antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined at a central laboratory using CLSI broth microdilution and interpretive standards. From all isolated strains the Enterobacteriaceae (81.1%) Escherichia coli accounted for 45.4% and Klebsiella pneumoniae for 20.1%, followed by Enterobacter cloacae (5.2%), Proteus mirabilis (2.1%), Citrobacter freundii (1.8%), Enterobacter aerogenes (1.8%), Klebsiella oxytoca (1.4%), Morganella morganii (1.2%), Serratia marcescens (0.7%), Citrobacter koseri (0.3%), Proteus vulgaris (0.3%) and others (1.0%). Non- Enterobacteriaceae (18.9%) included Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.8%), Acinetobacter baumannii (6.7%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (0.9%), Aeromonas hydrophila (0.4%) and others (1.1%). ESBL-screen positive Escherichia coli isolates (ESBL+) showed a decreasing trend from 67.5% in 2012 to 58.9% in 2014 of all Escherichia coli isolates and the percentage of ESBL+ Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates also decreased from 2012 through 2014 (40.4% to 26.6%), which was due to reduced percentages of ESBL+ isolates in HA IAIs for both bacteria. The overall susceptibilities of all 5160 IAI isolates were 87.53% to amikacin (AMK), 78.12% to piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) 81.41% to imipenem (IMP) and 73.12% to ertapenem (ETP). The susceptibility of ESBL-screen positive Escherichia coli strains was 96.77%-98.8% to IPM, 91.26%-93.16% to ETP, 89.48%-92.75% to AMK and 84.86%-89.34% to TZP, while ESBL-screen positive Klebsiella pneumoniae strains were 70.56%-80.15% susceptible to ETP, 80.0%-87.5% to IPM, 83.82%-87.06% to AMK and 63.53%-68.38% to TZP within the three year study

  2. Abdominal wall sinus due to impacting gallstone during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an unusual complication.

    PubMed

    Pavlidis, T E; Papaziogas, B T; Koutelidakis, I M; Papaziogas, T B

    2002-02-01

    During laparoscopic cholecystectomy, perforation of the gallbladder can occurs in < or = 20% of cases, while gallstone spillage occurs in < or = 6% of cases. In most cases, there are no consequences. Gallstones can be lost in the abdominal wall as well as the abdomen during extraction of the gallbladder. The fate of such lost gallstones, which can lead to the formation of an abscess, an abdominal wall mass, or a persistent sinus, has not been studied adequately. Herein we report the case of a persistent sinus of the abdominal wall after an emergent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in an 82-year-old woman with gangrenous cholecystitis and perforation of the friable wall in association with an empyema of the gallbladder. The culture of the obtained pus was positive for Escherichia coli. After a small leak of dirty fluid from the wound of the epigastric port site of 4 months' duration, surgical exploration under local anesthesia revealed that the sinus was caused by spilled gallstones impacting into the abdominal wall between the posterior sheath and left rectus abdominalis muscle. The removal of the stones resulted in complete healing. Long-term complications after laparoscopic cholecystectomy involving the abdominal wall are rare but important possible consequences that could be avoided.

  3. The effects of combined liquid and membrane barriers in prevention of post-operative intra-abdominal adhesions after experimental jejunal anastomosis in dogs.

    PubMed

    el-Ghoul, W

    2005-01-01

    The study was carried out on 40 apparently clinical healthy dogs classified into 5 groups of 8 dogs each. Adhesion was experimentally induced by transsection and reanastomosis of jejunum. In the control group the site of anastomosis and abdominal cavity was lavaged with 250 ml saline solution. In group two lavage was done with 250 ml of a liquid barrier composed of a combination of high molecular weight solution (1% sodium carboxymethylcellulose) as a carrier, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (Piroxecam), broad spectrum antibiotic (Cephalosporin), anticoagulant (Heparin) and antioxidant (0.5% methylene blue). In group three the anastomosis site was covered with a sodium hyalouronate/carboxymethylcellulose bioresorbable membrane (Seprafilm). In group four a natural biocompatible collagen sheet (VET BIO SIS T) was applied on the anastomosis site. In group five the abdominal cavity was lavaged with 250 ml liquid barrier and the anastomosis site was covered by either Seprafilm membrane or VET BIO SIS T sheet. At the fourteen day after operation, adhesion was assessed by ultrasonography after instillation of 1000 ml of physiological saline solution into the abdominal cavity. The dogs were sacrificed and an autopsy examination was carried out with the attention to the number, density and site of the adhesion formation. The results revealed that all the control dogs and some dogs in the treatment groups had positive ultrasonographic findings. Transabdominal sonogram clearly showed echogenic bands floating in the abdominal cavity and echogenic masses in more serious subjects. Necropsy examination showed that all the control dogs had intra-abdominal adhesions (8 of 8 dogs) and treatment with liquid barrier (4 of 8 dogs), seprafilm membrane barrier (3 of 8 dogs), VET BIO SIS T sheet barrier (4 of 8 dogs) and combination of fluid and membrane barrier groups (4 of 8 dogs) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the incidence of adhesion formation. The adhesion severity in the

  4. Risk factors and outcome of intra-abdominal hypertension in patients with severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Ke, Lu; Ni, Hai-Bin; Sun, Jia-Kui; Tong, Zhi-Hui; Li, Wei-Qin; Li, Ning; Li, Jie-Shou

    2012-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is common in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). The aim of the present study was to investigate the risk factors of IAH in SAP patients and assess the prognosis of SAP combined with IAH. To analyze the data from patients with SAP, both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied, using 16 indices, including age, gender, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores (APACHE II), 24 h fluid balance, hematocrit, serum calcium level, and so on. Clinical prognosis such as mortality, hospital duration, of SAP patients with or without IAH was also compared. First 24 h fluid balance (Odds Ratio [OR], 1.003; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.001-1.006), number of fluid collections (OR, 1.652; 95% CI, 1.023-2.956), and serum calcium level (OR, 0.132; 95% CI, 0.012-0.775) were found to be independent risk factors for IAH in patients with SAP. Moreover, patients with SAP and IAH had significantly longer average length of stay, both in the hospital and in the intensive care unit, higher rates of systemic and local complications, and more invasive treatments. The significant risk factors for IAH in patients with SAP include 24 h fluid balance (first day), number of fluid collections, and serum calcium level. Additionally, IAH is associated with extremely poor prognosis, evidenced by high rates of mortality, morbidity, and the need for invasive interventions.

  5. Robotic trans-abdominal transplant nephrectomy for a failed renal allograft.

    PubMed

    Mulloy, M R; Tan, M; Wolf, J H; D'Annunzio, S H; Pollinger, H S

    2014-12-01

    Minimally invasive surgery for removal of a failed renal allograft has not previously been reported. Herein, we report the first robotic trans-abdominal transplant nephrectomy (TN). A 34-year-old male with Alport's syndrome lost function of his deceased donor allograft after 12 years and presented with fever, pain over his allograft and hematuria. The operation was performed intra-abdominally using the Da Vinci Robotic Surgical System with four trocars. The total operative time was 235 min and the estimated blood loss was less than 25 cm(3). There were no peri-operative complications observed and the patient was discharged to home less than 24 h postoperatively. The utilization of robotic technology facilitated the successful performance of a minimally invasive, trans-abdominal TN. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  6. Management of intra-abdominal abscesses in children with Crohn's disease: a 12-year, retrospective single-center review.

    PubMed

    Dotson, Jennifer L; Bashaw, Hillary; Nwomeh, Benedict; Crandall, Wallace V

    2015-05-01

    Intra-abdominal abscesses (IAA) are complications of Crohn's disease, which often result in hospitalization, surgery, and increased cost. Initial management may include medical therapy, percutaneous drainage (PD), or surgery, although the optimal management of IAA in children is unclear. Retrospective review of all pediatric patients with Crohn's disease who developed an IAA from January 1, 2000 to April 30, 2012. Three groups, based on initial IAA treatment modality (medical, PD, and surgery), were compared. Thirty cases of IAA were identified (mean age at IAA diagnosis, 15.4 ± 2.6 yr, 67% female, median Crohn's disease duration, 2.6 mo). Computed tomography was the most common initial (93%) and follow-up (47%) imaging. The average time to follow-up imaging was 8.5 days. For initial management, 18 received medical therapy, 10 PD, and 2 had surgery. The medical therapy group received more computed tomography scans for follow-up imaging than the PD group (12 [67%] versus 2 [20%], P = 0.046). There were no significant differences in abscess characteristics or management of posttreatment course between these 2 groups. Surgical resection occurred in 3 patients (17%) in the medical group and 2 (20%) in the PD group during index hospitalization. No significant differences were identified among treatment groups for readmissions, complications, or abscess recurrence. By 1 year, 12 of the 18 medically managed patients (67%) had surgery, and 6 of the 10 patients (60%) treated with initial PD ultimately had surgery. The majority of patients with IAA require definitive surgical treatment, and there were no clear predictors of those who did not.

  7. Intra-abdominal saline irrigation at cesarean section: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Eke, Ahizechukwu Chigoziem; Shukr, Ghadear Hussein; Chaalan, Tina Taissir; Nashif, Sereen Khaled; Eleje, George Uchenna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the evidence guiding intraoperative saline irrigation at cesarean sections. We searched "cesarean sections", "pregnancy", "saline irrigation" and "randomized clinical trials" in ClinicalTrials.gov, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, AJOL, MEDLINE, LILACS and CINAHL from inception of each database to April 2015. The primary outcomes were predefined as intraoperative nausea and emesis. The pooled results were reported as relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Three randomized trials including 862 women were analyzed. Intraoperative saline irrigation was associated with a 68% increased risk of developing intraoperative nausea (RR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.36-2.06), 70% increased risk of developing intraoperative emesis (RR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.28-2.25), 92% increased risk of developing post-operative nausea and 84% increased risk of using anti-emetics post-operatively (RR = 1.84, 95% CI 0.21-2.78) when compared with controls. There were no significant differences between intraoperative saline irrigation and no treatment for post-operative emesis (RR = 1.65, 95% CI 0.74-3.67), estimated blood loss, time to return of gastrointestinal function, postpartum endometritis (RR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.64-1.40), urinary tract infection and wound infection. Intraoperative saline irrigation at cesarean delivery increases intraoperative and post-operative nausea, requiring increasing use of anti-emetics without significant reduction in infectious, intraoperative and postpartum complications. Routine abdominal irrigation at cesarean section is not supported by current data.

  8. Effects of intra-abdominal sepsis on atherosclerosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kaynar, Ata Murat; Yende, Sachin; Zhu, Lin; Frederick, Daniel R; Chambers, Robin; Burton, Christine L; Carter, Melinda; Stolz, Donna Beer; Agostini, Brittani; Gregory, Alyssa D; Nagarajan, Shanmugam; Shapiro, Steven D; Angus, Derek C

    2014-09-03

    and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1) and the adhesion assay, a functional measure of endothelial activation, were elevated at 72 hours and 120 hours in mice that underwent CLP versus sham-operations (all at P <0.05). Using a combination of existing murine models for atherosclerosis and sepsis, we found that CLP, a model of intra-abdominal sepsis, accelerates atheroma development. Accelerated atheroma burden was associated with prolonged systemic, endothelial and intimal inflammation and was not explained by ongoing infection. These findings support observations in humans and demonstrate the feasibility of a long-term follow-up murine model of sepsis.

  9. Comparison of abdominal, vaginal, and laparoscopic hysterectomies in a tertiary care hospital in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Inal, Z O; Inal, H A

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to assess and compare the clinical results of three hysterectomy techniques: abdominal hysterectomy (AH), vaginal hysterectomy (VH), and laparoscopic hysterectomy (LH). A total of 2163 patients having undergone AH (n = 1226), VH (n = 426), and LH (n = 511) procedures were analyzed. The mean age, body mass index (BMI), parity, uterus weight, operation time, blood loss, duration of hospitalization, analgesic needs, intra- and postoperative complications, and indications for hysterectomy were analyzed and compared. There were no differences between the groups with respect to the BMI, parity, and intra- or postoperative major and minor complications. The operation time was significantly shorter in the VH group than in the other two groups (p < 0.001), and the blood loss was significantly lower in the LH group than in the others (p < 0.001). The duration of hospitalization and analgesic needs were the shortest in the LH group (p < 0.001), while the uterus weight and previous intra-abdominal surgery rate were the lowest in the VH group (p < 0.001). Despite the fact that the LH exhibited a longer operation time than the VH, the LH was considered to be a safe and effective surgical procedure due to the lesser blood loss, hospital stay, and analgesic needs.

  10. Neoadjuvant radiation therapy prior to total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer is not associated with postoperative complications using current techniques.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Sarah A; Goodman, Karyn A; Nash, Garrett M; Paty, Philip B; Guillem, José G; Temple, Larissa K; Weiser, Martin R; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio

    2014-07-01

    Neoadjuvant radiation therapy (RT) downstages rectal cancer but may increase postoperative morbidity. This study aims to quantify 30-day complication rates after total mesorectal excision (TME) using current techniques and to assess for an association of these complications with neoadjuvant RT. Stage I-III rectal cancer patients who underwent TME from 2005 to 2010 were identified. Complications occurring within 30 days after TME were retrieved from a prospectively maintained institutional database of postoperative adverse events. The cohort consisted of 461 patients. Median age was 59 years (range 18-90), and 274 patients (59 %) were male. Comorbid conditions included obesity (n = 147; 32 %), coronary artery disease (n = 83; 18 %), diabetes (n = 65; 14 %), and inflammatory bowel disease (n = 19; 4 %). A low anterior resection (LAR) was performed in 383 cases (83 %), an abdominoperineal resection (APR) was performed in 72 cases (16 %), and a Hartmann's procedure was performed in 6 cases (1 %). Preoperative RT was delivered to 310 patients (67 %; median dose of 50.4 Gy, range 27-55.8 Gy). The 30-day incidence of postoperative mortality was 0.4 % (n = 2), any complication 25 % (n = 117), grade 3 or more complication 5 % (n = 24), intra-abdominal infection 3 % (n = 12), abdominal wound complication 9 % (n = 42), perineal wound complication after APR 11 % (n = 8/72), and anastomotic leak after LAR 2 % (n = 6/383). These events were not associated with neoadjuvant RT. In a cohort undergoing TME using current techniques, neoadjuvant RT was not associated with 30-day postoperative morbidity or mortality.

  11. Postoperative outcomes in vedolizumab-treated Crohn's disease patients undergoing major abdominal operations.

    PubMed

    Lightner, A L; McKenna, N P; Tse, C S; Raffals, L E; Loftus, E V; Mathis, K L

    2018-03-01

    Up to 80% of patients with Crohn's disease require an abdominal operation in their lifetime. As the use of vedolizumab is increasing for the treatment of Crohn's disease, it is important to understand its potential association with post-operative complications. We sought to compare 30-day postoperative infectious complication rate among vedolizumab-treated Crohn's disease patients vs those who had received TNFα inhibitors or no biologic therapy. A retrospective review of all Crohn's disease patients who received vedolizumab within 12 weeks of a major abdominal or pelvic operation was performed. Two control cohorts consisted of Crohn's disease patients treated with TNFα inhibitors or no biologic therapy. One hundred Crohn's disease patients received vedolizumab within 12 weeks of an abdominal operation. Vedolizumab-treated patients underwent an equivalent rate of laparoscopic surgery (P = .25), had fewer anastomoses performed (P = .0002), and had equally frequent diversion in the setting of anastomoses (P = .47). Thirty-two vedolizumab-treated patients experienced postoperative infectious complications (32%), 26 of which were surgical site infections (26%). The vedolizumab-treated group experienced no difference in nonsurgical site infections (6% vs 5% anti-TNFα and 2% nonbiologic; P = .34), but significantly higher rates of surgical site infections (26% vs 8% and 11%; P < .001). On univariate and multivariate analysis, exposure to vedolizumab remained a significant predictor of postoperative surgical site infection (P < .001 and P = .002). Twenty-six per cent of Crohn's disease patients who received vedolizumab within 12 weeks prior to a major abdominal operation experienced a 30-day postoperative surgical site infection, significantly higher than that of patients receiving TNFα inhibitors or no biologic therapy. Vedolizumab within 12 weeks of surgery remained a predictor of 30-day postoperative surgical site infection on multivariable

  12. Intra-abdominal pressure during Pilates: unlikely to cause pelvic floor harm.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Tanner J; Nygaard, Ingrid E; Holder, Dannielle N; Egger, Marlene J; Hitchcock, Robert

    2015-08-01

    The objective was to describe the intra-abdominal pressures (IAP) generated during Pilates Mat and Reformer activities, and determine whether these activities generate IAP above a sit-to-stand threshold. Twenty healthy women with no symptomatic vaginal bulge, median age 43 (range 22-59 years), completed Pilates Mat and Reformer exercise routines each consisting of 11 exercises. IAP was collected by an intra-vaginal pressure transducer, transmitted wirelessly to a base station, and analyzed for maximal and area under the curve (AUC) IAP. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean maximal IAP between sit-to-stand and any of the Mat or Reformer exercises in the study population. Six to twenty-five percent of participants exceeded their individual mean maximal IAP sit-to-stand thresholds for 10 of the 22 exercises. When measuring AUC from 0 cm H2O, half the exercises exceeded the mean AUC of sit-to-stand, but only Pilates Reformer and Mat roll-ups exceeded the mean AUC of sit-to-stand when calculated from a threshold of 40 cm H2O (consistent with, for example, walking). Our results support recommending this series of introductory Pilates exercises, including five Mat exercises and six Reformer exercises to women desiring a low IAP exercise routine. More research is needed to determine the long-term effects of Pilates exercise on post-surgical exercise rehabilitation and pelvic floor health.

  13. Intra-abdominal Pressure during Pilates: Unlikely to Cause Pelvic Floor Harm

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Tanner J.; Holder, Dannielle N.; Egger, Marlene J.; Hitchcock, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Aims To describe intra-abdominal pressures (IAP) generated during Pilates Mat and Reformer activities, and determine whether these activities generate IAP above a sit-to-stand threshold. Methods Twenty healthy women with no symptomatic vaginal bulge, median age 43 (range 22 – 59 years), completed Pilates Mat and Reformer exercise routines each consisting of 11 exercises. IAP was collected by an intra-vaginal pressure transducer, transmitted wirelessly to a base station, and analyzed for maximal and area under the curve (AUC) IAP. Results There were no statistically significant differences in mean max IAP between sit-to-stand and any of the Mat or Reformer exercises in the study population. Six to twenty-five percent of participants exceeded their individual mean max IAP sit-to-stand thresholds for 10 of the 22 exercises. When measuring AUC from 0 cm H2O, half the exercises exceeded the mean AUC of sit-to-stand but only Pilates Reformer and Mat roll-ups exceeded the mean AUC of sit-to-stand when calculated from a threshold of 40 cm H2O (consistent with, for example, walking). Conclusion Our results support recommending this series of introductory Pilates exercises including five Mat exercises and six Reformer exercises to women desiring a low IAP exercise routine. More research is needed to determine the long term effects of Pilates exercise on post-surgical exercise rehabilitation and pelvic floor health. PMID:25672647

  14. Ostomy-related complications after emergent abdominal surgery: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, Elisabet; Persson, Eva; Carlsson, Eva; Hallén, Anne-Marie; Fingren, Jeanette; Berndtsson, Ina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate ostomy-related complications and describe ostomy configuration in patients undergoing acute abdominal surgery. The study sample comprised 144 patients with a median age of 67 years (IOR: 53.5-78 years) who underwent an intestinal ostomy as part of an acute abdominal surgical procedure. The research setting was the surgical and gynecological clinics at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Gothenburg, Sweden. Ostomy configuration, diameter, height, and the presence of stomal and peristomal complications were assessed by a WOC nurse 1 to 2 times while in hospital, once at the ostomy outpatient clinic 2 weeks after discharge, and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months following ostomy creation. The types of ostomies evaluated were end colostomy (58%), end ileostomy (18%), loop ileostomy (17%), and loop colostomy (7%). Most stomal or peristomal complications occurred within 1 year after surgery (31 of 57; 54.4%). Necrosis, separation, and stenosis were most common in patients with an end colostomy. Peristomal skin complications occurred in 45% of subjects during the first 6 months after surgery. The ostomy's diameter decreased significantly during the hospital course and over the first 2 weeks following hospital discharge in patients with end colostomy (P< .0001), end ileostomy (P< .0081), loop ileostomy (P= .008), and loop colostomy (ns). Patients with a low ostomy had peristomal skin problems ranging between 21% and 57% over this time period. The frequency of using a pouching system that incorporated convexity was highest in the case of loop ileostomy, used in 67% at 6 months. During the first 2 weeks after discharge, the physical configuration of the ostomy evolves and the pouching system must be frequently adjusted by a WOC nurse. Stomal and peristomal complications are prevalent during the first 2 postoperative years and especially during the first 6 months.

  15. Abdominal tap

    MedlinePlus

    Peritoneal tap; Paracentesis; Ascites - abdominal tap; Cirrhosis - abdominal tap; Malignant ascites - abdominal tap ... abdominal cavity ( most often cancer of the ovaries ) Cirrhosis of the liver Damaged bowel Heart disease Infection ...

  16. Abdominal pain in children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Melissa M; Bates, David Gregory; Andrews, Tina; Adkins, Laura; Thornton, Jennifer; Denham, Jolanda M

    2014-02-01

    The differential diagnosis of abdominal pain is broad in any child, and further complicated in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). Acute causes of abdominal pain may require emergent surgery, such as for appendicitis or obstruction caused by a bezoar. Rapid intervention is necessary and life-saving in children with SCD and acute splenic or hepatic sequestration. The majority of children with SCD presenting to the physician's office or emergency department will have subacute reasons for their abdominal pain, including but not limited to constipation, urinary tract infection, peptic ulcer disease, and cholecystitis. Vaso-occlusive pain often presents in children as abdominal pain, but is a diagnosis of exclusion. The case of a 10-year-old girl with intermittent abdominal pain is used as a starting point to review the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the most acute and common causes of abdominal pain in children with SCD.

  17. Intra-abdominal and subcutaneous abdominal fat as predictors of cardiometabolic risk in a sample of Mexican children.

    PubMed

    González-Álvarez, C; Ramos-Ibáñez, N; Azprioz-Leehan, J; Ortiz-Hernández, L

    2017-09-01

    Few studies in Latin American paediatric populations have differentiated fat deposits in specific areas, such as intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF). Research in diverse populations is needed, as patterns of fat accumulation vary by ethnicity. The aim of this study was to determine whether IAF and/or SAF are related to cardiometabolic risk factors, independent of total body fat (TBF), in a group of Mexican schoolchildren. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mexico City with 94 children aged between 5 and 11 years. IAF and SAF were assessed by magnetic resonance using two different estimation methods: (a) at the midpoint of lumbar vertebras 4 and 5 (L4-L5) and (b) the sum of the areas of four slices (L1-L2, L2-L3, L3-L4 and L4-L5, which will be referred to as 'total' IAF and SAF). TBF was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The following cardiometabolic risk factors were assessed: total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, blood pressure, insulin resistance, number of risk factors and metabolic syndrome score. After adjusting for sex, age and TBF, total SAF was related to the number of cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome score. Although IAF at L4-L5 was also related to the number of cardiometabolic risk factors, there was evidence of collinearity with TBF. In this sample of Mexican schoolchildren, TBF and SAF, but not IAF, were associated with higher cardiometabolic risk.

  18. Determination of Proper Timing for the Placement of Intra-Abdominal Mesh after Incidental Enterotomy in a Rodent Model (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Muir, Kathryn B; Smoot, Charles P; Viera, Jennifer L; Sirkin, Maxwell R; Yoon, Brian; Bader, Julia; Smiley, Rebecca; Holt, Danielle; Hofmann, Luke J

    2018-04-01

    Controversy exists regarding the appropriate timing for placement of permanent intra-abdominal mesh after inadvertent enterotomy during elective hernia repair. The aim of this study was to examine mesh placement at variable postoperative periods and the subsequent risk of infection. Fifty rodents were divided into five groups. Groups one to four underwent laparotomy, enterotomy, and repair. Physiomesh® was placed at the index operation one, three, or seven days postoperatively in Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4. Group 5 underwent mesh placement only. Necropsy with mesh harvest was performed seven days after placement. Cultures of mesh were obtained and Fisher's exact test was used to compare groups. Bacterial growth postsonication was identified in 30, 30, 50, and 90 per cent versus 20 per cent in controls. Compared with controls, there was significantly increased risk of mesh infection when it was placed seven days after enterotomy (P = 0.006). There was no significant difference in bacterial growth when mesh was placed at the time of enterotomy, one or three days later. The risk of bacterial contamination of permanent mesh placed immediately after inadvertent enterotomy during elective hernia repair is as safe as placing mesh at one or three days. Placing mesh at seven days significantly increased the risk of mesh contamination.

  19. Waist Circumference Adjusted for Body Mass Index and Intra-Abdominal Fat Mass

    PubMed Central

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Ängquist, Lars; Kotronen, Anna; Borra, Ronald; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Iozzo, Patricia; Parkkola, Riitta; Nuutila, Pirjo; Ross, Robert; Allison, David B.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Overvad, Kim; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality is particularly strong and direct when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). One conceivable explanation for this association is that WC adjusted for BMI is a better predictor of the presumably most harmful intra-abdominal fat mass (IAFM) than WC alone. We studied the prediction of abdominal subcutaneous fat mass (ASFM) and IAFM by WC alone and by addition of BMI as an explanatory factor. Methodology/Principal Findings WC, BMI and magnetic resonance imaging data from 742 men and women who participated in clinical studies in Canada and Finland were pooled. Total adjusted squared multiple correlation coefficients (R2) of ASFM and IAFM were calculated from multiple linear regression models with WC and BMI as explanatory variables. Mean BMI and WC of the participants in the pooled sample were 30 kg/m2 and 102 cm, respectively. WC explained 29% of the variance in ASFM and 51% of the variance in IAFM. Addition of BMI to WC added 28% to the variance explained in ASFM, but only 1% to the variance explained in IAFM. Results in subgroups stratified by study center, sex, age, obesity level and type 2 diabetes status were not systematically different. Conclusion/Significance The prediction of IAFM by WC is not improved by addition of BMI. PMID:22384179

  20. The Effect of Ethanol Extract of Rose (Rosa damascena) on Intra-abdominal Adhesions After Laparotomy in Rats.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mehrdad; Yazdan Asadi, Sayyed; Parsaei, Pouya; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Ghaheri, Hafez; Ezzati, Sareh

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal adhesions are pathological connections in peritoneal surfaces that are created after abdominal surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of Rosa damascena extract on adhesions, considering the antioxidant properties of rose. Thirty healthy rats were divided into 3 groups: rats treated by 1% (A) and 5% (B) of R. damascena extract and the con- trol group (C). After administering anesthesia, the abdominal wall was opened and 3 shallow incisions (2 cm) were made on the right wall, and a 2 × 2 piece of peritoneal surface was removed on the left side of the abdominal wall. Then 3 mL of 1% (A) and 5% (B) R. damascena extract was administered into the abdominal cavity. The control group (C) received 3 mL of distilled water. The abdominal cavity was sutured, and a second laparotomy was carried out 14 days later to the created adhesions according to the Canbaz scale, and a histopathologic examination was also performed. All data was analyzed by SPSS volume 16 (Chicago, IL); P less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The amount of adhesion in group A was significantly lower than that of group C, 1.4 ± 1.265 versus 3 ± 0.816, (P = 0.007). The histological investigation also showed significant differences in the se- verity of fibrosis (P = 0.029) and inflammation (P = 0.009) between groups A and C; all rats in group B (5%) were found dead. This study indicated the use of R. damascena at a 1% level resulted in a remarkable decrease of intra-abdominal adhesions after laparotomy in rats. Further studies are necessary on this extract and its derivatives for treatment of such diseases in the human model.

  1. New scoring system for intra-abdominal injury diagnosis after blunt trauma.

    PubMed

    Shojaee, Majid; Faridaalaee, Gholamreza; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Yaseri, Mehdi; Arhami Dolatabadi, Ali; Sabzghabaei, Anita; Malekirastekenari, Ali

    2014-01-01

    An accurate scoring system for intra-abdominal injury (IAI) based on clinical manifestation and examination may decrease unnecessary CT scans, save time, and reduce healthcare cost. This study is designed to provide a new scoring system for a better diagnosis of IAI after blunt trauma. This prospective observational study was performed from April 2011 to October 2012 on patients aged above 18 years and suspected with blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) admitted to the emergency department (ED) of Imam Hussein Hospital and Shohadaye Hafte Tir Hospital. All patients were assessed and treated based on Advanced Trauma Life Support and ED protocol. Diagnosis was done according to CT scan findings, which was considered as the gold standard. Data were gathered based on patient's history, physical exam, ultrasound and CT scan findings by a general practitioner who was not blind to this study. Chi-square test and logistic regression were done. Factors with significant relationship with CT scan were imported in multivariate regression models, where a coefficient (β) was given based on the contribution of each of them. Scoring system was developed based on the obtained total β of each factor. Altogether 261 patients (80.1% male) were enrolled (48 cases of IAI). A 24-point blunt abdominal trauma scoring system (BATSS) was developed. Patients were divided into three groups including low (score<8), moderate (8≤score<12) and high risk (score≥12). In high risk group immediate laparotomy should be done, moderate group needs further assessments, and low risk group should be kept under observation. Low risk patients did not show positive CT-scans (specificity 100%). Conversely, all high risk patients had positive CT-scan findings (sensitivity 100%). The receiver operating characteristic curve indicated a close relationship between the results of CT scan and BATSS (sensitivity=99.3%). The present scoring system furnishes a high precision and reproducible diagnostic tool for BAT

  2. Complicated Genitourinary Tract Infections and Mimics.

    PubMed

    Yu, Michael; Robinson, Kathryn; Siegel, Cary; Menias, Christine

    This article provides pictorial review of complicated upper and lower genitourinary infections and their mimics. Imaging features of upper urinary tract infections including uncomplicated acute pyelonephritis, xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGPN), emphysematous pyelonephritis, perirenal abscess, and pyonephrosis are first reviewed and then followed by pictorial review of their mimics including contrast-associated nephrotoxicity, renal infarcts, malakoplakia, renal cell cancer, leukemia or lymphoma and Castleman's disease. Next, imaging features of lower urinary tract infections including cystitis, emphysematous cystitis, enterovesical, colovesical and vesicovaginal fistulas, Fournier gangrene, prostatitis, epididymitis, and orchitis are reviewed and then followed by pictorial review of their mimics including gas in the bladder and perineum related to instrumentation, radiation cystitis, bladder cancer, testicular torsion, testicular trauma, and testicular cancer and lymphoma. Recognizing imaging characteristics of complicated genitourinary infections and their mimics would allow clinicians to provide appropriate timely management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy after multiple abdominal surgeries--case study].

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Andrzej; Wiecka-Płusa, Monika; Mołas, Justyna

    2009-11-01

    At present the laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) is the most widespread and most frequently executed variation of hysterectomy. It is an effective and safe operating alternative for the traditional way--abdominal hysterectomy. Good cosmetic effects, short post-operative stay at hospital and, first of all, a small risk of intra- and postoperative complications are the major driving factors justifying the choice of this method of surgery. In the following article we describe a case of a 43-year-old woman who underwent many interventions in the peritoneal cavity (abdominal surgery) and was shortlisted for the laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy. The cause of the operation was recurrent bilateral ovary cystis that could not be treated neither conservatively nor surgically, as well as the uterus myoma leading to abnormal uterus bleeding and hypermenorrhoea. Surgery in patients who have previously undergone abdominal operations is always difficult and the risk of complications is high indeed. In this case, while selecting the method of the next surgical procedure, surgeons must not exclude the vaginal and laparoscopic methods, or use them simultaneously. Experiences of other surgeons, as well as the unique case of a treated patient, show that previous abdominal surgical procedures are not a contraindication for either vaginal or laparoscopic procedures, and in some cases they might be safer than yet another laparotomy.

  4. Distribution of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases, AmpC β-Lactamases, and Carbapenemases among Enterobacteriaceae Isolates Causing Intra-Abdominal Infections in the Asia-Pacific Region: Results of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART)

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Wang-Huei; Badal, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing trend of β-lactam resistance among Enterobacteriaceae is a worldwide threat. Enterobacteriaceae isolates causing intra-abdominal infections (IAI) from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) collected in 2008 and 2009 from the Asia-Pacific region were investigated. Detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC β-lactamases, and carbapenemases was performed by multiplex PCR. A total of 699 Enterobacteriaceae isolates with positive genotypic results, included Escherichia coli (n = 443), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 187), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 45), Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 9), Citrobacter freundii (n = 5), Proteus mirabilis (n = 3), Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 2), Morganella morganii (n = 2), and one each of Enterobacter asburiae, Proteus vulgaris, and Providencia rettgeri were analyzed. Nearly 20% of these β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates were from community-associated IAI. CTX-M (588 isolates, including 428 [72.8%] with CTX-M-15) was the most common ESBL, followed by SHV (n = 59) and TEM (n = 4). CMY (n = 110, including 102 [92.7%] with CMY-2) was the most common AmpC β-lactamase, followed by DHA (n = 46) and ACT/MIR (n = 40). NDM (n = 65, including 62 [95.4%] with NDM-1) was the most common carbapenemase, followed by IMP (n = 7) and OXA (n = 7). Isolates from hospital-associated IAI had more complicated β-lactamase combinations than isolates from the community. Carbapenemases were all exclusively detected in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from India, except that IMP β-lactamases were also detected in Philippines and Australia. CTX-M β-lactamases were the predominant ESBLs produced by Enterobacteriaceae causing IAI in the Asia-Pacific region. Emergence of CTX-M-15-, CMY-2-, and NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates is of major concern and highlights the need for further surveillance in this area. PMID:23587958

  5. Enterovesical fistulas complicating Crohn's disease: clinicopathological features and management.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Keighley, M R

    2000-08-01

    Enterovesical fistula is a relatively rare condition in Crohn's disease. This study was undertaken to examine clinicopathological features and management of enterovesical fistula complicating Crohn's disease. Thirty patients with enterovesical fistula complicating Crohn's disease, treated between 1970 and 1997, were reviewed. Urological symptoms were present in 22 patients; pneumaturia in 18, urinary tract infection in 7, and haematuria in 2. In 5 patients clinical symptoms were successfully managed by conservative treatment, and they required no surgical treatment for enterovesical fistula. Twenty-five patients required surgery. All the patients were treated by resection of diseased bowel and pinching off the dome of the bladder. No patients required resection of the bladder. The Foley catheter was left in situ for an average of 2 weeks after operation. Three patients developed early postoperative complications; two bowel anastomotic leaks, and one intra-abdominal abscess. All these complications were associated with sepsis and multiple fistulas at the time of laparotomy. After a median follow-up of 13 years, 3 patients having postoperative sepsis (anastomotic leak or abscess) developed a recurrent fistula from the ileocolonic anastomosis to the bladder, which required further surgery. In the other 22 patients without postoperative complications there has been no fistula recurrence. In conclusion, the majority of patients with enterovesical fistula required surgical treatment: resection of the diseased bowel and oversewing the defect in the bladder. The fistula recurrence was uncommon, but the presence of sepsis and multiple fistulas at the time of laparotomy increased the incidence of postoperative complications and fistula recurrence.

  6. Acute transfusion-related abdominal injury in trauma patients: a case report.

    PubMed

    Michel, P; Wähnert, D; Freistühler, M; Laukoetter, M G; Rehberg, S; Raschke, M J; Garcia, P

    2016-10-19

    Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome is well known as a life-threatening complication in critically ill patients in an intensive care unit. Massive crystalloid fluid resuscitation has been identified as the most important risk factor. The time interval from hospital admittance to the development of manifest abdominal compartment syndrome is usually greater than 24 hours. In the absence of any direct abdominal trauma, we observed a rapidly evolving secondary abdominal compartment syndrome shortly after hospital admittance associated with massive transfusion of blood products and only moderate crystalloid resuscitation. We report the case of an acute secondary abdominal compartment syndrome developing within 3 to 4 hours in a 74-year-old polytraumatized white woman. Although multiple fractures of her extremities and a B-type pelvic ring fracture were diagnosed by a full body computed tomography scan, no intra-abdominal injury could be detected. Hemorrhagic shock with a drop in her hemoglobin level to 5.7 g/dl was treated by massive transfusion of blood products and high doses of catecholamines. Shortly afterwards, her pulmonary gas exchange progressively deteriorated and mechanical ventilation became almost impossible with peak airway pressures of up to 60 cmH 2 O. Her abdomen appeared rigid and tense accompanied by a progressive hemodynamic decompensation necessitating mechanic cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Although preoperative computed tomography scans showed no signs of intra-abdominal fluid, a decompressive laparotomy under cardiopulmonary resuscitation conditions was performed and 2 liters of ascites-like fluid disgorged. Her hemodynamics and pulmonary ventilation improved immediately. This case report describes for the first time acute secondary abdominal compartment syndrome in a trauma patient, evolving in a very short time period. We hypothesize that the massive transfusion of blood products along with high doses of catecholamines triggered the acute

  7. Angiographic embolization in the treatment of intrahepatic arterial bleeding in patients with blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ya-Lin; Zhang, Hong-Yi; He, Xiao-Jun; Zhao, Gang; Liu, Cheng-Li; Xiao, Mei; Zhen, Yu-Ying

    2014-04-01

    Angiographic embolization (AE) as an adjunct non-operative treatment of intrahepatic arterial bleeding has been widely used. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of selective AE in patients with hepatic trauma. Seventy patients with intrahepatic arterial bleeding after blunt abdominal trauma who had undergone selective AE in 10 years at this institution were retrospectively reviewed. The criteria for selective AE included active extravasation on contrast-enhanced CT, an episode of hypotension or a decrease in hemoglobin level during the non-operative treatment. The data of the patients included demographics, grade of liver injuries, mechanism of blunt abdominal trauma, associated intra-abdominal injuries, indications for AE, angiographic findings, type of AE, and AE-related hepatobiliary complications. In the 70 patients, 32 (45.71%) had high-grade liver injuries. Extravazation during the early arterial phase mainly involved the right hepatic segments. Thirteen (18.57%) patients underwent embolization of intrahepatic branches and the extrahepatic trunk and these patients all developed AE-related hepatobiliary complications. In 19 patients with AE-related complications, 14 received minimally invasive treatment and recovered without severe sequelae. AE is an adjunct treatment for liver injuries. Selective and/or super-selective AE should be advocated to decrease the incidence and severity of AE-related hepatobiliary complications.

  8. Extrapulmonary Aspergillus infection in patients with CARD9 deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Gazendam, Roel P.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Hsu, Amy P.; Collar, Amanda L.; Sugui, Janyce A.; Drummond, Rebecca A.; Rongkavilit, Chokechai; Hoffman, Kevin; Henderson, Carolyn; Clark, Lily; Mezger, Markus; Swamydas, Muthulekha; Engeholm, Maik; Schüle, Rebecca; Neumayer, Bettina; Mikelis, Constantinos M.; Pittaluga, Stefania; Prasad, Vinod K.; Singh, Anurag; Milner, Joshua D.; Williams, Kelli W.; Lim, Jean K.; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J.; Holland, Steven M.; Hartl, Dominik; Kuijpers, Taco W.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is a life-threatening mycosis that only affects patients with immunosuppression, chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, transplantation, or congenital immunodeficiency. We studied the clinical, genetic, histological, and immunological features of 2 unrelated patients without known immunodeficiency who developed extrapulmonary invasive aspergillosis at the ages of 8 and 18. One patient died at age 12 with progressive intra-abdominal aspergillosis. The other patient had presented with intra-abdominal candidiasis at age 9, and developed central nervous system aspergillosis at age 18 and intra-abdominal aspergillosis at age 25. Neither patient developed Aspergillus infection of the lungs. One patient had homozygous M1I CARD9 (caspase recruitment domain family member 9) mutation, while the other had homozygous Q295X CARD9 mutation; both patients lacked CARD9 protein expression. The patients had normal monocyte and Th17 cell numbers in peripheral blood, but their mononuclear cells exhibited impaired production of proinflammatory cytokines upon fungus-specific stimulation. Neutrophil phagocytosis, killing, and oxidative burst against Aspergillus fumigatus were intact, but neither patient accumulated neutrophils in infected tissue despite normal neutrophil numbers in peripheral blood. The neutrophil tissue accumulation defect was not caused by defective neutrophil-intrinsic chemotaxis, indicating that production of neutrophil chemoattractants in extrapulmonary tissue is impaired in CARD9 deficiency. Taken together, our results show that CARD9 deficiency is the first known inherited or acquired condition that predisposes to extrapulmonary Aspergillus infection with sparing of the lungs, associated with impaired neutrophil recruitment to the site of infection. PMID:27777981

  9. Gas gangrene of the abdominal wall due to late-onset enteric fistula after polyester mesh repair of an incisional hernia.

    PubMed

    Moussi, A; Daldoul, S; Bourguiba, B; Othmani, D; Zaouche, A

    2012-04-01

    The occurrence of enteric fistulae after wall repair using a prosthetic mesh is a serious but, fortunately, rare complication. We report the case of a 66-year-old diabetic man who presented with gas gangrene of the abdominal wall due to an intra-abdominal abscess caused by intestinal erosion six years after an incisional hernia repair using a polyester mesh. The aim of this case report is to illustrate the seriousness of enteric fistula after parietal repair using a synthetic material.

  10. Removal of an intra-abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor by repetitive debulking surgery: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Jiro; Motohashi, Gyo; Nishida, Kiyotaka; Tabuchi, Takanobu; Ubukata, Hideyuki; Tabuchi, Takafumi

    2014-05-01

    In the current study, a case of recurrent desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is presented, which was successfully treated by repetitive debulking surgery. In May 2010, a 39-year-old male, with a history of surgical resection of intra-abdominal DSRCT, visited the Ibaraki Medical Center, Tokyo Medical University Hospital (Ami, Japan) with severe lower abdominal discomfort. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a large tumor in the pouch of Douglas with a small number of nodules in the abdominal cavity. The recurrent DSRCT was diagnosed and removed via lower anterior resection; however, complete resection was impossible due to multiple peritoneal metastases. One year later, the patient developed pain in the right groin due to the growth of metastasized tumor cells in the groin lymph nodes. The affected lymph nodes were removed utilizing an extra-peritoneal approach. At the time of writing, the patient continues to survive without any symptoms 60 months since the initial surgery. In conclusion, surgical debulking is a significant procedure for relieving patient symptoms as well as improving the survival time of patients with metastatic and recurrent DSRCT.

  11. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF CUMULATIVE WATER BALANCE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY COMPLICATIONS AFTER MAJOR ABDOMINAL SURGERY.

    PubMed

    Musaeva, T S; Karipidi, M K; Zabolotskikh, I B

    2016-11-01

    a comprehensive assessment of the water balance on the basis of daily, cumulative balance and 10% of the body weight gain and their role in the development of early complications after major abdominal surgery. A retrospective study of the perioperative period in 150 patients who underwent major abdomi- nal surgery was performed. The physical condition of the patients corresponded to ASA 3 class. The average age was 46 (38-62) years. The following stages ofresearch: an analysis of daily balance and cumulative balance in complicated and uncomplicated group and their role in the development of complications; the timing of development ofcomplications and possible relationship with fluid overload and the development of complications; changes in the level of albumin within 10 days of the postoperative period. The analysis of complications didn't show significant differences between complicated and uncomplicated groups according to the water balance during the surgery and by the end of the first day. When constructing the area under the ROC curve (A UROC) low resolution ofthe balance in intraoperative period and the first day and the balance on the second day to predict complications was shown. Significant diferences according to the cumulative balance was observed from the third day of the postoperative period Also with the third day of the postoperative period there is a good resolution for prediction ofpostoperative complications according to the cumulative balance with the cut-offpoint > of 50,7 ml/kg. the excessive infusion therapy is a predictor of adverse outcome in patients after major abdominal surgery. Therefore, after 3 days of postoperative period it is important to maintain mechanisms for the excretion of excess fluid or limitations of infusion therapy.

  12. Molecular characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae causing intra-abdominal infections from 9 tertiary hospitals in China.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kang; Chen, Yili; Wang, Menghe; Guo, Penghao; Yang, Qiwen; Ni, Yuxing; Yu, Yunsong; Hu, Bijie; Sun, Ziyong; Huang, Wenxiang; Wang, Yong; Wu, Anhua; Feng, Xianju; Luo, Yanping; Hu, Zhidong; Chu, Yunzhuo; Chen, Shulan; Cao, Bin; Su, Jianrong; Gui, Bingdong; Duan, Qiong; Zhang, Shufang; Shao, Haifeng; Kong, Haishen; Xu, Yingchun

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms such as extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae has raised considerable concern regarding the appropriate treatment of intra-abdominal infections (IAIs). In this study, we investigated the molecular characteristics of ESBL among clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae causing IAIs and their pattern of antimicrobial resistance, which can provide useful information about the epidemiology and risk factors associated with these infections. One hundred sixty-seven E.coli and 47 K. pneumoniae ESBL-producing strains causing IAIs were collected from 9 hospitals in China, during 2012 and 2013. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile of these strains was determined. Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were performed to identify genes for β-lactamase (blaTEM, blaSHV, blaOXA-1-like, and blaCTX-M). The isolates were also analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In 167 ESBL-producing E. coli strains, 104 strains (62.3%) were positive for CTX-M, and 9 strains (5.39%) were positive for SHV. Among the 47 K. pneumoniae strains, 35 strains (74.5%) were positive for SHV-2a, 12 strains (25.5%) were positive for CTX-M. No TEM-type and OXA-1-like strain was detected among all the ESBL-producing strains. Regarding the CTX-M-positive E. coli and K. pneumoniae strains, CTX-M-15 was the most common genotype in E. coli and K. pneumoniae strains, accounting for 28.7% and 17.0%, respectively, followed by CTX-M-55 accounting for 16.2% and 2.13%, respectively; the remaining genotypes included CTX-M-123 and CTX-M-82. PFGE showed that E.coli and K. pneumoniae ESBL-producing strains causing IAIs were diverse and that emerging resistance may not be due to the dissemination of national clones. The present study revealed that in ESBL-producing strains causing IAIs in China, the most common genotype for E.coli was CTX-M-15 and for K. pneumoniae was SHV-2a. However, there was a

  13. [Characterisation of Candida sp. isolated from patients after abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    Adámková, V; Vaňková, A; Ulrych, J; Matek, K

    2017-01-01

    Intraabdominal candidiasis (IAC) is the predominant type of invasive candidiasis after candidemia. The majority of epidemiological studies on Candida are focused only on bloodstream infections. Nevertheless, the role of blood cultures has limited application in patients with abdominal candidiasis. IAC, which includes peritonitis and intraabdominal abscesses, may occur in around 40% of patients following repeat gastrointestinal (GI) surgery or GI perforation. Retrospective analysis of culture isolates of Candida sp. from clinical specimens of patients after abdominal surgery. The study period was from January 1 to October 31, 2016. Our study of 33 patients with findings of Candida sp. from the abdominal cavity found a mortality of 15.2%, the most frequent strain being C. albicans and C. glabrata. All strains of Candida sp. were susceptible to echinocandins. Candida sp. is part of normal microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract and its isolation is often difficult to interpret. Unfortunately, the pathophysiologic importance of Candida isolation from the abdominal space is not completely clear in many clinical situations.Key words: invasive candidiasis intra-abdominal candidiasis laboratory diagnostics.

  14. Differences in microbiological profile between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and hospital-acquired infections.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Teresa; Ribeiro, Orquídea; Aragão, Irene; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro; Sarmento, António

    2013-01-01

    Microbiological profiles were analysed and compared for intra-abdominal, urinary, respiratory and bloodstream infections according to place of acquisition: community-acquired, with a separate analysis of healthcare-associated, and hospital-acquired. Prospective cohort study performed at a university tertiary care hospital over 1 year. Inclusion criteria were meeting the Centers for Disease Control definition of intra-abdominal, urinary, respiratory and bloodstream infections. A total of 1035 patients were included in the study. More than 25% of intra-abdominal infections were polymicrobial; multi-drug resistant gram-negatives were 38% in community-acquired, 50% in healthcare-associated and 57% in hospital-acquired. E. coli was the most prevalent among urinary infections: 69% in community-acquired, 56% in healthcare-associated and 26% in hospital-acquired; ESBL producers' pathogens were 10% in healthcare-associated and 3% in community-acquired and hospital-acquired. In respiratory infections Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most prevalent in community-acquired (54%) and MRSA in healthcare-associated (24%) and hospital-acquired (24%). A significant association was found between MRSA respiratory infection and hospitalization in the previous year (adjusted OR = 6.3), previous instrumentation (adjusted OR = 4.3) and previous antibiotic therapy (adjusted OR = 5.7); no cases were documented among patients without risk factors. Hospital mortality rate was 10% in community-acquired, 14% in healthcare-associated and 19% in hospital-acquired infection. This study shows that healthcare-associated has a different microbiologic profile than those from community or hospital acquired for the four main focus of infection. Knowledge of this fact is important because the existing guidelines for community-acquired are not entirely applicable for this group of patients.

  15. [COMPLICATED URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN THE ELDERLY].

    PubMed

    Ćosić, I; Ćosić, V

    2016-12-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections involving lower (cystitis, prostatitis) or upper (pyelonephritis, renal abscess, perinephric abscess) urinary tract. Differentiation of complicated and uncomplicated UTI is usually based on the presence of structural or functional urinary tract abnormalities, which can increase the risk of treatment failure and development of serious complications. Factors that increase the risk are foreign bodies, stones, obstruction, neurogenic bladder, kidney transplantation, immunosuppression, and pregnancy. Complicated UTI includes a spectrum of conditions that increase the risk of treatment failure, as well as of serious complications such as bacteremia and sepsis, perinephric abscess, renal impairment and emphysematous pyelonephritis. To avoid the potentially devastating outcomes, appropriate diagnostic procedures, antibiotic and surgical treatment, and appropriate follow-up are required. The incidence of complicated UTI will grow in the future due to general aging of the population, increasing incidence of diabetes, and ever growing number of immunocompromised and immunosuppressed patients. It is of key importance to recognize complicated UTI on time, and treat it wisely and aggressively to reduce duration of the disease and the risk of antibiotic resistance.

  16. Portal vein thrombosis as a rare cause of abdominal pain: When to consider?

    PubMed Central

    Tavusbay, Cengiz; Kamer, Erdinç; Acar, Turan; Kokulu, İbrahim; Kar, Haldun; Gür, Özlem

    2017-01-01

    Extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a rare condition that is characterized by the presence of thrombus within any segment of the portal vein, including the right and left intrahepatic branches. It may also extend to the splenic or superior mesenteric veins. Portal vein thrombosis may be related to cirrhosis or liver malignancy as well as to local inflammatory conditions in the abdomen and genetic or acquired thrombophilic diseases. Currently, PVT is being increasingly diagnosed due to advances in modern imaging techniques. The clinical presentation has a wide range, from an asymptomatic lesion to a potentially life-threatening situation. In this study, we present three patients with PVT. The diagnosis was made by radiologic and clinical findings. In the first patient, genetic testing revealed factor V Leiden mutation as the cause of PVT. The second patient was diagnosed with lupus anticoagulant syndrome as the cause of PVT. Portal vein thrombosis was associated with intra abdominal infection due to anastomotic leakage in the third patient. Two patients were successfully treated with anticoagulant therapy. This report emphasizes that even though PVT is a rare cause of abdominal pain, timely diagnosis and appropriate management is vital due to its lethal complications such as mesenteric ischemia and mesenteric infarct. PMID:28740966

  17. Abdominal strength in voiding cystometry: a risk factor for recurrent urinary tract infections in women.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Jesus; Virseda, Miguel; Méndez, Santiago; Menéndez, Pablo; Esteban, Manuel; Moreno, Jesus

    2015-12-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections are a common condition in women. The aim of this study is the evaluation of lower urinary tract dysfunctions that are risk factors for recurrent urinary tract infections in women. We conducted a case-control study in 49 women with recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTIs) and 49 control women without rUTIs, comparing the urinary symptoms and urodynamic data of both groups. The main significant differences between these groups were age (the women were older in the control group) and the value of abdominal pressure during voiding cystometry (this was higher in the group with rUTIs). After controlling age as a confounding factor, it was confirmed that the value of maximum abdominal pressure during voiding was the only factor to facilitate the rUTIs and the ideal cut-off was 28 cm H(2)O. Abdominal strength in the voiding phase constitutes a risk factor for recurrent urinary tract infections in women.

  18. Interventional management of gastroduodenal lesions complicating intra-arterial hepatic chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Stefania; De Baere, Thierry; Bessoud, Bertrand; Doenz, Francesco; Qanadli, Salah Dine; Schnyder, Pierre; Denys, Alban

    2007-08-01

    Herein we report the efficacy of embolization of small patent gastric or duodenal vessels for treating gastroduodenal complications after hepatic arterial infusion therapy (HAIC). Catheter ports were implanted percutaneously from a femoral approach in three cases or surgically in the gastroduodenal artery in two cases. Acute abdominal pain developed on average after four HAIC courses of 5FU-oxaliplatin, mytomycin, oxaliplatin or fotemustine. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed gastroduodenal lesions (gastroduodenitis with or without ulcerations) in all cases. Despite the interruption of the HAIC, symptoms persisted and led to selective hepatic arteriography showing a patent right gastric artery (n = 4) or a recanalized gastroduodenal artery (n = 1) responsible for gastroduodenal misperfusion. Successful embolizations of the arteries responsible for gastroduodenal misperfusion (right gastric artery in four cases and gastroduodenal artery in one case) using 0.018 platinium coils relieved the patients' symptoms and allowed the HAIC to continue. In gastroduodenal complications of HAIC, a selective hepatic arteriography should be performed to search any artery responsible for the misperfusion of the toxic agent in the gastroduodenal area. Embolization of these arteries allowed the HAIC to be restored.

  19. Incidence and significance of intraperitoneal anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Stone, H H; Kolb, L D; Geheber, C E

    1975-01-01

    To amplify recent interest in anaerobic infections following abdominal disease, trauma, or surgery, 512 consecutive patients subjected to emergency celiotomy had both aerobic and anaerobic cultures taken of peritoneal fluid as well as all complicating wound and intra-abdominal infections. Average time between peritoneal entry of abscess drainage and specimen incubating under anaerobic conditions was less than two minutes. During 4 of the seven study months, patients had antibiotic therapy randomized, with clindaymcin or cephalothin being sole parenteral agents and given intravenously prior to operation and for 5 days thereafter. Results demonstrated that anaerobes uniformly contaminate the peritoneal cavity whenever distal or obstructed intestine has been perforated, irrespective of the cause. Although all but one of the 123 complicating wound and intra-abdominal infections were due solely or at least in part to aerobic pathogens, 2/3 of such infections also contained one or more different anaerobic species acting in synergism with the aerobes. No significant difference in incidence of postoperative infection or in infecting bacteria could be found with respect to antibiotic administered or etiology of perforation. Indeed, duration of bacterial exposure to atmospheric oxygen was the most critical factor influencing culture recoverability of anaerobic organisms, likelihood of ensuing wound or peritoneal sepsis participated in by an anaerobe, and success in control of established infections harboring anaerobes. PMID:1130885

  20. Use of negative pressure wound therapy in the management of infected abdominal wounds containing mesh: an analysis of outcomes.

    PubMed

    Baharestani, Mona Mylene; Gabriel, Allen

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical outcomes of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) using reticulated open-cell foam (ROCF) in the adjunctive management of abdominal wounds with exposed and known infected synthetic mesh. A non randomised, retrospective review of medical records for 21 consecutive patients with infected abdominal wounds treated with NPWT was conducted. All abdominal wounds contained exposed synthetic mesh [composite, polypropylene (PP), or knitted polyglactin 910 (PG) mesh]. Demographic and bacteriological data, wound history, pre-NPWT and comparative post-NPWT, operative procedures and complications, hospital length of stay (LOS) and wound healing outcomes were all analysed. Primary endpoints measured were (1) hospital LOS prior to initiation of NPWT, (2) total time on NPWT, (3) hospital LOS from NPWT initiation to discharge and (4) wound closure status at discharge. A total of 21 patients with abdominal wounds with exposed, infected mesh were treated with NPWT. Aetiology of the wounds was ventral hernia repair (n = 11) and acute abdominal wall defect (n = 10). Prior to NPWT initiation, the mean hospital LOS for the composite, PP and PG meshes were 76 days (range: 21-171 days), 51 days (range: 32-62 days) and 19 days (range: 12-39 days), respectively. The mean hospital LOS following initiation of NPWT for wounds with exposed composite, PP and PG mesh were 28, 31 and 32 days, respectively. Eighteen of the 21 wounds (86%) reached full closure after a mean time of 26 days of NPWT and a mean hospital LOS of 30 days postinitiation of NPWT. Three wounds, all with composite mesh left in situ, did not reach full closure, although all exhibited decreased wound dimensions, granulating beds and decreased surface area exposure of mesh. During NPWT/ROCF, one hypoalbuminemic patient with exposed PP mesh developed an enterocutaneous fistula over a prior enterotomy site. This patient subsequently underwent total mesh extraction, takedown of

  1. Outcome of patients with hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis undergoing simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation. Comparative study.

    PubMed

    Marcacuzco, Alberto; Jiménez-Romero, Carlos; Manrique, Alejandro; Calvo, Jorge; Cambra, Félix; Caso, Óscar; García-Sesma, Álvaro; Nutu, Anisa; Justo, Iago

    2018-06-01

    Controversy remains with regard to the higher risk of intra-abdominal infections and lower patient and graft survival when peritoneal dialysis (PD) rather than hemodialysis (HD) is used in simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPKT). From March 1995 to December 2015, we performed 165 SPKTs. Prior to transplant, patients received hemodialysis (group HD; n = 98) or peritoneal dialysis (group PD; n = 67). A comparison was made to analyze post-transplant complications and patient, pancreas, and kidney graft survivals. Donor, pretransplant, and perioperative recipient variables were similar in both groups. Overall rates of infections (69.4% in HD vs 73.1% in PD; P = .50) and intra-abdominal infections (31.6% in HD vs 35.8 in PD; P = .57) were similar in both groups. The rates of pancreatitis, hemorrhage or thrombosis of the graft, duodenal graft leak, relaparotomy, transplantectomy, pancreas rejection, and retransplantation were similar in both groups. Patient survival at 1, 3, and 5 years (95.9%, 93.9%, and 93.9% in HD vs 95.5%, 92.2%, and 90.4% in PD; P = .54) and pancreas graft survival (83.6%, 78.0%, and 71.8% in HD vs 79.2%, 77.4%, and 71.0% in PD; P = .8) were similar in both groups. Kidney graft survival was similar in both groups. Pancreas graft thrombosis, rejection, and relaparotomy for intra-abdominal complications were independent predictors of lower pancreas graft survival, but dialysis modality did not influence patient or graft survival. Pre-SPKT modality of dialysis does not significantly influence overall or intra-abdominal infection and patient, pancreas, or kidney graft survivals. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Clinical and scientific importance of source control in abdominal infections: summary of a symposium

    PubMed Central

    Bohnen, John M.A.; Marshall, John C.; Fry, Donald E.; Johnson, Steven B.; Solomkin, Joseph S.

    1999-01-01

    In May 1997, a panel of surgeon-investigators met to discuss the clinical importance and research implications of controlling the source of abdominal infections. It was concluded that source control is critical to therapeutic success and that antimicrobial therapy and other adjunctive interventions will fail if the source of infection is not controlled by resection, exteriorization or other means. The panelists presented different definitions of source control, depending on the scientific purpose of the definition. All participants agreed that failure to consider the adequacy of source control of infection has limited the value of most clinical trials of therapeutic anti-infective agents. Besides recognizing source control as an essential goal of patient care, the panelists emphasized the need for further investigative work to define, record and stratify the adequacy of source control in clinical trials of therapeutic agents for abdominal infections. PMID:10223073

  3. Fluid therapy and perfusional considerations during resuscitation in critically ill patients with intra-abdominal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Regli, Adrian; De Keulenaer, Bart; De Laet, Inneke; Roberts, Derek; Dabrowski, Wojciech; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2015-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are consistently associated with morbidity and mortality among the critically ill or injured. Thus, avoiding or potentially treating these conditions may improve patient outcomes. With the aim of improving the outcomes for patients with IAH/ACS, the World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome recently updated its clinical practice guidelines. In this article, we review the association between a positive fluid balance and outcomes among patients with IAH/ACS and how optimisation of fluid administration and systemic/regional perfusion may potentially lead to improved outcomes among this patient population.Evidence consistently associates secondary IAH with a positive fluid balance. However, despite increased research in the area of non-surgical management of patients with IAH and ACS, evidence supporting this approach is limited. Some evidence exists to support implementing goal-directed resuscitation protocols and restrictive fluid therapy protocols in shocked and recovering critically ill patients with IAH. Data from animal experiments and clinical trials has shown that the early use of vasopressors and inotropic agents is likely to be safe and may help reduce excessive fluid administration, especially in patients with IAH. Studies using furosemide and/or renal replacement therapy to achieve a negative fluid balance in patients with IAH are encouraging. The type of fluid to be administered in patients with IAH remains far from resolved. There is currently insufficient evidence to recommend the use of abdominal perfusion pressure as a resuscitation endpoint in patients with IAH. However, it is important to recognise that IAH either abolishes or increases threshold values for pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation to predict fluid responsiveness, while the presence of IAH may also result in a false negative passive leg raising test.Correct fluid therapy and perfusional

  4. Nutritional status and its impact on time and relocation in postoperative complications of abdominal patients undergoing surgery.

    PubMed

    Leide da Silva Nunes, Francisca; Calado Ferreira Pinheiro Gadelha, Patricia; Damasceno de Souza Costa, Milena; Carolina Ribeiro de Amorim, Ana Carolina; Bezerra da Silva, Maria da Guia

    2014-09-01

    The nutritional state is the independent factor that most influences the post-operational results in elective surgeries. to evaluate the influence of the nutritional state on the hospitalization period and on the post-operative complications of patients submitted to abdominal surgery. prospective study with 99 surgical patients over 18 years of age, submitted to abdominal surgeries in the period from April to October of 2013, in the Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor Fernando Figueira (IMIP). All patients were submitted to anthropometric nutritional evaluations through the body mass Index (BMI), arm circumference (AC) and triceps skinfold thickness (TEST). The biochemical evaluation was carried out from the leukogram and serum albumin results. The identification of candidate patients to nutritional therapy (NT) was carried out through the nutritional risk (NR) evaluation by using the BMI, loss of weight and hypoalbuminemia. The information about post-operational complications, hospitalization period and clinical diagnosis was collected from the medical records. Program SPSS version 13.0 and significance level of 5% were used for the statistical analysis. The malnutrition diagnosed by the AC showed significant positive association with the presence of post-operative complications (p=0.02) and with hospitalization period (p=0.02). The presence of NR was greater when evaluated by hypoalbuminemia (28.9%), however, only 4% of the sample carried out the NT in the pre-operational period. The hospitalization period was greater for patients with malignant neoplasia (p<0.01). The malnutrition diagnosis of patients submitted to abdominal surgeries is associated to greater risk of post-operational complications and longer hospitalization permanence. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship between intra-abdominal pressure and vaginal wall movements during Valsalva in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse: technique development and early observations.

    PubMed

    Spahlinger, D M; Newcomb, L; Ashton-Miller, J A; DeLancey, J O L; Chen, Luyun

    2014-07-01

    To develop and test a method for measuring the relationship between the rise in intra-abdominal pressure and sagittal plane movements of the anterior and posterior vaginal walls during Valsalva in a pilot sample of women with and without prolapse. Mid-sagittal MRI images were obtained during Valsalva while changes in intra-abdominal pressure were measured via a bladder catheter in 5 women with cystocele, 5 women with rectocele, and 5 controls. The regional compliance of the anterior and posterior vagina wall support systems were estimated from the ratio of displacement (mm) of equidistant points along the anterior and posterior vaginal walls to intra-abdominal pressure rise (mmHg). The compliance of both anterior and posterior vaginal wall support systems varied along different regions of vaginal wall for all three groups, with the highest compliance found near the vaginal apex and the lowest near the introitus. Women with cystocele had more compliant anterior and posterior vaginal wall support systems than women with rectocele. The movement direction differs between cystocele and rectocele. In cystocele, the anterior vaginal wall moves mostly toward the vaginal orifice in the upper vagina, but in a ventral direction in the lower vagina. In rectocele, the direction of the posterior vaginal wall movement is generally toward the vaginal orifice. Movement of the vaginal wall and compliance of its support is quantifiable and was found to vary along the length of the vagina. Compliance was greatest in the upper vagina of all groups. Women with cystocele demonstrated the most compliant vaginal wall support.

  6. Simultaneous repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm and resection of unexpected, associated abdominal malignancies.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Giulio; Calio', Francesco G; D'Urso, Antonio; Lorusso, Riccardo; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Vietri, Francesco

    2004-12-15

    The management of unexpected intra-abdominal malignancy, discovered at laparotomy for elective treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), is controversial. It is still unclear whether both conditions should be treated simultaneously or a staged approach is to be preferred. To contribute in improving treatment guidelines, we retrospectively reviewed the records of patients undergoing laparotomy for elective AAA repair. From January 1994 to March 2003, 253 patients underwent elective, trans-peritoneal repair of an AAA. In four patients (1.6%), an associated, unexpected neoplasm was detected at abdominal exploration, consisting of one renal, one gastric, one ileal carcinoid, and one ascending colon tumor. All of them were treated at the same operation, after aortic repair and careful isolation of the prosthetic graft. The whole series' operative mortality was 3.6%. None of the patients simultaneously treated for AAA and tumor resection died in the postoperative period. No graft-related infections were observed. Simultaneous treatment of AAA and tumor did not prolong significantly the mean length of stay in the hospital, compared to standard treatment of AAA alone. Except for malignancies of organs requiring major surgical resections, simultaneous AAA repair and resection of an associated, unexpected abdominal neoplasm can be safely performed, in most of the patients, sparing the need for a second procedure. Endovascular grafting of the AAA can be a valuable tool in simplifying simultaneous treatment, or in staging the procedures with a very short delay.

  7. [Experience with Clotteau-Prémont's technique in abdominal wall hernias. Preliminary report].

    PubMed

    Soto-Dávalos, Baltazar Alberto; Del Pozzo-Magaña, José Antonio; Luna-Martínez, Javier

    2006-01-01

    Incisional hernias account for at least a third of abdominal wall hernias. There are different techniques of repair that include the use of prosthetic materials, which has lowered the hernia recurrence rate. Nonetheless, its use in case of rejection or infection requires other techniques with local tissue. The use of prosthetic material in a contaminated environment is contraindicated because the risk of infection and recurrence rate is unacceptably high. In order to compare two repair techniques for abdominal wall hernias in terms of complications and recurrence to be used as an alternative for hernia repair in patients with abdominal wall hernias, we conducted, between January 2000 and January 2004, an observational, longitudinal, retrospective, non-randomized matched control case study in patients with abdominal wall hernia. A total of 30 patients were studied and were divided into two groups of 15 patients each. Subjects were matched for sex, age and hernia type (group A, mesh treated and group B, Clotteau-Prémont treated) who had at least a 5-month postoperative follow-up. Complication and recurrence rate was assessed and compared. There were no differences between the two groups in complications or recurrence (p <0.05). The average follow-up time was 18.9 +/- 8 months for group A and 15 +/- 7.9 months for group B. Clotteau-Prémont's technique is a safe and feasible alternative procedure with indications in selected patients.

  8. Abdominal binders may reduce pain and improve physical function after major abdominal surgery - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Josephine Philip; Gunnarsson, Ulf; Bisgaard, Thue

    2014-11-01

    Evidence for the effect of post-operative abdominal binders on post-operative pain, seroma formation, physical function, pulmonary function and increased intra-abdominal pressure among patients after surgery remains largely un-investigated. A systematic review was conducted. The PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched for studies on the use of abdominal binders after abdominal surgery or abdominoplasty. All types of clinical studies were included. Two independent assessors evaluated the scientific quality of the studies. The primary outcomes were pain, seroma formation and physical function. A total of 50 publications were identified; 42 publications were excluded leaving eight publications counting a total of 578 patients for analysis. Generally, the scientific quality of the studies was poor. Use of abdominal binder revealed a non-significant tendency to reduce seroma formation after laparoscopic ventral herniotomy and a non-significant reduction in pain. Physical function was improved, whereas evidence supports a beneficial effect on psychological distress after open abdominal surgery. Evidence also supports that intra-abdominal pressure increases with the use of abdominal binders. Reduction of pulmonary function during use of abdominal binders has not been revealed. Abdominal binders reduce post-operative psychological distress, but their effect on post-operative pain after laparotomy and seroma formation after ventral hernia repair remains unclear. Due to the sparse evidence and poor quality of the literature, solid conclusions may be difficult to make, and procedure-specific, high-quality randomised clinical trials are warranted.

  9. Sleeve gastrectomy severe complications: is it always a reasonable surgical option?

    PubMed

    Moszkowicz, David; Arienzo, Roberto; Khettab, Idir; Rahmi, Gabriel; Zinzindohoué, Franck; Berger, Anne; Chevallier, Jean-Marc

    2013-05-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is widely adopted but exposes serious complications. A retrospective database analysis was done to study LSG staple line complications in a tertiary referral university center with surgical ICU experienced in treatment of morbid obesity and complications. Twenty-two consecutive patients were referred between January 2004 and February 2012 with postoperative gastric leak or stenosis after LSG. Interventions consisted in the control of intra-abdominal and general sepsis; restoration of staple line continuity or revision of LSG; nutritional support; treatment of associated complications. Main outcome measures concerned success rates of therapeutic strategies, morbidity and mortality rates, LOS, and time to cure. Thirteen patients (59 %) were referred after failure of reoperation (seven fistula repairs were attempted). Three patients received emergency surgery in our center with transorificial intubation and jejunostomy formation. An endoscopic stent was tried in nine patients but failed in 84.6 % of cases within 20 days (1-161). Seven patients (32 %) necessitated total gastrectomy within 217 days (0-1,915 days) for conservative treatment failure. Procedures under general anesthesia were required in 41 % of cases, organ failure was found in 55 % of cases, and central venous device infection in 40 %. Mortality rate was 4.5 % (n = 1). Patients with unfavorable evolution of LSG complications (death or additional gastrectomy) had more previous bariatric procedure (82 % vs. 18 %, p = 0.003). Median time to cure was 310 days (9-546 days). LSG exposes severe complications occurring in patients with benign condition. Endoscopic stents entail high failure rate. Total gastrectomy is required in one third of the cases.

  10. Treatment for incarcerated indirect hernia with "Cross-Internal Ring" inguinal oblique incision in children.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xue-Qiang; Yang, Jun; Zheng, Nan-Nan; Kuang, Hou-Fang; Duan, Xu-Fei; Bian, Hong-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the utility of the "Cross-Internal Ring" inguinal oblique incision for the surgical treatment of incarcerated indirect hernia (IIH) complicated with severe abdominal distension. Patients of IIH complicated with severe abdominal distension were reviewed retrospectively. All patients received operation through the "Cross-Internal Ring" inguinal oblique incision. There were totally 13 patients were included, male to female ratio was 9-4. The time for patients to resume oral feeding varying from 2 to 5 days after operation, no complications include delayed intestinal perforation, intra-abdominal abscess, and incision infection happened. Average postoperative hospital stay was 5.2 days. All cases were followed up for 6-18 months. No recurrence or iatrogenic cryptorchidism happened. "Cross-Internal Ring" inguinal oblique incision is a simple, safe, and reliable surgical method to treat pediatric IIH complicated with severe abdominal distension.

  11. Internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm with life-threatening epistaxis as a complication of deep neck space infection.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Paulo Sérgio Lucas; Waisberg, Daniel Reis

    2011-05-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of the cervical internal carotid artery is a very rare, potentially fatal complication of a neck space infection in children associated with high mortality and morbidity. A 3-year-old boy presented with spontaneous massive epistaxis 45 days after a deep neck space infection caused by a peritonsillar abscess. During nasopharyngeal packing, he evolved with cardiac arrest. Intra-arterial angiography was then performed that revealed a large pseudoaneurysm. Endovascular treatment using detachable balloons achieved complete exclusion of the pseudoaneurysm. The child made an uneventful recovery and was discharged with mild left hemiparesis and no deficit of sensory or cognitive functions. Pseudoaneurysms of the internal carotid artery after a deep neck space infection can be associated with delayed and potentially fatal massive epistaxis. Furthermore, a regional (ie, extranasal) blood vessel should be promptly investigated when there are signs of hypovolemic shock. A high level of suspicion and definitive treatment are essential for successful management of these patients.

  12. Relationship between ventral hernia defect area and intra-abdominal pressure: dynamic in vivo measurement.

    PubMed

    Qandeel, Haitham; O'Dwyer, Patrick J

    2016-04-01

    It is an acceptable concept that the ventral hernia defect area will increase with a rise in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). The literature lacks the evidence about how much this increase is in vivo. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the change in the ventral hernia defect area with increasing intra-abdominal pressure. In a prospective study of laparoscopic ventral hernia repair, the area of hernia defect was measured from inside the abdomen using a sterile paper ruler. The horizontal (width) and vertical (length) measurements of the defect were taken at two pressure points: (IAP = 8 mmHg) and (IAP = 15 mmHg). The hernia defect area was calculated as an oval shape using a standard formula. Eighteen consecutive patients with a ventral hernia were included in this study (8 males: 10 females). Median age was 60 years (30-81), body mass index (BMI) was 29.9 (22.6-37.6). Changing the IAP significantly, (P < 0.001) changed the values of horizontal and vertical measurements, and the calculated area of the ventral hernia defect. The median calculated defect area, as an oval shape, was 5.6 cm(2) (Q1-Q3 = 3.5-15.5) and 6.9 cm(2) (Q1-Q3 = 4.5-18.7) at 8 and 15 mmHg IAP, respectively. The calculated area of mesh required to cover the defect with a 5 cm overlap increased by a median of 5% (Q1-Q3 = 3-6%). The change in defect area did not differ significantly between obese and non-obese patients (P = 0.5). Dynamic, rather than static, measurements of ventral hernia area during laparoscopy provide a simple way of in vivo objective measurement that helps the surgeon choose the appropriate area of mesh. When choosing mesh area, we support the trend toward a larger overlap of at least 5 cm if less precise methods of measuring defect area are been used.

  13. Neurologic Complications in Infective Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Nicholas A.; Matiello, Marcelo; Samuels, Martin A.

    2014-01-01

    Neurologic complications of infective endocarditis (IE) are common and frequently life threatening. Neurologic events are not always obvious. The prediction and management of neurologic complications of IE are not easily approached algorithmically, and the impact they have on timing and ability to surgically repair or replace the affected valve often requires a painstaking evaluation and joint effort across multiple medical disciplines in order to achieve the best possible outcome. Although specific recommendations are always tailored to the individual patient, there are some guiding principles that can be used to help direct the decision-making process. Herein, we review the pathophysiology, epidemiology, manifestations, and diagnosis of neurological complications of IE and further consider the impact they have on clinical decision making. PMID:25360207

  14. Significant factors associated with fatal outcome in emergency open surgery for perforated peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Testini, Mario; Portincasa, Piero; Piccinni, Giuseppe; Lissidini, Germana; Pellegrini, Fabio; Greco, Luigi

    2003-10-01

    To evaluate the main factors associated with mortality in patients undergoing surgery for perforated peptic ulcer referred to an academic department of general surgery in a large southern Italian city. One hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients (M:F ratio=110:39, mean age 52 yrs, range 16-95) with peptic ulcer disease were investigated for clinical history (including age, sex, previous history of peptic ulcer, associated diseases, delayed abdominal surgery, ulcer site, operation type, shock on admission, postoperative general complications, and intra-abdominal and/or wound infections), serum analyses and radiological findings. The overall mortality rate was 4.0%. Among all factors, an age above 65 years, one or more associated diseases, delayed abdominal surgery, shock on admission, postoperative abdominal complications and/or wound infections, were significantly associated (chi2) with increased mortality in patients undergoing surgery (0.0001abdominal and wound infections are significantly associated with fatal outcomes and need careful evaluation within the general workup of patients admitted for perforated peptic ulcer.

  15. Agreement between pre-operative and intra-operative bacteriological samples in 85 chronic peri-prosthetic infections.

    PubMed

    Matter-Parrat, V; Ronde-Oustau, C; Boéri, C; Gaudias, J; Jenny, J-Y

    2017-04-01

    Whether pre-operative microbiological sampling contributes to the management of chronic peri-prosthetic infection remains controversial. We assessed agreement between the results of pre-operative and intra-operative samples in patients undergoing single-stage prosthesis exchange to treat chronic peri-prosthetic infection. Agreement between pre-operative and intra-operative samples exceeds 75% in patients undergoing single-stage exchange of a hip or knee prosthesis to treat chronic peri-prosthetic infection. This single-centre retrospective study included 85 single-stage prosthesis exchange procedures in 82 patients with chronic peri-prosthetic infection at the hip or knee. Agreement between pre-operative and intra-operative sample results was evaluated. Changes to the initial antibiotic regimen made based on the intra-operative sample results were recorded. Of 149 pre-operative samples, 109 yielded positive cultures, in 75/85 cases. Of 452 intra-operative samples, 354 yielded positive cultures, in 85/85 cases. Agreement was complete in 54 (63%) cases and partial in 9 (11%) cases; there was no agreement in the remaining 22 (26%) cases. The complete agreement rate was significantly lower than 75% (P=0.01). The initial antibiotic regimen was inadequate in a single case. Pre-operative sampling may contribute to the diagnosis of peri-prosthetic infection but is neither necessary nor sufficient to confirm the diagnosis and identify the causative agent. The spectrum of the initial antibiotic regimen cannot be safely narrowed based on the pre-operative sample results. We suggest the routine prescription of a probabilistic broad-spectrum antibiotic regimen immediately after the prosthesis exchange, even when a pathogen was identified before surgery. IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Association between quality of care and complications after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Simon; Deban, Melina; Martelli, Vanessa; Monette, Michèle; Sourial, Nadia; Hamadani, Fadi; Teasdale, Debby; Holcroft, Christina; Zakrzewski, Helena; Fraser, Shannon

    2014-09-01

    Measuring the quality of surgical care is essential to identifying areas of weakness in the delivery of effective surgical care and to improving patient outcomes. Our objectives were to (1) assess the quality of surgical care delivered to adult patients; and (2) determine the association between quality of surgical care and postoperative complications. This retrospective, pilot, cohort study was conducted at a single university-affiliated institution. Using the institution's National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database (2009-2010), 273 consecutive patients ≥18 years of age who underwent elective major abdominal operations were selected. Adherence to 10 process-based quality indicators (QIs) was measured and quantified by calculating a patient quality score (no. of QIs passed/no. of QIs eligible). A pass rate for each individual QI was also calculated. The association between quality of surgical care and postoperative complications was assessed using an incidence rate ratio, which was estimated from a Poisson regression. The mean overall patient quality score was 67.2 ± 14.4% (range, 25-100%). The mean QI pass rate was 65.9 ± 26.1%, which varied widely from 9.6% (oral intake documentation) to 95.6% (prophylactic antibiotics). Poisson regression revealed that as the quality score increased, the incidence of postoperative complications decreased (incidence rate ratio, 0.19; P = .011). A sensitivity analysis revealed that this association was likely driven by the postoperative ambulation QI. Higher quality scores, mainly driven by early ambulation, were associated with fewer postoperative complications. QIs with unacceptably low adherence were identified as targets for future quality improvement initiatives. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Clinical evaluation and problem of intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy of liver metastasis from digestive organ cancer].

    PubMed

    Ohya, T; Fukunaga, J; Kitahama, H; Okuyama, A; Seki, T; Tsurui, K; Saka, M; Sasagawa, M; Hishinuma, S; Kotake, K

    1990-08-01

    Intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy using an implantable reservoir was used for 22 patients with liver metastasis from September 1986 to March 1990. The material consisted of 8 subjects with gastric cancer and 14 with colorectal cancer. One had metastasis in one lobe (H1), 10 had a few scattered metastases in both lobes (H2) and 11 had numerous metastases in both lobes (H3). In 5 cases, a reservoir was implanted to prevent the recurrence after hepatectomy. Infusion catheter was placed in the proper hepatic artery in 5 cases via the gastroduodenal artery at laparotomy and it was carried out subcutaneously via the femoral artery in 17 cases. In all cases intra-arterial infusion of 5-FU was continuously administered followed by intermittent one shot injection of ADM. The clinical effectiveness of the therapy was well evaluated. One-year cumulative survival rate of all cases by Kaplan-Meier method was 55% and that of H2 cases was 78%. No recurrence was noted in post hepatectomy cases. Eight cases (36.3%) showed remarkable complications, which made it impossible to continue intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy: hepatic artery occlusion (3 cases), infection (2 cases), abdominal pain (1 case), hematoma in the implanted site (1 case) and dislocation of the infusion catheter (1 case). From the present study, it is considered that intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy is a useful procedure for the control of liver metastasis. Regimens for improved chemotherapy and the maintenance of more useful and safer catheters should therefore be investigated for further development of the therapeutical estimation.

  18. The prevalence of pulmonary complications after thoracic and abdominal surgery and associated risk factors in patients admitted at a government hospital in Harare, Zimbabwe-a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Tadyanemhandu, Cathrine; Mukombachoto, Rufaro; Nhunzvi, Clement; Kaseke, Farayi; Chikwasha, Vasco; Chengetanai, Samson; Manie, Shamila

    2017-01-01

    The burden of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa has presented unusual and challenging acute surgical problems across all specialties. Thoraco-abdominal surgery cuts through muscle and thereby disrupts the normal anatomy and activity of the respiratory muscles leading to reduced lung volumes and putting the patients at greater risk of developing post-operative pulmonary complications (PPCs). PPCs remain an important cause of post-operative morbidity, mortality, and impacts on the long-term outcomes of patients post hospital discharge. The objective of the study was to determine the pulmonary complications developing after abdominal and thoracic surgery and the associated risks factors. A retrospective records review of all abdominal and thoracic surgery patients admitted at a central hospital from January 2014 to October 2014 was done. Data collected included demographic data, surgical history, comorbidities and the PPCs present. Out of the 92 patients whose records were reviewed, 55 (59.8%) were males and 84 (91.3%) had abdominal surgery. The mean age of the patients was 42.6 years (SD = 18.4). The common comorbidities were HIV infection noted in 14(15.2%) of the patients and hypertension in 10 (13.0%). Thirty nine (42.4%) developed PPCs and the most common complications were nosocomial pneumonia in 21 (22.8%) patients, ventilator associated pneumonia in 11 (12.0%), and atelectasis in 6 (6.5%) patients. Logistic regression showed that a history of alcohol consumption, prolonged surgery, prolonged stay in hospital or critical care unit, incision type, and comorbidities were significant risk factors for PPCs ( p  < 0.05). The mortality rate was 10.9%. PPCs like nosocomial and ventilator associated pneumonia were common and were associated with increased morbidity and adversely affected clinical outcomes of patients. HIV and hypertension presented significant comorbidities which the health team needed to recognize and address. Strategies to reduce the occurrence of

  19. A case of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever complicated with acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Bastug, Aliye; Kayaaslan, Bircan; But, Ayse; Aslaner, Halide; Sertcelik, Ahmet; Akinci, Esragul; Onguru, Pinar; Yetkin, Meltem Arzu; Bodur, Hurrem

    2014-11-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease characterized by nonspecific symptoms like fever, myalgia, severe headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. It can result in various complications during the course of the disease due to the diffuse endothelial injury involved in the pathogenesis of CCHF. Here we present a patient with CCHF complicated by acute pancreatitis, including pleural and intra-abdominal effusions. A 70-year-old patient was referred to our hospital from an endemic area with the suspicion of CCHF. The physical examination of the patient revealed high fever (38°C), somnolence, and petechial eruption. The diagnosis of case was confirmed with positive reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The viral load of the patient was 4×10(9) copies/mL. On the fifth day of admission, upper abdominal pain, scleral ichter, and abdominal distention developed. The patient had abdominal tenderness with guarding. The laboratory tests revealed an amylase level of 1740 U/L (28-100), lipase level of 583 U/L (13-60), and total bilirubin level of 3.75 mg/dL (<0.3). The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was confirmed with radiological findings. Until now, atypical presentations of CCHF have been reported in some case reports, but not acute pancreatitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of acute pancreatitis in the literature seen in the course of CCHF.

  20. The surgical Apgar score is strongly associated with ICU admission after high-risk intra-abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sobol, Julia B.; Gershengorn, ayley B.; Wunsch, Hannah; Li, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding intensive care unit (ICU) triage decisions for high-risk surgical patients may ultimately facilitate resource allocation and improve outcomes. The surgical Apgar score (SAS) is a simple score that uses intraoperative information on hemodynamics and blood loss to predict postoperative morbidity and mortality, with lower scores associated with worse outcomes. We hypothesized that the SAS would be associated with the decision to admit a patient to the ICU postoperatively. Methods Retrospective cohort study of adults undergoing major intra-abdominal surgery from 2003 to 2010 at an academic medical center. We calculated the SAS (0 – 10) for each patient based on intraoperative heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and estimated blood loss. Using logistic regression, we assessed the association of the SAS with the decision to admit a patient directly to the ICU after surgery. Results The cohort consisted of 8,501 patients, with 72.7% having a SAS of 7-10 and less than 5% a SAS of 0-4. A total of 8.7% of patients were transferred immediately to the ICU postoperatively. After multivariate adjustment, there was a strong association between the SAS and the decision to admit a patient to the ICU (adjusted odds ratio 14.41 [95% CI 6.88 – 30.19, P < 0.001] for SAS 0-2, 4.42 [95% CI 3.19 – 6.13, P <0.001] for SAS 3-4, and 2.60 [95% CI 2.08 – 3.24, P < 0.001] for SAS 5-6 compared with SAS 7-8). Conclusions The SAS is strongly associated with clinical decisions regarding immediate ICU admission after high-risk intra-abdominal surgery. These results provide an initial step towards understanding whether intraoperative hemodynamics and blood loss influence ICU triage for post-surgical patients. PMID:23744956

  1. [A commonly seen cause of abdominal pain: abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome].

    PubMed

    Solmaz, Ilker; Talay, Mustafa; Tekindur, Şükrü; Kurt, Ercan

    2012-01-01

    Although abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES) is accepted as a rare condition, it is a syndrome that should be diagnosed more commonly when the clinical signs cannot explain the cause of abdominal pain. Abdominal pain is commonly considered by physicians to be based on intra-abdominal causes. Consequently, redundant tests and consultations are requested for these patients, and unnecessary surgical procedures may be applied. Patients with this type of pain are consulted to many clinics, and because their definitive diagnoses cannot be achieved, they are assessed as psychiatric patients. Actually, a common cause of abdominal wall pain is nerve entrapment on the lateral edge of the rectus abdominis muscle. In this paper, we would like to share information about the diagnosis and treatment of a patient who, prior to presenting to us, had applied to different clinics for chronic abdominal pain and had undergone many tests and consultations; abdominal surgery was eventually decided.

  2. Acute abdominal pain in patients with lassa fever: Radiological assessment and diagnostic challenges

    PubMed Central

    Eze, Kenneth C.; Salami, Taofeek A.; Kpolugbo, James U.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To highlight the problems of diagnosis and management of acute abdomen in patients with lassa fever. And to also highlight the need for high index of suspicion of lassa fever in patients presenting with acute abdominal pain in order to avoid surgical intervention with unfavourable prognosis and nosocomial transmission of infections, especially in Lassa fever-endemic regions. Materials and Methods: A review of experiences of the authors in the management of lassa fever over a 4-year period (2004-2008). Literature on lassa fever, available in the internet and other local sources, was studied in November 2010 and reviewed. Results: Normal plain chest radiographic picture can change rapidly due to pulmonary oedema, pulmonary haemorrhage and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Plain abdominal radiograph may show dilated bowels with signs of paralytic ileus or dynamic intestinal obstruction due to bowel wall haemorrhage or inflamed and enlarged Peyer's patches. Ultrasound may show free intra-peritoneal fluid due to peritonitis and intra-peritoneal haemorrhage. Bleeding into the gall bladder wall may erroneously suggest infective cholecystitis. Pericardial effusion with or without pericarditis causing abdominal pain may be seen using echocardiography. High index of suspicion, antibody testing for lassa fever and viral isolation in a reference laboratory are critical for accurate diagnosis. Conclusion: Patients from lassa fever-endemic regions may present with features that suggest acute abdomen. Radiological studies may show findings that suggest acute abdomen but these should be interpreted in the light of the general clinical condition of the patient. It is necessary to know that acute abdominal pain and vomiting in lassa fever-endemic areas could be caused by lassa fever, which is a medical condition. Surgical option should be undertaken with restraint as it increases the morbidity, may worsen the prognosis and increase the risk of nosocomial transmission

  3. Acute abdominal pain in patients with lassa fever: Radiological assessment and diagnostic challenges.

    PubMed

    Eze, Kenneth C; Salami, Taofeek A; Kpolugbo, James U

    2014-05-01

    To highlight the problems of diagnosis and management of acute abdomen in patients with lassa fever. And to also highlight the need for high index of suspicion of lassa fever in patients presenting with acute abdominal pain in order to avoid surgical intervention with unfavourable prognosis and nosocomial transmission of infections, especially in Lassa fever-endemic regions. A review of experiences of the authors in the management of lassa fever over a 4-year period (2004-2008). Literature on lassa fever, available in the internet and other local sources, was studied in November 2010 and reviewed. Normal plain chest radiographic picture can change rapidly due to pulmonary oedema, pulmonary haemorrhage and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Plain abdominal radiograph may show dilated bowels with signs of paralytic ileus or dynamic intestinal obstruction due to bowel wall haemorrhage or inflamed and enlarged Peyer's patches. Ultrasound may show free intra-peritoneal fluid due to peritonitis and intra-peritoneal haemorrhage. Bleeding into the gall bladder wall may erroneously suggest infective cholecystitis. Pericardial effusion with or without pericarditis causing abdominal pain may be seen using echocardiography. High index of suspicion, antibody testing for lassa fever and viral isolation in a reference laboratory are critical for accurate diagnosis. Patients from lassa fever-endemic regions may present with features that suggest acute abdomen. Radiological studies may show findings that suggest acute abdomen but these should be interpreted in the light of the general clinical condition of the patient. It is necessary to know that acute abdominal pain and vomiting in lassa fever-endemic areas could be caused by lassa fever, which is a medical condition. Surgical option should be undertaken with restraint as it increases the morbidity, may worsen the prognosis and increase the risk of nosocomial transmission.

  4. FAST for blunt abdominal trauma: Correlation between positive findings and admission acid-base measurement.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Kamran; Taghizadeh, Mehrdad; Mahmoudi, Sadrollah; Panahi, Hamidreza; Ghaffari Shad, Ensieh; Asadollahi, Shadi

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to determine any association between positive findings in ultrasonography examination and initial BD value with regard to diagnosis of intra-abdominal bleeding following blunt abdominal trauma. A prospective, multi-center study of consecutive adult patients was performed from April to September 2015. Demographics, initial vital signs and arterial BD were evaluated with respect to presence of any association with intra-abdominal bleeding and in-hospital mortality. FAST study was performed to find intra-abdominal bleeding. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves tested the ability of BD to identify patients with intra-abdominal hemorrhage and probable mortality. A total of 879 patients were included in final analysis. The mean (SD) age was 36.68 (15.7) years and 714 patients (81.2%) were male. According to multivariable analysis, statistically significant association was observed between negative admission BD and both intra-abdominal bleeding (OR 3.48, 95% CI 2.06-5.88, p<0.001) and in-hospital mortality (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.49-1.63, p<0.001). ROC curve analysis demonstrated sensitivity of 92.7% and specificity of 22.1% for the best cut-off value of BD (-8mEq/L) to diagnose internal hemorrhage. Further, a cut-off value of -7mEq/L demonstrated significant predictive performance, 94.8% sensitivity and 53.6% specificity for in-hospital mortality. This study revealed that arterial BD is an early accessible important marker to identify intra-abdominal bleeding, as well as to predict overall in-hospital mortality in patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Management of complicated shunt infections: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    James, Hector E; Bradley, John S

    2008-03-01

    The authors present their experience with a protocol for the treatment of patients with complicated shunt infections. Complicated shunt infections are defined for the purpose of this protocol as multiple compartment hydrocephalus, multiple organism shunt infection, severe peritonitis, or infections in other sites of the body. The initial treatment protocol for these patients was 3 weeks of intravenous antibiotic therapy and 2 weeks of twice daily intraventricular/intrashunt antibiotic therapy. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures were monitored during therapy and obtained again 48 hours after completion. The shunt was completely replaced. Additionally, follow-up cultures were obtained in all patients 3-6 months after therapy was completed. A cure of the infection was achieved in all patients as defined by negative cultures obtained at completion of antibiotic therapy and in follow-up studies. The follow-up period was 2-11 years (mean 4.4 +/- 2.5 years). The treatment protocol was modified in the patients treated after 1991, and 18 patients were treated with this modified treatment regime. In these patients, intraventricular antibiotics were administered only once daily for 14 days, and the CSF was cultured 24 hours after antibiotic therapy had been stopped instead of after 48 hours. The results were similar to those obtained with the initial protocol. Based on their prospective nonrandomized series, the authors believe that patients with complicated shunt infections can be successfully treated with 2 weeks of intraventricular antibiotic therapy administered once daily, concurrent with 3 weeks of intravenous antibiotic therapy. This protocol reduces length of treatment and hospital stay, and avoids recurrence of infection.

  6. Postoperative Outcomes in Vedolizumab-Treated Patients Undergoing Abdominal Operations for Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Lightner, Amy L; Raffals, Laura E; Mathis, Kellie L; Cima, Robert R; Tse, Chung Sang; Pemberton, John H; Dozois, Eric J; Loftus, Edward V

    2017-02-01

    Vedolizumab was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of moderate to severe ulcerative colitis [UC] and Crohn's disease [CD]. No study to date has examined the rate of postoperative infectious complications among patients who received vedolizumab in the perioperative period. We sought to determine the 30-day postoperative infectious complication rate among inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] patients who received vedolizumab within 12 weeks of an abdominal operation as compared to patients who received tumour necrosis factor α [TNFα] inhibitors or no biological therapy. A retrospective chart review between May 1, 2014 and December 31, 2015 of adult IBD patients who underwent an abdominal operation was performed. The study cohort comprised patients who received vedolizumab within 12 weeks of their abdominal operation and the control cohorts were patients who received TNFα inhibitors or no biological therapy. In total, 94 patients received vedolizumab within 12 weeks of an abdominal operation. Fifty experienced postoperative complications [53%], 35 of which were surgical site infections [SSIs] [36%]. The vedolizumab group experienced significantly higher rates of any postoperative infection [53% vs 33% anti-TNF and 28% non-biologics; p<0.001] and SSI [37% vs 10% and 13%; p<0.001]. On univariate and multivariate analysis, exposure to vedolizumab remained a significant predictor of postoperative SSI [p<0.001]. Thirty-seven per cent of IBD patients who received vedolizumab within 30 days of a major abdominal operation experienced a 30-day postoperative SSI, significantly higher than patients receiving TNFα inhibitors or no biological therapy. Vedolizumab within 12 weeks of surgery remained the only predictor of 30-day postoperative SSI on multivariate analysis. Copyright © 2016 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Epidemiology and trends in the antibiotic susceptibilities of Gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections in the Asia-Pacific region, 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ya-Ting; Coombs, Geoffrey; Ling, Thomas; Balaji, V; Rodrigues, Camilla; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Kim, Min-Ja; Rajasekaram, Datin Ganeswrie; Mendoza, Myrna; Tan, Thean Yen; Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Ni, Yuxing; Barry, Weinman; Xu, Yingchun; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) isolated from intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in the Asia-Pacific region (APR) from 2010-2013. A total of 17 350 isolates were collected from 54 centres in 13 countries in the APR. The three most commonly isolated GNB were Escherichia coli (46.1%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (19.3%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.8%). Overall, the rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae were 38.2% and 24.3%, respectively, and they were highest in China (66.6% and 38.7%, respectively), Thailand (49.8% and 36.5%, respectively) and Vietnam (47.9% and 30.4%, respectively). During 2010-2013, the rates of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates causing community-associated (CA) IAIs (collected <48 h after admission) were 26.0% and 13.5%, respectively, and those causing hospital-associated (HA) IAIs were 48.0% and 30.6%, respectively. Amikacin, ertapenem and imipenem were the most effective agents against ESBL-producing isolates. Piperacillin/tazobactam displayed good in vitro activity (91.4%) against CA ESBL-producing E. coli. For other commonly isolated Enterobacteriaceae, fluoroquinolones, cefepime and carbapenems exhibited better in vitro activities than third-generation cephalosporins. Amikacin possessed high in vitro activity against all GNB isolates (>80%) causing IAIs, except for Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (ACB) complex (30.9% for HA-IAI isolates). All of the antimicrobial agents tested exhibited <45% in vitro activity against ACB complex. Antimicrobial resistance is a persistent threat in the APR and continuous monitoring of evolutionary trends in the susceptibility patterns of GNB causing IAIs in this region is mandatory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  8. Wound Bioburden and Infection-Related Complications in Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Sue E.; Frantz, Rita A.

    2013-01-01

    The identification and diagnosis of diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) infections remains a complex problem. Because inflammatory responses to microbial invasion may be diminished in persons with diabetes, clinical signs of infection are often absent in persons with DFUs when infection is limited to localized tissue. In the absence of these clinical signs, microbial load is believed to be the best indicator of infection. Some researchers, however, believe microbial load to be insignificant and type of organism growing in the ulcer to be most important. Previous studies on the microbiology of DFUs have not provided enough evidence to determine the microbiological parameters of importance. Infection-related complications of DFUs include wound deterioration, osteomyelitis, and amputation. Risk factors for amputation include age, peripheral vascular disease, low transcutaneous oxygen, smoking, and poor glycemic control. These risk factors are best measured directly with physiological measures of arterial perfusion, glycemic control, sensory neuropathy, plantar pressures, and activity level and by controlling off-loading. DFU bioburden has not been examined as a risk factor for infection-related complications. To address the relationship between wound bioburden and the development of infection-related complications in DFUs, tightly controlled prospective studies based on clearly defined, valid measures of wound bioburden and wound outcomes are needed. This article reviews the literature and proposes a model of hypothesized relationships between wound bioburden—including microbial load, microbial diversity, and pathogenicity of organisms—and the development of infection-related complications. PMID:18647759

  9. Obscured hemorrhagic pancreatitis after orthotopic heart transplantation complicated with acute right heart failure and hepatic dysfunction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ting-Wei; Tsai, Meng-Ta; Roan, Jun-Neng; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Tsai, Hong-Ming; Luo, Chwan-Yau

    2016-12-01

    Pancreatitis is a serious complication after cardiac surgery and can lead to significant morbidities and mortality. The incidence of pancreatitis is even higher in patients undergoing heart transplantation than in those undergoing other cardiac surgeries. Nevertheless, the clinical presentations of pancreatitis are frequently atypical in these patients. We report a heart recipient who was complicated with acute right heart failure initially after orthotopic heart transplantation and developed devastating unanticipated hemorrhagic pancreatitis 1 month after the transplantation. This crypto-symptomatic pancreatitis was not diagnosed until massive internal bleeding and hemorrhagic shock occurred, because the typical presentations of acute pancreatitis were masked by the intra-abdominal manifestations caused by right heart failure and congestive liver dysfunction. The patient underwent a successful transarterial embolization. The causes of pancreatitis after heart transplantation include low cardiac output, immunosuppressant use and cytomegalovirus infection. The typical symptoms of pancreatitis might be not apparent in patients after heart transplantation because of their immunosuppressive status. Furthermore, in patients complicated with right heart failure after transplantation, the manifestation of pancreatitis could be even more obscure. The prompt diagnosis is highly depended on the clinician's astuteness.

  10. [Diagnostic imaging and acute abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Liljekvist, Mads Svane; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-19

    Acute abdominal pain is a common clinical condition. Clinical signs and symptoms can be difficult to interpret, and diagnostic imaging may help to identify intra-abdominal disease. Conventional X-ray, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen vary in usability between common surgical causes of acute abdominal pain. Overall, conventional X-ray cannot confidently diagnose or rule out disease. US and CT are equally trustworthy for most diseases. US with subsequent CT may enhance diagnostic precision. Magnetic resonance seems promising for future use in acute abdominal imaging.

  11. Technique and outcomes of laparoscopic bulge repair after abdominal free flap reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Johnson C; Whipple, Lauren A; Binetti, Brian; Singh, T Paul; Agag, Richard

    2016-01-21

    Bulges and hernias after abdominal free flap surgery are uncommon with rates ranging from as low as 0-36%. In the free flap breast reconstruction population, there are no clear guidelines or optimal strategies to treating postoperative bulges. We describe our minimally invasive technique and outcomes in managing bulge complications in abdominal free flap breast reconstruction patients. A retrospective review was performed on all abdominal free flap breast reconstruction patients at Albany Medical Center from 2011 to 2014. All patients with bulges on clinical exam underwent abdominal CT imaging prior to consultation with a minimally invasive surgeon. Confirmed symptomatic bulges were repaired laparoscopically and patients were monitored regularly in the outpatient setting. Sixty-two patients received a total of 80 abdominal free flap breast reconstructions. Flap types included 41 deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP), 36 muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous (msTRAM), 2 superficial inferior epigastric artery, and 1 transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous flap. There were a total of 9 (14.5%) bulge complications, with the majority of patients having undergone msTRAM or DIEP reconstruction. There were no complications, revisions, or recurrences from laparoscopic bulge repair after an average follow-up of 181 days. Although uncommon, bulge formation after abdominal free flap reconstruction can create significant morbidity to patients. Laproscopic hernia repair using composite mesh underlay offers an alternative to traditional open hernia repair and can be successfully used to minimize scarring, infection, and pain to free flap patients who have already undergone significant reconstructive procedures. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. [Acute dacryocystitis complicating primary mononucleosis infection].

    PubMed

    Delbet, C; PhamDang, N; Mondie, J-M; Barthelemy, I

    2010-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis may lead to numerous complications. Tonsillar hyperplasia with risk of airway obstruction is well known. Dacryocystitis is a rare but potentially severe complication. A 6-year-old child with primary mononucleosis infectious diagnosed 8 days before, developed acute dacryocystitis, with rapid evolution to orbital cellulitis, despite adequate antibiotherapy. Emergency surgical drainage was required. Dacryocystitis is a rare and little documented complication of EBV infection. Its acute evolution to orbital cellulitis is possible and potentially severe. Its physiopathology is specific. Patients are initially free of chronic stenosis and epiphora, which express acute obstruction of the lachrymal sac due to general lymphoid hyperplasia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Bovine versus porcine acellular dermal matrix for complex abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Mark W; Selber, Jesse C; Liu, Jun; Adelman, David M; Baumann, Donald P; Garvey, Patrick B; Butler, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal wall reconstruction with bioprosthetic mesh is associated with lower rates of mesh infection, fistula formation, and mesh explantation than reconstruction with synthetic mesh. The authors directly compared commonly used bioprosthetic meshes in terms of clinical outcomes and complications. A database of consecutive patients who underwent abdominal wall reconstruction with porcine or bovine acellular dermal matrix and midline musculofascial closure at their institution between January of 2008 and March of 2011 was reviewed. Surgical outcomes were compared. One hundred twenty patients were identified who underwent a nonbridged, inlay abdominal wall reconstruction with porcine [69 patients (57.5 percent)] or bovine acellular dermal matrix (51 patients (42.5 percent)]. The mean follow-up time was 21.0 ± 9.9 months. The overall complication rate was 36.6 percent; the porcine matrix group had a significantly higher complication rate (44.9 percent) than the bovine matrix group (25.5 percent; p = 0.04) and statistically equivalent surgical complications (29.2 percent versus 21.6 percent; p = 0.34). There were no significant differences in rates of recurrent hernia (2.9 percent versus 3.9 percent; p = 0.99) or bulge (7.2 percent versus 0 percent; p = 0.07). However, the rate of intraoperative adverse events in the porcine matrix group [seven events (10.1 percent)] was significantly higher than that in the bovine matrix group (0 percent; p = 0.02). In patients who undergo complex abdominal wall reconstruction, both bovine and porcine acellular dermal matrix are associated with similar rates of postoperative surgical complications and appear to result in similar outcomes. Porcine acellular dermal matrix may be prone to intraoperative device failure. Therapeutic, III.

  14. [Perioperative management of abdominal aortic balloon occlusion in patients complicated with placenta percteta: a case report].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hong; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yang; Guo, Xiang-yang

    2015-12-18

    When placenta previa complicated with placenta percreta, the exposure of operative field is difficult and the routine methods are difficult to effectively control the bleeding, even causing life-threatening results. A 31-year-old woman, who had been diagnosed with a complete type of placenta previa and placenta percreta with bladder invasion at 34 weeks gestation. Her ultrasound results showed a complete type of placenta previa and there was a loss of the decidual interface between the placenta and the myometrium on the lower part of the uterus, suggestive of placenta increta. For further evaluation of the placenta, pelvis magnetic resonance imaging was performed, which revealed findings suspicious of a placenta percreta. She underwent elective cecarean section at 36 weeks of gestation. Firstly, two ureteral stents were placed into the bilateral ureter through the cystoscope. After the infrarenal abdominal aorta catheter was inserted via the femoral artery (9 F sheath ), subarachnoid anesthesia had been established. A healthy 2 510 g infant was delivered, with Apgar scores of 10 at 1 min and 10 at 5 min. Immediately after the baby was delivered, following which there was massive haemorrhage and general anaesthesia was induced. The balloon catheter was immediately inflated until the wave of dorsal artery disappeared. With the placenta retained within the uterus, a total hysterectomy was performed. The occluding time was 30 min. The intraoperative blood loss was 2 500 mL. The occluding balloon was deflated at the end of the operation. The patient had stable vital signs and normal laboratory findings during the recovery period and the hemoglobin was 116 g/L. She was discharged six days after delivery without intervention-related complications. This case illustrates that temporary occlusion of the infrarenal abdominal aorta using balloon might be a safe and effective treatment option for patients with placenta previa complicated with placenta percreta, who were at high

  15. MRI evaluation of frequent complications after intra-arterial transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namestnikova, D.; Gubskiy, I.; Gabashvili, A.; Sukhinich, K.; Melnikov, P.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Soloveva, A.; Vitushev, E.; Chekhonin, V.; Gubsky, L.; Yarygin, K.

    2017-08-01

    Intra-arterial transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is an effective delivery route for treatment of ischemic brain injury. Despite significant therapeutic effects and targeted cells delivery to the brain infraction, serious adverse events such as cerebral embolism have been reported and may restrict potential clinical applications of this method. In current study, we evaluate potential complications of intra-arterial MSCs administration and determine the optimum parameters for cell transplantation. We injected SPIO-labeled human MSCs via internal carotid artery with different infusion parameters and cell dose in intact rats and in rats with the middle cerebral occlusion stroke model. Cerebrovascular complications and labeled cells were visualized in vivo using MRI. We have shown that the incidence of cerebral embolic events depends on such parameters as cell dose, infusion rate and maintenance of blood flow in the internal carotid artery (ICA). Optimal parameters were considered to be 5×105 hMSC in 1 ml of PBS by syringe pump with velocity 100 μ/min and maintenance of blood flow in the ICA. Obtained data should be considered before planning experiments in rats and, potentially, can help in planning clinical trials in stroke patients.

  16. Establishment of an Aerosal-Based Marek's Disease Virus Infection Model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV), which is the causative agent of Marek’s disease (MD), is shed by infected chickens and transmitted to other chickens through the respiratory route. Experimental reproduction of MD has been commonly done either by intra-abdominal inoculation of cell-associated MDV or by e...

  17. Imaging Findings of Liposuction with an Emphasis on Postsurgical Complications.

    PubMed

    You, Je Sung; Chung, Yong Eun; Baek, Song-Ee; Chung, Sung Phil; Kim, Myeong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Liposuction is one of the most frequently performed cosmetic surgeries worldwide for reshaping the body contour. Although liposuction is minimally invasive and relatively safe, it is a surgical procedure, and it carries the risk of major and minor complications. These complications vary from postoperative nausea to life-threatening events. Common complications include infection, abdominal wall injury, bowel herniation, bleeding, haematoma, seroma, and lymphoedema. Life-threatening complications such as necrotizing fasciitis, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism have also been reported. In this paper, we provide a brief introduction to liposuction with the related anatomy and present computed tomography and ultrasonography findings of a wide spectrum of postoperative complications associated with liposuction.

  18. Factors associated with neonatal ostomy complications.

    PubMed

    Lockhat, Aliyah; Kernaleguen, Guen; Dicken, Bryan J; van Manen, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Neonatal ostomies, either temporary or permanent, are created for numerous reasons. Limited attention has been given to understanding what factors might place infants at risk for surgical wound complications. The purpose of the study is to identify factors associated with risk of significant abdominal wound complications (wound dehiscence and wound infection) following neonatal ostomy creation. This is a retrospective chart review of infants undergoing ostomy between January 2009 and December 2013 at the University of Alberta Hospital. 66 infants were identified of which 18.2% (12/66) had wound complications. Variables associated with wound dehiscence included: findings of bowel necrosis during laparotomy (7/9 wound dehiscence, 18/57 none, p=0.008), perioperative sepsis (3/9 wound dehiscence, 3/57 none, p=0.006), and perioperative blood transfusion (9/9 wound dehiscence, 30/57 none, p=0.007). Wound infection was not predicted by any variables collected. Neonates undergoing creation of an ostomy appear to be at substantial risk for wound complications. As wound complications are significant issues for infants undergoing surgery, emerging strategies should be explored to either avoid ostomy creation or promote wound healing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Complications in reverse shoulder arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Barco, Raul; Savvidou, Olga D.; Sperling, John W.; Sanchez-Sotelo, Joaquín; Cofield, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    The reported rate of complications of reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) seems to be higher than the complication rate of anatomical total shoulder arthroplasty. The reported overall complication rate of primary RSA is approximately 15%; when RSA is used in the revision setting, the complication rate may approach 40%. The most common complications of RSA include instability, infection, notching, loosening, nerve injury, acromial and scapular spine fractures, intra-operative fractures and component disengagement. Careful attention to implant design and surgical technique, including implantation of components in the correct version and height, selection of the best glenosphere-humeral bearing match, avoidance of impingement, and adequate management of the soft tissues will hopefully translate in a decreasing number of complications in the future. Cite this article: Barco R, Savvidou OD, Sperling JW, Sanchez-Sotelo J, Cofield RH. Complications in reverse shoulder arthroplasty. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:72-80. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.160003. PMID:28461931

  20. Complications in reverse shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Barco, Raul; Savvidou, Olga D; Sperling, John W; Sanchez-Sotelo, Joaquín; Cofield, Robert H

    2016-03-01

    The reported rate of complications of reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) seems to be higher than the complication rate of anatomical total shoulder arthroplasty.The reported overall complication rate of primary RSA is approximately 15%; when RSA is used in the revision setting, the complication rate may approach 40%.The most common complications of RSA include instability, infection, notching, loosening, nerve injury, acromial and scapular spine fractures, intra-operative fractures and component disengagement.Careful attention to implant design and surgical technique, including implantation of components in the correct version and height, selection of the best glenosphere-humeral bearing match, avoidance of impingement, and adequate management of the soft tissues will hopefully translate in a decreasing number of complications in the future. Cite this article: Barco R, Savvidou OD, Sperling JW, Sanchez-Sotelo J, Cofield RH. Complications in reverse shoulder arthroplasty. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:72-80. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.160003.

  1. Antibiotic resistance in children with recurrent or complicated urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Younis, N; Quol, K; Al-Momani, T; Al-Awaisheh, F; Al-Kayed, D

    2009-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is certainly one of the most common childhood infections. Emerging resistance to the antibiotics is not unusual. Current hospitalization for children with urinary tract infection is reserved for severe or complicated cases. The aim of the present study was to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern among children with recurrent or complicated urinary tract infection. A retrospective study carried out at Prince Hashem hospital, Zarqa city, eastern Jordan and involved 336 episodes of culture proved urinary tract infection obtained from 121 patients with recurrent UTI, who used prophylactic antibiotics during the period from April 1, 2004 to December 31, 2006. The isolated microorganisms and there antibiotics susceptibility were studied. Seventy three patients (60.3%) were found to have some forms of urinary tract anomaly, significantly more prevalent among male children P<0.001. Vesicoureteral reflux being the most common (58.9%). Renal scars were significantly more prevalent among those with complicated rather than recurrent urinary tract infection (64.3% vs. 16.6%, P<0.001). Gram negative organisms were the most frequent isolates in patients with recurrent and complicated urinary tract infection. Proteus, Pseudomonas and Candida spp. were more prevalent in patients with complicated (P<0.001), and isolates in patients with UTA were significantly more resistant to most antibiotics tested. Pediatric urine culture isolates are becoming increasingly resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Empirical treatment with Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) or Cephalexin as the initial drug is ineffective. Nitrofurantoin and Nalidixic acid can be considered as the first line antibiotics for prophylaxis and or treatment of patients with recurrent UTI, while Meropenam and Ciprofloxacin can be used empirically in treating patients with complicated UTI.

  2. Significant factors associated with fatal outcome in emergency open surgery for perforated peptic ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Testini, Mario; Portincasa, Piero; Piccinni, Giuseppe; Lissidini, Germana; Pellegrini, Fabio; Greco, Luigi

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the main factors associated with mortality in patients undergoing surgery for perforated peptic ulcer referred to an academic department of general surgery in a large southern Italian city. METHODS: One hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients (M:F ratio = 110:39, mean age 52 yrs, range 16-95) with peptic ulcer disease were investigated for clinical history (including age, sex, previous history of peptic ulcer, associated diseases, delayed abdominal surgery, ulcer site, operation type, shock on admission, postoperative general complications, and intra-abdominal and/or wound infections), serum analyses and radiological findings. RESULTS: The overall mortality rate was 4.0%. Among all factors, an age above 65 years, one or more associated diseases, delayed abdominal surgery, shock on admission, postoperative abdominal complications and/or wound infections, were significantly associated (χ2) with increased mortality in patients undergoing surgery (0.0001 < P < 0.03). CONCLUSION: Factors such as concomitant diseases, shock on admission, delayed surgery, and postoperative abdominal and wound infections are significantly associated with fatal outcomes and need careful evaluation within the general workup of patients admitted for perforated peptic ulcer. PMID:14562406

  3. Complications and risk factors for mortality in penetrating abdominal firearm injuries: analysis of 120 cases

    PubMed Central

    Iflazoglu, Nidal; Ureyen, Orhan; Oner, Osman Z; Tusat, Mustafa; Akcal, Mehmet A

    2015-01-01

    Due to the high kinetic energy, of bullets and explosive gun particles, their paths through the abdomen (permanent cavity effect), and the blast effect (temporary cavity effect), firearm injuries (FAI) can produce damage not only in the organ they enter, but in the surrounding tissues as well. Since they change route after entering the body they may cause organ damage in locations other than those at the path of entry. For example, as a result of the crushing onto bone tissues, bullet particles or broken bone fragments may cause further damage outside of the path of travel, For these reasons it is very difficult to predict the possible complications from the size of the actual injury in patients with penetrating abdominal firearm injuries. The factors affecting the mortality and morbidity from firearm injuries have been evaluated in various studies. Insufficient blood transfusion, long duration of time until presenting to a hospital and the presence of colon injuries are common factors that cause the high complication rates and mortality. A total of 120 cases injured in the civil war at Turkey’s southern neighbouring countries were admitted to our hospital and evaluated in terms of: development of complications and factors affecting mortality; age, gender, time of presentation to the hospital, number of injured organs, the type of injuring weapon, the entrance site of the bullet, the presence of accompanying chest trauma, the amount of administered blood, the penetrating abdominal trauma index (PATI) and the injury severity score (ISS) scores were determined and evaluated retrospectively. The most significant factors for the development of complications and mortality include: accompanying clinical shock, high number of injured organs, numerous blood transfusions administered and accompanying thoracic trauma. It has also been observed that the PATI and ISS scoring systems can be used in predicting the complication and mortality rates in firearm injuries

  4. Long-Term Outcome and Complications Following Prophylactic Laparoscopic-Assisted Gastropexy in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Loy Son, Natasha K; Singh, Ameet; Amsellem, Pierre; Kilkenny, Jessica; Brisson, Brigitte A; Oblak, Michelle L; Ogilvie, Adam T

    2016-11-01

    To characterize the short- and long-term outcome (>12 months), complications, and owner satisfaction following prophylactic laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy (LAG) in dogs. Retrospective study. Client-owned dogs (n = 49). Dogs that underwent prophylactic LAG at 2 veterinary academic hospitals were studied. Surgical time, anesthesia time, concurrent intra- and extra-abdominal procedures, and intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded following review of medical records. Veterinarian and/or owner follow-up was obtained to determine outcome and satisfaction with LAG. Five of 49 dogs (10%) experienced complications related to abdominal access during LAG. Four percent (2/49) of dogs experienced an intraoperative complication. Follow-up information was available for 89% of dogs (44/49). Four dogs died of causes unrelated to LAG or gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV) in the follow-up period. Two dogs experienced major postoperative complications requiring additional veterinary intervention. Thirty percent (13 dogs) experienced a minor postoperative self-limiting wound-related complication. Median follow-up time was 698 days (range, 411-1825). No dogs experienced GDV. One hundred percent of dog owners were satisfied with LAG, would repeat the procedure in a future pet, and would recommend the procedure to a friend or family member. LAG was an effective procedure for prevention of GDV and was associated with high client satisfaction in this cohort of dogs. A moderate rate of postoperative wound complications occurred that were minor and self-limiting in nature. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  5. Postoperative outcomes in vedolizumab-treated pediatric patients undergoing abdominal operations for inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Lightner, Amy L; Tse, Chung Sang; Potter, D Dean; Moir, Christopher

    2017-10-09

    Recent studies have found vedolizumab to be an independent predictor of increased rates of postoperative complications and surgical site infections (SSIs) in adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but studies in the pediatric surgical population are lacking. We sought to determine the 30-day postoperative infectious complication rate among pediatric IBD patients who received vedolizumab within 12weeks of a major abdominal operation. A retrospective chart review was performed on pediatric IBD patients who underwent an abdominal operation between 5/20/2014 and 6/1/2017. The study cohort was comprised of pediatric patients (≤18years) who received vedolizumab within 12weeks prior to their abdominal operation. The control cohort was all patients operated on for IBD during the same time on anti-TNF therapy within 12weeks of their abdominal operation. Thirteen pediatric patients (5 female) received vedolizumab within 12weeks of an abdominal operation and 36 patients received anti TNF therapy (20 female). There were no differences in the vedolizumab and anti-TNF therapy with regard to sex, median age of diagnosis or operation, IBD type, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, diabetes mellitus (DM), preoperative serum laboratory values, steroid or immunomodulatory use. The number of biologics previously exposed to was significantly higher in the vedolizumab treated patients (p<0.0001). There were no significant differences in operative characteristics including laparoscopic versus open surgery, construction of an anastomosis, or diversion of an anastomosis. There were also no significant differences found in 30-day postoperative complications including nonsurgical site infections (SSIs), all SSIs, small bowel obstruction (SBO)/ileus, hospital readmission, or return to the operating room (ROR). There were four RORs in total: one in the vedolizumab group was for a missed enterotomy and stoma revision; three in the anti-TNF cohort were for ileostomy revisions. None of

  6. Removal of intra-abdominal visceral adipose tissue improves glucose tolerance in rats: role of hepatic triglyceride storage.

    PubMed

    Foster, Michelle T; Shi, Haifei; Seeley, Randy J; Woods, Stephen C

    2011-10-24

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong link between increased visceral fat and metabolic syndrome. In rodents, removal of intra-abdominal but non-visceral fat improves insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, though previous studies make an imprecise comparison to human physiology because actual visceral fat was not removed. We hypothesize that nutrient release from visceral adipose tissue may have greater consequences on metabolic regulation than nutrient release from non-visceral adipose depots since the latter drains into systemic but not portal circulation. To assess this we surgically decreased visceral white adipose tissue (~0.5 g VWATx) and compared the effects to removal of non-visceral epididymal fat (~4 g; EWATx), combination removal of visceral and non-visceral fat (~4.5 g; EWATx/VWATx) and sham-operated controls, in chow-fed rats. At 8 weeks after surgery, only the groups with visceral fat removed had a significantly improved glucose tolerance, although 8 times more fat was removed in EWATx compared with VWATx. This suggests that mechanisms controlling glucose metabolism are relatively more sensitive to reductions in visceral adipose tissue mass. Groups with visceral fat removed also had significantly decreased hepatic lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and triglyceride content compared with controls, while carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1A) was decreased in all fat-removal groups. In a preliminary experiment, we assessed the opposite hypothesis; i.e., we transplanted excess visceral fat from a donor rat to the visceral cavity (omentum and mesentery), which drains into the hepatic portal vein, of a recipient rat but observed no major metabolic effect. Overall, our results indicate surgical removal of intra-abdominal fat improves glucose tolerance through mechanism that may be mediated by reductions in liver triglyceride. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Removal of Intra-abdominal Visceral Adipose Tissue Improves Glucose Tolerance in Rats: Role of Hepatic Triglyceride Storage

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Michelle T.; Shi, Haifei; Seeley, Randy J.; Woods, Stephen C.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong link between increased visceral fat and metabolic syndrome. In rodents, removal of intra-abdominal but non-visceral fat improves insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, though previous studies make an imprecise comparison to human physiology because actual visceral fat was not removed. We hypothesize that nutrient release from visceral adipose tissue may have greater consequences on metabolic regulation than nutrient release from non-visceral adipose depots since the latter drains into systemic but not portal circulation. To assess this we surgically decreased visceral white adipose tissue (~0.5 g VWATx) and compared the effects to removal of non-visceral epididymal fat (~4 g; EWATx), combination removal of visceral and non-visceral fat (~4.5 g; EWATx/VWATx) and sham-operated controls, in chow-fed rats. At 8 weeks after surgery, only the groups with visceral fat removed had a significantly improved glucose tolerance, although 8 times more fat was removed in EWATx compared with VWATx. This suggests that mechanisms controlling glucose metabolism are relatively more sensitive to reductions in visceral adipose tissue mass. Groups with visceral fat removed also had significantly decreased hepatic lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and triglyceride content compared with controls, while carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1A) was decreased in all fat-removal groups. In a preliminary experiment, we assessed the opposite hypothesis; i.e., we transplanted excess visceral fat from a donor rat to the visceral cavity (omentum and mesentery), which drains into the hepatic portal vein, of a recipient rat but observed no major metabolic effect. Overall, our results indicate surgical removal of intra-abdominal fat improves glucose tolerance through mechanism that may be mediated by reductions in liver triglyceride. PMID:21683727

  8. Early complications, pain, and quality of life after reconstructive surgery for abdominal rectus muscle diastasis: a 3-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Emanuelsson, P; Gunnarsson, U; Strigård, K; Stark, B

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate early complications following retromuscular mesh repair with those after dual layer suture of the anterior rectus sheath in a randomised controlled clinical trial for abdominal rectus muscle diastasis (ARD). Patients with an ARD wider than 3 cm and clinical symptoms related to the ARD were included in a prospective randomised study. They were assigned to either retromuscular inset of a lightweight polypropylene mesh or to dual closure of the anterior rectus fascia using Quill self-locking technology. All patients completed a validated questionnaire for pain assessment (Ventral Hernia Pain Questionnaire, VHPQ) and for quality of life (SF36) prior to and 3 months after surgery. The most frequently seen adverse event was minor wound infection. Of the patients, 14/57 had a superficial wound infection; five related to Quill and nine to mesh repair. No deep wound infections were reported. Patient rating for subjective muscular improvement postoperatively was better in the mesh technique group with a mean of 6.9 (range 0-10) compared to a mean of 4.8 (range 0-10) in the Quill group (p=0.01). The pre- and post-operative SF36 scores improved in both groups. There was no significant difference between the two surgical techniques in terms of early complications and perceived pain at the 3-month follow-up. Both techniques may be considered equally reliable for ARD repair in terms of adverse outcomes during the early postoperative phase, even though patients operated with a mesh experienced better improvement in muscular strength. ClinicalTrial.gov: 2009/227-31/3/PE/96. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in the Amniotic Cavity of Women with Intra-Amniotic Infection: A New Mechanism of Host Defense.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy; Romero, Roberto; Xu, Yi; Miller, Derek; Unkel, Ronald; Shaman, Majid; Jacques, Suzanne M; Panaitescu, Bogdan; Garcia-Flores, Valeria; Hassan, Sonia S

    2017-08-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) control microbial infections through their antimicrobial activities attributed to DNA, histones, granules, and cytoplasmic proteins (eg, elastase). Intra-amniotic infection is characterized by the influx of neutrophils into the amniotic cavity; therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether amniotic fluid neutrophils form NETs in this inflammatory process. Amniotic fluid samples from women with intra-amniotic infection (n = 15) were stained for bacteria detection using fluorescent dyes. Amniotic fluid neutrophils were purified by filtration. As controls, neutrophils from maternal blood samples (n = 3) were isolated by density gradients. Isolated neutrophils were plated onto glass cover slips for culture with and without 100 nM of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). NET formation was assessed by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and scanning electron microscopy. Different stages of NET formation were visualized using antibodies against elastase and histone H3, in combination with DAPI staining, by confocal microscopy. Finally, maternal or neonatal neutrophils were added to amniotic fluid samples from women without intra-amniotic infection (n = 4), and NET formation was evaluated by DAPI staining. (1) NETs were present in the amniotic fluid of women with intra-amniotic infection; (2) all of the amniotic fluid samples had detectable live and dead bacteria associated with the presence of NETs; (3) in contrast to neutrophils from the maternal circulation, amniotic fluid neutrophils did not require PMA stimulation to form NETs; (4) different stages of NET formation were observed by co-localizing elastase, histone H3, and DNA in amniotic fluid neutrophils; and (5) neither maternal nor neonatal neutrophils form NETs in the amniotic fluid of women without intra-amniotic infection. NETs are detectable in the amniotic fluid of women with intra-amniotic infection.

  10. The respiratory pressure-abdominal volume curve in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Regli, Adrian; De Keulenaer, Bart Leon; Singh, Bhajan; Hockings, Lisen Emma; Noffsinger, Bill; van Heerden, Peter Vernon

    2017-12-01

    Increasing intra-abdominal volume (IAV) can lead to intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) or abdominal compartment syndrome. Both are associated with raised morbidity and mortality. IAH can increase airway pressures and impair ventilation. The relationship between increasing IAV and airway pressures is not known. We therefore assessed the effect of increasing IAV on airway and intra-abdominal pressures (IAP). Seven pigs (41.4 +/-8.5 kg) received standardized anesthesia and mechanical ventilation. A latex balloon inserted in the peritoneal cavity was inflated in 1-L increments until IAP exceeded 40 cmH 2 O. Peak airway pressure (pP AW ), respiratory compliance, and IAP (bladder pressure) were measured. Abdominal compliance was calculated. Different equations were tested that best described the measured pressure-volume curves. An exponential equation best described the measured pressure-volume curves. Raising IAV increased pP AW and IAP in an exponential manner. Increases in IAP were associated with parallel increases in pP AW with an approximate 40% transmission of IAP to pP AW . The higher the IAP, the greater IAV effected pP AW and IAP. The exponential nature of the effect of IAV on pP AW and IAP implies that, in the presence of high grades of IAH, small reductions in IAV can lead to significant reductions in airway and abdominal pressures. Conversely, in the presence of normal IAP levels, large increases in IAV may not affect airway and abdominal pressures.

  11. Abdominal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy.

  12. Mandible Fracture Complications and Infection: The Influence of Demographics and Modifiable Factors.

    PubMed

    Odom, Elizabeth B; Snyder-Warwick, Alison K

    2016-08-01

    Mandible fractures account for 36 to 70 percent of all facial fractures. Despite their high prevalence, the literature lacks a comprehensive review of demographics, fracture patterns, timing of management, antibiotic selection, and outcomes, particularly when evaluating pediatric versus adult patients. The authors aim to determine the complication and infection rates after surgical treatment of mandibular fractures and the bacterial isolates and antibiotic sensitivities from mandible infections after open reduction and internal fixation at their institution. Data were collected retrospectively for all mandible fractures treated at the authors' institution between 2003 and 2013. Patients were divided into pediatric (younger than 16 years) and adult (16 years or older) subgroups. Demographics, fracture location, fracture cause, comorbidities, antibiotic choice, and subsequent complications and infections were analyzed. Data were evaluated using appropriate statistical tests for each variable. Three hundred ninety-five patients were evaluated. Demographics and fracture cause were similar to those reported in current literature. Of the 56 pediatric patients, complications occurred in 5.6 percent. Time from injury to operative intervention did not affect outcome. The complication rate was 17.5 percent and the infection rate was 9.4 percent in the adult subgroup. Time from injury to operative intervention, sex, and edentulism were not significant predictors of complication or infection. Tobacco use, number of fractures, number of fractures fixated, and surgical approach were predictors of complication and infection. Perioperative ampicillin-sulbactam had a significantly lower risk of infection. Certain demographic and operative factors lead to significantly higher risks of complications after surgical management of mandibular fractures. Ampicillin-sulbactam provides effective antibiotic prophylaxis. Risk factor modification may improve outcomes. Risk, IV.

  13. SU-E-J-133: Evaluation of Inter- and Intra-Fractional Pancreas Tumor Residual Motions with Abdominal Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y; Shi, F; Tian, Z

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Abdominal compression (AC) has been widely used to reduce pancreas motion due to respiration for pancreatic cancer patients undergoing stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). However, the inter-fractional and intra-fractional patient motions may degrade the treatment. The purpose of this work is to study daily CBCT projections and 4DCT to evaluate the inter-fractional and intra-fractional pancreatic motions. Methods: As a standard of care at our institution, 4D CT scan was performed for treatment planning. At least two CBCT scans were performed for daily treatment. Retrospective studies were performed on patients with implanted internal fiducial markers or surgical clips. The initial motionmore » pattern was obtained by extracting marker positions on every phase of 4D CT images. Daily motions were presented by marker positions on CBCT scan projection images. An adaptive threshold segmentation algorithm was used to extract maker positions. Both marker average positions and motion ranges were compared among three sets of scans, 4D CT, positioning CBCT, and conformal CBCT, for inter-fractional and intra-fractional motion variations. Results: Data from four pancreatic cancer patients were analyzed. These patients had three fiducial markers implanted. All patients were treated by an Elekta Synergy with single fraction SBRT. CBCT projections were acquired by XVI. Markers were successfully detected on most of the projection images. The inter-fractional changes were determined by 4D CT and the first CBCT while the intra-fractional changes were determined by multiple CBCT scans. It is found that the average motion range variations are within 2 mm, however, the average marker positions may drift by 6.5 mm. Conclusion: The patients respiratory motion variation for pancreas SBRT with AC was evaluated by detecting markers from CBCT projections and 4DCT, both the inter-fraction and intra-fraction motion range change is small but the drift of marker positions may be

  14. Learning curves in abdominal wall reconstruction with components separation: one step closer toward improving outcomes and reducing complications.

    PubMed

    Hultman, Charles Scott; Clayton, John L; Kittinger, Benjamin J; Tong, Winnie M

    2014-01-01

    Learning curves are characterized by incremental improvement of a process, through repetition and reduction in variability, but can be disrupted with the emergence of new techniques and technologies. Abdominal wall reconstruction continues to evolve, with the introduction of components separation in the 1990s and biologic mesh in the 2000s. As such, attempts at innovation may impact the success of reconstructive outcomes and yield a changing set of complications. The purpose of this project was to describe the paradigm shift that has occurred in abdominal wall reconstruction during the past 10 years, focusing on the incorporation of new materials and methods. We reviewed 150 consecutive patients who underwent abdominal wall reconstruction of midline defects with components separation, from 2000 to 2010. Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors for complications. Patients were stratified into the following periods: early (2000-2003), middle (2004-2006), and late (2007-2010). From 2000 to 2010, we performed 150 abdominal wall reconstructions with components separation [mean age, 50.2 years; body mass index (BMI), 30.4; size of defect, 357 cm; length of stay, 9.6 days; follow-up, 4.4 years]. Primary fascial closure was performed in 120 patients. Mesh was used in 114 patients in the following locations: overlay (n = 28), inlay (n = 30), underlay (n = 54), and unknown (n = 2). Complications occurred in a bimodal distribution, highest in 2001 (introduction of biologic mesh) and 2008 (conversion from underlay to overlay location). Age, sex, history of smoking, defect size, and length of stay were not associated with incidence of complications. Unadjusted risk factors for seroma (16.8%) were elevated BMI, of previous hernia repairs, use of overlay mesh, and late portion of the learning curve, with logistic regression supporting only late portion of the learning curve [odds ratio (OR), 4.3; 95% confidence interval

  15. Management of non-catheter-associated complicated urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Dielubanza, Elodi J; Mazur, Daniel J; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2014-03-01

    This article presents an overview of non-catheter-associated complicated urinary tract infection (UTI) from a urologic point of view. Discussion includes the evaluation and workup a complicated UTI through history, physical examination, laboratory analysis, and radiographic studies. Specific types of complicated UTI, such as urinary obstruction and renal abscess, are reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Primary fascial closure with biologic mesh reinforcement results in lesser complication and recurrence rates than bridged biologic mesh repair for abdominal wall reconstruction: A propensity score analysis.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Salvatore; Garvey, Patrick B; Baumann, Donald P; Liu, Jun; Butler, Charles E

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies suggest that bridged mesh repair for abdominal wall reconstruction may result in worse outcomes than mesh-reinforced, primary fascial closure, particularly when acellular dermal matrix is used. We compared our outcomes of bridged versus reinforced repair using ADM in abdominal wall reconstruction procedures. This retrospective study included 535 consecutive patients at our cancer center who underwent abdominal wall reconstruction either for an incisional hernia or for abdominal wall defects left after excision of malignancies involving the abdominal wall with underlay mesh. A total of 484 (90%) patients underwent mesh-reinforced abdominal wall reconstruction and 51 (10%) underwent bridged repair abdominal wall reconstruction. Acellular dermal matrix was used, respectively, in 98% of bridged and 96% of reinforced repairs. We compared outcomes between these 2 groups using propensity score analysis for risk-adjustment in multivariate analysis and for 1-to-1 matching. Bridged repairs had a greater hernia recurrence rate (33.3% vs 6.2%, P < .001), a greater overall complication rate (59% vs 30%, P = .001), and worse freedom from hernia recurrence (log-rank P <.001) than reinforced repairs. Bridged repairs also had a greater rate of wound dehiscence (26% vs 14%, P = .034) and mesh exposure (10% vs 1%, P = .003) than mesh-reinforced abdominal wall reconstruction. When the treatment method was adjusted for propensity score in the propensity-score-matched pairs (n = 100), we found that the rates of hernia recurrence (32% vs 6%, P = .002), overall complications (32% vs 6%, P = .002), and freedom from hernia recurrence (68% vs 32%, P = .001) rates were worse after bridged repair. We did not observe differences in wound healing and mesh complications between the 2 groups. In our population of primarily cancer patients at MD Anderson Cancer Center bridged repair for abdominal wall reconstruction is associated with worse outcomes than mesh

  17. Donor-Site Complications and Remnant of Rectus Abdominis Muscle Status after Transverse Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous Flap Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chirappapha, Prakasit; Trikunagonvong, Noppadol; Rongthong, Sasiprapa; Lertsithichai, Panuwat; Sukarayothin, Thongchai; Leesombatpaiboon, Monchai; Panawattanakul, Rujira; Thaweepworadej, Panya

    2017-01-01

    Background: Transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap reconstruction after mastectomy in breast cancer patients has become one of the milestones in breast reconstruction. There are several techniques that have been used in an attempt to minimize untoward complications. We present the whole muscle with partial sheath-sparing technique that focuses on the anatomy of arcuate line and the closure of the anterior abdominal wall techniques with mesh and determine factors associated with its complications and outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively and prospectively review the results of 30 pedicled TRAM flaps that were performed between November 2013 and March 2016, focusing on outcomes and complications. Results: Among the 30 pedicled TRAM flap procedures in 30 patients, there were complications in 5 patients (17%). Most common complications were surgical-site infection (7%). After a median follow-up time of 15 months, no patient developed abdominal wall hernia or bulging in daily activities in our study, but 6 patients (20%) had asymptomatic abdominal wall bulging when exercised. Significant factors related to asymptomatic exercised abdominal wall bulging included having a body mass index of more than 23 kg/m2. Conclusion: Pedicled TRAM flap by using the technique of the whole muscle with partial sheath-sparing technique combined with reinforcement above the arcuate line with mesh can reduce the occurrence of abdominal bulging and hernia. PMID:28740793

  18. Abdominal X-ray signs of intra-intestinal drug smuggling.

    PubMed

    Niewiarowski, Sylwia; Gogbashian, Andrew; Afaq, Asim; Kantor, Robin; Win, Zarni

    2010-05-01

    "Body packers" either swallow or insert drug filled packets rectally or vaginally in order to smuggle illicit drugs. AXR is used routinely to screen suspects for the presence of intra-intestinal drug packages. AXR diagnosis can be difficult as stool or gas within the intestine may resemble ingested foreign bodies. We identify the frequency and co-existence of several signs; tic-tac sign, rosette sign, double condom sign, dense surrounding material, density and discover a new sign; parallelism, which will aid in increasing the radiological accuracy. We retrospectively reviewed 285 AXRs performed for suspicion of drug smuggling during the period of March 2006-March 2009 to identify the frequency of these signs. Of the 285 AXRs performed 59 were positive, 221 negative and five were indeterminate. The tic-tac sign was present in 93%, double condom sign in 73%, dense surrounding wrapping material in 36% and parallelism in 27%. Sixty one percentage of drug packages were iso-dense to faeces and 39% hyperdense. Twenty percentage of the positive abdominal radiographs demonstrated one of the radiographic signs, 39% demonstrated two signs, 32% demonstrated three and 7% four. The most common radiographic sign combination was the tic-tac sign with either dense surrounding material or double condom sign. The most commonly encountered radiographic sign is the tic-tac sign, followed by the double condom sign and dense surrounding material. We also discover a new sign, "parallelism" which although uncommon is highly specific. Accuracy is further increased by comparing the density of packages to faeces and looking for the co-existence of multiple signs. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. Sacral myeloradiculitis complicating genital herpes in a HIV-infected patient.

    PubMed

    Corral, I; Quereda, C; Navas, E; Pérez-Elias, M J; Jover, F; Moreno, S

    2005-02-01

    Myeloradiculitis is a rare neurological complication of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) infection, frequently associated with a fatal outcome. Among patients with HIV infection, HSV-2 myeloradiculitis has occasionally been reported, always associated with advanced immunosuppression and AIDS. We report a patient with HIV infection but no history of previous opportunistic infections, who developed sacral myeloradiculitis immediately after an episode of genital herpes. Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium showed necrotizing myelitis in the conus medullaris and enhancement of sacral roots. CD4 lymphocyte count was 530/mm3. Other possible causes of myeloradiculitis in HIV-infected patients were appropriately excluded. Acyclovir therapy resulted in partial clinical improvement. This report shows that myeloradiculitis as a complication of genital herpes may occur in the early stages of HIV infection and may have a favourable outcome with antiviral treatment.

  20. Reproducibility of abdominal fat assessment by ultrasound and computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Mauad, Fernando Marum; Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaeté; Benedeti, Augusto César Garcia Saab; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Carneiro, Antonio Adilton Oliveira; Muller, Enrico Mattana; Elias Junior, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    To test the accuracy and reproducibility of ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) for the quantification of abdominal fat in correlation with the anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical assessments. Using ultrasound and CT, we determined the thickness of subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat in 101 subjects-of whom 39 (38.6%) were men and 62 (61.4%) were women-with a mean age of 66.3 years (60-80 years). The ultrasound data were correlated with the anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical parameters, as well as with the areas measured by abdominal CT. Intra-abdominal thickness was the variable for which the correlation with the areas of abdominal fat was strongest (i.e., the correlation coefficient was highest). We also tested the reproducibility of ultrasound and CT for the assessment of abdominal fat and found that CT measurements of abdominal fat showed greater reproducibility, having higher intraobserver and interobserver reliability than had the ultrasound measurements. There was a significant correlation between ultrasound and CT, with a correlation coefficient of 0.71. In the assessment of abdominal fat, the intraobserver and interobserver reliability were greater for CT than for ultrasound, although both methods showed high accuracy and good reproducibility.

  1. Imaging Findings of Liposuction with an Emphasis on Postsurgical Complications

    PubMed Central

    You, Je Sung; Baek, Song-Ee; Chung, Sung Phil; Kim, Myeong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Liposuction is one of the most frequently performed cosmetic surgeries worldwide for reshaping the body contour. Although liposuction is minimally invasive and relatively safe, it is a surgical procedure, and it carries the risk of major and minor complications. These complications vary from postoperative nausea to life-threatening events. Common complications include infection, abdominal wall injury, bowel herniation, bleeding, haematoma, seroma, and lymphoedema. Life-threatening complications such as necrotizing fasciitis, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism have also been reported. In this paper, we provide a brief introduction to liposuction with the related anatomy and present computed tomography and ultrasonography findings of a wide spectrum of postoperative complications associated with liposuction. PMID:26576108

  2. Distinguishing infected from noninfected abdominal fluid collections after surgery: an imaging, clinical, and laboratory-based scoring system.

    PubMed

    Gnannt, Ralph; Fischer, Michael A; Baechler, Thomas; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Karlo, Christoph; Seifert, Burkhardt; Lesurtel, Mickael; Alkadhi, Hatem

    2015-01-01

    Mortality from abdominal abscesses ranges from 30% in treated cases up to 80% to 100% in patients with undrained or nonoperated abscesses. Various computed tomographic (CT) imaging features have been suggested to indicate infection of postoperative abdominal fluid collections; however, features are nonspecific and substantial overlap between infected and noninfected collections exists. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a scoring system on the basis of CT imaging findings as well as laboratory and clinical parameters for distinguishing infected from noninfected abdominal fluid collections after surgery. The score developmental cohort included 100 consecutive patients (69 men, 31 women; mean age, 58 ± 17 years) who underwent portal-venous phase CT within 24 hours before CT-guided intervention of postoperative abdominal fluid collections. Imaging features included attenuation (Hounsfield unit [HU]), volume, wall enhancement and thickness, fat stranding, as well as entrapped gas of fluid collections. Laboratory and clinical parameters included diabetes, intake of immunosuppressive drugs, body temperature, C-reactive protein, and leukocyte blood cell count. The score was validated in a separate cohort of 30 consecutive patients (17 men, 13 women; mean age, 51 ± 15 years) with postoperative abdominal fluid collections. Microbiologic analysis from fluid samples served as the standard of reference. Diabetes, body temperature, C-reactive protein, attenuation of the fluid collection (in HUs), wall enhancement and thickness of the wall, adjacent fat stranding, as well as entrapped gas within the fluid collection were significantly different between infected and noninfected collections (P < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed diabetes, C-reactive protein, attenuation of the fluid collection (in HUs), as well as entrapped gas as significant independent predictors of infection (P < 0.001) and thus was selected for constructing a scoring

  3. Hemolytic uremic syndrome complicating Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

    PubMed

    Godron, Astrid; Pereyre, Sabine; Monet, Catherine; Llanas, Brigitte; Harambat, Jérôme

    2013-10-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae can cause various extrapulmonary manifestations but, to our knowledge, no case of Mycoplasma pneumoniae associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) has been reported. We describe a 1-year-old boy with M. pneumoniae respiratory tract infection and associated microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, slightly decreased platelet count and mild renal impairment, suggesting a diagnosis of HUS. Assuming M. pneumoniae infection was the cause of HUS in this case, the different possible mechanisms, including an atypical HUS due to preexisting complement dysregulation, an alternative complement pathway activation induced by M. pneumoniae infection at the acute phase, an autoimmune disorder, and a direct role of the bacteria in inducing endothelial injury, are discussed. The signs of HUS resolved with treatment of the M. pneumoniae infection. Hemolytic uremic syndrome may be an unusual complication of M. pneumoniae infection.

  4. Treatment by ultrasound-guided local infiltration in adhesion-related abdominal pain and intractable hiccups: A case report.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dan; Gu, Zhi-Yong; Lin, Chia-Shiang; Nie, Fa-Chuan; Cui, Jian

    2018-04-01

    Abdominal pain and hiccups secondary to intra-abdominal adhesion are surgical complications that are often treated by painkillers and secondary surgeries with an unsatisfactory therapeutic effect. This study presents a new treatment method that uses ultrasound-guided local infiltration in peritoneal and abdominal wall adhesions in patients with hiccups and abdominal pain. A 62-year-old patient presented to our hospital with a history of intractable hiccups and abdominal pain for 30 years. Her abdominal examination revealed a scar with an approximate length of 10 cm on the abdominal umbilical plane; pressing the right scar area could simultaneously induce abdominal pain and hiccups. Intraperitoneal computed tomography examination clearly demonstrated that the bowel had no obvious expansion. Ultrasonographic examination found that peritoneal motility below the normal peritoneal adhesion regions was significantly slower than in the normal regions. The diagnosis of chronic postoperative pain syndrome was clear. The symptoms were significantly alleviated by a successful treatment with ultrasound-guided local infiltration in the peritoneal and abdominal wall scar adhesions. After 3 stages of hospitalization and 1 year of follow-up, the patient's abdominal wall pain was relieved by approximately 80% and hiccups were relieved by approximately 70%. The above treatment is a useful option for managing abdominal adhesion and accompanying pain or hiccups resulting from abdominal surgery. This method could ease the psychological and economic burden of patients and improve their quality of life.

  5. Pirfenidone vs. sodium hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose as prevention of the formation of intra-abdominal adhesions after colonic surgery. A randomized study in an experimental model.

    PubMed

    Bello-Guerrero, Jorge Alberto; Cruz-Santiago, César Alberto; Luna-Martínez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Up to 93% of patients undergoing abdominal surgery will develop intra-abdominal adhesions with the subsequent morbidity that they represent. Various substances have been tested for the prevention of adhesions with controversial results; the aim of our study is to compare the capability of pirfenidone in adhesion prevention against sodium hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose. A randomized, prospective, longitudinal experimental study with Winstar rats. They were divided into 3 groups. The subjects underwent an exploratory laparotomy and they had a 4cm(2) cecal abrasion. The first group received saline on the cecal abrasion, and groups 2 and 3 received pirfenidone and sodium hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose respectively. All rats were sacrificed on the 21st day after surgery and the presence of adhesions was evaluated with the modified Granat scale. Simple frequency, central tendency and dispersion measures were recorded. For the statistical analysis we used Fisher's test. To evaluate adhesions we used the Granat's modified scale. The control group had a median adhesion formation of 3 (range 0-4). The pirfenidone group had 1.5 (range 0-3), and the sodium hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose group had 0 (range 0-1). There was a statistically significant difference to favor sodium hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose against saline and pirfenidone (P<0.009 and P<.022 respectively). The use of sodium hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose is effective for the prevention of intra-abdominal adhesions. More experimental studies are needed in search for the optimal adhesion prevention drug. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. T helper type 2-polarized invariant natural killer T cells reduce disease severity in acute intra-abdominal sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Anantha, R V; Mazzuca, D M; Xu, S X; Porcelli, S A; Fraser, D D; Martin, C M; Welch, I; Mele, T; Haeryfar, S M M; McCormick, J K

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is characterized by a severe systemic inflammatory response to infection that is associated with high morbidity and mortality despite optimal care. Invariant natural killer T (iNK T) cells are potent regulatory lymphocytes that can produce pro- and/or anti-inflammatory cytokines, thus shaping the course and nature of immune responses; however, little is known about their role in sepsis. We demonstrate here that patients with sepsis/severe sepsis have significantly elevated proportions of iNK T cells in their peripheral blood (as a percentage of their circulating T cells) compared to non-septic patients. We therefore investigated the role of iNK T cells in a mouse model of intra-abdominal sepsis (IAS). Our data show that iNK T cells are pathogenic in IAS, and that T helper type 2 (Th2) polarization of iNK T cells using the synthetic glycolipid OCH significantly reduces mortality from IAS. This reduction in mortality is associated with the systemic elevation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-13 and reduction of several proinflammatory cytokines within the spleen, notably interleukin (IL)-17. Finally, we show that treatment of sepsis with OCH in mice is accompanied by significantly reduced apoptosis of splenic T and B lymphocytes and macrophages, but not natural killer cells. We propose that modulation of iNK T cell responses towards a Th2 phenotype may be an effective therapeutic strategy in early sepsis. PMID:24965554

  7. Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome after complicated traumatic lower extremity vascular injuries.

    PubMed

    Macedo, F I B; Sciarretta, J D; Otero, C A; Ruiz, G; Ebler, D J; Pizano, L R; Namias, N

    2016-04-01

    Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) can occur in trauma patients without abdominal injuries. Surgical management of patients presenting with secondary ACS after isolated traumatic lower extremity vascular injury (LEVI) continues to evolve, and associated outcomes remain unknown. From January 2006 to September 2011, 191 adult trauma patients presented to the Ryder Trauma Center, an urban level I trauma center in Miami, Florida with traumatic LEVIs. Among them 10 (5.2 %) patients were diagnosed with secondary ACS. Variables collected included age, gender, mechanism of injury, and clinical status at presentation. Surgical data included vessel injury, technical aspects of repair, associated complications, and outcomes. Mean age was 37.4 ± 18.0 years (range 16-66 years), and the majority of patients were males (8 patients, 80 %). There were 7 (70 %) penetrating injuries (5 gunshot wounds and 2 stab wounds), and 3 blunt injuries with mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) 21.9 ± 14.3 (range 9-50). Surgical management of LEVIs included ligation (4 patients, 40 %), primary repair (1 patient, 10 %), reverse saphenous vein graft (2 patients, 20 %), and PTFE interposition grafting (3 patients, 30 %). The overall mortality rate in this series was 60 %. The association between secondary ACS and lower extremity vascular injuries carries high morbidity and mortality rates. Further research efforts should focus at identifying parameters to accurately determine resuscitation goals, and therefore, prevent such a devastating condition.

  8. Intracranial complications of Serratia marcescens infection in neonates.

    PubMed

    Madide, Ayanda; Smith, Johan

    2016-03-15

    Even though Serratia marcescens is not one of the most common causes of infection in neonates, it is associated with grave morbidity and mortality. We describe the evolution of brain parenchymal affectation observed in association with S. marcescens infection in neonates. This retrospective case series details brain ultrasound findings of five neonates with hospital-acquired S. marcescens infection. Neonatal S. marcescens infection with or without associated meningitis can be complicated by brain parenchymal affectation, leading to cerebral abscess formation. It is recommended that all neonates with this infection should undergo neuro-imaging more than once before discharge from hospital; this can be achieved using bedside ultrasonography.

  9. Intra-abdominal fluid extravasation during hip arthroscopy: a survey of the MAHORN group.

    PubMed

    Kocher, Mininder S; Frank, Jeremy S; Nasreddine, Adam Y; Safran, Marc R; Philippon, Marc J; Sekiya, Jon K; Kelly, Bryan T; Byrd, J W Thomas; Guanche, Carlos A; Martin, Hal D; Clohisy, John C; Mohtadi, Nick G; Griffin, Damian R; Sampson, Thomas G; Leunig, Michael; Larson, Christopher M; Ilizaliturri, Victor M; McCarthy, Joseph C; Gambacorta, Peter G

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey experts in the field of hip arthroscopy from the Multicenter Arthroscopy of the Hip Outcomes Research Network (MAHORN) group to determine the frequency of symptomatic intra-abdominal fluid extravasation (IAFE) after arthroscopic hip procedures, identify potential risk factors, and develop preventative measures and treatment strategies in the event of symptomatic IAFE. A survey was sent to all members of the MAHORN group. Surveys collected data on general hip arthroscopy settings, including pump pressure and frequency of different hip arthroscopies performed, as well as details on cases of symptomatic IAFE. Responses to the survey were documented and analyzed. Fifteen hip arthroscopists from the MAHORN group were surveyed. A total of 25,648 hip arthroscopies between 1984 and 2010 were reviewed. Arthroscopic procedures included capsulotomies, labral reattachment after acetabuloplasty, peripheral compartment arthroscopy, and osteoplasty of the femoral head-neck junction. Of the arthroscopists, 7 (47%) had 1 or more cases of IAFE (40 cases reported). The prevalence of IAFE in this study was 0.16% (40 of 25,650). Significant risk factors associated with IAFE were higher arthroscopic fluid pump pressure (P = .004) and concomitant iliopsoas tenotomy (P < .001). In all 40 cases, the condition was successfully treated without long-term sequelae. Treatment options included observation, intravenous furosemide, and Foley catheter placement, as well as 1 case of laparotomy. Symptomatic IAFE after hip arthroscopy is a rare occurrence, with an approximate prevalence of 0.16%. Prevention of IAFE should include close intraoperative and postoperative monitoring of abdominal distention, core body temperature, and hemodynamic stability. Concomitant iliopsoas tenotomy and high pump pressures may be risk factors leading to symptomatic IAFE. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2012 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by

  10. Surgical management of complicated hydatid cysts of the liver

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Ajaz A; Bari, Shams UL; Amin, Ruquia; Jan, Masooda

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To review the clinical presentation and surgical management of complicated hydatid cysts of the liver and to assess whether conservative surgery is adequate in the management of complicated hydatid cysts of liver. METHODS: The study was carried out at Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Science, Srinagar, Kashmir, India. Sixty nine patients with hydatid disease of the liver were surgically managed from April 2004 to October 2005 with a follow up period of three years. It included 27 men and 42 women with a median age of 35 years. An abdominal ultrasound, computed tomography and serology established diagnosis. Patients with jaundice and high suspicion of intrabiliary rupture were subjected to preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Cysts with infection, rupture into the biliary tract and peritoneal cavity were categorized as complicated cysts. Eighteen patients (26%) had complicated cysts and formed the basis for this study. RESULTS: Common complications were infection (14%), intrabiliary rupture (9%) and intraperitoneal rupture (3%). All the patients with infected cysts presented with pain and fever. All the patients with intrabiliary rupture had jaundice, while only four with intrabiliary rupture had pain and only two had fever. Surgical procedures performed in complicated cysts were: infection-omentoplasty in three and external drainage in seven; intrabiliary rupture-omentoplasty in two and internal drainage in four patients. Two patients with intraperitoneal rupture underwent external drainage. There was no mortality. The postoperative morbidity was 50% in complicated cysts and 16% in uncomplicated cysts. CONCLUSION: Complicated hydatid cyst of the liver can be successfully managed surgically with good long term results. PMID:21160854

  11. Diagnostic value of C-reactive protein to rule out infectious complications after major abdominal surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gans, Sarah L; Atema, Jasper J; van Dieren, Susan; Groot Koerkamp, Bas; Boermeester, Marja A

    2015-07-01

    Infectious complications occur frequently after major abdominal surgery and have a major influence on patient outcome and hospital costs. A marker that can rule out postoperative infectious complications (PICs) could aid patient selection for safe and early hospital discharge. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a widely available, fast, and cheap marker that might be of value in detecting PIC. Present meta-analysis evaluates the diagnostic value of CRP to rule out PIC following major abdominal surgery, aiding patient selection for early discharge. A systematic literature search of Medline, PubMed, and Cochrane was performed identifying all prospective studies evaluating the diagnostic value of CRP after abdominal surgery. Meta-analysis was performed according to the PRISMA statement. Twenty-two studies were included for qualitative analysis of which 16 studies were eligible for meta-analysis, representing 2215 patients. Most studies analyzed the value of CRP in colorectal surgery (eight studies). The pooled negative predictive value (NPV) improved each day after surgery up to 90% at postoperative day (POD) 3 for a pooled CRP cutoff of 159 mg/L (range 92-200). Maximum predictive values for PICs were reached on POD 5 for a pooled CRP cutoff of 114 mg/L (range 48-150): a pooled sensitivity of 86% (95% confidence interval (CI) 79-91%), specificity of 86% (95% CI 75-92%), and a positive predictive value of 64% (95% CI 49-77%). The pooled sensitivity and specificity were significantly higher on POD 5 than on other PODs (p < 0.001). Infectious complications after major abdominal surgery are very unlikely in patients with a CRP below 159 mg/L on POD 3. This can aid patient selection for safe and early hospital discharge and prevent overuse of imaging.

  12. Clinical Study of Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) for Severe Pelvic Fracture and Intra Abdominal Hemorrhagic Shock using Continuous Vital Signs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0025 TITLE: Clinical Study of Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) for Severe Pelvic...Intra-Abdominal Hemorrhagic Shock 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0025 Clinical Study of Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta ...sites. Resuscitative balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) has been clinically demonstrated to stop bleeding below the diaphragm. It has the potential

  13. Do we really rely on fast for decision-making in the management of blunt abdominal trauma?

    PubMed

    Carter, Jeffrey W; Falco, Mark H; Chopko, Michael S; Flynn, William J; Wiles Iii, Charles E; Guo, Weidun Alan

    2015-05-01

    The Focused Assessment with Sonography in Trauma examination (FAST) is currently taught and recommended in the ATLS(®), often as an addendum to the primary survey for patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Although it is non-invasive and rapidly performed at bedside, the utility of FAST in blunt abdominal trauma has been questioned. We designed this study to examine our hypothesis that FAST is not an efficacious screening tool for identifying intra-abdominal injuries. We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients with confirmatory diagnosis of blunt abdominal injuries with CT and/or laparotomy for a period of 1.5 years (from 7/2009 to 11/2010). FAST was performed by ED residents and considered positive when free intra-abdominal fluid was visualized. Abdominal CT, or exploratory laparotomy findings were used as confirmation of intra-abdominal injury. A total of 1671 blunt trauma patients were admitted to and evaluated in the Emergency Department during a 1½ year period and 146 patients were confirmed intra-abdominal injuries by CT and/or laparotomy. Intraoperative findings include injuries to the liver, spleen, kidneys, and bowels. In 114 hemodynamically stable patients, FAST was positive in 25 patients, with a sensitivity of 22%. In 32 hemodynamically unstable patients, FAST was positive in 9 patients, with a sensitivity of 28%. A free peritoneal fluid and splenic injury are associated with a positive FAST on univariate analysis, and are the independent predictors for a positive FAST on multiple logistic regression. FAST has a very low sensitivity in detecting blunt intraabdominal injury. In hemodynamically stable patients, a negative FAST without a CT may result in missed intra-abdominal injuries. In hemodynamically unstable blunt trauma patients, with clear physical findings on examination, the decision for exploratory laparotomy should not be distracted by a negative FAST. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biological approach to treatment of intra-articular proximal tibial fractures with double osteosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Saurabh; Patel, Pankaj R; Joshi, Anil Kumar; Naik, Rajnikant N; Nagaraj, Chethan; Kumar, Sudeep

    2009-02-01

    The treatment of intra-articular proximal tibial fractures is associated with complications, and much conflicting literature exists concerning the treatment of choice. In our study, an attempt has been made to develop an ideal and adequate treatment protocol for these intra-articular fractures. The principle of double osteosynthesis, i.e., lateral minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO), was combined with a medial external fixator to treat 22 intra-articular proximal tibial fractures with soft tissue injury with a mean follow-up of 25 months. Superficial pin track infection was observed in one case, and no soft tissue breakdown was noted. Loss of articular reconstruction was reported in one case. Bridging callus was seen at 12 weeks (8 weeks-7 months). The principle of substitution or double osteosynthesis, i.e., lateral MIPO, was combined with a medial external fixator and proved to be a fairly good method of fixation in terms of results and complications.

  15. CT abdominal imaging findings in patients with sickle cell disease: acute vaso-occlusive crisis, complications, and chronic sequelae.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Carly S; Boll, Daniel T; Bhosale, Priya; Jaffe, Tracy A

    2016-12-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most prevalent hemoglobinopathy. Survival in patients with SCD has improved over the past few decades. These patients experience a lifetime of repeated acute pain crises, which are thought to result from sickling and microvascular occlusions; acute abdominal pain is common. Moreover, repeated crises often lead to organ dysfunction, such as asplenia, hepatic failure, and renal failure. The spleen, liver, biliary system, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract can all be affected. Patients may undergo CT to further direct clinical management. We review the spectrum of CT imaging findings of abdominal manifestations in patients with SCD, from the acute microvascular occlusive pain crisis to the potential complications and chronic sequelae.

  16. Laparoscopic versus open abdominal surgery in children with sickle cell disease is associated with a shorter hospital stay.

    PubMed

    Goers, Trudie; Panepinto, Julie; Debaun, Michael; Blinder, Morey; Foglia, Robert; Oldham, Keith T; Field, Joshua J

    2008-03-01

    Limited information exists comparing the post-operative complication rate of laparoscopic or open abdominal surgeries in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). The primary objective of this study was to compare the outcomes in children with SCD who required laparoscopic or open abdominal surgery for a cholecystectomy or splenectomy. We conducted a retrospective analysis of laparoscopic and open abdominal surgeries performed in children with SCD (ages 0-20 years) at two medical centers from 1984 to 2004. The primary outcome measures were the rates of post-operative pain and acute chest syndrome (ACS) episodes following laparoscopic or open abdominal surgery. The secondary outcome was length of hospital stay following surgery. We also examined the potential contribution of pre-operative (transfusion) and intra-operative factors (operating time, estimated blood loss, and end-operative temperature) to post-operative SCD-related complications. A total of 140 cases were identified, 98 laparoscopic and 42 open. Episodes of post-operative pain and ACS episodes were comparable between laparoscopic and open procedures (pain: 4% vs. 3%, P = 0.619; ACS: 5% vs. 5%, P = 0.933). Additionally, laparoscopic surgeries were associated with a significantly shorter hospital stay (2.9 vs. 5.4 days, 95% CI -3.7 to -1.4, P < 0.001). There was no difference in the number of hospital readmissions within 1 month of the surgery. For children with SCD who need a cholecystectomy or splenectomy, laparoscopy is the preferred strategy because of a shorter hospital stay with a similar complication rate compared to open surgeries. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Periodontal disease and intra-amniotic complications in women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes.

    PubMed

    Radochova, Vladimira; Kacerovska Musilova, Ivana; Stepan, Martin; Vescicik, Peter; Slezak, Radovan; Jacobsson, Bo; Kacerovsky, Marian

    2017-08-04

    Periodontal disease is frequently suggested as a possible causal factor for preterm delivery. The link between periodontal disease and preterm delivery is a possible translocation of periopathogenic bacteria to the placenta and amniotic fluid as well as a systemic response to this chronic inflammatory disease. However, there is a lack of information on whether there is an association between clinical periodontal status in women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) and the presence of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) and intra-amniotic inflammation (IAI). Therefore, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and severity of periodontal disease in women with PPROM. The secondary aim was to characterize an association between periodontal status and the presence of intra-amniotic PPROM complications (MIAC and/or IAI). Seventy-eight women with PPROM at gestational ages between 24 + 0 and 36 + 6 weeks were included in this study. The samples of amniotic fluid were obtained at admission via transabdominal amniocentesis, and amniotic fluid interleukin (IL)-6 concentrations were determined using a point-of-care test. All women had a full-mouth recording to determine the periodontal and oral hygiene status. Probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss were measured at four sites on each fully erupted tooth. In total, 45% (35/78) of women with PPROM had periodontal disease. Mild, moderate, and severe periodontal disease was present in 19% (15/78), 19% (15/78), and 6% (5/78) of women, respectively. The presence of MIAC and IAI was found in 28% (22/78) and 26% (20/78) of women, respectively. Periopathogenic bacteria (2 × Streptococcus intermedius and 1 × Fusobacterium nucleatum) was found in the amniotic fluid of 4% (3/78) of women. There were no differences in periodontal status between women with MIAC and/or IAI and women without these intra-amniotic complications. The presence of MIAC and IAI was not related

  18. The Timing of Hip Arthroscopy After Intra-articular Hip Injection Affects Postoperative Infection Risk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dean; Camp, Christopher L; Ranawat, Anil S; Coleman, Struan H; Kelly, Bryan T; Werner, Brian C

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the association of preoperative intra-articular hip injection with surgical site infection after hip arthroscopy. A large administrative database was used to identify all patients undergoing hip arthroscopy from 2007 to 2015 within a single private insurer and from 2005 to 2012 within Medicare in the United States. Those that received an ipsilateral preoperative intra-articular hip injection were identified. The patients were then divided into the following groups based on the interval between preoperative injection and ipsilateral hip arthroscopy: (1) <3 months, (2) 3 to 6 months, and (3) 6 to 12 months. These groups were compared to a control group composed of patients with no history or a remote history (>12 months) of preoperative hip injection. Patients developing a surgical site infection within 6 months following hip arthroscopy were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, and Current Procedural Terminology codes associated with infection. Groups were compared using a multivariate logistic regression analysis to control for age, gender, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol usage, and multiple medical comorbidities including diabetes mellitus, hemodialysis use, inflammatory arthritis, and peripheral vascular disease. In total, 19% of privately insured and 6% of Medicare patients received a hip injection within 12 months of hip arthroscopy. The overall infection rate in privately insured and Medicare patients was 1.19% and 1.10%, respectively. Preoperative hip injection within 3 months of surgery was associated with a significantly higher risk of postoperative infection versus controls (2.16%, odds ratio [OR] 6.1, P < .001, for privately insured group; 2.80%, OR 1.99, P = .037, for Medicare group). In contrast, preoperative hip injection given after more than 3 months of surgery was not associated with an increased risk of postoperative infection versus controls. Risk of infection after

  19. Plasma osmotic changes during major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Malone, R A; McLeavey, C A; Arens, J F

    1977-12-01

    Fluid balance across the capillary membrane is maintained normally by a balance of hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressures (COP). In 12 patients having major intra-abdominal procedures, the COP was followed during the operative and immediate postoperative periods. The patients' intraoperative fluid management consisted of replacing shed blood with blood and following Shires' concept of crystalloid replacement. Significant decreases in COP to approximately two thirds of the initial value occurred in patients having intra-abdominal procedures versus only a 10 percent decrease in those having peripheral procedures (greater than .001). As a result of this decrease in COP, the balance between hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressures is lost and risk of pulmonary intersitial edema is increased.

  20. Reproducibility of abdominal fat assessment by ultrasound and computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Mauad, Fernando Marum; Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaeté; Benedeti, Augusto César Garcia Saab; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Carneiro, Antonio Adilton Oliveira; Muller, Enrico Mattana; Elias Junior, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To test the accuracy and reproducibility of ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) for the quantification of abdominal fat in correlation with the anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical assessments. Materials and Methods: Using ultrasound and CT, we determined the thickness of subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat in 101 subjects-of whom 39 (38.6%) were men and 62 (61.4%) were women-with a mean age of 66.3 years (60-80 years). The ultrasound data were correlated with the anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical parameters, as well as with the areas measured by abdominal CT. Results: Intra-abdominal thickness was the variable for which the correlation with the areas of abdominal fat was strongest (i.e., the correlation coefficient was highest). We also tested the reproducibility of ultrasound and CT for the assessment of abdominal fat and found that CT measurements of abdominal fat showed greater reproducibility, having higher intraobserver and interobserver reliability than had the ultrasound measurements. There was a significant correlation between ultrasound and CT, with a correlation coefficient of 0.71. Conclusion: In the assessment of abdominal fat, the intraobserver and interobserver reliability were greater for CT than for ultrasound, although both methods showed high accuracy and good reproducibility. PMID:28670024

  1. [Abdomen specific bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) methods for evaluation of abdominal fat distribution].

    PubMed

    Ida, Midori; Hirata, Masakazu; Hosoda, Kiminori; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2013-02-01

    Two novel bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) methods have been developed recently for evaluation of intra-abdominal fat accumulation. Both methods use electrodes that are placed on abdominal wall and allow evaluation of intra-abdominal fat area (IAFA) easily without radiation exposure. Of these, "abdominal BIA" method measures impedance distribution along abdominal anterior-posterior axis, and IAFA by BIA method(BIA-IAFA) is calculated from waist circumference and the voltage occurring at the flank. Dual BIA method measures impedance of trunk and body surface at the abdominal level and calculates BIA-IAFA from transverse and antero-posterior diameters of the abdomen and the impedance of trunk and abdominal surface. BIA-IAFA by these two BIA methods correlated well with IAFA measured by abdominal CT (CT-IAFA) with correlatipn coefficient of 0.88 (n = 91, p < 0.0001) for the former, and 0.861 (n = 469, p < 0.01) for the latter. These new BIA methods are useful for evaluating abdominal adiposity in clinical study and routine clinical practice of metabolic syndrome and obesity.

  2. Intra- and postoperative catumaxomab in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer: safety and two-year efficacy results from a multicentre, single-arm, phase II study

    PubMed Central

    Sehouli, J; Reinthaller, A; Marth, C; Reimer, D; Reimer, T; Stummvoll, W; Angleitner-Boubenizek, L; Brandt, B; Chekerov, R

    2014-01-01

    Background: This is the first study investigating the safety and efficacy of the trifunctional antibody catumaxomab administered i.p. at the end of cytoreductive surgery and postoperatively prior to standard chemotherapy in patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Methods: Patients received i.p. catumaxomab 10 μg intraoperatively and 10, 20, 50 and 150 μg on days 7, 10, 13 and 16, respectively, postoperatively. After the study, patients received standard chemotherapy and were followed for 23 months. The primary endpoint was the rate of postoperative complications. Results: Forty-one patients entered the study and were evaluable for safety and 34 were alive at 24 months. Complete tumour resection rate was 68%. Postoperative complications were observed in 51%, the most common anastomotic leakage (7%) and wound infections (5%). The most common catumaxomab-related adverse events were abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and pyrexia. Thirty-nine percent discontinued catumaxomab therapy, and 98% received chemotherapy post study. Kaplan–Meier estimates of disease-free and overall survival after 24 months were 56% and 85%, respectively. Conclusions: Intra- and close postoperative catumaxomab seems feasible, but efficacy and safety were limited by postsurgical complications. In the future prospective trials are needed to investigate the best schedule of integration of catumaxomab into current treatment strategies for EOC. PMID:25225907

  3. Primary repair of penetrating colon injuries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Singer, Marc A; Nelson, Richard L

    2002-12-01

    Primary repair of penetrating colon injuries is an appealing management option; however, uncertainty about its safety persists. This study was conducted to compare the morbidity and mortality of primary repair with fecal diversion in the management of penetrating colon injuries by use of a meta-analysis of randomized, prospective trials. We searched for prospective, randomized trials in MEDLINE (1966 to November 2001), the Cochrane Library, and EMBase using the terms colon, penetrating, injury, colostomy, prospective, and randomized. Studies were included if they were randomized, controlled trials that compared the outcomes of primary repair with fecal diversion in the management of penetrating colon injuries. Five studies were included. Reviewers performed data extraction independently. Outcomes evaluated from each trial included mortality, total complications, infectious complications, intra-abdominal infections, wound complications, penetrating abdominal trauma index, and length of stay. Peto odds ratios for combined effect were calculated with a 95 percent confidence interval for each outcome. Heterogeneity was also assessed for each outcome. The penetrating abdominal trauma index of included subjects did not differ significantly between studies. Mortality was not significantly different between groups (odds ratio, 1.70; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.51-5.66). However, total complications (odds ratio, 0.28; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.18-0.42), total infectious complications (odds ratio, 0.41; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.27-0.63), abdominal infections including dehiscence (odds ratio, 0.59; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.38-0.94), abdominal infections excluding dehiscence (odds ratio, 0.52; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.31-0.86), wound complications including dehiscence (odds ratio, 0.55; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.34-0.89), and wound complications excluding dehiscence (odds ratio, 0.43; 95 percent confidence interval, 0

  4. Can abdominal surgical emergencies be treated in an ambulatory setting?

    PubMed

    Genser, L; Vons, C

    2015-12-01

    interval has not been demonstrated. Early discharge after cholecystectomy was usually possible, even in series where acute cholecystitis was diagnosed intra-operatively. Cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis and gallstone pancreatitis seems to be feasible but no reports specifically support this approach. Emergency abdominal surgery seems to be feasible on an ambulatory setting for non-complicated acute appendicitis, acute calculous cholecystitis and gallstone pancreatitis. Only a single French series on ambulatory appendectomy for acute appendicitis has been reported. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Bilateral rectus sheath haematoma complicating dengue virus infection in a patient on warfarin for mechanical aortic valve replacement: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Chamith Thushanga; Navinan, Mitrakrishnan Rayno; Samarawickrama, Sincy; Hamza, Himam; Gunarathne, Maheshika; Arulanantham, Arulprashanth; Subba, Neeha; Samarasiri, Udari; Mathias, Thushara; Kulatunga, Aruna

    2017-01-07

    The management of Dengue virus infection can be challenging. Varied presentations and numerous complications intrinsic to dengue by itself increase the complexity of treatment and potential mortality. When burdened with the presence of additional comorbidities and the need to continue compulsory medications, clear stepwise definitive guidance is lacking and patients tend to have more complex complications and outcomes calling to question the clinical decisions that may have been taken. The use and continuation of warfarin in dengue virus infection is one such example. We report a 65 year old South Asian female who presented with dengue fever. She had a history bronchial asthma, a prior abdominal surgery, and was on warfarin and maintained a therapeutically appropriate internationalized normalized ratio for a mechanical aortic valve replacement. Though preemptive decision to stop warfarin was taken with decreasing platelet counts, her clinical course was complicated with the development of bilateral rectus sheath haematoma's requiring resuscitation with blood transfusions. Though management of dengue viral fever has seen drastic evolution with recent updated guidance, clinical scenarios seen in the course of the illness still pose challenges to the managing physician. The need to continue obligatory anticoagulation which may seem counterintuitive during a complex disease such as dengue virus infection must be considered after understanding the potential risks versus that of its benefits. Though case by case decisions maybe warranted, a clear protocol would be very helpful in making clinical decisions, as the correct preemptive decision may potentially avert catastrophic and unpredictable bleeding events.

  6. In women with polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity, loss of intra-abdominal fat is associated with resumption of ovulation.

    PubMed

    Kuchenbecker, Walter K H; Groen, Henk; van Asselt, Sophie J; Bolster, Johanna H T; Zwerver, J; Slart, Riemer H J; Vd Jagt, Erik J; Muller Kobold, Anneke C; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Land, Jolande A; Hoek, Annemieke

    2011-09-01

    It is not clear why some anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity resume ovulation and others remain anovulatory after weight loss. The objective of this study was to compare the changes in body fat distribution and specifically intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF) between a group of anovulatory women with PCOS and obesity who resume ovulation (RO+) to those who remain anovulatory (RO-) during a lifestyle program. In a prospective pilot cohort study, anovulatory women with PCOS underwent a 6 month lifestyle program in a tertiary fertility clinic. Body fat distribution was assessed by anthropometrics, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and single slice abdominal CT scan at intake, after 3 months and after 6 months. Baseline-corrected changes over time were analysed using generalized estimating equations longitudinal regression analysis. In 32 anovulatory women with PCOS (age, 28 ± 4 years; BMI, 37.5 ± 5.0 kg/m²), there were no significant baseline differences in anthropometrics and biochemical assessment between 14 RO+ participants and 18 RO- participants. RO+ women lost more weight (6.3 versus 3.0%) and abdominal fat on DEXA (15.0 versus 4.3%) compared with RO- women. Resumption of ovulation was associated with early and consistent loss of IAF (12.4 versus 5.0% at 3 months and 18.5 versus 8.6% at 6 months). Loss of SAF between the RO+ women and the RO- women was similar at 3 months (6.2 versus 6.1%) but did not change any further in RO- women (6.1%) as it did in RO+ women (11.4%) at 6 months. In anovulatory women with PCOS and obesity undergoing a lifestyle program, RO+ women lose more body weight and abdominal fat on DEXA than RO- women. In addition, this study shows that early and consistent loss of IAF is associated with resumption of ovulation. Future studies should address the mechanisms behind these changes and should assess interventions aimed at loss of IAF to facilitate resumption of ovulation.

  7. Change in Abdominal Morphology After Surgical Correction of Thoracolumbar Kyphosis Secondary to Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Computed Tomographic Study.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ming-Liang; Qian, Bang-Ping; Qiu, Yong; Wang, Bin; Mao, Sai-Hu; Zhu, Ze-Zhang; Yu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    A computed tomographic study. To investigate the change in abdominal morphology in surgically treated patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and thoracolumbar kyphosis. Severe thoracolumbar kyphosis in patients with AS exerts pressure on the abdominal cavity and subsequently causes intra-abdominal complications. Several spinal osteotomy techniques have been widely used to correct AS-related thoracolumbar kyphosis. To date, the changed abdominal morphology in patients with AS undergoing surgical correction of thoracolumbar kyphosis has not been addressed. A total of 29 patients with AS undergoing lumbar pedicle subtraction osteotomy for correction of thoracolumbar kyphosis were retrospectively reviewed. Computed tomographic scans of the spine were used to measure the longitudinal, transverse, and anterior-posterior diameters of the abdominal cavity. Furthermore, the abdominal cavity was considered as an ellipsoid structure, thereby allowing calculation of its volume. Radiographical evaluations included global kyphosis (GK), thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis (LL), and angle of fusion levels (AFL). The longitudinal diameter of abdominal cavity significantly increased (P < 0.01), whereas the transverse and anterior-posterior diameters of the abdominal cavity did not change, postoperatively (P > 0.05). Significant changes in GK, LL, and AFL were observed (P < 0.01). The abdominal cavity volume (ACV) increased by an average of 652  mL. The change in ACV was significantly correlated with the changes in GK (r = 0.453, P = 0.014), LL (r = 0.42, P = 0.023), and AFL (r = 0.388, P = 0.037). The increased ACV after correction of thoracolumbar kyphosis was quantitatively confirmed by this study. Thus, the improvement in digestive function after correction of thoracolumbar kyphosis secondary to AS, which has been previously documented, may be because of an increase in ACV. Moreover, spine surgeons should be aware of the potential risk for

  8. [Unusual infection complication of total hip arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Jány, R; Vojtassák, J; Lisý, M; Almási, J

    2005-01-01

    Authors present the case history of a 66-year old patient after repeated reimplantations of the THA with a deep infect caused by a rare aetiological agent (Serratia marcescens) associated with a pyogenic sinus. They describe the disease history, therapeutic procedure, complications associated with the surgery as well as postoperative course after the reimplantation of a customized total hip replacement. In the conclusion they state that in case of an infected total hip arthroplasty the treatment is focused on the salvage of the infection process and preservation of the function of the affected limb. Of essential importance is surgical revision with a radical removal of necrotic tissues and hardware in combination with an intensive parenteral antibiotic administration.

  9. [Initiating a Robotic Program for Abdominal Surgery - Experiences from a Centre in Germany].

    PubMed

    Brunner, Maximilian; Matzel, Klaus; Aladashvili, Archil; Krautz, Christian; Grützmann, Robert; Croner, Roland

    2018-05-18

    Robotic systems are becoming increasingly important in abdominal surgery. We describe the implementation of a robotic program at a German centre for abdominal surgery, with focus on feasibility, safety, patient selection, learning curves, financial aspects and the lessons learned. This retrospective analysis covered data on patient demographics, intra- and postoperative parameters, oncological results and costs of all robotic-assisted abdominal operations performed at our institution between August 2012 to December 2016. It was also evaluated how possible factors for preoperative patient selection might influence intra- or postoperative outcome and learning parameters. 81 operations were performed - mostly colorectal resections (n = 35), ventral mesh rectopexy (n = 23) and liver resections (n = 18). The conversion rate was 7%. All oncological patients underwent R0 resection. Mean postoperative hospitalisation was 8.8 days; mean morbidity was 24%, with major complications (Clavien-Dindo > II) in 7%; mortality was 0%. BMI above 33.5 kg/m 2 was associated with significantly higher morbidity (p = 0.024) and rate of major complications (p = 0.046), as well as a significantly longer hospitalisation (p = 0.009). Patients older than 65 years had significantly higher morbidity (p = 0.025). With increasing numbers of operations, time of surgery decreased (p = 0.001). The average cost of a robot-assisted operation, including hospital stay, was 15,221 €. The costs of robotic sigmoid resections or liver resections were higher (compared to the open approach: 106.8 and 62.8% higher, respectively, compared to the laparoscopic approach 93.5 and 66.5% higher, respectively). Robotic surgery is a safe approach. A crucial factor in the successful and safe performance of robotic assisted operations is proper patient selection, especially during the implementation period. The inevitable learning curve and the higher costs compared to open and

  10. Restrictive versus Liberal Fluid Therapy for Major Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Myles, Paul S; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Corcoran, Tomas; Forbes, Andrew; Peyton, Philip; Story, David; Christophi, Chris; Leslie, Kate; McGuinness, Shay; Parke, Rachael; Serpell, Jonathan; Chan, Matthew T V; Painter, Thomas; McCluskey, Stuart; Minto, Gary; Wallace, Sophie

    2018-05-09

    Background Guidelines to promote the early recovery of patients undergoing major surgery recommend a restrictive intravenous-fluid strategy for abdominal surgery. However, the supporting evidence is limited, and there is concern about impaired organ perfusion. Methods In a pragmatic, international trial, we randomly assigned 3000 patients who had an increased risk of complications while undergoing major abdominal surgery to receive a restrictive or liberal intravenous-fluid regimen during and up to 24 hours after surgery. The primary outcome was disability-free survival at 1 year. Key secondary outcomes were acute kidney injury at 30 days, renal-replacement therapy at 90 days, and a composite of septic complications, surgical-site infection, or death. Results During and up to 24 hours after surgery, 1490 patients in the restrictive fluid group had a median intravenous-fluid intake of 3.7 liters (interquartile range, 2.9 to 4.9), as compared with 6.1 liters (interquartile range, 5.0 to 7.4) in 1493 patients in the liberal fluid group (P<0.001). The rate of disability-free survival at 1 year was 81.9% in the restrictive fluid group and 82.3% in the liberal fluid group (hazard ratio for death or disability, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 0.88 to 1.24; P=0.61). The rate of acute kidney injury was 8.6% in the restrictive fluid group and 5.0% in the liberal fluid group (P<0.001). The rate of septic complications or death was 21.8% in the restrictive fluid group and 19.8% in the liberal fluid group (P=0.19); rates of surgical-site infection (16.5% vs. 13.6%, P=0.02) and renal-replacement therapy (0.9% vs. 0.3%, P=0.048) were higher in the restrictive fluid group, but the between-group difference was not significant after adjustment for multiple testing. Conclusions Among patients at increased risk for complications during major abdominal surgery, a restrictive fluid regimen was not associated with a higher rate of disability-free survival than a liberal fluid regimen and

  11. Controlled Antibiotics Release System through Simple Blended Electrospun Fibers for Sustained Antibacterial Effects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zixin; Tang, Jianxiong; Wang, Heran; Xia, Qinghua; Xu, Shanshan; Han, Charles C

    2015-12-09

    Implantation of sustained antibacterial system after abdominal surgery could effectively prevent complicated intra-abdominal infection. In this study, a simple blended electrospun membrane made of poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolide) (PLGA)/poly(dioxanone) (PDO)/Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CiH) could easily result in approximately linear drug release profile and sustained antibacterial activity against both Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). The addition of PDO changed the stack structure of PLGA, which in turn influenced the fiber swelling and created drug diffusion channels. It could be a good candidate for reducing postoperative infection or be associated with other implant to resist biofilm formation.

  12. Infections Complicating Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Schröter, Gerhard P. J.; Hoelscher, Manfred; Putnam, Charles W.; Porter, Kendrick A.; Hansbrough, John F.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    In 93 recipients of 102 orthotopic liver homografts, the incidence of bacteremia or fungemia exceeded 70%. The graft itself was usually an entry site for systemic infection after both immunologic and nonimmunologic parenchymal injury, especially if there was defective biliary drainage. The role of the homograft itself as the special infectious risk factor has prompted increased use of defunctionalized jejunal Roux limbs to reduce graft contamination. It has also stimulated very aggressive postoperative diagnostic efforts to rule out remedial mechanical complications of the transplant. PMID:793568

  13. Prevotella intermedia infection causing acute and complicated aortitis-A case report.

    PubMed

    Boersma, C; Kampschreur, L M; Buter, H; Doorenbos, B M; Klinkert, P; Koning, G G

    2017-01-01

    Aortitis is a general term that refers to all conditions involving an inflammation of the aortic wall. This case report describes the surgical approach of a patient with infectious and symptomatic aortitis caused by the rare vector Prevotella intermedia. A 44-year old male patient was admitted with fever and general discomfort after a period of sore throat in a non-teaching hospital. After two weeks he developed acute abdominal and back pain accompanied by sweating and elevated infection parameters. Computed tomography angiography revealed atherosclerotic changes of the infrarenal aorta with a locally contained rupture of the aorta alongside peri-aortal signs of inflammation (and aortitis aspects). An urgent aortic reconstruction was performed according to Nevelsteen. The blood cultures turned out positive for Prevotella intermedia. Postoperatively the patient received antibiotics for six weeks. The patient recovered uneventful from this infection and surgical procedure. A complicated and acute aortitis is a rare but potentially life-threatening disease. The aetiology can be ordered into two main groups; inflammatory and infectious. Diagnosis is based upon symptoms, biochemical values, microbiological results and imaging modalities. Treatment depends on aetiology and should be discussed in an experienced multidisciplinary setting. Infectious aortitis should be treated with antibiotics for at least six weeks with close monitoring of the patient's clinic and biochemical values, even after surgery. Prevotella intermedia is a rare causative agent for aortitis. Acute aortitis is a challenging clinical entity which should be managed in an equipped medical center by an experienced multidisciplinary team. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Post ventriculoperitoneal shunt abdominal pseudocyst: Challenges posed in management.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Raashid; Baba, Aejaz A; Bhat, Nisar A; Mufti, Gowhar; Mir, Younis A; Sajad, Wani

    2017-01-01

    In patients with hydrocephalus, the abdominal cavity has been used for absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) since 1905. Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt operation is followed by abdominal complications in about 5-47% cases. Abdominal CSF pseudo cyst is an uncommon, but well described complication. This survey was conducted to study the clinical profile and management of this entity. We present our experience with cases of CSF pseudo cyst in children. Retrospective analysis of 4 cases diagnosed to have abdominal pseudo cyst following VP shunt between 2008 and 2013. All the four cases were suspected clinically and diagnosis was confirmed by abdominal ultrasonography. In three patients, the cyst was multilocular and of varying size. Fourth one had a unilocular cyst at the lower end of VP shunt. All the four patients had features of varying degree raised intracranial pressure and a two patients had abdominal signs also. All the patients needed open exploration. Cyst fluid was drained and partial to complete excision of the cyst was done along with the repositioning of the shunt in abdominal cavity in three patients and exteriorization of shunt in one patient. Patients were followed for any further complication over a period of 1-year. Abdominal pseudo cyst is a rare complication after VP Shunt and could result in shunt malfunction or abdominal symptoms and signs. Whenever suspected it should be confirmed by imaging, followed by open exploration and repositioning of the shunt.

  15. Post ventriculoperitoneal shunt abdominal pseudocyst: Challenges posed in management

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Raashid; Baba, Aejaz A.; Bhat, Nisar A.; Mufti, Gowhar; Mir, Younis A.; Sajad, Wani

    2017-01-01

    Background: In patients with hydrocephalus, the abdominal cavity has been used for absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) since 1905. Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt operation is followed by abdominal complications in about 5-47% cases. Abdominal CSF pseudo cyst is an uncommon, but well described complication. Aim: This survey was conducted to study the clinical profile and management of this entity. We present our experience with cases of CSF pseudo cyst in children. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of 4 cases diagnosed to have abdominal pseudo cyst following VP shunt between 2008 and 2013. All the four cases were suspected clinically and diagnosis was confirmed by abdominal ultrasonography. Results: In three patients, the cyst was multilocular and of varying size. Fourth one had a unilocular cyst at the lower end of VP shunt. All the four patients had features of varying degree raised intracranial pressure and a two patients had abdominal signs also. All the patients needed open exploration. Cyst fluid was drained and partial to complete excision of the cyst was done along with the repositioning of the shunt in abdominal cavity in three patients and exteriorization of shunt in one patient. Patients were followed for any further complication over a period of 1-year. Conclusion: Abdominal pseudo cyst is a rare complication after VP Shunt and could result in shunt malfunction or abdominal symptoms and signs. Whenever suspected it should be confirmed by imaging, followed by open exploration and repositioning of the shunt. PMID:28413525

  16. Identification and treatment of intra-abdominal fetal skeletal remains: A consequence of illicit and unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Rohilla, Minakshi; Kalpdev, Arun; Jain, Vanita

    2015-06-01

    The safety of abortions has always been a matter of concern for women's health. Unsafe abortion is one of the most neglected health-care problems in developing countries due to lack of awareness of the legal issues and limited access to authorised services often leading the women to poor quality of abortion in unsafe settings through untrained health personnel. Two rare cases of second trimester unsafe abortions are reported here in which women presented after several weeks with well-preserved remains of fetal skeleton in their abdomen along with complicated multiple visceral injuries. Both these second trimester abortions were performed by untrained village abortionists for sex selection and unwanted pregnancy in an unmarried adolescent girl. The management in the unmarried girl was further complicated due to undisclosed history of abortion. These reports of unsafe abortion highlight the need for clinicians to have a high index of suspicion for an undisclosed abortion when treating any morbid woman of reproductive age with a bizarre abdominal clinical picture.

  17. A retrospective investigation of abdominal visceral fat, body mass index (BMI), and active smoking as risk factors for donor site wound healing complications after free DIEP flap breast reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Floyd W; Westland, Pèdrou B; Hummelink, Stefan; Schreurs, Joep; Hameeteman, Marijn; Ulrich, Dietmar J O; Slater, Nicholas J

    2018-06-01

    The deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap is one of the most common techniques for breast reconstruction. Body mass index (BMI) is considered as an important predictor of donor site healing complications such as wound dehiscence. The use of computed tomography (CT) proved to be a precise and objective method to assess visceral adipose tissue. It remains unclear whether quantification of visceral fat provides more accurate predictions of abdominal wound healing complications than BMI. A total of 97 patients with DIEP flap were retrospectively evaluated. Patients' abdominal visceral fat (AVF) was quantified on CT angiography (CTA). The patients were postoperatively assessed for abdominal wound healing complications. We analyzed for the correlations between AVF, BMI, and dehiscence and established a logistic regression model to assess the potential high-profile predictors in anatomic and patient characteristics such as weight, smoking, and diabetes. We included 97 patients, and of them, 24 patients (24.7%) had some degree of abdominal dehiscence. No significant differences were observed between the dehiscence group and the non-dehiscence group, except for smoking (p = 0.002). We found a significant correlation between AVF and BMI (R = 0.282, p = 0.005), but neither was significant in predicting donor site dehiscence. Smoking greatly increased the likelihood of developing wound dehiscence (OR = 11.4, p = < 0.001). AVF and BMI were not significant predictors of abdominal wound healing complications after DIEP flap reconstruction. This study established active smoking (OR = 11.4, p = < 0.001) as the significant risk factor that contributed to the development of abdominal wound dehiscence in patients with DIEP. Copyright © 2018 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Incentive spirometry after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Davis, Suja P

    Patients face various possible complications after abdominal surgery. This article examines best practice in guiding and teaching them how to use an incentive spirometer to facilitate recovery and prevent respiratory complications.

  19. The Economic Impact of Closed-Incision Negative-Pressure Therapy in High-Risk Abdominal Incisions: A Cost-Utility Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Karan; Gowda, Arvind U; Morrow, Chris; Holton, Luther; Singh, Devinder P

    2016-04-01

    Complex abdominal wall reconstruction is beset by postoperative complications. A recent meta-analysis comparing the use of closed-incision negative-pressure therapy to standard dressings found a statistically significant reduction in surgical-site infection. The use of closed-incision negative-pressure therapy is gaining acceptance in this population; however, the economic impact of this innovative dressing remains unknown. In this study, a cost-utility analysis was performed assessing closed-incision negative-pressure therapy and standard dressings following closure of abdominal incisions in high-risk patients. Cost-utility methodology involved reviewing literature related to closed-incision negative-pressure therapy in abdominal wall surgery, obtaining utility estimates to calculate quality-adjusted life-year scores for successful surgery and surgery complicated by surgical-site infection, summing costs using Medicare Current Procedural Terminology codes, and creating a decision tree illuminating the most cost-effective dressing strategy. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the robustness of the results. The aforementioned meta-analysis comparing closed-incision negative-pressure therapy to standard dressings included a subset of five studies assessing abdominal wall surgery in 829 patients (260 closed-incision negative-pressure therapy and 569 standard dressings). Decision tree analysis revealed an estimated savings of $1546.52 and a gain of 0.0024 quality-adjusted life-year with closed-incision negative-pressure therapy compared with standard dressings; therefore, closed-incision negative-pressure therapy is a dominant treatment strategy. One-way sensitivity analysis revealed that closed-incision negative-pressure therapy is a cost-effective option when the surgical-site infection rate is greater than 16.39 percent. The use of closed-incision negative-pressure therapy is cost-saving following closure of abdominal incisions in high-risk patients.

  20. Infective complications following tumour endoprosthesis surgery for bone and soft tissue tumours.

    PubMed

    Peel, T; May, D; Buising, K; Thursky, K; Slavin, M; Choong, P

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to describe the incidence of infective complications, including tumour endoprosthesis infection, in a cohort of patients undergoing tumour endoprosthesis surgery in Victoria, Australia. This retrospective cohort study was performed over 15 years (January 1996-December 2010). 121 patients underwent tumour endoprosthesis surgery during the study period. Patients were followed for a median of 34 months (interquartile range [IQR] 17, 80). Overall, 34 patients (28%) experienced infective complications including: bacteraemia in 19 patients (16%) and tumour endoprosthesis infection in 17 (14%). The majority of patients with early and late acute infections (haematogenous) were managed with debridement and retention of the prosthesis in addition to biofilm-active antibiotics. Late chronic infections were predominantly managed by exchange of the prosthesis. The overall success rate of treatment was 71%. The success rate for debridement and retention was 75% compared with 67% for exchange procedures. There is a significant rate of infective complications following tumour endoprosthesis surgery including 14% of patients experiencing infection involving the tumour endoprosthesis. This study is the first to report on outcomes from debridement and retention of the prosthesis; which had comparable success rates to other treatment modalities. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Combining abdominal and cosmetic breast surgery does not increase short-term complication rates: a comparison of each individual procedure and pretreatment risk stratification tool.

    PubMed

    Khavanin, Nima; Jordan, Sumanas W; Vieira, Brittany L; Hume, Keith M; Mlodinow, Alexei S; Simmons, Christopher J; Murphy, Robert X; Gutowski, Karol A; Kim, John Y S

    2015-11-01

    Combined abdominal and breast surgery presents a convenient and relatively cost-effective approach for accomplishing both procedures. This study is the largest to date assessing the safety of combined procedures, and it aims to develop a simple pretreatment risk stratification method for patients who desire a combined procedure. All women undergoing abdominoplasty, panniculectomy, augmentation mammaplasty, and/or mastopexy in the TOPS database were identified. Demographics and outcomes for combined procedures were compared to individual procedures using χ(2) and Student's t-tests. Multiple logistic regression provided adjusted odds ratios for the effect of a combined procedure on 30-day complications. Among combined procedures, a logistic regression model determined point values for pretreatment risk factors including diabetes (1 point), age over 53 (1), obesity (2), and 3+ ASA status (3), creating a 7-point pretreatment risk stratification tool. A total of 58,756 cases met inclusion criteria. Complication rates among combined procedures (9.40%) were greater than those of aesthetic breast surgery (2.66%; P < .001) but did not significantly differ from abdominal procedures (9.75%; P = .530). Nearly 77% of combined cases were classified as low-risk (0 points total) with a 9.78% complication rates. Medium-risk patients (1 to 3 points) had a 16.63% complication rate, and high-risk (4 to 7 points) 38.46%. Combining abdominal and breast procedures is safe in the majority of patients and does not increase 30-day complications rates. The risk stratification tool can continue to ensure favorable outcomes for patients who may desire a combined surgery. 4 Risk. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. [Clinical trials of flomoxef in complicated urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Ohta, N; Sudoko, H; Fukuta, K; Nakano, M; Ushiyama, T; Tajima, A; Aso, Y; Masuda, H; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K

    1987-10-01

    Flomoxef (6315-S, FMOX), a new oxacephem antibiotic was studied clinically in 27 patients with complicated urinary tract infections. FMOX was intravenously administered at a dose of 1.0 g twice daily for 5 days. Clinical effect of FMOX on patients with complicated urinary tract infections were excellent in 11.5%, moderate in 57.7% and overall clinical efficacy rate was 69.2%. During the treatment with FMOX, urticaria was observed in 1 case. In laboratory tests, a decrease of RBC, Hb and Ht in 1 case, a decrease of WBC in 1 case and an elevation of GPT in another case were observed. But these abnormal values were slight and transient.

  3. When Should Abdominal Computed Tomography Be Considered in Patients with Lower Rib Fractures?

    PubMed

    Jeroukhimov, Igor; Hershkovitz, Yehuda; Wiser, Itay; Kessel, Boris; Ayyad, Mohammed; Gatot, Inbar; Shapira, Zahar; Jeoravlev, Svetlana; Halevy, Ariel; Lavy, Ron

    2017-05-01

    Lower rib fractures are considered as a marker of intra-abdominal organ injury. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) is the "gold standard" examination for patients with lower rib fractures. However, the reported incidence of concomitant intra-abdominal injuries (IAI) is 20%-40%. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of intra-abdominal organ injuries in blunt trauma patients with lower rib fractures. Medical charts and radiology reports of patients with lower rib (from the 8th to 12th rib) fractures admitted to our center during a 6-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups. Group I included patients with intra-abdominal injury (IAI) diagnosed either by CT or on urgent laparotomy, and Group II included those with normal abdominal CT scans. Data included demographics, mechanism of injury, laboratory tests, radiology results including number and location of fractured ribs, and incidence of IAI. Overall 318 patients were included in the study. Fifty-seven patients (17.9%) had 71 IAIs compared with 265 (82.1%) patients with no IAI. Logistic regression identified age younger than 55 years (relative risk [RR] = 7.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.1-16.8; p = 0.001), bilateral rib fractures (RR = 3.9; 95% CI 1.1-13.5; p = 0.03) and decreased levels of hematocrit (RR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.2-4.8; p = 0.016) as independent risk factors for the presence of IAI. Abdominal CT should be considered in blunt trauma patients with lower rib fractures who are younger than 55 years of age and have bilateral rib fractures and decreased levels of hematocrit on admission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Isolated free intra-abdominal fluid on CT in blunt trauma: The continued diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Kong, Victor Y; Jeetoo, Damon; Naidoo, Leah C; Oosthuizen, George V; Clarke, Damian L

    2015-01-01

    The clinical significance of isolated free fluid (FF) without solid organ injury on computed to- mography (CT) continues to pose significant dilemma in the management of patients with blunt abdominal trauma (BAT). We reviewed the incidence of FF and the clinical outcome amongst patients with blunt abdominal trauma in a metropolitan trauma service in South Africa. We performed a retrospective study of 121 consecutive CT scans over a period of 12 months to determine the incidence of isolated FF and the clinical outcome of patients managed in a large metropolitan trauma service. Of the 121 CTs, FF was identified in 36 patients (30%). Seven patients (6%) had isolated FF. Of the 29 patients who had free fluid and associated organ injuries, 33 organ injuries were identified. 86% (25/ 29) of all 29 patients had a single organ injury and 14% had multiple organ injuries. There were 26 solid organ injuries and 7 hollow organ injuries. The 33 organs injured were: spleen, 12; liver, 8; kidney, 5; pancreas, 2; small bowel, 4; duodenum, 1. Six (21%) patients required operative management for small bowel perforations in 4 cases and pancreatic tail injury in 2 cases. All 7 patients with isolated FF were initially observed, and 3 (43%) were eventually subjected to operative intervention. They were found to have an intra-peritoneal bladder rupture in 1 case, a non-expanding zone 3 haematoma in 1 case, and a negative laparotomy in 1 case. Four (57%) patients were successfully managed without surgical interventions. Isolated FF is uncommon and the clinical significance remains unclear. Provided that reli- able serial physical examination can be performed by experienced surgeons, an initial non-operative approach should be considered.

  5. Opportunistic Infections and Complications in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1-Infected Children

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Jaivinder; Nanda, Sanjeev; Sharma, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to ascertain the correlation between various opportunistic infections and complications in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected children and the immune status of these patients, evaluated by absolute cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) count and CD4 percentage. Methods: This study was conducted from January 2009 to June 2010 at the Antiretroviral Treatment Centre of the Pt. B.D. Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, a tertiary care hospital in Rohtak, Haryana, in northern India. A total of 20 HIV-1-infected children aged 4–57 months were studied. Demographic and baseline investigations were performed prior to the start of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A fixed-dose combination of HAART was given based on the patient’s weight. Baseline investigations were repeated after six months of HAART. Results: There was a significant increase in the patients’ haemoglobin, weight, height and CD4 count after six months of HAART. Significant improvements (P <0.05) were also noted in the patients’ immune status, graded according to the World Health Organization. Conclusion: This study observed that the severity and frequency of opportunistic complications in paediatric patients with HIV-1 increased with a fall in the CD4 count. The treatment of opportunistic infections, along with antiretroviral therapy, may lead to both clinical and immunological recovery as well as a decreased incidence of future opportunistic infections. The CD4 count may give treating physicians an initial idea about the immune status of each child and could also be used as a biological marker of HAART efficacy. Patient compliance must be ensured during HAART as this is a key factor in improving outcomes. PMID:25364555

  6. Gastric fluid versus amniotic fluid analysis for the identification of intra-amniotic infection due to Ureaplasma species

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Min; Romero, Roberto; Lee, JoonHo; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Docheva, Nikolina; Yoon, Bo Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Objective Early neonatal sepsis is often due to intra-amniotic infection. The stomach of the neonate contains fluid swallowed before and during delivery. The presence of bacteria as well as neutrophils detected by culture or Gram stain in the gastric fluid during the first day of life is suggestive of exposure to bacteria or inflammation. We undertook this study to determine the relationship between gastric fluid analysis and amniotic fluid obtained by transabdominal amniocentesis in the detection of Ureaplasma species, the most frequent microorganisms responsible for intra-amniotic infection. Materials and Methods The study population consisted of 100 singleton pregnant women who delivered preterm neonates (<35weeks) within 7 days of amniocentesis. Gastric fluid of newborns was obtained by nasogastric intubation on the day of birth. Amniotic fluid and gastric fluid were cultured for genital Mycoplasmas and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Ureaplasma species was performed. Intra-amniotic inflammation was defined as an elevated amniotic fluid matrix metalloproteinase-8 concentration (> 23ng/mL). Results 1) Ureaplasma species were detected by culture or PCR in 18% (18/100) of amniotic fluid samples and in 5% (5/100) of gastric fluid samples; 2) among the amniotic fluid cases positive for Ureaplasma species, these microorganisms were identified in 27.8% (5/18) of gastric fluid samples; 3) none of the cases negative for Ureaplasma species in the amniotic fluid were found to be positive for these microorganisms in the gastric fluid; 4) patients with amniotic fluid positive for Ureaplasma species but with gastric fluid negative for these microorganisms had a significantly higher rate of intra-amniotic inflammation, acute histologic chorioamnionitis, and neonatal death than those with both amniotic fluid and gastric fluid negative for Ureaplasma species; and 5) no significant differences were observed in the rate of intra-amniotic inflammation, acute histologic

  7. Gastric fluid versus amniotic fluid analysis for the identification of intra-amniotic infection due to Ureaplasma species.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Min; Romero, Roberto; Lee, JoonHo; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Docheva, Nikolina; Yoon, Bo Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Early neonatal sepsis is often due to intra-amniotic infection. The stomach of the neonate contains fluid swallowed before and during delivery. The presence of bacteria as well as neutrophils detected by culture or Gram stain of the gastric fluid during the first day of life is suggestive of exposure to bacteria or inflammation. We undertook this study to determine the relationship between gastric fluid analysis and amniotic fluid obtained by transabdominal amniocentesis in the detection of Ureaplasma species, the most frequent microorganisms responsible for intra-amniotic infection. The study population consisted of 100 singleton pregnant women who delivered preterm neonates (<35 weeks) within 7 days of amniocentesis. Gastric fluid of newborns was obtained by nasogastric intubation on the day of birth. Amniotic fluid and gastric fluid were cultured for genital Mycoplasmas, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Ureaplasma species was performed. Intra-amniotic inflammation was defined as an elevated amniotic fluid matrix metalloproteinase-8 concentration (>23 ng/mL). (1) Ureaplasma species were detected by culture or PCR in 18% (18/100) of amniotic fluid samples and in 5% (5/100) of gastric fluid samples; (2) among the amniotic fluid cases positive for Ureaplasma species, these microorganisms were identified in 27.8% (5/18) of gastric fluid samples; (3) none of the cases negative for Ureaplasma species in the amniotic fluid were found to be positive for these microorganisms in the gastric fluid; (4) patients with amniotic fluid positive for Ureaplasma species but with gastric fluid negative for these microorganisms had a significantly higher rate of intra-amniotic inflammation, acute histologic chorioamnionitis, and neonatal death than those with both amniotic fluid and gastric fluid negative for Ureaplasma species; and (5) no significant differences were observed in the rate of intra-amniotic inflammation, acute histologic chorioamnionitis, and neonatal death

  8. Abdominal injuries in communal crises: The Jos experience

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Emmanuel Olorundare; Ozoilo, Kenneth N.; Sule, Augustine Z.; Ugwu, Benjamin T.; Misauno, Michael A.; Ismaila, Bashiru O.; Peter, Solomon D.; Adejumo, Adeyinka A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Abdominal injuries contribute significantly to battlefield trauma morbidity and mortality. This study sought to determine the incidence, demographics, clinical features, spectrum, severity, management, and outcome of abdominal trauma during a civilian conflict. Materials and Methods: A prospective analysis of patients treated for abdominal trauma during the Jos civil crises between December 2010 and May 2012 at the Jos University Teaching Hospital. Results: A total of 109 victims of communal conflicts with abdominal injuries were managed during the study period with 89 (81.7%) males and 20 (18.3%) females representing about 12.2% of the total 897 combat related injuries. The peak age incidence was between 21 and 40 years (range: 3–71 years). The most frequently injured intra-abdominal organs were the small intestine 69 (63.3%), colon 48 (44%), and liver 41 (37.6%). Forty-four (40.4%) patients had extra-abdominal injuries involving the chest in 17 (15.6%), musculoskeletal 12 (11%), and the head in 9 (8.3%). The most prevalent weapon injuries were gunshot 76 (69.7%), explosives 12 (11%), stab injuries 11 (10.1%), and blunt abdominal trauma 10 (9.2%). The injury severity score varied from 8 to 52 (mean: 20.8) with a fatality rate of 11 (10.1%) and morbidity rate of 29 (26.6%). Presence of irreversible shock, 3 or more injured intra-abdominal organs, severe head injuries, and delayed presentation were the main factors associated with mortality. Conclusion: Abdominal trauma is major life-threatening injuries during conflicts. Substantial mortality occurred with loss of nearly one in every 10 hospitalized victims despite aggressive emergency room resuscitation. The resources expenditure, propensity for death and expediency of timing reinforce the need for early access to the wounded in a concerted trauma care systems. PMID:26957819

  9. [Cefamandole as prophylactic A.B. in abdominal surgery. Comparative study of cefamandole versus clindamycin/tobramycin (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Iarchy, J

    1980-01-01

    A prospective, randomized and controlled study of prophylactic A.B. was made in 100 patients prior to abdominal surgery. Fifty patients received 3 x 2 g of cefamandole I.V. within 24 hrs, the first dose being given at the time of anesthetic induction. Postoperative infections occurred in 2% of this group. Fifty patients received the association Clindamycin-Tobramycin (clindamycin 600 mg - tobramycin 80 mg/8 hrs) for 24 hrs, the first dose also at the induction of anesthesia. The complication rate in this group was 18%. The difference between those 2 groups is statistically significant (p less than 0.01). Cefamandole used as a prophylactic antibiotic in abdominal surgery reduces the incidence of postoperative wound infections when compared to the association clindamycin-tobramycin.

  10. The open abdomen and temporary abdominal closure systems--historical evolution and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Quyn, A J; Johnston, C; Hall, D; Chambers, A; Arapova, N; Ogston, S; Amin, A I

    2012-08-01

    Several techniques for temporary abdominal closure have been developed. We systematically review the literature on temporary abdominal closure to ascertain whether the method can be tailored to the indication. Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and relevant meeting abstracts until December 2009 were searched using the following headings: open abdomen, laparostomy, VAC (vacuum assisted closure), TNP (topical negative pressure), fascial closure, temporary abdominal closure, fascial dehiscence and deep wound dehiscence. The data were analysed by closure technique and aetiology. The primary end-points included delayed fascial closure and in-hospital mortality. The secondary end-points were intra-abdominal complications. The search identified 106 papers for inclusion. The techniques described were VAC (38 series), mesh/sheet (30 series), packing (15 series), Wittmann patch (eight series), Bogotá bag (six series), dynamic retention sutures (three series), zipper (15 series), skin only and locking device (one series each). The highest facial closure rates were seen with the Wittmann patch (78%), dynamic retention sutures (71%) and VAC (61%). Temporary abdominal closure has evolved from simple packing to VAC based systems. In the absence of sepsis Wittmann patch and VAC offered the best outcome. In its presence VAC had the highest delayed primary closure and the lowest mortality rates. However, due to data heterogeneity only limited conclusions can be drawn from this analysis. © 2012 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2012 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  11. Abdominal wall reconstruction using a combination of free tensor fasciae lata and anterolateral thigh myocutaneous flap: a prospective study in 16 patients.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yang; Cao, Dongsheng; Guo, Fangfang; Qian, Yunliang; Wang, Chen; Wang, Danru

    2015-08-01

    Reconstruction of the abdominal wall continues to be a challenging problem for plastic surgeons. Transposition of well-vascularized flap tissue is the most effective way to repair composite abdominal wall defects. We retrospectively reviewed the treatment of such patients and assessed the reconstructive technique using combination of an inlay of bioprosthetic materials and a united thigh flap. A retrospective review of patients' records in the department was carried out. In total, 16 patients who underwent immediate abdominal wall reconstruction between 2000 and 2013 were identified. Patients' health status, defect sizes, and surgical technique were obtained from medical charts. The immediate reconstruction surgery of the abdominal wall was successful in all patients. One patient with dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans experienced recurrences at the former site. One patient died because of liver metastases at 21 months after surgery. No incisional hernia or infection in this series of patients was observed. Full-thickness, giant defects of the complicated abdominal wall can be repaired successfully with relatively minor complications using this reconstructive technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A complication of a dropped appendicolith misdiagnosed as Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, S; Douglas, L; Egun, A A

    2011-09-01

    Appendicoliths are formed by calcium salts and faecal debris layered and lodged within the appendix. They are detected on unenhanced x-rays in less than 10% of patients with appendicitis. When an appendicolith is found extraluminally, it is pathognomonic for perforation of the appendix. Moreover, retained appendicoliths act as a nidus for infection and are likely to be the source of a postoperative intraperitoneal abscess. However, this is very rare with only 30 reported cases of intra-abdominal abscess secondary to an appendicolith in the literature over the past 40 years. Retained, or dropped, appendicoliths most commonly present as an area of high attenuation less than 1cm in diameter with an associated abscess close to the caecum or Morrison's pouch on computed tomography (CT). A study published in 2006 showed that although there is initial success with CT-guided drainage of abscesses secondary to faecaliths, all will recur and formal surgical drainage with removal of the appendicolith is required. This case report highlights not only an unusual complication of a retained appendicolith but also the importance of taking a thorough history and interpreting investigations in the context of the patient's past medical history so as to produce a differential diagnosis and prevent treatment of incorrect conditions.

  13. Metabolic complications and selected cytokines in HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Bociąga-Jasik, Monika; Polus, Anna; Góralska, Joanna; Śliwa, Agnieszka; Raźny, Urszula; Zdzienicka, Anna; Garlicki, Aleksander; Mach, Tomasz; Dembińska-Kieć, Aldona

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are at a higher risk of developing metabolic disturbances. The pathogenesis of these complications is complex and not fully explored. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of HIV infection and antiretroviral (ARV) therapy on the development of metabolic changes and adipocytokine concentrations. The analysis of the differences in the investigated parameters among lipodystrophic and nonlipodystrophic patients was also performed. A total of 42 HIV‑infected patients on ARV therapy (HIV[+]ARV[+]), 13 HIV‑infected ARV naive patients (HIV[+]ARV[-]), and 20 healthy controls were included in the study. A lipid profile, fasting free fatty acids (FFAs), glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance--HOMA‑IR) were tested. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF‑α), interleukin 6 (IL‑6), adiponectin, leptin, and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) were determined. Increased FFA levels were observed in HIV(+)ARV(-) patients. HIV(+)ARV(+) patients had significantly higher triglycerides and insulin level compared with controls. HOMA‑IR showed a tendency to be higher in HIV(+)ARV(+) patients compared with the other study groups. The ARV therapy longer than 2 years resulted in more pronounced metabolic abnormalities. HIV infection itself had a significant effect on inflammation expressed by elevated TNF‑α and IL‑6 levels. We did not observe differences in adiponectin and FABP4 concentrations among the study groups, while the leptin concentration was significantly lower in HIV‑infected lipodystrophic than in nonlipodystrophic patients. HIV infection induces lipid disorders, especially associated with fatty acid turnover augmented by ARV therapy. Compared with FABP4, leptin is a better biological marker of metabolic complications in HIV‑infected patients.

  14. Evaluation of hospital complications and costs associated with using ultrasound guidance during abdominal paracentesis procedures.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pankaj A; Ernst, Frank R; Gunnarsson, Candace L

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal paracentesis is commonly performed for diagnostic, therapeutic, and palliative indications, but the use of ultrasound guidance for these procedures is relatively recent, variable, and not well documented. A retrospective database analysis of abdominal paracentesis procedures was performed to determine whether ultrasound guidance was associated with differences in adverse events (AEs) or hospital costs, compared to procedures without ultrasound guidance. The hospital database maintained by Premier was used to identify patients with abdominal paracentesis International Classification of Diseases - 9th Revision - Clinical Modification (ICD-9 code 54.9, Common Procedural Terminology CPT-4 codes 49080, 49081) in 2008. Use of ultrasound guidance was determined via patient billing data. The incidence of selected AEs and patients' hospitalization costs were calculated for two groups: procedures with ultrasound guidance and those without. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to evaluate differences between groups. This study identified 1297 abdominal paracentesis procedures, 723 (56%) with ultrasound and 574 (44%) without. The indications for paracentesis were similar between the two groups. The incidence of AEs was lower in ultrasound-guided procedures: all AEs (1.4% vs 4.7%, p = 0.01), post-paracentesis infection (0.41% vs 2.44%, p = 0.01), hematoma (0.0% vs 0.87%, p = 0.01), and seroma (0.14% vs 1.05%, p = 0.03). Analyses adjusted for patient and hospital covariates revealed significant reductions in AEs (OR = 0.349, 95% CI = 0.165, 0.739, p = 0.0059) and hospitalization costs ($8761 ± $5956 vs $9848 ± $6581, p < 0.001) for procedures with ultrasound guidance vs those without. There are several limitations to using claims data for clinical analyses; causality cannot be determined, the possibility of miscoded or missing data, and the inability to control for elements not captured in claims data that may

  15. Effectiveness of triclosan-coated PDS Plus versus uncoated PDS II sutures for prevention of surgical site infection after abdominal wall closure: the randomised controlled PROUD trial.

    PubMed

    Diener, Markus K; Knebel, Phillip; Kieser, Meinhard; Schüler, Philipp; Schiergens, Tobias S; Atanassov, Vladimir; Neudecker, Jens; Stein, Erwin; Thielemann, Henryk; Kunz, Reiner; von Frankenberg, Moritz; Schernikau, Utz; Bunse, Jörg; Jansen-Winkeln, Boris; Partecke, Lars I; Prechtl, Gerald; Pochhammer, Julius; Bouchard, Ralf; Hodina, René; Beckurts, K Tobias E; Leißner, Lothar; Lemmens, Hans-Peter; Kallinowski, Friedrich; Thomusch, Oliver; Seehofer, Daniel; Simon, Thomas; Hyhlik-Dürr, Alexander; Seiler, Christoph M; Hackert, Thilo; Reissfelder, Christoph; Hennig, René; Doerr-Harim, Colette; Klose, Christina; Ulrich, Alexis; Büchler, Markus W

    2014-07-12

    Postoperative surgical site infections are one of the most frequent complications after open abdominal surgery, and triclosan-coated sutures were developed to reduce their occurrence. The aim of the PROUD trial was to obtain reliable data for the effectiveness of triclosan-coated PDS Plus sutures for abdominal wall closure, compared with non-coated PDS II sutures, in the prevention of surgical site infections. This multicentre, randomised controlled group-sequential superiority trial was done in 24 German hospitals. Adult patients (aged ≥18 years) who underwent elective midline abdominal laparotomy for any reason were eligible for inclusion. Exclusion criteria were impaired mental state, language problems, and participation in another intervention trial that interfered with the intervention or outcome of this trial. A central web-based randomisation tool was used to randomly assign eligible participants by permuted block randomisation with a 1:1 allocation ratio and block size 4 before mass closure to either triclosan-coated sutures (PDS Plus) or uncoated sutures (PDS II) for abdominal fascia closure. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of superficial or deep surgical site infection according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria within 30 days after the operation. Patients, surgeons, and the outcome assessors were masked to group assignment. Interim and final analyses were by modified intention to treat. This trial is registered with the German Clinical Trials Register, number DRKS00000390. Between April 7, 2010, and Oct 19, 2012, 1224 patients were randomly assigned to intervention groups (607 to PDS Plus, and 617 to PDS II), of whom 1185 (587 PDS Plus and 598 PDS II) were analysed by intention to treat. The study groups were well balanced in terms of patient and procedure characteristics. The occurrence of surgical site infections did not differ between the PDS Plus group (87 [14·8%] of 587) and the PDS II group (96 [16·1%] of 598

  16. Prospective evaluation of the Sunshine Appendicitis Grading System score.

    PubMed

    Reid, Fiona; Choi, Julian; Williams, Marli; Chan, Steven

    2017-05-01

    Although there is a wealth of information predicting risk of post-operative intra-abdominal collection and guiding antibiotic therapy following appendicectomy, confusion remains because of lack of consensus on the clinical severity and definition of 'complicated' appendicitis. This study aimed to develop a standardized intra-operative grading system: Sunshine Appendicitis Grading System (SAGS) for acute appendicitis that correlates independently with the risk of intra-abdominal collections.