Science.gov

Sample records for complicating crohn disease

  1. [Therapy of complicated Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Scharl, Michael; Barthel, Christiane; Rogler, Gerhard

    2014-03-12

    During their disease course, the majority of Crohn's disease patients will develop a complicated disease which is characterized by the occurrence of fistulas and/or stenosis. Symptomatic, perianal fistulas should be surgically drained before anti-inflammatory therapy will be initiated. Antibiotics, such as metronidazole, improve disease symptomatic however, they are not sufficient to induce continuous fistula closure. For this purpose, azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine as well as anti-TNF antibodies are useful when administered continuously. Surgical options include seton drainage, fistula excision, fistula plugs and mucosa flaps. As ultima ratio, temporary ileostomy and proctectomy are to be discussed. Non-perianal fistulas often require surgical approaches. Symptomatic strictures or stenosis can be treated by anti-inflammatory medications (only if they are cause by inflammation), endoscopic balloon dilatation or surgery.

  2. MR enterography findings in abdominopelvic extraintestinal complications of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Mazziotti, Silvio; Blandino, Alfredo; Scribano, Emanuele; Gaeta, Michele; Mileto, Achille; Fries, Walter; Bombaci, Francesco; Ascenti, Giorgio

    2013-05-01

    MR of the small bowel is a useful technique for the evaluation of both intraluminal and extraluminal pathologic involvement of the small bowel in patients with Crohn's disease. Crohn's disease is associated with a range of extraintestinal complications that sometimes may be the initial presenting symptoms. Some of these extraintestinal complications may not correlate with disease activity, but in general, they tend to follow the clinical course of disease and may have a high impact on life quality, morbidity, and even mortality in these patients. Our purpose is to describe some abdominopelvic extraintestinal complications of Crohn's disease, such as hepatopancreatobiliary, genitourinary, musculoskeletal, peritoneal, and lymph-nodal, detectable at MR enterography.

  3. [A case of complex Crohn's disease with severe complication].

    PubMed

    Tian, Li; Tang, Anliu; Liu, Fen; Guo, Qin; Wang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Shourong

    2016-04-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a nonspecific chronic intestinal inflammatory disease with unknown etiology. The course of CD is persistent and recurrent. In the progress, CD can come with many complications such as obstruction, fistula formation, perforation, and hemorrhage. The early diagnosis, treatment, and the time of the surgery for CD pose a big controversy and challenge. There was a female patient diagnosed as Crohn's disease with severe complication in department of Gastroenterology of the Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University.  We reported the diagnosis and treatment on this patient. The choice for the medicine and surgury was discussed.

  4. Psoas abscess complicating Crohn's disease: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Ogihara, M; Masaki, T; Watanabe, T; Hatano, K; Matsuda, K; Yahagi, N; Ichinose, M; Seichi, A; Muto, T

    2000-01-01

    We describe herein the case of a psoas abscess complicating Crohn's disease, and present a review of the literature on this unusual disease entity. A 22-year-old Japanese man with a 5-year history of Crohn's ileocolitis presented with right lower abdominal and hip pain, and a diagnosis of right psoas abscess was subsequently made by abdominal computed tomography (CT). Following the administration of antibiotics and CT-guided percutaneous drainage of the abscess, the patient's symptoms temporarily improved; however, 2 weeks later, the abscess cavity was found to have extended around the periarticular tissue of the right hip joint. To prevent the development of septic arthritis of the hip joint, surgical drainage of the abscess cavity and ileocecal resection were immediately performed, after which the patient's condition greatly improved. The resected specimen showed Crohn's ileocolitis with an external fistula in the terminal ileum which was considered to have caused the psoas abscess. Since psoas abscess in Crohn's disease can result in serious complications such as septic arthritis of the hip joint if left untreated, aggressive treatment should be initiated without delay.

  5. [Crohn's disease associated with Berger's disease. A rare complication].

    PubMed

    López Barbarín, J M; Lafuente Martínez, P; García Campos, F; Ibarra Peña, B; Díaz de Otazu, R

    1990-10-01

    We report the case of a male patient with Crohn's disease associated with IgA nephropathy. He was treated surgically for the intestinal disorder and then with corticoids and sulfasalazine. Six years after treatment the patient was asymptomatic. As the intestinal situation improved there was concomitant normalization of urinary sediment, maintaining renal function. The fact that the digestive mucosa is one of the body's major sources of secretory IgA may account for the existence of a common for Crohn's disease and certain forms of IgA nephropathy.

  6. Crohn's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Crohn's disease causes inflammation of the digestive system. It is one of a group of diseases called inflammatory ... small intestine called the ileum. The cause of Crohn's disease is unknown. It may be due to an ...

  7. Adrenal hemorrhage complicating ACTH therapy in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Levin, T L; Morton, E

    1993-01-01

    Huge dose ACTH therapy is used in some severely ill patients with inflammatory bowel disease. We report a teenage girl with Crohn's disease who developed an acute abdomen following ACTH therapy. CT revealed the mass to be a hemorrhagic adrenal gland; the opposite adrenal gland was hypertrophied but without signs of hemorrhage.

  8. Computed tomography evaluation of local and extraintestinal complications of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Kerber, G W; Greenberg, M; Rubin, J M

    1984-01-01

    Complications of Crohn's disease were demonstrated by computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis in 7 patients. Four patients had developed abscesses, 2 located in the psoas region and 2 involving the retroperitoneum or the liver. Other abnormalities documented on CT included inflammatory masses, fistulae, carcinoma, mesenteric thickening, and extraintestinal complications such as gallstones, renal calculi, and sacroileitis. Computed tomography was found to be useful in the detection and follow-up of abdominal complications of Crohn's disease.

  9. Extensive spinal epidural abscess as a complication of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, Chez; Kavar, Bhadrakant

    2010-01-01

    A spinal epidural abscess is a neurosurgical emergency. Successful treatment frequently requires decompression of the spinal canal in combination with intravenous antibiotics. We report a patient with Crohn's disease who developed an extensive spinal epidural abscess communicating with an intra-abdominal collection.

  10. Value of computed tomography in the detection of complications of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Gore, R M; Cohen, M I; Vogelzang, R L; Neiman, H L; Tsang, T K

    1985-08-01

    Abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) scans were performed on 17 patients with suspected complications of Crohn's disease. CT was superior to conventional barium studies and colonoscopy in demonstrating mural, serosal, and mesenteric pathology such as bowel wall thickening (100%), abscess (59%) and phlegmon (6%) formation, and fibro-fatty proliferation of the mesentery (41%). While not advocated as the primary means of evaluating Crohn's disease, CT can provide information vital to the management of complications of this disease.

  11. Stevens-Johnson syndrome complicating adalimumab therapy in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Salama, Muna; Lawrance, Ian-Craig

    2009-09-21

    The anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha medications demonstrate efficacy in the induction of remission and its maintenance in numerous chronic inflammatory conditions. With the increasing number of patients receiving anti-TNFalpha agents, however, less common adverse reactions will occur. Cutaneous eruptions complicating treatment with an anti-TNFalpha agent are not uncommon, occurring in around 20% of patients. Adalimumab, a fully humanized antibody against TNFalpha, may be expected to cause minimal immune-mediated skin reactions compared to the chimeric monoclonal antibody, infliximab. We, however, report a case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome that required hospitalization and cessation of adalimumab in a patient with Crohn's disease (CD). In this case report, a 29-year-old male with colonic and perianal CD with associated erythema nodosum and large joint arthropathy developed severe mucositis, peripheral rash and desquamation, fevers and respiratory symptoms concomitant with a second dose of 40 mg adalimumab after a 2 mo break from adalimumab therapy. Skin biopsies of the abdominal wall confirmed erythema multiforme and the patient was on no other drugs and infective etiologies were excluded. The patient responded rapidly to IV hydrocortisone and was able to be commenced on infliximab without recurrence of the Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Desquamating skin reactions have now been described in three of the TNFalpha antagonists (infliximab, etanercept and adalimumab). These reactions can be serious and prescribers need to be aware of the potential mucocutaneous side effects of these agents, especially as Stevens-Johnson syndrome is associated with significant morbidity and mortality.

  12. Crohn's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... large bowel ( colon ). Crohn's disease may lead to deep ulcers in the intestinal tract, giving a "cobblestone" ... understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed ...

  13. Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Crohn's disease is a chronic condition of the gastrointestinal tract. It is characterised by transmural, granulomatous inflammation that occurs in a discontinuous pattern, with a tendency to form fistulae. The cause is unknown but may depend on interactions between genetic predisposition, environmental triggers, and mucosal immunity. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of medical treatments to induce remission in adults with Crohn's disease? What are the effects of surgical interventions to induce and maintain remission in adults with small-bowel Crohn's disease? What are the effects of surgical interventions to induce remission in adults with colonic Crohn's disease? What are the effects of medical interventions to maintain remission in adults with Crohn's disease; and to maintain remission following surgery? What are the effects of lifestyle interventions to maintain remission in adults with Crohn's disease? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to December 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 93 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aminosalicylates, antibiotics, azathioprine/mercaptopurine, ciclosporin, corticosteroids (oral), enteral nutrition, fish oil, infliximab, methotrexate, probiotics, resection, segmental colectomy, smoking cessation, and strictureplasty. PMID:21524318

  14. Crohn disease - children - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Inflammatory bowel disease in children - Crohn disease; IBD in children - Crohn disease; Regional enteritis - children; Ileitis - children; Granulomatous ileocolitis - children; Colitis in children; CD - children

  15. Infliximab Combined with Enteral Nutrition for Managing Crohn's Disease Complicated with Intestinal Fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao-Li; Tao, Li-Ping; Wu, Jian-Sheng; Chen, Xiang-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Aim. This study was performed to evaluate the additional enteral nutrition (EN) in the efficacy of infliximab (IFX) compared with the conventional therapy in managing Crohn's disease (CD) complicated with intestinal fistulas. Methods. A total of 42 CD with intestinal fistulas were randomly divided into infliximab treatment group (n = 20) and conventional therapy group (n = 22). We evaluated the laboratory indexes, Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI), Crohn's disease simplified endoscopic score (SES-CD), and healing of fistula in the two groups before treatment, at 14 weeks, and at 30 weeks, respectively. Results. In the IFX treatment group, the CDAI score, the SES-CD, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein levels were significantly decreased during treatment compared with those before treatment. The body mass index and albumin levels were increased in both groups. Moreover, in the IFX treatment group, fistula healing was found in 8 at the 14th week and 18 at the 30th week, respectively, which was greater than that in the conventional therapy group. Conclusion. Our study suggested that infliximab combined with EN is an effective treatment for CD patients complicated with intestinal fistulas. PMID:27738427

  16. Fatal infectious mononucleosis: a severe complication in the treatment of Crohn's disease with azathioprine.

    PubMed Central

    Posthuma, E F; Westendorp, R G; van der Sluys Veer, A; Kluin-Nelemans, J C; Kluin, P M; Lamers, C B

    1995-01-01

    A 19 year old man with a history of Crohn's disease treated with azathioprine and prednisone, died after a primary infection with Epstein-Barr virus. He had the characteristics of the virus associated haemophagocytic syndrome, a rare complication of viral infections, which consists of fever, constitutional symptoms, hepatosplenomegaly, liver function and coagulation abnormalities, and hypertriglyceridaemia. Additionally, there was pain, cytopenia, and histiocytic hyperplasia in the bone marrow, spleen, or lymph nodes. This severe complication has been reported previously in renal transplant patients, but not in those with inflammatory bowel disease taking azathioprine. The immunosuppressive therapy may have contributed to this fatal complication of infectious mononucleosis, and this complication should be considered when treating a patient with inflammatory bowel disease with azathioprine. Images p312-a PMID:7883236

  17. [Septic portal vein thrombosis as a rare complication of Crohn disease with retroperitoneal abscess].

    PubMed

    Diehl, S J; Lehmann, K J; Manthe, S; Georgi, M

    1996-03-01

    Portal vein thrombosis is a rare complication of inflammatory bowel disease and occurs particularly in patients with ulcerative colitis. This report describes a patient with known Crohn's disease since 1980 who developed retroperitoneal abscesses and subsequently a septic portal vein thrombosis. After 10 years of remission, clinical deterioration, jaundice, and fever occurred. An abdominal CT-study confirmed the ultrasonic presumptive diagnosis of two retroperitoneal abscesses close to the pancreas tail. Another CT, one week later, showed furthermore a portal vein thrombosis. Only by intensive care treatment was it possible to control the critical situation.

  18. Comprehensive MRI diagnosis of sacral osteomyelitis and multiple muscle abscesses as a rare complication of fistulizing Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Tonolini, Massimo; Ravelli, Anna; Campari, Alessandro; Bianco, Roberto

    2011-10-01

    Pelvic osteomyelitis is a very uncommon complication of Crohn's disease, usually clinically unsuspected in the setting of acute Crohn's disease relapses. The case of a 21-year old patient is reported, in whom ileo-cecal inflammatory disease was complicated by fistulization to the presacral space and sacral osteomyelitis, plus multiple abscesses involving the iliopsoas, posterior paravertebral and gluteal muscles. As confirmed by surgical and pathological findings, MRI provided comprehensive imaging diagnosis by demonstrating both the pathogenesis and the full extent of the complex, deep pelvic inflammatory process. Low back pain in patients with Crohn's disease should not be underestimated since its differential diagnosis includes serious and potentially life-threatening causes such as osteomyelitis, so prompt assessment with cross sectional imaging, particularly MRI, is necessary.

  19. Body Fat Composition Assessment Using Analytic Morphomics Predicts Infectious Complications After Bowel Resection in Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Waljee, Akbar K.; Day, Nicholas M.; Bergmans, Carrie L.; Zahn, Katelin M.; Higgins, Peter D. R.; Wang, Stewart C.; Su, Grace L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Decisions between medical and surgical management of Crohn's disease (CD) incorporate risk assessments for potential complications of each therapy. Analytic morphomics is a novel method of image analysis providing quantifiable measurements of body tissue composition, characterizing body fat more comprehensively than body mass index alone. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with postoperative complications in CD, incorporating fat composition analysis using analytic morphomics. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of adults undergoing bowel resection for CD between 2004 and 2011 at a single center. Computed tomography obtained within 30 days prior to surgery underwent morphomic analysis for fat characterization. Postoperative infectious complications were defined as the need for a postoperative abdominal drain, intravenous antibiotics, or reoperation within 30 days. Bivariate and multivariate analyses using logistic regression were used to generate a prediction model of infectious complications. Results: A total of 269 subjects met selection criteria; 27% incurred postoperative infectious complications. Bivariate analysis showed hemoglobin, albumin, surgical urgency, high-dose prednisone use, and subcutaneous-to-visceral fat volume distribution as predictors of complications. Body mass index, anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapies, and immunomodulator use were not predictors of complication. Multivariate modeling demonstrated a c-statistic of 0.77 and a negative predictive value of 81.1% with surgical urgency (odds ratio = 2.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.46–6.02; P = 0.004), subcutaneous-to-visceral fat distribution (odds ratio = 2.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.20–3.19; P = 0.006), and hemoglobin (odds ratio = 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.55–0.85; P = 0.001) as predictors of infectious complication. Conclusions: Fat subtype and distribution are predictive of postoperative infectious complications

  20. Crohn's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... History Research Resources Research at NIDDK Meetings & Events Technology Advancement & Transfer Health Information Diabetes Digestive Diseases Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition ...

  1. A case of Turner syndrome (46XXp-/45X) complicated with Crohn's disease after hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Yutaro; Hizawa, Kazuoki; Fujita, Kouhei; Iida, Masahiro; Washio, Ema; Kai, Takahiro; Nitahata, Tomoki; Esaki, Motohiro; Iida, Mitsuo

    2017-01-01

    A 19-year-old woman, who had been receiving hormone replacement therapy for 13 months before the diagnosis of mosaic Turner syndrome (46XXp-/45X), developed Crohn's colitis and erythema nodosum of the lower legs. Colonoscopy revealed an anal fistula and the presence of deep longitudinal ulcers with cobblestoning in the colorectum. Therapy with prednisolone and adalimumab was effective for the intestinal and skin lesions. To date, all seven case reports of Turner syndrome in Japan have also developed Crohn's disease after hormone therapy, suggesting a possible association of sex hormones in the pathogenesis.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Crohn disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Crohn disease Crohn disease Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Crohn disease is a complex, chronic disorder that primarily affects ...

  3. Carcinoma of the small intestine and colon as a complication of Crohn disease: radiologic manifestation

    SciTech Connect

    Kerber, G.W.; Frank, P.H.

    1984-03-01

    Barium examinations of the large and small bowel were analyzed in six of seven patients who had adenocarcinoma in areas of the intestine affected with Crohn disease; radiographic changes were correlated with clinical, surgical, and pathologic findings. Radiographic examinations were available in five of these patients at the time of diagnosis of tumor. Two of the five patients demonstrated classic radiographic changes associated with carcinoma. In the other three cases, the radiographic changes were atypical for carcinoma and demonstrated progression of disease over time to include more portions of the bowel and presence of fistulas, strictures, and obstruction. The most frequent clinical presentation of adenocarcinoma in these patients was a recrudescence of symptoms after a long quiescent period. In patients with long-standing Crohn disease plus these clinical features and the above radiographic findings, the diagnosis of a coexisting carcinoma should be considered.

  4. What Is Crohn's Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are Crohn's & Colitis? > What is Crohn’s Disease? Crohn’s Disease is a Chronic Condition By understanding your ... live a full and rewarding life What is Crohn’s Disease? Email Print + Share Named after Dr. Burrill ...

  5. [Gluteal abscess complicated by sepsis as the expression of Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Bosscha, K; van Vroonhoven, Th J M V

    2002-04-06

    Two young women, aged 19 and 25 years, suffered from persistent perianal sepsis after local drainage of unusual gluteal abscesses. Preoperative CT scanning showed unrecognised and inadequately treated abscesses and signs of inflammatory bowel disease. Both patients underwent a reoperation: affected bowel segments were removed, stomas were created and abscesses were drained. In the case of unusual perianal abscesses the diagnosis 'Crohn's disease' must be considered. Preoperative examinations should include CT or MRI scans of the abdomen and pelvis. Intraoperative colonoscopy can often be helpful in assessing the extent of the affected bowel segment.

  6. Perianal Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Asma, Sioud Dhrif; Soumaya, Youssef; Kahena, Jaber; Raouf, Dhaoui Mohamed; Nejib, Doss

    2006-12-10

    Crohn disease is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by sharply demarcated segments of gastrointestinal involvement from mouth to anus. Its perineal manifestations are among the most devastating and mutilating complications. They occur at any time and may precede the intestinal manifestations. Their most common presentations are perineal ulceration, fistula, and abscess. Proliferative and polypoid morphology of the cutaneous lesions mimicking warts and condyloma are rarely described. We report a 25-year-old woman with a 4-month history of confluent plaques of the perineal region with vegetant surfaces, suspected to be genital warts. The lesions progressed to fistulas, inducing deep ulcerations surrounded by pseudocondylomatous tumors. About 2 months prior to presentation she began to suffer from gastrointestinal symptoms and noted weight loss. Physical examination, endoscopic examination, and pathological interpretation led to the diagnosis of Crohn disease with perineal involvement being the initial presenting sign. Significant improvement was induced with prednisone (45 mg daily) and azathioprine. Our observation is notable for the pseudocondylomatous appearance and the dramatic response to medical treatment despite severe involvement.

  7. High grade anorectal stricture complicating Crohn's disease: endoscopic treatment using insulated-tip knife

    PubMed Central

    Chon, Hyung Ku; Shin, Ik Sang; Kim, Sang Wook

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic treatments have emerged as an alternative to surgery, in the treatment of benign colorectal stricture. Unlike endoscopic balloon dilatation, there is limited data on endoscopic electrocautery incision therapy for benign colorectal stricture, especially with regards to safety and long-term patency. We present a case of a 29-year-old female with Crohn's disease who had difficulty in defecation and passing thin stools. A pelvic magnetic resonance imaging scan, gastrograffin enema, and sigmoidoscopy showed a high-grade anorectal stricture. An endoscopic insulated-tip knife incision was successfully performed to resolve the problem. From our experience, we suggest that endoscopic insulated-tip knife treatment may be a feasible and effective modality for patients with short-segment, very rigid, fibrotic anorectal stricture. PMID:27433152

  8. Abdominal abscesses in adolescents with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Biller, J A; Grand, R J; Harris, B H

    1987-09-01

    Little information is available about the development of abdominal abscesses in adolescents with Crohn's disease. We report the clinical presentation of five adolescents with Crohn's disease who developed this complication. The mean time from diagnosis until development of an abdominal abscess was 1.7 years. The admitting diagnosis was an acute abdomen in two patients and recurrent Crohn's disease in the other three. No features of the clinical presentation or laboratory data distinguished this group from other adolescents with Crohn's disease. The use of ultrasound and CT scanning was helpful in making this diagnosis preoperatively. Those patients with active Crohn's disease who do not respond promptly to medical therapy should be evaluated for the development of this complication.

  9. What Is Crohn's Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are Crohn's & Colitis? > What is Crohn’s Disease? Crohn’s Disease is a Chronic Condition By understanding your body ... live a full and rewarding life What is Crohn’s Disease? Email Print + Share Named after Dr. Burrill B. ...

  10. Enterobiasis mimicking Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Dajil, Saleh

    2004-01-01

    We report a 20-year-old man who presented with abdominal discomfort for 2 months. Colonoscopy showed skip areas with ulceration, resembling Crohn's disease. Biopsies showed chronic inflammation and a non-necrotizing granuloma. An adult pinworm was found in the lumen from an uninvolved segment. The patient responded to mebendazole.

  11. Urolithiasis and crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Sandro Roberto da Silva; Mendonça, Tiago; Oliveira, Pedro; Oliveira, Tiago; Dias, José; Lopes, Tomé

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To present an updated description of the relation between Crohn's disease (CD) and Urolithiasis. Patients and Methods: A literature search for English-language original and review articles was conducted in Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases in the month of December 2014 for papers either published or e-published up to that date, addressing the association between CD and urolithiasis as its consequence. All articles published in English language were selected for screening based on the following search terms: “CD,” “renal calculus,” “IBD,” and “urolithiasis.” We restricted the publication dates to the last 15 years (2000–2014). Results: In total, 901 patients were included in this review of which 95 were identified as having CD and urolithiasis simultaneously, for a total of 10.5%. Average age was 45.07 years old, irrespective of gender. 28.6% of patients received some kind of medical intervention without any kind of surgical technique involved, 50% of patients were submitted to a surgical treatment, and the remaining 21.4% were submitted to a combination of surgical and medical treatment. Urolithiasis and pyelonephritis incidence ranged from 4% to 23% with a risk 10–100 times greater than the risk for general population or for patients with UC, being frequent in patients with ileostomy and multiple bowel resections. We found that urolithiasis occurred in 95 patients from a total of 901 patients with CD (10.5%); 61.81% in men and 38.19% in women. Stone disease seems to present approximately 4–7 years after the diagnosis of bowel disease and CaOx seems to be the main culprit. Conclusions: CD is a chronic, granulomatous bowel disease, with urolithiasis as the most common extraintestinal manifestation (EIM), particularly frequent in patients submitted to bowel surgery. This complication needs to be recognized and addressed appropriately, especially in patients with unexplained renal dysfunction, abdominal pain, or recurrent urinary

  12. Crohn's disease: a surgeon's perspective.

    PubMed

    Parray, Fazl Q; Wani, Mohd Lateef; Bijli, Akram H; Thakur, Natasha; Irshad, Ifat

    2011-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is known for wide anatomic distribution, different presentations, life-threatening complications, and multiple modalities of management. Its multiple implications are still unaddressed. Since all the patients do not show a good response to medical modalities of treatment, a significant percentage of these patients are referred to the surgeon for the palliation of complications or for the ultimate curative treatment. Since most surgeons come across such patients only rarely, it is sometimes difficult for them to choose the appropriate procedure at the time of need. Moreover, the various surgical modalities available for the different presentations and complications of the disease have not been adequately discussed. The aim of this review is to offer insight and a detailed account of the management of CD from a surgical perspective. This review offers an overview of the various surgical options available, their utility in context, and an approach to various scenarios of complicated CD.

  13. Imaging Crohn disease: MR enterography.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pablo; Mendez, Ramiro; Matute, Fatima; Hernandez, Paula; Mendoza, Juan Luis

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance enterography in Crohn disease management has been rapidly growing in importance during recent years. Being familiar to this technique is essential for radiologists and also, to some extent, for gastroenterologists. Our aim is to study and describe the imaging findings in magnetic resonance enterography in Crohn disease to develop a comprehensive and useful review article and imaging atlas.

  14. [Treatment and outcome of Crohn's disease without initial complications. Results of a retrospective, multicenter Tunisian study].

    PubMed

    Cheikh, Imed; Ben Ammar, Ahmed; Essid, Mejda; Azzouz, Messadak; Ettahri, Nabil; Krichene, Mohamed; Bouzaidi, Slim; Ennajar, Taoufik

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate and achieve the factors that have an influence on the evolution of the Chron's disease. This study was done in 124 patients reaching the diagnosis of Chron's disease between 1988 and 1997. The evolution of this disease was achieved in 87 patients. The Chron's disease was inactive among 31 patients (35-6%)--with discontinous evolution in 42 patients (48.3%) and active chronic in 14 patients (16-1%). The active chronic form of Chron's disease was twice more frequent among the smokers and the patients with age above 40 years--but this difference has no statistical significance. The indication of surgical treatment was realised in 21 patients and it takes place as result of failure of medical treatment in 16 patients (76-2%)--an abcess in 2 patents (9-5%) and iatrogenic perforation in 1 patient (4-8%). The age-sexe-smoke--the intensity of the initial attack and the nature of the treatment had no influence in the need of the surgical interfference. The Chron's disease showed the less severe evolution in this study--the age above 40 years and the consumption of smoke increased the frequency of active chronic form.

  15. Crohn's disease complicated by intestinal infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Bettenworth, Dominik; Nowacki, Tobias M; Friedrich, Alexander; Becker, Karsten; Wessling, Johannes; Heidemann, Jan

    2013-07-21

    We report on a 24-year-old male patient with history of bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain and vomiting. Endoscopy revealed massive ulcerative discontinuous proctosigmoiditis with deep, sharply demarcated epithelial denudations and enterotoxigenic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was detected in mucosal biopsies. After treatment with linezolide and steroids, a significant amelioration of colitis was detected and testing for MRSA became negative. In face of the case presented here, we suggest that in patients with refractory inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), microbiological assessment should be performed to detect a possible Staphylococcus aureus infection in order to initiate an antimicrobial treatment in addition to IBD-specific treatment.

  16. Diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Thad; Jarvis, Kathryn; Patel, Jigneshkumar

    2011-12-15

    Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the gastrointestinal tract at any point from the mouth to the rectum. Patients may experience diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, weight loss, abdominal masses, and anemia. Extraintestinal manifestations of Crohn's disease include osteoporosis, inflammatory arthropathies, scleritis, nephrolithiasis, cholelithiasis, and erythema nodosum. Acute phase reactants, such as C-reactive protein level and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, are often increased with inflammation and may correlate with disease activity. Levels of vitamin B12, folate, albumin, prealbumin, and vitamin D can help assess nutritional status. Colonoscopy with ileoscopy, capsule endoscopy, computed tomography enterography, and small bowel follow-through are often used to diagnose Crohn's disease. Ultrasonography, computed axial tomography, scintigraphy, and magnetic resonance imaging can assess for extraintestinal manifestations or complications (e.g., abscess, perforation). Mesalamine products are often used for the medical management of mild to moderate colonic Crohn's disease. Antibiotics (e.g., metronidazole, fluoroquinolones) are often used for treatment. Patients with moderate to severe Crohn's disease are treated with corticosteroids, azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, or anti-tumor necrosis factor agents (e.g., infliximab, adalimumab). Severe disease may require emergent hospitalization and a multidisciplinary approach with a family physician, gastroenterologist, and surgeon.

  17. Hidradenitis suppurativa and perianal Crohn disease: differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Bassas-Vila, J; González Lama, Y

    2016-09-01

    The first description of perianal fistulas and complications in Crohn disease was made 75 years ago by Penner and Crohn. Published studies have subsequently confirmed that perianal fistulas are the most common manifestations of fistulising Crohn disease. Hidradenitis suppurativa was described in 1854 by a French surgeon, Aristide Verneuil. It is a chronic, inflammatory, recurrent and debilitating disease of the pilosebaceous follicle, that usually manifests after puberty with deep, painful and inflamed lesions in the areas of the body with apocrine glands, usually the axillary, inguinal and anogenital regions. The differential diagnosis between hidradenitis suppurativa and Crohn disease can be challenging, especially when the disease is primarily perianal. When they occur simultaneously, hidradenitis suppurativa and Crohn disease show severe phenotypes and patients can respond to anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy, although adalimumab is currently the only treatment with demonstrated efficacy in hidradenitis suppurativa and Crohn disease. In addition, there is sometimes a need for different complementary surgical procedures.

  18. Anogenital Crohn's disease with vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Gargi R.; Mehta, Hita H.; Jhamwar, Mugdha M.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous Crohn's or anogenital granulomatosis is a rare disorder, which presents commonly as swelling and erosions on anogenital area and associated with features of intestinal Crohn's disease. We report a case of 23-year-old female who presented with vitiligo patches on back and legs for 1-year, painful edema and ulcers on anogenital area and oral cavity for 9 months and diarrhea with bleeding per annum for 1 month. Features on ultrasonography, multislice computed tomography scan, colonoscopy, and biopsy from nodule on anal wall were suggestive of granulomatous Crohn's disease. Thus, we present the case due to its rarity. PMID:24958989

  19. MR Imaging of Perianal Crohn Disease.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, Shannon P; Bruining, David H; Dozois, Eric J; Faubion, William A; Fletcher, Joel G

    2017-03-01

    Pelvic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is currently the standard for imaging perianal Crohn disease. Perianal fistulas are a leading cause of patient morbidity because closure often requires multimodality treatments over a prolonged period of time. This review summarizes clinically relevant anal sphincter anatomy, imaging methods, classification systems, and treatment objectives. In addition, the MR appearance of healing perianal fistulas and fistula complications is described. Difficult imaging tasks including the assessment of rectovaginal fistulas and ileoanal anastomoses are highlighted, along with illustrative cases. Emerging innovative treatments for perianal Crohn disease are now available and have the promise to better control sepsis and maintain fecal continence. Different treatment modalities are selected based on fistula anatomy, patient factors, and management goals (closure versus sepsis control). Radiologists can help maximize patient care by being familiar with MR imaging features of perianal Crohn disease and knowledgeable about what features may influence therapy decisions. (©) RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  20. Pancreatic function in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Hegnhøj, J; Hansen, C P; Rannem, T; Søbirk, H; Andersen, L B; Andersen, J R

    1990-01-01

    We investigated exocrine pancreatic function in a population of patients with Crohn's disease in order to correlate the pancreatic function with clinical and laboratory variables. A total of 143 patients affected by Crohn's disease and 115 control subjects were studied. All had a Lundh meal test. As a group patients with Crohn's disease had significantly decreased activity of both amylase (p less than 0.02) and lipase (p less than 0.001) in duodenal aspirates. In patients with Crohn's disease enzyme activities were not correlated to duration of disease or to extent or localisation of previous bowel resection. The lowest enzyme values were found in patients with the most extensive bowel involvement, and they were significantly lower (p less than 0.05) than in patients with disease confined to the terminal ileum. The differences between enzyme values in other subgroups of patients were not significant. For the patient group as a whole no correlation was found between disease activity and enzyme values, but for the most uniform group of patients, those with terminal ileitis, pancreatic function was significantly lower (p less than 0.05) in patients with moderate and severe disease compared with patients with mild disease. Thus at least two factors seem to be responsible for impaired pancreatic function in Crohn's disease: firstly disease activity and secondly localisation or extent of disease. PMID:1698692

  1. Crohn disease: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mazal, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Crohn disease (often seen in the literature as "Crohn's disease"), an autoimmune disease with debilitating gastrointestinal and extragastrointestinal manifestations, is on the rise in the United States and Europe. This article discusses the disease process, clinical presentation, diagnostic tools, and treatment options for Crohn disease. Statistics regarding disease prevalence and epidemiology also are reported.

  2. Occurrence of Crohn's disease with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Shinsuke; Curry, Sadie E; Kennelly, Kathleen D; Tacik, Pawel; Heckman, Michael G; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Strongosky, Audrey J; van Gerpen, Jay A; Uitti, Ryan J; Ross, Owen A; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Wszolek, Zbigniew K

    2017-02-10

    We retrospectively investigated the co-occurrence of Crohn's disease in a cohort of 876 patients with Parkinson's disease, based on the observation that LRRK2 is a shared genetic risk factor. We identified 2 patients with Crohn's disease; this number was consistent with the number of cases expected in the general population.

  3. Crohn's disease and acute pancreatitis. A review of literature.

    PubMed

    Jasdanwala, Sarfaraz; Babyatsky, Mark

    2015-03-20

    Crohn's disease, a transmural inflammatory bowel disease, has many well-known extra-intestinal manifestations and complications. Although acute pancreatitis has a higher incidence in patients with Crohn's disease as compared to the general population, acute pancreatitis is still relatively uncommon in patients with Crohn's disease. Patients with Crohn's disease are at an approximately fourfold higher risk than the general population to develop acute pancreatitis. The risk of developing acute pancreatitis is higher in females as compared to males. Acute pancreatitis can occur at any age with higher incidence reported in patients in their 20s and between 40-50 years of age. The severity and prognosis of acute pancreatitis in patients with Crohn's disease is the same as in general population. Acute pancreatitis can occur before onset of intestinal Crohn's disease, this presentation being more common in children than adults. It can also occur as the presenting symptom. However, most commonly it occurs after intestinal symptoms have manifest with a mean time interval between the initial presentation and development of acute pancreatitis being 2 years. There are several etiological factors contributing to acute pancreatitis in patients with Crohn's disease. It is not clear whether acute pancreatitis is a direct extra-intestinal manifestation of Crohn's disease; however, majority of the cases of acute pancreatitis in patients with Crohn's disease are due to GS and medications. Drugs used for the treatment of Crohn's disease that have been reported to cause acute pancreatitis include 5-ASA agents, azathioprine and 6 mercaptopurine, metornidazole and corticosteroids. Recent evidence has emerged correlating both type 1 and 2 autoimmune pancreatitis with Crohn's disease. Understanding the association between the two disease entities is key to effectively manage patients with Crohn's disease and acute pancreatitis.

  4. Cutaneous Manifestations of Crohn Disease.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Joshua W; Swoger, Jason M; Grandinetti, Lisa M

    2015-07-01

    Awareness of the extraintestinal manifestations of Crohn disease is increasing in dermatology and gastroenterology, with enhanced identification of entities that range from granulomatous diseases recapitulating the underlying inflammatory bowel disease to reactive conditions and associated dermatoses. In this review, the underlying etiopathology of Crohn disease is discussed, and how this mirrors certain skin manifestations that present in a subset of patients is explored. The array of extraintestinal manifestations that do not share a similar pathology, but which are often seen in association with inflammatory bowel disease, is also discussed. Treatment and pathogenetic mechanisms, where available, are discussed.

  5. [Acne inversa in Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Goischke, H K; Ochsendorf, F R

    2001-11-01

    We report 2 patients with the association of Crohn's disease and acne inversa (= hidradenitis suppurativa). A 50-year-old woman with a 10-year-history of Crohn's disease developed suppurative nodules and abscesses in the genitoanal region. Over several years these lesions were hidden from everybody including the family physician. In a 42-year-old female patient abscesses appeared in the axilla 4 years after the diagnosis of Crohn's disease. During the next years these draining lesions also developed in both groins and the perineum. The differential diagnosis included cutaneous manifestations of Crohn's disease in both cases. The clinical picture with draining abscesses and sinuses with communicating channels, cystic nodules, hypertrophic scars and foul-smelling discharge were typical findings of acne inversa. In the last years this entity was reported several times in patients with Crohn's disease. Acne inversa starts with a compact hyperkeratosis of the infundibulum in terminal hair follicles, followed by a segmental rupture of the follicular epithelium and a spreading inflammatory reaction. As pathogenic factors genetic disposition and smoking were discussed. The only curative therapy is excision of the affected area. The reported association should be known in order to recognize the disease and institute the right therapy.

  6. Outcomes of Bowel Resection in Patients with Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Moghadamyeghaneh, Zhobin; Carmichael, Joseph C; Mills, Steven D; Pigazzi, Alessio; Stamos, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    There is limited data regarding outcomes of bowel resection in patients with Crohn's disease. We sought to investigate complications of such patients after bowel resection. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample databases were used to examine the clinical data of Crohn's patients who underwent bowel resection during 2002 to 2012. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to investigate outcomes of such patients. We sampled a total of 443,950 patients admitted with the diagnosis of Crohn's disease. Of these, 20.5 per cent had bowel resection. Among patients who had bowel resection, 51 per cent had small bowel Crohn's disease, 19.4 per cent had large bowel Crohn's disease, and 29.6 per cent had both large and small bowel Crohn's disease. Patients with large bowel disease had higher mortality risk compared with small bowel disease [1.8% vs 1%, adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.42, P < 0.01]. Risks of postoperative renal failure (AOR: 1.56, P < 0.01) and respiratory failure (AOR: 1.77, P < 0.01) were higher in colonic disease compared with small bowel disease but postoperative enteric fistula was significantly higher in patients with small bowel Crohn's disease (AOR: 1.90, P < 0.01). Of the patients admitted with the diagnosis of Crohn's disease, 20.5 per cent underwent bowel resection during 2002 to 2012. Although colonic disease has a higher mortality risk, small bowel disease has a higher risk of postoperative fistula.

  7. [Free perforation in Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Patti, R; Arcara, M; Daví, V; Leo, P; Di Vita, G

    2004-01-01

    Free perforation in abdominal cavity in patients with Crohn's disease is a rare entity as attested from the data reported in the literature. It is a very dangerous event and requires a surgical urgency management. The Authors reported two cases of free perforation, in patients with Crohn' disease, undergoing surgical operation in urgency. Analyzing pathogenesis, difficulty in diagnosis making and therapeutic choices, they underline that CT is very useful in the diagnosis, while resection of the perforated intestinal tract represent the best surgical treatment.

  8. MR enterography of ileocolovesicular fistula in pediatric Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Sakala, Michelle D; Dillman, Jonathan R; Ladino-Torres, Maria F; McHugh, Jonathan B; Adler, Jeremy

    2011-05-01

    Crohn disease, a form of chronic inflammatory bowel disease is characterized by discontinuous inflammatory lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, has a variety of behavioral patterns, including penetrating or fistulous disease. While magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) excellently depicts inflamed bowel segments, it can also be used to assess for a variety of Crohn-disease-related extraintestinal complications, including fistulae. We present the MRE findings of a complex ileocolovesicular fistula in a 14-year-old boy with Crohn disease, where the fistulous tract to the urinary bladder was best delineated on precontrast T1-W imaging because of the presence of fecal material.

  9. New Meds Make Inroads Against Crohn's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164622.html New Meds Make Inroads Against Crohn's Disease Study finds ... hospital than in the past, according to a new federal study. Crohn's is a chronic inflammatory bowel ...

  10. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for perineal Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Noyer, C M; Brandt, L J

    1999-02-01

    Perineal lesions are a frequent and troublesome complication of Crohn's disease. Although there are various surgical and medical therapeutic regimens available to treat these lesions, all have significant associated morbidity, mortality, and toxicity. Recently, the beneficial effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) have been described in patients with severe or refractory perineal disease, but the role of HBOT in larger groups or less severely affected patients has not yet been studied, nor has the minimum number of treatments required for initial or complete healing of perineal disease in this population been described. This article reviews the known and theoretical tissue effects of HBOT and discusses its potential role in treating patients with perineal Crohn's disease.

  11. Crohn's disease and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Gillen, C D; Andrews, H A; Prior, P; Allan, R N

    1994-01-01

    The colorectal cancer risk in Crohn's disease eliminating all known biases was assessed in a cohort of 281 patients with Crohn's disease who resided in the West Midlands at the time of diagnosis, and were first seen within five years of onset of symptoms between 1945-1975. All patients were 15 years of age or more at onset and were followed up from 12-35 years (total 5213 person years at risk (PYR)). The colorectal cancer risk in the series compared with the risk in the general population was computed by applying sex and age specific PYRs to the date of death or end of the study period 31 December 1991. There were six colonic and two rectal cancers. Six of the eight colorectal cancers were diagnosed 20 or more years after the onset of Crohn's disease. The relative risk (RR) of colorectal cancer for the series as a whole was 3.4 (p < 0.001), with a fivefold excess in the colon, but no significant excess in the rectum. Patients with extensive colitis showed an 18-fold increase in risk (RR = 18.2, p < 0.001), which decreased with increasing age at onset. This study shows that there is a statistical excess risk of developing colorectal cancer in patients who develop their Crohn's disease at a young age of onset (less than 30 years of age). PMID:8200559

  12. MR imaging of the small bowel in Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Al-Hawary, Mahmoud M; Zimmermann, Ellen M; Hussain, Hero K

    2014-02-01

    MR enterography has an established role in evaluating patients with Crohn disease providing essential complementary information to clinical assessment, and as an indispensible adjunct to clinical tools such as colonoscopy. MR enterography examinations can establish the diagnosis of Crohn disease, evaluate disease activity and complications, and assess treatment response, thus providing support for clinical decision-making. Currently, MR imaging findings are highly predictive of tissue inflammation and can be used clinically to guide clinical care.

  13. Crohn's-like complications in patients with ulcerative colitis after total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, N S; Sanford, W W; Bodzin, J H

    1997-11-01

    Total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has become an established surgical procedure for ulcerative colitis. Occasional patients who have undergone IPAA develop persistent or recurrent episodes of pouchitis (chronic pouchitis), from which a subset also develop gastrointestinal and systemic complications that are identical to those seen in Crohn's disease. These complications include enteric stenoses or fistulas in the pouch or pouch inlet segment, perianal fistulas or abscesses, pouch fistulas, arthritis, iridocyclitis, and pyoderma gangrenosum. The development of Crohn's-like gastrointestinal complications in a patient with chronic pouchitis frequently engenders concern that the pathologist misinterpreted the proctocolectomy specimen as ulcerative colitis instead of Crohn's disease. We describe eight patients who developed chronic pouchitis and Crohn's-like complications after IPAA and total proctocolectomy. In each case, concern was voiced about misinterpretation of the proctocolectomy specimen as ulcerative colitis instead of Crohn's disease after the development of the Crohn's-like complications. Preoperatively, all eight patients had characteristic clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features of ulcerative colitis. Review of the pathology specimens indicated that all eight had ulcerative colitis. Crohn's-like complications are most likely related to chronic pouchitis, which probably is a form of recrudescent ulcerative colitis within the novel environment of the pouch. A diagnosis of Crohn's disease after IPAA surgery should only be made when reexamination of the original proctocolectomy specimen shows typical pathologic features of Crohn's disease, Crohn's disease arises in parts of the gastrointestinal tract distant from the pouch, pouch biopsies contain active enteritis with granulomas, or excised pouches show the characteristic features of Crohn's disease, including granulomas. There were no histologic differences in the total

  14. Fabry disease simulating Crohn's ileitis.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Carlos A; Villnow, Elizabeth; Sundelin, Birgitta; Eriksson, Elina; Dolapcsiev, Karoli; Björk, Jan; Befrits, Ragnar; Tengvar, Magnus; Iversen, Henrik

    2014-05-01

    Fabry disease is an inherited (X-linked) lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of α-galactosidase A, leading to accumulation of globotriaosylceramide in various tissues. A 57-year-old male with a family history and laboratory findings of Fabry disease, was consulted for severe abdominal pain, undulating pyrexia, weight loss and diarrhea. The tentative clinical diagnosis of Crohn's ileitis was supported at computed tomographic examination, at laparotomy and at inspection of the resected ileal segment. Histology revealed chronic and acute inflammation, thick-walled occluded vessels, fibrosis and characteristic bi-refringent lamellar deposits of globotriaosylceramide and calcifications. Multi-nucleated giant cells contained phagocytized bi-refringent material. Transmission electron microscopy showed cells with irregular cytoplasmic bodies displaying distinctive zebra-like lamellar structures. It is submitted that the gastrointestinal phenotype of Fabry disease may concur with symptoms resembling abdominal Crohn's disease.

  15. [Crohn's disease associated with focal pulmonare lesion].

    PubMed

    Tagle, Martín; Barriga, José; Piñeiro, Andrés

    2003-01-01

    40 year-old male recently diagnosed with Crohn's disease. A routine chest X ray showed a round, well defined opacity in right lung field. A chest CT scan confirmed the finding and also described bronchiectasis. Patient had no respiratory symptoms. He was prescribed with oral sulfasalazine and corticosteroids with rapid improvement of intestinal symptoms as well as resolution of the pulmonary opacity. We describe the clinical presentation of a male newly diagnosed with Crohn's disease who was found to have an asymptomatic pulmonary lesion on imaging studies. Pulmonary complications have been previously described in inflamatory bowel disease being more common in ulcerative colitis than in Crohn's disease; these can involve the lung parenchyma, the tracheobronchial tree, and the pleura. The true prevalence and etiology of these lesions is currently unknown and are not necessarily associated with bowel disease activity. Abnormal pulmonary functions test have been reported during inflammatory bowel disease exacerbations, and although pulmonary findings can present with a variety of symptoms, subclinical presentations have also been described. Pulmonary manifestations are usually steoid-responsive, as was the case in our patients.

  16. Pediatric Magnetic Resonance Enterography: Focused on Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, So Mi; Choi, Young Hun

    2015-01-01

    Crohn's disease is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory disease of the intestines characterized by frequent relapse and remission. It often develops in children and adolescents, who are vulnerable to repeated exposure to ionizing radiations. Magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) is an increasingly important radiation-free imaging modality that is used to evaluate pediatric patients with Crohn's disease. MRE can evaluate extraluminal and extraintestinal abnormalities as well as the status of the bowel wall. In addition, MRE has an advantage in the evaluation of the small bowel involvement. MRE can be used for the initial diagnosis of Crohn's disease, and can aid in the assessment of disease activity and complications such as penetrating and fibrostenotic diseases. The aims of this article are to review the MRE technique for obtaining diagnostic and high-quality images and to discuss interpretations of imaging findings in patients with Crohn's disease. PMID:26473134

  17. Decoding norovirus infection in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Chamaillard, Mathias; Cesaro, Annabelle; Lober, Pierre-Emmanuel; Hober, Didier

    2014-04-01

    Although a causing viral infectious agent remains untraceable in Crohn's disease, most recent genome-wide association studies have linked the FUT2 W143X mutation (resulting in asymptomatic norovirus infection) with the pathogenesis of Crohn's ileitis and with vitamin B12 deficiency (i.e., a known risk factor for Crohn's disease with ileal involvement). In line with these findings, host variations in additional genes involved in host response to norovirus infection (such as ATG16L1 and NOD2) predispose humans to Crohn's ileitis. One may therefore presume that asymptomatic norovirus infection may contribute to disruption of the stability of the gut microbiota leading to Crohn's ileitis. These paradigms highlight not only the need to revisit the potential transmissibility of Crohn's disease, but also potential safety issues of forthcoming clinical trials on human probiotic infusions in Crohn's ileitis by rigorous donors screening program.

  18. Primary Adenocarcinoma of an Ileostomy in Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Meena A.; Lo, Amy; Bellaguarda, Emanuelle; Strong, Scott; Hanauer, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Although Crohn's disease has been associated with an increased risk of small bowel adenocarcinoma, primary adenocarcinoma arising from an ileostomy is a complication that has been rarely documented in Crohn's disease. Chronic small bowel inflammation may lead to development of malignancy through the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence. We report a case of a 61-year-old woman with Crohn's ileocolitis diagnosed with a primary adenocarcinoma at the ileostomy with metastases to the liver 47 years after proctocolectomy, and review the literature. PMID:27622191

  19. Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy in Patient with Crohn's Disease: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Sung-Min; Park, Ki Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Numerous causes of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) have been reported. Commonly, secondary osteoarthropathy accompanies pulmonary diseases such as carcinoma of the lung, pleural tumors, lung abscesses, and bronchiectasis. However, HOA in inflammatory bowel disease is a rare complication. There are only a few reports of secondary HOA with Crohn's disease. Our purpose was to report another case of HOA in Crohn's disease. We describe a case of a 27-year-old man with underlying Crohn's disease presenting with 2 years of pain in multiple joints. Radiographic findings suggested HOA in extremities. We performed a conservative treatment including medication and rehabilitations. The patient's symptoms were much improved at the latest follow-up. Although numerous studies on HOA have been published, the pathogenesis of HOA is still unclear. Various treatment modalities were recommended but further studies to uncover the pathogenesis of HOA with Crohn's disease and to establish a treatment modality are needed. PMID:25025001

  20. Intestinal angioedema mimicking Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, A; Prather, C M

    1999-10-18

    Angioedema usually presents as episodic attacks of swelling of the face, airway and extremities, but it may also involve visceral tissues. A 58-year-old woman with repeated episodes of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting had two laparotomies and was treated for Crohn's disease for two years before a diagnosis of acquired intestinal angioedema was made. This case provides important insights into the presentation of intestinal angioedema.

  1. Case for diagnosis. Metastatic Crohn's disease*

    PubMed Central

    Gontijo, João Renato Vianna; Leidenz, Franciele Antonieta Bianchi; de Sousa, Maria Silvia Laborne Alves

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic Crohn's disease is a rare skin manifestation, defined by granulomatous skin lesions that are discontinuous to the affected gastrointestinal tract and histopathologically resembling inflammatory bowel lesions. Up to 44% of patients with Crohn's disease have cutaneous manifestations, of which metastatic lesions are the least common. We present a case of an adolescent with refractory Crohn's disease and persistent papules and plaques on the skin. PMID:27579756

  2. Intestinal mycoplasma in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Roediger, W E W

    2004-01-01

    Intestinal diversion with reconnection in active Crohn's disease (CD) indicates that luminal contents or bacteria contribute to the formation of CD lesions. Fluorescent staining for mycoplasma in freshly resected Crohn's tissue and electron microscopy reveal intracellular organisms akin to mycoplasma. Historically, tissue culture of CD has shown mycoplasma described as contaminants. Mycoplasma are surface epithelial parasites requiring exogenous cholesterol for membrane stability and cell entry. PCR of intestinal tissue has shown Mycoplasma pneumoniae to be detectable more significantly in CD. Oral M. iowae in experimental poultry localizes to the distal small bowel and colon. Hypothetically, lipopeptides of mycoplasmal membranes are proposed to cause chronicity and stronger immune responses than by other bacteria. 'Intestinal' mycoplasmas, from a number of observations, deserve consideration as organisms mediating inflammation of acute and chronic CD.

  3. Pinworm Infestation Mimicking Crohns' Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ignatova, Simone; Ekstedt, Mattias

    2013-01-01

    We here report a case of a young man who presented to his general practitioner with diarrhea. Inflammatory bowel disease was suspected and a colonoscopy showed aphthous lesions suggestive of Crohns' disease but biopsies revealed eggs of Enterobius vermicularis. When treated for this parasite, his symptoms were alleviated and a followup colonoscopy revealed a normal colon and distal ileum. Enterobius vermicularis is the most common parasite worldwide and has been attributed with many different presentations and pathologies. It is therefore necessary to maintain vigilance, even in high-income countries, in order to diagnose patients with one of the many atypical presentations of pinworms. PMID:23555063

  4. Adalimumab in pediatric Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ashish S; Suarez, Lisbet D; Rosh, Joel R

    2016-02-01

    Adalimumab, a human monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), was initially approved for the treatment of moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis in 2002. In the subsequent years, its anti-inflammatory properties were applied to the treatment of psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, adult Crohn's disease (CD), plaque psoriasis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, adult ulcerative colitis and most recently in 2014, pediatric CD. The biologic era in pediatric CD has changed and redefined the therapeutic approach to this challenging lifelong disease. This article summarizes the clinical legacy of adalimumab with a focus on its most recent expanded indication, pediatric CD.

  5. [Oxidative stress in Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Moret, Inés; Cerrillo, Elena; Navarro-Puche, Ana; Iborra, Marisa; Rausell, Francisco; Tortosa, Luis; Beltrán, Belén

    2014-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is characterized by transmural inflammation that is most frequently located in the region of the terminal ileum. Although the physiopathological mechanisms of the disease are not yet well defined, the unregulated immune response is associated with high production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These elements are associated with complex systems known as antioxidant defenses, whose function is ROS regulation, thereby preventing the harmful effects of these elements. However, the presence of an imbalance between ROS production and ROS elimination by antioxidants has been widely described and leads to oxidative stress. In this article, we describe the most significant findings on oxidative stress in the intestinal mucosa and peripheral blood.

  6. Crohn's Disease of the Ileoanal Pouch.

    PubMed

    Lightner, Amy L; Pemberton, John H; Loftus, Edward J

    2016-06-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) of the pouch is an increasingly recognized diagnosis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. This post-ileal pouch-anal anastomosis diagnosis in conjunction with pouchitis remains the leading reason for pouch excision. Unfortunately, CD of the pouch remains a difficult diagnosis with lack of a uniform definition largely because of its similarity to common postoperative pouch complications, including pouchitis, abscess formation, or stricture at the anastomosis. Once diagnosed, treatment algorithms largely include multimodal therapy including biologics. This review focuses on the definition, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment for CD of the pouch, a postoperative de novo diagnosis of CD.

  7. Surgery and diagnostic imaging in abdominal Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Botti, Fiorenzo; Caprioli, Flavio; Pettinari, Diego; Carrara, Alberto; Magarotto, Andrea; Contessini Avesani, Ettore

    2015-03-01

    Surgery is well-established option for the treatment of Crohn's disease that is refractory to medical therapy and for complications of the disease, including strictures, fistulas, abscesses, bleeding that cannot be controlled endoscopically, and neoplastic degeneration. For a condition like Crohn's disease, where medical management is the rule, other indications for surgery are considered controversial, because the therapeutic effects of surgery are limited to the resolution of complications and the rate of recurrence is high, especially at sites of the surgical anastomosis. In the authors' opinion, however, surgery should not be considered a last-resort treatment: in a variety of situations, it should be regarded as an appropriate solution for managing this disease. Based on a review of the literature and their own experience, the authors examine some of the possibilities for surgical interventions in Crohn's disease and the roles played in these cases by diagnostic imaging modalities.

  8. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Crohn Disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, David H; Carucci, Laura R; Baker, Mark E; Cash, Brooks D; Dillman, Jonathan R; Feig, Barry W; Fowler, Kathryn J; Gage, Kenneth L; Noto, Richard B; Smith, Martin P; Yaghmai, Vahid; Yee, Judy; Lalani, Tasneem

    2015-10-01

    Crohn disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder involving the gastrointestinal tract, characterized by episodic flares and times of remission. Underlying structural damage occurs progressively, with recurrent bouts of inflammation. The diagnosis and management of this disease process is dependent on several clinical, laboratory, imaging, endoscopic, and histologic factors. In recent years, with the maturation of CT enterography, and MR enterography, imaging has played an increasingly important role in relation to Crohn Disease. In addition to these specialized examination modalities, ultrasound and routine CT have potential uses. Fluoroscopy, radiography, and nuclear medicine may be less beneficial depending on the clinical scenario. The imaging modality best suited to evaluating this disease may change, depending on the target population, severity of presentation, and specific clinical situation. This document presents seven clinical scenarios (variants) in both the adult and pediatric populations and rates the appropriateness of the available imaging options. They are summarized in a consolidated table, and the underlying rationale and supporting literature are presented in the accompanying narrative. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.

  9. Crohn disease and the gynecologic patient.

    PubMed

    Sides, Cleve; Trinidad, Mari Charisse; Heitlinger, Leo; Anasti, James

    2013-01-01

    Although Crohn disease (CD) is considered an inflammatory bowel disease, extraintestinal gynecologic manifestations are varied, frequent, and oftentimes difficult to manage. Its predilection for young and reproductive-age women makes it an important disease process for the gynecologist to understand, as its complications can have long-term repercussions on the developmental, sexual, reproductive, and psychological health of affected women. Patients may present with a variety of vulvovaginal, perineal, perianal, and urologic complaints. Perianal involvement from an intestinal fistula is the most common skin manifestation seen in CD. Other gynecologic manifestations include metastatic CD and rectovaginal and urovaginal fistulas. Recognition and accurate diagnosis of extraintestinal gynecologic manifestations, as well as a good understanding of the gynecologic effects of chronic disease, are necessary for optimal management. The article provides an overview of CD and highlights the gynecologic considerations in caring for women affected by this disease.

  10. Crohn's Disease of the Colon, Rectum, and Anus.

    PubMed

    Harb, William J

    2015-12-01

    There is no cure for Crohn disease. Newer treatments, such as biological therapy, have led to an improved quality of life. This article focuses on the surgical management of Crohn disease of the colon, rectum, and anus. Restorative and nonrestorative surgical options for colonic Crohn disease are discussed. Treatment options for perianal Crohn disease are also reviewed.

  11. Is Crohn's disease due to defective immunity?

    PubMed Central

    Korzenik, J R

    2007-01-01

    The understanding of the pathophysiology of Crohn's disease is currently undergoing a reassessment. The concept of this disease as a primary T cell disorder is being questioned, with a new emphasis on the role of innate immunity in initiating early events and in perpetuating the inflammatory state. Crohn's disease has been proposed instead to result from impaired innate immunity, encompassing the mucosal barrier and cellular elements including neutrophils and macrophages. Recent advances in genetics, functional studies on innate immunity and therapeutic trials on patients with Crohn's disease have lent support to this evolving hypothesis. PMID:17172582

  12. Small bowel adenocarcinoma and Crohn's disease: any further ahead than 50 years ago?

    PubMed

    Cahill, Caitlin; Gordon, Philip H; Petrucci, Andrea; Boutros, Marylise

    2014-09-07

    This review of the literature on small bowel carcinoma associated with Crohn's disease specifically addresses the incidence, risk factors, and protective factors which have been identified. It also reviews the clinical presentation, the current modalities of diagnosis, the pathology, treatment, and surveillance. Finally, the prognosis and future direction are addressed. Our experience with small bowel adenocarcinoma in Crohn's disease is reported. Readers will be provided with a better understanding of this rare and often poorly recognized complication of Crohn's disease.

  13. Transperineal ultrasonography in perianal Crohn disease: A valuable imaging modality.

    PubMed

    Wright, Emily K; Novak, Kerri L; Lu, Cathy; Panaccione, Remo; Ghosh, Subrata; Wilson, Stephanie R

    2015-01-01

    Aims of treatment for Crohn disease have moved beyond the resolution of clinical symptoms to objective end points including endoscopic and radiological normality. Regular re-evaluation of disease status to safely, readily and reliably detect the presence of inflammation and complications is paramount. Improvements in sonographic technology over recent years have facilitated a growing enthusiasm among radiologists and gastroenterologists in the use of ultrasound for the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. Transabdominal intestinal ultrasound is accurate, affordable and safe for the assessment of luminal inflammation and complications in Crohn disease, and can be performed with or without the use of intravenous contrast enhancement. Perianal fistulizing disease is a common, complex and often treatment-refractory complication of Crohn disease, which requires regular radiological monitoring. Endoanal ultrasound is invasive, uncomfortable and yields limited assessment of the perineal region. Although magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis is established, timely access may be a problem. Transperineal ultrasound has been described in small studies, and is an accurate, painless and cost-effective method for documenting perianal fluid collections, fistulas and sinus tracts. In the present article, the authors review the literature regarding perineal ultrasound for the assessment of perianal Crohn disease and use case examples to illustrate its clinical utility.

  14. Adalimumab for the treatment of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Konstantinos A

    2006-01-01

    Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory intestinal disorder characterized by chronic, recurrent, often granulomatous inflammation affecting any part of the intestines, but most frequently involving the small bowel and colon. The development of novel biologic agents targeting tumor necrosis factor has revolutionized the treatment of patients with moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease. Adalimumab, a fully human anti-tumor necrosis factor monoclonal antibody, has recently been evaluated for Crohn's disease and was found to be effective for induction of clinical response and remission in patients with active inflammatory disease. Preliminary experience also indicates that adalimumab is useful in patients with prior intolerance or loss of response to infliximab. The rate of adverse events is comparable to other tumor necrosis factor antagonists in rheumatoid arthritis, but longer studies are needed to evaluate both the long-term efficacy and safety of adalimumab in the treatment of Crohn's disease.

  15. Laparoscopic Ileocolic Resection for Crohn's Disease Associated With Midgut Malrotation

    PubMed Central

    Biancone, Livia; Tema, Giorgia; Porokhnavets, Kristina; Tesauro, Manfredi; Gaspari, Achille L.; Sica, Giuseppe S.

    2014-01-01

    Midgut malrotation is an anomaly of fetal intestinal rotation. Its incidence in adults is rare. A case of midgut malrotation in a 51-year-old man with complicated Crohn's disease of the terminal ileum is presented. Symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment are reviewed. Preoperative workup led to correct surgical planning that ultimately allowed a successful laparoscopic resection. PMID:25419109

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of perianal Crohn disease in children.

    PubMed

    Shenoy-Bhangle, Anuradha; Gee, Michael S

    2016-05-01

    Perianal penetrating complications of Crohn disease are among the most important causes of symptoms in the pediatric population. High-quality diagnostic imaging of the perianal region is crucial for treatment planning and therapeutic response assessment. MRI, with its absence of ionizing radiation and high soft-tissue resolution, provides an excellent noninvasive tool for evaluation of perianal fistulae and associated abscesses, as well as their anatomical relationship to the anal sphincter complex. In this review we discuss the role of MRI in initial diagnosis and follow-up of perianal fistulizing Crohn disease in the pediatric population.

  17. THERAPIES FOR CROHN'S DISEASE: a clinical update.

    PubMed

    Sobrado, Carlos Walter; Leal, Raquel Franco; Sobrado, Lucas Faraco

    2016-01-01

    The main objectives of clinical therapy in Crohn's disease are clinical and endoscopic remission without the use of corticosteroids for long periods of time, prevention of hospitalization and surgery, and improvement of quality of life. The main limitation of drug therapy is the loss of response over the long term, which makes incorporation of new drugs to the therapeutic arsenal necessary. This review analyses the main drugs currently used in clinical treatment of Crohn's disease.

  18. Vulvoperineal Crohn's disease responsive to metronidazole*

    PubMed Central

    Rosmaninho, Aristóteles; Sanches, Madalena; Salgado, Marta; Alves, Rosário; Selores, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    Crohn's disease is a multisystem chronic granulomatous inflammatory disease that primarily affects the gastrointestinal tract. In the majority of the cases, the cutaneous manifestations follow the intestinal disease, but occasionally dermatological lesions are the inaugural event and may constitute the only sign of the disease. Vulvoperineal involvement is rare, may precede bowel symptoms by months to years and may go unrecognized. Due to the paucity of reports of Crohn's disease at this location and in the absence of randomized trials, there are no standard treatments for the cutaneous disease. We describe the case of a 47 year-old woman with vulvoperineal Crohn's disease without digestive involvement, that was successfully managed with metronidazole. PMID:24346884

  19. A free terminal ileal perforation from active crohn disease in pregnancy: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Philip, Sunu; Kamyab, Armin; Orfanou, Paraskevi

    2015-03-01

    The surgical management of the complications of Crohn disease is often challenging. These difficulties are compounded in pregnancy by competing interests of the mother and the baby. In this report, we describe the presentation and surgical management of a patient in her second trimester with active Crohn disease who required emergent surgical intervention. She had presented with the uncommon complication of a free perforation in the presence of active untreated disease.

  20. Sterile Seroma after Drainage of Purulent Muscle Abscess in Crohn's Disease: Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Treitman, Adam; Tabriz, Muhammed

    2016-01-01

    Purulent skeletal muscle abscesses can occur in Crohn's disease. We report a case of a sterile seroma complicating percutaneous drainage of a purulent skeletal muscle abscess in Crohn's ileitis. We compare and contrast this case with a similar case we published earlier. We emphasize the importance of recognition and differentiation from a septic purulent abscess. PMID:27529038

  1. Imaging of perianal fistulizing Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Chidi, Vivian N; Schwartz, David A

    2015-06-01

    Perianal fistula is a complication of Crohn's disease that carries a high morbidity. It is a channel that develops between the lower rectum, anal canal and perianal or perineal skin. The development of perianal fistulas typically connotes a more aggressive disease phenotype and may warrant escalation of treatment to prevent poor outcomes over time. Based on fistula anatomy, debris can form inside these tracts and cause occlusion, which subsequently leads to abscess formation, fever and malaise. The clinical presentation is often with complaints of pain, continuous rectal drainage of fecal matter as well as malodorous discharge. Considering that the presence of fistulas often indicates refractory and aggressive disease, early identification of its presence is important. Some patients may not have the classic symptoms of fistulizing disease at presentation and others may have significant scarring and/or pain from previous fistulizing episodes, which can make an accurate assessment on physical exam alone problematic. As a result, utilizing diagnostic imaging is the best means of identifying the early signs of perianal fistulas or abscess formation in these patients. Several imaging modalities exist which can be used for diagnosis and management. Endoscopic ultrasound and pelvic MRI are considered the most useful in establishing the diagnosis. However, a combination of multiple imaging modalities and/or examination under anesthesia is probably the most ideal. Incomplete characterization of the fistula tract(s) extent or the presence of abscess carries a high morbidity and far-reaching personal expense for the patient - promoting worsening of the disease.

  2. Medical radar considerations for detecting and monitoring Crohn's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Sonny; Narayanan, Ram M.; Messaris, Evangelos

    2014-05-01

    Crohn's disease is a condition that causes inflammation and associated complications along any section of the digestive tract. Over the years, numerous radiological and endoscopic methods as well as the use of ultrasound have been developed to examine and diagnose inflammatory bowel disorders such as Crohn's disease. While such techniques have much merit, an alternative medical solution that is safe, non-invasive, and inexpensive is proposed in this paper. Reflections from electromagnetic signals transmitted by an ultra-wide band (UWB) radar allow for not only range (or extent) information but also spectral analysis of a given target of interest. Moreover, the radar cross-section (RCS) of an object measures how detectable the electromagnetic return energy of such an object is to the radar. In the preliminary phase of research, we investigate how disparities in the dielectric properties of diseased versus non-diseased portions of the intestines can aid in the detection of Crohn's disease. RCS analysis from finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method simulations using a simple 3D model of the intestines are presented. The ultimate goal of our research is to design a UWB radar system using a suitable waveform to detect and monitor Crohn's disease.

  3. [Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis].

    PubMed

    Moreau, Jacques

    2014-03-01

    Extremely variable in their clinical expression, inflammatory bowl diseases evolve by flare-ups interspersed with phases of remission. Complications can be severe, sometimes requiring surgery. While treatments have evolved considerably, therapeutic patient education plays an important role in the therapeutic approach.

  4. Optimizing biological therapy in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Gecse, Krisztina Barbara; Végh, Zsuzsanna; Lakatos, Péter László

    2016-01-01

    Anti-TNF therapy has revolutionized the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases, including both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. However, a significant proportion of patients does not respond to anti-TNF agents or lose response over time. Recently, therapeutic drug monitoring has gained a major role in identifying the mechanism and management of loss of response. The aim of this review article is to summarize the predictors of efficacy and outcomes, the different mechanisms of anti-TNF/biological failure in Crohn's disease and identify strategies to optimize biological treatment.

  5. Crohn's disease with respiratory tract involvement.

    PubMed Central

    Lemann, M; Messing, B; D'Agay, F; Modigliani, R

    1987-01-01

    Symptomatic respiratory tract involvement with granulomatous bronchial lesions has not yet been described in Crohn's disease. We report two patients with colonic Crohn's disease and severe respiratory symptoms (dyspnoea associated in one of the patients with voicelessness); erythema, aphthoid and superficial ulcerations were found in the colon and whitish granulations in the bronchi at endoscopy. Non-caseating tuberculoid granulomas were found in the colonic mucosa of both patients, as well as in the bronchial mucosa of one of them; in the second a diffuse inflammatory infiltrate including epithelioid cells was found underneath an erosion of bronchial epithelium. Both patients improved on oral prednisone. These two patients probably had bronchial involvement by Crohn's disease. Images Figure PMID:3428695

  6. MRI for Crohn's Disease: Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kichul; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Hong J.

    2015-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory condition with relapsing-remitting behavior, often causing strictures or penetrating bowel damage. Its lifelong clinical course necessitates frequent assessment of disease activity and complications. Computed tomography (CT) enterography has been used as primary imaging modality; however, the concern for radiation hazard limits its use especially in younger population. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has advantages of avoiding radiation exposure, lower incidence of adverse events, ability to obtain dynamic information, and good soft-tissue resolution. MR enterography (MRE) with oral contrast agent has been used as primary MR imaging modality of CD with high sensitivity, specificity, and interobserver agreement. The extent of inflammation as well as transmural ulcers and fibrostenotic diseases can be detected with MRE. Novel MR techniques such as diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI), motility study, PET-MRI, and molecular imaging are currently investigated for further improvement of diagnosis and management of CD. MR spectroscopy is a remarkable molecular imaging tool to analyze metabolic profile of CD with human samples such as plasma, urine, or feces, as well as colonic mucosa itself. PMID:26413543

  7. Patient optimization for surgery relating to Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kamal V; Darakhshan, Amir A; Griffin, Nyree; Williams, Andrew B; Sanderson, Jeremy D; Irving, Peter M

    2016-12-01

    The majority of patients with Crohn's disease require abdominal surgery during their lifetime, some of whom will require multiple operations. Postoperative complications are seen more frequently in patients requiring abdominal surgery for Crohn's disease than in patients requiring abdominal surgery for other conditions. In this article, we review the evidence supporting preoperative optimization, discussing strategies that potentially improve surgical outcomes and reduce perioperative morbidity and mortality. We discuss the roles of adequate cross-sectional imaging, nutritional optimization, appropriate adjustments of medical therapy, management of preoperative abscesses and phlegmons, smoking cessation and thromboembolic prophylaxis. We also review operation-related factors, and discuss their potential implications with respect to postoperative complications. Overall, the literature suggests that preoperative management has a major effect on postoperative outcomes.

  8. Periodontal disease and anemias associated with Crohn's disease. A case report.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Swati; Acharya, Anirudh B; Thakur, Srinath L

    2012-03-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory bowel disease with oral findings, including periodontal manifestations. Anemias, such as iron deficiency and anemia of chronic disease (ACD), are the most common hematologic complications of CD. Periodontitis has systemic effects, and may tend toward anemia, which can be explained by depressed erythropoiesis. In the report presented here, the authors review a case of Crohn's disease diagnosed 10 years previous to the patient presenting with a changing anemic profile and periodontal disease. A discussion of patient and disease management is included.

  9. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography in Crohn's Disease Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Białecki, Marcin; Białecka, Agnieszka; Laskowska, Katarzyna; Liebert, Ariel; Kłopocka, Maria; Serafin, Zbigniew

    2015-06-01

    The chronic nature of Crohn's disease (CD) implicates necessity of multiple control assessments throughout patient's life. It is accepted that in patients with CD requiring disease monitoring, magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) and computed tomography enterography (CTE) are--apart from endoscopy--imaging studies of first choice. In practice, diagnostic imaging of patients with CD is troublesome, since MRE is an expensive and complicated study, and CTE exposes patients to high doses of ionizing radiation. Therefore, there is a need for new, both non-invasive and effective, methods of imaging in CD. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography (CEUS) is a relatively new method using gas-filled microbubbles serving as contrast agent. It allows for detailed assessment of blood perfusion within intestine wall and peri-intestinal tissues, which enables detection and monitoring of inflammation and its qualitative assessment. The purpose of this paper is to describe CEUS examination technique and its clinical applications in patients with Crohn's disease.

  10. Complex partial status epilepticus in a patient with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Montserrat G; Vega, Juan; Santamarta, Elena; Caminal, Luis

    2013-09-06

    Few cases of Crohn's disease complicated with meningitis and epidural abscess have been described in literature. We present a case of a 42-year-old former smoker female patient diagnosed with Crohn's disease in September 1995 (with severe nutritional problems). On 20 February 2012, she was admitted due to a probable sepsis (without any previous treatment). After several days she developed a confusion syndrome (probable Wernicke's disease). On 5 March 2012, the patient presented with a febrile episode of 39 ° C. Two days later, the patient presented aphasia and paraparesis, and 3 days later she presented a complex partial status epilepticus. A lumbar puncture was performed and showed 131 leucocytes (63% granulocytes) and proteins 296.3. The abdominopelvic CT scan revealed a presacral collection that seem to extend cranially towards the lumbosacral spine. The lumbar MRI confirmed the lumbar epidural abscess secondary to the fistulisation of the presacral abscess.

  11. [Surgical treatment for perianal Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Futami, Kitaro; Higashi, Daijiro; Hirano, Yukiko; Ikeda, Yuichi; Mikami, Koji; Hirano, Kimikazu; Miyake, Toru; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Maekawa, Takafumi

    2015-03-01

    Perianal lesions are a frequent complication of Crohn's disease (CD) and include fistula, abscess, anal ulcer, skin tag, anal stricture, and carcinoma. Perianal fistula is the most commonly observed condition and exhibits multiple incidence and intractable characteristics. The starting point for the management of perianal fistula is an accurate diagnosis, which requires careful exploration during an EUA. The condition is treated with medications such as antibiotics, immunosuppressants, or anti-tumor necrosis factor agents. However, it is difficult to maintain long-term remission. Surgical therapy is selected according to the type of fistula and can include conventional fistulotomy, seton drainage, diverting stoma, and anorectal amputation. After fistulotomy, recurrence is frequent and there is an increased risk of incontinence. Seton drainage is the preferred treatment to improve symptoms and preserve anal function. Stoma is useful to relieve symptoms but difficult to indicate for young patients. The optimum treatment for perianal fistula associated with CD remains controversial. Currently, the goal of therapy for these patients has shifted from complete fistula closure to reducing drainage from the fistula to improve their quality of life. Ongoing careful management is important to control anal symptoms and maintain long-term anal function in the treatment of patients with CD, while monitoring them to detect possible progression to anorectal carcinoma.

  12. MR enteroclysis imaging of Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Prassopoulos, P; Papanikolaou, N; Grammatikakis, J; Rousomoustakaki, M; Maris, T; Gourtsoyiannis, N

    2001-10-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) enteroclysis imaging is emerging as a technique for evaluation of the small bowel in patients with Crohn disease. Administration of 1.5-2 L of isosmotic water solution through a nasojejunal catheter ensures distention of the bowel and facilitates identification of wall abnormalities. True fast imaging with steady-state precession (FISP), half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE), and postgadolinium T1-weighted three-dimensional fast low-angle shot sequences can be employed in a comprehensive and integrated MR enteroclysis examination protocol to overcome specific disadvantages of each of the sequences involved. Superficial abnormalities that are ideally delineated with conventional enteroclysis are not consistently depicted with MR enteroclysis. The characteristic transmural abnormalities of Crohn disease such as bowel wall thickening, linear ulcers, and cobblestoning are accurately shown with MR enteroclysis imaging, especially with the true FISP sequence. MR enteroclysis is comparable to conventional enteroclysis in the detection of the number and extent of involved small bowel segments and in the disclosure of luminal narrowing or prestenotic intestinal dilatation. The clinical utility of MR enteroclysis in Crohn disease has not been fully established. At present, the method may be used for follow-up studies of known disease, estimation of disease activity, and determination of the extramucosal extent and spread of the disease process.

  13. [Crohn disease: diagnosis by graded compression ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Tarján, Z; Makó, E; Dévai, T; Tulassay, Z

    1995-08-27

    Fifty-four patients with suspected Crohn's disease of the small bowel underwent ultrasound examination with graded compression. The pathologic sonographic findings were compared with the clinical, endoscopic and in 32 cases with the parallel performed CT and selective enterographic examinations. Of the 29 proven cases of Crohn's disease 26 (89.7%) had bowel wall thickening detectable with US. The change in the bowel wall structure correlated to the stage of the disease. The luminal narrowing, the mesenteric involvement, the enlargement of the mesenteric lymph nodes, the abscesses and fistulas were judged easily, but the length and the location of the bowel segment were estimated only approximately. The characteristic but nonspecific signs observed by ultrasound were found to be a useful adjunct to the endoscopic and roentgen examinations. The ultrasound with graded compression in our view is a well usable alternative method for both diagnosis and follow-up, informing about the transmural spread of the pathology.

  14. Possible association of cutaneous Rosai-Dorfman disease and chronic Crohn disease: a case series report.

    PubMed

    Salva, Katrin A; Stenstrom, Melissa; Breadon, Jonith Y; Odland, Paul Blair; Bennett, Daniel; Longley, Jack; Wood, Gary S

    2014-02-01

    IMPORTANCE Cutaneous Rosai-Dorfman disease (CRDD), a variant of Rosai-Dorfman disease limited to the skin, has a wide range of clinical presentations. Rosai-Dorfman disease is believed to result from an aberrant response to antigens, caused by immunosuppressive macrophages. Macrophage-mediated immunosuppression is also implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn disease, linking these otherwise unrelated entities. To our knowledge, the coexistence of these disorders has been described in only 2 cases, 1 of them confined to the skin and soft tissue. OBSERVATIONS We present a series of 3 patients who developed purely CRDD in the context of long-standing Crohn disease. Statistical estimates suggested that the association of these 2 disorders is not due to chance (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Our case series provides the clinical correlate to the pathogenetic parallels between CRDD and Crohn disease. Crohn disease is frequently complicated by various skin manifestations, which may be mimicked by CRDD. Therefore, it may be prudent for clinicians to include CRDD in the list of differential diagnoses when examining skin lesions in patients with Crohn disease.

  15. Treatment of metastatic cutaneous Crohn disease with certolizumab.

    PubMed

    Kiuru, Maija; Camp, Brendan; Adhami, Katayun; Jacob, Vinita; Magro, Cynthia; Wildman, Horatio

    2015-11-18

    Metastatic Crohn disease is a rare cutaneous manifestation of Crohn disease characterized by granulomatous lesions discontinuous with the diseased areas of the gastrointestinal tract. We report a case of a 32-year-old woman with history of Crohn disease who was admitted for treatment of cellulitis after presenting with a tender erythematous plaque of the left calf. Microbiological tests including tissue cultures were negative. A skin biopsy revealed granulomatous dermatitis consistent with metastatic cutaneous Crohn disease. Owing to concomitant perianal fistulas and abscesses and prior infusion reaction to infliximab, the patient was treated with certolizumab, a pegylated tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor combined with methotrexate resulting in complete resolution of the skin lesion. This case emphasizes the importance of recognizing this rare skin manifestation of Crohn disease and adds certolizumab as one of TNF inhibitors useful in the treatment of metastatic cutaneous Crohn disease.

  16. Clostridium difficile infection in a patient with Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chien-Hui; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Ni, Yen-Hsuan

    2012-06-01

    Crohn disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder, which is rare in pediatric patients. The definite etiology and mechanism to induce an acute exacerbation of Crohn disease remains mostly unknown. The authors report on a 14-year-old girl with Crohn disease who has acute gastrointestinal symptoms caused by toxin A-producing Clostridium difficile, which mimicked a flare-up of Crohn disease. There was no preceding antibiotic prescription before the episode. The disease activity did not improve after steroid treatment, which is unusual for Crohn disease. However, all symptoms were dramatically relieved after eradication of C difficile, and led to a symptom-free period for more than 3 years. This case report aims to address the unusual presentation of a usual pathogen, C difficile, in a pediatric patient with Crohn disease.

  17. Cross-sectional imaging in Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Akira; Saotome, Takao; Yamasaki, Michio; Maeda, Kiyosumi; Nitta, Norihisa; Takahashi, Masashi; Tsujikawa, Tomoyuki; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Murata, Kiyoshi; Sakamoto, Tsutomu

    2004-01-01

    The role of cross-sectional imaging in the diagnosis of Crohn disease has expanded with recent technologic advances in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging that allow rapid acquisition of high-resolution images of the intestines. To acquire images of diagnostic quality, administration of a fairly large amount of intraluminal contrast agent prior to examination and scanning with intravenous contrast material injection are necessary. Both CT and MR imaging are reported to have a sensitivity of over 95% for the detection of Crohn disease; however, they may not allow early diagnosis. Colonoscopy and conventional enteroclysis studies are indicated for patients with early-stage disease. At more advanced stages, CT and MR imaging can help identify and characterize pathologically altered bowel segments as well as extraluminal lesions (eg, fistulas, abscesses, fibrofatty proliferation, increased vascularity of the vasa recta, mesenteric lymphadenopathy). These modalities can also clearly depict inflammatory lesion activity and conditions that require elective gastrointestinal surgery, thereby aiding in treatment planning. In the clinical setting, CT is currently the imaging modality of choice at most institutions; however, it is expected that MR imaging will soon play a comparable role. CT or MR imaging should be included in a comprehensive evaluation of patients with Crohn disease, along with conventional imaging and clinical and laboratory tests.

  18. Crohn's Disease - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/languages/crohnsdisease.html Other topics A-Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W XYZ List of All Topics All Crohn's Disease - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. French (français) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ...

  19. [Medical therapy of inflammatory bowel diseases: Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Lakatos, László; Lakatos, Péter László

    2007-06-17

    The therapy of inflammatory bowel diseases is based on 5-aminosalicylates (5-ASAs) that are the forefront of treatment of mild-to-moderate active disease and maintenance; steroids are used for the treatment of moderate-to-severe active disease; immunosuppressives and sometimes antibiotics in moderate-to-severe disease; maintenance and for the treatment of selected complications. The last few years have witnessed a significant change in the treatment of Crohn's disease. Based on evidence from new clinical studies and recent meta-analyses, the role of and indications for conventional therapy have been reassessed. The 5-ASAs are nowadays less frequently used in both active disease and maintenance therapy. Instead, budesonide has been introduced in the treatment of mild-to-moderate ileal disease. Besides the modest use of 5-ASAs, steroids are prescribed for active colonic disease. Immunosuppressives, especially azathioprine, are more commonly used in moderate-to-severe disease as well as in maintenance. The preferred maintenance regimen following medically- and surgically-induced remission, in addition to relationship between medical and surgical therapies, has also changed. The recent introduction of new "biological" therapy represents a major, promising change in the therapy of resistant and penetrating disease.

  20. Severe exacerbation of Crohn's disease during sunitinib treatment.

    PubMed

    Boers-Sonderen, Marye J; Mulder, Sasja F; Nagtegaal, Iris D; Jacobs, Joannes F M; Wanten, Geert J; Hoentjen, Frank; van Herpen, Carla M

    2014-02-01

    Sunitinib is a multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor pathway and inhibits angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and tumor cell invasion, and stimulates apoptosis. Treatment with sunitinib in first-line metastatic renal cell carcinoma improves progression-free survival and overall survival compared with interferon-α. Crohn's disease is characterized by chronic immune-mediated intestinal inflammation. Although the exact pathogenesis of Crohn's disease remains unknown, the involvement of angiogenesis is acknowledged. It is unknown whether sunitinib interferes with the natural course of Crohn's disease. We describe a patient with metastatic renal cell carcinoma and a history of Crohn's disease who was treated with sunitinib and developed a severe exacerbation of Crohn's disease. After rechallenge with sunitinib, a second exacerbation occurred. We therefore conclude that angiogenesis inhibitors should be administered with care in patients with a history of Crohn's disease.

  1. Utility of high-resolution MR imaging in demonstrating transmural pathologic changes in Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rakesh; Rajiah, Prabhakar; Murphy, Paul; Hawker, Peter; Sanders, Scott

    2009-10-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has emerged as an imaging modality that can be used to help diagnose and evaluate Crohn disease of the small and large bowel. MR imaging has high diagnostic accuracy in the detection of Crohn disease, and high-resolution thin-section MR images can demonstrate transmural pathologic changes of Crohn disease from the level of the mucosa to that of the mesentery. High-resolution MR image data also may be used to construct high-quality multiplanar and endoluminal views that may provide additional diagnostic information. Knowledge of the MR imaging findings of Crohn disease and how they correlate with the pathologic features of the disease is important to facilitate accurate diagnosis and detect complications.

  2. MR enterography in the management of patients with Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Leyendecker, John R; Bloomfeld, Richard S; DiSantis, David J; Waters, Gregory S; Mott, Ryan; Bechtold, Robert E

    2009-10-01

    Crohn disease is a complex pathologic process with an unpredictable lifelong course that includes frequent relapses. It often affects young patients, who are most vulnerable to the potential adverse effects of repeated exposure to ionizing radiation from computed tomography performed for diagnosis and surgical planning. The small intestine is the bowel segment that is most frequently affected, but it is the least accessible with endoscopic techniques. Magnetic resonance (MR) enterography has the potential to safely and noninvasively meet the imaging needs of patients with Crohn disease without exposing them to ionizing radiation. Appropriate use of MR enterography requires a carefully crafted protocol to depict signs of active inflammation as well as complications such as bowel obstruction, fistulas, and abscesses. Interpretation of MR enterographic images requires familiarity with the imaging signs and mimics of active bowel inflammation and stenosis. Although MR enterography currently is helpful for management in individual patients, the standardization of acquisition protocols and interpretive methods would increase its usefulness for more rigorous, systematic assessments of Crohn disease treatment regimens.

  3. Pathogenesis: common pathways between hidradenitis suppurativa and Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    García Martínez, F J; Menchén, L

    2016-09-01

    Both hidradenitis suppurativa and Crohn disease are considered chronic inflammatory diseases due to immune dysregulation. The high prevalence of Crohn disease patients diagnosed with hidradenitis suppurativa suggests the existence of common pathogenic links. The present literature review analyses the similarities and differences in the pathogenesis of the two diseases, in the search for new research and knowledge targets.

  4. Is Fatigue a Common Crohn's Disease Symptom? What Can Be Done about It?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Crohn's disease Is fatigue a common Crohn's disease symptom? What can be done about it? Answers from ... M.D. Fatigue is an all too common symptom of Crohn's disease. In one study, about three-quarters of people ...

  5. [48-year-old female patient with Crohn's disease and new hematuria and proteinuria].

    PubMed

    Kündiger, T; Wirths, K; Wegjan, E; Zöpf, T

    2011-08-01

    We report on a 48-year-old patient with Crohn's disease and left abdominal pain, who presented with hematuria and proteinuria. As reason we found a left renal vein thrombosis. This diagnosis was based on magnetic resonance imaging and doppler ultrasound. The incidence of thrombembolic complications in patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease is increased, however renal vein thrombosis is a very rare complication of Crohn's disease. We started a conservative treatment with phenprocoumon. Thereafter the patient remained asymptomatic and the thrombus dissipated during follow-up.

  6. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis as a cause of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    McNees, Adrienne L; Markesich, Diane; Zayyani, Najah R; Graham, David Y

    2015-01-01

    Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of unknown cause, affecting approximately 1.4 million North American people. Due to the similarities between Crohn's disease and Johne's disease, a chronic enteritis in ruminant animals caused by Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP) infection, MAP has long been considered to be a potential cause of Crohn's disease. MAP is an obligate intracellular pathogen that cannot replicate outside of animal hosts. MAP is widespread in dairy cattle and because of environmental contamination and resistance to pasteurization and chlorination, humans are frequently exposed through contamination of food and water. MAP can be cultured from the peripheral mononuclear cells from 50-100% of patients with Crohn's disease, and less frequently from healthy individuals. Association does not prove causation. We discuss the current data regarding MAP as a potential cause of Crohn's disease and outline what data will be required to firmly prove or disprove the hypothesis.

  7. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis as a cause of Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    McNees, Adrienne L.; Markesich, Diane; Zayyani, Najah R.; Graham, David Y.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of unknown cause, affecting approximately 1.4 million North American people. Due to the similarities between Crohn's disease and Johne’s disease, a chronic enteritis in ruminant animals caused by Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP) infection, MAP has long been considered to be a potential cause of Crohn's disease. MAP is an obligate intracellular pathogen that cannot replicate outside of animal hosts. MAP is widespread in dairy cattle and because of environmental contamination and resistance to pasteurization and chlorination, humans are frequently exposed through contamination of food and water. MAP can be cultured from the peripheral mononuclear cells from 50 to 100% of patients with Crohn's disease, and less frequently from healthy individuals. Association does not prove causation. We discuss the current data regarding MAP as a potential cause of Crohn's disease and outline what data will be required to firmly prove or disprove the hypothesis. PMID:26474349

  8. Use of the star sign to diagnose internal fistulas in pediatric patients with penetrating Crohn disease by MR enterography.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Kiery A; Alazraki, Adina L

    2014-08-01

    Development of internal fistula due to extramural spread of inflammatory bowel disease is a characteristic feature of penetrating disease in patients with Crohn disease. The "star sign" is a radiological finding of internal fistula that has previously been described in the gastroenterology literature in adult Crohn disease patients undergoing MR enteroclysis. The goal of this paper is to review the clinical and imaging features of penetrating disease in pediatric Crohn disease patients, highlighting the star sign as a useful diagnostic tool for diagnosing internal fistula in children by MR enterography. The recognition of penetrating complications by MR imaging can have important therapeutic and prognostic implications.

  9. What is Crohn's Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... lives. Women with Crohn's disease can have successful pregnancies. NIH Research The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition supports research ...

  10. Guillain-Barré syndrome and Crohn disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yanagida, Hidehiko; Sugimoto, Keisuke; Izu, Akane; Wada, Norihisa; Sakata, Naoki; Takemura, Tsukasa

    2014-09-01

    Development of both Crohn disease and Guillain-Barré syndrome likely involves autoimmunity associated with excessive inflammatory cytokines. We treated a girl who developed Guillain-Barré syndrome during the course of Crohn disease. Although high-dose γ-globulin therapy administered initially for Guillain-Barré syndrome was ineffective, plasmapheresis ameliorated her acute neuropathic symptoms. Crohn disease was managed with Salazopyrin administration and enteral feeding. Chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa caused by Crohn disease can allow presentation of microbial intestinal antigens normally hidden from the immune system. Such presentation could incite an extraintestinal immune response on the basis of molecular mimicry, leading to activation of systemic autoimmunity against the nervous system. Accordingly, concurrence of Guillain-Barré syndrome and Crohn disease in our patient appeared to result from shared autoimmune mechanisms and systemic and local increases in cytokine concentrations. The patient also developed erythema nodosum and gall stones, relatively common complications of Crohn disease. However, Guillain-Barré syndrome is rare.

  11. Metabolomics reveals metabolic biomarkers of Crohn's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Jansson, J.K.; Willing, B.; Lucio, M.; Fekete, A.; Dicksved, J.; Halfvarson, J.; Tysk, C.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.

    2009-06-01

    The causes and etiology of Crohn's disease (CD) are currently unknown although both host genetics and environmental factors play a role. Here we used non-targeted metabolic profiling to determine the contribution of metabolites produced by the gut microbiota towards disease status of the host. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry (ICR-FT/MS) was used to discern the masses of thousands of metabolites in fecal samples collected from 17 identical twin pairs, including healthy individuals and those with CD. Pathways with differentiating metabolites included those involved in the metabolism and or synthesis of amino acids, fatty acids, bile acids and arachidonic acid. Several metabolites were positively or negatively correlated to the disease phenotype and to specific microbes previously characterized in the same samples. Our data reveal novel differentiating metabolites for CD that may provide diagnostic biomarkers and/or monitoring tools as well as insight into potential targets for disease therapy and prevention.

  12. [Postoperative recurrence of Crohn's disease, and its prevention].

    PubMed

    Lakatos, László; Lakatos, Péter László

    2010-05-23

    Crohn's disease is a chronic, progressive disabling condition ultimately leading to stricturing and/or penetrating complications. The need for surgery may be as high as 70% in patients with severe active disease or complications. However, relapse may develop in a significant proportion of the patients after surgery leading to frequent re-operations. Despite emerging data, postoperative prevention is still controversial. After careful evaluation of the individual risk a tailored therapy should be considered. In patients with small risk for relapse mesalazine or in selected cases no-treatment may be an option. In patients with a moderate-to-high risk azathioprine should be considered together with metronidazole in the three months. Follow-up ileocolonoscopy 6-12 months after the surgery is helpful in the determination of endoscopic severity and may assist in the optimization of the therapy. In most severe cases anti-TNF agents may be appropriate for postoperative prevention and therapy.

  13. Inferior mesenteric vein thrombosis in Crohn`s disease: CT diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Coralnick, J.R.; Budin, J.A.; Sedarat, A.

    1996-01-01

    Mesenteric vein thrombosis has been described in association with such risk factors as coagulation disorders, postoperative dehydration, sepsis, and trauma. CT and ultrasound have greatly facilitated early diagnosis, and the features of superior mesenteric and portal vein thrombosis are well recognized. We present a case of inferior mesenteric vein thrombosis in a patient with Crohn`s disease. To our knowledge, this entity has not been reported in the radiologic literature. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Targeting Mucosal Healing in Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kakkar, Aarti; Wasan, Sharmeel K.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of medical treatment for Crohn's disease includes improving patients' quality of life while reducing the need for hospitalization and surgery. The current medical armamentarium includes 5-aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, immunomodulators, and biologic agents. In the past, response to treatment was measured by clinical improvement in symptoms; however, with the advent of disease-modifying medications, mucosal healing has emerged as an increasingly important goal of therapy. Mucosal healing, or endoscopic remission, is associated with increased rates of clinical remission, fewer hospitalizations, and fewer abdominal surgeries. Both the immunomodulator and biologic classes of medications are effective at inducing mucosal healing. Despite several limitations, mucosal healing has become a desirable and valid measure of disease activity. PMID:21869869

  15. Pulmonary necrobiotic nodules: a rare extraintestinal manifestation of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Warwick, G; Leecy, T; Silverstone, E; Rainer, S; Feller, R; Yates, D H

    2009-03-01

    The present article reports the case of a 22-yr-old female with new onset Crohn's colitis, anterior uveitis and multiple pulmonary nodules which, on histological examination, were necrobiotic nodules. This is a rare but recognised pulmonary extraintestinal manifestation of Crohn's disease and only the fourth reported case. The present case report is followed by a brief review of the relevant literature.

  16. [Clinical importance of organ-specific antibodies in ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease].

    PubMed

    Goischke, E M; Zilly, W

    1992-05-01

    In 479 patients with chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases and other abdominal diseases autoantibodies against intestinal goblet cells and exocrine pancreas were determined by indirect immunofluorescence. In ulcerative colitis 17% had serum antibodies against intestinal goblet cells, in Crohn's disease 26% against exocrine pancreas. Autoantibody prevalence and level of the titre were dependent on the inflammatory activity of both diseases but independent on the therapy. In Crohn's disease high level of titres of antibodies against exocrine pancreas we found in cases with multiple complications. Antibodies titres against intestinal goblet cells in ulcerative colitis and against exocrine pancreas in Crohn's disease exceeding 1:100 improved the diagnostic decision. Besides clinical states, endoscopic and histological findings a positive result of the antibody investigations had to be considered for final diagnosis.

  17. Dietary and enteral interventions for Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takayuki; Shimoyama, Takahiro; Kuriyama, Moeko

    2017-04-01

    It is now widely acknowledged that the intestinal bacterial flora together with genetic predisposing factors significantly contribute to the immunopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as reflected by mucosal immune dysregulation. Recently, there has been an increased interest in nutraceutical therapies, including probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics. Other dietary interventions with low carbohydrate diet, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and glutamine have been attempted to downregulate the gut inflammatory response and thereby alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms. Enteral nutrition has been widely used as induction and maintenance therapies in the management of Crohn's disease (CD). In this review, a critical assessment of the results of clinical trial outcomes and meta-analyses was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of dietary and enteral interventions for CD.

  18. Multidisciplinary and evidence-based management of fistulizing perianal Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Sordo-Mejia, Ricardo; Gaertner, Wolfgang B

    2014-08-15

    Perianal symptoms are common in patients with Crohn's disease and cause considerable morbidity. The etiology of these symptoms include skin tags, ulcers, fissures, abscesses, fistulas or stenoses. Fistula is the most common perianal manifestation. Multiple treatment options exist although very few are evidence-based. The phases of treatment include: drainage of infection, assessment of Crohn's disease status and fistula tracts, medical therapy, and selective operative management. The impact of biological therapy on perianal Crohn's disease is uncertain given that outcomes are conflicting. Operative treatment to eradicate the fistula tract can be attempted once infection has resolved and Crohn's disease activity is controlled. The operative approach should be tailored according to the anatomy of the fistula tract. Definitive treatment is challenging with medical and operative treatment rarely leading to true healing with frequent complications and recurrence. Treatment success must be weighed against the risk of complications, specially anal sphincter injury. A full understanding of the etiology and all potential therapeutic options is critical for success. Multidisciplinary management of fistulizing perianal Crohn's disease is crucial to improve outcomes.

  19. Guidelines for the treatment of Crohn's disease in children.

    PubMed

    Konno, Mutsuko; Kobayashi, Akio; Tomomasa, Takeshi; Kaneko, Hiroaki; Toyoda, Shigeru; Nakazato, Yutaka; Nezu, Riichiro; Maisawa, Shun-Ichi; Miki, Kazunori

    2006-06-01

    This paper shows guidelines for the treatment of Crohn's disease in children by the Working Group of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (Chair: Yuichiro Yamashiro) and the Japanese Society for Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Chair: Akio Kobayashi). The points in which these guidelines differ from those for adult patients are as follows. (i) Total enteral nutrition in the form of an elemental formula is indicated as primary therapy for children with Crohn's disease at onset as well as the active stage. Oral mesalazine is used together. (ii) Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with oral mesalazine is required for children with serious illness. The use of a corticosteroid should be withheld for at least 1 week after TPN has been started. (iii) When TPN is not considered to be effective, additional corticosteroid is used. Full doses of corticosteroid should be used for at least 2 weeks after clinical improvement has been achieved, and then the dose of the corticosteroid should be tapered carefully. (iv) When surgery is indicated in pediatric patients with stricture or fistula formation and complicated by persistent growth failure despite medical therapy, the optimum time for surgery is thought to be before epiphyseal plates have been closed.

  20. Utility of MR enterography and ultrasound for the investigation of small bowel Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Gauraang; Von Stempel, Conrad; Halligan, Steve; Taylor, Stuart A

    2016-12-09

    Cross sectional Imaging plays an increasingly important role the diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease. Particular emphasis is placed on MRI and Ultrasound as they do not impart ionising radiation. Both modalities have reported high sensitivity for disease detection, activity assessment and evaluation of extra-luminal complications, and have positive effects on clinical decision making. International Guidelines now recommend MRI and Ultrasound in the routine management of Crohn's disease patients. This article reviews the current evidence base supporting both modalities with an emphasis on the key clinical questions. We describe current protocols, basic imaging findings and highlight areas in need of further research.

  1. A Practical Approach to Preventing Postoperative Recurrence in Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Hashash, Jana G; Regueiro, Miguel

    2016-05-01

    Postoperative Crohn's disease recurrence remains common, and preventing additional surgery remains a challenge. A critical step to postoperative management of Crohn's disease is being able to identify patients who should receive immediate postoperative therapy from the patients who can wait for recurrence prior to starting medications. All patients, regardless of their risk for recurrence, are advised to undergo a colonoscopy at 6 to 12 months after surgery to evaluate for endoscopic evidence of Crohn's disease. Further management of patients depends on symptoms and the presence or absence of endoscopic recurrence.

  2. Concepts of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Alzoghaibi, Mohammed A

    2013-10-21

    Oxygen free radical and lipid peroxides (oxidative stress) are highly reactive and represent very damaging compounds. Oxidative stress could be a major contributing factor to the tissue injury and fibrosis that characterize Crohn's disease. An imbalance between increased reactive oxygen species levels and decreased antioxidant defenses occurs in Crohn's patients. Decreased blood levels of vitamins C and E and decreased intestinal mucosal levels of CuZn superoxide dismutase, glutathione, vitamin A, C, E, and β-carotene have been reported for Crohn's patients. Increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 and -8 and tumor necrosis factor, have been detected in inflammatory bowel disease. Oxidative stress significantly increased the production of neutrophils, chemokines, and interleukin-8. These effects were inhibited by antioxidant vitamins and arachidonic acid metabolite inhibitors in human intestinal smooth muscle cells isolated from the bowels of Crohn's disease patients. The main pathological feature of Crohn's disease is an infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and mononuclear cells into the affected part of the intestine. Activated neutrophils produce noxious substances that cause inflammation and tissue injury. Due to the physiological and biochemical actions of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxides, many of the clinical and pathophysiological features of Crohn's disease might be explained by an imbalance of increased reactive oxygen species and a net decrease of antioxidant molecules. This review describes the general concepts of free radical, lipid peroxide and antioxidant activities and eventually illustrates their interferences in the development of Crohn's strictures.

  3. Dysbiotic gut microbiome: A key element of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Øyri, Styrk Furnes; Műzes, Györgyi; Sipos, Ferenc

    2015-12-01

    Since the first publication on "regional ileitis", the relevance of this chronic inflammatory disease condition termed finally as Crohn's disease is continuously increasing. Although we are beginning to comprehend certain aspects of its pathogenesis, many facets remain unexplored. Host's gut microbiota is involved in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes including immune system development, and pathogen regulation. Further, the microbiome is thought to play a key role in Crohn's disease. The presence of Crohn's-associated variants of NOD2 and ATG16L genes appears to be associated not only with alterations of mucosal barrier functions, and bacterial killing, but the gut microbiota, as well, reflecting a potential relationship between the host's genotype and intestinal dysbiosis, involved in disease etiology. This review aims to characterize some exciting new aspect of Crohn's disease pathology, focusing mainly on the role of intestinal microbes, and their interplay with the immune system of the host.

  4. [Bacillus cereus bacteremia in Crohn's disease with multiple ileal stricture on maintenance azathioprine therapy].

    PubMed

    Hizawa, Kazuoki; Nagata, Yuko; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Nakamori, Mari; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Iida, Mitsuo

    2009-01-01

    We describe a case of 36-year-old Japanese man with Crohn's disease, complicated by Bacillus cereus bacteremia on maintenance azathioprine therapy. Although anti-microbial agents were ineffective, the patient became well immediately after a partial resection of the ileum with multiple severe stenosis.

  5. Crohn's disease of the esophagus: treatment of an esophagobronchial fistula with the novel liquid embolic polymer "onyx".

    PubMed

    Rieder, F; Hamer, O; Gelbmann, C; Schölmerich, J; Gross, V; Feuerbach, S; Herfarth, H; Rogler, G

    2006-07-01

    Esophageal involvement in Crohn's disease is very rare. In only a small subgroup of these patients -- up to date fourteen cases have been described in the literature -- the course of the illness may be complicated by esophageal fistula formation. The therapy for fistulizing esophageal Crohn's disease so far has been disappointing, recurrence and progression are likely, and surgery still is the primary treatment modality for refractory patients. We here present a case of severe Crohn's disease with an esophagobronchial fistula and the successful closure of the fistula tract with the novel liquid polymer sealant "Onyx". This approach offers a new option for the treatment of this rare complication of Crohn's disease and should be considered if surgery is not possible.

  6. Clinical trials in luminal Crohn's disease: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Hindryckx, Pieter; Baert, Filip; Hart, Ailsa; Armuzzi, Alessandro; Panès, Julian; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2014-11-01

    It goes back to 1932 when Dr. Burrill Bernard Crohn and co-workers published their landmark paper, describing regional ileitis as a disease entity. However, clinical trial research has been developing rather slowly in luminal Crohn's disease. It took until the early seventies before the first randomized clinical trial was set up by the National Co-operative Crohn's Disease Study (NCCDS) group. Although the efforts of this group triggered a first wave of clinical trials in Crohn's disease, the lack of guidelines for conducting a clinical trial in this research area resulted in a variety of study designs and much criticism. Besides having a rather small sample size and a short follow-up time, they were often characterized by vague and subjective assessment of disease activity and treatment response. Following the advent of a new and very potent drug class in the late nineties, the anti-TNF agents, investigators started to re-think their study protocols and the first guidelines were set up by the regulatory authorities. Over the last 15years, clinical trials in luminal Crohn's disease have been evolving significantly. Inclusion criteria have been shifting from clinical scores such as Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) to more objective disease activity parameters such as biomarkers (C-reactive protein and faecal calprotectin) and endoscopic lesions. Primary endpoints have been developing from clinical response to corticosteroid-free remission and more ambitious end-points such as mucosal healing. In this paper, we will give a historical overview on clinical trials in luminal Crohn's disease, before and within the biologic era, and provide insight into how they have shaped our current understanding of trial designs in Crohn's disease.

  7. Genetics of Crohn disease, an archetypal inflammatory barrier disease.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Stefan; Rosenstiel, Philip; Albrecht, Mario; Hampe, Jochen; Krawczak, Michael

    2005-05-01

    Chronic inflammatory disorders such as Crohn disease, atopic eczema, asthma and psoriasis are triggered by hitherto unknown environmental factors that function on the background of some polygenic susceptibility. Recent technological advances have allowed us to unravel the genetic aetiology of these and other complex diseases. Using Crohn disease as an example, we show how the discovery of susceptibility genes furthers our understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms and how it will, ultimately, give rise to new therapeutic developments. The long-term goal of such endeavours is to develop targeted prophylactic strategies. These will probably target the molecular interaction on the mucosal surface between the products of the genome and the microbial metagenome of a patient.

  8. [Adalimumab as induction therapy for Crohn's disease - one center study].

    PubMed

    Gonciarz, Maciej; Mularczyk, Aldona; Szkudłapski, Dawid; Piątek, Iwona; Kopała, Marek

    2016-11-25

    Adalimumab is a subcutaneously administered recombinant fully human monoclonal antibody targeting tumor necrosis factor alpha. It has been approved for use in Poland to treat patients with Crohn's disease under the program of Polish National Health Found since 2010.

  9. Crohn's disease: a review of treatment options and current research.

    PubMed

    Bandzar, Sean; Gupta, Shabnam; Platt, Manu O

    2013-01-01

    Crohn's disease is an autoimmune disorder that affects nearly 1.4 million Americans. The etiology of Crohn's disease is not completely understood, however, research has suggested a genetic link. There is currently no known cure for Crohn's disease and, as a result, most government-funded research is being conducted to increase the quality of life of afflicted patients (i.e. reducing chronic inflammation and alleviating growth impairment in pediatric patients). A number of treatment options are available including an alpha-4 integrin inhibitor and several TNF-alpha inhibitors. Furthermore, research is being conducted on several alternative treatment options to help understand exactly which cellular mechanisms (i.e. inducing apoptosis in leukocytes) are required for clinical efficacy. This review seeks to chronicle the current available treatment options for patients affected by Crohn's disease to aid in understanding potential cellular mechanistic requirements for an efficacious drug, and shed light on potential options for future treatment.

  10. Laparoscopic surgery for crohn disease: a brief review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Aarons, Cary B

    2013-06-01

    Crohn disease remains a challenging clinical entity, both medically and surgically. It frequently presents in early adulthood and imposes a lifetime exposure to chronic inflammation that can affect the entire gastrointestinal tract. Although the mainstay of therapy is treatment with immunomodulating drugs, ∼70 to 90% of patients with Crohn disease will ultimately require surgery. Furthermore, there are high rates of symptomatic recurrences that may also require surgical intervention over time. There is no definitive cure for Crohn disease and surgery is reserved for failed medical therapy or the complications of the disease, namely, obstruction, septic complications (abscess, perforation), and fistulas. However, the robust inflammatory environment during these periods is not always conducive to a minimally invasive surgical approach. Despite the inherent technical challenges, the literature has increasingly shown that laparoscopy for Crohn disease, in the appropriate setting, is feasible and safe. In fact, it offers many advantages, which are particularly beneficial to this subset of patients, such as fewer wound complications, a shortened hospital course, less tissue trauma and subsequent adhesion formation, and earlier resumption of oral intake and bowel function.

  11. Crohn's disease unmasked following etanercept treatment for ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Jethwa, H; Mann, S

    2013-06-21

    We describe the case of a 45-year-old man with ankylosing spondylitis being treated with etanercept who presented with a 1 month history of abdominal pain. CT abdomen revealed an ileocaecal mass associated with an abscess, resulting in a laparotomy and right hemi-colectomy. Histology of the resected specimen showed the classical features of Crohn's disease. Etanercept was stopped and he was started on adalimumab. He is currently in clinical remission from both ankylosing spondylitis and Crohn's disease.

  12. Small bowel imaging in managing Crohn's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Albert, Jörg G

    2012-01-01

    The small bowel is essential to sustain alimentation and small bowel Crohn's disease (CD) may severely limit its function. Small bowel imaging is a crucial element in diagnosing small bowel CD, and treatment control with imaging is increasingly used to optimize the patients outcome. Thereby, capsule endoscopy, Balloon-assisted enteroscopy, and Magnetic resonance imaging have become key players to manage CD patients. In this review, role of small bowel imaging is detailed discussed for use in diagnosing and managing Crohn's disease patients.

  13. Genetic and functional profiling of Crohn's disease: autophagy mechanism and susceptibility to infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Bianco, Anna Monica; Girardelli, Martina; Tommasini, Alberto; Martelossi, Stefano; Monasta, Lorenzo; Crovella, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Crohn's disease is a complex disease in which genome, microbiome, and environment interact to produce the immunological background of the disease. Disease in childhood is more extensive and characterized by a rapid progression, leading to severe repercussions in the course of the disorder. Several genetic variations have been associated with an increased risk of developing the disease and most of these are also implicated in other autoimmune disorders. The gut has many tiers of defense against incursion by luminal microbes, including the epithelial barrier and the innate and adaptive immune responses. Moreover, recent evidence shows that bacterial and viral infections, as well as inflammasome genes and genes involved in the autophagy process, are implicated in Crohn's disease pathogenesis. The aim of this review is to establish how much the diagnostic system can improve, thus increasing the success of Crohn's disease diagnosis. The major expectation for the near future is to be able to anticipate the possible consequences of the disease already in childhood, thus preventing associated complications, and to choose the best treatment for each patient.

  14. Genetic and Functional Profiling of Crohn's Disease: Autophagy Mechanism and Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Anna Monica; Girardelli, Martina; Tommasini, Alberto; Martelossi, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Crohn's disease is a complex disease in which genome, microbiome, and environment interact to produce the immunological background of the disease. Disease in childhood is more extensive and characterized by a rapid progression, leading to severe repercussions in the course of the disorder. Several genetic variations have been associated with an increased risk of developing the disease and most of these are also implicated in other autoimmune disorders. The gut has many tiers of defense against incursion by luminal microbes, including the epithelial barrier and the innate and adaptive immune responses. Moreover, recent evidence shows that bacterial and viral infections, as well as inflammasome genes and genes involved in the autophagy process, are implicated in Crohn's disease pathogenesis. The aim of this review is to establish how much the diagnostic system can improve, thus increasing the success of Crohn's disease diagnosis. The major expectation for the near future is to be able to anticipate the possible consequences of the disease already in childhood, thus preventing associated complications, and to choose the best treatment for each patient. PMID:23738324

  15. Cancer of the small intestine in patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Daijiro; Futami, Kitaro; Kojima, Daibo; Futatsuki, Ryo; Ishibashi, Yukiko; Maekawa, Takafumi; Yano, Yutaka; Takatsu, Noritaka; Hirai, Fumihito; Matsui, Toshiyuki; Iwashita, Akinori

    2013-07-01

    Due to an increase in the number of long-term cases of Crohn's disease, the risk of combined cancer in these patients has been assessed in numerous articles. Most of these reports have involved patients with cancer of the large intestine, while cases of cancer of the small intestine combined with Crohn's disease are very rare. We experienced two cases of cancer of the small intestine combined with Crohn's disease. In both cases, the patients had suffered from Crohn's disease for over 10 years and a second operation was performed after a long period without treatment following the first operation, which had achieved a favorable outcome. In both cases of combined cancer, the patients experienced ileus; however, it was difficult to discern this from ileus due to the presence of Crohn's disease. Therefore, making a definitive diagnosis of combined cancer was not possible before surgery, and the definitive diagnosis was obtained based on an intraoperative pathological diagnosis. It is thought that tumor markers transition in a manner parallel to the progression of cancer, providing a clue for cancer diagnosis. In patients with Crohn's disease, there is a pressing need to establish a method for diagnosing cancer of the small intestine at an early stage.

  16. Evolving role of MRI in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Yacoub, Joseph H; Obara, Piotr; Oto, Aytekin

    2013-06-01

    MR enterography is playing an evolving role in the evaluation of small bowel Crohn's disease (CD). Standard MR enterography includes a combination of rapidly acquired T2 sequence, balanced steady-state acquisition, and contrast enhanced T1-weighted gradient echo sequence. The diagnostic performance of these sequences has been shown to be comparable, and in some respects superior, to other small bowel imaging modalities. The findings of CD on MR enterography have been well described in the literature. New and emerging techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), cinematography, and magnetization transfer, may lead to improved accuracy in characterizing the disease. These advanced techniques can provide quantitative parameters that may prove to be useful in assessing disease activity, severity, and response to treatment. In the future, MR enterography may play an increasing role in management decisions for patients with small bowel CD; however, larger studies are needed to validate these emerging MRI parameters as imaging biomarkers.

  17. A comparative study of metronidazole and sulfasalazine for active Crohn's disease: the cooperative Crohn's disease study in Sweden. II. Result.

    PubMed

    Ursing, B; Alm, T; Bárány, F; Bergelin, I; Ganrot-Norlin, K; Hoevels, J; Huitfeldt, B; Järnerot, G; Krause, U; Krook, A; Lindström, B; Nordle, O; Rosén, A

    1982-09-01

    Seventy-eight patients with active Crohn's disease participated in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial. The study comprised two 4-mo period. The purpose was to test the efficacy of metronidazole in comparison with that of sulfasalazine. As the main evaluation criteria the Crohn's Disease Activity Index and plasma levels of orosomucoid were chosen. In the first period no difference in efficacy as measured by Crohn's Disease Activity Index was found between the treatment groups. The reduction of the plasma orosomucoid level was significantly more pronounced in the metronidazole group. The hemoglobin concentration increased more in this group than in the sulfasalazine group, possibly due to a toxic effect of sulfasalazine. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate decreased similarly with both drugs. In 15 patients who had active disease throughout the first period, Crohn's Disease Activity Index decreased significantly in the second period for those who switched to metronidazole, but not for those who switched to sulfasalazine. After crossover, no apparent further change in Crohn's Disease Activity Index occurred in either of the treatment groups among patients who had responded favorably in the first period. The plasma concentration of orosomucoid increased significantly among the patients in the sulfasalazine group but not in the metronidazole group. It is therefore concluded that metronidazole is slightly more effective than sulfasalazine in the treatment of crohn's disease. It is worthwhile switching the drug regimen from sulfasalazine, when it fails, to metronidazole, but not from metronidazole to sulfasalazine.

  18. Increased pulmonary and intestinal permeability in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Adenis, A; Colombel, J F; Lecouffe, P; Wallaert, B; Hecquet, B; Marchandise, X; Cortot, A

    1992-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that an increased epithelial permeability may affect sites other than the intestine in patients with Crohn's disease by simultaneously evaluating their pulmonary and intestinal permeability. Pulmonary and intestinal permeability were measured by clearance of inhaled technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentacetate (99mTc-DTPA) and by urinary recovery of chromium-51 ethylene diamine tetracetate respectively in 22 patients with Crohn's disease. The half time clearance of 99mTc-DTPA from lung to blood (t1/2LB) was decreased--that is pulmonary permeability increased--in the whole group of patients with Crohn's disease as compared with 13 controls (median 45.5 minutes (8-160) v 85 minutes (34-130) (p less than 0.003)). When analysed separately only patients with active Crohn's disease (n = 15) had a decreased t1/2 lung to blood v controls (42 minutes (8-160) v 85 minutes (34-130) (p less than 0.0025)). Among patients with active Crohn's disease, six were studied again when their disease was quiescent and their t1/2 lung to blood did not differ significantly. The intestinal permeability was increased in the whole group of Crohn's disease patients as compared with 15 controls (5.25% (1.2-24) v 1.7% (0.65-5.75) (p less than 0.0002)). When analysed separately both patients with active and inactive Crohn's disease had increased intestinal permeability v controls (8.1% (1.6-24) and 3.5% (1.2.9.2) v 1.7% (0.65-5.75)) (p less than 0.0001, p = 0.05 respectively). Six patients with active Crohn's disease were studied again when their disease was quiescent and their intestinal permeability decreased significantly p less than 0.04). Pulmonary permeability was increased in patients with Crohn's disease but was not greatly influenced by Crohn's disease activity as opposed to intestinal permeability. The mechanism of this increase is unknown, but may be related in some patients to the presence of an alveolitis. PMID:1612487

  19. Second Korean guidelines for the management of Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Jun; Ye, Byong Duk; Kim, Jong Wook; Park, Dong Il; Yoon, Hyuk; Im, Jong Pil; Lee, Kang Moon; Yoon, Sang Nam; Lee, Heeyoung

    2017-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, progressive, and disabling inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with an uncertain etiopathogenesis. CD can involve any site of the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus, and is associated with serious complications, such as bowel strictures, perforations, and fistula formation. The incidence and prevalence rates of CD in Korea are still lower compared with those in Western countries, but they have been rapidly increasing during the recent decades. Although there are no definitive curative modalities for CD, various medical and surgical therapies have been applied for the treatment of this disease. Concerning CD management, there have been substantial discrepancies among clinicians according to their personal experience and preference. To suggest recommendable approaches to the diverse problems of CD and to minimize the variations in treatment among physicians, guidelines for the management of CD were first published in 2012 by the IBD Study Group of the Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases. These are the revised guidelines based on updated evidence, accumulated since 2012. These guidelines were developed by using mainly adaptation methods, and encompass induction and maintenance treatment of CD, treatment based on disease location, treatment of CD complications, including stricture and fistula, surgical treatment, and prevention of postoperative recurrence. These are the second Korean guidelines for the management of CD and will be continuously revised as new evidence is collected. PMID:28239314

  20. Natalizumab in the treatment of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Guagnozzi, Danila; Caprilli, Renzo

    2008-06-01

    The pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) is multifactorial and the activation of specific pathways of immunological system is important. In particular, the adhesion molecules (integrins) mediate the selective binding between the leukocytes and the endothelial cells regulating the migration of leukocytes into the normal and inflamed intestine. Selective adhesion molecule inhibitors interfere with the migration of leukocytes to the sites of inflammation by targeting adhesion molecules (alpha4-integrin or alpha4beta7-integrin). Natalizumab is a humanized IgG4 anti-alpha4-integrin monoclonal antibody that inhibits both alpha4beta7-integrin/mucosal addressin-cell adhesion molecule-1 (MadCAM-1) interaction and alpha4beta1/vascular-cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) binding. Pooled data from the four studies, analyzed in a Cochrane review, suggest that natalizumab is effective for induction of clinical response and remission in patients with moderately to severely active CD. In particular, natalizumab may be beneficial for patients with active inflammation or chronically active disease despite the use of conventional therapies with high level of C-reactive protein values at baseline time. Nevertheless, many problems about the utilization of natalizumab in CD remain unsolved (such as the high placebo response, the final definition of dosage and timing schedule, the definition of outcomes and the development of adverse events).

  1. An unusual cutaneous manifestation of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Jessica A; Markowitz, David M; Husain, Sameera; Grossman, Marc E

    2011-01-01

    A 61-year-old man with a 12-year history of quiescent Crohn's disease on mesalamine presented to his gastroenterologist in April 2009, complaining of abdominal cramping, diarrhea, and a 25-lb weight loss over 6 weeks. He did not respond to prednisone 50 mg and 6-mercaptopurine 100 mg daily. Abdominal computed tomography findings revealed diffuse submucosal edema consistent with extensive colitis. Colonoscopy demonstrated diffuse inflammation with erythema, friability, and shallow ulcerations in the rectum and colon. Biopsies were consistent with Crohn's colitis. He was admitted for infliximab infusion for his unremitting diarrhea. Five days before admission, the patient noted mild swelling and redness of the left lower eyelid, which progressed to involve the right lower eyelid with frank pus draining from both eyes. He had no visual impairment or eye pain. Two days before admission, an ophthalmologist prescribed a steroid eyedrop with no relief. He also complained of seropurulent painful skin lesions on his face and scalp, which spread to involve his upper trunk and proximal arms. On admission to the hospital, dermatology, ophthalmology, and infectious disease consultations were obtained to rule out disseminated infection before initiation of infliximab therapy. The patient was afebrile and hemodynamically stable. His oral mucosa was normal. He had prominent bilateral lower eyelid edema, erythema, and superficial erosions with hemorrhagic crusting and frank green purulent drainage from both eyes, with crusting along the lower lash line and bilateral sclera injection (Figure 1). On his scalp, face, trunk, and proximal extremities, he had 25 to 30 erythematous, 4- to 8-mm papulopustules with narrow red halos, some with central necrosis and crusting (Figure 2). Cultures from the purulent ocular drainage and pustules on the trunk and arms were all negative for bacteria, virus, and fungi. Gram stain from the eye drainage showed polymorphonuclear leukocytes without

  2. Early and delayed indium 111 leukocyte imaging in Crohn's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Navab, F.; Boyd, C.M.; Diner, W.C.; Subramani, R.; Chan, C.

    1987-10-01

    Twenty-seven patients with Crohn's disease were studied for the presence and location of activity by both early (4 h) and delayed (18-24 h) indium 111 leukocyte imaging. The results were compared with other parameters of disease activity including Crohn's disease activity index, barium studies, and endoscopy. There was a correlation between early images and Crohn's disease activity index (r = 0.78) and between delayed images and index (r = 0.82). Based upon the corresponding Crohn's disease activity index, the sensitivity of early and delayed imaging was 81.0% and 95.2%, respectively. Specificity of early and delayed imaging was 75.0% and 87.0%, respectively. Presence of activity on the early and delayed imaging agreed with activity on barium studies and colonoscopy in approximately 80% of cases. Correlation of location of disease by leukocyte imaging and x-ray was observed in 58.9% of early scans and 55.0% of delayed scans. Correlation of the location of disease by imaging and endoscopy was observed in 71.4% of early and 75.0% of delayed studies. Because of the possibility of occurrence of false-negative results in early images, delayed imaging should always be included in evaluation of disease activity in patients with Crohn's disease who are suspected of having mild activity. Delayed imaging is not required if the early imaging study clearly shows activity.

  3. Optimizing post-operative Crohn's disease treatment.

    PubMed

    Domènech, Eugeni; Mañosa, Míriam; Lobatón, Triana; Cabré, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of biological drugs and the widespread and earlier use of immunosuppressants, intestinal resection remains necessary in almost half of the patients with Crohn's disease. The development of new mucosal lesions in previously unaffected intestinal segments (a phenomenon known as post-operative recurrence, POR) occur within the first year in up to 80% if no preventive measure is started soon after resectional surgery, leading to clinical manifestations (clinical recurrence) and even needing new intestinal resection (surgical recurrence) in some patients. That is the reason why endoscopic monitoring has been recommended within 6 to 12 months after surgery. Active smoking is the only indisputable risk factor for early POR development. Among several evaluated drugs, only thiopurine and anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy seem to be effective and feasible in the long-term both for preventing or even treating recurrent lesions, at least in a proportion of patients. However, to date, it is not clear which patients should start with one or another drug right after surgery. It is also not well established how and how often POR should be assessed in patients with a normal ileocolonoscopy within the first 12 months.

  4. New magnetic resonance imaging modalities for Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Yacoub, Joseph H; Oto, Aytekin

    2014-02-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) enterography has an increasing role in the evaluation of the small bowel in patients with Crohn disease. MR enterography is accurate for disease assessment and can influence the choice of therapy. Functional sequences may increase the role of MR enterography in Crohn disease. Techniques such as high-resolution MR enterography, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging, magnetization transfer, and MR motility imaging may allow better assessment of disease extent, activity, and severity. Quantitative analysis using these advanced techniques as well as the standard techniques may provide methods for evaluating and following the disease in the future.

  5. MR enterographic manifestations of small bowel Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Tolan, Damian J M; Greenhalgh, Rebecca; Zealley, Ian A; Halligan, Steve; Taylor, Stuart A

    2010-03-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) enterography is a clinically useful technique for the evaluation of both intraluminal and extraluminal small bowel disease, particularly in younger patients with Crohn disease. MR enterography offers the advantages of multiplanar capability and lack of ionizing radiation. It allows evaluation of bowel wall contrast enhancement, wall thickening, and edema, findings useful for the assessment of Crohn disease activity. MR enterography can also depict other pathologic findings such as lymphadenopathy, fistula and sinus formation, abscesses, and abnormal fold patterns. Even subtle disease manifestations may be detected when adequate distention of the small bowel is achieved, although endoscopic and double-contrast barium small bowel techniques remain superior in the depiction of changes in early Crohn disease (eg, aphthoid ulceration). Further research will be needed to determine whether MR imaging enhancement patterns may reliably help discriminate between active and inactive disease.

  6. Omega-3 fatty acids as adjunctive therapy in Crohns disease.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Angie

    2006-01-01

    Crohns disease is an inflammatory bowel disease that can have a significant impact on the health of those afflicted. The etiology of the disease is unknown, but genetic, environmental, dietary, and immunological factors are thought to be involved. Multiple nutrients can become depleted during active disease due to inadequate intake or malabsorption. Preventing these deficiencies is paramount in the care of those suffering from Crohns disease. Often the traditional treatments (medications) have limited effectiveness and negative side effects that inhibit their use. Enteral nutrition has promising therapeutic benefits, but its use is often limited to the pediatric population due to poor patient acceptability. Omega-3 fatty acids have been investigated for their anti-inflammatory properties as an alternative to traditional care. This article reviews the etiology of Crohns disease, nutritional deficiencies, traditional treatments, and the use of omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of Crohns recurrence. The results from clinical trials have been conflicting, but a new fish oil preparation that limits the side effects of traditional fish oil therapy shows promise as an adjunctive treatment for Crohns disease. Continued research is needed to validate these findings.

  7. Optimal vitamin D levels in Crohn's disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Raftery, Tara; O'Sullivan, Maria

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common among patients with Crohn's disease. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is the best measure of an individual's vitamin D status and current cut-off ranges for sufficiency are debatable. Several factors contribute to vitamin D deficiency in Crohn's disease. These include inadequate exposure to sunlight, inadequate dietary intake, impaired conversion of vitamin D to its active metabolite, increased catabolism, increased excretion and genetic variants in vitamin D hydroxylation and transport. The effects of low 25(OH)D on outcomes other than bone health are understudied in Crohn's disease. The aim of the present review is to discuss the potential roles of vitamin D and the possible levels required to achieve them. Emerging evidence suggests that vitamin D may have roles in innate and adaptive immunity, in the immune-pathogenesis of Crohn's disease, prevention of Crohn's disease-related hospitalisations and surgery, in reducing disease severity and in colon cancer prevention. The present literature appears to suggest that 25(OH)D concentrations of ≥75 nmol/l may be required for non-skeletal effects; however, further research on optimal levels is required.

  8. Littoral Cell Angioma in a Patient with Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Björnsson, Bergthor; Ignatova, Simone; Sandström, Per; Ekstedt, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Littoral cell angioma is a rare vascular tumor of the spleen. The pathogenesis is unknown but the lesion is associated with several malignancies and immunological disorders. The diagnosis requires histopathological examination. The malignant potential of this lesion is unknown, which is why splenectomy is recommend for all cases. Symptomatic cases generally suffer from hypersplenism and pyrexia. A previously healthy 20-year-old female was diagnosed with colonic Crohn's disease; as part of the work-up a magnetic resonance enterography was performed which showed multiple signal changes of the spleen. The patient reported chronic abdominal pain in the left upper quadrant, malaise, and fever. The unknown splenic lesions prompted a laparoscopic splenectomy; pathology revealed a littoral cell angioma. The abdominal pain and malaise remitted but the fever persisted one year despite adequate treatment of the patient's Crohn's disease. Littoral cell angioma is associated with immune-dysregulation including Crohn's disease with several reported cases. Signs and symptoms of hypersplenism and splenic lesions on imaging should raise suspicion of littoral cell angioma in patients with Crohn's disease. Magnetic resonance enterography to assess disease severity in Crohn's disease may provide an opportunity to study the prevalence and natural history of this rare splenic tumor. PMID:25705528

  9. A simple method for assessing intestinal inflammation in Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Tibble, J; Teahon, K; Thjodleifsson, B; Roseth, A; Sigthorsson, G; Bridger, S; Foster, R; Sherwood, R; Fagerhol, M; Bjarnason, I

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Assessing the presence and degree of intestinal inflammation objectively, simply, and reliably is a significant problem in gastroenterology. We assessed faecal excretion of calprotectin, a stable neutrophil specific marker, as an index of intestinal inflammation and its potential use as a screening test to discriminate between patients with Crohn's disease and those with irritable bowel syndrome.
METHODS—The validity of faecal calprotectin as a marker of intestinal inflammation was assessed in 22 patients with Crohn's disease (35 studies) by comparing faecal excretions and concentrations using four day faecal excretion of 111indium white cells. A cross sectional study assessed the sensitivity of faecal calprotectin concentration for the detection of established Crohn's disease (n=116). A prospective study assessed the value of faecal calprotectin in discriminating between patients with Crohn's disease and irritable bowel syndrome in 220 patients referred to a gastroenterology clinic.
RESULTS—Four day faecal excretion of 111indium (median 8.7%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 7-17%; normal <1.0%) correlated significantly (p<0.0001) with daily (median ranged from 39 to 47 mg; normal <3 mg; r=0.76-0.82) and four day faecal calprotectin excretion (median 101 mg; 95% CI 45-168 mg; normal <11 mg; r=0.80) and single stool calprotectin concentrations (median 118 mg/l; 95% CI 36-175 mg/l; normal <10 mg/l; r=0.70) in patients with Crohn's disease. The cross sectional study showed a sensitivity of 96% for calprotectin in discriminating between normal subjects (2 mg/l; 95% CI 2-3 mg/l) and those with Crohn's disease (91 mg/l; 95% CI 59-105 mg/l). With a cut off point of 30 mg/l faecal calprotectin has 100% sensitivity and 97% specificity in discriminating between active Crohn's disease and irritable bowel syndrome.
CONCLUSION—The calprotectin method may be a useful adjuvant for discriminating between patients with Crohn's disease and

  10. Etiology of Crohn's disease: many roads lead to autophagy.

    PubMed

    Lapaquette, Pierre; Brest, Patrick; Hofman, Paul; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette

    2012-09-01

    Crohn's disease is a complex multifactor diseases that occur in individuals with genetic predisposition in whom environmental and microbial triggers cause a deleterious chronic immune response. Susceptibility to Crohn's disease is influenced by common variants at many loci. Genetic studies have emphasized the role of host susceptibility in inflammatory bowel disease onset with the identification of about 100 risk loci, most of which encode proteins involved in immunity, host defense against microbes, and gut homeostasis. In this review, we focus on susceptibility genes related to autophagy in the etiology of Crohn's disease (CD) and their complex interplay with the gut microbiota, as illustrated by the relationship between immunity-related GTPase family M alleles, microRNA, and xenophagy in CD predisposition.

  11. Intestinal tuberculosis versus crohn's disease: Clinical and radiological recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Raju; Madhusudhan, Kumble S; Ahuja, Vineet

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal tuberculosis is a common clinical problem in India. The clinical features of this disease are nonspecific and can be very similar to Crohn's disease. Radiological evaluation of the small bowel has undergone a paradigm shift in the last decade. This long tubular organ that has traditionally been difficult to evaluate can now be well-visualized by some innovative imaging and endoscopic techniques. This article highlights the state-of-the-art evaluation of ulceroconstrictive diseases of the bowel and provides recommendations for the differentiation of intestinal tuberculosis from Crohn's disease. PMID:27413261

  12. European evidence based consensus on the diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease: special situations

    PubMed Central

    Caprilli, R; Gassull, M A; Escher, J C; Moser, G; Munkholm, P; Forbes, A; Hommes, D W; Lochs, H; Angelucci, E; Cocco, A; Vucelic, B; Hildebrand, H; Kolacek, S; Riis, L; Lukas, M; de Franchis, R; Hamilton, M; Jantschek, G; Michetti, P; O'Morain, C; Anwar, M M; Freitas, J L; Mouzas, I A; Baert, F; Mitchell, R; Hawkey, C J

    2006-01-01

    This third section of the European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation (ECCO) Consensus on the management of Crohn's disease concerns postoperative recurrence, fistulating disease, paediatrics, pregnancy, psychosomatics, extraintestinal manifestations, and alternative therapy. The first section on definitions and diagnosis reports on the aims and methods of the consensus, as well as sections on diagnosis, pathology, and classification of Crohn's disease. The second section on current management addresses treatment of active disease, maintenance of medically induced remission, and surgery of Crohn's disease. PMID:16481630

  13. Development of CAD prototype system for Crohn's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Masahiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Furukawa, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Osamu; Ando, Takafumi; Goto, Hidemi; Mori, Kensaku

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a CAD prototype system for Crohn's disease. Crohn's disease causes inflammation or ulcers of the gastrointestinal tract. The number of patients of Crohn's disease is increasing in Japan. Symptoms of Crohn's disease include intestinal stenosis, longitudinal ulcers, and fistulae. Optical endoscope cannot pass through intestinal stenosis in some cases. We propose a new CAD system using abdominal fecal tagging CT images for efficient diagnosis of Crohn's disease. The system displays virtual unfolded (VU), virtual endoscopic, curved planar reconstruction, multi planar reconstruction, and outside views of both small and large intestines. To generate the VU views, we employ a small and large intestines extraction method followed by a simple electronic cleansing method. The intestine extraction is based on the region growing process, which uses a characteristic that tagged fluid neighbor air in the intestine. The electronic cleansing enables observation of intestinal wall under tagged fluid. We change the height of the VU views according to the perimeter of the intestine. In addition, we developed a method to enhance the longitudinal ulcer on views of the system. We enhance concave parts on the intestinal wall, which are caused by the longitudinal ulcer, based on local intensity structure analysis. We examined the small and the large intestines of eleven CT images by the proposed system. The VU views enabled efficient observation of the intestinal wall. The height change of the VU views helps finding intestinal stenosis on the VU views. The concave region enhancement made longitudinal ulcers clear on the views.

  14. Economic implications of biological therapy for Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Paradowski, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    In the early 90s American authors estimated that if a theoretical new drug was introduced that was capable of changing the natural course of the disease and reducing direct non-drug medical costs (including hospitalisation and surgery) by 20%, despite doubling the overall drugs bill, there would still be a reduction in total direct medical costs of Crohn's disease by 13%. Infliximab proved to be efficacious in reducing and maintaining remission in moderate to severe active Crohn's disease and/or fistulising Crohn's disease. A higher acquisition cost still remains its major limitation. Currently only the use of infliximab in case of treatment for flares seems to be cost-effective. However, this statement may be modified in the near future. PMID:26759625

  15. Role of HLA typing on Crohn's disease pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mahdi, Batool Mutar

    2015-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is the main type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology. Evidence from family and twin studies suggests that genetics plays a significant role in predisposing an individual to develop Crohn's disease. A susceptibility locus for Crohn's disease has been mapped 3 to chromosome 16: a frameshift variant and two missense variants of NOD2, encoding a member of the Apaf-1/Ced-4 superfamily of apoptosis regulators which is expressed in hematopoietic compartment cells and intestinal epithelial cells as well as in paneth cells, where NOD2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Crohn disease in the gastrointestinal system. This leads to alteration the structure of either the leucine-rich repeat domain of the protein or the adjacent region. NOD2 activates nuclear factor NF-kB; this activating function is regulated by the carboxy-terminal leucine-rich repeat domain, which has two functions, first an inhibitory role and also acts as an intracellular receptor for components of microbial pathogens. Thus, NOD2 gene product confers susceptibility to Crohn's disease by altering the recognition of these components and/or by over-activating NF-kB in intestinal epithelial cells as well as in paneth cells. Further confirmation of a genetic predisposition comes from studies of the association between the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system and CD. The immunogenetic predisposition may be considered an important requirement for the development of CD, as several alleles of human major histocompatibility complex had an association with CD. Although it is difficult to estimate the importance of this region in determining overall genetic susceptibility in a population, studies of HLA allele sharing within families suggest that this region contributes between 10% and 33% of the total genetic risk of Crohn's disease. PMID:26288728

  16. Detection of longitudinal ulcer using roughness value for computer aided diagnosis of Crohn's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Masahiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Furukawa, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Osamu; Ando, Takafumi; Goto, Hidemi; Mori, Kensaku

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a new method to detect ulcers, which is one of the symptoms of Crohn's disease, from CT images. Crohn's disease is an inflammatory disease of the digestive tract. Crohn's disease commonly affects the small intestine. An optical or a capsule endoscope is used for small intestine examinations. However, these endoscopes cannot pass through intestinal stenosis parts in some cases. A CT image based diagnosis allows a physician to observe whole intestine even if intestinal stenosis exists. However, because of the complicated shape of the small and large intestines, understanding of shapes of the intestines and lesion positions are difficult in the CT image based diagnosis. Computer-aided diagnosis system for Crohn's disease having automated lesion detection is required for efficient diagnosis. We propose an automated method to detect ulcers from CT images. Longitudinal ulcers make rough surface of the small and large intestinal wall. The rough surface consists of combination of convex and concave parts on the intestinal wall. We detect convex and concave parts on the intestinal wall by a blob and an inverse-blob structure enhancement filters. A lot of convex and concave parts concentrate on roughed parts. We introduce a roughness value to differentiate convex and concave parts concentrated on the roughed parts from the other on the intestinal wall. The roughness value effectively reduces false positives of ulcer detection. Experimental results showed that the proposed method can detect convex and concave parts on the ulcers.

  17. Gallstone ileus in a patient with Crohn's disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Toelen, C; Huyghe, M

    2012-01-01

    Gallstone ileus is a rare complication of cholelithiasis. Only 0,3-0,5% of all patients with gallstones will eventually suffer from this condition. It is well known that there is an increased prevalence of gallstones among patients with Crohn's disease, but gallstone ileus remains even in these patients an unfrequent condition. Because of the rarity of this disease and its presentation as an intestinal (sub)obstruction, mostly without biliary symptoms, diagnosis and surgical treatment are often delayed. We report the case of a 75-year-old woman with a long history of Crohn's disease presenting with intermittent symptoms of intestinal obstruction since several weeks. Symptoms were thought to be due to recurrence of Crohn's disease, but the patient did not respond to steroid therapy. Resection of the diseased ileocolic segment was performed and a large impacted stone was detected proximal of the stenotic segment. With this case report we want to emphasize how easily diagnosis of gallstone ileus can be missed, especially in Crohn's patients and we would like to discuss the different treatment options.

  18. Angioedema associated with Crohn's disease: response to biologics.

    PubMed

    Habal, Flavio; Huang, Vivian

    2012-09-14

    A 46-year-old female patient with terminal ileum Crohn's disease and ankylosing spondylitis presented with recurrent angioedema and urticaria. Investigations ruled out hereditary angioedema, and environmental or food allergen triggers. She was diagnosed with chronic idiopathic urticaria with angioedema, and was treated with a trial of intravenous immunoglobulin immunotherapy, danazol, prednisone and hydroxyzine. Due to ongoing bowel and arthritic complaints, she was started on infliximab infusions and within 2 treatments, she had complete resolution of the angioedema and urticaria, as well as of the bowel and arthritic symptoms. Unfortunately she developed allergic reactions to the infliximab and was switched to another anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α agent, adalimumab. Since then, she has had no further angioedema or urticaria, and her Crohn's disease has been quiescent. This is the first known case report of chronic idiopathic urticaria with angioedema coexistent with Crohn's disease that was successfully treated with anti-TNF-α agents.

  19. Granulomatous bronchiolitis with necrobiotic pulmonary nodules in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Hugh J; Davis, Jennifer E; Prest, Marcia E; Lawson, Edward J

    2004-11-01

    A 37-year-old man with extensive Crohn's disease of the stomach, small and large intestine for almost a decade developed respiratory symptoms and radiological findings suggestive of pneumonia that failed to resolve with antibiotic treatment. Computed tomography scanning of his lungs showed extensive changes with cavitated parenchymal nodules. Histological evaluation of an open lung biopsy showed granulomatous bronchiolitis and pulmonary necrobiosis. Treatment with steroids and immunosuppression resulted in complete resolution of his clinical symptoms of pneumonia and abnormal computed tomography imaging changes. Granulomatous bronchiolitis and necrobiotic nodules may be a manifestation of Crohn's disease in the absence of microbial agents, including mycobacteria or fungal agents. While a multiplicity of complex pulmonary changes may occur in Crohn's disease, their clinical recognition and precise pathological definition may be particularly important if treatment with a biological agent, such as infliximab, is being considered.

  20. Crohn's disease and ruminant farming. Got lactase?

    PubMed

    Juste, Ramón A

    2010-07-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a well known chronic pathological condition whose aetiology has remained unrecognized for nearly a century. Complex immune mechanisms in a specific genetic background causing an abnormal local inflammatory response are thought to be directly responsible for the clinical picture, but no external factor triggering such host responses has been identified. Humans lose the capability of breaking down milk lactose early in life and, afterwards, ingestion of large amounts of lactose causes a transient digestive illness known as lactose intolerance. Some human populations developed mutations for lactase persistence in adulthood that allowed better exploiting a product, milk, from not food-competitive domesticated species. This adaptation to dairy farming could have had as a collateral effect the exposure of human populations to a ruminant parasite with the ability to cause chronic inflammation in the intestine. Humans with a genetic susceptibility might develop a similar inflammatory disease caused by a defect in a highly conserved innate immunity mechanism. Data from different published sources regarding by country CD and type I diabetes incidence, lactose intolerance, livestock population, food production, Gross National Income and human population were submitted to Pearson and Kendall correlation, multiple regression and principal components analyses. Multiple regressions were also applied to a published 20-year time series for CD incidence in Japan. These analyses showed a strong association between country incidence of CD and frequency of lactase persistence as well as other ruminant production and consumption variables that further supports the meaning of those observations. Association of these variables with higher per capita income suggests that IBD incidence would be a side-effect of an otherwise highly successful adaptation. The evolutionarily plausible framework provided by this association with the species suffering a similar

  1. On exploration of medical database of Crohn's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manerowska, Anna; Dadalski, Maciej; Socha, Piotr; Mulawka, Jan

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective of this article is to find a new, more effective method of diagnosis of Crohn's disease. Having created the database on this disease we wanted to find the most suitable classification models. We used the algorithms with their implementations stored in R environment. Having carried out the investigations we have reached results interesting for clinical practice.

  2. Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease: Implications for College Health Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelphi, A. P.

    1977-01-01

    The author reviews clinical patterns of inflammatory bowel disorders, establishes a perspective for recognizing ulcerative colitis, ulcerative proctitis, and Crohn's disease in relation to other bowel inflammations, and suggests some epidemiologic strategies for studying etiology, pathogenesis, and natural history of the diseases. (MJB)

  3. The safety of corticosteroid therapy in Crohn's disease with an abdominal mass.

    PubMed

    Felder, J B; Adler, D J; Korelitz, B I

    1991-10-01

    Steroid therapy is often avoided in the Crohn's disease patient with a palpable abdominal mass, for fear of dissemination of infection, should the mass prove to contain an abscess. In the present study, 24 patients with Crohn's disease and a palpable abdominal mass were treated with high dose steroids. In 15, the mass resolved completely and, in another nine, it decreased in size by at least 50%. Fourteen of 24 patients eventually required resection for persistence or recurrence of Crohn's disease activity with or without the abdominal mass, but in all the operation was performed electively. At least eight patients never required resection during a mean follow-up period of 40 months. In 13 patients, the mass was later proved to actually contain an abscess cavity. No complications attributable to steroid therapy were seen in either the operative or nonoperative group. Clinicians should not fear using high dose ACTH/corticosteroids to treat severe Crohn's disease with an abdominal mass, if indicated, as it is both safe and effective whether an abscess cavity is present or not.

  4. Indications of capsule endoscopy in Crohn´s disease.

    PubMed

    Luján-Sanchis, Marisol; Sanchis-Artero, Laura; Suárez-Callol, Patricia; Medina-Chuliá, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy currently plays a relevant role for Crohn´s disease. This manuscript will discuss the current indications and practical uses of capsule endoscopy in this disease. It is a non-invasive technique that represents a significant advance in the endoscopic diagnosis of small bowel conditions. These circumstances, together with its diagnostic yield and excellent tolerability, make it considerably acceptable by both patients and physicians. This paper discusses the current evidence on the specific circumstances where capsule endoscopy may be indicated for three specific scenarios: Suspected Crohn´s disease, indeterminate colitis, and established Crohn´s disease, where it plays an extensive role. Furthermore, the impact and implications of capsule endoscopy results for follow-up are reviewed. These recommendations must be interpreted and applied in the setting of the integral, individual management of these patients. Understanding its appropriate use in daily clinical practice and an analysis of results may define endoscopic scoring systems to assess activity and mucosal healing in this condition. The present role of capsule endoscopy for Crohn´s disease is subject to ongoing review, and appropriate usage uncovers novel applications likely to result in relevant changes for the future management of these patients.

  5. Inflammatory bowel disease course in Crohn's disease: is the natural history changing?

    PubMed

    Golovics, Petra A; Mandel, Michael D; Lovasz, Barbara D; Lakatos, Peter L

    2014-03-28

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a multifactorial potentially debilitating disease. It has a variable disease course, but the majority of patients eventually develop penetrating or stricturing complications leading to repeated surgeries and disability. Studies on the natural history of CD provide invaluable data on its course and clinical predictors, and may help to identify patient subsets based on clinical phenotype. Most data are available from referral centers, however these outcomes may be different from those in population-based cohorts. New data suggest the possibility of a change in the natural history in Crohn's disease, with an increasing percentage of patients diagnosed with inflammatory disease behavior. Hospitalization rates remain high, while surgery rates seem to have decreased in the last decade. In addition, mortality rates still exceed that of the general population. The impact of changes in treatment strategy, including increased, earlier use of immunosuppressives, biological therapy, and patient monitoring on the natural history of the disease are still conflictive. In this review article, the authors summarize the available evidence on the natural history, current trends, and predictive factors for evaluating the disease course of CD.

  6. Crohn's disease and genetic hitchhiking at IBD5.

    PubMed

    Huff, Chad D; Witherspoon, David J; Zhang, Yuhua; Gatenbee, Chandler; Denson, Lee A; Kugathasan, Subra; Hakonarson, Hakon; Whiting, April; Davis, Chadwick T; Wu, Wilfred; Xing, Jinchuan; Watkins, W Scott; Bamshad, Michael J; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Bulayeva, Kazima; Simonson, Tatum S; Jorde, Lynn B; Guthery, Stephen L

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease 5 (IBD5) is a 250 kb haplotype on chromosome 5 that is associated with an increased risk of Crohn's disease in Europeans. The OCTN1 gene is centrally located on IBD5 and encodes a transporter of the antioxidant ergothioneine (ET). The 503F variant of OCTN1 is strongly associated with IBD5 and is a gain-of-function mutation that increases absorption of ET. Although 503F has been implicated as the variant potentially responsible for Crohn's disease susceptibility at IBD5, there is little evidence beyond statistical association to support its role in disease causation. We hypothesize that 503F is a recent adaptation in Europeans that swept to relatively high frequency and that disease association at IBD5 results not from 503F itself, but from one or more nearby hitchhiking variants, in the genes IRF1 or IL5. To test for evidence of recent positive selection on the 503F allele, we employed the iHS statistic, which was significant in the European CEU HapMap population (P=0.0007) and European Human Genome Diversity Panel populations (P≤0.01). To evaluate the hypothesis of disease-variant hitchhiking, we performed haplotype association tests on high-density microarray data in a sample of 1,868 Crohn's disease cases and 5,550 controls. We found that 503F haplotypes with recombination breakpoints between OCTN1 and IRF1 or IL5 were not associated with disease (odds ratio [OR]: 1.05, P=0.21). In contrast, we observed strong disease association for 503F haplotypes with no recombination between these three genes (OR: 1.24, P=2.6×10(-8)), as expected if the sweeping haplotype harbored one or more disease-causing mutations in IRF1 or IL5. To further evaluate these disease-gene candidates, we obtained expression data from lower gastrointestinal biopsies of healthy individuals and Crohn's disease patients. We observed a 72% increase in gene expression of IRF1 among Crohn's disease patients (P=0.0006) and no significant difference in expression of OCTN1

  7. [Obstructive uropathy as initial manifestation of Crohn disease].

    PubMed

    Hernández Jaras, J; García-Samaniego Rey, J; Paraiso Cuevas, V; Castaños-Mollor Penalva, R; Pajares García, J M; Traver Aguilar, J A

    1990-10-01

    A patient with renal colicky pain caused by urinary tract obstruction, as a result of psoas abscess, is presented. It was the first manifestation of Crohn's disease. A Gram negative bacteria was isolated from the abscess. The CT images performed to evaluate the abscess suggested this etiology, even though there were no previous symptoms.

  8. Ramiprilate inhibits functional matrix metalloproteinase activity in Crohn's disease fistulas.

    PubMed

    Efsen, Eva; Saermark, Torben; Hansen, Alastair; Bruun, Eywin; Brynskov, Jørn

    2011-09-01

    Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -3 and -9 has been demonstrated in Crohn's disease fistulas, but it is unknown whether these enzymes are biologically active and represent a therapeutic target. Therefore, we investigated the proteolytic activity of MMPs in fistula tissue and examined the effect of inhibitors, including clinically available drugs that beside their main action also suppress MMPs. Fistula specimens were obtained by surgical excision from 22 patients with Crohn's disease and from 10 patients with fistulas resulting from other causes. Colonic endoscopic biopsies from six controls were also included. Total functional MMP activity was measured by a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based, fluorogenic MMP-substrate cleavage assay, and the specific activity of MMP-2, -3 and -9 by the MMP Biotrak Activity Assay. The MMP inhibitors comprised ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA), the synthetic broad-spectrum inhibitor, GM6001, the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, ramiprilate, and the tetracycline, doxycycline. In Crohn's disease fistulas, about 50% of the total protease activity was attributable to MMP activity. The average total MMP activity was significantly higher (about 3.5-times) in Crohn's fistulas (471 FU/μg protein, range 49-2661) compared with non-Crohn's fistulas [134 FU/μg protein, range 0-495, (p < 0.05)] and normal colon [153 FU/μg protein, range 77-243, (p < 0.01)]. MMP-3 activity was increased in Crohn's fistulas (1.4 ng/ml, range 0-9.83) compared with non-Crohn's fistulas, [0.32 ng/ml, range 0-2.66, (p < 0.02)]. The same applied to MMP-9 activity [0.64 ng/ml, range 0-5.66 and 0.17 ng/ml, range 0-1.1, respectively (p < 0.04)]. Ramiprilate significantly decreased the average total MMP activity level by 42% and suppressed the specific MMP-3 activity by 72%, which is comparable to the effect of GM6001 (87%). Moreover, MMP-9 activity was completely blunted by ramiprilate. Doxycycline had no

  9. Technetium-99m hexamethyl propylene amine oxime granulocyte scintigraphy in Crohn's disease: diagnostic and clinical relevance.

    PubMed Central

    Sciarretta, G; Furno, A; Mazzoni, M; Basile, C; Malaguti, P

    1993-01-01

    Scintigraphy with autologous granulocytes labelled by technetium-99m hexamethyl, propylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) was performed in 103 Crohn's disease patients and 52 healthy controls. In 31 patients endoscopic and histologic activity was compared with scan activity index. In the 98 patients with a positive scan, the extent of Crohn's disease, assessed by scintigraphy, was compared with that evaluated by small bowel x ray or colonoscopy with biopsies. In 48 patients, Crohn's disease activity index, activity index, simple index, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein were correlated with the scan results. In 16 patients the five parameters and scan were repeated after treatment with methyl-prednisolone (10 cases), enteral nutrition (3), and 5-acetylsalicylic acid (3). The results showed that 99mTc-HMPAO granulocyte scan had a 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity to detect active inflammation; it correctly showed an abscess or a fistula in all the 24 cases found. The correlation between histological inflammatory activity and scan activity index was highly significant (r = 0.85; p < 0.01), less significant (r = 0.65; p < 0.01) between endoscopy and scan activity index. The evaluation for the extent of Crohn's disease by scan was completely correct in the small bowel (100%) and 93% correct in the large bowel. No correlation was seen between the three clinical activity parameters and scanning; in more than 80% of the cases in remission on the basis of a clinical or laboratory index, scintigraphy remained positive. Medical treatment was effective on the clinical indices but not on the active inflammation in the ileum, whereas it led to a negative scan in 5/11 cases in the large intestine. Scintigraphy with 99mTc-HMPAO granulocyte plays an important part in Crohn's disease for the diagnosis of complications, for activity and assessment of the extent, and for the treatment results evaluation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8244102

  10. The long-term results of resection and multiple resections in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Krupnick, A S; Morris, J B

    2000-01-01

    Crohn's disease is a panenteric, transmural inflammatory disease of unknown origin. Although primarily managed medically, 70% to 90% of patients will require surgical intervention. Surgery for small bowel Crohn's is usually necessary for unrelenting stenotic complications of the disease. Fistula, abscess, and perforation can also necessitate surgical intervention. Most patients benefit from resection or strictureplasty with an improved quality of life and remission of disease, but recurrence is common and 33% to 82% of patients will need a second operation, and 22% to 33% will require more than two resections. Short-bowel syndrome is unavoidable in a small percentage of Crohn's patients because of recurrent resection of affected small bowel and inflammatory destruction of the remaining mucosa. Although previously a lethal and unrelenting disease with death caused by malnutrition, patients with short-bowel syndrome today can lead productive lives with maintenance on total parenteral nutrition (TPN). This lifestyle, however, does not come without a price. Severe TPN-related complications, such as sepsis of indwelling central venous catheters and liver failure, do occur. Future developments will focus on more powerful and effective anti-inflammatory medication specifically targeting the immune mechanisms responsible for Crohn's disease. Successful medical management of the disease will alleviate the need for surgical resection and reduce the frequency of short-bowel syndrome. Improving the efficacy of immunosuppression and the understanding of tolerance induction should increase the safety and applicability of small-bowel transplant for those with short gut. Tissue engineering offers the potential to avoid immunosuppression altogether and supplement intestinal length using the patient's own tissues.

  11. Impact of Intestinal Ultrasound on Classification and Management of Crohn's Disease Patients with Inconclusive Colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Kerri L.; Lebeuf-Taylor, Eleonore; Wilson, Stephanie R.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. We aim to evaluate the benefit of ultrasound in the assessment of Crohn's disease and to demonstrate its potential contribution to disease management. Methods. We conduct a retrospective review of adult patients with Crohn's disease examined with sonography and colonoscopy within 30 days. Study patients were identified in whom colonoscopy did not access a pathological segment, detected and evaluated by ultrasonography. Changes in management were predominantly attributed to ultrasound in those cases where the diseased segment was not assessed on endoscopy. Results. From 115 patients with temporally related ileocolonoscopy and ultrasound, 41 had disease fully assessed on ultrasound only, with complications in 26/41. Twenty-nine of 41 had mild or no endoscopic inflammation with moderate or severe disease on ultrasound at the same segment or at a segment proximal to the reach of the endoscope. Changes in management were significantly attributed to ultrasound in 22 of these 29 patients. Conclusion. The benefit of cross-sectional imaging is invaluable for the comprehensive assessment of bowel not shown on ileocolonoscopy. Ultrasound may make a significant contribution to correct classification of disease extent and severity of Crohn's disease. Prospective studies are needed to further understand the contribution of US in patient management. PMID:27446873

  12. Data mining for correlations between diet and Crohn's disease activity.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jason G; Purcell, Gretchen P

    2006-01-01

    Crohn's disease is a debilitating condition that affects the entire gastrointestinal tract and often requires aggressive and invasive therapies. Several studies have suggested dietary triggers for disease activity. We have created a web-based tool to allow participants to record both daily food intake and wellness (i.e., disease-specific quality of life). We seek to determine if measurable correlations exist between these events in patients with Crohn's disease. Advanced data mining techniques are employed to find such correlations and the efficacies of chosen techniques are assessed. We tested our web-based system in a pilot study involving 7 participants, and we found that traditional statistical techniques identified diet and disease activity correlations in short-term data sets.

  13. Facial biometrics of peri-oral changes in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Zou, L; Adegun, O K; Willis, A; Fortune, Farida

    2014-05-01

    Crohn's disease is a chronic relapsing and remitting inflammatory condition which affects any part of the gastrointestinal tract. In the oro-facial region, patients can present peri-oral swellings which results in severe facial disfigurement. To date, assessing the degree of facial changes and evaluation of treatment outcomes relies on clinical observation and semi-quantitative methods. In this paper, we describe the development of a robust and reproducible measurement strategy using 3-D facial biometrics to objectively quantify the extent and progression of oro-facial Crohn's disease. Using facial laser scanning, 32 serial images from 13 Crohn's patients attending the Oral Medicine clinic were acquired during relapse, remission, and post-treatment phases. Utilising theories of coordinate metrology, the facial images were subjected to registration, regions of interest identification, and reproducible repositioning prior to obtaining volume measurements. To quantify the changes in tissue volume, scan images from consecutive appointments were compared to the baseline (first scan image). Reproducibility test was performed to ascertain the degree of uncertainty in volume measurements. 3-D facial biometric imaging is a reliable method to identify and quantify peri-oral swelling in Crohn's patients. Comparison of facial scan images at different phases of the disease revealed precisely profile and volume changes. The volume measurements were highly reproducible as adjudged from the 1% standard deviation. 3-D facial biometrics measurements in Crohn's patients with oro-facial involvement offers a quick, robust, economical and objective approach for guided therapeutic intervention and routine assessment of treatment efficacy on the clinic.

  14. An unusual presentation of fistulating Crohn's disease: Ascites.

    PubMed

    Kia, Richard; White, David; Sarkar, Sanchoy

    2010-01-16

    Whilst ascites is a common presenting complaint in patients with decompensated chronic liver disease and disseminated malignancy, in Crohn's disease however, it is exceptionally rare. We describe a patient with no prior history of inflammatory bowel or liver disease, presenting with rapid onset gross ascites and scrotal swelling. Further investigations revealed severe hypoalbuminemia and transudative ascitic fluid with normal other liver function tests and a negative liver screen. Computed tomography revealed widespread ascites and pleural effusions with no features of malignancy or portal hypertension, and a small bowel barium series showed features of fistulating small bowel Crohn's disease. An ileo-colonoscopy confirmed the presence of terminal ileal inflammatory stricture. The patient's clinical condition and serum albumin improved with a combination of diuretics, elemental diet, antibiotics and oral 5-aminosalicylic acid therapy.

  15. Recurrent Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patient with Crohn's Disease: Incidental or Expected Outcome of Azathioprine?

    PubMed Central

    Botros, Youssef; Mathews, Mary; Patel, Hiren; Shah, Nihar; Baddoura, Walid; de la Torre, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) usually occurs in patients with underlying risk factors such as liver cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis B. Although patients with Crohn's disease (CD) are at an increased risk to develop malignancies such as colon cancer, the incidence of HCC in this population is extremely rare. We report a case of 62-year-old male with long history of CD treated with azathioprine (AZA) and aminosalicylic acid (ASA) who was incidentally diagnosed with HCC, for which left hepatectomy was done. Four years later during routine follow-up, patient had another hepatic lesion and underwent resection of the mass. The mechanism of occurrence of HCC in patient with CD is still controversial and may include immune mediated changes and medication related complications. AZA was reported in all case reports of CD that developed HCC. Through this report we hope to explore the complex pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to the development of HCC in the Crohn's disease patient population. PMID:26788381

  16. [Sciatica secondary to a presacral abscess as the first manifestation of Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Aguilera, V; Calvo, F; Nos, P; Molla, A; Esteban, R; Ponce, J

    2002-10-01

    Presacral abscess is a rare musculoskeletal complication of Crohn's disease. The clinical picture is sometimes insidious and a delay in diagnosis may increase morbidity. Abdominal-pelvic computerized axial tomography (CAT) has proven to be very useful in the diagnosis of this entity, which usually requires surgical treatment. We present the case of a 22-year-old man who presented to hospital for colic-type abdominal pain of 6 months' evolution and intermittent episodes of joint pain. The patient also presented mechanical pain in the right gluteus muscle of two weeks' evolution irradiating to the posterior side of the muscle. Complementary investigations confirmed the suspected diagnosis of Crohn's disease and showed presacral abscess. Treatment was surgical.

  17. Randomized controlled trials in maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    D'Incà, Renata; Caccaro, Roberta

    2012-11-01

    Maintenance of medically induced remission is a clinical challenge in Crohn's disease (CD), since it is a chronic disease and that often occurs in young people. The introduction of immunosuppressors and biologics has significantly improved the management of these patients, however efficacy and safety of these treatments in the very long term still needs clarification. Furthermore, scientific research is driven more into new drugs to induce remission rather then maintenance.

  18. Clinical Diagnostic Clues in Crohn's Disease: A 41-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, C.; Galleguillos, L.; Benavides, E.; Quintana, J. C.; Zúñiga, A.; Duarte, I.; Klaassen, J.; Kolbach, M.; Soto, R. M.; Iacobelli, S.; Álvarez, M.; O'Brien, A.

    2012-01-01

    Determining the diagnosis of Crohn's disease has been highly difficult mainly during the first years of this study carried out at the Pontificia Universidad Catolica (PUC) Clinical Hospital. For instance, it has been frequently confused with Irritable bowel syndrome and sometimes misdiagnosed as ulcerative colitis, infectious colitis or enterocolitis, intestinal lymphoma, or coeliac disease. Consequently, it seems advisable to characterize what the most relevant clinical features are, in order to establish a clear concept of Crohn's disease. This difficulty may still be a problem at other medical centers in developing countries. Thus, sharing this information may contribute to a better understanding of this disease. Based on the clinical experience gained between 1963 and 2004 and reported herein, the main clinical characteristics of the disease are long-lasting day and night abdominal pain, which becomes more intense after eating and diarrhoea, sometimes associated to a mass in the abdomen, anal lesions, and other additional digestive and nondigestive clinical features. Nevertheless, the main aim of this work has been the following: is it possible to make, in an early stage, the diagnosis of Crohn's disease with a high degree of certainty exclusively with clinical data? PMID:23213555

  19. Role of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Iborra, Marisa; Moret, Inés; Rausell, Francisco; Bastida, Guillermo; Aguas, Mariam; Cerrillo, Elena; Nos, Pilar; Beltrán, Belén

    2011-08-01

    There is increasing interest in oxidative stress being a potential aetiological factor and/or a triggering factor in Crohn's disease, rather than a concomitant occurrence during the pathogenesis of the disease. Recent research has shown that the immune mononuclear cells of Crohn's disease patients are induced to produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Similarly, the regulation of antioxidant enzymes during disease in these cells has been unravelled, showing that SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity and GPx (glutathione peroxidase) activity is increased during active disease and returns to normal in remission phases. However, catalase remains constantly inhibited which supports the idea that catalase is not a redox-sensitive enzyme, but a regulator of cellular processes. ROS (reactive oxygen species) can be produced under the stimulus of different cytokines such as TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α). It has been shown in different experimental models that they are also able to regulate apoptosis and other cellular processes. The status of oxidative stress elements in Crohn's disease and their possible implications in regulating cellular processes are reviewed in the present paper.

  20. Therapeutic inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Srinivasan; Travis, Simon P L; Ahmad, Tariq; Jazrawi, Riadh

    2002-09-01

    Therapeutic options for patients with refractory ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease have recently been augmented by the introduction of biological therapies. The pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is present in elevated concentrations in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and inhibitors of TNF alpha have proved effective as treatment. Strategies aimed at reducing TNF in patients with Crohn's disease, include the mouse/human chimeric monoclonal antibody, infliximab (Centocor Inc), the humanized monoclonal antibody, CDP-571 (Celltech Group plc), the human recombinant TNF receptor fusion protein, etanercept (Immunex Corp), and thalidomide. New approaches, including the use of soluble TNF receptors, appear promising. This article reviews the evidence of therapeutic inhibition of TNF.

  1. [Orthopedic aspects of Crohn disease. Examples of extra-intestinal organ manifestations].

    PubMed

    Sons, H U; Dannberg, A; Jerosch, J; Dellmann, A

    1990-10-01

    Articular changes in Chron's disease represent extraintestinal organic manifestations which generally take the form of so-called enteropathic synovitis. Articular alterations - diagnosed as non-specific arthritis in the great majority of cases--may precede the intestinal disease. In very rare cases it can be shown that the joints display histological changes typical of Morbus Crohn. The etiology and pathophysiological mechanisms of the articular changes are not clear. Probable factors are: autoimmune disease, stimulation of the immunological system by exogenous antigens, induction of a self-sustaining inflammatory process, and demonstrable circulation of antigen-antibody complexes. Genetic factors seem to play a role (familial disposition). A pure "colonic Crohn" (= colitis granulomatosa) leads to a higher degree of articular alteration than a pure "small-intestine Crohn" (= ileitis terminalis). The joints preferentially affected are in the region of the lower extremities (knee and ankle joints). Concomitant Bekhterev's disease (spondylitiis ankylopoietica) is found in 7-10% of cases. Osteomyelitis represents a rare and serious complication: it can appear in the course of chronic Chron's disease (mainly with intestinal fistulas), especially in the region of the pelvic bones. Further aspects of interest from an orthopedic viewpoint are hypertrophic osteoarthropathy with periossal neoformation, granulomatous changes in the bone itself, and aseptic osteonecrosis.

  2. Focal non granulomatous orchitis in a patient with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Piton, Nicolas; Roquet, Marie-Laurence; Sibert, Louis; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe

    2015-04-28

    Crohn's disease is a systemic disease and sometimes involves the testicle, usually leading to granulomatous lesions. We report herein a case of focal non-granulomatous orchitis in a 21-year-old patient with active Crohn's disease treated by an anti-tumor necrosis factor monoclonal antibody. This circumscribed testicular lesion mimicked a tumor, leading to orchiectomy. Pre-operative blood tests (i.e. alpha-fetoprotein, lactate dehydrogenase and human chorionic gonadotrophin) were strictly normal Pathological examination of the testicle revealed a focal inflammatory infiltrate predominantly composed of lymphocytes accompanied by few plasma cells, lacking giant cells or granulomas. Importantly, intratubular germ cell neoplasia, atrophy or lithiasis were not observed.After discussing and excluding other plausible causes (burnt-out /regressed germ cell tumor, infection, vascular or traumatic lesions, iatrogenic effects), we concluded that this particular case of orchitis was most likely an extra-digestive manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease. To our knowledge, this is the first described case of focal non-granulomatous orchitis associated with Crohn's disease. Virtual Slides: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2117747284160112.

  3. Therapeutic efficacy of cyclic home elemental enteral alimentation in Crohn's disease: Japanese cooperative Crohn's disease study.

    PubMed

    Matsueda, K; Shoda, R; Takazoe, M; Hiwatashi, N; Bamba, T; Kobayashi, K; Saito, T; Terano, A; Yao, T

    1995-11-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) often flares up and requires frequent hospitalization and/or surgery. Cyclic home elemental enteral alimentation (C-HEEA) was developed to prevent flare-up of CD and to minimize patient hospitalization. However, its therapeutic efficacy has not been studied in a large patient population. Therefore, questionnaires were sent to members of the Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Research Group of Japan to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of C-HEEA and to define the factors that may affect the efficacy of the treatment. Data for 410 patients (C-HEEA-treated n = 322; drug-treated n = 88) were collected from 29 institutions and analysis showed the following results. The cumulative remission and non-hospitalization rates of the C-HEEA treated group were significantly higher than the rates of the drug-treated group in all patients and in those with ileitis and ileo-colitis (P < 0.0001, P < 0.001, and P < 0.01, respectively), but no significant difference was noted in patients with colitis. Cumulative remission and non-hospitalization rates were also influenced by the daily calorie content of the elemental diet (ED); more than 1200 kcal of the ED per day was found to be more effective than lower amounts to maintain remission and to prevent hospitalization. The therapeutic efficacy of C-HEEA was shown to be superior to that of drug treatment in patients with CD with ileal involvement, and it is suggested that more than 1200kcal per day should be supplied by the ED to enhance its therapeutic efficacy.

  4. Abdominal wall abscesses in patients with Crohn's disease: clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, David; Keidar, Andrei; Gutman, Mordechai; Zissin, Rivka

    2006-03-01

    Abdominal wall abscess due to Crohn's Disease used to be one of the definitive indications for operative treatment. The advent of interventional radiology, the accessibility to percutaneous drainage, and the availability of new medications raised the possibility of nonoperative treatment of this condition. The clinical presentation, treatment, and follow-up of 13 patients with abdominal wall abscesses secondary to Crohn's Disease were retrospectively reviewed. During a 10-year period (1993-2003), 13 patients with abdominal wall abscess were treated. Five patients had an anterolateral abdominal wall abscess and eight had a posterior abscess (psoas). In 11 patients, 17 drainage procedures were performed: 12 percutaneous and 5 operative. Despite initial adequate drainage and resolution of the abscess, all 13 patients eventually needed resection of the offending bowel segment, which was undertaken in 12 patients. The mean time between abscess presentation and definitive operation was 2 months. Percutaneous drainage is an attractive option in most cases of abdominal abscesses. However, in Crohn's Disease patients with an abdominal wall abscess, we found a high failure rate despite initial adequate drainage. We suggest that surgical resection of the diseased bowel segment should be the definitive therapy.

  5. Protein-energy intake and malnutrition in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Hodges, P; Gee, M; Grace, M; Sherbaniuk, R W; Wensel, R H; Thomson, A B

    1984-12-01

    A detailed nutrient assessment was made of 23 male and 24 female patients with Crohn's disease who entered sequentially into an outpatient clinic. Assessment included 48-hour dietary recall, anthropometric measurements, and biochemical and hematological tests appropriate to characterize protein-energy malnutrition. Approximately 40% of patients had energy intakes equal to only two-thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). Three men and five women had relative body weights less than 85% of standard, but body weight was not correlated with energy intake. Relative body weight was correlated with arm muscle circumference in both male and female patients and with triceps skinfold and total lymphocyte count in women. Although the mean protein intake was greater than 150% of the RDA, evidence of protein malnutrition included low arm muscle circumference in 14% of the men and 15% of the women, low serum albumin concentration in 13% of the women, and low total lymphocyte count in one-half of the patients. The Crohn's disease activity index was correlated significantly with serum albumin, energy intake, and duration of disease in men and with serum ferritin and hemoglobin concentration in women. Thus, a reduced relative body weight or reduced serum albumin was not uncommon in patients with Crohn's disease but did not necessarily occur in those with reduced intakes of protein and energy. However, a low relative body weight may indicate need for further nutritional assessment.

  6. Computed tomography in the evaluation of Crohn disease

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, H.I.; Gore, R.M.; Margulis, A.R.; Moss, A.A.; Baker, E.L.

    1983-02-01

    The abdominal and pelvic computed tomographic examinations in 28 patients with Crohn disease were analyzed and correlated with conventional barium studies, sinograms, and surgical findings. Mucosal abnormalities such as aphthous lesions, pseudopolyps, and ulcerations were only imaged by conventional techniques. Computed tomography proved superior in demonstrating the mural, serosal, and mesenteric abnormalities such as bowel wall thickening (82%), fibrofatty proliferation of mesenteric fat (39%), mesenteric abscess (25%), inflammatory reaction of the mesentery (14%), and mesenteric lymphadenopathy (18%). Computed tomography was most useful clinically in defining the nature of mass effects, separation, or displacement of small bowel segments seen on small bowel series. Although conventional barium studies remain the initial diagnostic procedure in evaluating Crohn disease, computed tomography can be a useful adjunct in resolving difficult clinical and radiologic diagnostic problems.

  7. Circulating immune complexes and disease activity in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Fiasse, R; Lurhuma, A Z; Cambiaso, C L; Masson, P L; Dive, C

    1978-01-01

    Circulating immune complexes were determined in 59 consecutive patients with Crohn's disease and 100 blood donors by a double method based on the inhibition of the agglutinating activity of CIq and/or rheumatoid factor on the IgG-coated polystyrene particles. In patients, the incidence of positive immune complexes was 63% and 61% at first testing, 85% and 78% at subsequent determinations; there was a good correlation between the inhibition titres of CIq and those of rheumatoid factor (p less than 0.001). In blood donors, the incidence was 22% and 14% at low titre. The incidence of immune complexes was the lowest (36%) in the group of resected patients without signs of relapse; repeat determinations showed absence of immune complexes three months postoperatively. In patients medically treated for primary disease or relapse, rheumatoid factor titre higher than 1/1 was less frequent than in medically untreated patients with active disease (p less than 0.01). A significantly higher concentration of serum alpha-1-antitrypsin and orosomucoid, and a significantly lower level of serum iron were found in patients with an IC titre exceeding 1/1; longitudinal studies showed in most cases a concordance between the evolution of immune complex titres, inflammatory parameters and clinical status. PMID:308030

  8. Crohn's Disease Associated with Sweet's Syndrome and Sjögren's Syndrome Treated with Infliximab

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Erina N.; Nguyen, Khanh K.; Sheikh, Rafiq A.; Prindiville, Thomas P.

    2005-01-01

    The association of Crohn's disease (CD) and Sweet's syndrome is rare and the presence of Sjögren's syndrome in Crohn's disease is even rarer, with only three reports found in the literature. We describe two cases of Crohn's disease associated with Sweet's syndrome, one of which is the first case of CD and Sweet's concomitantly associated with Sjögren's syndrome. Both cases responded rapidly to Infliximab therapy with complete resolution of the skin lesions. PMID:16050146

  9. Corticosteroids increase protein breakdown and loss in newly diagnosed pediatric Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Steven J; Noe, Joshua D; Denne, Scott C

    2011-11-01

    Children with Crohn disease have altered growth and body composition. Previous studies have demonstrated decreased protein breakdown after either corticosteroid or anti-TNF-α therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whole body protein metabolism during corticosteroid therapy in children with newly diagnosed Crohn disease. Children with suspected Crohn disease and children with abdominal symptoms not consistent with Crohn disease underwent outpatient metabolic assessment. Patients diagnosed with Crohn disease and prescribed corticosteroid therapy returned in 2 wk for repeat metabolic assessment. Using the stable isotopes [d5] phenylalanine, [1-(13)C] leucine, and [(15)N(2)] urea, protein kinetics were determined in the fasting state. Thirty-one children (18 controls and 13 newly diagnosed with Crohn disease) completed the study. There were no significant differences in protein breakdown or loss between patients with Crohn disease at diagnosis and controls. After corticosteroid therapy in patients with Crohn disease, the rates of appearance of phenylalanine (32%) and leucine (26%) increased significantly, reflecting increased protein breakdown, and the rate of appearance of urea also increased significantly (273%), reflecting increased protein loss. Whole body protein breakdown and loss increased significantly after 2 wk of corticosteroid therapy in children with newly diagnosed Crohn disease, which may have profound effects on body composition.

  10. Zinc deficiency in men with Crohn's disease may contribute to poor sperm function and male infertility.

    PubMed

    El-Tawil, A M

    2003-12-01

    In Great Britain, married couples were reported to have between 1.9 and 2.1 children, while men with Crohn's disease had a mean of 1.2 and of 0.4 children before and after diagnosis, respectively. The role of zinc for male fertility is essential. Although lack of zinc in Crohn's disease is well established in up to 70% of patients, a possible relation between zinc deficiency and male subfertility in Crohn's disease remains unclear. This study is aimed at examining a possible link between zinc deficiency in men with Crohn's disease and male subfertility in this group of patients.

  11. Measuring disease activity in Crohn's disease: what is currently available to the clinician.

    PubMed

    D'Incà, Renata; Caccaro, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease characterized by a relapsing-remitting clinical behavior and dominated by intestinal inflammation. Being a chronic disorder that with time develops into a disabling disease, it is important to monitor the severity of inflammation to assess the efficacy of medication, rule out complications, and prevent progression. This is particularly true now that the goals of treatment are mucosal healing and deep remission. Endoscopy has always been the gold standard for assessing mucosal activity in CD, but its use is limited by its invasiveness and its inability to examine the small intestine, proximal to the terminal ileum. Enteroscopy and the less invasive small bowel capsule endoscopy enable the small bowel to be thoroughly explored and scores are emerging for classifying small bowel disease activity. Cross-sectional imaging techniques (ultrasound, magnetic resonance, computed tomography) are emerging as valid tools for monitoring CD patients, assessing inflammatory activity in the mucosa and the transmucosal extent of the disease, and for excluding extra-intestinal complications. Neither endoscopy nor imaging are suitable for assessing patients frequently, however. Noninvasive markers such as C-reactive protein, and fecal biomarkers such as calprotectin and lactoferrin, are therefore useful to confirm the inflammatory burden of the disease and to identify patients requiring further investigations.

  12. Surgery for Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... less pain after the operation, less chance of infection, and a shorter hospital stay. The ideal candidates for laparoscopic surgery are nonobese patients who have had no prior operations, are undergoing elective ... as infection or liver failure. People with these complications are ...

  13. A Rare Case of Azathioprine-Induced Sweet's Syndrome in a Patient with Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem, Chaker; Salem, Chaker B; Larif, Sofiene; Fathallah, Neila; Slim, Raoudha; Aounallah, Amina; Sakhri, Jaballah; Hmouda, Houssem

    2015-01-01

    Sweet's syndrome has been reported in association with inflammatory diseases such as Crohn's disease. It has also been reported in association with several drugs. Here, we report a rare case of Sweet's syndrome induced by azathioprine in a patient with Crohn's disease.

  14. Surgical recurrence in Crohn's disease: Are we getting better?

    PubMed

    Kristo, Ivan; Stift, Anton; Bergmann, Michael; Riss, Stefan

    2015-05-28

    Crohn's disease (CD) still remains a challenging chronic inflammatory disorder, both for colorectal surgeons and gastroenterologists. The need for recurrent surgery following primary intestinal resection is still considerable, though recent evidence suggested a declining rate of recurrence. Several conflicting surgical parameters have been identified that might impact on the postoperative outcome positively, such as access to the abdomen, anastomotic configuration or type of disease. Additionally, promising results have been achieved with the increased use of immunosuppressive medications in CD. Consequently, the question arises if we are getting better as a result of novel medical and surgical strategies.

  15. Tirofiban-Induced Thrombocytopenia Occurring with Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Toni; El Karak, Fady; Araji, Assem; El Rassy, Elie

    2016-01-01

    A 69-year-old man, with severe refractory Crohn's disease, presented with acute coronary syndrome that required angioplasty. He developed severe tirofiban-induced thrombocytopenia (TIT) heralded by type I allergic reaction that required steroids and a combination of antihistamine H1 and antihistamine H2 for symptomatic management. The thrombocytopenia spontaneously resolved uneventfully in 48 hours thereafter. This case report suggests a possible association between TIT and inflammatory bowel disease. Therefore, strict monitoring of the platelet count is required in patients who develop allergic reactions to tirofiban. PMID:27144035

  16. Computed Tomography Enterography and Magnetic Resonance Enterography in the Diagnosis of Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Imaging of the small bowel is complicated by its length and its overlapping loops. Recently, however, the development of crosssectional imaging techniques, such as computed tomography enterography (CTE) and magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) has shifted fundamental paradigms in the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected or known Crohn's disease (CD). CTE and MRE are noninvasive imaging tests that involve the use of intraluminal oral and intravenous contrast agents to evaluate the small bowel. Here, we review recent advances in each cross-sectional imaging modality, their advantages and disadvantages, and their diagnostic performances in the evaluation of small bowel lesions in CD. PMID:25691841

  17. Microbial Dysbiosis in Pediatric Patients with Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Day, Andrew S.; Huinao, Karina D.; Leach, Steven T.; Lemberg, Daniel A.; Dowd, Scot E.

    2012-01-01

    Microbial dysbiosis has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD); however, many studies of gut microbial communities have been confounded by environmental and patient-related factors. In this study, the microbial flora of fecal samples from 19 children newly diagnosed with CD and 21 age-matched controls were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing to determine differences in the microbial composition between CD patients and controls. Analysis of the microbial composition of specific bacterial groups revealed that Firmicutes percentages were significantly lower in CD patients than in controls and that this was due largely to changes in the class Clostridia. Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria percentages were higher and significantly higher in CD patients than in controls, respectively. Both the detection frequencies of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes correlated (positively and negatively, respectively) with the calculated pediatric Crohn's disease activity index scores of patients. Upon further analysis, differences in the microbial compositions of patients with mild disease and moderate to severe disease were identified. Our findings indicate that a combination of different bacterial species or a dynamic interplay between individual species is important for disease and is consistent with the dysbiosis hypothesis of CD. PMID:22837318

  18. Multiple pulmonary nodules in a patient with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Golpe, Rafael; Mateos, Alfonso; Pérez-Valcárcel, Javier; Lapeña, José A; García-Figueiras, Roberto; Blanco, Joaquín

    2003-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) can be associated with respiratory involvement. Multiple pulmonary nodules are an infrequent finding in patients with CD. When they are found, histology usually shows sterile necrobiotic nodules, which are spherical aggregates of neutrophils, which frequently cavitate. We report a patient with inactive CD treated with mesalazine, who presented with multiple pulmonary nodules. Transthoracic biopsy of one of the nodules disclosed a benign, nongranulomatous inflammatory lymphoid infiltration. The radiographic abnormalities responded well to oral prednisone. Focal, nongranulomatous lymphoid infiltration thus must be considered in the differential diagnosis of multiple pulmonary nodules in patients with CD.

  19. [Benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma in a patient with Crohn disease].

    PubMed

    Fluxá, Daniela; Kronberg, Udo; Lubascher, Jaime; O'Brien, Andrés; Las Heras, Facundo; Ibáñez, Patricio; Quera, Rodrigo

    2016-12-01

    Benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma is an uncommon lesion arising from the peritoneal mesothelium. It is asymptomatic or presents with unspecific symptoms. Imaging techniques may reveal it, however the final diagnosis can only be made by histopathology. Surgery is the only effective treatment considering its high recurrence rate. We report a 19 years old male with Crohn’s disease. Due to persistent abdominal pain, an abdominal magnetic resonance imaging was performed, showing a complex cystic mass in the lower abdomen. The patient underwent surgery and the lesion was completely resected. The pathological study reported a benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma.

  20. Primary tuberculous peritonitis during infliximab therapy for Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Bonse-Geuking, Ulrich; Kraus, Michael

    2012-07-01

    A 64 year old male patient suffering from Crohn's disease received infliximab therapy for a period of 5 months prior to presentation to our hospital. Due to the symptoms fever, ascites, and diffuse abdominal tenderness on palpation of unknown origin, a CT scan of the abdomen was performed and led to the suspected diagnosis of a peritoneal carcinomatosis. QuantiFERON™ test revealed a tuberculosis infection and molecular analyses of a peritoneal specimen obtained by laparoscopy clearly identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA. Quadruple tuberculostatic therapy was initiated and the patient's condition continuously improved thereafter.

  1. Thalidomide induces mucosal healing in postoperative Crohn disease endoscopic recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Huiqin; Wang, Xinying; Liu, Side

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Thalidomide has been successful use in patients with refractory Crohn disease (CD) in recent years. Methods: We collected the data of a postoperative CD patient who was prescribed thalidomide to induce remission and reviewed the relevant literatures. Results: A 51-year-old female was diagnosed as CD after an urgent terminal intestinal resection and presented endoscopic recurrence despite the prophylactic treatment with azathioprine (AZA). Fortunately, she achieved mucosal healing (MH) at a low dose of thalidomide for 15 months. Conclusion: Thalidomide is effective to induce MH in the postoperative CD endoscopic recurrence. PMID:27603389

  2. Expression of CD45RO on circulating CD19+ B-cells in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Yacyshyn, B R; Pilarski, L M

    1993-01-01

    Crohn's disease is an immunoregulatory disorder of the intestine that can be associated with systemic manifestations. This study analysed B-cell differentiation antigens to identify B-cell subpopulations unique to patients with Crohn's disease. CD45 isoform expression was used as an indicator of B-cell differentiation stage. This work shows that B-cells in blood and gut of patients with Crohn's disease are at an advanced stage of differentiation based on their unusual presentation of transitional (RA+ RO+) and late stage (RO+)CD45 isoforms on lamina propria lymphocytes, whereas normal intestinal lamina propria lymphocytes B-cells express primarily CD45RA. Crohn's disease patients had heightened expression of the CD45RO isoform on CD19+ lamina propria lymphocytes, and was found in a statistically significant proportion of Crohn's peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) where CD19+ PBMC had an expression pattern affecting an unexpectedly high proportion of these differentiated or late stage CD45RO+ B-cells. The expression of CD45RO varied greatly among CD19+ PBMC from patients with Crohn's disease, so multiple regression analysis was performed between these CD45 isoforms and several clinical parameters. After grouping high and low CD45RO expression on CD19+ B-cells, a significant statistical difference was found between high Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) and low CDAI Crohn's disease patients respectively. PMID:7506695

  3. Primary sclerosing cholangitis, Crohn's disease and HLA-B27 in black South African women.

    PubMed

    Buchel, O C; Bosch, F J; Janse van Rensburg, J; Bezuidenhout, E; de Vries, C S; van Zyl, J H; Middlecote, B D; de K Grundling, H; Fevery, J

    2012-12-01

    Crohn's disease is rare in South African black people and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is also rare in black patients with IBD, from South Africa. The presence of HLA-B27 is generally associated with seronegative spondylo-arthropathies and correlates with the occurrence of ankylosing spondylitis, recurrent mouth ulcers and uveitis, in patients with IBD. We describe two women with the combination of Crohn's disease, PSC and HLA-B27 from our cohort of the last 5 years of three black patients with Crohn's disease. Crohn's disease, PSC and HLA-B27 respectively, occur rarely in black South Africans and their concurrent presence in two black women suggests a pathogenetic link of HLA-B27 between Crohn's disease and PSC in this population. Female gender might be an additional determinant in this setting.

  4. Concurrent small bowel adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumor in Crohn's disease--case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Boltin, Doron; Levi, Zohar; Halpern, Marisa; Fraser, Gerald M

    2011-10-01

    Adenocarcinomas of the large and small bowel, as well as intestinal carcinoid tumors have been reported at increased rates in Crohn's disease. We herein report a rare case of concurrent adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumor of the small bowel presenting as intestinal obstruction and found incidentally at laparotomy in a 55 year old male with longstanding ileal Crohn's disease. We performed a Medline Pubmed search for cases of synchronous or composite adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumor in the setting of Crohn's disease and identified four similar cases. Concurrent adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumor occurred both in newly diagnosed and longstanding Crohn's disease, most commonly involved the terminal ileum and presented with symptoms mimicking Crohn's disease. Diagnosis was made incidentally at laparotomy in all cases. Lymph node involvement was variable. Clinicians should be aware of this rare entity for expeditious surgical intervention.

  5. Where Are All the Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis in Patients with Crohn's Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Ellen S.

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes a chronic granulomatous inflammation of the intestines, Johne's disease, in dairy cows and every other species of mammal in which it has been identified. MAP has been identified in the mucosal layer and deeper bowel wall in patients with Crohn's disease by methods other than light microscopy, and by direct visualization in small numbers by light microscopy. MAP has not been accepted as the cause of Crohn's disease in part because it has not been seen under the microscope in large numbers in the intestines of patients with Crohn's disease. An analysis of the literature on the pathology of Crohn's disease and on possible MAP infection in Crohn's patients suggests that MAP might directly infect endothelial cells and adipocytes and cause them to proliferate, causing focal obstruction within already existing vessels (including granuloma formation), the development of new vessels (neoangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis), and the “creeping fat” of the mesentery that is unique in human pathology to Crohn's disease but also occurs in bovine Johne's disease. Large numbers of MAP might therefore be found in the mesentery attached to segments of intestine affected by Crohn's disease rather than in the bowel wall, the blood and lymphatic vessels running through the mesentery, or the mesenteric fat itself. The walls of fistulas might result from the neoangiogenesis or lymphangiogenesis that occurs in the bowel wall in Crohn's disease and therefore are also possible sites of large numbers of MAP. The direct visualization of large numbers of MAP organisms in the tissues of patients with Crohn's disease will help establish that MAP causes Crohn's disease. PMID:19325887

  6. Crohn's disease mistaken for long-standing idiopathic mesenteric panniculitis

    PubMed Central

    Nuzzo, Alexandre; Zappa, Magaly; Cazals-Hatem, Dominique; Bouhnik, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Mesenteric panniculitis (MP) is mostly an associated sign of an intra-abdominal or systemic inflammatory primary disease. Nevertheless, etiological and differential diagnosis of idiopathic MP can be challenging when an associate primary cause is not in the foreground. Methods: We report here the case of an isolated small bowel Crohn's disease, long time considered as idiopathic MP. Results: This patient presented to our department with a 10-year history of acute abdominal symptoms evolving with flare-up and remission. A diagnosis of idiopathic MP was made based on compatible CT-scan features along with normal laboratory tests and upper and lower bowel endoscopies. As symptoms recurred, a steroid course was proposed which dramatically improved his condition for years. Finally, an explorative laparoscopy was performed because of concern of malignancy when he returned to our unit with a steroid refractory flare-up and weight loss, along with MP nodes growing up to 10 mm. Crohn's disease was eventually diagnosed, based on histopathological middle-gut bowel resection and numerous granulomas in mesenteric nodes without necrosis. Conclusion: This case emphasizes the importance of excluding inflammatory intestinal lesions before making the diagnosis of idiopathic MP (fecal calprotectin, magnetic resonance enterography, wireless capsule endoscopy). PMID:27684882

  7. Short Bowel Syndrome and Intestinal Failure in Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Limketkai, Berkeley N; Parian, Alyssa M; Shah, Neha D; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric

    2016-05-01

    Crohn's disease is a chronic and progressive inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Despite the availability of powerful immunosuppressants, many patients with Crohn's disease still require one or more intestinal resections throughout the course of their disease. Multiple resections and a progressive reduction in bowel length can lead to the development of short bowel syndrome, a form of intestinal failure that compromises fluid, electrolyte, and nutrient absorption. The pathophysiology of short bowel syndrome involves a reduction in intestinal surface area, alteration in the enteric hormonal feedback, dysmotility, and related comorbidities. Most patients will initially require parenteral nutrition as a primary or supplemental source of nutrition, although several patients may eventually wean off nutrition support depending on the residual gut anatomy and adherence to medical and nutritional interventions. Available surgical treatments focus on reducing motility, lengthening the native small bowel, or small bowel transplantation. Care of these complex patients with short bowel syndrome requires a multidisciplinary approach of physicians, dietitians, and nurses to provide optimal intestinal rehabilitation, nutritional support, and improvement in quality of life.

  8. Guillain-Barré syndrome during adalimumab therapy for Crohn´s disease: coincidence or consequence?

    PubMed

    Cançado, Guilherme Grossi Lopes; Vilela, Eduardo Garcia

    2017-04-01

    We report the case of a 64-year-old patient diagnosed with extensive ileal Crohn´s disease who developed Guillain-Barré syndrome after starting biological therapy with adalimumab. Neurologic involvement associated with inflammatory bowel diseases is recognized as an extra-intestinal manifestation. After the breakthrough of antitumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF-α) agents, an increasing number of cases of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies have been reported; however, only one case has been described in a patient with Crohn´s disease. Although a causal relationship between Guillain-Barré syndrome and TNF-α antagonist therapy cannot be proven, this report emphasizes the need to monitor for neurologic signs and symptoms in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, with or without biological therapy, to avoid severe and irreversible complications associated with demyelinating diseases.

  9. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, Crohn's disease and the Doomsday scenario

    PubMed Central

    Hermon-Taylor, John

    2009-01-01

    Johne's disease is chronic inflammation of the intestine caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Infection and disease are mainly in domestic livestock but can affect many species including primates. Johne's is a new disease which emerged at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries and principally involved Europe and North America. It has since spread to former low incidence regions to become a global problem. Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammation of the intestine in humans which emerged in Europe and North America mid 20th century and increased to become a major healthcare problem. It has now spread to former low incidence regions. Infected animals shed Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in milk and into the environment. Human populations are widely exposed. Outcomes maybe influenced by microbial phenotype. Exposure to extracellular forms of these pathogens may confer some natural protection; exposure to intracellular forms which have passaged through milk macrophages or environmental protists may pose a greater threat to humans particularly individuals with an inherited or acquired susceptibility. Hot spots of human disease such as in Winnipeg which sits on rock at the junction of two rivers may result from local exposure to high levels of waterborne pathogens brought down from farmland. When appropriate methods are used most people with Crohn's disease are found to be infected. There are no data which demonstrate that these pathogens are harmless to humans. An overwhelming balance of probability and Public health risk favours the conclusion that Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis is also pathogenic for people. A two tier co-operative pathogenic mechanism is proposed in Crohn's disease. Intracellular infection with the primary pathogen widely distributed throughout the gut causes an immune dysregulation and a specific chronic enteric neuropathy with loss of mucosal integrity. Segments of gross inflammatory disease

  10. Clinical features of Crohn disease concomitant with ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Song; Ding, Jie; Wang, Meng; Zhou, Wanqing; Feng, Min; Guan, Wenxian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) cause increased morbidity and decreased quality of life in Crohn disease (CD). Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) belongs to EIMs. Very little is known on the clinical features of CD concomitant with AS. This study is to investigate the clinical features of CD patients with AS. We retrospectively collected all CD patients with AS in our hospital, and established a comparison group (CD without AS) with age, sex, and duration of Crohn disease matched. Clinical information was retrieved for comparison. Eight CD + AS patients were identified from 195 CD patients. Sixteen CD patients were randomly selected into comparison group. All CD + AS patients were male, HLA-B27 (+), and rheumatoid factor (−) with an average age of 40.8 ± 4.52 years. Significant correlation between disease activity of CD and AS was revealed (r = 0.857, P = 0.011). Significant correlation between disease activity of CD and functional limitation associated with AS was identified (r = 0.881, P < 0.01). C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and globulin were positively correlated to Crohn disease activity index (CDAI), Bath AS disease activity index, and Bath AS functional index(BASFI) scores (r = 0.73–0.93, P < 0.05). Albumin was negatively associated with CDAI and BASFI (r = −0.73 to −0.91, P < 0.05). The ratio of albumin to globulin (Alb/Glo) was significantly related to all 3 scores (r = −0.81 to −0.91, P < 0.05). Male predominance with a 4.12% concomitant incidence of AS is observed in CD patients. Disease activity of CD correlates with disease activity of AS and functional limitation caused by AS. CRP, ESR, and Alb/Glo may serve as biomarkers for disease activity and functional limitation in CD patients concomitant with AS, although future studies are expected. PMID:27428240

  11. An immunological link between Candida albicans colonization and Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Gerard, Romain; Sendid, Boualem; Colombel, Jean-Frederic; Poulain, Daniel; Jouault, Thierry

    2015-06-01

    The etiology of Crohn's disease (CD), an autoimmune, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which affects approximately one million people in Europe, is still unclear. Nevertheless, it is widely accepted that CD could result from an inappropriate inflammatory response to intestinal microorganisms in a genetically susceptible host. Most studies to date have concerned the involvement of bacteria in disease progression. In addition to bacteria, there appears to be a possible link between the commensal yeast Candida albicans and disease development. In this review, in an attempt to link the gut colonization process and the development of CD, we describe the different pathways that are involved in the progression of CD and in the host response to C. albicans, making the yeast a possible initiator of the inflammatory process observed in this IBD.

  12. Reversal of growth arrest in adolescents with Crohn's disease after parenteral alimentation.

    PubMed

    Layden, T; Rosenberg, F; Nemchausky, G; Elson, C; Rosenberg, I

    1976-06-01

    Growth arrest and delayed onset of puberty often complicate childhood onset Crohn's disease of the small bowel (granulomatous enteritis). Nutritional deficits arising from inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, and increased caloric needs may contribute to growth retardation. To assess whether a sustained high caloric and nitrogen intake could reestablish growth, 4 children with extensive Crohn's disease of the small bowel were studied before and after parenteral alimentation which was instituted for symtomatic disease control. Weight gain, positive nitrogen balance, and improved nutritional status were achieved during parenteral alimentation in each patient. In 2 patients weight gain was sustained using oral nutritional supplements, and a substantial increase in linear skeletal growth continued in the ensuing months. One patient entered puberty within 4 months of parenteral alimentation and another had the onset of menarche and the development of secondary sex characteristics 4 months after parenteral alimentation and resection of diseased bowel. Growth may be reestablished in some growth-arrested children if intake is sufficient to establish a sustained positive caloric and nitrogen balance. Nutritional requirements imposed by the demands of growth and active disease and often compounded by the catabolic effects of corticosteroids may be excessive; growth may occur only if these needs are met orally and/or parenterally.

  13. Assessment of the lactulose-mannitol test in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Andre, F; Andre, C; Emery, Y; Forichon, J; Descos, L; Minaire, Y

    1988-01-01

    The mannitol-lactulose intestinal permeability test was evaluated in 100 healthy controls and 47 patients with Crohn's disease. These patients were further separated into three subgroups of increased activity (Harvey-Bradshaw index) and in two subgroups, with elective colonic lesions and associated ileal and colonic lesions. Results were given as percentages of urinary recoveries for mannitol (M), lactulose (L), and L/M ratio. As a whole, patients with Crohn's disease have lower mean M and higher mean L and mean L/M ratios than controls. The magnitude of alterations in M, L, and L/M increased with activity. The sensitivity of the test, however, reached interesting figures (67%:L and 86%:L/M) only in subgroup III which was composed of relapsing patients. Mean M was lower in patients with associated ileal lesion but, whatever the criterion (M, L, or L/M), the test does not provide any clue for the detection of a possible infraclinical associated ileal localisation. PMID:3131194

  14. Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome in a patient with Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Sturiale, Alessandro; Alemanno, Giovanni; Giudici, Francesco; Addasi, Rami; Bellucci, Francesco; Tonelli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome is a rare condition characterized by postprandial abdominal pain, bowel function disorder and weight loss. We report the first case to our knowledge of Crohn's disease and Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome. PRESENTATION OF CASE The patient was a 33 year-old female with a previous diagnosis of Crohn's disease. Acute postprandial abdominal pain affected the patient every day; she was, therefore, referred to US-Doppler and magnetic resonance angiography of the abdominal vessels and received a diagnosis of Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome. Consequently, the patient was surgically treated, releasing the vascular compression. After the operation, she reported a complete relief from postprandial pain which was one of her major concerns. Subocclusive symptoms occurred after six months due to the inflammatory reactivation of the terminal ileitis. DISCUSSION The diagnosis of Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome is mainly based on the exclusion of other intestinal disorders but it should be always confirmed using noninvasive tests such as US-Doppler, angio-CT or magnetic resonance angiography. CONCLUSION This case demonstrates that the Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome could be the major cause of symptoms, even in presence of other abdominal disorders. PMID:23500743

  15. Perioperative endoscopy of the whole small bowel in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Lescut, D; Vanco, D; Bonnière, P; Lecomte-Houcke, M; Quandalle, P; Wurtz, A; Colombel, J F; Delmotte, J S; Paris, J C; Cortot, A

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to search for small bowel lesions by means of a perioperative endoscopy in 20 patients operated on for Crohn's disease. Seven women and 13 men (mean age 29 years) had a total retrograde exploration to the angle of Treitz during an ileocolectomy (16 of 20 patients) or a colonic or ileal resection (four of 20 patients). Endoscopic exploration was completed, through an enterotomy, from the surgical area to the angle of Treitz. Periendoscopic biopsy samples were taken on macroscopic lesions and every 20 cm systematically. In 13 of 20 cases, various lesions scattered over the whole small intestine were found. These were aphthoid ulcerations (10 patients), superficial ulcerations (seven patients), mucosal oedema (three patients), non-ulcerative stenosis (three patients), erythema (two patients), pseudopolyps (two patients), deep ulcerations (two patients), and ulcerative stenosis (one patient). In seven patients none of the lesions detected at perioperative endoscopy had been recognised by preoperative evaluation or surgical inspection of the serosal surface. A typical granuloma was found at biopsy of lesions identified by endoscopy in three cases and at biopsy of an apparently healthy area in one case. Thus 65% of patients operated on for Crohn's disease had lesions of the small intestine detected by endoscopy, which were unrecognised before surgery in more than half of the cases. PMID:8504965

  16. Is it Crohn's disease or intestinal tuberculosis? CT analysis.

    PubMed

    Makanjuola, D

    1998-08-01

    A computed tomographic (CT) analysis of 36 patients with differential diagnosis of intestinal tuberculosis (IT) or Crohn's disease (CD) in barium gastrointestinal studies was undertaken to identify distinguishing bowel wall or mesenteric features which could provide a radiological definitive diagnosis. Final diagnoses obtained in 32 cases were tuberculosis (N = 18), CD (N = 9), carcinoid (N = 2), chronic appendicitis (N = 2) and bowel infarction (N = 1). In IT, the bowel wall changes were varied: absence of wall thickening (N = 6), minimal asymmetric wall thickening with and without mucosal tethering (N = 8), minimal symmetric wall thickening often with mild peritonitis (N = 3), exophytic mass encircling bowel lumen (N = 4). Mural stratification (target sign) was not found. CD showed concentric or symmetrical wall thickening ranging from 0.6 to 1.5 mm and mural stratification occurred in about a half of the cases. Lymphadenopathy was the commonest associated feature in both but in IT, the nodes were larger and a third had necrotic centers. Displacement of bowel loops was more often due to enlarged lymphadenopathy in IT while in CD it was frequently due to fibrofatty change. CT was able to provide the correct diagnosis in 26 out of these 32 (81%) cases of indeterminate barium studies. CT is recommended when barium gastrointestinal studies are unable to differentiate between intestinal tuberculosis and Crohn's disease.

  17. Listeria Rhombencephalitis Complicating Anti-TNF Treatment during an Acute Flare of Crohn's Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Caddy, G. R.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Crohn's disease often require the use of immunosuppressant drugs to control disease activity. Such medication includes steroids, azathioprine, and biologic therapy. These suppress the immune response, and the patient is more susceptible to infection. We present a case of a 69-year-old gentleman with a history of Crohn's colitis who had ongoing symptoms of diarrhoea in spite of standard treatment. Biologic therapy was considered to be the next step, and screening for infection was undertaken prior to use. Three days following anti-TNF treatment, he became drowsy, and examination revealed pyrexia, slurred speech, and nystagmus. Investigation revealed presence of Listeria rhombencephalitis. He demonstrated poor neurological recovery. Listeria monocytogenes is an infection commonly associated with food sources. Some patients develop a self-limiting diarrhoeal illness, but in the immunosuppressed population, the clinical features may be more sinister. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis is already recommended for those on triple immunosuppression. We propose the early initiation of this treatment, including where biologic use is anticipated. In those on multiple immunosuppressants, a diet similar to that followed in pregnancy may minimise risk of acquiring this infection. Clinicians must always have a high index of suspicion for opportunistic infection in such immunocompromised patients. PMID:27651962

  18. Imaging techniques and combined medical and surgical treatment of perianal Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Botti, F; Losco, A; Viganò, C; Oreggia, B; Prati, M; Contessini Avesani, E

    2015-03-01

    Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease which may involve any segment of the gastrointestinal tract, most frequently the terminal ileum, the large intestine, and the perianal region. The symptoms of perianal Crohn's disease include skin disorders, hemorrhoids, anal ulcers, anorectal stenosis, perianal abscesses and fistulas, rectovaginal fistulas and carcinoma of the perianal region. The perianal manifestations of Crohn's disease cause great discomfort to the patient and are among the most difficult aspects to treat. Management of perianal disease requires a combination of different imaging modalities and a close cooperation between gastroenterologists and dedicated surgeons.

  19. Faecal mucus degrading glycosidases in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, J M; Gallimore, R; Elias, E; Allan, R N; Kennedy, J F

    1985-08-01

    Because the normal faecal flora includes bacteria which can produce mucus-digesting glycosidases, it follows that increased digestion of colonic mucus by these bacterial enzymes could be important in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Faecal activities of potential mucus-degrading glycosidases have therefore been assayed in samples from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and normal controls. The enzymes alpha-D-galactosidase, beta-D-galactosidase, beta-NAc-D-glucosaminidase alpha-L-fucosidase and neuraminidase were assayed. Considerable glycosidase activity was present in most faecal samples. Similar activities of all the enzymes assayed were found in faeces from patients with ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and normal controls and there was no significant correlation with disease activity. These results imply that relapse of ulcerative colitis is not initiated by increased degradation of colonic mucus by faecal glycosidases but do not exclude a role for bacterial mucus degradation in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis.

  20. Continuous elemental enteral alimentation in the treatment of children and adolescents with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Morin, C L; Roulet, M; Roy, C C; Weber, A; Lapointe, N

    1982-01-01

    Ten pediatric patients, aged 8.5-19 years, with active symptomatic Crohn's disease, received a three-week period of continuous elemental enteral alimentation with no other form of treatment. All patients in this study were selected according to the following criteria, which were applied consecutively: (1) newly diagnosed patients with no previous treatment for Crohn's disease, (2) disease activity index over 200, and (3) no complication requiring surgery. All patients experienced a clinical remission and improved their immunologic and nutritional status during the elemental enteral alimentation. The mean disease activity index for the whole group was 307.0 +/- 23.6 (range: 203 to 413) before and 69.2 +/- 11.4 (range: 15 to 114) after the feeding period. Significant increases in body weight, triceps skinfold, mid-arm circumference, serum transferrin and mean percentage of T lymphocytes were also observed. Following cessation of enteral alimentation, a small declining dose of prednisone was used during a one-year follow-up period. Eight of the ten patients were still in clinical remission three months after the feeding period and their nutritional status had continued to improve during that period of time.

  1. Crohn's disease and growth deficiency in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gasparetto, Marco; Guariso, Graziella

    2014-10-07

    Nutritional concerns, linear growth deficiency, and delayed puberty are currently detected in up to 85% of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) diagnosed at childhood. To provide advice on how to assess and manage nutritional concerns in these patients, a Medline search was conducted using "pediatric inflammatory bowel disease", "pediatric Crohn's disease", "linear growth", "pubertal growth", "bone health", and "vitamin D" as key words. Clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses published between 2008 and 2013 were selected to produce this narrative review. Studies referring to earlier periods were also considered if the data was relevant to our review. Although current treatment strategies for CD that include anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy have been shown to improve patients' growth rate, linear growth deficiencies are still common. In pediatric CD patients, prolonged diagnostic delay, high initial activity index, and stricturing/penetrating type of behavior may cause growth deficiencies (in weight and height) and delayed puberty, with several studies reporting that these patients may not reach an optimal bone mass. Glucocorticoids and inflammation inhibit bone formation, though their impact on skeletal modeling remains unclear. Long-term control of active inflammation and an adequate intake of nutrients are both fundamental in promoting normal puberty. Recent evidence suggests that recombinant growth factor therapy is effective in improving short-term linear growth in selected patients, but is of limited benefit for ameliorating mucosal disease and reducing clinical disease activity. The authors conclude that an intense initial treatment (taking a "top-down" approach, with the early introduction of immunomodulatory treatment) may be justified to induce and maintain remission so that the growth of children with CD can catch up, ideally before puberty. Exclusive enteral nutrition has a key role in inducing remission and improving patients

  2. Implementation of the Simple Endoscopic Activity Score in Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Koutroumpakis, Efstratios; Katsanos, Konstantinos H.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn's Disease (SES-CD) was developed as an attempt to simplify Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS). Since it was constructed from CDEIS, SES-CD performs comparably but also carries similar limitations. Several studies have utilized SES-CD scoring to describe disease severity or response to therapy. Some of them used SES-CD score as a continuous variable while others utilized certain cutoff values to define severity grades. All SES-CD cutoff values reported in published clinical trials were empirically selected by experts. Although in most of the studies that used SEC-CD scoring to define disease severity, a score <3 reflected inactive disease, no study is using score 0 to predefine inactivity. Studies applying SES-CD to define response to treatment used score 0. There is no optimal SES-CD cut-off for endoscopic remission. The quantification of mucosal healing using SES-CD scoring has not been standardized yet. As the definition of mucosal healing by SES-CD is unset, the concept of deep remission is also still evolving. Serum and fecal biomarkers as well as new radiologic imaging techniques are complementary to SES-CD. Current practice as well as important changes in endoscopy should be taken into consideration when defining SES-CD cutoffs. The optimal timing of SES-CD scoring to assess mucosal healing is not defined yet. To conclude, SES-CD represents a valuable tool. However, a consensus agreement on its optimal use is required. PMID:27184635

  3. Adenocarcinoma in an ano-vaginal fistula in Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Alfa-Wali, Maryam; Atinga, Angela; Mohsen, Yasser; Anthony, Andrew; Myers, Alistair

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Fistulas are a relatively common occurrence in Crohn's disease (CD), and often present early in the disease process. Additionally, patients suffering from either CD or ulcerative colitis are shown to have an increased risk of colorectal malignancies compared with the general population. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present a case of adenocarcinoma in an ano-vaginal fistula in a patient with longstanding CD. DISCUSSION Various pathogenic mechanisms for the development of carcinoma in fistulas have been suggested, but there is no consensus and indeed this risk may be cumulative. In this case report, we also discuss the pathogenesis of mucinous adenocarcinoma in fistulas secondary to CD. CONCLUSION Better detection of adenocarcinoma in patients presenting with persistent non-resolving fistulas in the presence of CD should be undertaken with regular biopsies following examinations under anaesthetic of the anorectum. PMID:23702362

  4. Treatment of peri-anal fistula in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Sica, Giuseppe S; Di Carlo, Sara; Tema, Giorgia; Montagnese, Fabrizio; Del Vecchio Blanco, Giovanna; Fiaschetti, Valeria; Maggi, Giulia; Biancone, Livia

    2014-10-07

    Anal fistulas are a common manifestation of Crohn's disease (CD). The first manifestation of the disease is often in the peri-anal region, which can occur years before a diagnosis, particularly in CD affecting the colon and rectum. The treatment of peri-anal fistulas is difficult and always multidisciplinary. The European guidelines recommend combined surgical and medical treatment with biologic drugs to achieve best results. Several different surgical techniques are currently employed. However, at the moment, none of these techniques appear superior to the others in terms of healing rate. Surgery is always indicated to treat symptomatic, simple, low intersphincteric fistulas refractory to medical therapy and those causing disabling symptoms. Utmost attention should be paid to correcting the balance between eradication of the fistula and the preservation of fecal continence.

  5. High frequency of helicobacter negative gastritis in patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Halme, L; Kärkkäinen, P; Rautelin, H; Kosunen, T U; Sipponen, P

    1996-01-01

    The frequency of gastric Crohn's disease has been considered low. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of chronic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with Crohn's disease. Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed on 62 consecutive patients suffering from ileocolonic Crohn's disease. Biopsy specimens from the antrum and corpus were processed for both histological and bacteriological examinations. H pylori antibodies of IgG and IgA classes were measured in serum samples by enzyme immunoassay. Six patients (9.7%) were infected with H pylori, as shown by histology, and in five of them the infection was also verified by serology. Twenty one patients (32%) had chronic H pylori negative gastritis (negative by both histology and serology) and one of them also had atrophy in the antrum and corpus. Granulomas were found in four patients. The characteristic appearance of H pylori negative gastritis was focal and mostly mild inflammation resembling the inflammatory changes seen in the gut in Crohn's disease. Patients with H pylori negative chronic gastritis had a significantly more active disease in their gut than those with normal gastric mucosa (p < 0.01). It is concluded that H pylori positive gastritis is rare, while H pylori negative gastritis is relatively common in patients with Crohn's disease. H pylori negative 'Crohn's gastritis' seems to be associated with active Crohn's disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8675090

  6. Surgery in Pediatric Crohn's Disease: Indications, Timing and Post-Operative Management

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric onset Crohn's disease (CD) tends to have complicated behavior (stricture or penetration) than elderly onset CD at diagnosis. Considering the longer duration of the disease in pediatric patients, the accumulative chance of surgical treatment is higher than in adult onset CD patients. Possible operative indications include perianal CD, intestinal stricture or obstruction, abdominal abscess or fistula, intestinal hemorrhage, neoplastic changes and medically untreatable inflammation. Growth retardation is an operative indication only for pediatric patients. Surgery can affect a patient's clinical course, especially for pediatric CD patient who are growing physically and mentally, so the decision should be made by careful consideration of several factors. The complex and diverse clinical conditions hinder development of a systemized treatment algorithm. Therefore, timing of surgery in pediatric CD patients should be determined with individualized approach by an experienced and well organized multidisciplinary inflammatory bowel disease team. Best long-term outcomes will require proactive post-operative monitoring and therapeutic modifications according to the conditions.

  7. [Certain immune-genes may affect Crohn disease. Advances in diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Befrits, R; Hultcrantz, R

    1998-02-11

    Despite extensive research, the cause of Crohn's disease remains unknown. No specific infectious agent has been identified, though interest has been focused on the possible involvement of mycobacteria, and recently on child hood measles as a possible aetiological factor. Both hereditary and environmental factors seem to contribute to development of the disease. The clinical picture may be dependent upon individual HLA subtypes, as they appear to differ from each other regarding the secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Non-invasive scintigraphy and computerised tomography are used to determine the extent of disease, and to localise such complications as abscesses and fistulas. Endoscopic ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging have proved particularly valuable in diagnosing rectal and rectovaginal fistulas. New 5-ASA (5-aminosalicylic acid) preparations, steroids with fewer systemic side effects, and azathioprine-induced immunosuppression constitute the cornerstones of medical treatment, further developments in pharmacological immunoregulation being a future treatment possibility.

  8. Low residue or normal diet in Crohn's disease: a prospective controlled study in Italian patients.

    PubMed Central

    Levenstein, S; Prantera, C; Luzi, C; D'Ubaldi, A

    1985-01-01

    Seventy patients with non-stenosing Crohn's disease were randomly assigned to follow a low residue diet or a normal Italian diet for a mean of 29 months. The two groups were comparable at the onset in various measures of disease severity and diet. Patients complied well with the diet prescriptions, the low residue group eating a mean of 8.1 portions a week of fibre containing foods and the liberalized group a mean of 26.6 portions (p less than 0.005). There was no difference in outcome between the two groups, including symptoms, need for hospitalisation, need for surgery, new complications, nutritional status, or postoperative recurrence. Eighty six per cent of patients eating ad libitum and 65% of patients who avoided roughage eliminated one or more permitted foods because of subjective intolerance. Lifting of dietary restrictions, which results in a more appetizing and nutritious diet, does not cause symptomatic deterioration or precipitate intestinal obstruction in Crohn's disease. PMID:2996991

  9. Pulmonary necrobiotic nodules in Crohn's disease: a rare extra-intestinal manifestation.

    PubMed

    El-Kersh, Karim; Fraig, Mostafa; Cavallazzi, Rodrigo; Saad, Mohamed; Perez, Rafael L

    2014-12-01

    Pulmonary necrobiotic nodules represent a rare extra-intestinal manifestation of Crohn's disease. Histologically, they are composed of sterile aggregates of inflammatory cells with necrosis. The differential diagnosis is broad, and exclusion of infectious etiologies is mandatory before starting immunosuppressive therapy. Here, we present the fifth reported case of pulmonary necrobiotic nodules in Crohn's disease. Our patient had new-onset Crohn's disease associated with both cavitating and non-cavitating lung nodules that were confirmed to be necrobiotic nodules by biopsy. The patient was started on mesalamine and prednisone, with subsequent improvement of his gastrointestinal symptoms and regression of the necrobiotic nodules.

  10. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease: is Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis the common villain?

    PubMed

    Pierce, Ellen S

    2010-12-17

    Mycobacterium avium, subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes a chronic disease of the intestines in dairy cows and a wide range of other animals, including nonhuman primates, called Johne's ("Yo-knee's") disease. MAP has been consistently identified by a variety of techniques in humans with Crohn's disease. The research investigating the presence of MAP in patients with Crohn's disease has often identified MAP in the "negative" ulcerative colitis controls as well, suggesting that ulcerative colitis is also caused by MAP. Like other infectious diseases, dose, route of infection, age, sex and genes influence whether an individual infected with MAP develops ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. The apparently opposite role of smoking, increasing the risk of Crohn's disease while decreasing the risk of ulcerative colitis, is explained by a more careful review of the literature that reveals smoking causes an increase in both diseases but switches the phenotype from ulcerative colitis to Crohn's disease. MAP as the sole etiologic agent of both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease explains their common epidemiology, geographic distribution and familial and sporadic clusters, providing a unified hypothesis for the prevention and cure of the no longer "idiopathic" inflammatory bowel diseases.

  11. [Special surgical complications in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases].

    PubMed

    Kroesen, A J

    2015-04-01

    After colorectal and anorectal interventions for chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, specific complications can occur.In Crohn's disease these complications mainly occur after proctocolectomy. Pelvic sepsis can be prevented by omentoplasty with fixation inside the pelvis. A persisting sepsis of the sacral cavity can be treated primarily by dissection of the anal sphincter which ensures better drainage. In cases of chronic sacral sepsis, transposition of the gracilis muscle is a further effective option. Early recurrence of a transsphincteric anal fistula should be treated by reinsertion of a silicon seton drainage.Complications after restorative proctocolectomy are frequent and manifold (35%). The main acute complications are anastomotic leakage and pelvic sepsis. Therapy consists of transperineal drainage of the abscess with simultaneous transanal drainage. Late complications due to technical and septic reasons are still a relevant problem even 36 years after introduction of this operative technique. A consistent approach with detailed diagnostic and surgical therapy results in a 75% rescue rate of ileoanal pouches.

  12. Herpes zoster in Crohn's disease during treatment with infliximab.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobing; Zhao, Junzhang; Zhu, Siying; Xia, Bing

    2014-02-01

    Infliximab is widely used in both inducing and maintaining remission of patients with Crohn's disease (CD). The efficacy of infliximab has been undoubtedly proven; however, various opportunistic infections have emerged. Herpes virus infections (being a type of opportunistic infection) in CD patients treated with infliximab alone with no other concomitant medications are, however, rare and have not aroused enough attention. Gastroenterologists have limited knowledge of the immunization status of patients with CD, and rarely do they take an adequate immunization history before immunosuppressive therapy. Here we report two herpes zoster (HZ) events in CD patients while using infliximab alone: in the first case, HZ occurred during the patient's 12th infusion for maintance therapy, and in the second case, HZ occurred during the patient's first course of infliximab after surgery for therapy of inducing remission. We hope to increase the gastroenterologists' awareness of this potential infection in CD patients during treatment with infliximab.

  13. Particular aspects of proctology for anoperineal lesions in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Atienza, P; Ksiaa, M

    2015-04-01

    All practitioners caring for patients with Crohn's disease (CD) must know all the various aspects of anoperineal lesions in this singular entity. Suppuration in CD does not follow the classic routes and spaces of diffusion and is often associated with endolumenal lesions that can evolve on their own. Abscesses and fistulas require specific medico-surgical management where seton drainage, staged operative and sphincter-sparing procedures have a dominant place. The variability of associated lesions and the particularly individualized efficacy of drugs call for case-by-case management, thus, making standardization and comparisons difficult. Recent therapeutic progress has led to modifications of the minimally invasive management policies practiced in the last decades.

  14. Serum Cytokine Profiles in Children with Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vasilyeva, Ekaterina; Abdulkhakov, Sayar; Cherepnev, Georgi; Mayanskaya, Irina; Valeeva, Alina; Abdulkhakov, Rustam; Safina, Dilyara

    2016-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that can be diagnosed at any age. There are two major patient groups based on diagnosis of this disease, before or after the age of 20 (juvenile/adolescent or adult), with disease progression in adults usually milder than in juvenile CD patients. Immune mechanisms have been suggested to play an important role in CD pathogenesis, with cytokines governing the development of the immune response. Upregulation of inflammatory cytokines in serum of juvenile and adult CD patients has been documented; still little is known about age-dependent differences in serum cytokine profiles of CD patients. We applied multiplex technology to analyze serum levels of 12 cytokines in juveniles and adults. We show that during the acute stage of the disease all CD patients have high serum levels of CXCL10, which remains upregulated during remission. Increased serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 during the acute stage was characteristic of juvenile CD patients, whereas adult CD patients had upregulated levels of GM-CSF and IFN-γ. Taken together, these results demonstrate age-dependent differences in cytokine profiles, which may affect the pathogenesis of CD in patients at different ages of disease onset. PMID:28070144

  15. Wernicke's encephalopathy after total parenteral nutrition in patients with Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Shin, In Seub; Seok, Hyeri; Eun, Yeong Hee; Lee, You-Bin; Lee, Seung-Eun; Kim, Eun Ran; Chang, Dong Kyung; Kim, Young-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies in Crohn's disease (CD) patients are not uncommon and usually result in a combination of reduced dietary intake, disease-related malabsorption, and a catabolic state. Decreased serum thiamine levels are often reported in patients with CD. Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a severe form of thiamine deficiency that can cause serious neurologic complications. Although WE is known to occur frequently in alcoholics, a number of non-alcoholic causes have also been reported. Here, we report two cases of non-alcoholic WE that developed in two severely malnourished CD patients who were supported by prolonged total parenteral nutrition without thiamine supplementation. These patients complained of sudden-onset ophthalmopathy, cerebellar dysfunction, and confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging allowed definitive diagnosis for WE despite poor sensitivity. The intravenous administration of thiamine alleviated the symptoms of WE dramatically. We emphasize the importance of thiamine supplementation for malnourished patients even if they are not alcoholics, especially in those with CD. PMID:27175122

  16. Influence of preoperative parenteral alimentation on postoperative growth in adolescent Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Lake, A M; Kim, S; Mathis, R K; Walker, W A

    1985-04-01

    The postoperative growth rates achieved in eight early pubertal adolescent males with Crohn's disease undergoing surgery for obstructive complications is reported as a function of the use of 1 month's preoperative central venous alimentation. All patients had ileal strictures with ileocolitis, bone ages less than 13, Tanner stages 1 or 2, and growth velocities below the 3rd percentile for age. During a 3-year follow-up, those receiving preoperative venous alimentation demonstrated greater oral caloric intake (significant for 1 year) and greater postoperative growth velocity (significant for 2 years) in comparison to those patients who did not receive preoperative venous alimentation. There was no significant difference between the two groups of patients in postoperative weight gain, sexual development, and 3-year disease control.

  17. [Long-term results of the surgical treatment of ileo-colonic Crohn disease].

    PubMed

    Forni, E; Orlandoni, G; Voltolini, P; Zadra, F; Stradiotti, G; Bordoni, P; Spelzini, P

    1984-10-01

    18 patients with Crohn's disease primarily treated with excisional surgery were studied. The crude recurrence and reoperation rate were analyzed. The influence of sex, age and length of history prior to operation was in this respect also studied.

  18. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Events Search: What are Crohn's & Colitis? What is Crohn's Disease What is Ulcerative Colitis Types of Medications What’s ... Our Mission Learn about our mission: to cure Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, and to improve the quality ...

  19. Personal view: food for thought--western lifestyle and susceptibility to Crohn's disease. The FODMAP hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Gibson, P R; Shepherd, S J

    2005-06-15

    Susceptibility to the development of Crohn's disease involves a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The association of Crohn's disease with westernization has implicated lifestyle factors in pathogenesis. While diet is a likely candidate, evidence for specific changes in dietary habits and/or intake has been lacking. A new hypothesis is proposed, by which excessive delivery of highly fermentable but poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates and polyols (designated FODMAPs--Fermentable Oligo-, Di- and Mono-saccharides And Polyols) to the distal small intestinal and colonic lumen is a dietary factor underlying susceptibility to Crohn's disease. The subsequent rapid fermentation of FODMAPs in the distal small and proximal large intestine induces conditions in the bowel that lead to increased intestinal permeability, a predisposing factor to the development of Crohn's disease. Evidence supporting this hypothesis includes the increasing intake of FODMAPs in western societies, the association of increased intake of sugars in the development of Crohn's disease, and the previously documented effects of the ingestion of excessive FODMAPs on the bowel. This hypothesis provides potential for the design of preventive strategies and raises concern about current enthusiasm for putative health-promoting effects of FODMAPs. One of the greatest challenges in defining the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease is to identify predisposing environmental factors. Such an achievement might lead to the development of preventive strategies for, and the definition of, possible target for changing the natural history of this serious disease. The present paper describes a new hypothesis for one such environmental factor.

  20. Treatment with tumour necrosis factor inhibitor oxpentifylline does not improve corticosteroid dependent chronic active Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Bauditz, J; Haemling, J; Ortner, M; Lochs, H; Raedler, A; Schreiber, S

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Crohn's disease, inflammation is presumably sustained by an increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, in particular tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and interleukin 1 beta (IL 1 beta). TNF alpha can induce a host of cellular effector events resulting in perpetuation of the inflammatory process. In vivo studies with anti-TNF alpha antibody treatment have led to impressive clinical results. AIMS: To investigate whether treatment with the TNF alpha inhibitor oxpentifylline results in clinical improvement in corticosteroid dependent chronic active Crohn's disease. METHODS: Sixteen Crohn's disease patients received oxpentifylline 400 mg four times a day in a four week open label study. RESULTS: Blockade of TNF alpha production in 16 patients with corticosteroid dependent Crohn's disease did not improve the clinical disease activity (CDAI mean (SEM) 188.75 (5.65) versus 185.13 (10.87) or the endoscopic degree of inflammation (CDEIS 14.9 (2.87) versus 14.8 (2.27) or laboratory parameters. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, use of the TNF alpha inhibitor oxpentifylline does not improve inflammation in Crohn's disease. This finding suggests that there may be more key mediators than only TNF alpha in the inflammatory process in Crohn's disease. PMID:9176073

  1. Redo Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis combined with anti-TNF-α maintenance therapy for Crohn's disease with pelvic fistula: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Araki, Toshimitsu; Okita, Yoshiki; Fujikawa, Hiroyuki; Ohi, Masaki; Tanaka, Koji; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Uchida, Keiichi; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

    2014-10-01

    Pouch failure has been reported to occur after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for Crohn's disease. We report two cases of patients with Crohn's disease, who underwent redo ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (redo-IPAA) combined with anti-TNF-α maintenance therapy, with good functional results. The first patient, a man with presumed ulcerative colitis, suffered pelvic fistula recurrence and anastomotic dehiscence. He underwent redo-IPAA, at which time longitudinal ulcers were found. Infliximab was started 4 days postoperatively and continued. The second patient, a woman treated for ulcerative colitis, underwent laparoscopic IPAA 8 years later. After the development of a pelvic fistula, twisted mesentery of the ileal pouch was found intraoperatively and Crohn's disease was diagnosed. Adalimumab therapy resulted in fistula closure. Redo-IPAA was performed to normalize the twisted mesentery of the ileal pouch. No complications have been observed in either patient, both of whom have experienced good functional results after closure of the covering stomas.

  2. [Crohn's disease with the onset resembling systemic lupus erythematosus].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, T; Nishinarita, S; Son, K; Tomita, Y; Yoshihiro; Matsukawa; Kitamura, N; Horie, T; Baba, M; Hiranuma, M

    1999-06-01

    We described a 37-year-old man with Crohn's disease (CD) resembling systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) at his disease onset. He was admitted to the municiple Akiru Hospital in October 1986 by fever, aphtous oral ulcerations, sore throat and polyarthralgia. Hematologic examination showed leukocytopenia, lymphocytopenia, positive tests for antinuclear antibody, anti-DNA antibody and LE cell phenomenon. He has had episodes of convulsion and conciousness loss of unknown etiology when he was 17 years old. The diagnosis of SLE was made, and oral medication of prednisolone was started. Several weeks later, most of symptoms and autoantibodies disappeared, although the oral aphtous ulcerations and leukocytopenia remained. In May 1987, he admitted to the other hospital because of bloody vomiting. Endoscopic examination showed the esophagial ulceration, and histology of biopsied-specimen was nonspecific esophagitis. The combination of prednisolone and oral cyclophosphamide or methotrexate was employed thereafter. However, the leukocytopenia, oral aphtous ulceration and esophagial ulceration continued in spite of these treatments. All the immunosuppressive treatment was stopped at March 1992. In October 1995, he admitted to our hospital because of body weight loss and continuous diarrhea with occasional bloody stool. Barium enema and endoscopic examination of the colon revealed the findings compatible with CD. The patient responded favorably to methylprednisolone pulse therapy followed by oral sulphasalazine. This case indicated that cases with inflammatory bowel diseases like CD could show similar clinical signs and symptoms to SLE, and in some cases of CD might satisfied the classification of criteria for SLE.

  3. Features and perspectives of MR enterography for pediatric Crohn disease assessment.

    PubMed

    Ognibene, Noemi Maria Giovanna; Basile, Massimo; Di Maurizio, Marco; Petrillo, Giuseppe; De Filippi, Claudio

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide indications for performing magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) in Crohn's disease (CD), the essential technical elements of MRE techniques and typical findings in patients with CD. Patients suffering from CD frequently require cross-sectional imaging. By performing MRE, it is possible to obtain results comparable to those obtained with endoscopy in terms of identifying and assessing disease activity and better than other cross-sectional imaging techniques, such as CT, in the evaluation of the fibrosis and complications of disease. The MR imaging of diffusion MR is a technique which enables medical staff to add important additional information and which may replace the use of intravenous contrast agents in the near future. Magnetic resonance enterography is an accurate tool for assessing bowel disease and the various complications associated with CD. The lack of exposure to non-ionizing radiation is an important advantage of this imaging technique, especially in the case of pediatric patients. Familiarity with common and pathognomonic imaging features of CD is essential for every clinician involved in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and the care of patients.

  4. Penile and scrotal lymphedema as an unusual presentation of Crohn's disease: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Reitsma, W; Wiegman, M J; Damstra, R J

    2012-03-01

    Crohn's disease is an inflammatory intestinal disease that primarily causes abdominal pain and diarrhea. We report a male patient who presented with penile and scrotal lymphedema and inguinal fistulas as the first manifestations of Crohn's disease. Extraintestinal or metastatic Crohn's disease initially presenting as genital lymphedema with fistula formation is rare. Skin lesions in extraintestinal Crohn's disease typically show non-caseating, sarcoidal granulomas with numerous foreign body- and Langhans-type multinucleated giant cells, which are separated from intestinal involvement by normal skin. Treatment options are limited and include multi-immunosuppressant medications.

  5. Is there a benefit from the concomitant use of immunosupression with anti-TNF in Crohn's disease; heads or tails?

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Peter Laszlo

    2009-09-01

    Over the last some years the increasing knowledge on the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease led to the development of a number of biological agents targeting specific molecules involved in gut inflammation, first of all TNF-alpha and its receptors. Infliximab, adalimumab and certolizumab have been successful in inducing and maintaining remission in Crohn's disease at both short and long term. This was recently confirmed by a Cochrane meta-analysis and also open label extension follow-up and cohort studies. Emerging new data however indicate that combination therapy with infliximab-azathioprine appears to have added benefit in inducing steroid-free remission and mucosal healing than either infliximab or azathioprine alone in azathioprine-naïve patients with early disease. Similarly the combination of steroids induction and infliximab was efficacious in luminal Crohn's disease. In contrast, there seems to be no synergism between methotrexate and infliximab. It is also less clear whether it is beneficial to use short or long-term infliximab-azathioprine combination in patients who previously failed therapy with azathioprine. In contrast, combination may potentially be associated with increased risk for infection and cancer. In case control-studies, especially the combination of steroids and anti-TNF and older age increased the risk for infectious complications, while scattered case reports point to the potentially increased risk of a rare form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Hepatosplenic T cell lymphoma) with the use of azathioprine-anti-TNF combination. The aim of this review is to summarize the benefits and risks for the use combination therapy with TNF-alpha inhibitors in the treatment of Crohn's disease.

  6. Effect of 2 Psychotherapies on Depression and Disease Activity in Pediatric Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Youk, Ada O.; Gonzalez-Heydrich, Joseph; Bujoreanu, Simona I.; Weisz, John; Fairclough, Diane; Ducharme, Peter; Jones, Neil; Lotrich, Francis; Keljo, David; Srinath, Arvind; Bousvaros, Athos; Kupfer, David; DeMaso, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with depression. It is unclear if psychosocial interventions offer benefit for depressive symptoms during active CD. In this secondary analysis of a larger study of treating depression in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease, we assessed whether cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) would differentiate from supportive nondirective therapy in treating depression and disease activity in youth with CD. We also explored whether somatic depressive symptoms showed a different pattern of response in the overall sample and the subset with active inflammatory bowel disease. Methods: Youth with depression and CD (n = 161) were randomized to 3 months of CBT (teaching coping skills) or supportive nondirective therapy (supportive listening). Depressive severity was measured using the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) with the somatic depressive subtype consisting of those CDRS-R items, which significantly correlated with CD activity. Disease activity was measured by the Pediatric Crohn's disease Activity Index. Given the potential confound of higher dose steroids, subanalyses excluded subjects on >20 mg/d prednisone equivalent (n = 34). Results: Total CDRS-R scores in the overall sample significantly decreased over time after both treatments (P < 0.0001). Treatment with CBT was associated with a significantly greater improvement in the Pediatric Crohn's disease Activity Index (P = 0.05) and somatic depressive subtype (P = 0.03) in those with active inflammatory bowel disease (n = 95) compared with supportive nondirective therapy. After excluding those on steroids (n = 34), there was a significant improvement in total CDRS-R (P = 0.03) and in Pediatric Crohn's disease Activity Index (P = 0.03) after CBT. Conclusions: Psychotherapy may be a useful adjunct to treat depression in the context of CD-related inflammation in youth who are not concurrently on higher dose steroids. PMID:25822010

  7. Gut Microbial Diversity Is Reduced in Smokers with Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Opstelten, Jorrit L.; Plassais, Jonathan; van Mil, Saskia W. C.; Achouri, Emna; Pichaud, Matthieu; Siersema, Peter D.; Cervino, Alessandra C. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Smoking has a negative impact on Crohn's disease (CD), but the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. We compared the gut microbiota composition of smoking with nonsmoking patients with CD using a metagenomic approach. Methods: Stool samples and clinical data were collected from current smokers and nonsmokers with CD from France and the Netherlands, matched for country, gender, age, disease activity, and body mass index. Fecal DNA was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500. On average, 40 million paired-end reads were generated per sample. Gene richness and the Shannon index were computed to assess microbial diversity. Wilcoxon's signed-rank tests for paired samples were performed to detect differences between the 2 groups. Results: In total, 21 smoking and 21 nonsmoking patients with CD were included. Compared with nonsmoking patients, gut microbial gene richness (P = 0.01), genus diversity (P < 0.01), and species diversity (P = 0.01) were decreased in smoking patients. This was accompanied by a reduced relative abundance of the genera Collinsella (P = 0.02), Enterorhabdus (P = 0.02), and Gordonibacter (P = 0.02) in smokers. No statistically significant differences at the species level were observed, although smokers had lower proportions of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P = 0.10). Conclusions: Gut microbial diversity is reduced in smokers with CD compared with nonsmokers with CD. The microbial profile differs between these groups at the genus level. Future studies should evaluate whether intestinal microbes mediate the adverse effects of smoking in CD. PMID:27542127

  8. Diagnosis, prevention and treatment of postoperative Crohn's disease recurrence.

    PubMed

    Buisson, Anthony; Chevaux, Jean-Baptiste; Bommelaer, Gilles; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2012-06-01

    Ileocolonoscopy remains the gold standard in diagnosing postoperative recurrence. After excluding stricture, wireless capsule endoscopy seemed accurate in small series, but no validated score is available. Ultrasonography is a non-invasive diagnostic method reducing radiation exposure and emerging as an alternative tool for identifying post-operative recurrence. Computed tomography enteroclysis yields objective morphologic criteria that help differentiate between recurrent disease and fibrostenosis at the anastomotic site, but ionising radiation exposure limits its use. Magnetic resonance imaging may be as powerful as ileocolonoscopy in diagnosing postoperative recurrence and in predicting the clinical outcome using specific MR-scores. Biomarkers such as faecal calprotectin and faecal lactoferrin showed promising results, but their specificity in the postoperative period will require further investigation. Numerous medications have been tested to prevent and/or to treat postoperative recurrence. Efficacy of mesalamine is very low and comparable to placebo in most series. Thiopurines have modest efficacy in the postoperative setting and are associated with a high rate of adverse events leading to drug withdrawal. Antibiotics such as metronidazole or ornidazole may be effective, but toxicity and drug resistance prevent their long-term use. Anti-Tumour Necrosis Factor therapy is the most potent drug class to prevent and to treat postoperative recurrence in Crohn's disease.

  9. Misdiagnosis and Mistherapy of Crohn's Disease as Intestinal Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jiang-Peng; Wu, Xiao-Yan; Gao, Sen-Yang; Chen, Qiu-Yu; Liu, Tong; Liu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The differential diagnosis of Crohn's disease (CD) and intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) remains difficult as the clinical symptoms of the 2 digestive diseases are so similar. Here we report a case where a patient was initially misdiagnosed with ITB prior to the correct CD diagnosis. The 46-year-old male patient was hospitalized elsewhere for pain in the right lower abdomen and underwent an appendectomy. The pathological diagnosis was ITB and the patient was administered antituberculosis therapy for 1 year. Afterward, the patient was readmitted to the hospital for a right lower abdominal mass. A computed tomography scan revealed intestinal gas, fistula, and abdominal mass. We performed a right hemicolectomy on the patient. Postoperatively, we diagnosed the patient with CD, based on patient history and pathological examination. According to the CD active index (CDAI), the patient was at high risk and began treatment with infliximab. The patient has remained in complete remission and made a good recovery after 8-months follow-up. We compared this case with the results of a literature review on the misdiagnosis between CD and ITB (26 previously reported cases) to determine the characteristics of misdiagnosed cases. We found that distinguishing between ITB and CD is difficult because of their varied clinical presentation, nonspecific investigative tools, and profound similarities even in pathological specimens. Although a CT scan to determine the morphology of the bowel wall is a key for correct diagnosis, each case still poses challenges for diagnosis and administrating the appropriate treatment. PMID:26735549

  10. Metronidazole-induced encephalopathy in a patient with Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihye; Park, Jae Yong; Hong, Seung Wook; Lee, Joo Young; Kang, Jin Woo; Hwang, Seongjun; Ko, Sang-Bae; Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Joo Sung

    2017-01-01

    Metronidazole is a widely used antibiotic for the treatment of anaerobic bacterial infections. Metronidazole-induced encephalopathy (MIEP) is a rare but potentially reversible disease. The mechanism of MIEP remains unclear, and differences in the neurotoxic effects of oral versus intravenous (IV) metronidazole administration have not yet been determined. We report the case of a Crohn's disease (CD) patient who experienced encephalopathy immediately after a single IV dose of metronidazole following long-term exposure to the oral form of the drug. The 64-year-old man with intractable CD experienced a sudden change in mental status, aphasia, and muscle weakness after IV administration of metronidazole. He had previously taken metronidazole orally for 13 years and received intermittent IV metronidazole treatments for CD exacerbation. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed high-intensity signals in the bilateral medial thalamus and the midbrain and pontine tegmentum on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. After discontinuation of metronidazole, the high-intensity brain MRI signals resolved and the patient's mental status dramatically improved; however, the patient exhibited mild cognitive dysfunction 2 months after the onset of encephalopathy. PMID:28239323

  11. The Interplay between Defensins and Microbiota in Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Coretti, Lorena; Natale, Alessandro; Cuomo, Mariella; Florio, Ermanno; Keller, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, characterized by periods of acute recurrence and remission. Depending on the specific region affected, CD is classified as ileal CD or colonic CD. It is largely accepted that the intestinal microbiota is involved in the onset of the pathology. Indeed, a reduced immune tolerance to components of the intestinal commensal microbiota and inflammation of the intestinal barrier typifies patients with CD. Several studies have shown defective expression of intestinal antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in patients with CD compared to controls, particularly defensins. A reduction in α-defensins is observed in ileal CD, while β-defensins are increased in colonic CD. In addition to an immunological basis, the disease is frequently associated with genetic alterations including mutations of NOD2 gene. Several therapeutic strategies to circumvent the dysfunction observed in CD are currently under investigation. These include the use of delivery systems to administer endogenous AMPs and the engineering of peptidomimetics that could ameliorate the severity of CD. In this review, the role defensins play in CD and the strategies aimed at overcoming bacterial resistance will be discussed. PMID:28246439

  12. Intestinal tuberculosis and Crohn's disease: challenging differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jia Yi; Tong, Jin Lu; Ran, Zhi Hua

    2016-03-01

    Along with epidemiological changes in tuberculosis (TB) and an increased incidence of Crohn's disease (CD), the differential diagnosis of intestinal TB (ITB) and CD is of vital importance and has become a clinical challenge because treatment based on misdiagnosis may lead to fatal outcomes. In this study, we reviewed the similarities and differences in clinical, endoscopic, radiological and histological features of these two diseases. Concomitant pulmonary TB, ascites, night sweats, involvement of fewer than four segments of the bowel, patulous ileocecal valve, transverse ulcers, scars or pseudopolyps strongly indicate ITB. Bloody stools, perianal signs, chronic diarrhea, extraintestinal manifestations, anorectal lesions, longitudinal ulcers and a cobblestone appearance are all suggestive of CD. Significant differences in the size, number, location and patterns of granulomas in ITB and CD with regard to their histopathologic features have been noted. Immune stain of cell surface markers is also helpful. Interferon-γ release assay and polymerase chain reaction analysis have achieved satisfactory sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of ITB. Computed tomography enterographic findings of segmental small bowel or left colon involvement, mural stratification, the comb sign and fibrofatty proliferation are significantly more common in CD, whereas mesenteric lymph node changes (calcification or central necrosis) and focal ileocecal lesions are more frequently seen in ITB. A diagnosis should be carefully established before the initiation of the therapy. In suspicious cases, short-term empirical anti-TB therapy is quite efficient to further confirm the diagnosis.

  13. Serum antibodies to cow's milk proteins in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease: Crohn's disease vs. ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Lerner, A; Rossi, T M; Park, B; Albini, B; Lebenthal, E

    1989-01-01

    Serum antibodies to five cow's milk proteins, alpha-casein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), beta-lactoglobulin A and B (BLG-a, BLG-b) and alpha-lactalbumin (ALA) were investigated in young patients with inflammatory bowel disease, 56 with Crohn's disease (CD), 24 with ulcerative colitis (UC). IgG antibodies against BSA and BLG-a and -b were higher in Crohn's disease patients as compared to those with ulcerative colitis and controls. The IgG anti-BSA were higher in the group of CD patients with higher score of disease activity. Additionally, IgA antibodies to alpha-casein were higher in CD and UC compared to control. These findings may be due to increased uptake of dietary antigens or enhanced immunological response occurring in CD patients.

  14. Intestinal permeability to (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA in children with Crohn's disease and celiac disease

    SciTech Connect

    Turck, D.; Ythier, H.; Maquet, E.; Deveaux, M.; Marchandise, X.; Farriaux, J.P.; Fontaine, G.

    1987-07-01

    (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA was used as a probe molecule to assess intestinal permeability in 7 healthy control adults, 11 control children, 17 children with Crohn's disease, and 6 children with untreated celiac disease. After subjects fasted overnight, 75 kBq/kg (= 2 microCi/kg) /sup 51/Cr-labeled EDTA was given by mouth; 24-h urinary excretion of (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA was measured and expressed as a percentage of the total oral dose. Mean and SD were as follows: control adults 1.47 +/- 0.62, control children 1.59 +/- 0.55, and patients with Crohn's disease or celiac disease 5.35 +/- 1.94. The difference between control children and patients was statistically significant (p less than 0.001). These results show that intestinal permeability to (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA is increased among children with active or inactive Crohn's disease affecting small bowel only or small bowel and colon, and with untreated celiac disease. The (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA permeability test could facilitate the decision to perform more extensive investigations in children suspected of small bowel disease who have atypical or poor clinical and biological symptomatology.

  15. [Current developments in the diagnosis and therapy of Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis].

    PubMed

    Hammer, B

    1994-03-19

    The etiology and pathogenesis of idiopathic chronic-inflammatory bowel diseases, i.e. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are still unknown. This has no effect on diagnosis, yet does affect treatment of these diseases, which has thus remained symptomatic. Clinical features, laboratory findings, endoscopy in conjunction with histologic examination and radiologic studies are all of proven value in the diagnosis of these disorders. Microbiologic and, if indicated, serologic studies are employed to search for colitis caused by microorganisms. Other bowel disorders to be considered in differential diagnosis include ischemic, radiation and drug-induced forms of colitis, as well as diverticulitis. More recently introduced techniques for the detection of secondary intra-abdominal processes are CT-scan and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). Ultrasound examination of the abdomen can be used to search for thickening of the bowel wall. Use of the rather complicated hydrocolon sonography is rarely necessary. Endo-sonography is an established method for exploration of the rectum and is particularly useful for the detection of abscesses. The role of this technique in the diagnosis of colon processes remains to be determined. Studies using radiolabeled leukocytes are of theoretical interest but not usually required in the routine work-up of such patients. The same is true of chemical analyses of the feces and testing for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. Standard systemic treatment is based on the administration of salicylic acid derivatives and corticosteroids. Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine can be used in patients refractory to standard treatment. Metronidazole has been proven quite effective in patients with Crohn's disease of the colon, particularly in the perianal region.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Magnetic resonance enterography: A stepwise interpretation approach and role of imaging in management of adult Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Roopa; Sarver, David; Pandey, Tarun; Guidry, Carey L; Jambhekar, Kedar R

    2016-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that often requires frequent imaging of patients in order to detect active disease and other complications related to disease activity. While endoscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis, it may be contraindicated in some patients and has a limited role in detecting deep submucosal/mesenteric diseases and intra abdominal complications. In recent years, magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) has evolved as a noninvasive, radiation free imaging modality in the evaluation of patients with CD. This review article will focus on role of MRE in imaging patients with CD with emphasis on technical considerations, systematic image interpretation, differential diagnoses, and the role of imaging in deciding treatment options for patients. PMID:27413262

  17. Low serum and bone vitamin K status in patients with longstanding Crohn's disease: another pathogenetic factor of osteoporosis in Crohn's disease?

    PubMed Central

    Schoon, E; Muller, M; Vermeer, C; Schurgers, L; Brummer, R; Stockbrugger, R

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—A high prevalence of osteoporosis is reported in Crohn's disease. The pathogenesis is not completely understood but is probably multifactorial. Longstanding Crohn's disease is associated with a deficiency of fat soluble vitamins, among them vitamin K. Vitamin K is a cofactor in the carboxylation of osteocalcin, a protein essential for calcium binding to bone. A high level of circulating uncarboxylated osteocalcin is a sensitive marker of vitamin K deficiency.
AIMS—To determine serum and bone vitamin K status in patients with Crohn's disease and to elucidate its relationship with bone mineral density.
METHODS—Bone mineral density was measured in 32 patients with longstanding Crohn's disease and small bowel involvement, currently in remission, and receiving less than 5 mg of prednisolone daily. Serum levels of vitamins D and K, triglycerides, and total immunoreactive osteocalcin, as well as uncarboxylated osteocalcin ("free" osteocalcin) were determined. The hydroxyapatite binding capacity of osteocalcin was calculated. Data were compared with an age and sex matched control population.
RESULTS—Serum vitamin K levels of CD patients were significantly decreased compared with normal controls (p<0.01). "Free" osteocalcin was higher and hydroxyapatite binding capacity of circulating osteocalcin was lower than in matched controls (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively), indicating a low bone vitamin K status in Crohn's disease. In patients, an inverse correlation was found between "free" osteocalcin and lumbar spine bone mineral density (r=−0.375, p<0.05) and between "free" osteocalcin and the z score of the lumbar spine (r=−0.381, p<0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that "free" osteocalcin was an independent risk factor for low bone mineral density of the lumbar spine whereas serum vitamin D was not.
CONCLUSIONS—The finding that a poor vitamin K status is associated with low bone mineral density in longstanding Crohn

  18. Activity of Crohn's disease assessed by colour Doppler ultrasound analysis of the affected loops.

    PubMed

    Esteban, J M; Maldonado, L; Sanchiz, V; Minguez, M; Benages, A

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate with colour Doppler ultrasound the vascular changes in the wall of the loops affected by Crohn's disease, and to establish whether these changes reflects clinical or biochemical activity of Crohn's disease. Seventy-nine patients with Crohn's disease (44 with active disease and 35 inactive patients) were studied with frequency- and amplitude-encoded duplex Doppler sonography. A group of 35 healthy volunteers were also included. The exam consisted of the search for colour signals in the walls of the loops affected by Crohn's disease, classifying the degree of vascularity with a simple scoring system into three groups: absence of colour signal (score of 0); weak or scattered colour signals (score of 1); and multiple colour signals or clear identification of vessels in the loops walls (score of 2). Doppler curves were obtained of the detected vessels with measurement of the resistive index (RI). There was a visible increase in the gut walls' vascularity in the active patients compared with those with inactive disease. The mean RI was statistically significantly lower in the gut wall vessels of the patients with active illness than that obtained in the inactive patients. Colour Doppler ultrasound is a useful tool in the assessment of activity in Crohn's disease.

  19. Abnormal leukotriene C4 released by unaffected jejunal mucosa in patients with inactive Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Casellas, F; Guarner, F; Antolín, M; Rodríguez, R; Salas, A; Malagelada, J R

    1994-01-01

    The mucosal release of inflammatory mediators is enhanced in active inflammatory bowel disease. This study examines whether leukotriene C4 production occurs in apparently unaffected segments of the gut. The intraluminal release of leukotriene C4 was determined by jejunal perfusion in seven healthy controls, in nine patients with chronic ulcerative colitis, and in 13 patients with Crohn's disease (six with ileal disease, and seven with only colonic). All patients were in clinical remission and none of them had evidence of jejunal involvement. Mild intraluminal irritation with a 2.5 mmol/l deoxycholic acid solution was induced to stimulate local inflammatory mechanisms. The release of DNA (a marker of mucosal desquamation) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was simultaneously measured. Jejunal release of DNA was higher in Crohn's disease patients than in ulcerative colitis or healthy controls. Basal release of PGE2 was similar in the three groups of patients. Basal release of leukotriene C4 was considerably enhanced, however, in Crohn's disease patients compared with healthy controls. In ulcerative colitis patients, basal leukotriene C4 release was non-significantly different from controls. Bile acid perfusion stimulated PGE2, leukotriene C4, and DNA release in all groups studied, but leukotriene C4 release was significantly higher in Crohn's disease patients. It is concluded that in inactive Crohn's disease there is an enhanced intraluminal release of leukotriene C4 in apparently unaffected segments of proximal small bowel, which may reflect fundamental changes in the function of the gut mucosal barrier. PMID:8174991

  20. Clinical Features and Extraintestinal Manifestations of Crohn Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Ah; Chun, Peter; Hwang, Eun Ha; Mun, Sang Wook; Lee, Yeoun Joo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features and extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) of Crohn disease (CD) in Korean pediatric patients. Methods The medical records of 73 children diagnosed with CD were retrospectively reviewed. Data regarding baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, including CD phenotype at diagnosis based on the Montreal classification, and clinical features and course of EIMs were investigated. Results Fifty-two (71.2%) of the patients were males. The mean age of the patients was 12.5 years. The mean follow-up period was 3.4 years. The disease location was ileal in 3 (4.1%) of the patients, colonic in 13 (17.8%), ileocolonic in 56 (76.7%). The clinical behavior was inflammatory in 62 (84.9%) of the patients, stricturing in 8 (11.0%), and penetrating in 3 (4.1%). Perianal abscesses or fistulas were found in 37 (50.7%) of the patients. EIMs observed during the study period were anal skin tag in 25 patients (34.2%), hypertransaminasemia in 20 (27.4%), peripheral arthritis in 2 (2.7%), erythema nodosum in 2 (2.7%), vulvitis in 1 (1.4%), uveitis in 1 (1.4%), and pulmonary thromboembolism in 1 (1.4%). Conclusion Perianal diseases and manifestations were present in more than half of Korean pediatric CD patients at diagnosis. Inspection of the anus should be mandatory in Korean children with suspicious CD, as perianal fistulas, abscesses, and anal skin tags may be the first clue to the diagnosis of CD. PMID:28090468

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Small Bowel in Crohn's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Osman; Rodrigues, David Mario

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Crohn's disease is most commonly found in the terminal ileum and colonic region. Magnetic resonance has become a useful modality for assessing small bowel activity. In this study, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on the use of MR in detecting small bowel activity as well as extramural complications in Crohn's patients. Methods. Two independent reviewers sorted through articles until October 2, 2014. We included both studies providing raw data for pooling and studies without raw data. Sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each study. Results. There were 27 included studies, of which 19 were included in the pooled analysis. Pooled analysis of the 19 studies (1020 patients) with raw data revealed a sensitivity of 0.88 (95% CI 0.86 to 0.91) and specificity was 0.88 (95% CI 0.84 to 0.91). In regard to detecting stenosis, pooled sensitivity was 0.65 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.76) and specificity was 0.93 (95% CI 0.89 to 0.96). Conclusion. MR imaging provides a reliable alternative in detecting small bowel activity in patients with Crohn's disease. Its advantages include high diagnostic accuracy and no radiation exposure while its disadvantages include high cost and limited availability. PMID:27446869

  2. Linkage analyses of chromosome 6 loci, including HLA, in familial aggregations of Crohn disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hugot, J.P.; Laurent-Puig, P.; Gower-Rousseau, C.; Caillat-Zueman, S.; Beaugerie, L.; Dupas, J.L.; Van Gossum, A.; Bonaiti-Pellie, C.; Cortot, A.

    1994-08-15

    Segregation analyses of familial aggregations of Crohn disease have provided consistent results pointing to the involvement of a predisposing gene with a recessive mode of inheritance. Although extensively investigated, the role played by human leucocyte antigen (HLA) genes in this inflammatory bowel disease remains elusive and the major histocompatibility complex is a candidate region for the mapping of the Crohn disease susceptibility gene. A total of 25 families with multiple cases of Crohn disease was genotyped for HLA DRB1 and for 16 highly polymorphic loci evenly distributed on chromosome 6. The data were subjected to linkage analysis using the lod score method. Neither individual nor combined lod scores for any family and for any locus tested reached values suggesting linkage or genetic heterogeneity. The Crohn disease predisposing locus was excluded from the whole chromosome 6 with lod scores less than -2. It was excluded from the major histocompatibility complex and from 91% of the chromosome 6 genetic map with lod scores less than -4. The major recessive gene involved in genetic predisposition to Crohn disease does not reside on the major histocompatibility complex nor on any locus mapping to chromosome 6. 37 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Gastrointestinal diseases and their oro-dental manifestations: Part 1: Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Tan, C X W; Brand, H S; de Boer, N K H; Forouzanfar, T

    2016-12-16

    Widely varying prevalence rates of oral lesions in patients with Crohn's disease have been reported, ranging from 0.5% to 37%. These manifestations may coincide with or precede intestinal symptoms. Oral manifestations can be classified as specific lesions, when macroscopic examination shows similar changes to those observed endoscopically in the intestine, and non-specific lesions including aphthous ulcerations. The most frequently observed oral lesions are oedema, ulcers and hyperplastic lesions on the buccal mucosa. In most patients these lesions are asymptomatic, however, some patients may experience discomfort. In this review we describe the most relevant oro-dental manifestations observed in patients with Crohn's disease and discuss the potential implications for oro-dental management.

  4. Identification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Biopsy Specimens from Patients with Crohn's Disease Identified by In Situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Sechi, Leonardo A.; Manuela, Mura; Francesco, Tanda; Amelia, Lissia; Antonello, Solinas; Giovanni, Fadda; Stefania, Zanetti

    2001-01-01

    Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract of unknown etiology. We report on the presence of cell wall-deficient Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in 35 of 48 paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from 33 patients with Crohn's disease by in situ hybridization with IS900 as a probe. PMID:11724871

  5. Inflammation, Antibiotics, and Diet as Environmental Stressors of the Gut Microbiome in Pediatric Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Lewis, James D; Chen, Eric Z; Baldassano, Robert N; Otley, Anthony R; Griffiths, Anne M; Lee, Dale; Bittinger, Kyle; Bailey, Aubrey; Friedman, Elliot S; Hoffmann, Christian; Albenberg, Lindsey; Sinha, Rohini; Compher, Charlene; Gilroy, Erin; Nessel, Lisa; Grant, Amy; Chehoud, Christel; Li, Hongzhe; Wu, Gary D; Bushman, Frederic D

    2015-10-14

    Abnormal composition of intestinal bacteria--"dysbiosis"-is characteristic of Crohn's disease. Disease treatments include dietary changes and immunosuppressive anti-TNFα antibodies as well as ancillary antibiotic therapy, but their effects on microbiota composition are undetermined. Using shotgun metagenomic sequencing, we analyzed fecal samples from a prospective cohort of pediatric Crohn's disease patients starting therapy with enteral nutrition or anti-TNFα antibodies and reveal the full complement and dynamics of bacteria, fungi, archaea, and viruses during treatment. Bacterial community membership was associated independently with intestinal inflammation, antibiotic use, and therapy. Antibiotic exposure was associated with increased dysbiosis, whereas dysbiosis decreased with reduced intestinal inflammation. Fungal proportions increased with disease and antibiotic use. Dietary therapy had independent and rapid effects on microbiota composition distinct from other stressor-induced changes and effectively reduced inflammation. These findings reveal that dysbiosis results from independent effects of inflammation, diet, and antibiotics and shed light on Crohn disease treatments.

  6. Immunohistological findings in lip biopsy specimens from patients with Crohn's disease and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Crama-Bohbouth, G; Bosman, F T; Vermeer, B J; van der Wal, A M; Biemond, I; Weterman, I T; Peńa, A S

    1983-03-01

    Biopsies of apparently normal buccal mucosa were taken from 14 patients with Crohn's disease and 13 healthy controls who were matched for dental status. Most patients had an increased number of lymphocytes around vessels in the subepithelial tissue and two showed fibrosis with moderate atrophy of minor glands. Plasma cells which contained immunoglobulin, predominantly IgA, were only found around minor salivary glands in both patients and controls. Quantitative studies showed a significant increase in the number of cells containing IgA in patients compared with controls. No correlation was found between immunoglobulin pattern and disease activity, age, sex, or duration of Crohn's disease. A significant correlation was found between the activity of the disease, as defined by the Crohn's Disease Activity Index, and the number of plasma cells containing IgM.

  7. Detecting Microbial Dysbiosis Associated with Pediatric Crohn Disease Despite the High Variability of the Gut Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Kaplan, Jess L; Gold, Benjamin D; Bhasin, Manoj K; Ward, Naomi L; Kellermayer, Richard; Kirschner, Barbara S; Heyman, Melvin B; Dowd, Scot E; Cox, Stephen B; Dogan, Haluk; Steven, Blaire; Ferry, George D; Cohen, Stanley A; Baldassano, Robert N; Moran, Christopher J; Garnett, Elizabeth A; Drake, Lauren; Otu, Hasan H; Mirny, Leonid A; Libermann, Towia A; Winter, Harland S; Korolev, Kirill S

    2016-02-02

    The relationship between the host and its microbiota is challenging to understand because both microbial communities and their environments are highly variable. We have developed a set of techniques based on population dynamics and information theory to address this challenge. These methods identify additional bacterial taxa associated with pediatric Crohn disease and can detect significant changes in microbial communities with fewer samples than previous statistical approaches required. We have also substantially improved the accuracy of the diagnosis based on the microbiota from stool samples, and we found that the ecological niche of a microbe predicts its role in Crohn disease. Bacteria typically residing in the lumen of healthy individuals decrease in disease, whereas bacteria typically residing on the mucosa of healthy individuals increase in disease. Our results also show that the associations with Crohn disease are evolutionarily conserved and provide a mutual information-based method to depict dysbiosis.

  8. Immunohistological findings in lip biopsy specimens from patients with Crohn's disease and healthy subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Crama-Bohbouth, G; Bosman, F T; Vermeer, B J; van der Wal, A M; Biemond, I; Weterman, I T; Peńa, A S

    1983-01-01

    Biopsies of apparently normal buccal mucosa were taken from 14 patients with Crohn's disease and 13 healthy controls who were matched for dental status. Most patients had an increased number of lymphocytes around vessels in the subepithelial tissue and two showed fibrosis with moderate atrophy of minor glands. Plasma cells which contained immunoglobulin, predominantly IgA, were only found around minor salivary glands in both patients and controls. Quantitative studies showed a significant increase in the number of cells containing IgA in patients compared with controls. No correlation was found between immunoglobulin pattern and disease activity, age, sex, or duration of Crohn's disease. A significant correlation was found between the activity of the disease, as defined by the Crohn's Disease Activity Index, and the number of plasma cells containing IgM. PMID:6826103

  9. MR enterography for assessment and management of small bowel Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Allen, Brian C; Leyendecker, John R

    2014-07-01

    Magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) utilization has increased for the evaluation of small bowel diseases over the last several years. In addition to performing similarly to computed tomography enterography (CTE) in the evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease, MRE lacks ionizing radiation, can image the small bowel dynamically, and provides excellent soft tissue contrast resolution. This article reviews imaging protocols for MRE, normal MR imaging appearance of small bowel, and the imaging findings of small bowel Crohn disease. The importance of imaging findings for directing management in patients with small bowel Crohn disease is emphasized throughout.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of perianal and perineal crohn disease in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Matthew R; Dillman, Jonathan R; Smith, Ethan A; Al-Hawary, Mahmoud M

    2013-11-01

    Noninvasive, nonionizing, multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the pelvis using a field strength of 3 T now provides a comprehensive assessment of perineal involvement in pediatric Crohn disease. MR imaging accurately evaluates inflammatory disease activity, and allows determination of the number and course of fistula tracts as well as their relationships to vital perianal structures, including the external anal sphincter, helping to guide surgical management and improve outcomes. This article provides an up-to-date review of perineal MR imaging findings of Crohn disease in the pediatric population, including fistulous disease, abscesses, and skin manifestations. Imaging technique is also discussed.

  11. Histopathological findings of extra-ileal manifestations at initial diagnosis of Crohn's disease-related ileitis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ian S; Miller, Gregory C; Bettington, Mark L; Rosty, Christophe

    2016-11-01

    Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract. Our objective was to review the histological findings in index biopsies from the terminal ileum and other gastro-intestinal tract sites of Crohn's disease patients prior any treatment and to compare them with the findings from patients with non-specific ileitis. A total of 111 consecutive Crohn's disease cases (55 females, median age 27 years) with extra-ileal biopsies were retrospectively selected. Upper gastrointestinal inflammatory changes were found in 68 % of gastric biopsies, 60 % of oesophageal biopsies and 43 % of duodenal biopsies with no significant difference in frequency between paediatric and adult cases. Crohn's colitis was more common in paediatric cases than adult cases (85 % versus 57 %). Granuloma in at least one extra-ileal site was observed in 40 %, more frequently in paediatric cases than in adults (78 vs 27 %). Compared with Crohn's disease cases, the group of 151 non-specific ileitis cases (75 females, median age 52 years) were more likely to have normal upper and lower gastrointestinal biopsies and to show less frequent crypt architectural changes in the terminal ileum. In summary, Crohn's disease ileitis is often associated with inflammation elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract while non-specific ileitis was infrequently associated with inflammation elsewhere for both paediatric and adult patients. These findings support the role of systematic biopsies in multiple gastrointestinal sites to help distinguishing Crohn's ileitis from non-specific ileitis in paediatric and adult population.

  12. Mucosal Barrier in Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dorofeyev, A. E.; Vasilenko, I. V.; Rassokhina, O. A.; Kondratiuk, R. B.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The mucus layer in the gastrointestinal tract plays important role in host innate defense, regulation of secretion, and absorption processes, maintaining colonization resistance, which composes the integrity of protective mucus barrier in the large intestine. Investigations of mucin expression in the colon mucosa can improve the understanding of protective function of mucosal barrier in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Materials and Methods. 77 patients with UC and CD were examined. Histological analysis of colon mucosa was done by standard method (haematoxylin-eosin, alcian blue at pH 1.0 and 2.5 to determine sulfated and nonsulfated glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins, and goblet cells). To characterize the mucus production the PAS-reaction was performed. Immunohistochemistry was performed using monoclonal mouse antibodies raised against MUC2, MUC3, MUC4, and TFF3 (USBiological, USA). Results. The moderate expression of MUC2 and MUC3 (50.0% and 32.1%, P = 0.03) and high expression of MUC4 and TFF3 in the colon mucosa were observed in all patients with CD. The intensive labeling of MUC4 and TFF3 occurred more often (42.9% and 57.1%, P = 0.03) in patients with CD. The level of expression of secretory MUC2 and transmembrane MUC3 and MUC4 in all patients with UC was low, up to its complete absence (59.2% and 53.1% cases, P = 0.05). TFF3 expression had high and medium staining intensity in patients with UC. Conclusions. Different types of mucins synthesis, secretion, and expression were found in patients with UC and CD. The expression of mucin MUC2, MUC3, MUC4, and TFF3 correlated with the activity of disease and the extent of the inflammatory process in the large intestine. The most pronounced alteration of mucins expression was observed in patients with severe UC and CD. PMID:23737764

  13. Coexistence of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and Crohn's disease or multiorgan manifestation of the same disease?

    PubMed

    Jóźwiak, Lucyna; Ławnicka, Izabela; Książek, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis of unknown aetiology, often related to the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA). GPA was previously named Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). The disease frequently has multisystemic presentation, targeting mainly the respiratory tract and kidneys, but gastrointestinal involvement is uncommon. Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with many extraintestinal manifestations. Clinically, symptoms of WG and CD can mimic each other. In this paper a case of GPA manifested initially by severe multiorgan damage including colitis, regarded to be coexistent CD, is presented. The case illustrates the difficulties in establishing the diagnosis when symptoms of the diseases mimic each other.

  14. Coexistence of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and Crohn's disease or multiorgan manifestation of the same disease?

    PubMed Central

    Ławnicka, Izabela; Książek, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis of unknown aetiology, often related to the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA). GPA was previously named Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). The disease frequently has multisystemic presentation, targeting mainly the respiratory tract and kidneys, but gastrointestinal involvement is uncommon. Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with many extraintestinal manifestations. Clinically, symptoms of WG and CD can mimic each other. In this paper a case of GPA manifested initially by severe multiorgan damage including colitis, regarded to be coexistent CD, is presented. The case illustrates the difficulties in establishing the diagnosis when symptoms of the diseases mimic each other. PMID:27407286

  15. Extraintestinal Crohn's disease mimicking autoimmune inner ear disease: a histopathological approach.

    PubMed

    Dettmer, M; Hegemann, I; Hegemann, S C A

    2011-01-01

    Patients with autoimmune inner ear disease develop rapidly progressive sensorineural hearing loss over a period of several weeks or months, often accompanied by vestibular loss. This disease can occur as a distinct clinical entity or in association with an underlying autoimmune disorder. Treatment comprises immunosuppression by corticosteroids, cytostatic drugs or tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists. We report histopathological and immunohistochemical findings of the inner ear of a patient with a granulomatous inner ear disease suffering from Crohn's disease that was nonresponsive to treatment and who underwent surgery for bilateral cochlear implants.

  16. Design of a light delivery system for the photodynamic treatment of the Crohn's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrecht, Tanja; Borle, Francois; van den Bergh, Hubert; Michetti, Pierre; Ortner, Maria-Anna; Wagnières, Georges

    2007-07-01

    Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disease originating from an overwhelming response of the mucosal immune system. Low dose photodynamic therapy (PDT) may modify the mucosal immune response and thus serve as a therapy for Crohn's disease. Most patients with Crohn's disease show inflammatory reactions in the terminal ileum or colon where PDT treatment is feasible by low-invasive endoscopic techniques. However, the tube like geometry of the colon, it's folding, and the presences of multiple foci of Crohn's lesions along the colon require the development of adequate light delivery techniques. We present a prototype light delivery system for endoscopic clinical PDT in patients with Crohn's disease. The system is based on a cylindrical light diffuser inserted into a diffusing balloon catheter. Homogenous irradiation is performed with a 4 W diode laser at 635 nm. Light dosimetry is performed using a calibrated integrating sphere. The system can be used with conventional colonoscopes and colonovideoscopes having a 3.8 mm diameter working channel. The feasibility of PDT in colon with our prototype was demonstrated in first clinical trials.

  17. Ileal and colonic fatty acid profiles in patients with active Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Bühner, S; Nagel, E; Körber, J; Vogelsang, H; Linn, T; Pichlmayr, R

    1994-01-01

    In patients with active Crohn's disease and in a control group the fatty acid profiles in the whole lipid fraction of ileal and colonic mucosal biopsy specimens were determined by capillary gas chromatography. The biopsy specimens in Crohn's disease patients were taken from the inflamed terminal ileum as well as from the inflamed and macroscopically normal colon. Compared with controls the fatty acid distribution in the inflamed ileal mucosa was significantly characterised by (a) a decrease of 18:2 n6 and 18:3 n3 accompanied by a substantial increase of the highly polyunsaturated fatty acids 20:4 n6, 22:4 n6, and 22:6 n3 and (b) a higher unsaturation index of total fatty acids compared with controls. These changes were similar in the inflamed colon. Additionally, both the inflamed and the macroscopically normal colonic mucosa showed an increase of saturated (18:0) and a decrease of monounsaturated fatty acids (18:1 n9). Fatty acid profiles of ileum and colon showed side variations in controls, but not in the Crohn's disease group. These data suggest that in Crohn's disease changes in the distribution of polyunsaturated fatty acids seem to be the general feature of inflamed mucosa in small and large intestine. Results further suggest that colonic fatty acid metabolism in Crohn's disease is altered by degrees, showing changes in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids as an additional, primary event. PMID:7959199

  18. GLP-2 receptors in human disease: high expression in gastrointestinal stromal tumors and Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Körner, Meike; Rehmann, Ruth; Reubi, Jean Claude

    2012-11-25

    Peptide hormones of the glucagon-like peptide (GLP) family play an increasing clinical role, as reported for GLP-1 in diabetes therapy and insulinoma diagnostics. GLP-2, despite its known trophic and anti-inflammatory intestinal actions translated into preliminary clinical studies using the GLP-2 analogue teduglutide for treatment of short bowel syndrome and Crohn's disease, remains poorly characterized in terms of expression of its receptor in tissues of interest. Therefore, the GLP-2 receptor expression was assessed in 237 tumor and 148 non-neoplastic tissue samples with in vitro receptor autoradiography. A GLP-2 receptor expression was present in 68% of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Furthermore, GLP-2 receptors were identified in the intestinal myenteric plexus, with significant up-regulation in active Crohn's disease. The GLP-2 receptors in GIST may be used for clinical applications like in vivo targeting with radiolabelled GLP-2 analogues for imaging and therapy. Moreover, the over-expressed GLP-2 receptor in the myenteric plexus may represent the morphological correlate of the clinical target of teduglutide in Crohn's disease.

  19. Crohn's Disease With Ovarian Granuloma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Rindos, Noah; Ecker, Amanda; Carter, Gloria; Mansuria, Suketu

    2015-01-01

    We present an interesting case of a 35-year-old nulligravida with Crohn's disease with ovarian involvement. This is a rare manifestation of Crohn's disease, felt to arise from fistulization between the ovary and the intestine, most commonly the ileum. Our review of the literature revealed 11 additional case reports published in English with a total of 15 cases. The mean age at time of presentation was 33.7 years, with a predominance of right-sided involvement. This series included 10 patients with affected right ovaries, 3 with affected left ovaries, and 2 with bilateral involvement. We conclude that ovarian involvement in Crohn's disease, although rare, can exist, and that the gynecologic surgeon should be aware of this relevant disease manifestation.

  20. [A case of Crohn's disease accompanied by Peutz-Jeghers syndrome].

    PubMed

    Um, Yoo Jin; Kim, Sun Moon; Pyo, Jin Sil; Lee, Joo Ah; Koo, Hoon Sup; Huh, Kyu Chan

    2013-10-01

    Peutz-Jeghers syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by multiple gastrointestinal hamartomatous polyps and mucocutaneous pigmentation. Peutz-Jeghers syndrome has an incidence of approximately 1 in 25,000 to 300,000 births. Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that typically manifests as regional enteritis with its incidence ranging from 3.1 to 14.6 cases per 100,000 person-years in North America. Herein, we report a case of a 30-year-old male patient who had both Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and Crohn's disease. We believe that this is the first case in Korea and the second report in the English literatures on Peutz-Jeghers syndrome coincidentally accompanied by Crohn's disease.

  1. A common genetic background could explain early-onset Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Anna Monica; Zanin, Valentina; Girardelli, Martina; Magnolato, Andrea; Martelossi, Stefano; Martellossi, Stefano; Tommasini, Alberto; Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Crovella, Sergio

    2012-04-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a multifactorial disease, in which environmental, microbial and genetic factors play important roles. CD is characterized by a chronic granulomatous inflammation by necrotic scarring with aspects of full-thickness wall. In spite of affecting mainly young adults, sometimes, CD can be present in the first year of life (early onset Crohn disease, EOCD) showing an unpredictable course and being often more severe than at older ages. In this paper we propose the hypothesis that EOCD patients should be analyzed using a Mendelian approach with family studies aimed to identify new loci directly involved in the early onset Crohn's disease. So we will leave the classic association study approach used until now for the identification of genes responsible for susceptibility to CD and propose linkage family analysis as alternative and powerful tool for the identification of new genetic variants associated with familiar cases of EOCD.

  2. Incidental adenocarcinoma in patients undergoing surgery for stricturing Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Kristo, Ivan; Riss, Stefan; Argeny, Stanislaus; Maschke, Svenja; Chitsabesan, Praminthra; Stift, Anton

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate frequency and clinical course of incidental adenocarcinoma in patients with stricturing Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS In this study, consecutive patients, who were operated on for stricturing CD between 1997-2012, were included at an academic tertiary referral center. Demographic data and clinical course were obtained by an institutional database and individual chart review. Besides baseline characteristics, intraoperative findings and CD related history were also recorded. Colorectal cancer was classified and staged according to the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC). RESULTS During the study period 484 patients underwent resections due to stricturing CD. Incidental adenocarcinoma was histologically confirmed in 6 (1.2%) patients (4 males, 2 females). Patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer had a median age of 43 (27-66) years and a median history of CD of 16 (7-36) years. Malignant lesions were found in the rectum (n = 4, 66.7%), descending colon (n = 1, 16.7%) and ileocolon (n = 1, 16.7%). According to the UICC classification two patients were stages as I (33.3%), whereas the other patients were classified as stage IIA (16.7%), stage IIIB (16.7%), stage IIIC (16.7%) and stage IV (16.7%), respectively. After a median follow-up of 2 (0.03-8) years only 1 patient is still alive. CONCLUSION The frequency of incidental colorectal cancer in patients, who undergo surgery for stenotic CD, is low but associated with poor prognosis. However, surgeons need to be aware about the possibility of malignancy in stricturing CD, especially if localized in the rectum. PMID:28210083

  3. Neurochemical coding in the small intestine of patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Belai, A; Boulos, P B; Robson, T; Burnstock, G

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There have been conflicting results regarding the effect of Crohn's disease on the neurochemical composition of the enteric nervous system. AIMS: To examine the effect of Crohn's disease on the neurochemical composition of enteric nerve fibres and cell bodies using whole mount preparations of human ileum. METHODS: Whole wall ileum from seven normal subjects and nine patients with Crohn's disease was used to investigate the neurochemical composition of neurones and nerve fibres in the myenteric plexus, circular muscle, and serosa layer of ileum using immunohistochemical techniques. RESULTS: Increased tyrosine hydroxylase, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity was exclusively seen in the myenteric plexus. There was increased neurofilament immunoreactivity in the myenteric plexus and nerve fibres of the circular muscle layer, and thick bundles of immunoreactive nerve fibres in the serosa layer. Increased vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, nitric oxide synthase, and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide immunoreactivity was seen in the myenteric plexus and nerve fibres of the circular muscle layer, and aggregates of inflammatory cells in the serosa layer of the afflicted segment of Crohn's ileum. In addition, there was a chaotic display of nerve fibres containing some of the neuroactive substances with a high frequency of enlarged varicosities in the myenteric ganglia and/or nerve fibres of the circular muscle layer of Crohn's ileum. CONCLUSION: Results show quantitative as well as qualitative changes in the neurochemical composition of enteric nerve fibres and nerve cell bodies of Crohn's ileum. These changes and the presence of nitric oxide synthase and peptides immunoreactive inflammatory cells in the serosa layer suggest that nerve-immune interactions may have a significant role in the process of the inflammatory changes seen in Crohn's ileitis. Images PMID:9245931

  4. Inherited determinants of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis phenotypes: a genetic association study

    PubMed Central

    Cleynen, Isabelle; Boucher, Gabrielle; Jostins, Luke; Schumm, L Philip; Zeissig, Sebastian; Ahmad, Tariq; Andersen, Vibeke; Andrews, Jane M; Annese, Vito; Brand, Stephan; Brant, Steven R; Cho, Judy H; Daly, Mark J; Dubinsky, Marla; Duerr, Richard H; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Franke, Andre; Gearry, Richard B; Goyette, Philippe; Hakonarson, Hakon; Halfvarson, Jonas; Hov, Johannes R; Huang, Hailang; Kennedy, Nicholas A; Kupcinskas, Limas; Lawrance, Ian C; Lee, James C; Satsangi, Jack; Schreiber, Stephan; Théâtre, Emilie; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E; Weersma, Rinse K; Wilson, David C; Parkes, Miles; Vermeire, Severine; Rioux, John D; Mansfield, John; Silverberg, Mark S; Radford-Smith, Graham; McGovern, Dermot P B; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Lees, Charlie W

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease; treatment strategies have historically been determined by this binary categorisation. Genetic studies have identified 163 susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease, mostly shared between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. We undertook the largest genotype association study, to date, in widely used clinical subphenotypes of inflammatory bowel disease with the goal of further understanding the biological relations between diseases. Methods This study included patients from 49 centres in 16 countries in Europe, North America, and Australasia. We applied the Montreal classification system of inflammatory bowel disease subphenotypes to 34 819 patients (19 713 with Crohn's disease, 14 683 with ulcerative colitis) genotyped on the Immunochip array. We tested for genotype–phenotype associations across 156 154 genetic variants. We generated genetic risk scores by combining information from all known inflammatory bowel disease associations to summarise the total load of genetic risk for a particular phenotype. We used these risk scores to test the hypothesis that colonic Crohn's disease, ileal Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis are all genetically distinct from each other, and to attempt to identify patients with a mismatch between clinical diagnosis and genetic risk profile. Findings After quality control, the primary analysis included 29 838 patients (16 902 with Crohn's disease, 12 597 with ulcerative colitis). Three loci (NOD2, MHC, and MST1 3p21) were associated with subphenotypes of inflammatory bowel disease, mainly disease location (essentially fixed over time; median follow-up of 10·5 years). Little or no genetic association with disease behaviour (which changed dramatically over time) remained after conditioning on disease location and age at onset. The genetic risk score representing all known risk alleles for

  5. Pathogenesis of aphthoid ulcers in Crohn's disease: correlative findings by magnifying colonoscopy, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Y; Kamoi, R; Iida, M

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The mechanism of ulceration in Crohn's disease remains unknown. AIMS--To clarify the role of the follicle associated epithelium (FAE) of colonic lymphoid nodules in the formation of ulcers in Crohn's disease. METHODS--After identification of colonic lymphoid nodules and aphthoid lesions by magnifying colonoscopy, 76 biopsy specimens were obtained from 10 patients with Crohn's disease and three patients with colonic lymphoid hyperplasia. This study correlated magnifying colonoscopic, electron microscopic, and immunohistochemical findings of biopsy specimens. RESULTS--In Crohn's disease, scanning electron microscopy of lymphoid nodules surrounded by a red halo without visible erosions by magnifying colonoscopy, showed surface erosions 150-200 microns in size. These lymphoid nodules with red halos had small erosions either light microscopically or electron microscopically in 18 of 21 specimens (86%). Correlation of scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed residues of FAE including M cells at the edges of the erosions. In immunohistochemical studies, HLA-DR antigen was limited in M cells of FAE in the patients with lymphoid hyperplasia without inflammatory bowel disease. In Crohn's disease patients in remission, however, HLA-DR antigen was strongly expressed over the entire FAE of lymphoid nodules with a red halo endoscopically, while the expression was weak and irregular in the mucosa surrounding the lymphoid nodules. HLA-DR was strongly expressed in the entire inflamed colonic mucosa in the active stage. CONCLUSION--The red halo appearance surrounding lymphoid follicles seems to precede visible aphthoid ulcers and suggests that ulcerations in Crohn's disease originate from FAE, possibly related to its physiological role as a portal of entry for potentially pathogenic agents. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8707119

  6. Red cell folate concentrations in patients with Crohn's disease on parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Tominaga, M.; Iida, M.; Aoyagi, K.; Kohrogi, N.; Matsui, T.; Fujishima, M.

    1989-01-01

    To examine changes in the folate concentrations in red cell during relatively long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN), 10 Japanese patients with Crohn's disease (7 males), the mean Crohn's disease activity index on admission being 211, were given folic acid in a dose of 400 micrograms/day (AMA-FDA formulation) or 800 micrograms/day for 6-16 weeks (mean 10.5). The red cell folate concentrations were determined before TPN and once every week or 2-4 weeks thereafter. The folate concentrations were very low even after TPN with folic acid of 400 micrograms/day. In those given 800 micrograms of daily folic acid, the folate levels tended to increase, but did not reach the normal range. We propose that folic acid over 800 micrograms/day or a double dose of AMA-FDA formulation should be prescribed for Crohn's disease treated with long-term TPN. PMID:2515529

  7. Long-term Efficacy and Safety of Adalimumab in Pediatric Patients with Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dubinsky, Marla; Ruemmele, Frank M.; Escher, Johanna; Rosh, Joel; Hyams, Jeffrey S.; Eichner, Samantha; Li, Yao; Reilly, Nattanan; Thakkar, Roopal B.; Robinson, Anne M.; Lazar, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Background: IMAgINE 1 assessed 52-week efficacy and safety of adalimumab in children with moderate to severe Crohn's disease. Long-term efficacy and safety of adalimumab for patients who entered the IMAgINE 2 extension are reported. Methods: Patients who completed IMAgINE 1 could enroll in IMAgINE 2. Endpoints assessed from weeks 0 to 240 of IMAgINE 2 were Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index remission (Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index ≤ 10) and response (Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index decrease ≥15 from IMAgINE 1 baseline) using observed analysis and hybrid nonresponder imputation (hNRI). For hNRI, discontinued patients were imputed as failures unless they transitioned to commercial adalimumab (with study site closure) or adult care, where last observation was carried forward. Corticosteroid-free remission in patients receiving corticosteroids at IMAgINE 1 baseline, discontinuation of immunomodulators (IMMs) in patients receiving IMMs at IMAgINE 2 baseline, and linear growth improvement were reported as observed. Adverse events were assessed for patients receiving ≥1 adalimumab dose in IMAgINE 1 and 2 through January 2015. Results: Of 100 patients enrolled in IMAgINE 2, 41% and 48% achieved remission and response (hNRI) at IMAgINE 2 week 240. Remission rates were maintained by 45% (30/67, hNRI) of patients who entered IMAgINE 2 in remission. At IMAgINE 2 week 240, 63% (12/19) of patients receiving corticosteroids at IMAgINE 1 baseline achieved corticosteroid-free remission and 30% (6/20) of patients receiving IMMs at IMAgINE 2 baseline discontinued IMMs. Adalimumab treatment led to growth velocity normalization. No new safety signals were identified. Conclusions: Efficacy and safety profiles of prolonged adalimumab treatment in children with Crohn's disease were consistent with IMAgINE 1 and adult Crohn's disease adalimumab trials. PMID:28129288

  8. Clinical Factors and Disease Course Related to Diagnostic Delay in Korean Crohn's Disease Patients: Results from the CONNECT Study.

    PubMed

    Moon, Chang Mo; Jung, Sung-Ae; Kim, Seong-Eun; Song, Hyun Joo; Jung, Yunho; Ye, Byong Duk; Cheon, Jae Hee; Kim, You Sun; Kim, Young-Ho; Kim, Joo Sung; Han, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic delay frequently occurs in Crohn's disease (CD) patients because of diagnostic limitations. However, diagnostic delay and its related factors remain poorly defined. Therefore, we aimed to identify the predictors associated with diagnostic delay and to evaluate the impact of diagnostic delay on clinical course in a Korean CD patient cohort. We performed a multicenter retrospective analysis of 1,047 CD patients registered in the Crohn's Disease Clinical Network and Cohort study in Korea. The mean interval of diagnostic delay was 16.0 ± 33.1 months. Multivariate analysis showed that older age at diagnosis (≥40 years) (p = 0.014), concomitant upper gastrointestinal (UGI) disease (p = 0.012) and penetrating disease behavior at diagnosis (p = 0.001) were positively associated with long diagnostic delay (≥18 months). During the longitudinal follow-up, long diagnostic delay was independently predictive of further development of intestinal stenosis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.93; p = 0.017), internal fistulas (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.12-2.33; p = 0.011), and perianal fistulas (HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.06-1.80; p = 0.016). However, as for the risk of abscess formation, bowel perforation, and CD-related abdominal surgery, no significant association with diagnostic delay was observed. Older age at diagnosis, UGI involvement, and penetrating behavior are associated with long diagnostic delay in Korean CD patients. Moreover, diagnostic delay is associated with an increased risk of CD-related complications such as intestinal stenosis, internal fistulas, and perianal fistulas.

  9. Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome during Infliximab Therapy in a Patient with Crohn Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schoehl, Johanna; Mechie, Nicolae-Catalin; Schwoerer, Harald; Moerer, Onnen; Quintel, Michael; Buck, Cordula; Ellenrieder, Volker; Neesse, Albrecht; Amanzada, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of a noninfectious interstitial lung disease is a rare but life-threatening side effect of infliximab, an antitumor necrosis factor alpha antibody. The following case report of a patient with Crohn disease shows an extremely dramatic progression to a severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:27920644

  10. Interleukin-19 impairment in active Crohn's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Cantó, Elisabet; Garcia Planella, Esther; Zamora-Atenza, Carlos; Nieto, Juan Camilo; Gordillo, Jordi; Ortiz, Ma Angels; Metón, Isidoro; Serrano, Elena; Vegas, Esteban; García-Bosch, Orlando; Juárez, Cándido; Vidal, Sílvia

    2014-01-01

    The exact function of interleukin-19 (IL-19) on immune response is poorly understood. In mice, IL-19 up-regulates TNFα and IL-6 expression and its deficiency increases susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis. In humans, IL-19 favors a Th2 response and is elevated in several diseases. We here investigate the expression and effects of IL-19 on cells from active Crohn's disease (CD) patient. Twenty-three active CD patients and 20 healthy controls (HC) were included. mRNA and protein IL-19 levels were analyzed in monocytes. IL-19 effects were determined in vitro on the T cell phenotype and in the production of cytokines by immune cells. We observed that unstimulated and TLR-activated monocytes expressed significantly lower IL-19 mRNA in active CD patients than in HC (logFC = -1.97 unstimulated; -1.88 with Pam3CSK4; and -1.91 with FSL-1; p<0.001). These results were confirmed at protein level. Exogenous IL-19 had an anti-inflammatory effect on HC but not on CD patients. IL-19 decreased TNFα production in PBMC (850.7 ± 75.29 pg/ml vs 2626.0 ± 350 pg/ml; p<0.01) and increased CTLA4 expression (22.04 ± 1.55% vs 13.98 ± 2.05%; p<0.05) and IL-4 production (32.5 ± 8.9 pg/ml vs 13.5 ± 2.9 pg/ml; p<0.05) in T cells from HC. IL-10 regulated IL-19 production in both active CD patients and HC. We observed that three of the miRNAs that can modulate IL-19 mRNA expression, were up-regulated in monocytes from active CD patients. These results suggested that IL-19 had an anti-inflammatory role in this study. Defects in IL-19 expression and the lack of response to this cytokine could contribute to inflammatory mechanisms in active CD patients.

  11. A phase II study of laquinimod in Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    D'Haens, Geert; Sandborn, William J; Colombel, Jean Frederic; Rutgeerts, Paul; Brown, Kurt; Barkay, Hadas; Sakov, Anat; Haviv, Asi; Feagan, Brian G

    2015-01-01

    Objective Laquinimod is an oral therapeutic agent under investigation for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD), Huntington's disease, lupus nephritis and multiple sclerosis. This dose escalation study evaluated the safety and efficacy of laquinimod as induction therapy in patients with active moderate–severe CD. Design Multicentre, double-blind, sequential-cohort, randomised controlled trial with laquinimod doses of 0.5, 1, 1.5 or 2 mg/day or placebo (n=45 per cohort randomised in a 2:1 ratio) for 8 weeks with 4-week follow-up. Stable concomittant therapies and prior use of anti-tumour necrosis factor agents were permitted. Comprehensive safety assessments were performed and efficacy analyses included the proportions of patients in clinical remission (CD Activity Index (CDAI) <150 and no treatment failure (TF)), and with a clinical response (70 or 100 point CDAI reduction from baseline or remission and no TF). Results 117 patients received laquinimod and 63 patients received placebo. The overall incidence of adverse events (AEs) in the laquinimod group was similar to the pooled placebo group (86.2%–96.7% vs 82.5%) and most AEs were mild to moderate in severity. Treatment with laquinimod 0.5 mg showed consistent effects on remission (48.3% (CI 31% to 66%) vs 15.9% (CI 9% to 27%)), response 100 (55.2% (CI 37% to 71%) vs 31.7% (CI 22% to 44%)) and response 70 (62.1% (CI 44% to 77%) vs 34.9% (CI 24% to 47%)) versus placebo. Laquinimod 1.0 mg showed less benefit (26.7% remission (CI 14% to 44%) and 53.3% response 70 (CI 36% to 70%)), and no effect was noted on remission/response at higher doses. Conclusions Laquinimod was safe and well tolerated, and the effects on remission and response of the 0.5 mg dose suggest a treatment benefit in patients with CD. Trial registration number NCT00737932. PMID:25281416

  12. Neuron-specific enolase in the intestinal wall in Crohn´s disease.

    PubMed

    Busikova-Malenovska, P; Danis, D; Bencat, M; Galfiova, P; Kopani, M; Labajova, V; El Hassoun, O; Porubsky, J; Galatova, J

    2014-01-01

    The authors described the localization of neuron-specific enolase in the intestinal wall in Crohn´s disease. We have used samples obtained by biopsy from the colon lining of five people affected by Crohn's disease for our examination. We have processed samples using the formol paraffin technique. From paraffin blocks, we have prepared histological sections approximately 5 μm thick. For immunohistochemic examinations, we have revitalised the sections by acquiring the heat-induced epitope. We detected NSE by monoclonal mouse antibodies against human neuron-specific enolase, clone BBS/NC/VI-H14 (DakoCytomation, Denmark) (Fig. 4, Ref. 7).

  13. Domino effect of hypomagnesemia on the innate immunity of Crohn's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Naser, Saleh A; Abdelsalam, Almatmed; Thanigachalam, Saisathya; Naser, Abed S; Alcedo, Karel

    2014-08-15

    Digestive diseases play major role in development and complications of other disorders including diabetes. For example, Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory bowel disease associated with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. The inflammation is a complex process that involves the activity of both innate and adaptive immune responses. CD lesions are primarily due to T cell response, however; innate immune response has a significant role in initiating its pathogenesis. Toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors promote the activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway for cytokines production. This results in the production of high levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6. Moreover, intestinal inflammation of CD is related to increased activity of NMDA receptors and the release of substance P. Imbalanced magnesium homeostasis in CD is a frequent finding in CD, Diabetes and others. The loss of such a major mineral affects many physiological processes in the body including its role as an immunomodulator. This review aims to (1) describe the significance of hypomagnesemia in the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in CD; (2) demonstrate effects of magnesium on pathways like NF-κB; (3) address the role of hypomagnesemia in the activity of CD; and (4) examine possible future research to establish a standard magnesium supplementation strategy; helping patients with CD or other disorders to maintain a sustained remission.

  14. PI3K/AKT/PTEN pathway as a target for Crohn's disease therapy (Review).

    PubMed

    Tokuhira, Nana; Kitagishi, Yasuko; Suzuki, Miho; Minami, Akari; Nakanishi, Atsuko; Ono, Yuna; Kobayashi, Keiko; Matsuda, Satoru; Ogura, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease, is a subject of increasing interest. Loss-of-function mutations in nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) are strong genetic factors linked to Crohn's disease, which eventually leads to an excessive mucosal inflammatory response directed against components of normal gut microbiota. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in inflammation processes, as well as in transduction of signals from receptors for several cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). ROS activate nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) via IκB kinase (IKK) through the PI3K/AKT/PTEN pathway. Therefore, this pathway is recognized to play a key role in Crohn's disease. Loss of function has been demonstrated to occur as an early event in a wide variety of diseases. Given this prevalent involvement in a number of diseases, the molecular development that modulates this pathway has been the subject of several studies. In addition, it has been the focus of extensive research and drug discovery activities. A better understanding of the molecular assemblies may reveal novel targets for the therapeutic development against Crohn's disease.

  15. Usefulness of Endoscopic Indices in Determination of Disease Activity in Patients with Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kucharski, Marcin; Karczewski, Jacek; Mańkowska-Wierzbicka, Dorota; Karmelita-Katulska, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Elżbieta; Iwanik, Katarzyna; Rzymski, Piotr; Grzymisławski, Marian; Linke, Krzysztof; Dobrowolska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Background. Assessment of endoscopic activity of Crohn's disease (CD) is of growing importance both in clinical practice and in clinical trials. The study aimed to assess which of the endoscopic indices used for evaluation of mucosal changes correlates with the currently used clinical indices for determination of disease activity and with the results of histopathological examination. Study. A group of 71 patients with CD and 52 individuals without a diagnosis of GI tract disease as a control group were investigated, considering clinical and histological severity of the disease and the severity of inflammatory changes in the bowel. Evaluation was conducted with the use of clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological indices. Endoscopic indices were then correlated with different clinical and histopathological indices with the aim of finding the strongest correlations. Results and Conclusions. Correlation between the clinical disease activity and the severity of endoscopic lesions in CD was shown in this study to be poor. The results also indicate that the optimal endoscopic index used in the diagnostic stage and in the assessment of treatment effects in CD is Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn's Disease (SES-CD). PMID:26997952

  16. Review article: smoking cessation as primary therapy to modify the course of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G J; Cosnes, J; Mansfield, J C

    2005-04-15

    This article aims to offer an updated review of the effects of smoking on inflammatory bowel disease, and provide a review of the methods of achieving smoking cessation. A systematic review of Embase and Medline databases was conducted. Smoking causes opposing effects on ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The odds ratio of developing ulcerative colitis for smokers compared with lifetime non-smokers is 0.41. Conversely, smokers with Crohn's disease have a more aggressive disease requiring more therapeutic intervention. Smoking cessation is associated with a 65% reduction in the risk of a relapse as compared with continued smokers, a similar magnitude to that obtained with immunosuppressive therapy. Although difficult to achieve smoking cessation can best be encouraged by accessing appropriate counselling services, nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion. Using a combination of these treatments there is an improved chance of success of up to 20% compared with an unassisted quit attempt. Smoking cessation unequivocally improves the course of Crohn's disease and should be a primary therapeutic aim in smokers with Crohn's disease.

  17. Controlled trial of antituberculous chemotherapy in Crohn's disease: a five year follow up study

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, G; Swift, G; Green, J; Newcombe, R; Braniff-Mathews, C; Rhodes, J; Wilkinson, S; Strohmeyer, G; Kreuzpainter, G

    1998-01-01

    Background—It has been suggested that Mycobacterium paratuberculosis is the cause of Crohn's disease. In a previous report the immediate effect of two years treatment with antituberculous chemotherapy showed no clinical benefit. 
Aims—To assess both the immediate and longer term effect of treatment on the disease. 
Methods—Patients were followed for five years from their date of entry to the study. One hundred and thirty patients entered the initial study, and of these 111 (81%) were followed regularly. 
Results—Overall, there was no evidence of consistent benefit or disadvantage from antituberculous chemotherapy in any of the assessments made, including the number of acute relapses, surgical episodes, hospital admissions, disease activity, blood tests, or medication required for Crohn's disease during the follow up period. 
Conclusion—The absence of any benefit at the end of the initial two year trial period, and during the three year subsequent follow up, fails to support the hypothesis that mycobacteria play an important part in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease, or that antituberculous chemotherapy may be of benefit. 

 Keywords: Crohn's disease; mycobacteria; antituberculus chemotherapy PMID:9616310

  18. Microbial Population Differentials between Mucosal and Submucosal Intestinal Tissues in Advanced Crohn's Disease of the Ileum.

    PubMed

    Chiodini, Rodrick J; Dowd, Scot E; Chamberlin, William M; Galandiuk, Susan; Davis, Brian; Glassing, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Since Crohn's disease is a transmural disease, we hypothesized that examination of deep submucosal tissues directly involved in the inflammatory disease process may provide unique insights into bacterial populations transgressing intestinal barriers and bacterial populations more representative of the causes and agents of the disease. We performed deep 16s microbiota sequencing on isolated ilea mucosal and submucosal tissues on 20 patients with Crohn's disease and 15 non-inflammatory bowel disease controls with a depth of coverage averaging 81,500 sequences in each of the 70 DNA samples yielding an overall resolution down to 0.0001% of the bacterial population. Of the 4,802,328 total sequences generated, 98.9% or 4,749,183 sequences aligned with the Kingdom Bacteria that clustered into 8545 unique sequences with <3% divergence or operational taxonomic units enabling the identification of 401 genera and 698 tentative bacterial species. There were significant differences in all taxonomic levels between the submucosal microbiota in Crohn's disease compared to controls, including organisms of the Order Desulfovibrionales that were present within the submucosal tissues of most Crohn's disease patients but absent in the control group. A variety of organisms of the Phylum Firmicutes were increased in the subjacent submucosa as compared to the parallel mucosal tissue including Ruminococcus spp., Oscillospira spp., Pseudobutyrivibrio spp., and Tumebacillus spp. In addition, Propionibacterium spp. and Cloacibacterium spp. were increased as well as large increases in Proteobacteria including Parasutterella spp. and Methylobacterium spp. This is the first study to examine the microbial populations within submucosal tissues of patients with Crohn's disease and to compare microbial communities found deep within the submucosal tissues with those present on mucosal surfaces. Our data demonstrate the existence of a distinct submucosal microbiome and ecosystem that is not well

  19. Microbial Population Differentials between Mucosal and Submucosal Intestinal Tissues in Advanced Crohn's Disease of the Ileum

    PubMed Central

    Chiodini, Rodrick J.; Dowd, Scot E.; Chamberlin, William M.; Galandiuk, Susan; Davis, Brian; Glassing, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Since Crohn's disease is a transmural disease, we hypothesized that examination of deep submucosal tissues directly involved in the inflammatory disease process may provide unique insights into bacterial populations transgressing intestinal barriers and bacterial populations more representative of the causes and agents of the disease. We performed deep 16s microbiota sequencing on isolated ilea mucosal and submucosal tissues on 20 patients with Crohn's disease and 15 non-inflammatory bowel disease controls with a depth of coverage averaging 81,500 sequences in each of the 70 DNA samples yielding an overall resolution down to 0.0001% of the bacterial population. Of the 4,802,328 total sequences generated, 98.9% or 4,749,183 sequences aligned with the Kingdom Bacteria that clustered into 8545 unique sequences with <3% divergence or operational taxonomic units enabling the identification of 401 genera and 698 tentative bacterial species. There were significant differences in all taxonomic levels between the submucosal microbiota in Crohn's disease compared to controls, including organisms of the Order Desulfovibrionales that were present within the submucosal tissues of most Crohn's disease patients but absent in the control group. A variety of organisms of the Phylum Firmicutes were increased in the subjacent submucosa as compared to the parallel mucosal tissue including Ruminococcus spp., Oscillospira spp., Pseudobutyrivibrio spp., and Tumebacillus spp. In addition, Propionibacterium spp. and Cloacibacterium spp. were increased as well as large increases in Proteobacteria including Parasutterella spp. and Methylobacterium spp. This is the first study to examine the microbial populations within submucosal tissues of patients with Crohn's disease and to compare microbial communities found deep within the submucosal tissues with those present on mucosal surfaces. Our data demonstrate the existence of a distinct submucosal microbiome and ecosystem that is not well

  20. Small intestine contrast ultrasonography for the detection and assessment of Crohn disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chenjing; Ma, Xuelei; Xue, Luqi; Xu, Jing; Li, Qingfang; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Crohn disease (CD) is a chronic relapsing disease. Imaging modalities are essential for the diagnosis and assessment of CD. Small intestine contrast ultrasonography (SICUS) is a well-tolerated, noninvasive and radiation-free modality and has shown potential in CD assessment. We aimed at evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of SICUS in the detection and assessment of small-bowel lesions and complications in CD. Methods: We searched PubMed database for relevant studies published before April 24, 2016. We integrated the true positive, false positive, false negative, and true negative into the pooled estimates of sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio. Forest plots were to represent the pooled results of all studies. Results: Thirteen articles were finally considered eligible. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of SICUS in detecting small-bowel lesions were 0.883 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.847–0.913) and 0.861 (95% CI 0.828–0.890), respectively. The pooled diagnostic odds ratio was 39.123 (95% CI 20.014–76.476) and the area under the curve of summary receiver operating characteristic was 0.9273 (standard error: 0.0152). In subgroup analyses, SICUS represented fine sensitivity and specificity in proximal and distal small intestine lesion, as well as in CD-related complications such as stricture, dilation, abscess, and fistula. Conclusion: SICUS is accurate enough to make a complete assessment about the location, extent, number, and almost all kinds of complications in CD small-bowel lesions. PMID:27495028

  1. Cystic degeneration of neuro endocrine tumor of pancreas and Crohn's disease: true or coincidental association?

    PubMed

    Hedfi, Mohamed; Abbasi, Imed; Intissar, Chibani; Salwa, Ammar; Chouchen, Adnen

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) or islet cell tumors are rare lesions, the incidence of which is estimated to be less than 1 per 100,000 person-years in the general population. PETs can be divided into functional (exhibit a distinct clinical syndrome due to hormone hypersecretion) and non-functional tumors. The majority of PETs are non-functional. In spite of their rarity, cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are characterized by existing or potential malignancy that cannot be ignored during decisive process with regard to the choice of treatment. The purpose of this workis to find an association with Crohn's disease and cystic degeneration of a neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas. Crohn's disease may affect extraintestinal organs, including the pancreas. In such cases, It seems certain that many patients diagnosed with Crohn disease (CD) are predisposed to a wider spectrum of cancers. We present a case of pancreatic cyst with no typical features of pseudocyst in the medical interview, with history of Crohn's disease, treated by caudal pancreatectomy. We tried to evaluate the clinical and morphological features of so-called cystic neoplasms associated with inflammatory bowel disease and to define their pathological characteristics.

  2. The glucose breath test: a diagnostic test for small bowel stricture(s) in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Mishkin, Daniel; Boston, Francis M; Blank, David; Yalovsky, Morty; Mishkin, Seymour

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether an indirect noninvasive indicator of proximal bacterial overgrowth, the glucose breath test, was of diagnostic value in inflammatory bowel disease. Twenty four of 71 Crohn's disease patients tested had a positive glucose breath test. No statistical conclusions could be drawn between the Crohn's disease activity index and glucose breath test status. Of patients with radiologic evidence of small bowel stricture(s), 96.0% had a positive glucose breath test, while only one of 46 negative glucose breath test patients had a stricture. The positive and negative predictive values for a positive glucose breath test as an indicator of stricture formation were 96.0% and 97.8%, respectively. This correlation was not altered in Crohn's disease patients with fistulae or status postresection of the terminal ileum. The data in ulcerative colitis were nondiagnostic. In conclusion, the glucose breath test appears to be an accurate noninvasive inexpensive diagnostic test for small bowel stricture(s) and secondary bacterial overgrowth in Crohn's disease.

  3. The accordion sign at CT: report of a case of Crohn's disease with diffuse colonic involvement.

    PubMed

    Mountanos, G I; Manolakakis, I S

    2001-01-01

    The accordion sign is a finding that could be seen on CT scans of the abdomen in patients who have received oral contrast material. Initially, it was described as a sign specific of Clostridium difficile colitis, but it is also reported to represent a sign of diffuse colonic edema of several other etiologies. We report a case of a patient with Crohn's pancolitis whose abdominal CT scan presented the accordion sign throughout the entire large bowel together with signs of Crohn's disease of the small bowel.

  4. Pulmonary complications of hepatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Surani, Salim R; Mendez, Yamely; Anjum, Humayun; Varon, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Severe chronic liver disease (CLD) may result from portal hypertension, hepatocellular failure or the combination of both. Some of these patients may develop pulmonary complications independent from any pulmonary pathology that they may have. Among them the hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS), portopulmonary hypertension (PPH) and hepatic hydrothorax (HH) are described in detail in this literature review. HPS is encountered in approximately 15% to 30% of the patients and its presence is associated with increase in mortality and also requires liver transplantation in many cases. PPH has been reported among 4%-8% of the patient with CLD who have undergone liver transplantation. The HH is another entity, which has the prevalence rate of 5% to 6% and is associated in the absence of cardiopulmonary disease. These clinical syndromes occur in similar pathophysiologic environments. Most treatment modalities work as temporizing measures. The ultimate treatment of choice is liver transplant. This clinical review provides basic concepts; pathophysiology and clinical presentation that will allow the clinician to better understand these potentially life-threatening complications. This article will review up-to-date information on the pathophysiology, clinical features and the treatment of the pulmonary complications among liver disease patients. PMID:27468192

  5. Osteonecrosis of both knees in a woman with Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Mara; Cotter, José

    2016-01-01

    Osteonecrosis is a very rare complication of Crohn’s disease (CD). It is not clear if it is related to corticosteroid therapy or if it occurs as an extraintestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease. We present the case of a patient with CD who presented with osteonecrosis of both knees. A 22 years old woman was diagnosed with CD in April 2012 (Montreal Classification A2L1 + L4B3p). She was started on prednisolone (40 mg/d), azathioprine (100 mg/d) and messalazine (3 g/d). In July 2012, due to active perianal disease, infliximab therapy was initiated. In September 2012, she had a pelvic abscess complicated by peritonitis and an ileal segmental resection and right hemicolectomy were performed. In December 2012 she was diagnosed with bilateral septic arthritis of both knees with walking impairment. She was treated with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, started a physical rehabilitation program and progressively improved. However, then, bilateral knee pain exacerbated by movement developed. Magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple osseous medullary infarcts in the distal extremity of the femurs, proximal extremity of the tibiae and patellas and no signs of subchondral collapse, which is consistent with osteonecrosis. The patient recovered completely and maintains therapy with azathioprine and messalazine. A review of the literature is also done. PMID:27867692

  6. Neurological complications of coeliac disease

    PubMed Central

    Pengiran, T; Wills, A; Holmes, G

    2002-01-01

    A variety of neurological disorders have been reported in association with coeliac disease including epilepsy, ataxia, neuropathy, and myelopathy. The nature of this association is unclear and whether a specific neurological complication occurs in coeliac disease remains unproved. Malabsorption may lead to vitamin and trace element deficiencies. Therefore, patients who develop neurological dysfunction should be carefully screened for these. However, malabsorption does not satisfactorily explain the pathophysiology and clinical course of many of the associated neurological disorders. Other mechanisms proposed include altered autoimmunity, heredity, and gluten toxicity. This review attempts to summarise the literature and suggests directions for future research. PMID:12151653

  7. Model for Postgraduate Medical Education: Study of Crohn's Disease in New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Daniel H.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to introduce a model system for the continuous retrieval, storage, and dissemination of relevant clinical information that has proven to be an effective resource of real-life data. Patients with Crohn's disease from a geographic area served as the population base for 2 groups of physicians, one group practicing in the…

  8. ATG16L1: A multifunctional susceptibility factor in Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Salem, Mohammad; Ammitzboell, Mette; Nys, Kris; Seidelin, Jakob Benedict; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2015-04-03

    Genetic variations in the autophagic pathway influence genetic predispositions to Crohn disease. Autophagy, the major lysosomal pathway for degrading and recycling cytoplasmic material, constitutes an important homeostatic cellular process. Of interest, single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ATG16L1 (autophagy-related 16-like 1 [S. cerevisiae]), a key component in the autophagic response to invading pathogens, have been associated with an increased risk of developing Crohn disease. The most common and well-studied genetic variant of ATG16L1 (rs2241880; leading to a T300A conversion) exhibits a strong association with risk for developing Crohn disease. The rs2241880 variant plays a crucial role in pathogen clearance, resulting in imbalanced cytokine production, and is linked to other biological processes, such as the endoplasmic reticulum stress/unfolded protein response. In this review, we focus on the importance of ATG16L1 and its genetic variant (T300A) within the elementary biological processes linked to Crohn disease.

  9. ATG16L1: A multifunctional susceptibility factor in Crohn disease

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Mohammad; Ammitzboell, Mette; Nys, Kris; Seidelin, Jakob Benedict; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variations in the autophagic pathway influence genetic predispositions to Crohn disease. Autophagy, the major lysosomal pathway for degrading and recycling cytoplasmic material, constitutes an important homeostatic cellular process. Of interest, single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ATG16L1 (autophagy-related 16-like 1 [S. cerevisiae]), a key component in the autophagic response to invading pathogens, have been associated with an increased risk of developing Crohn disease. The most common and well-studied genetic variant of ATG16L1 (rs2241880; leading to a T300A conversion) exhibits a strong association with risk for developing Crohn disease. The rs2241880 variant plays a crucial role in pathogen clearance, resulting in imbalanced cytokine production, and is linked to other biological processes, such as the endoplasmic reticulum stress/unfolded protein response. In this review, we focus on the importance of ATG16L1 and its genetic variant (T300A) within the elementary biological processes linked to Crohn disease. PMID:25906181

  10. Fire in the belly and the professionalization of nurses: a historical analysis of Crohn disease care.

    PubMed

    Brotherton, Carol S; Taylor, Ann Gill; Keeling, Arlene

    2013-01-01

    Today, professional nurses around the world are stepping up to meet the needs of individuals with Crohn disease, using their specialized knowledge and skills that demonstrate areas of expertise that have not always existed. The gastrointestinal-specific knowledge being used by these 21st-century nurses exists today because progressive efforts of nurses in previous decades moved the profession of nursing forward. The purpose of this article was to describe and analyze the development of the role of nurses in responding to new challenges patients with Crohn disease face since the emergence of the disease in the early 20th century. The authors used traditional historic research methods to conduct the study. Primary sources include nursing journals and textbooks published in the 20th and 21st centuries and documents archived at The Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City, where Burrill B. Crohn conducted his seminal work. The significance of the findings is that the changing role of nurses in caring for patients with Crohn disease mirrors the professionalization of nursing during the 20th and early 21st centuries.

  11. Vitamin D-mediated calcium absorption in patients with clinically stable Crohn's disease: a pilot study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D is the critical hormone for intestinal absorption of calcium. Optimal calcium absorption is important for proper mineralization of bone in the prevention of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures, among other important functions. Diseases associated with gut inflammation, such as Crohn's ...

  12. Search for Mycobacterium paratuberculosis DNA in orofacial granulomatosis and oral Crohn's disease tissue by polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Riggio, M; Gibson, J; Lennon, A; Wray, D; MacDonald, D

    1997-01-01

    Background—Although intestinal Crohn's disease has long been suspected to have a mycobacterial cause, possible mycobacterial involvement in orofacial granulomatosis (OFG) and oral lesions of Crohn's disease has not yet been investigated.
Aims—As the slow growing Mycobacterium paratuberculosis has been implicated in the aetiology of intestinal Crohn's disease, the potential involvement of this mycobacterial species in OFG and oral lesions of Crohn's disease was investigated.
Patients—To attempt detection of the organism in OFG and oral Crohn's disease tissue samples, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used on archival formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded oral tissue sections from 30 patients with OFG, seven with Crohn's disease, and 12 normal controls.
Methods—The PCR assay used was based on primers targeting the 5' region of the multicopy IS900 DNA insertion element of the M paratuberculosis genome. In order to achieve maximum sensitivity, two rounds of PCR were carried out and amplicons confirmed by Southern blot hybridisation to a digoxigenin labelled IS900 DNA probe.
Results—None of the OFG and oral lesions of Crohn's disease samples were positive for M paratuberculosis and all normal controls were also negative. 
Conclusions—These results suggest that M paratuberculosis may not be a major aetiological agent in OFG or oral Crohn's disease lesions, although the use of paraffin wax embedded tissue as opposed to fresh tissue as a sample source could underestimate the true prevalence of the organism. 

 Keywords: oral Crohn's disease; Mycobacterium paratuberculosis; orofacial granulomatosis; polymerase chain reaction PMID:9414972

  13. [Intestinal dysbiosis in pediatric patients with Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Pueyo, Blanca; Mach, Núria

    2013-11-01

    Introducción La enfermedad de Crohn (EC) pediátrica es un desorden caracterizado por presentar inflamación crónica que puede afectar cualquier segmento del tracto gastrointestinal. La disbiosis intestinal es un factor implicado en la patogénesis multifactorial de esta enfermedad. Diferentes suplementos dietarios se han propuesto como terapia alternativa para inducir o mantener la remisión de la EC. Objetivo Revisar las evidencias científicas publicadas sobre disbiosis intestinal en pacientes de Crohn pediátricos y la eficacia de la terapia con suplementos dietarios (especialmente probióticos). Material y métodos Se ha realizado una extensa búsqueda de publicaciones científicas en las principales bases de datos electrónicas especializadas: NCBI, Elsevier, Scielo, Scirus y Science Direct. Resultados y Discusión Se ha observado en la población pediátrica de EC un aumento de Proteobacteria y una reducción de Firmicutes. Los resultados referentes a los phyla Bacteroidetes y Actinobacteria son divergentes. Referente al uso de suplementos dietarios, el uso de probióticos no ha mostrado ningún impacto positivo en la EC pediátrica. Conclusiones Los resultados publicados hasta la fecha referentes a la disbiosis intestinal en pacientes pediátricos de Crohn, contribuyen al mejor conocimiento y entendimiento de las modificaciones en la flora bacteriana. Sin embargo, no es posible definir una microbiota asociada o causante de la EC. Además, los resultados publicados hasta la fecha no aportan evidencias sólidas de la eficacia de los probióticos como terapia en dichos pacientes.

  14. Enhanced colonic nitric oxide generation and nitric oxide synthase activity in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Rachmilewitz, D; Stamler, J S; Bachwich, D; Karmeli, F; Ackerman, Z; Podolsky, D K

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that nitric oxide (NO.), the product of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory cells, may play a part in tissue injury and inflammation through its oxidative metabolism. In this study the colonic generation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and nitric oxide synthase activity was determined in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Colonic biopsy specimens were obtained from inflammatory bowel disease patients and from normal controls. Mucosal explants were cultured in vitro for 24 hours and NOx generation was determined. Nitric oxide synthase activity was monitored by the conversion of [3H]-L-arginine to citrulline. Median NOx generation by inflamed colonic mucosa of patients with active ulcerative colitis and Crohn's colitis was 4.2- and 8.1-fold respectively higher than that by normal human colonic mucosa. In ulcerative colitis and Crohn's colitis nitric oxide synthase activity was 10.0- and 3.8-fold respectively higher than in normal subjects. Colonic NOx generation is significantly decreased by methylprednisolone and ketotifen. The decrease in NOx generation by cultured colonic mucosa induced by methylprednisolone suggests that NO synthase activity is induced during the culture and the steroid effect may contribute to its therapeutic effect. Enhanced colonic NOx generation by stimulated nitric oxide synthase activity in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease may contribute to tissue injury. PMID:7541008

  15. Twin studies reveal specific imbalances in the mucosa-associated microbiota of patients with ileal Crohn's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Willing, B.; Halfvarson, J.; Dicksved, J.; Rosenquist, M.; Jarnerot, G.; Engstrand, L.; Tysk, C.; Jansson, J. K

    2008-08-15

    Large inter-individual variation in the composition of the intestinal microbiota between unrelated individuals has made it challenging to identify specific aspects of dysbiosis that lead to Crohn's disease. To reduce variations in exposure during establishment of the gut flora and influence of genotype, we studied the mucosaassociated microbiota of monozygotic twin pairs that were discordant (n=6) or concordant (n=4) for Crohn's disease. DNA was extracted from biopsies collected from 5 locations between the ileum and rectum. Bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes were amplified and community composition assessed by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism, cloning and sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR. The microbial compositions at all biopsy locations for each individual were similar, regardless of disease state, but there were differences between individuals. In particular, individuals with predominantly ileal Crohn's had a dramatically lower abundance (P<0.001) of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and increased abundance (P<0.03) of Escherichia coli compared to healthy co-twins and those with Crohn's localized in the colon. This dysbiosis was significantly correlated to the disease phenotype rather than genotype. The reduced abundance of F. prausnitzii and increased abundance of E. coli are indicative of an ileal Crohn's disease phenotype, distinct from colonic Crohn's disease and the relative abundances of these specific bacterial populations are promising biomarker candidates for differential diagnosis of Crohn's and eventually customized treatment.

  16. Quality of Life Is Related to Fecal Calprotectin Concentrations in Colonic Crohn Disease and Ulcerative Colitis, but not in Ileal Crohn Disease.

    PubMed

    Gauss, Annika; Geib, Thomas; Hinz, Ulf; Schaefert, Rainer; Zwickel, Philipp; Zawierucha, Anna; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Klute, Lukas

    2016-04-01

    To formulate therapy goals, we aimed to define the relationship between fecal calprotectin and health-related quality of life in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). This retrospective single-center cross-sectional study included ambulatory IBD patients who had completed standardized questionnaires comprising items of health-related quality of life (Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire) and clinical disease activity scores, and who had provided stool samples for calprotectin determination within 30 days of questionnaire completion. Correlation analyses were performed between the indicated parameters. Post hoc analysis was conducted, taking into account only data from patients with fecal calprotectin concentrations measured within 3 days of questionnaire completion. One hundred ninety-seven patients with Crohn disease and 111 patients with ulcerative colitis were enrolled in the study. Lower fecal calprotectin concentrations were associated with better health-related quality of life. The correlations were weak, but stronger if only fecal calprotectin concentrations measured within 3 days of questionnaire completion were included (results for 3 days; Crohn disease: n = 86, rS = -0.419, P < 0.001; ulcerative colitis: n = 43, rS = -0.432, P = 0.004). In Crohn disease, a significant correlation between fecal calprotectin concentration and health-related quality of life was found in patients with colonic involvement (n = 59, rS = -0.470, P < 0.001), but not in patients with purely ileal disease (n = 27, rS = -0.268, P = 0.18). Correlations between fecal calprotectin concentrations and clinical disease activity were also only weak to moderate. Owing to its moderate correlation with fecal calprotectin concentrations in IBD patients with colonic involvement, health-related quality of life should be used in combination with other markers for IBD management. This is even more important in isolated ileal Crohn disease

  17. Quality of Life Is Related to Fecal Calprotectin Concentrations in Colonic Crohn Disease and Ulcerative Colitis, but not in Ileal Crohn Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gauss, Annika; Geib, Thomas; Hinz, Ulf; Schaefert, Rainer; Zwickel, Philipp; Zawierucha, Anna; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Klute, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To formulate therapy goals, we aimed to define the relationship between fecal calprotectin and health-related quality of life in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). This retrospective single-center cross-sectional study included ambulatory IBD patients who had completed standardized questionnaires comprising items of health-related quality of life (Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire) and clinical disease activity scores, and who had provided stool samples for calprotectin determination within 30 days of questionnaire completion. Correlation analyses were performed between the indicated parameters. Post hoc analysis was conducted, taking into account only data from patients with fecal calprotectin concentrations measured within 3 days of questionnaire completion. One hundred ninety-seven patients with Crohn disease and 111 patients with ulcerative colitis were enrolled in the study. Lower fecal calprotectin concentrations were associated with better health-related quality of life. The correlations were weak, but stronger if only fecal calprotectin concentrations measured within 3 days of questionnaire completion were included (results for 3 days; Crohn disease: n = 86, rS = −0.419, P < 0.001; ulcerative colitis: n = 43, rS = −0.432, P = 0.004). In Crohn disease, a significant correlation between fecal calprotectin concentration and health-related quality of life was found in patients with colonic involvement (n = 59, rS = −0.470, P < 0.001), but not in patients with purely ileal disease (n = 27, rS = −0.268, P = 0.18). Correlations between fecal calprotectin concentrations and clinical disease activity were also only weak to moderate. Owing to its moderate correlation with fecal calprotectin concentrations in IBD patients with colonic involvement, health-related quality of life should be used in combination with other markers for IBD management. This is even more important in isolated ileal

  18. Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying NOD2 risk-associated polymorphisms in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Strober, Warren; Asano, Naoki; Fuss, Ivan; Kitani, Atsushi; Watanabe, Tomohiro

    2014-07-01

    The discovery that polymorphisms in the NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2) gene are associated with a greatly increased risk for the development of Crohn's disease has provided a means to achieve a deeper understanding of the dysregulation of mucosal immune responses to the commensal intestinal organisms that is thought to underlie this disease. NOD2 is a NOD-like receptor (NLR) family member that senses and responds to bacterial wall peptides; thus, the most widely held view of the relation of the NOD2 polymorphisms with Crohn's disease is that these polymorphisms lead to deficient immune responses to gut bacteria, and these, in turn, lead to quantitative or qualitative changes in the bacterial population in the gut lumen or lamina propria that cause inflammation at this site. Initially, this view was based mainly on the observation that defective NOD2 function can result in reduced α-defensin production by intestinal Paneth cells and that such impairment leads to loss of host defense against gut bacteria. In this review, we reconsider this possibility and marshal evidence that it is not in fact likely to be a prime element of Crohn's disease causation. More recently, evidence has been accumulating that the NOD2 dysfunction leads to Crohn's inflammation by inducing changes in the gut microbiome that influence immune effector or regulatory function. We review the strengths and weaknesses of this emerging hypothesis. Finally, we consider the possibility that NOD2 dysfunction can lead to inflammation because of a second and somewhat overlooked aspect of its function, that as an immunoregulator of innate immune responses. In particular, we review the body of evidence that NOD2 stimulation activates a cross-tolerance response that downregulates and thus prevents excessive TLR responses that cause Crohn's inflammation.

  19. Top-down Infliximab Study in Kids with Crohn's disease (TISKids): an international multicentre randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Cozijnsen, M A; van Pieterson, M; Samsom, J N; Escher, J C; de Ridder, L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disease predominantly affecting the gastrointestinal tract. CD usually requires lifelong medication and is accompanied by severe complications, such as fistulae and strictures, resulting in surgery. Infliximab (IFX) is very effective for treating paediatric patients with CD, but is currently only registered for therapy refractory patients—the so-called step-up strategy. We hypothesise that using IFX first-line, that is, top-down, will give more mucosal healing, fewer relapses, less complications, need for surgery and hospitalisation. Methods and analysis This international multicentre open-label randomised controlled trial includes children, aged 3–17 years, with new-onset, untreated CD with moderate-to-severe disease activity (weighted Paediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index (wPCDAI)>40). Eligible patients will be randomised to top-down or step-up treatment. Top-down treatment consists of 5 IFX infusions combined with azathioprine (AZA). After these 5 infusions, patients will continue AZA. Patients randomised to step-up will receive standard induction treatment, either oral prednisolone or exclusive enteral nutrition, combined with AZA as maintenance treatment. The primary outcome is clinical remission (wPCDAI<12.5) at 52 weeks without need for additional CD-related therapy or surgery. Total follow-up is 5 years. Secondary outcomes include clinical disease activity, mucosal healing by endoscopy (at week 10 and optionally week 52), faecal calprotectin, growth, quality of life, medication use and adverse events. Ethics and dissemination Conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki and Good Clinical Practice. Medical-ethical approval will be obtained for each site. Trial registration number NCT02517684; Pre-results. PMID:28090335

  20. Absence of measles viral genomic sequence in intestinal tissues from Crohn's disease by nested polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Haga, Y; Funakoshi, O; Kuroe, K; Kanazawa, K; Nakajima, H; Saito, H; Murata, Y; Munakata, A; Yoshida, Y

    1996-01-01

    The aetiology of Crohn's disease remains unknown, although evidence for a viral cause has long been sought. Recent studies have shown inflammation of the submucosal microvascular endothelium and granulomata, and endothelial cell cytoplasmic inclusions, consistent with paramyxovirus, were identified by electron microscopy suggesting a persistent measles virus infection in Crohn's disease. Measles, mumps, and rubella viruses were tested for Crohn's disease by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RNA was extracted from resected intestinal specimens from 15 patients with Crohn's disease, 14 with ulcerative colitis, and 14 controls without inflammatory bowel disease. This was used to perform nested PCR after reverse transcription (RT) of the RNA to cDNA with primer pairs directed against two regions in the genome of the measles virus and one region in the mumps and rubella viral genomes. Despite enhanced sensitivity of nested RT-PCR, measles, mumps, and rubella viral genomic sequences were not found in any intestinal specimen. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8801199

  1. Integrated metagenomics/metaproteomics reveals human host-microbiota signatures of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Alison R; Cantarel, Brandi L; Lamendella, Regina; Darzi, Youssef; Mongodin, Emmanuel F; Pan, Chongle; Shah, Manesh; Halfvarson, Jonas; Tysk, Curt; Henrissat, Bernard; Raes, Jeroen; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Fraser, Claire M; Hettich, Robert L; Jansson, Janet K

    2012-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory bowel disease of complex etiology, although dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been implicated in chronic immune-mediated inflammation associated with CD. Here we combined shotgun metagenomic and metaproteomic approaches to identify potential functional signatures of CD in stool samples from six twin pairs that were either healthy, or that had CD in the ileum (ICD) or colon (CCD). Integration of these omics approaches revealed several genes, proteins, and pathways that primarily differentiated ICD from healthy subjects, including depletion of many proteins in ICD. In addition, the ICD phenotype was associated with alterations in bacterial carbohydrate metabolism, bacterial-host interactions, as well as human host-secreted enzymes. This eco-systems biology approach underscores the link between the gut microbiota and functional alterations in the pathophysiology of Crohn's disease and aids in identification of novel diagnostic targets and disease specific biomarkers.

  2. [Association between Crohn's disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis in a 10 year old girl].

    PubMed

    Muñoz Lozón, Ana; Iglesias Blázquez, Cristina; Menéndez Arias, Cristina; Domínguez Sánchez, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    A 10 year old girl with diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss and fever of one month and a half of evolution. Analytical and sonographic findings raised the possibility of inflammatory bowel disease. Endoscopy and histology showed findings consistent with Crohn's disease. Treatment was initiated with mesalazine and exclusive enteral nutrition. Later corticosteroid treatment, immunosuppressive drugs and ursodeoxycholic acid were added due to cholestasis and persistent hypergammaglobulinemia. Magnetic resonance cholangiography and liver biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of concomitant primary sclerosing cholangitis. The association between Crohn's disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis is rare, predominantly in males between 20 and 40 years old and it presents a great clinical variability. The confirmation of the diagnosis requires magnetic resonance cholangiography or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The prognosis is poor and there is no treatment to slow the progression of the disease.

  3. Integrated Metagenomics/Metaproteomics Reveals Human Host-Microbiota Signatures of Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Darzi, Youssef; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; Pan, Chongle; Shah, Manesh; Halfvarson, Jonas; Tysk, Curt; Henrissat, Bernard; Raes, Jeroen; Verberkmoes, Nathan C.; Jansson, Janet K.

    2012-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory bowel disease of complex etiology, although dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been implicated in chronic immune-mediated inflammation associated with CD. Here we combined shotgun metagenomic and metaproteomic approaches to identify potential functional signatures of CD in stool samples from six twin pairs that were either healthy, or that had CD in the ileum (ICD) or colon (CCD). Integration of these omics approaches revealed several genes, proteins, and pathways that primarily differentiated ICD from healthy subjects, including depletion of many proteins in ICD. In addition, the ICD phenotype was associated with alterations in bacterial carbohydrate metabolism, bacterial-host interactions, as well as human host-secreted enzymes. This eco-systems biology approach underscores the link between the gut microbiota and functional alterations in the pathophysiology of Crohn's disease and aids in identification of novel diagnostic targets and disease specific biomarkers. PMID:23209564

  4. Integrated Metagenomics/Metaproteomics Reveals Human Host-Microbiota Signatures of Crohn's Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, Alison L; Cantarel, Brandi; Lamendella, Regina; Darzi, Youssef; Mongodin, Emmanuel; Pan, Chongle; Shah, Manesh B; Halfvarsson, J; Tysk, C; Henrissat, Bernard; Raes, Jeroen; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Fraser-Liggett, C; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Jansson, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory bowel disease of complex etiology, although dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been implicated in chronic immune-mediated inflammation associated with CD. Here we combined shotgun metagenomic and metaproteomic approaches to identify potential functional signatures of CD in stool samples from six twin pairs that were either healthy, or that had CD in the ileum (ICD) or colon (CCD). Integration of these omics approaches revealed several genes, proteins, and pathways that primarily differentiated ICD from healthy subjects, including depletion of many proteins in ICD. In addition, the ICD phenotype was associated with alterations in bacterial carbohydrate metabolism, bacterial-host interactions, as well as human host-secreted enzymes. This eco-systems biology approach underscores the link between the gut microbiota and functional alterations in the pathophysiology of Crohn's disease and aids in identification of novel diagnostic targets and disease specific biomarkers.

  5. Resected Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Patient with Crohn's Disease on Azathioprine

    PubMed Central

    Heron, Valérie; Fortinsky, Kyle Joshua; Spiegle, Gillian; Hilzenrat, Nir; Szilagyi, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma rarely occurs in patients without underlying cirrhosis or liver disease. While inflammatory bowel disease has been linked to certain forms of liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma is exceedingly rare in these patients. We report the twelfth case of hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient with Crohn's disease. The patient is a 61-year-old with longstanding Crohn's disease who was treated with azathioprine and was found to have elevated liver enzymes and a new 3-cm liver mass on ultrasound. A complete workup for underlying liver disease was unremarkable and liver biopsy revealed hepatocellular carcinoma. The patient underwent a hepatic resection, and there is no evidence of recurrence at the 11-month follow-up. The resection specimen showed no evidence of cancer despite the initial biopsy revealing hepatocellular carcinoma. This case represents the third biopsy-proven complete spontaneous regression of hepatocellular carcinoma. Although large studies have failed to show a definite link between azathioprine and hepatocellular carcinoma, the relationship remains concerning given the multiple case reports suggesting a possible association. Clinicians should exercise a high degree of suspicion in patients with Crohn's disease who present with elevated liver enzymes, especially those on azathioprine therapy. PMID:27403102

  6. Genetic Variations of PTPN2 and PTPN22: Role in the Pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes and Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Robert C; Abdulrahim, Muna; Naser, Ebraheem S; Naser, Saleh A

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies have identified several genes that might be associated with increase susceptibility to Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) and Crohn's disease. Both Crohn's disease and T1D have a profound impact on the lives of patients and it is pivotal to investigate the genetic role in patients acquiring these diseases. Understanding the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP's) in key genes in patients suffering from T1D and Crohn's disease is crucial to finding an effective treatment and generating novel therapeutic drugs. This review article is focused on the impact of SNP's in PTPN2 (protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 2) and PTPN22 (protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22) on the development of Crohn's disease and T1D. The PTPN2 gene mutation in T1D patients play a direct role in the destruction of beta cells while in Crohn's disease patients, it modulates the innate immune responses. The PTPN22 gene mutations also play a role in both diseases by modulating intracellular signaling. Examining the mechanism through which these genes increase the susceptibility to both diseases and gaining a better understanding of their structure and function is of vital importance to understand the etiology and pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes and Crohn's disease.

  7. Psoas abscesses complicating colonic disease: imaging and therapy.

    PubMed

    Lobo, D N; Dunn, W K; Iftikhar, S Y; Scholefield, J H

    1998-11-01

    Most surgeons think of psoas abscesses as a very rare condition related to tuberculosis of the spine, but in contemporary surgical practice they are more usually a complication of gastrointestinal disease. A case note study was undertaken on all patients treated for psoas abscess at two large hospitals in the mid-Trent region over a 2-year period. All seven patients presented with pyrexia, psoas spasm, a tender mass and leucocytosis. The diagnosis was made on abdominal radiographs in one patient, CT scan in three, MRI in two, and ultrasound in one. Aetiological factors included Crohn's disease in three, appendicitis in two, and sigmoid diverticulitis and metastatic colorectal carcinoma in one each. Six patients underwent transabdominal resection of the diseased bowel, retroperitoneal debridement and external drainage of the abscess cavity. Percutaneous drainage was performed in one. Two patients had more than one surgical exploration for complications. There were no deaths and the hospital stay ranged from 8-152 days. Psoas abscess can be a difficult and protracted problem. Bowel resection, thorough debridement, external drainage and concomitant antibiotics are essential for psoas abscesses complicating gastrointestinal disease. Defunctioning stomas may be necessary. However, in some cases a multidisciplinary approach may be required, as psoas abscesses can involve bone and joints.

  8. Efficacy of Thiopurines in Biologic-Naive Japanese Patients With Crohn's Disease: A Single-Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, Takuya; Matsuura, Minoru; Minami, Naoki; Yamada, Satoshi; Honzawa, Yusuke; Kimura, Masamichi; Koshikawa, Yorimitsu; Madian, Ali; Toyonaga, Takahiko

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Early use of biologics in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) improves quality of life. However, the effects of the early use of immunomodulators on long-term outcomes remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of immunomodulators in patients with CD. Methods Between January 2004 and December 2011, 47 biologic-naive CD patients treated with thiopurines alone for remission maintenance were analyzed. The patients were classified into 2 groups depending on the presence or absence of digestive complications. We evaluated the efficacy of and predictive factors for thiopurine use for remission maintenance. Results The cumulative relapse rates at 24 and 60 months were 13.7% and 35.4%, respectively. Regarding patient characteristics, there was a significant difference in patient history of surgery between the non-relapse and relapse groups (P=0.021). The cumulative relapse rate was lower in patients without a history of surgery than in those with such a history (27.2% and 52.9% at 60.0 months, respectively). Multivariate analysis suggested that the prevalence of stricturing and penetrating complications is an independent factor for relapse. The cumulative relapse rate in patients without a history of surgery was significantly lower in the non-stricturing and non-penetrating group than in the stricturing and penetrating group (11.8% at 85.0 months vs. 58.5% at 69.0 months; P=0.036). Conclusions Thiopurine use might be beneficial for the long-term maintenance of remission in biologic-naive Crohn's disease patients without digestive complications and a history of surgery. PMID:26131002

  9. Topical tacrolimus may be effective in the treatment of oral and perineal Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Casson, D; Eltumi, M; Tomlin, S; Walker-Smith, J; Murch, S

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Crohn's disease of the mouth or perineum is more common in young people, and notably resistant to treatment. However, there is increasing evidence that topical therapy with tacrolimus (FK506) may be effective in skin diseases resistant to cyclosporin because of its high uptake in inflamed skin and subsequent reduction in keratinocyte chemokine production.
PATIENTS AND METHODS—Tacrolimus ointment was made up inhouse from the intravenous or oral formulation and suspended in appropriate vehicles for perioral or perianal administration at an initial concentration of 0.5 mg/g. This was administered open label to eight children (aged 5-18 years) with treatment resistant oral (three patients) and/or ulcerating perineal (six patients) Crohn's disease.
RESULTS—Marked improvement was seen in 7/8 patients within six weeks and healing within 1-6 months. One child with gross perineal and colonic disease showed little response. Two of the responders showed rebound worsening when tacrolimus was stopped or the dosage reduced rapidly, and one of these eventually required proctectomy. Slower weaning of drug concentration has been successful in 6/8 patients, with four receiving intermittent treatment and two on regular reduced dosage (0.1-0.3 mg/g) with follow up times of six months to 3.5 years. Serum concentrations of tacrolimus were undetectable in all patients.
CONCLUSIONS—Topical tacrolimus at low concentrations (0.5 mg/g) shows promise in the management of childhood perineal and oral Crohn's disease, with no evidence of significant systemic absorption. However, rapid weaning or abrupt cessation of therapy may cause rebound worsening of disease. Further controlled studies are required to assess the efficacy and safety of this treatment.


Keywords: Crohn's disease; tacrolimus; children PMID:10940284

  10. Dietary Fiber Intake is Associated with Increased Colonic Mucosal GPR43+ Polymorphonuclear Infiltration in Active Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingli; Zhu, Weiming; Gong, Jianfeng; Zuo, Lugen; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Jing; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2015-07-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 43/free fatty acid receptor 2 (GPR43/FFAR2) is essential for polymorphonuclear (PMN) recruitment. We investigated the expression of GPR43/FFAR2 in the colon from Crohn's disease patients and whether dietary fiber in enteral nutrition increases GPR43+ polymorphonuclear infiltration in mucosa. Segments of ascending colon and white blood cells from peripheral blood were obtained from 46 Crohn's disease patients and 10 colon cancer patients. The Crohn's disease patients were grouped by the activity of disease (active or remission) and enteral nutrition with or without dietary fiber. Histological feature, expression and location of GPR43/FFAR2 and level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukine-6 (IL-6) and myeloperoxidase were assessed. The results of hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry staining revealed that the infiltration of immune cells, including GPR43+ PMN, was more severe in active Crohn's disease patients who consumed normal food or enteral nutrition with dietary fiber than in remission patients and colon cancer patients. This finding was supported by the results of GPR43 and myeloperoxidase expression. Active Crohn's disease (CD) patients who consumed enteral nutrition without dietary fiber exhibited severe immune cell infiltration similar to the other active CD patients, but GPR43+ PMNs were rarely observed. The level of TNF-α mRNA in active Crohn's disease patients was higher than those of the other patients. In conclusion, the use of dietary fiber in enteral nutrition by active Crohn's disease patients might increase GPR43+ PMNs infiltration in colon mucosa. This effect was not observed in Crohn's disease patients in remission.

  11. Vedolizumab for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease: results and implications of GEMINI studies.

    PubMed

    Lam, Mindy Cw; Bressler, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Vedolizumab (VDZ) is a selective antibody against α4β7-integrin, which targets leukocyte trafficking in the gastrointestinal tract. The GEMINI studies are Phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled trials to assess the efficacy of VDZ in induction and maintenance of moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (GEMINI 1) and Crohn's disease (GEMINI 2). Included in these studies are patients who have failed TNF-α antagonist therapy. GEMINI 1 showed that VDZ is an effective agent in induction and maintenance of ulcerative colitis. GEMINI 2 met one of two primary end points in the induction phase showing that VDZ is more likely to induce clinical remission compared with placebo. VDZ is an effective agent in the maintenance of Crohn's disease. These studies pave the way to a new class of medications for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  12. Activated eosinophils and interleukin 5 expression in early recurrence of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Dubucquoi, S; Janin, A; Klein, O; Desreumaux, P; Quandalle, P; Cortot, A; Capron, M; Colombel, J F

    1995-01-01

    Endoscopic recurrences after radical surgery for Crohn's disease are useful for studying the pathogenesis of initial lesions of Crohn's disease. Factors predisposing to recurrence are poorly understood, but it has been shown that eosinophilic infiltration of the neoileum may occur within a few weeks of resection. The aim of this study was to compare, in nine patients having an ileocolectomy, the infiltration of eosinophils and their activation state in normal and diseased areas of the neoileum, three months after surgery. Tissue eosinophils were studied by histochemical methods and electron microscopy. Mucosal expression of interleukin 5 (IL 5), an important eosinophil activating factor was studied using in situ hybridisation. Sixty per cent of patients had endoscopic recurrence at three months. Eosinophil infiltration was more pronounced in diseased than in endoscopically normal areas and was associated with a high expression of IL 5 mRNA. Ultrastructural analysis showed features of eosinophil activation, but no cytotoxic lesions of surrounding inflammatory or epithelial cells. This study suggests that local synthesis of IL 5 associated with eosinophil activation in the tissues could participate in early mucosal damage in Crohn's disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7557575

  13. Efficacy and safety of medical therapy for low bone mineral density in patients with Crohn disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaojing; Zhou, Changcheng; Chen, Han; Ma, Jingjing; Zhu, Yunjuan; Wang, Peixue; Zhang, Yi; Ma, Haiqin; Zhang, Hongjie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a frequent complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), particularly in patients with Crohn disease (CD). The aim of our study is to determine the efficacy and safety of different drugs used to treat low BMD in patients with CD. Methods: PUBMED/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for eligible studies. A random-effects model within a Bayesian framework was applied to compare treatment effects as standardized mean difference (SMD) with their corresponding 95% credible interval (CrI), while odds ratio (OR) was applied to compare adverse events with 95% CrI. The surface under the cumulative ranking area (SUCRA) was calculated to make the ranking of the treatments for outcomes. Results: Twelve randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were eligible. Compared with placebo, zoledronate (SMDs 2.74, 95% CrI 1.36–4.11) and sodium-fluoride (SMDs 1.23, 95% CrI 0.19–2.26) revealed statistical significance in increasing lumbar spine BMD (LSBMD). According to SUCRA ranking, zoledronate (SUCRA = 2.5%) might have the highest probability to be the best treatment for increasing LSBMD in CD patients among all agents, followed by sodium-fluoride (27%). For safety assessment, the incidence of adverse events (AEs) demonstrated no statistical difference between agents and placebo. The corresponding SUCRA values indicated that risedronate (SUCRA = 77%) might be the most safe medicine for low BMD in CD patients and alendronate ranked the worst (SUCRA = 16%). Conclusions: Zoledronate might have the highest probability to be the best therapeutic strategy for increasing LSBMD. For the safety assessment, risedronate showed the greatest trend to decrease the risk of AEs. In the future, more RCTs with higher qualities are needed to make head-to-head comparison between 2 or more treatments. PMID:28296781

  14. Fluorescence endoscopic imaging study of anastomotic recurrence of Crohn's disease after right ileocolonic resection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordon, Serge R.; Maunoury, Vincent; Klein, Olivier; Colombel, Jean-Frederic

    1995-12-01

    Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology. Vasculitis is hypothesized but it was never demonstrated in vivo. This study aimed to evaluate the vascular mucosa perfusion using fluorescence imaging in 13 patients who had previously undergone eileocolonic resection and who agreed to participate in a prospective endoscopic study of anastomotic recurrence. This anastomotic recurrence rate is known to be high (73% after 1 year follow-up) and is characterized by ulcerations. The fluorescence study was started with an I.V. bolus injection of sodium fluorescein. The pre-anastomotic mucosa was endoscopically examined with blue light that stimulates fluorescein fluorescence. Fluorescence emission was recorded with an ultra-high-sensitivity camera connected to the endoscope via an interference filter (520 - 560 nm). A uniform fluorescence was observed a few seconds after the injection and lasted for 15 min in healthy subjects. In case of recurrence, the centers of the ulcerations displayed a very low fluorescence indicating localized ischemia. In contrast, the rims of the ulcers revealed brighter fluorescent images than those of normal mucosa. The anastomotic ulcerations of Crohn's disease recurrence exhibit a high fluorescence intensity at their margins indicating an increased mucosal blood flow and/or enhanced transcapillary diffusion. These findings support the hypothesis of a primary vasculitis in Crohn's disease.

  15. Enzymatic and morphometric evidence for Crohn's disease as a diffuse lesion of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Dunne, W T; Cooke, W T; Allan, R N

    1977-04-01

    Intestinal disaccharidase and dipeptidase activities were measured in mucosal biopsies from the proximal jejunum in 20 patients with Crohn's disease apparently confined to the distal ileum or large bowel, 14 patients with ulcerative colitis, and 14 healthy volunteers who acted as controls. The dissecting microscopy and histological appearance of the biopsies were normal (Gd 0-1) except for two which showed grade 2 changes. tbiopsy morphometry showed a reduction of jejunal mucosal surface area and an increase in mucosal volume in patients with Chron's disease when compared with the other two groups. The mucosal enzymes studies demonstrated that patients with Crohn's disease had a significant reduction in brush-border enzymes (disaccharidase) but no change in cytoplasmic enzyme activity (dipeptidases). The enzyme levels in patients with ulcerative colitis did not differ from the healthy controls. The reduction of brush-border enzymes with normal cytoplasmic enzymes in the presence of abnormal morphometry is further evidence of the concept of Crohn's disease as a diffuse lesion of the gastrointestinal tract. It also suggests that there is either specific damage to the microvilli or some other abnormality such as impairment of enzyme synthesis.

  16. Isolated Bilateral Gastrocnemius Myositis in Crohn Disease Successfully Treated with Adalimumab.

    PubMed

    di Prampero, Salvatore Vadala; Marino, Marco; Toso, Francesco; Avellini, Claudio; Nguyen, Vu; Sorrentino, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Extraintestinal manifestations are common in inflammatory bowel disease; however, muscular involvement in Crohn disease is rarely reported. We present a case of a 26-year-old male with ileocolonic Crohn disease who developed sudden tenderness in both calves. Doppler ultrasound was negative for deep vein thrombosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the gastrocnemius muscle showed high intensity signal in the muscle fibers, and muscle biopsy demonstrated nonspecific lymphocytic myositis. Other relevant laboratory results included normal antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and creatine kinase as well as elevated C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae IgG titer. The patient was in clinical remission, being treated with azathioprine 2.5 mg/kg. Prednisone 60 mg/day was initiated with rapid resolution of calf tenderness; however, tenderness soon returned when the dose was tapered to 10 mg/day. Subsequently, prednisone and azathioprine were discontinued, and adalimumab was started at standard induction and maintenance doses. The patient's symptoms resolved shortly after the first induction dose. A repeat magnetic resonance imaging of the calves - 3 months after starting adalimumab - showed complete resolution of muscle inflammation. To our knowledge, this is the first case of gastrocnemius myositis - a rare extraintestinal manifestation of Crohn disease - successfully treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor agents.

  17. In vivo imaging using fluorescent antibodies to tumor necrosis factor predicts therapeutic response in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Atreya, Raja; Neumann, Helmut; Neufert, Clemens; Waldner, Maximilian J; Billmeier, Ulrike; Zopf, Yurdagül; Willma, Marcus; App, Christine; Münster, Tino; Kessler, Hermann; Maas, Stefanie; Gebhardt, Bernd; Heimke-Brinck, Ralph; Reuter, Eva; Dörje, Frank; Rau, Tilman T; Uter, Wolfgang; Wang, Thomas D; Kiesslich, Ralf; Vieth, Michael; Hannappel, Ewald; Neurath, Markus F

    2014-03-01

    As antibodies to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) suppress immune responses in Crohn's disease by binding to membrane-bound TNF (mTNF), we created a fluorescent antibody for molecular mTNF imaging in this disease. Topical antibody administration in 25 patients with Crohn's disease led to detection of intestinal mTNF(+) immune cells during confocal laser endomicroscopy. Patients with high numbers of mTNF(+) cells showed significantly higher short-term response rates (92%) at week 12 upon subsequent anti-TNF therapy as compared to patients with low amounts of mTNF(+) cells (15%). This clinical response in the former patients was sustained over a follow-up period of 1 year and was associated with mucosal healing observed in follow-up endoscopy. These data indicate that molecular imaging with fluorescent antibodies has the potential to predict therapeutic responses to biological treatment and can be used for personalized medicine in Crohn's disease and autoimmune or inflammatory disorders.

  18. Pediatric Small Bowel Crohn Disease: Correlation of US and MR Enterography

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ethan A.; Sanchez, Ramon J.; DiPietro, Michael A.; DeMatos-Maillard, Vera; Strouse, Peter J.; Darge, Kassa

    2015-01-01

    Small bowel Crohn disease is commonly diagnosed during the pediatric period, and recent investigations show that its incidence is increasing in this age group. Diagnosis and follow-up of this condition are commonly based on a combination of patient history and physical examination, disease activity surveys, laboratory assessment, and endoscopy with biopsy, but imaging also plays a central role. Ultrasonography (US) is an underutilized well-tolerated imaging modality for screening and follow-up of small bowel Crohn disease in children and adolescents. US has numerous advantages over computed tomographic (CT) enterography and magnetic resonance (MR) enterography, including low cost and no required use of oral or intravenous contrast material. US also has the potential to provide images with higher spatial resolution than those obtained at CT enterography and MR enterography, allows faster examination than does MR enterography, does not involve ionizing radiation, and does not require sedation or general anesthesia. US accurately depicts small bowel and mesenteric changes related to pediatric Crohn disease, and US findings show a high correlation with MR imaging findings in this patient population. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:25839736

  19. Isolated Bilateral Gastrocnemius Myositis in Crohn Disease Successfully Treated with Adalimumab

    PubMed Central

    di Prampero, Salvatore Vadala; Marino, Marco; Toso, Francesco; Avellini, Claudio; Nguyen, Vu; Sorrentino, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Extraintestinal manifestations are common in inflammatory bowel disease; however, muscular involvement in Crohn disease is rarely reported. We present a case of a 26-year-old male with ileocolonic Crohn disease who developed sudden tenderness in both calves. Doppler ultrasound was negative for deep vein thrombosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the gastrocnemius muscle showed high intensity signal in the muscle fibers, and muscle biopsy demonstrated nonspecific lymphocytic myositis. Other relevant laboratory results included normal antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and creatine kinase as well as elevated C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae IgG titer. The patient was in clinical remission, being treated with azathioprine 2.5 mg/kg. Prednisone 60 mg/day was initiated with rapid resolution of calf tenderness; however, tenderness soon returned when the dose was tapered to 10 mg/day. Subsequently, prednisone and azathioprine were discontinued, and adalimumab was started at standard induction and maintenance doses. The patient's symptoms resolved shortly after the first induction dose. A repeat magnetic resonance imaging of the calves – 3 months after starting adalimumab – showed complete resolution of muscle inflammation. To our knowledge, this is the first case of gastrocnemius myositis – a rare extraintestinal manifestation of Crohn disease – successfully treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor agents. PMID:27920658

  20. Pediatric Small Bowel Crohn Disease: Correlation of US and MR Enterography.

    PubMed

    Dillman, Jonathan R; Smith, Ethan A; Sanchez, Ramon J; DiPietro, Michael A; DeMatos-Maillard, Vera; Strouse, Peter J; Darge, Kassa

    2015-01-01

    Small bowel Crohn disease is commonly diagnosed during the pediatric period, and recent investigations show that its incidence is increasing in this age group. Diagnosis and follow-up of this condition are commonly based on a combination of patient history and physical examination, disease activity surveys, laboratory assessment, and endoscopy with biopsy, but imaging also plays a central role. Ultrasonography (US) is an underutilized well-tolerated imaging modality for screening and follow-up of small bowel Crohn disease in children and adolescents. US has numerous advantages over computed tomographic (CT) enterography and magnetic resonance (MR) enterography, including low cost and no required use of oral or intravenous contrast material. US also has the potential to provide images with higher spatial resolution than those obtained at CT enterography and MR enterography, allows faster examination than does MR enterography, does not involve ionizing radiation, and does not require sedation or general anesthesia. US accurately depicts small bowel and mesenteric changes related to pediatric Crohn disease, and US findings show a high correlation with MR imaging findings in this patient population.

  1. [DIETARY HABITS AND FEEDING BELIEFS OF PEOPLE WITH CROHN'S DISEASE].

    PubMed

    García-Sanjuán, Sofía; Lillo-Crespo, Manuel; Sanjuán-Quiles, Ángela; Richart-Martínez, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: la enfermedad de Crohn es una enfermedad crónica de etiopatogenia desconocida. Las consecuencias que esta enfermedad provoca a nivel nutricional dependen de varios factores. Sin embargo, poco se sabe sobre las prácticas nutricionales que adoptan estos pacientes una vez diagnosticados. Objetivo: explorar la experiencia de los afectados en relación con la ingesta alimentaria, con el objetivo futuro de comprender dichas experiencias y diseñar intervenciones eficaces y adecuadas. Metodología y sujetos: se empleó un diseño cualitativo basado en el enfoque etnográfico. Se realizaron 19 entrevistas semiestructuradas, hasta conseguir la saturación de la información, a afectados por la enfermedad de Crohn, en la provincia de Alicante y, posteriormente, se realizó el análisis temático. Resultados: cinco categorías con sus respectivas subcategorías de análisis fueron identificadas a partir de los datos sobre la experiencia de alimentación de las personas entrevistadas. 1) Creencias sobre nutrición y EC, 2) Modificación de los hábitos alimentarios, 3) Búsqueda de información sobre alimentación y EC, 4) El papel de los profesionales, 5) Autogestión. Conclusiones: el conocimiento de los hábitos dietéticos de la persona con EC en una población en la que su dieta se presupone que culturalmente es reconocida como saludable, nos puede dar pautas de abordaje o apoyo profesional tanto en materia de prevención, promoción y educación para la salud, así como sobre su nivel organizativo en las instituciones sanitarias, cosas que actualmente no se tienen en cuenta, puesto que el abordaje de la EC es meramente clínico y con enfoque patológico, pero no desde una perspectiva de salud, fomentando hábitos saludables desde la multidisciplinariedad.

  2. A case of Crohn's disease that developed anti-infliximab and anti-adalimumab antibodies.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kenichiro; Fujimoto, Takehide; Shioya, Makoto; Nishida, Atsushi; Bamba, Shigeki; Inatomi, Osamu; Imaeda, Hirotsugu; Kitoh, Katsuyuki; Andoh, Akira

    2015-04-01

    There are few reports about the rapid appearance of anti-adalimumab antibodies in patients with Crohn's disease positive for anti-infliximab antibodies. We report the case of a 29-year-old female patient with a diagnosis of Crohn's disease who revealed a loss of response to infliximab due to high levels of antibodies to infliximab, and did not respond to the subsequent therapy by adalimumab, with a rapid appearance of antibodies to adalimumab. As one of the possible mechanisms of non-response to adalimumab, immunologic reactivity of infliximab to adalimumab was suspected, since the patient's IgG that was obtained just before the induction of adalimumab reacted with infliximab and adalimumab. We should pay attention to the easy appearance of anti-adalimumab antibodies in association with reactivity of anti-infliximab antibodies to adalimumab in patients with high levels of anti-infliximab antibodies.

  3. Opening (and Swallowing) A Can of Worms to Treat My Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Sean

    2016-07-01

    Editor's Note: This article discusses the experience, ingenuity, and determination of Sean Ahrens, a young patient with Crohn's disease who took it upon himself to treat his longstanding, symptomatic Crohn's disease with pig whipworm eggs. Reading this story will make some of you uncomfortable. You might question whether this work belongs in a medical journal or sends the wrong message to readers. However, we recognize that this topic is controversial and that N=1 reports cannot and should not change practice. The purpose of this story is not to encourage the use of pig whipworm or to demonstrate its efficacy (or lack thereof). We firmly believe that patients are uniquely qualified to provide insights into how they view their illnesses, weigh risks and benefits, and ultimately achieve self-efficacy. Stories like this are important for us to acknowledge and understand, even if they do not change our practice.

  4. Possible transmission of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis through potable water: lessons from an urban cluster of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Ellen S

    2009-09-23

    A "cluster" of patients refers to the geographic proximity of unrelated patients with the same disease and suggests a common environmental cause for that disease. Clusters of patients with Crohn's disease have been linked to the presence of an infectious microorganism in unpasteurized milk and cheese, untreated water supplied by wells or springs, animal manure used as fertilizer for family vegetable gardens, and bodies of water contaminated by agricultural runoff. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the suspected cause of Crohn's disease. MAP causes a disease in dairy cows and other animals that is similar to Crohn's disease, called Johne's ('Yo-knees') disease or paratuberculosis. Dairy cows with Johne's disease secrete MAP into their milk and excrete MAP into their feces. MAP is present in untreated water such as well water, in bodies of water contaminated by agricultural runoff, and in unpasteurized milk and cheese. The "treatment" of "tap" water to make it "drinkable" or "potable" by the processes of sedimentation, filtration and chlorination has little to no effect on MAP. MAP is so resistant to chlorine disinfection that such disinfection actually selects for its growth. Other subspecies of Mycobacterium avium grow in biofilms present on tap water pipes. Despite the documented presence of MAP in tap water and its probable growth on tap water pipes, clusters of Crohn's disease have not previously been described in relationship to tap water pipes supplying patients' homes. This report describes three unrelated individuals who lived on the same block along a street in a midwestern American city and developed Crohn's disease within four years of each other in the 1960's. A common tap water pipe supplied their homes. This is the first reported cluster of Crohn's disease possibly linked to fully treated drinking water, and is consistent with previously reported clusters of Crohn's disease linked to an infectious microorganism in water.

  5. Scintigraphic assessment of bowel involvement and disease activity in Crohn's disease using technetium 99m-hexamethyl propylene amine oxine as leukocyte label

    SciTech Connect

    Schoelmerich, J.S.; Schmidt, E.; Schuemichen, C.B.; Billmann, P.; Schmidt, H.; Gerok, W.

    1988-11-01

    Using a novel labeling technique with technetium 99m-hexamethyl propylene amine oxine, we studied 29 patients with known or suspected Crohn's disease. Technetium 99m-hexamethyl propylene amine oxine leukocyte scanning (99mTc scan) was prospectively compared with the results of independently performed radiologic, endoscopic, and histologic examinations, and with findings at surgery, to assess the clinical usefulness of this technique to localize inflammatory lesions. In addition, uptake of technetium 99m-hexamethyl propylene amine oxine in the bowel was graded by comparing it with the uptake in liver and bone marrow and correlating this with established parameters of disease activity. The viability of homologous labeled leukocytes was greater than 95%. Less than 5% of lymphocytes were found in the final preparation. It was found that 45% +/- 12% of the label was bound to granulocytes, and 98% of the unbound label was washed off before reinjection. The results of 99mTc scan revealed a good correlation with those of barium enema (r = 0.880, p less than 0.001), of endoscopy/surgery (r = 0.983, p less than 0.001), and of all combined reference methods (r = 0.981, p less than 0.001). Activity as determined by 99mTc scan was weakly correlated with the results of Crohn's disease activity index (r = 0.559, p less than 0.01), van Hees index (r = 0.606, p less than 0.01), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r = 0.456, p less than 0.05) in 24 patients with proven Crohn's disease. The correlation was improved when the 99mTc scan was compared with a combination of these activity parameters and C-reactive protein (r = 0.781, p less than 0.001). Extraintestinal manifestations (joints) and complications (cholecystitis) were also identified correctly by the 99mTc scan.

  6. Clinical experience of the use of adalimumab in the management of hidradenitis suppurativa. Comparison of response rates with Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Moyano, B; Clemente, A; Marín-Jiménez, I; Martorell, A

    2016-09-01

    The recent approval of adalimumab as the first treatment to be approved for the management of hidradenitis suppurativa has represented a before and after in the control of this chronic inflammatory disease. Given the inflammatory burden of this cutaneous disease, in the last few years hidradenitis suppurativa has been compared with inflammatory bowel disease, particularly with Crohn disease, to the point of considering hidradenitis suppurativa as "Crohn disease of the skin". These two chronic inflammatory diseases show sufficient similarities to consider whether treatment response based on the inflammatory load could also be similar. The present article aims to analyse the efficacy of adalimumab in hidradenitis suppurativa in comparison with a truly comparable disease, Crohn disease, with a view to evaluating therapeutic response rates and to drawing conclusions on the therapeutic success obtained in this disabling cutaneous disease.

  7. Coexistence of Takayasu Arteritis and Crohn's Disease in a Maltese Patient

    PubMed Central

    Caruana Galizia, John Paul; Cassar, Paul John

    2015-01-01

    Takayasu arteritis (TA) and Crohn's disease (CD) are uncommon chronic granulomatous disorders affecting the large arteries and the gastrointestinal tract, respectively. At least 40 occurrences of these two conditions in the same patient have been reported in the literature, raising the possibility of an association between them. We report the coexistence of TA and CD in a young Maltese patient and review the literature to discuss possible aetiological mechanisms that might explain this association. PMID:26839728

  8. Crohn's-like disease in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency treated with azathioprine and adalimumab.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Morón, Juan María; Pallarés-Manrique, Héctor; Martín-Suárez, Ignacio Javier; Benítez-Rodríguez, Beatriz; Ramos-Lora, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most frequent primary antibody deficiency. It is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, and occurrence of autoimmune and neoplastic diseases is also frequent; there is also a high prevalence of gastrointestinal diseases. There are reports of inflammatory bowel disease in this entity, but incidence is low (2-4 %). We present the case of a patient with common variable immunodeficiency suffering a chronic diarrhea episode and who was diagnosed with ileocaecal Crohn s-like disease after performing intestinal transit, CT abdomen and colonoscopy with biopsy. It was first treated with prednisone but on showing cortisone dependency, treatment with azathioprine and adalimumab was started, with good results.

  9. A comparative study of metronidazole and sulfasalazine for active Crohn's disease: the cooperative Crohn's disease study in Sweden. I. Design and methodologic considerations.

    PubMed

    Rosén, A; Ursing, B; Alm, T; Bárány, F; Bergelin, I; Ganrot-Norlin, K; Hoevels, J; Huitfeldt, B; Järnerot, G; Krause, U; Krook, A; Lindström, B; Nordle, O

    1982-09-01

    The design and execution of the Cooperative Crohn's Disease Study in Sweden are described in this paper. A double-blind, double-dummy, crossover (2 X 4 mo) technique was used to compare the suppressive efficacy of metronidazole (0.4 g b.i.d.) and sulfasalazine (1.5 g b.i.d.). The number of randomized patients (78) presented approximately one-third of the available population. The Crohn's Disease Activity Index and the plasma level of orosomucoid were the main variables for clinical evaluation. Results were analyzed primarily in the first treatment period by ranking the clinical outcome of every patient according to a uniform and detailed scheme and applying Wilcoxon nonparametric statistics. The cross-over data only served as additional information. Thirty-six patients had had earlier and mostly positive experience with sulfasalazine. Repeated plasma drug analysis indicated good compliance. The blindness of the trial was tested and appeared satisfactory. The coordination of the trial proceeded as planned. A lack of full conformity in the electroimmunoassay of orosomucoid was taken care of satisfactorily.

  10. Early or late guided missile in the treatment of Crohn's disease?

    PubMed

    Caprilli, R; Angelucci, E; Cocco, A

    2005-12-01

    Over the last few years, much light has been shed on the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. Further knowledge in this field has provided a firm basis not only in the understanding of current treatment but also for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Aim of these new agents is primarily to selectively interact with the key processes of intestinal inflammation. At present, only anti-tumour necrosis factor-alpha antibodies namely infliximab, is licensed for clinical practice but it is feasible to foresee that, in the near future, a larger range of these agents will become available. Herein, the most promising biological agents in the treatment of Crohn's disease are outlined, which patients would benefit from these agents and when they should be administered. Attention is focused on the early (top-down) or late (step-up) use of biological agents, which for their very targeted mechanism of action may be compared to guided missiles. As yet, early use of biological agents remains to be supported by convincing evidence, nevertheless it may be advocated as first-line therapy for newly diagnosed severe Crohn's disease patients, both adults and children.

  11. Metastatic Crohn's Disease: An Approach to an Uncommon but Important Cutaneous Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Aberumand, Babak; Howard, John

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To provide physicians with a clinical approach to metastatic Crohn's disease (MCD). Main Message. Metastatic Crohn's disease, defined as skin lesions present in areas noncontiguous with the gastrointestinal tract, is the rarest cutaneous manifestation of Crohn's disease. MCD lesions vary in morphology and can arise anywhere on the skin. MCD presents equally in both sexes and across age groups. Cutaneous findings may precede, develop concurrently with, or follow gastrointestinal involvement. A detailed history and thorough physical examination including a full-skin exam may help to exclude other dermatoses, as MCD can mimic other common disorders. A biopsy is required for a definitive diagnosis. Treatment options for MCD remain underwhelming due to the lack of randomized control studies and varying responses of reported therapeutic methods. Topical, intralesional, and systemic corticosteroids, antibiotics, traditional immunosuppressants, and surgery have shown mixed results. Recently, biologics have shown promise, even with refractory cases of MCD. Conclusion. MCD is an important cutaneous manifestation of this inflammatory disorder. Although a rare entity, early recognition can provide opportunity for successful therapeutic intervention. PMID:28127561

  12. Preoperative Nutritional Therapy Reduces the Risk of Anastomotic Leakage in Patients with Crohn's Disease Requiring Resections

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhen; Guo, Dong; Gong, Jianfeng; Zhu, Weiming; Zuo, Lugen; Sun, Jing; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2016-01-01

    Background. The rate of anastomotic leakage is high in surgeries for Crohn's disease, and therefore a temporary diverting stoma is often needed. We conducted this study to investigate whether preoperative nutritional therapy could reduce the risk of anastomotic leakage while decreasing the frequency of temporary stoma formation. Methods. This was a retrospective study. Patients requiring bowel resections due to Crohn's disease were reviewed. The rate of anastomotic leakage and temporary diverting stoma was compared between patients who received preoperative nutritional therapy and those on a normal diet before surgery. Possible predictive factors for anastomotic leakage were also analyzed. Results. One hundred and fourteen patients undergoing 123 surgeries were included. Patients in nutritional therapy (NT) group had a significantly lower level of C-reactive protein on the day before surgery. Patients in NT group suffered less anastomotic leakage (2.3% versus 17.9%, P = 0.023) and less temporary diverting stoma (22.8% versus 40.9%, P = 0.036). Serum albumin of the day before surgery ≤35 g/L and preoperative nutritional therapy were identified as factors which independently affected the rate of anastomotic leakage. Conclusion. Preoperative nutritional therapy reduced the risk of anastomotic leakage and the frequency of temporary diverting stoma formation in patients with Crohn's disease requiring resections. PMID:26858749

  13. Anastomotic recurrence of Crohn's disease after ileocolic resection: comparison of MR enteroclysis with endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Sailer, Johannes; Peloschek, Philipp; Reinisch, Walter; Vogelsang, Harald; Turetschek, Karl; Schima, Wolfgang

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of MR enteroclysis in patients with Crohn's disease recurrence after ileocolic resection and to establish an MR scoring sytem. MR enteroclysis and endoscopy were performed in 30 patients with suspected Crohn's disease recurrence after ileocolic resection. Findings were evaluated by three radiologists, using an MR score based on image quality, contrast enhancement, and mural and extramural bowel-wall changes: MR0 (no abnormal features), MR1 (minimal mucosal changes), MR2 (diffuse aphtoid ileitis, moderate recurrence), and MR3 (severe recurrence with trans- and extramural changes). The endoscopic Rutgeerts score defines changes at the ileum on a scale from I0 to I4. In 3/30 (10%) patients, evaluation was not possible. The mean overall image quality was rated as 1.7 (kappa 0.78). Comparing MR and Rutgeerts score, the mean observer agreement for the total score rating was 77.8% (kappa 0.67). When comparing only scores below or above MR2-the threshold indicative of the necessity of medical treatment-there was a total agreement of 95.1% (kappa 0.84). MR enteroclysis allows assessment of Crohn's disease recurrence after ileocolic resection. The MR score is reproducible and shows high agreement with the approved endoscopic Rutgeerts score.

  14. Structural heterogeneity of faecal alpha 1 antitrypsin shown by immunoblot analysis in patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Boege, F; Fischbach, W

    1991-01-01

    Faecal alpha 1 antitrypsin was determined in 34 patients with Crohn's disease and in 19 healthy subjects by immune nephelometry. A structural analysis of faecal alpha 1 antitrypsin was carried out using immunoblot analysis under non-reducing conditions. Native serum alpha 1 antitrypsin migrated with an apparent molecular weight of 45 kDa. Proteolytic alpha 1 antitrypsin fragments (5-42 kDa) were specifically immunostained in 13/19 and 22/34 stool samples from control subjects and from patients with Crohn's disease respectively. There was a weak correlation (r = 0.47; p less than 0.02) between the molecular weight of fragmented alpha 1 antitrypsin and the faecal concentration in both groups, indicating that alpha 1 antitrypsin inhibits its own proteolysis by intestinal proteases in a dose dependent way. The incidence of polymeric forms (greater than 45 kDa) was similar in patients (10/34) and control subjects (5/19). In only one case in each group was the native serum form of alpha 1 antitrypsin found in faeces. We conclude that faecal alpha 1 antitrypsin differs structurally from the native serum form. Immunochemical measurements, therefore, reflect rather than represent faecal concentrations of alpha 1 antitrypsin. The controversial results in published reports may be partly explained by these findings. The molecular heterogeneity of faecal alpha 1 antitrypsin is not specifically associated with Crohn's disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2040471

  15. Coexistence of Crohn's disease in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Katsanos, Konstantinos H; Voulgari, Paraskevi V; Goussia, Anna; Oikonomou, Panagiotis; Christodoulou, Dimitrios K; Drosos, Alexandros A; Tsianos, Epameinondas V

    2013-08-01

    The concurrence of inflammatory bowel disease with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is rare. The concomitant diagnosis of Crohn's disease and SLE is even more rare. The patient, a 40-year-old woman, was admitted to our hospital because of relapsing episodes of abdominal pain, diarrheas upper and lower extremities arthralgias, Raynaud's phenomenon with positive antinuclear antibodies, and fever for the last 2 years. The patient was diagnosed elsewhere with SLE and treated with hydroxychloroquine. Her medical history also included tonsillectomy and total hip replacement after a car accident. Family history was unremarkable. Physical examination was unremarkable except of very mild pain at lower left abdominal quadrant. Laboratory tests showed erythrocyte sedimentation rate at 32 mm/h, C-reactive protein at 36 mg/dl, positive rheumatoid factor, and increased C3, C4, positive antinuclear antibodies with the presence of anti-Sm and anti-RNP antibodies. Ileocolonoscopy revealed colonic inflammation with ulcers and pseudopolyps. Subsequent biopsies were diagnostic of Crohn's disease. Patient was diagnosed with Crohn's colitis concomitant to systemic lupus erythematosus and was started on therapy with azathioprine 2 mg/Kg, methylprednisolone 16 mg/d with slow tapering, mesalazine 1.5 g/day, and hydroxychloroquine. Patient is in excellent health status on the six-month follow-up.

  16. Temporary Fecal Diversion in the Management of Colorectal and Perianal Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mennigen, Rudolf; Heptner, Britta; Senninger, Norbert; Rijcken, Emile

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the results of temporary fecal diversion in colorectal and perianal Crohn's disease. Method. We retrospectively identified 29 consecutive patients (14 females, 15 males; median age: 30.0 years, range: 18–76) undergoing temporary fecal diversion for colorectal (n = 14), ileal (n = 4), and/or perianal Crohn's disease (n = 22). Follow-up was in median 33.0 (3–103) months. Response to fecal diversion, rate of stoma reversal, and relapse rate after stoma reversal were recorded. Results. The response to temporary fecal diversion was complete remission in 4/29 (13.8%), partial remission in 12/29 (41.4%), no change in 7/29 (24.1%), and progress in 6/29 (20.7%). Stoma reversal was performed in 19 out of 25 patients (76%) available for follow-up. Of these, the majority (15/19, 78.9%) needed further surgical therapies for a relapse of the same pathology previously leading to temporary fecal diversion, including colorectal resections (10/19, 52.6%) and creation of a definitive stoma (7/19, 36.8%). At the end of follow-up, only 4/25 patients (16%) had a stable course without the need for further definitive surgery. Conclusion. Temporary fecal diversion can induce remission in otherwise refractory colorectal or perianal Crohn's disease, but the chance of enduring remission after stoma reversal is low. PMID:25649893

  17. New advances in negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) for surgical wounds of patients affected with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Selvaggi, Francesco; Pellino, Gianluca; Sciaudone, Guido; Corte, Angela Della; Candilio, Giuseppe; Campitiello, Ferdinando; Canonico, Silvestro

    2014-03-01

    Surgical site complications (SSC) negatively affect costs of care and prolong length of stay. Crohn's disease (CD) is a risk factor for SSC. CD patients often need surgery, sometimes requiring stoma. Our primary aim was to compare the effects on SSC of a portable device for NPWT (PICO, Smith & Nephew, London, UK) with gauze dressings after elective surgery for CD. Secondary aims were manageability and safety of PICO and its feasibility as home therapy. Between 2010 and 2012, 50 patients were assigned to treatment with either PICO (n = 25) or conventional dressings (n = 25). Each patient completed 12-month follow-up. Parameters of interests for primary aim were SSC, surgical complications, and readmission rates. Data on difficulties in managing PICO and device-related complications were also collected. Patients receiving PICO had less SSC, resulting in shorter hospital stay. At last follow-up, readmission rates were lower with PICO. No differences were observed in surgical complications between groups. No patients reported difficulties in managing the device. Among patients discharged with PICO, none needed to come back to the hospital for device malfunctioning or inability to manage it. PICO reduces SSC and length of stay in selected CD patients compared with conventional dressings. The device is safe and user friendly.

  18. Living with intestinal failure caused by Crohn disease: not letting the disease conquer life.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Eva; Persson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the findings of what it means to live with intestinal failure caused by Crohn disease and how it influences daily life. Ten patients, 7 with an ostomy and 7 on home parenteral nutrition followed up at an outpatient clinic for patients with intestinal failure, were interviewed using a qualitative, phenomenological-hermeneutic method. The analysis of the transcribed data is described thematically and resulted in 3 main themes; (a) struggling to not be controlled by the disease, (b) walking on a thin thread, and (c) being seen as a person, not just as a patient. These themes led to the comprehensive understanding that living with intestinal failure was interpreted as the criticality of maintaining control over one's life and body while maintaining autonomy and not letting the disease conquer life. Life entails a constant struggle with much planning to live as normally as possible and get the most out of life. It was of great importance to be seen as a person and not just as a disease, affirm that life as it is has meaning, there is a state of suffering related to the disease, there are existential issues, and suffering is related to care.

  19. Discs Large Homolog 5 (DLG5) Gene Polymorphism and Crohn's Disease: A Meta-Analysis of the Published Studies.

    PubMed

    Shafieyoun, Arezoo; Moraveji, Sharareh; Bashashati, Mohammad; Rezaei, Nima

    2016-05-01

    The real pathophysiology of Crohn's disease is unknown. The higher prevalence of Crohn's disease in Caucasian and Jewish ethnicities, as well as its familial aggregation and higher concordance among monozygotic twins, suggest some roles for genes in its development, clinical progression, and outcome. Recent original studies have indicated DLG5113G/A gene polymorphism as a risk factor for Crohn's disease. Meanwhile, the results of these studies are not consistent. We performed the current meta-analysis to understand whether there is any association between DLG5 gene polymorphism and the risk of Crohn's disease. PubMed was searched to find the case-control studies on DLG5 gene polymorphisms and Crohn's disease. This search compiled 65 articles and based on our criteria. 11 articles were included in this meta-analysis. The association between the DLG5 113G/A polymorphism and the risk of disease was assessed using odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Heterogeneity was evaluated based on I2 values.  Random and fixed-effect models were used when I2>50% and I2≤50%, respectively. Eleven studies with a total of 4648 cases and 5677 controls were pooled. Based on our meta-analysis, DLG5113G/A gene polymorphism both at genotypic and allelic levels were not associated with the risk of Crohn's disease. Pooled data indicated no significant association between DLG5113G/A gene polymorphism and the development of Crohn's disease. In order to achieve a superior conclusion, multicenter studies on larger number of patients are recommended.

  20. Complication of Behcet's disease: spontaneous aortic pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Ugurlucan, Murat; Sayin, Omer Ali; Surmen, Benguhan; Kafali, Eylul; Basaran, Murat; Alpagut, Ufuk; Dayioglu, Enver; Onursal, Ertan

    2006-01-01

    Behcet's disease is an autoimmune multisystemic disorder based on vasculitis. In this disease, the most important predictor of morbidity and mortality is the vascular complications. Appropriate surgical interventions are critical and must be planned strategically. Here, we will describe a very rare complication of the disease; spontaneous aortic pseudoaneurysm in a 33-year-old patient.

  1. Crohn's disease-associated interstitial lung disease mimicking sarcoidosis: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Thao, Choua; Lagstein, Amir; Allen, Tadashi; Dincer, Huseyin Erhan; Kim, Hyun Joo

    2016-10-07

    Respiratory involvement in Crohn's disease (CD) is a rare manifestation known to involve the large and small airways, lung parenchyma, and pleura. The clinical presentation is nonspecific, and diagnostic tests can mimic other pulmonary diseases, posing a diagnostic challenge and delay in treatment. We report a case of a 60-year-old female with a history of CD and psoriatic arthritis who presented with dyspnea, fever, and cough with abnormal radiological findings. Diagnostic testing revealed an elevated CD4:CD8 ratio in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and cryoprobe lung biopsy results showed non-necrotizing granulomatous inflammation. We describe here the second reported case of pulmonary involvement mimicking sarcoidosis in Crohn's disease and a review of the literature on the approaches to making a diagnosis of CD-associated interstitial lung disease.

  2. The role of coloscopy in the differential diagnosis between idiopathic ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease of the colon.

    PubMed

    Banche, M; Rossini, F P; Ferrari, A; Roatta, L; Gilli, E; Cirillo, R

    1976-06-01

    The authors point out the striking significance of coloscopy in establishing a correct diagnosis of inflammatory diseases of the colon. In particular, the most valuable endoscopic features are indicated which may permit distinguishing between idiopathic ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease of the colon. Differentiation between these two diseases cannot always be achieved by means of available diagnostic procedures other than coloscopy. Moreover, the endoscopic findings enable an assessment to be made of the extent, stage, severity and course of either disease. The authors' experience encompass 2,478 coloscopy examinations: the observed cases of idiopathic ulcerative colitis are 182, those of Crohn's disease of the colon are 104.

  3. Genetic analyses of chromosome 12 loci in Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lesage, S; Zouali, H; Colombel, J; Belaiche, J; Cezard, J; Tysk, C; Almer, S; Gassull, M; Binder, V; Chamaillard, M; Le Gall, I; Thomas, G; Hugot, J

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, both of which are multifactorial diseases involving the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. A region on chromosome 12 centred around the marker locus D12S83 has previously been associated with IBD predisposition. The aim of the study was to investigate this genetic region in an independent panel of European families affected by Crohn's disease.
METHODS—A sample of 95 families with two or more affected relatives and 75 simplex nuclear families were genotyped for 19 microsatellite loci located on chromosome 12. A search for linkage and linkage disequilibrium was performed using non-parametric two point and multipoint analyses with the Analyze and Genehunter packages.
RESULTS—No evidence of linkage or linkage disequilibrium was observed for any of the marker loci, including D12S83 (p=0.35 for the two point linkage test). Multipoint linkage analysis also failed to reveal positive linkage on chromosome 12. Power calculations allowed us to reject the hypothesis that the genetic region of chromosome 12 centred on D12S83 contains a susceptibility locus with a relative risk (λs) equal to or greater than 2.0 in these families.
CONCLUSION—Failure to detect linkage or linkage disequilibrium in these families suggests that the chromosome 12 locus previously reported to be associated with genetic predisposition to IBD does not play a role in all European family samples. This observation is compatible with heterogeneity in the genetic basis of susceptibility to the disease and/or exposure to various environmental factors among Caucasian families.


Keywords: chromosome 12; inflammatory bowel disease; Crohn's disease; linkage analyses; replication study PMID:11076876

  4. Factors affecting poor nutritional status after small bowel resection in patients with Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ki Ung; Yu, Chang Sik; Lim, Seok-Byung; Park, In Ja; Yoon, Yong Sik; Kim, Chan Wook; Lee, Jong Lyul; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Ye, Byong Duk; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2016-07-01

    In Crohn disease, bowel-preserving surgery is necessary to prevent short bowel syndrome due to repeated operations. This study aimed to determine the remnant small bowel length cut-off and to evaluate the clinical factors related to nutritional status after small bowel resection in Crohn disease.We included 394 patients (69.3% male) who underwent small bowel resection for Crohn disease between 1991 and 2012. Patients who were classified as underweight (body mass index < 17.5) or at high risk of nutrition-related problems (modified nutritional risk index < 83.5) were regarded as having a poor nutritional status. Preliminary remnant small bowel length cut-offs were determined using receiver operating characteristic curves. Variables associated with poor nutritional status were assessed retrospectively using Student t tests, chi-squared tests, Fisher exact tests, and logistic regression analyses.The mean follow-up period was 52.9 months and the mean patient ages at the time of the last bowel surgery and last follow-up were 31.2 and 35.7 years, respectively. The mean remnant small bowel length was 331.8 cm. Forty-three patients (10.9%) underwent ileostomy, 309 (78.4%) underwent combined small bowel and colon resection, 111 (28.2%) had currently active disease, and 105 (26.6%) underwent at least 2 operations for recurrent disease. The mean body mass index and modified nutritional risk index were 20.6 and 100.8, respectively. The independent factors affecting underweight status were remnant small bowel length ≤240 cm (odds ratio: 4.84, P < 0.001), ileostomy (odds ratio: 4.70, P < 0.001), and currently active disease (odds ratio: 4.16, P < 0.001). The independent factors affecting high nutritional risk were remnant small bowel length ≤230 cm (odds ratio: 2.84, P = 0.012), presence of ileostomy (odds ratio: 3.36, P = 0.025), and currently active disease (odds ratio: 4.90, P < 0.001).Currently active disease, ileostomy, and remnant small

  5. Factors affecting poor nutritional status after small bowel resection in patients with Crohn disease

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ki Ung; Yu, Chang Sik; Lim, Seok-Byung; Park, In Ja; Yoon, Yong Sik; Kim, Chan Wook; Lee, Jong Lyul; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Ye, Byong Duk; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In Crohn disease, bowel-preserving surgery is necessary to prevent short bowel syndrome due to repeated operations. This study aimed to determine the remnant small bowel length cut-off and to evaluate the clinical factors related to nutritional status after small bowel resection in Crohn disease. We included 394 patients (69.3% male) who underwent small bowel resection for Crohn disease between 1991 and 2012. Patients who were classified as underweight (body mass index < 17.5) or at high risk of nutrition-related problems (modified nutritional risk index < 83.5) were regarded as having a poor nutritional status. Preliminary remnant small bowel length cut-offs were determined using receiver operating characteristic curves. Variables associated with poor nutritional status were assessed retrospectively using Student t tests, chi-squared tests, Fisher exact tests, and logistic regression analyses. The mean follow-up period was 52.9 months and the mean patient ages at the time of the last bowel surgery and last follow-up were 31.2 and 35.7 years, respectively. The mean remnant small bowel length was 331.8 cm. Forty-three patients (10.9%) underwent ileostomy, 309 (78.4%) underwent combined small bowel and colon resection, 111 (28.2%) had currently active disease, and 105 (26.6%) underwent at least 2 operations for recurrent disease. The mean body mass index and modified nutritional risk index were 20.6 and 100.8, respectively. The independent factors affecting underweight status were remnant small bowel length ≤240 cm (odds ratio: 4.84, P < 0.001), ileostomy (odds ratio: 4.70, P < 0.001), and currently active disease (odds ratio: 4.16, P < 0.001). The independent factors affecting high nutritional risk were remnant small bowel length ≤230 cm (odds ratio: 2.84, P = 0.012), presence of ileostomy (odds ratio: 3.36, P = 0.025), and currently active disease (odds ratio: 4.90, P < 0.001). Currently active disease, ileostomy, and

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of perianal Crohn disease: NASPGHAN clinical report and consensus statement.

    PubMed

    de Zoeten, Edwin F; Pasternak, Brad A; Mattei, Peter; Kramer, Robert E; Kader, Howard A

    2013-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that includes both Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis. Abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, diarrhea, and weight loss characterize both CD and ulcerative colitis. The incidence of IBD in the United States is 70 to 150 cases per 100,000 individuals and, as with other autoimmune diseases, is on the rise. CD can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus and frequently will include perianal disease. The first description connecting regional enteritis with perianal disease was by Bissell et al in 1934, and since that time perianal disease has become a recognized entity and an important consideration in the diagnosis and treatment of CD. Perianal Crohn disease (PCD) is defined as inflammation at or near the anus, including tags, fissures, fistulae, abscesses, or stenosis. The symptoms of PCD include pain, itching, bleeding, purulent discharge, and incontinence of stool. In this report, we review and discuss the etiology, diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of PCD.

  7. Molecular reclassification of Crohn's disease: a cautionary note on population stratification.

    PubMed

    Maus, Bärbel; Jung, Camille; Mahachie John, Jestinah M; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Génin, Emmanuelle; Van Steen, Kristel

    2013-01-01

    Complex human diseases commonly differ in their phenotypic characteristics, e.g., Crohn's disease (CD) patients are heterogeneous with regard to disease location and disease extent. The genetic susceptibility to Crohn's disease is widely acknowledged and has been demonstrated by identification of over 100 CD associated genetic loci. However, relating CD subphenotypes to disease susceptible loci has proven to be a difficult task. In this paper we discuss the use of cluster analysis on genetic markers to identify genetic-based subgroups while taking into account possible confounding by population stratification. We show that it is highly relevant to consider the confounding nature of population stratification in order to avoid that detected clusters are strongly related to population groups instead of disease-specific groups. Therefore, we explain the use of principal components to correct for population stratification while clustering affected individuals into genetic-based subgroups. The principal components are obtained using 30 ancestry informative markers (AIM), and the first two PCs are determined to discriminate between continental origins of the affected individuals. Genotypes on 51 CD associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are used to perform latent class analysis, hierarchical and Partitioning Around Medoids (PAM) cluster analysis within a sample of affected individuals with and without the use of principal components to adjust for population stratification. It is seen that without correction for population stratification clusters seem to be influenced by population stratification while with correction clusters are unrelated to continental origin of individuals.

  8. Accumulation of mesalazine pills in the medium ileum in a patient with Crohn´s disease.

    PubMed

    Martínez Huertas, Carmen; Garcia-Villanova Ruiz, Paloma; Pozo Sánchez, José; Dávila Arias, Cristina

    2017-03-01

    Crohn´s disease is an inflammatory disease that can involve any portion of the gastrointestinal tract, although terminal ileum is the most commonly affected portion. It is characterized by a transmural and discontinuous distribution pattern, with alternating periods of active disease and remission. We present the case of a 23-year-old patient diagnosed with Crohn´s disease, in treatment with extended release Mesalazine and corticoids. The CT Enterography showed activity signs and a great dilatation of medium ileum with lots of Mesalazine pills accumulated inside. Pill accumulation occurred because of stenosis, which did not let the pills at this level progress to distal ileum, and be absorbed.

  9. Detecting inflammation and fibrosis in bowel wall with photoacoustic imaging in a Crohn's disease animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guan; Johnson, Laura A.; Hu, Jack; Dillman, Jonathan R.; Higgins, Peter D. R.; Wang, Xueding

    2015-03-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is an autoimmune disease affecting 700,000 people in the United States. This condition may cause obstructing intestinal narrowings (strictures) due to inflammation, fibrosis (deposition of collagen), or a combination of both. Utilizing the unique strong optical absorption of hemoglobin at 532 nm and collagen at 1370 nm, this study investigated the feasibility of non-invasively characterizing intestinal strictures using photoacoustic imaging (PAI). Three normal controls, ten pure inflammation and 9 inflammation plus fibrosis rat bowel wall samples were imaged. Statistical analysis of the PA measurements has shown the capability of discriminating the purely inflammatory from mixed inflammatory and fibrotic strictures.

  10. Molecular identification of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in oral biopsies of Crohn's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Molicotti, Paola; Scanu, Antonio M; Lumbau, Aurea; Cannas, Sara; Bua, Alessandra; Lugliè, Pietrina; Zanetti, Stefania

    2013-07-10

    Oral lesions may be found in patients with Crohn's disease (CD), in a percentage up to 20%. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible relationship between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and oral lesions in CD patients. 23 oral biopsies were examined performing IS900 Nested PCR; 9 of them were positive: 8 from CD patients and 1 from a control. Our purpose is to go on with this study, amplifying the number of subjects examined and testing subjects with oral lesions related to diseases other than CD to verify the specific association between MAP and oral lesions in CD patients.

  11. Pure red cell aplasia due to azathioprine therapy for Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Nagesh; Pai, C Ganesh; Deltombe, Thylbert

    2016-01-01

    Various mechanisms contribute to anemia in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), drug-related causes being less frequent. The hematological and other adverse events of azathioprine (AZA) therapy are well documented, but drug-associated pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is an uncommon event. We hereby describe two cases of AZA-associated PRCA in patients with Crohn's disease. The diagnosis was supported by pathological reports, and prompt hematological recovery was seen with discontinuation of the offending drug. This report highlights the need to consider this rare entity in IBD patients in appropriate settings and for adopting adequate precautionary measures.

  12. What Role Does Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Play in Crohn's Disease?

    PubMed

    Bach, Horacio

    2015-02-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, debilitating inflammatory bowel disease with no etiological agent yet identified. Studies have demonstrated that the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is present in a high percentage of CD patients. Although MAP has been isolated from human specimens, current techniques fail to show the presence of MAP in 100 % of tissues or biopsies obtained from CD patient lesions, and thus MAP cannot meet Koch's postulate as the etiological agent of CD. In this report, the effect of genetic and immune factors as well as the presence of MAP as a potential environmental factor is analyzed.

  13. Therapeutic approach to Crohn disease: possible parallels with hidradenitis suppurativa.

    PubMed

    González Lama, Y; Marín-Jiménez, I

    2016-09-01

    The current controversy in the setting of dermatology surrounding the treatment of inflammatory diseases, and specifically hidradenitis suppurativa, bears strong similarities with the debate concerning inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that took place several years ago. That debate led to new perspectives on this disease and, in particular, its treatment after the development of biological agents.

  14. [Cardiac and extracardiac complications in Kawasaki disease].

    PubMed

    Kamada, Masahiro

    2014-09-01

    In terms of frequency and prognosis, discussions of the complications of Kawasaki disease have focused on coronary artery aneurysms and stenosis. However, as revealed by autopsy findings, medium and small muscular arteries in various organs could be injured in patients with Kawasaki disease, leading to the development of a variety of complications. Accurate diagnosis of Kawasaki disease can be especially difficult when incomplete Kawasaki disease is accompanied by rare complications involving the central nervous system, digestive system, and other systems in the body, which leads to delay in treatment and subsequent development of coronary artery aneurysms and delayed improvement of the existing complications. Doctors who treat Kawasaki disease should be familiar with the rare but important complications of Kawasaki disease.

  15. TNFα and IL10 SNPs act together to predict disease behaviour in Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, E; Eri, R; Hume, G; Johnstone, S; Pandeya, N; Lincoln, D; Templeton, D; Radford-Smith, G

    2005-01-01

    Background: The cytokines tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α and interleukin (IL)10 have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD), with increased concentrations reported in patients with active disease. However, limited data exist on their effects on disease phenotype in the same population. Certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the promoter region of the IL10 (-1082G/A, -592C/A) and TNFα (-308G/A, -857C/T) genes have been associated with altered levels of circulating IL10 and TNFα. Methods: We conducted an Australian based case–control study (304 CD patients; 231 healthy controls) of these four SNPs. Further investigation of two SNPs was conducted using a logistic regression analysis. Results: We identified a possible association of both IL10 SNPs and TNFα-857 with CD. Further investigation of a relationship with disease severity showed a significant association of higher producing IL10-1082G and TNFα-857C alleles with stricturing behaviour, which was strongest when these alleles were combined and persisted after multivariate analysis (p = 0.007; odds ratio (OR) 2.37, 95% CI 1.26 to 4.43). In addition, the TNFα-857CC genotype was independently associated with familial CD (p = 0.03; OR 3.12; 95% CI 1.15 to 8.46). Conclusion: These two SNPs may help to predict disease behaviour in CD patients, which may be clinically useful in shaping treatment of the disease at an earlier stage. PMID:15937090

  16. The Association between Hidradenitis Suppurativa and Crohn's Disease: in Search of the Missing Pathogenic Link.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, Hessel H; Horvath, Barbara; Jemec, Gregor B E; Prens, Errol P

    2016-09-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic, autoinflammatory skin disease. Shalom et al. demonstrate in a large cross-sectional study an association between Crohn's disease and hidradenitis suppurativa, but not with ulcerative colitis. This association supports the hypothesis that a similar pathogenic mechanism contributes to both diseases, providing new possibilities for functional studies and therapy development.

  17. Rhinophyma-like hypertrophy of the nose caused by chronic facial pyoderma in a patient with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Sunao; Ichioka, Shigeru; Tajima, Saori

    2014-10-01

    We present our experience with a 22-year-old man who had Crohn's disease with rhinophyma-like hypertrophy of the nose arising from pyogenic skin disease of the face. The clinical appearance did not precisely match any previously reported skin diseases.

  18. A Crohn's disease variant in Atg16l1 enhances its degradation by caspase 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, Aditya; Li, Yun; Peng, Ivan; Reichelt, Mike; Katakam, Anand Kumar; Noubade, Rajkumar; Roose-Girma, Merone; Devoss, Jason; Diehl, Lauri; Graham, Robert R.; van Lookeren Campagne, Menno

    2014-02-01

    Crohn's disease is a debilitating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that can involve the entire digestive tract. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) encoding a missense variant in the autophagy gene ATG16L1 (rs2241880, Thr300Ala) is strongly associated with the incidence of Crohn's disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated the effect of ATG16L1 deletion or deficiency; however, the molecular consequences of the Thr300Ala (T300A) variant remains unknown. Here we show that amino acids 296-299 constitute a caspase cleavage motif in ATG16L1 and that the T300A variant (T316A in mice) significantly increases ATG16L1 sensitization to caspase-3-mediated processing. We observed that death-receptor activation or starvation-induced metabolic stress in human and murine macrophages increased degradation of the T300A or T316A variants of ATG16L1, respectively, resulting in diminished autophagy. Knock-in mice harbouring the T316A variant showed defective clearance of the ileal pathogen Yersinia enterocolitica and an elevated inflammatory cytokine response. In turn, deletion of the caspase-3-encoding gene, Casp3, or elimination of the caspase cleavage site by site-directed mutagenesis rescued starvation-induced autophagy and pathogen clearance, respectively. These findings demonstrate that caspase 3 activation in the presence of a common risk allele leads to accelerated degradation of ATG16L1, placing cellular stress, apoptotic stimuli and impaired autophagy in a unified pathway that predisposes to Crohn's disease.

  19. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis causes Crohn's disease in some inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    PubMed

    Naser, Saleh A; Sagramsingh, Sudesh R; Naser, Abed S; Thanigachalam, Saisathya

    2014-06-21

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory condition that plagues millions all over the world. This debilitating bowel disease can start in early childhood and continue into late adulthood. Signs and symptoms are usually many and multiple tests are often required for the diagnosis and confirmation of this disease. However, little is still understood about the cause(s) of CD. As a result, several theories have been proposed over the years. One theory in particular is that Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is intimately linked to the etiology of CD. This fastidious bacterium also known to cause Johne's disease in cattle has infected the intestines of animals for years. It is believed that due to the thick, waxy cell wall of MAP it is able to survive the process of pasteurization as well as chemical processes seen in irrigation purification systems. Subsequently meat, dairy products and water serve as key vehicles in the transmission of MAP infection to humans (from farm to fork) who have a genetic predisposition, thus leading to the development of CD. The challenges faced in culturing this bacterium from CD are many. Examples include its extreme slow growth, lack of cell wall, low abundance, and its mycobactin dependency. In this review article, data from 60 studies showing the detection and isolation of MAP by PCR and culture techniques have been reviewed. Although this review may not be 100% comprehensive of all studies, clearly the majority of the studies overwhelmingly and definitively support the role of MAP in at least 30%-50% of CD patients. It is very possible that lack of detection of MAP from some CD patients may be due to the absence of MAP role in these patients. The latter statement is conditional on utilization of methodology appropriate for detection of human MAP strains. Ultimately, stratification of CD and inflammatory bowel disease patients for the presence or absence of MAP is necessary for appropriate and effective

  20. Dysbiosis in Crohn's disease - Joint action of stochastic injuries and focal inflammation in the gut

    PubMed Central

    Buttó, Ludovica F.; Haller, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gut homeostasis involves interrelated biological networks that include the immune system, specialized cells of the epithelium, such as Paneth and goblet cells, as well as triggers derived from the microbiota. Disruption of these homeostatic interactions may lead to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). To develop more targeted and individual treatments in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, it becomes more and more important to link key mechanisms of the disease pathogenesis to distinct IBD subsets. For the first time, our laboratory demonstrated a causal role of the microbiota for the development of Crohn's disease (CD)-like ileitis, supporting the hypothesis that a non-infectious, dysbiotic microbial ecosystem harbors aggressive traits relevant for the induction of chronic inflammation in the disease-susceptible host (i.e. TNFΔARE mouse model). Despite a growing body of evidence claiming a primary role for Paneth cells in the pathogenesis of ileal CD, we showed in the TNFΔARE mouse model that Paneth cell failure or exhaustion is a secondary event to inflammation. Therefore, additional mechanisms may act synergistically to initialize the development of CD-like pathology. Hereby, we propose a novel hypothesis suggesting that individual development of dysbiotic communities is based on stochastic injury and focal inflammation of the epithelial lining that propagate radially, finally leading to an aggressive microbial milieu. PMID:28102757

  1. Increased Enterococcus faecalis infection is associated with clinically active Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Youlian; Chen, Huiting; He, Hanchang; Du, Yanlei; Hu, Jiaqi; Li, Yingfei; Li, Yuyuan; Zhou, Yongjian; Wang, Hong; Chen, Ye; Nie, Yuqiang

    2016-09-01

    This study was performed to investigate the relationship between the abundance of pathogenic gut microbes in Chinese patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and disease severity.We collected clinical data and fecal samples from 47 therapy-naive Chinese patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 67 patients with Crohn disease (CD), and 48 healthy volunteers. Bacteria levels of Fusobacterium species (spp), enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (B fragilis), enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (E coli), and Enterococcus faecalis (E faecalis) were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated to test associations between bacterial content and clinical parameters.Compared to healthy controls, the levels of both Fusobacterium spp and E faecalis were significantly increased in the feces of patients with IBD (P < 0.01). B fragilis levels were higher (P < 0.05) and E faecalis levels lower (P < 0.05) in patients with CD compared to those with UC. Increased E faecalis colonization in CD associated positively with disease activity (P = 0.015), Crohn disease activity index (CDAI; R = 0.3118, P = 0.0108), and fecal calprotectin (P = 0.016).E faecalis and Fusobacterium spp are significantly enriched in patients with IBD, and increased E faecalis infection is associated with clinically active CD.

  2. Increased Enterococcus faecalis infection is associated with clinically active Crohn disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Youlian; Chen, Huiting; He, Hanchang; Du, Yanlei; Hu, Jiaqi; Li, Yingfei; Li, Yuyuan; Zhou, Yongjian; Wang, Hong; Chen, Ye; Nie, Yuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study was performed to investigate the relationship between the abundance of pathogenic gut microbes in Chinese patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and disease severity. We collected clinical data and fecal samples from 47 therapy-naive Chinese patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 67 patients with Crohn disease (CD), and 48 healthy volunteers. Bacteria levels of Fusobacterium species (spp), enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (B fragilis), enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (E coli), and Enterococcus faecalis (E faecalis) were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated to test associations between bacterial content and clinical parameters. Compared to healthy controls, the levels of both Fusobacterium spp and E faecalis were significantly increased in the feces of patients with IBD (P < 0.01). B fragilis levels were higher (P < 0.05) and E faecalis levels lower (P < 0.05) in patients with CD compared to those with UC. Increased E faecalis colonization in CD associated positively with disease activity (P = 0.015), Crohn disease activity index (CDAI; R = 0.3118, P = 0.0108), and fecal calprotectin (P = 0.016). E faecalis and Fusobacterium spp are significantly enriched in patients with IBD, and increased E faecalis infection is associated with clinically active CD. PMID:27684872

  3. Crohn's Disease: Evolution, Epigenetics, and the Emerging Role of Microbiome-Targeted Therapies.

    PubMed

    DeFilippis, Ersilia M; Longman, Randy; Harbus, Michael; Dannenberg, Kyle; Scherl, Ellen J

    2016-03-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, systemic, immune-mediated inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Originally described in 1932 as non-caseating granulomatous inflammation limited to the terminal ileum, it is now recognized as an expanding group of heterogeneous diseases defined by intestinal location, extent, behavior, and systemic extraintestinal manifestations. Joint diseases, including inflammatory spondyloarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis, are the most common extraintestinal manifestations of CD and share more genetic susceptibility loci than any other inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) trait. The high frequency and overlap with genes associated with infectious diseases, specifically Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD), suggest that CD may represent an evolutionary adaptation to environmental microbes. Elucidating the diversity of the enteric microbiota and the protean mucosal immune responses in individuals may personalize microbiome-targeted therapies and molecular classifications of CD. This review will focus on CD's natural history and therapies in the context of epigenetics, immunogenetics, and the microbiome.

  4. Resolution of Crohn's disease and complex regional pain syndrome following treatment of paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kuenstner, J Todd; Chamberlin, William; Naser, Saleh A; Collins, Michael T; Dow, Coad Thomas; Aitken, John M; Weg, Stuart; Telega, Grzegorz; John, Kuruvilla; Haas, David; Eckstein, Torsten M; Kali, Maher; Welch, Christine; Petrie, Thomas

    2015-04-07

    A cohort of family members with various chronic diseases including Crohn's disease, asthma, complex regional pain syndrome, hypothyroidism, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and lymphangiomatosis and/or evidence of infection by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) are described in this series of case reports. MAP was cultured from the blood of three members affected by the first five diseases and there was accompanying elevated anti-MAP IgG in two members. The patient affected by the sixth disease has a markedly elevated anti-MAP titer. The two patients affected by the first four diseases have been treated with a combination of anti-MAP antibiotics and ultraviolet blood irradiation therapy with resolution of the disease symptomatology and inability to culture MAP in post treatment blood samples. These case reports of patients with MAP infections provide supportive evidence of a pathogenic role of MAP in humans.

  5. Genetic determinants of ulcerative colitis include the ECM1 locus and five loci implicated in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Sheila A; Tremelling, Mark; Anderson, Carl A; Gwilliam, Rhian; Bumpstead, Suzannah; Prescott, Natalie J; Nimmo, Elaine R; Massey, Dunecan; Berzuini, Carlo; Johnson, Christopher; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Cummings, Fraser R; Drummond, Hazel; Lees, Charlie W; Onnie, Clive M; Hanson, Catherine E; Blaszczyk, Katarzyna; Inouye, Mike; Ewels, Philip; Ravindrarajah, Radhi; Keniry, Andrew; Hunt, Sarah; Carter, Martyn; Watkins, Nick; Ouwehand, Willem; Lewis, Cathryn M; Cardon, Lon; Lobo, Alan; Forbes, Alastair; Sanderson, Jeremy; Jewell, Derek P; Mansfield, John C; Deloukas, Panos; Mathew, Christopher G; Parkes, Miles; Satsangi, Jack

    2008-06-01

    We report results of a nonsynonymous SNP scan for ulcerative colitis and identify a previously unknown susceptibility locus at ECM1. We also show that several risk loci are common to ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease (IL23R, IL12B, HLA, NKX2-3 and MST1), whereas autophagy genes ATG16L1 and IRGM, along with NOD2 (also known as CARD15), are specific for Crohn's disease. These data provide the first detailed illustration of the genetic relationship between these common inflammatory bowel diseases.

  6. [Immune response and inflammation in Crohn disease. More detailed diagnostics and more specific drugs are soon to be available].

    PubMed

    Lindgren, S; Egesten, A

    1999-01-06

    The chronic inflammation in Crohn's disease may be caused by aggressive response to bacterial antigens normal to the gut. Genetic and environmental factors modify the inflammatory response evoked by damage to the mucosal gut barrier. Genetic factors may also determine the subsequent course of chronic inflammation. Further elucidation of the pathogenesis might improve our understanding of the heterogenous nature of Crohn's disease, thus enabling the disease to be subtyped and individualised therapy directed primarily at down-regulation of helper T-cell-1 response to be developed.

  7. Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis: A Guide for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back Crohn’s Disease & Ulcerative Colitis: A Guide for Parents Email Print + Share You recently learned that your ... are uncovering the culprits involved in IBD, and technology is making it possible to target them and ...

  8. Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis: A Guide for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... school, or requires special accommodations to maintain their academic performance, he or she may benefit from a 504 ... Medications and active disease symptoms may contribute to sleep deprivation and fatigue. As a result, the number of ...

  9. Sequential induction of MHC antigens on autochthonous cells of ileum affected by Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Koretz, K.; Momburg, F.; Otto, H. F.; Möller, P.

    1987-01-01

    Changes were examined in the expression of Class I and II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens by autochthonous cells of the terminal ileum affected by Crohn's disease. The study was based on the analysis of transmural specimens from terminal ileum segments obtained in the course of ileocolectomy for colon cancer and Crohn's disease. Serial sections were immunostained using monoclonal antibodies directed against monomorphic determinants of HLA-A,B,C, DR, DP, DQ, and the invariant chain (Ii) associated with Class II molecules. Compared with the normal state, the only change in Class I antigen expression occurring in Crohn's disease was the induction of HLA-A,B,C antigens in lymphatic endothelium. Changes in Class II antigen expression were more substantial. Enhancement of HLA-DR expression was found in enterocytes; DR induction was observed in glial cells of the visceral nervous plexus and in venular and venous endothelium. HLA-DP and DQ antigens were induced in enterocytes, glial cells, and capillary and venular endothelium, although this induction was restricted to areas of moderate or high inflammatory activity. The tissue distribution of Ii closely resembled that of HLA-DR, although this association was not strict: on the one hand, arterial endothelium contained low amounts of Ii in the absence of DR antigens; on the other hand, glial cells expressed Class II molecules in the absence of Ii. The extent of local enhancement/induction of MHC antigens was positively correlated with the local density of the cellular infiltrate. These data suggest that altered MHC antigen expression by autochthonous structures might be mediated by factors released from the lymphohistiocytic infiltrate, which is itself attracted by an unknown signal. In conjunction with an unknown antigen, the enhanced expression of Class II antigens might trigger an autoaggressive immune response. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:3425689

  10. Comparison of MR enteroclysis with MR enterography and conventional enteroclysis in patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Masselli, Gabriele; Casciani, Emanuele; Polettini, Elisabetta; Gualdi, Gianfranco

    2008-03-01

    To prospectively compare the diagnostic accuracy of MR enteroclysis with duodenal intubation with MRI after drinking oral contrast agent only (MR enterography) with conventional enteroclysis (conv-E) as reference standard in patients with Crohn's disease. Forty consecutive patients (22 males and 18 females; mean age 36; range 16-74 years) with proven Crohn's disease underwent conv-E and MR imaging. Twenty-two patients underwent MR enteroclysis with intubation (MRE) and 18 underwent MR-enterography (MR per OS). Two radiologists reached a consensus about the following imaging findings: luminal distension and visualization of superficial mucosal, mural and mesenteric abnormalities. Standard descriptive statistics and a Wilcoxon rank sum test were used. Statistical significance was inferred at P < 0.05. There was no significant difference in the adequacy of luminal distention between the MRE and conv-E (P = 0.08), and both were statistically superior in comparison to MR per OS in the distension of the jejunum (P < 0.01) and less significant at the ileum and terminal ileum levels (P < 0.05). MRE and conv-E were comparable for the accuracy of superficial mucosal abnormalities; meanwhile conv-E compared with MR per OS was statistically superior (P < 0.01). MRE compared with MR per OS was statistically better when visualizing superficial abnormalities (P < 0.01). No statistically significant differences were found in assessing the diagnostic efficacy between MR examinations for the depiction of mural stenosis (P = 0.105) and fistulae (P = 0.67). The number of detected mesenteric findings was significantly higher with both MRE and MR per OS compared to conv-E (P < 0.01). MRE can serve as the diagnostic procedure for initially evaluating patients suspected of having Crohn's disease. MR per OS may have a role in patients that refuse or have failed intubation and also for follow-up.

  11. Effectiveness of MR enterography for the assessment of small-bowel diseases beyond Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Amzallag-Bellenger, Elisa; Oudjit, Ammar; Ruiz, Ana; Cadiot, Guillaume; Soyer, Philippe A; Hoeffel, Christine C

    2012-01-01

    The use of cross-sectional imaging techniques for the noninvasive evaluation of small-bowel disorders is increasing. The effectiveness of magnetic resonance (MR) enterography for the evaluation of Crohn disease, in particular, is well described in the literature. In addition, MR enterography has an evolving though less well documented role to play in the evaluation of other small-bowel diseases, including various benign and malignant neoplasms arising in isolation or in polyposis syndromes such as Peutz-Jeghers, inflammatory conditions such as vasculitis and treatment-induced enteritis, infectious processes, celiac disease, diverticular disease, systemic sclerosis, and bowel duplication. MR enterography may be useful also for the evaluation of intermittent and low-grade small-bowel obstructions. Advantages of MR imaging over computed tomography (CT) for enterographic evaluations include superb contrast resolution, lack of associated exposure to ionizing radiation, ability to acquire multiplanar primary image datasets, ability to acquire sequential image series over a long acquisition time, multiphasic imaging capability, and use of intravenous contrast media with better safety profiles. MR enterography also allows dynamic evaluations of small-bowel peristalsis and distensibility of areas of luminal narrowing and intraluminal masses by repeating sequences at different intervals after administering an additional amount of the oral contrast medium. Limitations of MR enterography in comparison with CT include higher cost, less availability, more variable image quality, and lower spatial resolution. The advantages and disadvantages of MR enterography performed with ingestion of the oral contrast medium relative to MR enteroclysis performed with infusion of the oral contrast medium through a nasoenteric tube are less certain.

  12. Genome-wide association study identifies new susceptibility loci for Crohn disease and implicates autophagy in disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rioux, John D; Xavier, Ramnik J; Taylor, Kent D; Silverberg, Mark S; Goyette, Philippe; Huett, Alan; Green, Todd; Kuballa, Petric; Barmada, M Michael; Datta, Lisa Wu; Shugart, Yin Yao; Griffiths, Anne M; Targan, Stephan R; Ippoliti, Andrew F; Bernard, Edmond-Jean; Mei, Ling; Nicolae, Dan L; Regueiro, Miguel; Schumm, L Philip; Steinhart, A Hillary; Rotter, Jerome I; Duerr, Richard H; Cho, Judy H; Daly, Mark J; Brant, Steven R

    2007-05-01

    We present a genome-wide association study of ileal Crohn disease and two independent replication studies that identify several new regions of association to Crohn disease. Specifically, in addition to the previously established CARD15 and IL23R associations, we identified strong and significantly replicated associations (combined P < 10(-10)) with an intergenic region on 10q21.1 and a coding variant in ATG16L1, the latter of which was also recently reported by another group. We also report strong associations with independent replication to variation in the genomic regions encoding PHOX2B, NCF4 and a predicted gene on 16q24.1 (FAM92B). Finally, we demonstrate that ATG16L1 is expressed in intestinal epithelial cell lines and that functional knockdown of this gene abrogates autophagy of Salmonella typhimurium. Together, these findings suggest that autophagy and host cell responses to intracellular microbes are involved in the pathogenesis of Crohn disease.

  13. [Conceptual and hypothetical contributions to the pathogenesis of enteritis regionalis (Crohn's disease)].

    PubMed

    Kapp, Pál; Bély, Miklós

    2009-04-12

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a multifactorial disorder. The aim of this study was to clarify the pathogenesis of CD by analyzing the clinical data of patients treated at our institute in the last ten years. The authors observed several clinical, pathological and submicroscopic features of Crohn's disease which are characteristic of Selye's concept of stress. The authors propose the hypothesis that CD is initiated by some non-specific chronic stressors which impede cellular homeostasis in the early phase of the disease. Accordingly, extrinsic factors alter the permeability of the very sensitive surface- and intracellular dynamic "liquid" lipoprotein membranes. The primary cell-membrane damage leads to the development of erosions and ulcers which become gateways for intramural penetration of pathogenic microbes from the bowel flora. Thus the changes of the terminal ileum do not represent the initial, but presumably a later stage of the disease. Histological and ultrastructural abnormalities of membrane-structures were found in patients with CD, suggesting, that extra-intestinal manifestations of CD may be explained by these membrane-structural changes in the cells of the neuroendocrine system. Namely, the wall of small blood vessels, the myelinated nerves and some parts of the retina are also rich in such membranes. Several data in the literature indicate that premature birth, damage of embryo and fetus are more frequent in mothers with CD, and these damages are associated with the deleterious effect of glucocorticoids.

  14. Epstein Barr virus-positive mucocutaneous ulcer of the colon associated Hodgkin lymphoma in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Moran, Neil R; Webster, Bradley; Lee, Kenneth M; Trotman, Judith; Kwan, Yiu-Lam; Napoli, John; Leong, Rupert W

    2015-05-21

    Epstein Barr virus (EBV) positive mucocutaneous ulcers (EBVMCU) form part of a spectrum of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease. They have been reported in the setting of immunosenescence and iatrogenic immunosuppression, affecting the oropharyngeal mucosa, skin and gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Case reports and series to date suggest a benign natural history responding to conservative management, particularly in the GIT. We report an unusual case of EBVMCU in the colon, arising in the setting of immunosuppression in the treatment of Crohn's disease, with progression to Hodgkin lymphoma 18 mo after cessation of infliximab. The patient presented with multiple areas of segmental colonic ulceration, histologically showing a polymorphous infiltrate with EBV positive Reed-Sternberg-like cells. A diagnosis of EBVMCU was made. The ulcers failed to regress upon cessation of infliximab and methotrexate for 18 mo. Following commencement of prednisolone for her Crohn's disease, the patient developed widespread Hodgkin lymphoma which ultimately presented as a life-threatening lower GIT bleed requiring emergency colectomy. This is the first report of progression of EBVMCU to Hodgkin lymphoma, in the setting of ongoing iatrogenic immunosuppression and inflammatory bowel disease.

  15. Autophagy and Crohn's disease: at the crossroads of infection, inflammation, immunity, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Brest, P; Corcelle, E A; Cesaro, A; Chargui, A; Belaïd, A; Klionsky, D J; Vouret-Craviari, V; Hebuterne, X; Hofman, P; Mograbi, B

    2010-07-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are common inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract that include ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). The incidences of IBD are high in North America and Europe, affecting as many as one in 500 people. These diseases are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Colorectal cancer risk is also increased in IBD, correlating with inflammation severity and duration. IBD are now recognized as complex multigenetic disorders involving at least 32 different risk loci. In 2007, two different autophagy-related genes, ATG16L1 (autophagy-related gene 16-like 1) and IRGM (immunity-related GTPase M) were shown to be specifically involved in CD susceptibility by three independent genome-wide association studies. Soon afterwards, more than forty studies confirmed the involvement of ATG16L1 and IRGM variants in CD susceptibility and gave new information on the importance of macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) in the control of infection, inflammation, immunity and cancer. In this review, we discuss how such findings have undoubtedly changed our understanding of CD pathogenesis. A unifying autophagy model then emerges that may help in understanding the development of CD from bacterial infection, to inflammation and finally cancer. The Pandora's box is now open, releasing a wave of hope for new therapeutic strategies in treating Crohn's disease.

  16. The genetic predisposition and the interplay of host genetics and gut microbiome in Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Jianzhong, Hu

    2014-12-01

    Extensive genetic studies have identified more than 140 loci predisposing to Crohn disease (CD). Several major CD susceptibility genes have been shown to impair biological function with regard to immune response to recognizing and clearance of bacterial infection. Recent human microbiome studies suggest that the gut microbiome composition is differentiated in carriers of many risk variants of major CD susceptibility genes. This interplay between host genetics and its associated gut microbiome may play an essential role in the pathogenesis of CD. The ongoing microbiome research is aimed to investigate the detailed host genetics-microbiome interacting mechanism.

  17. Ileocaecal Intussusception with a Lead Point: Unusual MDCT Findings of Active Crohn's Disease Involving the Appendix

    PubMed Central

    Ozan, Ebru; Atac, Gokce Kaan; Akincioglu, Egemen; Keskin, Mete; Gulpinar, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    Adult intussusception is a rare entity accounting for 1% of all bowel obstructions. Unlike intussusceptions in children, which are idiopathic in 90% of cases, adult intussusceptions have an identifiable cause (lead point) in the majority of cases. Crohn's disease (CD) may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, including the appendix. It was shown to be a predisposing factor for intussusception. Here, we report a rare case of adult intussusception with a lead point, emphasizing diagnostic input of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in a patient with active CD that involves the appendix. PMID:26558130

  18. Primary Ectopic Mediastinal Goiter in a Patient With Crohn's Disease Presenting as Myasthenia Gravis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Sultania, Mahesh; Vatsal, Shivam; Sharma, M C

    2015-12-01

    Mediastinum is an uncommon location for ectopic goiter. Primary ectopic mediastinal goiter has been reported to present mostly with compressive symptoms. We report a case of a 62-year-old man with history of Crohn's disease, who presented with symptoms of myasthenia gravis and was found to have an anterior mediastinal mass. The mass was resected completely with successful outcome. On histopathologic examination this mass turned out to be colloid goiter. This is an extremely rare presentation of a primary ectopic mediastinal goiter.

  19. [A case of type 2 autoimmune pancreatitis associated with Crohn disease].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Takuya; Haruta, Jun-ichi; Yamaguchi, Takeo; Doisaki, Masao; Yama, Tsuyoki; Kamei, Keiichirou; Sawada, Tsunaki; Mizutani, Yasuyuki; Murakami, Yoshirou; Hattori, Shun

    2013-05-01

    A 45-year-old woman visited our hospital due to upper left quadrant pain and melena. Colonoscopy revealed longitudinal ulcers in the transverse colon. The endoscopic findings and pathological examination of a biopsy specimen led to diagnosis of Crohn disease, and mesalazine was administered. Although the colorectal lesions showed improvement with mesalazine, a blood test revealed elevation of biliary enzymes. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed diffuse narrowing of the main pancreatic duct and smooth stricture of the distal bile duct. Steroid therapy improved the pancreatic lesion, which was diagnosed as type 2 autoimmune pancreatitis.

  20. Optimizing immunomodulators and anti-TNF agents in the therapy of Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Dassopoulos, Themistocles; Sninsky, Charles A

    2012-06-01

    Randomized trials support the use of the thiopurines and anti-TNF monoclonal antibodies in treating Crohn disease. New therapeutic approaches and laboratory assays have helped optimize the use of these agents. Thiopurine methyltransferase activity should always be determined to avoid thiopurines in individuals with absent enzyme activity. The role of metabolite-adjusted dosing when initiating thiopurines is not settled. Measuring metabolites helps guide management in patients failing therapy. Loss of response to anti-TNF therapy is mitigated by maintenance therapy and concomitant immunomodulators. When loss of response to infliximab occurs, management is guided by the serum concentrations of infliximab and antibodies to infliximab.

  1. Crohn's disease confined to the duodenum: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Song, Dong Jin; Whang, Il Soon; Choi, Hyung Wook; Jeong, Cheol Yun; Jung, Sung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Crohn’s disease (CD) can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to anus. However, gastroduodenal CD is rare with a frequency reported to range between 0.5% and 4.0%. Most patients with gastroduodenal CD have concomitant lesions in the terminal ileum or colon, but isolated gastroduodenal Crohn’s disease is an extremely rare presentation of the disease accounting for less than 0.07% of all patients with CD. The symptoms of gastroduodenal CD include epigastric pain, dyspepsia, early satiety, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. The diagnosis of gastroduodenal CD requires a high level of clinical suspicion and can be made by comprehensive clinical evaluation. Here we report a rare case of isolated duodenal CD not confirmed by identification of granuloma on biopsy, but diagnosed by clinical evaluation. PMID:27326400

  2. Enteral Nutrition in Crohn's Disease: An Underused Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kansal, S.; Wagner, J.; Kirkwood, C. D.; Catto-Smith, A. G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the history, efficacy, and putative mechanism of action of enteral nutrition for inflammatory bowel disease in both paediatric and adult patients. It also analyses the reasoning behind the low popularity of exclusive enteral nutrition in clinical practice despite the benefits and safety profile. PMID:24382954

  3. Asia Pacific Consensus Statements on Crohn's disease. Part 1: Definition, diagnosis, and epidemiology: (Asia Pacific Crohn's Disease Consensus--Part 1).

    PubMed

    Ooi, Choon Jin; Makharia, Govind K; Hilmi, Ida; Gibson, Peter R; Fock, Kwong Ming; Ahuja, Vineet; Ling, Khoon Lin; Lim, Wee Chian; Thia, Kelvin T; Wei, Shu-chen; Leung, Wai Keung; Koh, Poh Koon; Gearry, Richard B; Goh, Khean Lee; Ouyang, Qin; Sollano, Jose; Manatsathit, Sathaporn; de Silva, H Janaka; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Pisespongsa, Pises; Abu Hassan, Muhamad Radzi; Sung, Joseph; Hibi, Toshifumi; Boey, Christopher C M; Moran, Neil; Leong, Rupert W L

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was previously thought to be rare in Asia, but emerging data indicate rising incidence and prevalence of IBD in the region. The Asia Pacific Working Group on Inflammatory Bowel Disease was established in Cebu, Philippines, at the Asia Pacific Digestive Week conference in 2006 under the auspices of the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology with the goal of developing best management practices, coordinating research, and raising awareness of IBD in the region. The consensus group previously published recommendations for the diagnosis and management of ulcerative colitis with specific relevance to the Asia-Pacific region. The present consensus statements were developed following a similar process to address the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of Crohn's disease. The goals of these statements are to pool the pertinent literature specifically highlighting relevant data and conditions in the Asia-Pacific region relating to the economy, health systems, background infectious diseases, differential diagnoses, and treatment availability. It does not intend to be all comprehensive and future revisions are likely to be required in this ever-changing field.

  4. [A Case of Crohn's Disease Showing Favorable Response to Induction and Maintenance Therapy with Methotrexate after Failure of Anti-tumor Necrosis Factor Therapy].

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung Ran; Yun, Gak Won; Park, Yoo Mi; Kim, Jie Hyun; Youn, Young Hoon; Park, Hyo Jin; Park, Jae Jun

    2015-10-01

    Thanks to the introduction of immumomodulators and biologics, therapeutic approaches in Crohn's disease have changed significantly during the past decade. Although new biologic therapy has dramatically improved the treatment of Crohn's disease, a substantial number of patients are refractory to these therapies or lose their initial response. Methotrexate (MTX) is a structural analogue of folic acid that can competitively inhibit the binding of dihydrofolic acid to the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase and has been widely used as immunomodulator in rheumatology area for patients with rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. Although MTX has also been shown to be an effective agent for remission induction and maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease, the use of MTX in Crohn's disease has not yet been reported in Korea. Herein, we report a case of Crohn's disease patient who was successfully treated with MTX after treatment failure with thiopurine and anti-tumor necrosis factor.

  5. An Atypical Eating Disorder with Crohn's Disease in a Fifteen-Year-Old Male: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holaday, Margot; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how 6 months after psychological intervention for an eating disorder, a 15-year-old male was diagnosed with Crohn's disease, a chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Addresses need for additional training for those from traditional school and counseling psychology programs. Advocates a team approach and consultations. (RJM)

  6. Endoscopic fluorescence imaging for early assessment of anastomotic recurrence of Crohn's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordon, Serge R.; Maunoury, Vincent; Geboes, K.; Klein, Olivier; Desreumaux, P.; Debaert, A.; Colombel, Jean-Frederic

    1999-02-01

    Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology. The mechanism of the initial mucosal alterations is still unclear: ulcerations overlying lymphoid follicles and/or vasculitis have been proposed as the early lesions. We have developed a new and original method combining endoscopy of fluorescence angiography for identifying the early pathological lesions, occurring in the neo-terminal ileum after right ileocolonic resection. The patient population consisted of 10 subjects enrolled in a prospective protocol of endoscopic follow-up at 3 and 12 months after surgery. Fluorescence imaging showed small spots giving a bright fluorescence distributed singly in mucosa which appeared normal in routine endoscopy. Histopathological examination demonstrated that the fluorescence of small spots originated from small, usually superficial, erosive lesions. In several cases, these erosive lesions occurred over lymphoid follicles. Endoscopic fluorescence imaging provides a suitable means of investigating the initial aspect of the Crohn's disease process in displaying some correlative findings between fluorescent aspects and early pathological mucosal alterations.

  7. Normal thiopurine methyltransferase phenotype testing in a Crohn disease patient with azathioprine induced myelosuppression.

    PubMed

    Leung, M; Piatkov, I; Rochester, C; Boyages, S C; Leong, R W L

    2009-02-01

    Severe cytopenias in patients with autoimmune conditions treated with azathioprine are well-recognized. Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) enzymatic activity is subject to individual and ethnic variability. Patients with low TPMT activity (poor metabolizers) are at high risk of developing severe and potentially fatal haematopoietic toxicity. Studies have shown that essentially all TPMT-deficient patients will develop haematopoietic toxicity on administration of conventional thiopurine dosages (6-mercaptopurine, azathioprine). Therefore, screening for TPMT polymorphisms in patients before prescribing thiopurine drugs has been proposed. However, despite normal in vitro enzymatic activity, cytopenia may still occur in vivo. This is the case report of an Asian patient with Crohn disease harbouring a rare TPMT mutation on DNA sequencing, who developed neutropenic sepsis and anaemia after a flare of Crohn disease. The report illustrates the importance of monitoring for cytopenia in the setting of active inflammatory disease despite prior normal phenotyping, the role of predictive pharmacogenetics and the limitations of TPMT phenotype assays that may result in misclassification of at-risk patients.

  8. Continuous elemental enteral alimentation in children with Crohn's disease and growth failure.

    PubMed

    Morin, C L; Roulet, M; Roy, C C; Weber, A

    1980-12-01

    Four children aged (11.7-13.5 yr) with protracted growth retardation related to Crohn's disease, received a 6-wk period of continuous elemental enteral alimentation with no other form of treatment. Despite drug therapy the yearly height and weight gain velocities of these children (1.7 +/- 0.3 cm and -0.8 +/- 1.4 kg, respectively) had been abnormal during the previous 2 yr. All patients experienced a complete remission of symptoms, improved nutritional status, and significant height (1.8 +/- 0.3 cm) and weight (3.8 +/- 0.5 kg) gains during the 67 wk of treatment. After cessation of elemental enteral alimentation, 3 of the 4 patients continued to grow, and over a period of 4.5 mo from the beginning of this form of nutritional therapy, they gained an average of 5.0 +/- 1.6 kg and 3.5 +/- 0.3 cm. The disease became active thereafter, and the 3 children resumed their previously abnormal growth patterns during the ensuing year. The 4th patient had surgery 2 mo after elemental enteral alimentation and experienced a subsequent second spurt of growth and pubertal changes. This study suggests that a relatively short course of elemental enteral alimentation leads to a temporary resumption of growth in children with severe growth failure and Crohn's disease. The possibility that repeated courses of elemental enteral alimentation might be beneficial needs to be explored.

  9. Treatment of peri-anal fistula in Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Sica, Giuseppe S; Di Carlo, Sara; Tema, Giorgia; Montagnese, Fabrizio; Del Vecchio Blanco, Giovanna; Fiaschetti, Valeria; Maggi, Giulia; Biancone, Livia

    2014-01-01

    Anal fistulas are a common manifestation of Crohn’s disease (CD). The first manifestation of the disease is often in the peri-anal region, which can occur years before a diagnosis, particularly in CD affecting the colon and rectum. The treatment of peri-anal fistulas is difficult and always multidisciplinary. The European guidelines recommend combined surgical and medical treatment with biologic drugs to achieve best results. Several different surgical techniques are currently employed. However, at the moment, none of these techniques appear superior to the others in terms of healing rate. Surgery is always indicated to treat symptomatic, simple, low intersphincteric fistulas refractory to medical therapy and those causing disabling symptoms. Utmost attention should be paid to correcting the balance between eradication of the fistula and the preservation of fecal continence. PMID:25309057

  10. Preventing infective complications in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Mill, Justine; Lawrance, Ian C

    2014-08-07

    Over the past decade there has been a dramatic change in the treatment of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, which comprise the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). This is due to the increasing use of immunosuppressives and in particular the biological agents, which are being used earlier in the course of disease, and for longer durations, as these therapies result in better clinical outcomes for patients. This, however, has the potential to increase the risk of opportunistic and serious infections in these patients, most of which are preventable. Much like the risk for potential malignancy resulting from the use of these therapies long-term, a balance needs to be struck between medication use to control the disease with minimization of the risk of an opportunistic infection. This outcome is achieved by the physician's tailored use of justified therapies, and the patients' education and actions to minimize infection risk. The purpose of this review is to explore the evidence and guidelines available to all physicians managing patients with IBD using immunomodulating agents and to aid in the prevention of opportunistic infections.

  11. [Oligosymptomatic alimentary tract perforation in course of Crohn's disease in patient treated with anti-TNF alfa antibodies].

    PubMed

    Jałocha, Łukasz; Wojtuń, Stanisław; Wojtkowiak, Marek; Błaszak, Antoni; Dyrla, Przemysław; Gil, Jerzy

    2009-05-01

    Successful Crohn's disease conservative treatment is often associated with use of few, sometimes new drugs. Their clinical use apart from inflammatory process decrease is associated with some risk. In the paper we report a case of 23-year-old woman suffering from Crohn's disease treated successfully with anti-TNF antibodies. Apart from successful anti-inflammatory there were observed not symptomatic perforation of the alimentary tract. Patients treated with strong anti-inflammatory drugs require especially careful monitoring also because of possibility of occurrence of not symptomatic life-threatening conditions.

  12. Epidural anesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a patient with sickle cell anemia, beta thalassemia, and Crohn's disease -A case report-

    PubMed Central

    Özlü, Onur

    2012-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman diagnosed with sickle cell anemia (SCA), beta (+) thalassemia, Crohn's disease, and liver dysfunction was scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) due to acute cholecystitis with gall bladder. Regional anesthesia was performed. An epidural catheter was inserted into the 9-10 thoracal epidural space and then 15 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine was injected through the catheter. The level of sensorial analgesia tested with pinprick test reached up to T4. Here we describe the first case of the combination of sickle cell anemia (SCA), beta (+) thalassemia, and Crohn's disease successful anesthetic management with attention to hemodynamics, particularly with regards to liver dysfunction. PMID:23115690

  13. Effectiveness of infliximab after adalimumab failure in Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Chaparro, María; Andreu, Montserrat; Barreiro-de Acosta, Manuel; García-Planella, Esther; Ricart, Elena; Domènech, Eugeni; Esteve, María; Merino, Olga; Nos, Pilar; Peñalva, Mireia; Gisbert, Javier P

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of infliximab as a second-line therapy in Crohn’s disease patients after adalimumab failure. METHODS: A historical cohort study in a community-based gastroenterology practice evaluated Crohn’s disease patients treated with infliximab (induction plus maintenance) after adalimumab failure. Patients were identified using a large Spanish database (ENEIDA). RESULTS: We included 15 Crohn’s disease patients who received infliximab after adalimumab failure. Five patients discontinued adalimumab due to loss of response, 3 due to adverse events and 7 due to partial response. After infliximab therapy was started, all patients who had interrupted adalimumab due to loss of efficacy regained response. All patients who discontinued adalimumab due to adverse events responded to infliximab and maintained this response; one of these patients had an uneventful course on infliximab, but 2 developed adverse events. None of the 7 patients who interrupted adalimumab due to partial response reached remission with infliximab. CONCLUSION: Switching from adalimumab to infliximab may be useful in patients who develop adverse effects or loss of response, however, the benefit of infliximab in primary nonresponders was not established. PMID:23066316

  14. Clinical features of Crohn disease concomitant with ankylosing spondylitis: A preliminary single-center study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Song; Ding, Jie; Wang, Meng; Zhou, Wanqing; Feng, Min; Guan, Wenxian

    2016-07-01

    Extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) cause increased morbidity and decreased quality of life in Crohn disease (CD). Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) belongs to EIMs. Very little is known on the clinical features of CD concomitant with AS. This study is to investigate the clinical features of CD patients with AS.We retrospectively collected all CD patients with AS in our hospital, and established a comparison group (CD without AS) with age, sex, and duration of Crohn disease matched. Clinical information was retrieved for comparison.Eight CD + AS patients were identified from 195 CD patients. Sixteen CD patients were randomly selected into comparison group. All CD + AS patients were male, HLA-B27 (+), and rheumatoid factor (-) with an average age of 40.8 ± 4.52 years. Significant correlation between disease activity of CD and AS was revealed (r = 0.857, P = 0.011). Significant correlation between disease activity of CD and functional limitation associated with AS was identified (r = 0.881, P < 0.01). C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and globulin were positively correlated to Crohn disease activity index (CDAI), Bath AS disease activity index, and Bath AS functional index(BASFI) scores (r = 0.73-0.93, P < 0.05). Albumin was negatively associated with CDAI and BASFI (r = -0.73 to -0.91, P < 0.05). The ratio of albumin to globulin (Alb/Glo) was significantly related to all 3 scores (r = -0.81 to -0.91, P < 0.05).Male predominance with a 4.12% concomitant incidence of AS is observed in CD patients. Disease activity of CD correlates with disease activity of AS and functional limitation caused by AS. CRP, ESR, and Alb/Glo may serve as biomarkers for disease activity and functional limitation in CD patients concomitant with AS, although future studies are expected.

  15. The treatment-naive microbiome in new-onset Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Gevers, Dirk; Kugathasan, Subra; Denson, Lee A; Vázquez-Baeza, Yoshiki; Van Treuren, Will; Ren, Boyu; Schwager, Emma; Knights, Dan; Song, Se Jin; Yassour, Moran; Morgan, Xochitl C; Kostic, Aleksandar D; Luo, Chengwei; González, Antonio; McDonald, Daniel; Haberman, Yael; Walters, Thomas; Baker, Susan; Rosh, Joel; Stephens, Michael; Heyman, Melvin; Markowitz, James; Baldassano, Robert; Griffiths, Anne; Sylvester, Francisco; Mack, David; Kim, Sandra; Crandall, Wallace; Hyams, Jeffrey; Huttenhower, Curtis; Knight, Rob; Xavier, Ramnik J

    2014-03-12

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including Crohn's disease (CD), are genetically linked to host pathways that implicate an underlying role for aberrant immune responses to intestinal microbiota. However, patterns of gut microbiome dysbiosis in IBD patients are inconsistent among published studies. Using samples from multiple gastrointestinal locations collected prior to treatment in new-onset cases, we studied the microbiome in the largest pediatric CD cohort to date. An axis defined by an increased abundance in bacteria which include Enterobacteriaceae, Pasteurellacaea, Veillonellaceae, and Fusobacteriaceae, and decreased abundance in Erysipelotrichales, Bacteroidales, and Clostridiales, correlates strongly with disease status. Microbiome comparison between CD patients with and without antibiotic exposure indicates that antibiotic use amplifies the microbial dysbiosis associated with CD. Comparing the microbial signatures between the ileum, the rectum, and fecal samples indicates that at this early stage of disease, assessing the rectal mucosal-associated microbiome offers unique potential for convenient and early diagnosis of CD.

  16. Clinical features of hidradenitis suppurativa and Crohn disease: what do these two entities have in common?

    PubMed

    Vilarrasa Rull, E; González Lama, Y

    2016-09-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) and Crohn disease (CD) are chronic, recurrent inflammatory diseases. They share certain clinical characteristics and flares are common in both. Both entities are usually diagnosed between the second and third decades of life and share risk factors such as smoking and overweight. In CD, as in HS, acute untreated episodes of inflammation can lead to sequels such as abscesses, fistulas and stenosis. Consequently, early management is of the utmost importance. Some patients have both diseases. The estimated prevalence of SH in CD patients is 12.4%-17.9%, while the prevalence of CD in HS patients is around 3%. The presence of HS in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with an earlier onset of IBD and with more frequent need for anti-TNF-alpha therapy and surgical resection.

  17. Role of Salmonella enterica exposure in Chilean Crohn's disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Lobos, Manuel; Pizarro, Daniela P; Palavecino, Christian E; Espinoza, Abner; Sebastián, Valentina P; Alvarado, Juan C; Ibañez, Patricio; Quintana, Carlos; Díaz, Orlando; Kalergis, Alexis M; Bueno, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study the association between exposure to Salmonella enterica (SE) and Crohn’s disease (CD) and its clinical implications in Chilean patients. METHODS: Ninety-four unrelated Chilean CD patients from CAREI (Active Cohort Registry of Inflammatory Bowel Disease) presenting to a single inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) unit of a University Hospital were prospectively included in this study. A complete clinical evaluation, including smoking history, was performed at the initial visit, and all the important data of clinical evolution of CD were obtained. Blood samples from these CD patients and 88 healthy sex- and age-matched control subjects were analyzed for exposure to SE and for their NOD2/CARD15 gene status using the presence of anti-Salmonella lipopolysaccharide antibodies [immunoglobulin-G type (IgG)] and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. We also evaluated exposure to SE in 90 sex- and age-matched patients without CD, but with known smoking status (30 smokers, 30 non-smokers, and 30 former smokers). RESULTS: CD patients comprised 54 females and 40 males, aged 35.5 ± 15.2 years at diagnosis with a mean follow-up of 9.0 ± 6.8 years. CD was inflammatory in 59 patients (62.7%), stricturing in 24 (25.5%) and penetrating in 15 (15.5%). Thirty cases (31.9%) had lesions in the ileum, 29 (30.8%) had ileocolonic lesions, 32 (34.0%) had colonic lesions and 23 (24.4%) had perianal disease. Sixteen CD patients (17%) were exposed to SE compared to 15 (17%) of 88 healthy control subjects (P = 0.8). Thirty-one CD patients (32.9%) were smokers, and 7 (7.4%) were former smokers at diagnosis. In the group exposed to SE, 10 of 16 patients (62.5%) were active smokers compared to 21 of 78 patients (26.9%) in the unexposed group (P = 0.01). On the other hand, 10 of 31 smoking patients (32%) were exposed to SE compared to 5 of 56 nonsmoking patients (9%), and one of the seven former smokers (14%) (P = 0.01). In the group of 90 patients without CD, but whose

  18. The relationship between infliximab concentrations, antibodies to infliximab and disease activity in Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Vande Casteele, Niels; Khanna, Reena; Levesque, Barrett G; Stitt, Larry; Zou, G Y; Singh, Sharat; Lockton, Steve; Hauenstein, Scott; Ohrmund, Linda; Greenberg, Gordon R; Rutgeerts, Paul J; Gils, Ann; Sandborn, William J; Vermeire, Séverine; Feagan, Brian G

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although low infliximab trough concentrations and antibodies to infliximab (ATI) are associated with poor outcomes in patients with Crohn's disease (CD), the clinical relevance of ATI in patients with adequate infliximab concentrations is uncertain. We evaluated this question using an assay sensitive for identification of ATI in the presence of infliximab. Design In an observational study, 1487 trough serum samples from 483 patients with CD who participated in four clinical studies of maintenance infliximab therapy were analysed using a fluid phase mobility shift assay. Infliximab and ATI concentrations most discriminant for remission, defined as a C-reactive protein concentration of ≤5 mg/L, were determined by receiver operating characteristic curves. A multivariable regression model evaluated these factors as independent predictors of remission. Results Based upon analysis of 1487 samples, 77.1% of patients had detectable and 22.9% had undetectable infliximab concentrations, of which 9.5% and 71.8%, respectively, were positive for ATI. An infliximab concentration of >2.79 μg/mL (area under the curve (AUC)=0.681; 95% CI 0.632 to 0.731) and ATI concentration of <3.15 U/mL (AUC=0.632; 95% CI 0.589 to 0.676) were associated with remission. Multivariable analysis showed that concentrations of both infliximab trough (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3 to 2.5; p<0.001) and ATI (OR 0.57; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.81; p=0.002) were independent predictors of remission. Conclusions The development of ATI increases the probability of active disease even at low concentrations and in the presence of a therapeutic concentration of drug during infliximab maintenance therapy. Evaluation of strategies to prevent ATI formation, including therapeutic drug monitoring with selective infliximab dose intensification, is needed. PMID:25336114

  19. Cardiovascular complications of pediatric chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is a leading cause of death in adult chronic kidney disease (CKD), with exceptionally high rates in young adults, according to the Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease. Recent data indicate that cardiovascular complications are already present in children with CKD. This review summarizes the current literature on cardiac risk factors, mortality and morbidity in children with CKD. PMID:17120060

  20. Infantile haemangioma: a complicated disease.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Mingke; Qi, Xianqin; Dai, Yuxin; Wang, Shuqing; Quan, Zhiwei; Liu, Yingbin; Ou, Jingmin

    2015-06-01

    Infantile haemangiomas (IH) are common benign vascular tumors of childhood. They are characterised by rapid growth during the first year of life and slow regression that is usually completed by 7-10 years of age. The underlying mechanism of action of IH is aberrant angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, and involves the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway and vascular endothelial growth factor pathway. IH become a challenge if they are part of a syndrome, are located in certain areas of the body, or if complications develop. The beta-adrenergic receptor blocker propranolol is a promising new candidate for first-line systemic therapy. This review focuses on the clinical characteristics, pathogenesis and management of IH.

  1. Application of a stopping rule based on total treatment failures: the postoperative Crohn's disease trial.

    PubMed

    Steinhart, A H; O'Rourke, K; Wolff, B G; McLeod, R S

    1992-05-01

    The Postoperative Crohn's Disease Trial (PCDT), a placebo-controlled randomized trial of Rowasa I in the prevention of postoperative recurrence of Crohn's disease, is used as an example of how a stopping rule based on total endpoint occurrences can provide considerable advantage over standard fixed sample size methods. It can be used when the primary outcome is occurrence or time to occurrence and does not raise the troublesome issues regarding the unblinding of group differences that other sequential methods create. The main advantage of the total endpoint stopping rule is that it provides set power. Standard fixed sample size designs provide a given power only on average. The power actually achieved in a particular fixed sample size trial is largely determined by the overall observed rate of endpoint occurrences. This claim about the total endpoint stopping rule is well established in the statistical literature and, as well as outlining the mathematical details in an Appendix, we use computer simulation of the PCDT to demonstrate that use of the stopping rule will allow termination of the trial while maintaining power and type I error at a predetermined level.

  2. Life Experiences of People Affected by Crohn's Disease and Their Support Networks: Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    García-Sanjuán, Sofía; Lillo-Crespo, Manuel; Sanjuán-Quiles, Ángela; Gil-González, Diana; Richart-Martínez, Miguel

    2016-02-01

    This scoping review identifies and describes relevant studies related to the evidence published on life experiences and perceived social support of people affected by Crohn's disease. Twenty-three studies were definitely selected and analyzed for the topics explored. The overall findings show patients' needs and perceptions. There is a lack of evidence about patients' perceived needs as well as the understanding of social support that has contributed to improve their life experiences with that chronic illness. Lack of energy, loss of body control, body image damaged due to different treatments and surgeries, symptoms related to fear of disease, feeling burdened loss related to independence, and so on are some of the concerns with having to live with those affected by the Crohn. To underline those experiences through this scoping review provides valuable data for health care teams, especially for the nursing profession, considered by those affected as one of the main roles along the whole pathological process. This review provides the basis for developing broader research on the relatively underexplored topics and consequently improves specific programs that could address patients' needs.

  3. Crohn disease of the small bowel: MR enteroclysis versus conventional enteroclysis.

    PubMed

    Masselli, G; Vecchioli, A; Gualdi, G F

    2006-01-01

    Enteroclysis has been suggested as the technique of choice for the evaluation of Crohn disease of the small intestine. Adequate distention of the entire small bowel with barium suspension allows the radiologic demonstration of mucosal abnormalities and provides functional information by defining distensibility or fixation of the small bowel loops. The principal disadvantage of conventional enteroclysis is the limited indirect information on the state of the bowel wall and extramural extension of Crohn disease, and its effectiveness may be hindered owing to overlapping bowel loops. Moreover, the radiation dose administered to patients, mostly at a young age, should be considered. Magnetic resonance (MR) enteroclysis is an emerging technique for small bowel imaging and was introduced to overcome the limitations of conventional enteroclysis and MR cross-sectional imaging by combining the advantages of both into one technique. MR enteroclysis has the potential to change how the small bowel is assessed because of the functional information, soft tissue contrast, direct multiplanar imaging capabilities, and lack of ionizing radiation.

  4. Antibodies to Mycobacterium paratuberculosis-specific protein antigens in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Elsaghier, A; Prantera, C; Moreno, C; Ivanyi, J

    1992-01-01

    The possible role of infection with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (MAP) for the etiopathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) has been a matter of long-term controversy. In addition to similarities with the pathology of ruminant paratuberculosis, DNA fingerprinting confirmed the organism isolated from gut tissue, but the specificity of the immune repertoire has not as yet been evaluated. We report here on a serological study of 29 patients with CD, 20 patients with ulcerative colitis and 18 healthy control subjects, using three antigens attributed with species-specificity and selective immunogenicity following MAP infection. Antibodies binding to the 38-kD band of MAP extract were demonstrable by the Western blot technique in 57% of CD patients. Antibody levels to the 24-kD (p24BCD) cathodic bands, determined by competition ELISA using a monospecific murine antiserum, and to the 18-kD protease-resistant purified bacterioferritin, detected by standard ELISA, were significantly elevated in 53% of CD patients. However, these three antibody specificities tested in individual CD patients did not show any correlation with each other. Thus, 18% of patients were positive for all three specificities, whilst 84% had antibodies to at least one of the specific antigens. Although the exact proportion of affected patients is yet to be defined, the serological results obtained support the view that MAP infection may play an etiological role in Crohn's disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:1281056

  5. Enterocolitis induced by autoimmune targeting of enteric glial cells: A possible mechanism in Crohn's disease?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, Anne; Savidge, Tor C.; Cabarrocas, Julie; Deng, Wen-Lin; Colombel, Jean-Frederic; Lassmann, Hans; Desreumaux, Pierre; Liblau, Roland S.

    2001-11-01

    Early pathological manifestations of Crohn's disease (CD) include vascular disruption, T cell infiltration of nerve plexi, neuronal degeneration, and induction of T helper 1 cytokine responses. This study demonstrates that disruption of the enteric glial cell network in CD patients represents another early pathological feature that may be modeled after CD8+ T cell-mediated autoimmune targeting of enteric glia in double transgenic mice. Mice expressing a viral neoself antigen in astrocytes and enteric glia were crossed with specific T cell receptor transgenic mice, resulting in apoptotic depletion of enteric glia to levels comparable in CD patients. Intestinal and mesenteric T cell infiltration, vasculitis, T helper 1 cytokine production, and fulminant bowel inflammation were characteristic hallmarks of disease progression. Immune-mediated damage to enteric glia therefore may participate in the initiation and/or the progression of human inflammatory bowel disease.

  6. Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis in children: an update for 2014.

    PubMed

    Lemberg, Daniel A; Day, Andrew S

    2015-03-01

    Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), the two main types of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), have become increasingly common in Australasian children and adolescents in recent years. Furthermore, CD and UC are seen more often in younger children. These conditions are typically more extensive in children and tend to follow more severe disease courses than in adults. Although many children may present with typical symptoms (such as abdominal pain or bloody diarrhoea), others have atypical features (including oral ulceration, short stature or skin manifestations). In addition, many children with IBD will have altered growth or nutrition, which may compromise normal linear growth and pubertal development. Early identification and full assessment of children presenting with possible IBD are essential to avoid consequences of diagnostic delay and to optimise short- and long-term outcomes. Management of IBD encompasses various options and should be undertaken within a team-based, child and family-focused, multidisciplinary setting.

  7. Functional defects in NOD2 signaling in experimental and human Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Corridoni, Daniele; Arseneau, Kristen O; Cominelli, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that a deficit in innate immunity may play a causative role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. The most compelling support for this hypothesis comes from the genetic association of Crohn disease (CD) with carriage of polymorphisms within the NOD2 gene, which represent the most frequent genetic defect in CD. Our findings suggest that SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop CD-like ileitis in the absence of NOD2 genetic mutations, fail to respond to MDP administration by displaying decreased innate cytokine production and impaired bacterial clearance before the onset of disease. This provides evidence that dysregulated NOD2 signaling, genetic or functional in nature, predisposes to chronic intestinal inflammation, and supports a new paradigm that CD may occur from a deficit in innate immunity as opposed to an overly aggressive immune response. This new paradigm could lead to potential development of new preventative or therapeutic modalities for patients with CD.

  8. Host-microbiome interaction in Crohn's disease: A familiar or familial issue?

    PubMed

    Michielan, Andrea; D'Incà, Renata

    2015-11-15

    An impaired interaction between the gut and the intestinal microbiome is likely to be the key element in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). Family studies have provided invaluable information on CD pathogenesis and on its etiology. Relatives share the same genetic risk of developing the disease as affected subjects. Relatives also exhibit similar features relating to their host-microbiome interaction, namely genetic variants in loci involved in detecting bacteria, a greater sero-reactivity to microbial components, and an impaired intestinal permeability. The burden of environmental factors such as cigarette smoking and dysbiosis also seems to be particularly relevant in these genetically predisposed subjects. Diet is emerging as an important factor and could account for the changing epidemiology of CD in recent years. Despite the pivotal role of genetics in the disease's pathogenesis (especially in familial CD), screening tests in healthy relatives cannot be recommended.

  9. Enterocolitis induced by autoimmune targeting of enteric glial cells: a possible mechanism in Crohn's disease?

    PubMed

    Cornet, A; Savidge, T C; Cabarrocas, J; Deng, W L; Colombel, J F; Lassmann, H; Desreumaux, P; Liblau, R S

    2001-11-06

    Early pathological manifestations of Crohn's disease (CD) include vascular disruption, T cell infiltration of nerve plexi, neuronal degeneration, and induction of T helper 1 cytokine responses. This study demonstrates that disruption of the enteric glial cell network in CD patients represents another early pathological feature that may be modeled after CD8(+) T cell-mediated autoimmune targeting of enteric glia in double transgenic mice. Mice expressing a viral neoself antigen in astrocytes and enteric glia were crossed with specific T cell receptor transgenic mice, resulting in apoptotic depletion of enteric glia to levels comparable in CD patients. Intestinal and mesenteric T cell infiltration, vasculitis, T helper 1 cytokine production, and fulminant bowel inflammation were characteristic hallmarks of disease progression. Immune-mediated damage to enteric glia therefore may participate in the initiation and/or the progression of human inflammatory bowel disease.

  10. Asia-Pacific consensus statements on Crohn's disease. Part 2: Management.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Choon Jin; Makharia, Govind K; Hilmi, Ida; Gibson, Peter R; Fock, Kwong Ming; Ahuja, Vineet; Ling, Khoon Lin; Lim, Wee Chian; Thia, Kelvin T; Wei, Shu-chen; Leung, Wai Keung; Koh, Poh Koon; Gearry, Richard B; Goh, Khean Lee; Ouyang, Qin; Sollano, Jose; Manatsathit, Sathaporn; de Silva, H Janaka; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Pisespongsa, Pises; Abu Hassan, Muhamad Radzi; Sung, Joseph; Hibi, Toshifumi; Boey, Christopher C M; Moran, Neil; Leong, Rupert W L

    2016-01-01

    The Asia Pacific Working Group on Inflammatory Bowel Disease was established in Cebu, Philippines, at the Asia Pacific Digestive Week conference in 2006 under the auspices of the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology (APAGE) with the goal of developing best management practices, coordinating research and raising awareness of IBD in the region. The consensus group previously published recommendations for the diagnosis and management of ulcerative colitis (UC) with specific relevance to the Asia-Pacific region. The present consensus statements were developed following a similar process to address the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease (CD). The goals of these statements are to pool the pertinent literature specifically highlighting relevant data and conditions in the Asia-Pacific region relating to the economy, health systems, background infectious diseases, differential diagnoses and treatment availability. It does not intend to be all-comprehensive and future revisions are likely to be required in this ever-changing field.

  11. Neurological Complications of Lyme Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... after a tick bite, include decreased concentration, irritability, memory and sleep disorders, and nerve damage in the arms and legs. × Definition Lyme disease is caused by a bacterial organism that is transmitted to humans via the bite of an infected tick. Most ...

  12. Placental involvement by non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a Crohn disease patient on long-term thiopurine therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, G; Crispin, P; Cherian, M; Dahlstrom, J E; Sethna, F F; Kaye, G; Pavli, P; Subramaniam, K

    2016-01-01

    We report the first published case of aggressive diffuse large B-cell (non-Hodgkin) lymphoma in a 35-year-old pregnant woman who had Crohn disease and was taking long-term thiopurine therapy: the patient developed placental insufficiency, and there was intrauterine fetal death.

  13. Absence of skin sensitivity to oxides of aluminium, silicon, titanium or zirconium in patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J C; Halpern, S; Lowe, D G; Forbes, A; Lennard-Jones, J E

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some metallic compounds, especially of zirconium, can cause cell mediated granulomatous inflammation of the skin. Pigment granules containing compounds of aluminium, silicon, and titanium have been observed within macrophages in the wall of the small intestine in health and in Crohn's disease. Zirconium compounds can be ingested in toothpaste. AIM: To determine in a pilot study if granulomatous sensitivity can be detected to compounds of these metals or silicon after injection into the skin of patients with Crohn's disease. SUBJECTS: Eight patients with Crohn's disease known to have had granulomata in the intestine and not currently treated with corticosteroids, and two healthy controls. METHOD: Two intradermal injections each of 0.1 ml of a 0.02% suspension of one of the compounds made in the abdominal wall of each subject. The site was marked and full thickness skin biopsy performed six weeks later. RESULT: A foreign body granuloma was observed on histological examination of two biopsy specimens but no evidence of a cell mediated response in any subject. CONCLUSION: No support was found for the hypothesis that Crohn's disease is due to a specific sensitivity to ingested metallic or silicon compounds. PMID:8977338

  14. An alteration in ATG16L1 stability in Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Kara G; Xavier, Ramnik J

    2014-10-01

    Individuals who harbor a common coding polymorphism (Thr300Ala) within a structurally unclassified region of ATG16L1 are at increased risk for the development of Crohn disease. Recently, we reported on the generation and characterization of knockin mice carrying the ATG16L1 T300A variant. We demonstrate that multiple cell types from T300A knock-in mice exhibit reduced selective autophagy, and we mechanistically link this phenotype with an increased susceptibility of ATG16L1 T300A to CASP3- and CASP7-mediated cleavage. These findings demonstrate how a single polymorphism can result in cell type- and pathway-specific disruptions of selective autophagy and alterations in the inflammatory milieu that can contribute to disease.

  15. Sudden hearing loss and Crohn disease: when Cogan syndrome must be suspected.

    PubMed

    Tirelli, Giancarlo; Tomietto, Paola; Quatela, Eliana; Perrino, Fiorella; Nicastro, Luca; Cattin, Luigi; Carretta, Renzo

    2015-01-01

    Cogan's syndrome is a rare systemic vasculitis of unknown origin. It is characterized by the presence of worsening audiovestibular and ocular symptoms that may manifest simultaneously or sequentially. No specific diagnostic laboratory tests or imaging studies exist. The diagnosis is clinical and should be established as early as possible so as to initiate prompt treatment with steroids and prevent rapid progression to deafness or blindness and potentially fatal systemic involvement. We report a case of association between Cogan's syndrome and ileal Crohn's disease which we believe deserves attention since, after an accurate review of the literature, we have found approximately 250 reports of patients with Cogan's syndrome, only 13 of whom with concurrent chronic inflammatory bowel disease; of these 13 cases, none experienced improvement after therapy. In the light of the good outcome obtained in our case, we proposed a valid treatment option with boluses of steroids, combined with early systemic immunosuppression and intra-tympanic steroid injections.

  16. Disseminated Cytomegalovirus Infection and Protein Losing Enteropathy as Presenting Feature of Pediatric Patient with Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ersoz, Safak; Akbulut, Ulas Emre

    2015-01-01

    We report a pediatric patient admitted with abdominal pain, diffuse lower extremity edema and watery diarrhea for two months. Laboratory findings including complete blood count, serum albumin, lipid and immunoglobulin levels were compatible with protein losing enteropathy. Colonoscopic examination revealed diffuse ulcers with smooth raised edge (like "punched out holes") in the colon and terminal ileum. Histopathological examination showed active colitis, ulcerations and inclusion bodies. Immunostaining for cytomegalovirus was positive. Despite supportive management, antiviral therapy, the clinical condition of the patient worsened and developed disseminated cytomegalovirus infection and the patient died. Protein losing enteropathy and disseminated cytomegalovirus infection a presenting of feature in steroid-naive patient with inflammatory bowel disease is very rare. Hypogammaglobulinemia associated with protein losing enteropathy in Crohn's disease may predispose the cytomegalovirus infection in previously healthy children. PMID:25866735

  17. Oral Manifestations of Crohn's Disease: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Victoria L.

    2015-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that is likely caused by an inappropriate mucosal inflammatory response to intestinal bacteria in a genetically predisposed host. The lesions of CD can involve any region of the GI tract as well as extraintestinal sites such as the skin, joints, and eyes. The most common presenting symptoms are abdominal pain and prolonged diarrhea associated with fevers, fatigue, and malaise. Delayed growth and failure to thrive may also be observed in pediatric patients. Oral manifestations of CD are known as oral CD and may precede GI involvement, thus serving as early markers of this condition. We describe a 6-year-old male who presented with oral lesions as his initial manifestation of disease and review the current literature pertaining to oral CD. PMID:26240765

  18. Factitious Disorder in Crohn's Disease: Recurrent Pancytopenia Caused by Surreptitious Ingestion of 6-Mercaptopurine.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Allon; Boroff, Erika S; Martin, Kari A; Northfelt, Donald W; Heigh, Russell I

    2015-01-01

    Factitious disorder is a rare psychiatric illness characterized by the willful and deceptive induction of illness for the purpose of assuming the sick role. It presents a substantial diagnostic challenge, as patients often go to great lengths to conceal their deception. Accordingly, its presence in the full spectrum of gastrointestinal diseases is likely underappreciated. While factitious gastrointestinal bleeding, abdominal pain and diarrhea are relatively common, factitious non-gastrointestinal symptoms in the setting of gastrointestinal illness have been infrequently reported. We present the case of a patient with Crohn's disease with recurrent pancytopenia attributed to the surreptitious ingestion of 6-mercaptopurine. In patients with possible access to immunomodulatory drugs, a high suspicion for and early identification of factitious disorder may improve patient outcomes and avoid invasive and costly diagnostic evaluations.

  19. Herpes Simplex Virus Sepsis in a Young Woman with Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Haag, Lea-Maxie; Hofmann, Jörg; Kredel, Lea Isabell; Holzem, Christina; Kühl, Anja A; Taube, Eliane T; Schubert, Stefan; Siegmund, Britta; Epple, Hans-Jörg

    2015-12-01

    We present the case of a herpes simplex virus-1 [HSV-1] sepsis with severe herpes hepatitis in a young female treated with triple immunosuppressive therapy [adalimumab, azathioprine, prednisolone] for refractory Crohn's disease [CD]. The patient presented with high fever, generalised abdominal tenderness, strongly elevated transaminases, coagulopathy, and pancytopenia. Comprehensive diagnostics including blood HSV-1 polymerase chain reaction [PCR], liver biopsy, and immunohistochemistry revealed the diagnosis of fulminant herpes hepatitis. HSV-1 positivity of cutaneous lesions proved the disseminated nature of the infection. Early treatment with intravenous acyclovir led to a rapid improvement of the patient's condition and resulted in a full recovery of her liver function. This is the first reported case of HSV-sepsis in a patient with CD. Physicians treating inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] patients with combined immunosuppressive therapy should be aware of the possibility of herpes hepatitis, and early empirical antiviral therapy should be considered in immunosuppressed patients presenting with fever and severe anicteric hepatitis.

  20. A likely diagnosis of Crohn's disease in a 95-year-old woman

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Kishan R; Patel, Ekta; McCann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) has a bimodal distribution in incidence, with a second peak in the elderly. However, its diagnosis in the elderly is difficult due to a wider range of more common differential diagnoses such as diverticulitis, ischaemic colitis and colorectal cancer. We report a likely case of CD in a 95-year-old woman. She presented with diarrhoea and rectal bleeding and was found to have multiple pleomorphic ulcers with a patchy cobblestone mucosa on sigmoidoscopy. Histopathology demonstrated focal ulceration, altered crypt architecture and adjacent neutrophil polymorph infiltration with no granolomata or features of malignancy. The patient passed away after steroid treatment was started. This case is a reminder that CD can present in the elderly and highlights the challenging diagnosis and high mortality of CD-related hospitalisation in the elderly. When considering management, attention should be given to comorbid disease, age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and patients social circumstances. PMID:23001095

  1. Crohn disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... you have problems digesting dairy fats. Try low-lactose cheeses, such as Swiss and cheddar, and an ... product, such as Lactaid, to help break down lactose. Avoiding foods that you know cause gas, such ...

  2. Crohn's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... vomiting. Blood in your stool. You might notice bright red blood in the toilet bowl or darker ... slowly and secretes more acid. Stress can also speed or slow the passage of intestinal contents. It ...

  3. Crohn's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the abdomen. MR enterography is a special type of MRI performed with a contrast material to produce detailed images of the small intestine. Infants and young children usually require sedation or anesthesia to ... child's age and the type of exam. Moderate and conscious sedation can be ...

  4. Significant contribution of TRPC6 channel-mediated Ca2+ influx to the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease fibrotic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kurahara, Lin Hai; Hiraishi, Keizo; Sumiyoshi, Miho; Doi, Mayumi; Hu, Yaopeng; Aoyagi, Kunihiko; Jian, Yuwen; Inoue, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal fibrosis is an intractable complication of Crohn's disease (CD), and, when occurring excessively, causes severe intestinal obstruction that often necessitates surgical resection. The fibrosis is characterized by an imbalance in the turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, where intestinal fibroblasts/myofibroblasts play active roles in ECM production, fibrogenesis and tissue remodeling, which eventually leads to the formation of stenotic lesions. There is however a great paucity of knowledge about how intestinal fibrosis initiates and progresses, which hampers the development of effective pharmacotherapies against CD. Recently, we explored the potential implications of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in the pathogenesis of intestinal fibrosis, since they are known to act as cellular stress sensors/transducers affecting intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis/dynamics, and are involved in a broad spectrum of cell pathophysiology including inflammation and tissue remodeling. In this review, we will place a particular emphasis on the intestinal fibroblast/myofibroblast TRPC6 channel to discuss its modulatory effects on fibrotic responses and therapeutic potential for anti-fibrotic treatment against CD-related stenosis. PMID:27818466

  5. Neurologic complications of valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Flores, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    Valvular heart disease (VHD) is frequently associated with neurologic complications; cerebral embolism is the most common of these since thrombus formation results from the abnormalities in the valvular surfaces or from the anatomic and physiologic changes associated with valve dysfunction, such as atrial or ventricular enlargement, intracardiac thrombi, and cardiac dysrhythmias. Prosthetic heart valves, particularly mechanical valves, are very thrombogenic, which explains the high risk of thromboembolism and the need for anticoagulation for the prevention of embolism. Infective endocarditis is a disease process with protean manifestations that include not only cerebral embolism but also intracranial hemorrhage, mycotic aneurysms, and systemic manifestations such as fever and encephalopathy. Other neurologic complications include nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, a process associated with systemic diseases such as cancer and systemic lupus erythematosus. For many of these conditions, anticoagulation is the mainstay of treatment to prevent cerebral embolism, therefore it is the potential complications of anticoagulation that can explain other neurologic complications in patients with VHD. The prevention and management of these complications requires an understanding of their natural history in order to balance the risks posed by valvular disease itself against the risks and benefits associated with treatment.

  6. Correction of vitamin D deficiency using sublingually administered vitamin D2 in a Crohn's disease patient with mal-absorption and a new ileostomy.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Patrick; Heaney, Robert

    2016-12-31

    Vitamin D deficiency has been shown to be associated with many adverse health problems. Studies have shown that patients with Crohn's disease who have low vitamin D levels have a poorer quality of life than those with more adequate levels. It has also been shown that patients with mal-absorption problems have a difficult time achieving normal vitamin D levels in spite of aggressive supplementation, and that exposure to UVB radiation may be the most effective treatment option for these patients. We present a case in which 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were normalized within 2 weeks in a severely vitamin D deficient patient with Crohn's disease with mal-absorption and a new ileostomy, utilizing sublingually administered vitamin D2. A 58 year-old white female was admitted with a new ileostomy following partial bowel resection due to complications from Crohn's disease. She was found to be severely vitamin D deficient at the time of admission, with a level of 6.1ng/ml on hospital day 3. Her treatment with vitamin D was delayed for a few days. She was initially treated with 5000 units of vitamin D3 orally twice a day for 3days (days 7-10). After discussion with the patient and obtaining her consent, vitamin D3 was stopped, and she was then treated with a total of 8 doses of 50,000 units of vitamin D2 administered sublingually. She was given the first 3 doses on alternating days (days 11, 13, 15), and then 5 more doses on consecutive days (days 17-21). The rise in her 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in response to treatment with sublingual vitamin D2 was significant. On day 10, after receiving 3days of orally administered vitamin D3, her level was 9.8ng/ml. One week later, after receiving 3 sublingual doses of vitamin D2, it rose to 20.3ng/ml. It was then measured on alternating days twice over the next 4days, and it rose to 45.5ng/ml, and then to 47.4ng/ml on the day of discharge to home. The major finding of this study is that sublingual administration of vitamin D2 appears to

  7. Effect of fuzzy partitioning in Crohn's disease classification: a neuro-fuzzy-based approach.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sk Saddam; Dey, Nilanjan; Ashour, Amira S; Sifaki-Pistolla, Dimitra; Bălas-Timar, Dana; Balas, Valentina E; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2017-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) diagnosis is a tremendously serious health problem due to its ultimately effect on the gastrointestinal tract that leads to the need of complex medical assistance. In this study, the backpropagation neural network fuzzy classifier and a neuro-fuzzy model are combined for diagnosing the CD. Factor analysis is used for data dimension reduction. The effect on the system performance has been investigated when using fuzzy partitioning and dimension reduction. Additionally, further comparison is done between the different levels of the fuzzy partition to reach the optimal performance accuracy level. The performance evaluation of the proposed system is estimated using the classification accuracy and other metrics. The experimental results revealed that the classification with level-8 partitioning provides a classification accuracy of 97.67 %, with a sensitivity and specificity of 96.07 and 100 %, respectively.

  8. Combining infliximab, anti-MAP and hyperbaric oxygen therapy for resistant fistulizing Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Gaurav; Borody, Thomas; Turner, Robert; Leis, Sharyn; Campbell, Jordana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fistulizing Crohn's disease (CD) presents a therapeutic challenge as fistulae are notoriously difficult to heal. Mycobacterium avium ss paratuberculosis (MAP) treatment in CD is gaining attention. Aim: We evaluated healing of CD fistula(e) using a novel combination therapy. Study: Nine consecutive patients who failed to heal fistulae on conventional treatment including anti-TNF, were treated with at least three doses of infliximab, 18–30 courses of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and anti-MAP antibiotics comprising rifabutin, clarithromycin and clofazimine. Results: All patients achieved complete healing of fistulae by 6–28 weeks and follow-up for mean 18 months. Conclusion: Combining infliximab, hyperbaric oxygen therapy and anti-MAP, seems to enable healing of recalcitrant fistulae and although a small case series, all nine patients achieved complete healing. PMID:28031926

  9. Two patients with new granulomatous lung lesions during treatment of Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Satoshi; Akagi, Takanori; Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Kodama, Masaru; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Beppu, Takahiro; Nagahama, Takashi; Matsui, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Kentaro; Nagata, Nobuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Two patients with granulomatous lung lesions thought to be related to Crohn's disease (CD) are reported. Patient 1 was a 43-year-old man who was diagnosed with CD at age 11 years. He developed a fever in the 38 °C, and a chest X-ray and CT scan showed infiltrates with air bronchograms in the right upper lobe and left lingular segment. Transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) revealed granulomatous lesions. Patient 2 was a 76-year-old woman who was diagnosed with CD at age 44 years. Chest CT showed infiltrates and nodular shadows in both lung fields. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) in June 2012 revealed granulomatous lesions. Tuberculosis, fungal infections, drug-induced lung disorder, and sarcoidosis were ruled out as a cause of the granulomatous lesions in both patients. The aetiology was thought to be CD. PMID:26029529

  10. Analysis of thiopurine S-methyltransferase phenotype-genotype in a Tunisian population with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Ben Salah, Lynda; Belkhiria el Haj Amor, Mouna; Chbili, Chahra; Khlifi, Saida; Fathallah, Neila; Bougmiza, Iheb; Ben Jazia, Elhem; Houdret, Nicole; Ben Salem, Chaker; Saguem, Saad

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the thiopurine S-methyltransferase TPMT activity distribution and gene mutations in Tunisian population with positive diagnostic for Crohn's disease. TPMT activity was measured in Tunisian population (n = 88) by a high performance liquid chromatography assay. Polymerase chain reaction-based methods were used to determine the frequency of TPMT mutant alleles TPMT*2, TPMT*3A, TPMT*3B and TPMT*3C. TPMT activity was normally distributed, ranging from 4.58 to 35.27 nmol/(h ml) RBC with a mean of 18.67 ± 7.10 nmol/(h ml) RBC. Seven TPMT*3A heterozygotes and one TPMT*3C homozygote were found in 88 patients, with allele frequencies of 0.039 and 1.13, respectively. TPMT*3A and the TPMT*3C, which cause the largest decrease in enzyme activity, were both variant alleles detected in the Tunisian population.

  11. Mesenteric Fibromatosis in Crohn's Disease as a Potential Effect of Adalimumab

    PubMed Central

    Goud, Aditya; Fleisher, Albert S.

    2016-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman with no medical or surgical history was evaluated for weight loss. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed signs of Crohn's disease, which was later confirmed endoscopically. She was started on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitor therapy. Nine months after treatment, she experienced additional weight loss and a 7 x 8 x 8-cm mass on repeat CT. Biopsy revealed retroperitoneal fibromatosis, so TNF-α was continued. Repeat CT showed an enlarged mass. TNF-α therapy had a suspected role in mass growth, therapy was discontinued, and the mass surgically resected. One year after resection, she has regained weight with no recurrence of the mesenteric fibromatosis. PMID:27144199

  12. Research Advance in Intestinal Mucosal Barrier and Pathogenesis of Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Chuan-zi; Guan, Xin; Wu, Huan-gan

    2016-01-01

    To date, the etiology and pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) have not been fully elucidated. It is widely accepted that genetic, immune, and environment factors are closely related to the development of CD. As an important defensive line for human body against the environment, intestinal mucosa is able to protect the homeostasis of gut bacteria and alleviate the intestinal inflammatory and immune response. It is evident that the dysfunction of intestinal mucosa barriers plays a crucial role in CD initiation and development. Yet researches are insufficient on intestinal mucosal barrier's action in the prevention of CD onset. This article summarizes the research advances about the correlations between the disorders of intestinal mucosal barriers and CD. PMID:27651792

  13. Late complications of Hodgkin's disease management

    SciTech Connect

    Young, R.C.; Bookman, M.A.; Longo, D.L. )

    1990-01-01

    In the past several decades, Hodgkin's disease has been transformed from a uniformly fatal illness to one that can be treated with the expectation of long-term remission or cure in the majority of patients. Because patients now survive for long periods after curative intervention, various complications have been identified. The spectrum of complications following curative therapy is quite diverse and includes immunologic, cardiovascular, pulmonary, thyroid, and gonadal dysfunction. In addition, second malignant neoplasms in the form of acute leukemia as well as secondary solid tumors have now been documented to occur with increased frequency in patients cured of Hodgkin's disease. 80 references.

  14. Autoinflammatory granulomatous diseases: from Blau syndrome and early-onset sarcoidosis to NOD2-mediated disease and Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Caso, Francesco; Galozzi, Paola; Costa, Luisa; Sfriso, Paolo; Cantarini, Luca; Punzi, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    The recent identification of genetic mutations leading to dysfunction of inflammatory and apoptotic pathways, has allowed to characterise a group of diseases, recognised as monogenic autoinflammatory syndromes. Among those, Blau syndrome (BS) and early-onset sarcoidosis (EOS) have been identified as familial and sporadic phenotypes of the same non-caseating granulomatous form. Both the diseases are caused by mutations in the CARD15/NOD2 gene, encoding the cytosolic NOD2 protein, one of the key molecules in the regulation of innate immunity. Clinical onset is typically located in the first years of life and phenotype is characterised by simultaneous or less articular, cutaneous and ocular non-caseating granulomatous inflammation, which can be variably associated with a heterogeneous systemic spectrum. The CARD15/NOD2 gene has also been identified as one of the genes linked to susceptibility to Crohn's disease (CD), a common polygenic inflammatory granulomatous bowel disease. The heightened nuclear factor-κB activity, found in the intestinal tissue of patients affected by CD, has probably a genetic cause related to several CARD15/NOD2 polymorphisms. Other substitutions in the CARD15/NOD2 gene have also been found in a recently described disorder, called NOD2-associated autoinflammatory disease, which shares several clinical characteristics with BS and EOS. This review attempts to describe these diseases on the basis of the most recent evidences. We described genetic and clinical aspects, mainly focusing on BS and EOS, the most representative diseases of autoinflammatory granulomatous diseases, with the ultimate purpose to expand their knowledge. PMID:26509073

  15. Briakinumab for Treatment of Crohn's Disease: Results of a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sandborn, William J.; Gordon, Glenn L.; Lee, Scott D.; Safdi, Alan; Sedghi, Shahriar; Feagan, Brian G.; Hanauer, Stephen; Reinisch, Walter; Valentine, John F.; Huang, Bidan; Carcereri, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the efficacy and safety of briakinumab, a human anti-IL-12/23p40 monoclonal antibody, compared with placebo for the induction and maintenance of remission in patients with moderately to severely active Crohn's disease. Methods: In this phase 2b, multicenter, double-blind, parallel group study, 246 patients stratified by prior tumor necrosis factor–antagonist use and response, were randomized (1:1:1:3) to 4 intravenous induction regimens: placebo, 200, 400, or 700 mg briakinumab, at weeks 0/4/8. At week 12, responders in the placebo or 400-mg induction groups entered the maintenance phase with the same regimen, whereas responders in the 700-mg induction group were rerandomized (1:1:1) to receive placebo, 200, or 700 mg briakinumab at weeks 12/16/20. At week 24, patients in remission stopped receiving study drug (withdrawal phase) until relapse. Patients experiencing relapse, nonresponders, and nonremitters could enter the open-label phase. Results: The primary end point of clinical remission at week 6 was not met. There were numerically greater rates of remission and response at 6, 12, or 24 weeks in patients treated with briakinumab. The safety and tolerability profile of briakinumab was similar in the induction and maintenance phases of the trial. Conclusions: Briakinumab showed a similar safety and tolerability profile to placebo in the induction and maintenance phases, and comparable rates of serious adverse events, adverse events leading to discontinuation, and malignancy. These data provide support for the potential efficacy of briakinumab and other IL-12/23 inhibitors in the treatment of moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease. PMID:25989338

  16. Effect of the Baseline Vitamin D Level on Growth Outcome in Pediatric Crohn Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Joo; Ko, Jae Sung; Yang, Hye Ran; Jang, Ju Young; Kim, Ju Whi; Lee, Kyung Jae

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Vitamin D deficiency is common in Crohn disease (CD). The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and evaluate the association between vitamin D status and growth outcome in Korean pediatric CD patients. Methods In this retrospective study, 17 children younger than 18 years old diagnosed with CD were enrolled and their serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D) was checked between 2011 and 2015. We categorized the patients into two groups, Group 1 and Group 2. Group 1 included patients with serum 25(OH)D levels below 10 ng/mL, and Group 2 was for patients with a 25(OH)D serum levels between 10 ng/mL and 30 ng/mL. The z-scores for height (Htz), weight (Wtz), and body mass index (BMIz) were measured at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Results The mean serum 25(OH)D levels of the total 65 CD patients and 17 enrolled patients were 15.64±6.9 ng/mL and 13.1±5.1 ng/mL, respectively. There was no correlation at the beginning of the study between vitamin D level and growth parameters (Htz, Wtz, BMIz) or other variables including laboratory data and Pediatric Crohn Disease Activity Index. The Htz, Wtz, and BMIz in Group 1 showed no significant improvement at 6 months and 12 months follow-up. In Group 2, Wtz and BMIz showed significant improvements sustained until 12 months of follow-up. Htz showed no significant improvement at 6 months but there was significant improvement at 12 months. Conclusion It seems that baseline vitamin D status affects growth outcome in pediatric CD.

  17. Assessment of Activity of Crohn Disease by Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Hua; Sun, Can-Hui; Mao, Ren; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Jiang, Xiao-Song; Pui, Margaret H; Chen, Min-Hu; Li, Zi-Ping

    2015-10-01

    To assess the diagnostic efficacy of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) for evaluating inflammatory activity in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). A total of 47 CD patients underwent MR enterography (MRE) and DWI using 3 b values of 50, 400, and 800 s/mm. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of inflamed and normal bowel wall were calculated. The conventional MRE findings and DWI signal intensities were qualitatively scored from 0 to 3. The correlation between Crohn disease activity index (CDAI) and both ADCs and magnetic resonance imaging scores was analyzed. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the diagnostic accuracy of CD activity. Of the 47 patients, 25 were active CD (CDAI≥150) and 22 were inactive (CDAI<150). Diffusion-weighted MR imaging and MRE + DWI scores of active CD were significantly higher than that of inactive CD (both P < 0.001). Apparent diffusion coefficients in inflamed segments of active CD were lower than that of inactive CD (P < 0.001). The DWI scores (r = 0.74, P < 0.001), ADCs (r = -0.71, P < 0.001), MRE scores (r = 0.54, P < 0.001), and MRE + DWI scores (r = 0.66, P < 0.001) were all correlated with CDAI. The areas under the receiver-operating characteristics curves for ADCs, DWI scores, MRE scores, and MRE + DWI scores ranged from 0.83 to 0.98. The threshold ADC value of 1.17 × 10 mm/s allowed differentiation of active from inactive CD with 100% sensitivity and 88% specificity. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging and ADC correlated with CD activity, and had excellent diagnostic accuracy for differentiating active from inactive CD.

  18. Neurological complications in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Ria; Issar, Tushar; Krishnan, Arun V

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are frequently afflicted with neurological complications. These complications can potentially affect both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Common neurological complications in CKD include stroke, cognitive dysfunction, encephalopathy, peripheral and autonomic neuropathies. These conditions have significant impact not only on patient morbidity but also on mortality risk through a variety of mechanisms. Understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of these conditions can provide insights into effective management strategies for neurological complications. This review describes clinical management of neurological complications in CKD with reference to the contributing physiological and pathological derangements. Stroke, cognitive dysfunction and dementia share several pathological mechanisms that may contribute to vascular impairment and neurodegeneration. Cognitive dysfunction and dementia may be differentiated from encephalopathy which has similar contributing factors but presents in an acute and rapidly progressive manner and may be accompanied by tremor and asterixis. Recent evidence suggests that dietary potassium restriction may be a useful preventative measure for peripheral neuropathy. Management of painful neuropathic symptoms can be achieved by pharmacological means with careful dosing and side effect considerations for reduced renal function. Patients with autonomic neuropathy may respond to sildenafil for impotence. Neurological complications often become clinically apparent at end-stage disease, however early detection and management of these conditions in mild CKD may reduce their impact at later stages. PMID:27867500

  19. Characteristics of Pediatric Crohn's Disease in Saudi Children: A Multicenter National Study

    PubMed Central

    Saadah, Omar I.; El Mouzan, Mohammad; Al Mofarreh, Mohammad; Al Mehaidib, Ali; Al Edreesi, Mohammad; Hasosah, Mohammed; Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman; AlSaleem, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Crohn's disease (CD) is an evolving disease in KSA. Little is known about its characteristics in the Saudi population. The aims of this study were to describe the characteristics of Saudi children with CD and to determine whether the characteristics of CD in KSA are different from those seen in Western countries. Methods. In this study, children younger than eighteen years of age diagnosed with CD between January 2003 and December 2012 were included. Results. Of 330 patients identified, 186 (56.4%) were males. The median age at diagnosis was 15.8 years. A positive family history for IBD in first-degree relatives occurred in 13.6% of patients. The most common symptoms were abdominal pain (84.2%), weight loss (75.2%), and diarrhea (71.8%). The main disease location was ileocolonic (42.1%) and the main disease behavior was nonstricturing and nonpenetrating (63.6%). Perianal involvement was seen in 60 (18.2%) patients. Laboratory findings revealed anemia in 57.9% of patients, low albumin in 34.5%, and high CRP in 39.4%. Conclusions. Saudi children with CD have lower frequency of first-degree relatives with IBD, lower prevalence of early onset disease, longer diagnostic delay, higher prevalence of growth failure, and greater frequency of stricturing and penetrating disease behavior compared to Western patients. PMID:26858752

  20. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis with Crohn's disease exacerbation and vasculitis after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy.

    PubMed

    Manners, P; Robbins, P

    2000-10-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO), of unknown etiology, is characterized by recurring non-suppurative lesions of bone in multiple sites, and has been considered to be self-limiting. Reported therapies include prolonged antibiotics, corticosteroids and anti-inflammatory medications. This case is presented to illustrate the following: 1) CRMO may be severe, on-going, and unresponsive to treatment; 2) it may be associated with Crohns' disease; 3) the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) may be associated with severe gastrointestinal vasculitis. A male was treated from ages 11-20 years for CRMO (manifesting as multiple bone lesions), with therapies of variable efficacy (anti-inflammatories, antibiotics, corticosteroids, gammaglobulin and methotrexate). With increasing disruption to his life, a 10-day course of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was given with benefit seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). With exacerbation of symptoms one month later, G-CSF was re-commenced but ceased after 3 weeks because of abdominal pain, rectal blood loss, and progression of bone lesions with subsequent removal of portions of ileum, colon and appendix, which showed vasculitis. Months later, a colonoscopy revealed perianastomotic ulcers and continuing gastroenterological ulceration not unlike Crohn's disease. With azathioprine, gut and bone symptoms improved. We conclude that 1) CRMO may adversely affect life for years; 2) proven treatments are unavailable; 3) gastroenterological vasculitis/ Crohn's may be associated with CRMO; 4) MRI is useful for monitoring CRMO; 5) In this patient, G-CSF seemed beneficial initially, but later, vasculitis (possibly Crohn's) manifested, leading to bowel resection; 6) Crohn's disease may have been present for years, masked by corticosteroid, and unmasked by reduction of steroids and use of G-CSF.

  1. Mild clinical behaviour of Crohn disease in elderly patients in a Latin American country: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto-Furusho, Jesús K; Sarmiento-Aguilar, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Crohn disease is characterized by fluctuating clinical behaviour, which is influenced by various factors. There are no data from Latin America that evaluate the clinical behaviour of Crohn disease in elderly patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical course of elderly onset Crohn disease compared with younger onset in the Mexican population. METHODS: The present analysis was a case-control study that included 132 patients with a histopathological diagnosis of Crohn disease between 1983 and 2013 in an inflammatory bowel disease clinic of a tertiary care centre. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 17 (IBM Corporation, USA) and descriptive statistics, χ2 and Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables and Student’s t test for numerical variables. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify associated risk factors and OR was calculated. RESULTS: A total of 132 patients (73 men and 59 women) were divided into two groups according to age at diagnosis: 27 cases (>60 years of age) and 105 controls (≤60 years of age). Factors influencing the clinical course of Crohn disease in the elderly were: female sex (OR 2.55 [95% CI 1.06 to 6.10]; P=0.02); colonic location (OR 0.22 [95% CI 0.03 to 0.89]; P=0.02); mild clinical behaviour of disease (OR 10.08 [95% CI 3.74 to 27.17]; P=0.0001); response to medical treatment (OR 2.85 [95% CI 1.08 to 7.48]; P=0.02); frequent use of sulfasalazine (OR 4.46 [95% CI 1.22 to 16.28]; P=0.03); less use of azathioprine (OR 0.38 [95% CI 0.13 to 1.03]; P=0.04); and long-term remission (OR 4.96 [95% CI 1.70 to 14.48]; P=0.002). CONCLUSION: Elderly patients with Crohn disease had a mild clinical course characterized by the lack of escalation to immunosuppressive and anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy, as well as long-term remission. PMID:25996614

  2. [When is it too early or too late for surgery in Crohn's disease? ].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Blanco Hernáiz, J I; Monturiol Jalón, J M

    2008-01-01

    The surgical boarding of Crohn's disease (CD) admitted as a last effort of treatment against behavior in those the therapy prescribes it has failed, it supposes a loss on perspective that can postpone the delay in the recovery of patients and it retracts them of a better quality of life when it is considered that 50% of patients maintain inactive illness during years after selected surgical procedures; some rate no reached by the most effective treatments. The risk to specify surgical procedure in the course of CD rises to 75% of payees, more than 50% in the first year from the diagnosis, and practically 100% patients in the evolution when it is contemplated to attend perianal lesions. Therefore gastroenterologist should be trained in the selection who, when and why these patients should be operated. To retard the surgery to advanced illness phases increases morbidity, and if it is certain that the new biological therapy allow induction of remissions it is also it that to increase the duration of the process and the patient s age and contributes to face bigger surgical risk and worse perspectives in the treatment of their acute complications and also chronic manifestations often clinically inconsiderate as: Retractile mesenteritis, the states of hipercoagulability and the appearance of malignizations phenomena. Saving absolute indications for initial selective surgery in management of CD patient like: Massive intestinal bleeding, toxic megacolon or free perforation, other surgical conditions they should be reevaluated on light of our current knowledge. Patient s genotyping constitutes a clinical element that contributes to the identification of its specific risks and it facilitates the therapeutic selection. Unfortunately until these analyses can be routinely used the precocious employment of CD surgery it will be based on the consideration clinical data: The patient age, its nutritional state, smoking, and the necessities of steroids. To differ among inflammatory

  3. Mortality from Crohn's disease in Leicestershire, 1972-1989: an epidemiological community based study.

    PubMed

    Probert, C S; Jayanthi, V; Wicks, A C; Mayberry, J F

    1992-09-01

    Mortality among 610 people with Crohn's disease identified in a population based study from 1972-89 was assessed. In Europeans the overall mortality was not increased, the standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was 71.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 49 to 101). The SMR in South Asians was 0, (95% CI 0 to 1590). The SMR varied with the site of disease (chi 2 (4) = 10.5, p < 0.05) and was highest in those with duodenal and jejunal involvement (SMR = 210, 95% CI 44 to 621). Survival curve comparisons showed that colonic disease carried a worse prognosis than terminal ileal disease (chi-2 = 9, p < 0.01) or mixed site disease (chi-2 = 4.7, p < 0.05). Mortality was particularly high during the first six years. It was increased in patients who had undergone more than one resection (SMR = 137, 95% CI 28 to 401) or an ileoanal anastomosis (SMR = 357, 95% CI 9 to 1070), although no difference was significant. Mortality did not change significantly during the study. Such information needs to be made available, not just to patients, their families, and their doctors, but perhaps more importantly, to actuaries, insurers, and those advising employers.

  4. High amount of dietary fiber not harmful but favorable for Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Mitsuro; Tsuji, Tsuyotoshi; Nakane, Kunio; Komatsu, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Current chronic diseases are a reflection of the westernized diet that features a decreased consumption of dietary fiber. Indigestible dietary fiber is metabolized by gut bacteria, including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, to butyrate, which has a critical role in colonic homeostasis owing to a variety of functions. Dietary fiber intake has been significantly inversely associated with the risk of chronic diseases. Crohn disease (CD) is not an exception. However, even authors who reported the inverse association between dietary fiber and a risk of CD made no recommendation of dietary fiber intake to CD patients. Some correspondence was against advocating high fiber intake in CD. We initiated a semivegetarian diet (SVD), namely a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet, for patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Our SVD contains 32.4 g of dietary fiber in 2000 kcal. There was no untoward effect of the SVD. The remission rate with combined infliximab and SVD for newly diagnosed CD patients was 100%. Maintenance of remission on SVD without scheduled maintenance therapy with biologic drugs was 92% at 2 years. These excellent short- and long-term results can be explained partly by SVD. The fecal bacterial count of F prausnitzii in patients with CD is significantly lower than in healthy controls. Diet reviews recommend plant-based diets to treat and to prevent a variety of chronic diseases. SVD belongs to plant-based diets that inevitably contain considerable amounts of dietary fiber. Our clinical experience and available data provide a rationale to recommend a high fiber intake to treat CD.

  5. Laser ablation of complex perianal fistulas preserves continence and is a rectum-sparing alternative in Crohn's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Bodzin, J H

    1998-07-01

    A 20-year review of the inflammatory bowel disease surgical database of the author was analyzed for Crohn's disease (CD) patients who had a surgical approach to perianal fistula disease (PAD). Of 333 patients with CD operated between July 1977 and February 1997, 51 had procedures for PAD (15.3%), and 7 of these patients had laser ablation of severe, debilitating complex PAD (13.7%). These patients have traditionally been treated by diverting ileostomy or proctectomy with permanent diversion. Others have advocated conservative management with long-term antibiotics, staged operations, and insertion of multiple loose setons to promote drainage. This technique was adapted from the laser procedure now advocated for severe hydradenitis suppurativa. The hand-held CO2 laser was used to unroof all fistulas external to the external sphincter. Fistulas were identified by probing. Infected granulation tissue was removed by laser ablation until normal fat or muscle was revealed. Intersphincteric abscesses were unroofed, and a single seton was placed around the external sphincter for all but submucous fistulas. Patients were usually operated as outpatients with pain control effected with oral and transnasal agents. A laparoscopically performed temporary diverting ileostomy was used in one early patient in the series. Patients were followed, and progress was documented by physical examination and photographs. Quality of life was assessed. All patients improved remarkably from their preoperative state. The 4 patients in the group operated more than 1 year before this review have all demonstrated complete healing. The three more recent patients are in various stages of healing. Continence was preserved in 7 of 7 patients. No patient has required rectal excision. Recurrence thought to be related to associated hydradenitis has occurred in 1 patient. Laser ablation is a valuable technique in the management of patients with severe, debilitating complex PAD complicating CD. It

  6. Terminal Ileitis as a Feature of Henoch-Schönlein Purpura Masquerading as Crohn Disease in Adults.

    PubMed

    Sampat, Hemal N; McAllister, Brian P; Gaines, Darryl D; Ostrov, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP), more recently termed immunoglobulin A (IgA) vasculitis, is a systemic small-vessel vasculitis characterized by perivascular IgA deposition. This disease manifests clinically as palpable purpura, arthralgia, gastrointestinal symptoms, and renal dysfunction. Although ileitis can be seen in HSP, terminal ileitis is virtually pathognomonic for Crohn disease. We present a comprehensive review of the literature on this association, including 2 cases of our own, to demonstrate the importance of considering HSP in the differential diagnosis of ileitis suggestive of Crohn disease. We review the growing body of literature suggesting a pathophysiologic link between the conditions, possibly through an IgA-mediated mechanism.

  7. A De Novo Arisen Case of Primary Adrenal Insufficiency in an Adolescent Patient With Crohn Disease

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yun; Mao, Ren; Chen, Min-hu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Several recent population-based studies have demonstrated that patients with inflammatory bowel disease are likely to have other autoimmune diseases. Here we describe the first de novo arisen case of primary adrenal insufficiency in an adolescent female patient with Crohn disease (CD). A 17-year-old female diagnosed with stricturing colonic CD received the maintenance regimen of Remicade (infliximab) 5 mg/kg every 8 weeks following the standard induction regimen. She had an ileocecostomy due to acute small bowel obstruction at 1.5-year since the last infusion of Remicade. She was presented with skin hyperpigmentation of her face, neck, upper limbs, buccal mucosa and lips, which worsened when commenced on 6-mercaptopurine treatment for prophylaxis of postoperative recurrence. An increased adrenocorticotropic hormone (20.3 pmol/L, range 2–11) measurement was obtained. Radiography of the sella turcica region showed no signs of pituitary disease, or abnormality of bilateral adrenal cortex. Since serum aldosterone was below the reference range, more importantly, assessments for both antiadrenal antibodies and anti-21-hydroxylase antibodies were positive, she was then diagnosed as primary adrenal insufficiency. The symptoms improved after supplement of hydrocortisone. This case highlights a rare immune-mediated comorbidity in an adolescent patient with CD. Recognition of a new pattern of autoimmune endocrine comorbidity enables clinicians to be alert about the possibility of concurrence of primary adrenal insufficiency with CD. PMID:26061303

  8. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in the etiology of Crohn's disease, cause or epiphenomenon?

    PubMed

    Liverani, Elisa; Scaioli, Eleonora; Cardamone, Carla; Dal Monte, Paola; Belluzzi, Andrea

    2014-09-28

    The origin of inflammatory bowel disease is unknown. Attempts have been made to isolate a microorganism that could explain the onset of inflammation, but no pathological agent has ever been identified. Johne's disease is a granulomatous chronic enteritis of cattle and sheep caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and shows some analogies with Crohn's disease (CD). Several studies have tried to clarify if MAP has a role in the etiology of CD. The present article provides an overview of the evidence in favor and against the "MAP-hypothesis", analyzing the methods commonly adopted to detect MAP and the role of antimycobacterial therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Studies were identified through the electronic database, MEDLINE, and were selected based on their relevance to the objective of the review. The presence of MAP was investigated using multiple diagnostic methods for MAP detection and in different tissue samples from patients affected by CD or ulcerative colitis and in healthy controls. On the basis of their studies, several authors support a close relationship between MAP and CD. Although increasing evidence of MAP detection in CD patients is unquestionable, a clear etiological link still needs to be proven.

  9. Unique β-Glucuronidase Locus in Gut Microbiomes of Crohn's Disease Patients and Unaffected First-Degree Relatives.

    PubMed

    Gloux, Karine; Anba-Mondoloni, Jamila

    2016-01-01

    Crohn's disease, an incurable chronic inflammatory bowel disease, has been attributed to both genetic predisposition and environmental factors. A dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, observed in numerous patients but also in at least one hundred unaffected first-degree relatives, was proposed to have a causal role. Gut microbiota β-D-glucuronidases (EC 3.2.1.33) hydrolyse β-D-glucuronate from glucuronidated compounds. They include a GUS group, that is homologous to the Escherichia coli GusA, and a BG group, that is homologous to metagenomically identified H11G11 BG and has unidentified natural substrates. H11G11 BG is part of the functional core of the human gut microbiota whereas GusA, known to regenerate various toxic products, is variably found in human subjects. We investigated potential risk markers for Crohn's disease using DNA-sequence-based exploration of the β-D-glucuronidase loci (GUS or Firmicute H11G11-BG and the respective co-encoded glucuronide transporters). Crohn's disease-related microbiomes revealed a higher frequency of a C7D2 glucuronide transporter (12/13) compared to unrelated healthy subjects (8/32). This transporter was in synteny with the potential harmful GUS β-D-glucuronidase as only observed in a Eubacterium eligens plasmid. A conserved NH2-terminal sequence in the transporter (FGDFGND motif) was found in 83% of the disease-related subjects and only in 12% of controls. We propose a microbiota-pathology hypothesis in which the presence of this unique β-glucuronidase locus may contribute to an increase risk for Crohn's disease.

  10. Colonic mucosa-associated microbiota is influenced by an interaction of Crohn disease and FUT2 (Secretor) genotype.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Philipp; Rehman, Ateequr; Künzel, Sven; Häsler, Robert; Ott, Stephan J; Schreiber, Stefan; Rosenstiel, Philip; Franke, Andre; Baines, John F

    2011-11-22

    The FUT2 (Secretor) gene is responsible for the presence of ABO histo-blood group antigens on the gastrointestinal mucosa and in bodily secretions. Individuals lacking a functional copy of FUT2 are known as "nonsecretors" and display an array of differences in susceptibility to infection and disease, including Crohn disease. To determine whether variation in resident microbial communities with respect to FUT2 genotype is a potential factor contributing to susceptibility, we performed 454-based community profiling of the intestinal microbiota in a panel of healthy subjects and Crohn disease patients and determined their genotype for the primary nonsecretor allele in Caucasian populations, W143X (G428A). Consistent with previous studies, we observe significant deviations in the microbial communities of individuals with Crohn disease. Furthermore, the FUT2 genotype explains substantial differences in community composition, diversity, and structure, and we identified several bacterial species displaying disease-by-genotype associations. These findings indicate that alterations in resident microbial communities may in part explain the variety of host susceptibilities surrounding nonsecretor status and that FUT2 is an important genetic factor influencing host-microbial diversity.

  11. Pathogenesis of diabetic cerebral vascular disease complication

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ren-Shi

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most potent independent risk factors for the development of diabetic cerebral vascular disease (CVD). Many evidences suggested that hyperglycemia caused excess free fatty acids, the loss of endothelium-derived nitric oxide, insulin resistance, the prothrombotic state, endothelial dysfunction, the abnormal release of endothelial vasoactivators, vascular smooth muscle dysfunction, oxidative stress, and the downregulation of miRs participated in vessel generation and recovery as well as the balance of endotheliocytes. In turn, these abnormalities, mainly via phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, polyol, hexosamine, protein kinase C activation, and increased generation of advanced glycosylation end products pathway, play an important role in inducing diabetic CVD complication. A deeper comprehension of pathogenesis producing diabetic CVD could offer base for developing new therapeutic ways preventing diabetic CVD complications, therefore, in the paper we mainly reviewed present information about the possible pathogenesis of diabetic CVD complication. PMID:25685278

  12. Association study between OCTN1 functional haplotypes and Crohn's disease in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Eun Suk; Park, Hyo Jin; Kong, Kyoung Ae

    2017-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease with multifactorial causes including environmental and genetic factors. Several studies have demonstrated that the organic cation/carnitine transporter 1 (OCTN1) non-synonymous variant L503F is associated with susceptibility to CD. However, it was reported that L503F is absent in Asian populations. Previously, we identified and functionally characterized genetic variants of the OCTN1 promoter region in Koreans. In that study, four variants demonstrated significant changes in promoter activity. In the present study, we determined whether four functional variants of the OCTN1 promoter play a role in the susceptibility to or clinical course of CD in Koreans. To examine it, the frequencies of the four variants of the OCTN1 promoter were determined by genotyping using DNA samples from 194 patients with CD and 287 healthy controls. Then, associations between genetic variants and the susceptibility to CD or clinical course of CD were evaluated. We found that susceptibility to CD was not associated with OCTN1 functional promoter variants or haplotypes showing altered promoter activities in in vitro assays. However, OCTN1 functional promoter haplotypes showing decreased promoter activities were significantly associated with a penetrating behavior in CD patients (HR=2.428, p=0.009). Our results suggest that the OCTN1 functional promoter haplotypes can influence the CD phenotype, although these might not be associated with susceptibility to this disease. PMID:28066136

  13. The Role of MR Enterography in Assessing Crohn's Disease Activity and Treatment Response

    PubMed Central

    Moy, Matthew P.; Sauk, Jenny; Gee, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    MR enterography (MRE) has become the primary imaging modality in the assessment of Crohn's disease (CD) in both children and adults at many institutions in the United States and worldwide, primarily due to its noninvasiveness, superior soft tissue contrast, and lack of ionizing radiation. MRE technique includes distention of the small bowel with oral contrast media with the acquisition of T2-weighted, balanced steady-state free precession, and multiphase T1-weighted fat suppressed gadolinium contrast-enhanced sequences. With the introduction of molecule-targeted biologic agents into the clinical setting for CD and their potential to reverse the inflammatory process, MRE is increasingly utilized to evaluate disease activity and response to therapy as an imaging complement to clinical indices or optical endoscopy. New and emerging MRE techniques, such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), magnetization transfer, ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide- (USPIO-) enhanced MRI, and PET-MR, offer the potential for an expanded role of MRI in detecting occult disease activity, evaluating early treatment response/resistance, and differentiating inflammatory from fibrotic strictures. Familiarity with MR enterography is essential for radiologists and gastroenterologists as the technique evolves and is further incorporated into the clinical management of CD. PMID:26819611

  14. Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease Are Associated with Decreased Serum Selenium Concentrations and Increased Cardiovascular Risk.

    PubMed

    Castro Aguilar-Tablada, Teresa; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Quesada Granados, Javier; Samaniego Sánchez, Cristina; Rufián-Henares, José Ángel; Nogueras-Lopez, Flor

    2016-12-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and associated oxidative stress is increasing. The antioxidant mineral selenium (Se) was measured in serum samples from 106 IBD patients (53 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 53 with Crohn's disease (CD)) and from 30 healthy controls. Serum Se concentrations were significantly lower in UC and CD patients than in healthy controls (p < 0.001) and significantly lower in CD patients than in UC patients (p = 0.006). Se concentrations in patients were significantly influenced by sex, body mass index (BMI), the inflammatory biomarker α-1-antitrypsin, surgery, medical treatment, the severity, extent, and form of the disease and the length of time since onset (p < 0.05). Se concentrations in IBD patients were positively and linearly correlated with nutritional (protein, albumin, prealbumin, cholinesterase and total cholesterol) and iron status-related (hemoglobin, Fe and hematocrit) parameters (p < 0.05). A greater impairment of serum Se and cardiovascular status was observed in CD than in UC patients. An adequate nutritional Se status is important in IBD patients to minimize the cardiovascular risk associated with increased inflammation biomarkers, especially in undernourished CD patients, and is also related to an improved nutritional and body iron status.

  15. Mechanism of action of the tuberculosis and Crohn disease risk factor IRGM in autophagy.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Santosh; Mandell, Michael A; Deretic, Vojo

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphisms in the IRGM gene, associated with Crohn disease (CD) and tuberculosis, are among the earliest identified examples documenting the role of autophagy in human disease. Functional studies have shown that IRGM protects against these diseases by modulating autophagy, yet the exact molecular mechanism of IRGM's activity has remained unknown. We have recently elucidated IRGM's mechanism of action. IRGM functions as a platform for assembling, stabilizing, and activating the core autophagic machinery, while at the same time physically coupling it to conventional innate immunity receptors. Exposure to microbial products or bacterial invasion increases IRGM expression, which leads to stabilization of AMPK. Specific protein-protein interactions and post-translational modifications such as ubiquitination of IRGM, lead to a co-assembly with IRGM of the key autophagy regulators ULK1 and BECN1 in their activated forms. IRGM physically interacts with 2 other CD risk factors, ATG16L1 and NOD2, placing these 3 principal players in CD within the same molecular complex. This explains how polymorphisms altering expression or function of any of the 3 factors individually can affect the same process-autophagy. Furthermore, IRGM's interaction with NOD2, and additional pattern recognition receptors such as NOD1, RIG-I, and select TLRs, transduces microbial signals to the core autophagy apparatus. This work solves the long-standing enigma of how IRGM controls autophagy.

  16. Altered intestinal microbiota–host mitochondria crosstalk in new onset Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Mottawea, Walid; Chiang, Cheng-Kang; Mühlbauer, Marcus; Starr, Amanda E.; Butcher, James; Abujamel, Turki; Deeke, Shelley A.; Brandel, Annette; Zhou, Hu; Shokralla, Shadi; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; Singleton, Ruth; Benchimol, Eric I.; Jobin, Christian; Mack, David R.; Figeys, Daniel; Stintzi, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal microbial dysbiosis is associated with Crohn's disease (CD). However, the mechanisms leading to the chronic mucosal inflammation that characterizes this disease remain unclear. In this report, we use systems-level approaches to study the interactions between the gut microbiota and host in new-onset paediatric patients to evaluate causality and mechanisms of disease. We report an altered host proteome in CD patients indicative of impaired mitochondrial functions. In particular, mitochondrial proteins implicated in H2S detoxification are downregulated, while the relative abundance of H2S microbial producers is increased. Network correlation analysis reveals that Atopobium parvulum controls the central hub of H2S producers. A. parvulum induces pancolitis in colitis-susceptible interleukin-10-deficient mice and this phenotype requires the presence of the intestinal microbiota. Administrating the H2S scavenger bismuth mitigates A. parvulum-induced colitis in vivo. This study reveals that host–microbiota interactions are disturbed in CD and thus provides mechanistic insights into CD pathogenesis. PMID:27876802

  17. Genetic interplay between HLA-C and MIR148A in HIV control and Crohn disease

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Smita; Qi, Ying; O’hUigin, Colm; Pereyra, Florencia; Ramsuran, Veron; McLaren, Paul; Fellay, Jacques; Nelson, George; Chen, Haoyan; Liao, Wilson; Bass, Sara; Apps, Richard; Gao, Xiaojiang; Yuki, Yuko; Lied, Alexandra; Ganesan, Anuradha; Hunt, Peter W.; Deeks, Steven G.; Wolinsky, Steven; Walker, Bruce D.; Carrington, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Variation in the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of the HLA-C locus determines binding of the microRNA Hsa-miR-148a, resulting in lower cell surface expression of alleles that bind miR-148a relative to those alleles that escape its binding. The HLA-C 3′UTR variant was shown to associate with HIV control, but like the vast majority of disease associations in a region dense with causal candidates, a direct effect of HLA-C expression level on HIV control was not proven. We demonstrate that a MIR148A insertion/deletion polymorphism associates with its own expression levels, affecting the extent to which HLA-C is down-regulated, the level of HIV control, and the risk of Crohn disease only among those carrying an intact miR-148a binding site in the HLA-C 3′UTR. These data illustrate a direct effect of HLA-C expression level on HIV control that cannot be attributed to other HLA loci in linkage disequilibrium with HLA-C and highlight the rich complexity of genetic interactions in human disease. PMID:24248364

  18. Crohn's disease in the Kinneret sub-district, Israel, 1960-1990. Incidence and prevalence in different ethnic subgroups.

    PubMed

    Shapira, M; Tamir, A

    1994-04-01

    Crohn's disease has been predominant in Jewish patients in some countries (USA, UK, Sweden). The purposes of this study were: to continue to map the morbidity in Israel and the trends of the rate over time. The mean annual incidence rate in the Kinneret sub-district among Jews was 1.96/100,000 during 1960-1990 and 2.98/100,000 in the last decade. The prevalence rate in 1990 among Jews was 45.9/100,000 and was twofold among European-American-born compared to other ethnic groups. No cases were found among Arabs, although they make up about 25% of the area's population. The conclusions are: (1) morbidity rate of Crohn's disease increased over time, and (2) in the last decade incidence rates among Jews of Asian-African origin are similar to, or even higher than those of European-American origin.

  19. Syncytial Variant of Nodular Sclerosis Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma of the Terminal Ileum in a Patient with Longstanding Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Bradley; Podoll, Mirna Bajramovic; Baumgartner, Erin Marie; Maley, Diana Haninger

    2016-01-01

    Primary Hodgkin lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract is an uncommon malignancy with few reported cases. Here we describe a rare variant of Hodgkin lymphoma presented in the gastrointestinal tract in association with Crohn's Disease.The patient is a 58 year old male with a 40 year history of formerly well-controlled Crohn's disease who presented with abdominal discomfort and constitutional symptoms. Computed tomography showed a 10 cm thickened segment of ileum and a dilated segment of small bowel. The patient underwent segmental resection, revealing a mass, which was diagnosed by pathology as nodular sclerosis classical Hodgkin lymphoma, syncytial variant.There are only 29 reported cases of syncytial variant of nodular sclerosis classical Hodgkin lymphoma. This is the second documented case of primary gastrointestinal syncytial variant of nodular sclerosis classical Hodgkin lymphoma. Further characterization of this entity is necessary.

  20. Interaction of Crohn's Disease Susceptibility Genes in an Australian Paediatric Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Josef; Sim, Winnie H.; Ellis, Justine A.; Ong, Eng K.; Catto-Smith, Anthony G.; Cameron, Donald J. S.; Bishop, Ruth F.; Kirkwood, Carl D.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic susceptibility is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). We investigated multiple CD susceptibility genes in an Australian paediatric onset CD cohort. Newly diagnosed paediatric onset CD patients (n = 72) and controls (n = 98) were genotyped for 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 18 genetic loci. Gene-gene interaction analysis, gene-disease phenotype analysis and genetic risk profiling were performed for all SNPs and all genes. Of the 34 SNPs analysed, four polymorphisms on three genes (NOD2, IL23R, and region 3p21) were significantly associated with CD status (p<0.05). All three CD specific paediatric polymorphisms on PSMG1 and TNFRSF6B showed a trend of association with p<0.1. An additive gene-gene interaction involving TLR4, PSMG1, TNFRSF6B and IRGM was identified with CD. Genes involved in microbial processing (TLR4, PSMG1, NOD2) were significantly associated either at the individual level or in gene-gene interactive roles. Colonic disease was significantly associated with disease SNP rs7517847 (IL23R) (p<0.05) and colonic and ileal/colonic disease was significantly associated with disease SNP rs125221868 (IBD5) and SLC22A4 & SLC22A4/5 variants (p<0.05). We were able to demonstrate genetic association of several genes to CD in a paediatric onset cohort. Several of the observed associations have not been reported previously in association with paediatric CD patients. Our findings demonstrate that CD genetic susceptibility in paediatric patients presents as a complex interaction between numerous genes. PMID:21079743

  1. An Evil Backstage Manipulator: Psychological Factors Correlated with Health-Related Quality of Life in Chinese Patients with Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Song; Hong, Zhiwu; Li, Xiaoting; Yao, Min; Yan, Dongsheng; Ren, Huajian; Wu, Xiuwen; Wang, Gefei; Gu, Guosheng; Xia, Qiuyuan; Han, Gang; Li, Jieshou

    2013-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is recommended as one of essential parameters to evaluate treatment effect and clinical outcome in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). Recent studies reported that psychological factors might play a role in HRQoL in Western and American CD patients. Sufficient evidences in Chinese CD patients are still unavailable. This study is dedicated to investigate the correlation of various psychological factors with HRQoL in Chinese CD patients. We prospectively collected 40 active and 40 quiescent CD patients in China and found that psychological factors, especially neuroticism and anxiety, significantly correlate with and affect HRQoL in both active and quiescent CD groups. This is the first report revealing correlation between psychological factors and HRQoL in Chinese CD patients. Therefore, we assume that our results can contribute to a better understanding of etiology and tailoring of management in Chinese patients with Crohn's disease and are beneficial to our colleagues to compare the heterogeneous characteristics of Crohn's disease in different ethnic groups. PMID:24453858

  2. Disordered macrophage cytokine secretion underlies impaired acute inflammation and bacterial clearance in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew M; Rahman, Farooq Z; Hayee, Bu'Hussain; Graham, Simon J; Marks, Daniel J B; Sewell, Gavin W; Palmer, Christine D; Wilde, Jonathan; Foxwell, Brian M J; Gloger, Israel S; Sweeting, Trevor; Marsh, Mark; Walker, Ann P; Bloom, Stuart L; Segal, Anthony W

    2009-08-31

    The cause of Crohn's disease (CD) remains poorly understood. Counterintuitively, these patients possess an impaired acute inflammatory response, which could result in delayed clearance of bacteria penetrating the lining of the bowel and predispose to granuloma formation and chronicity. We tested this hypothesis in human subjects by monitoring responses to killed Escherichia coli injected subcutaneously into the forearm. Accumulation of (111)In-labeled neutrophils at these sites and clearance of (32)P-labeled bacteria from them were markedly impaired in CD. Locally increased blood flow and bacterial clearance were dependent on the numbers of bacteria injected. Secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by CD macrophages was grossly impaired in response to E. coli or specific Toll-like receptor agonists. Despite normal levels and stability of cytokine messenger RNA, intracellular levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were abnormally low in CD macrophages. Coupled with reduced secretion, these findings indicate accelerated intracellular breakdown. Differential transcription profiles identified disease-specific genes, notably including those encoding proteins involved in vesicle trafficking. Intracellular destruction of TNF was decreased by inhibitors of lysosomal function. Together, our findings suggest that in CD macrophages, an abnormal proportion of cytokines are routed to lysosomes and degraded rather than being released through the normal secretory pathway.

  3. Misdiagnosis and Mistherapy of Crohn's Disease as Intestinal Tuberculosis: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiang-Peng; Wu, Xiao-Yan; Gao, Sen-Yang; Chen, Qiu-Yu; Liu, Tong; Liu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of Crohn's disease (CD) and intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) remains difficult as the clinical symptoms of the 2 digestive diseases are so similar. Here we report a case where a patient was initially misdiagnosed with ITB prior to the correct CD diagnosis. The 46-year-old male patient was hospitalized elsewhere for pain in the right lower abdomen and underwent an appendectomy. The pathological diagnosis was ITB and the patient was administered antituberculosis therapy for 1 year. Afterward, the patient was readmitted to the hospital for a right lower abdominal mass. A computed tomography scan revealed intestinal gas, fistula, and abdominal mass. We performed a right hemicolectomy on the patient. Postoperatively, we diagnosed the patient with CD, based on patient history and pathological examination. According to the CD active index (CDAI), the patient was at high risk and began treatment with infliximab. The patient has remained in complete remission and made a good recovery after 8-months follow-up. We compared this case with the results of a literature review on the misdiagnosis between CD and ITB (26 previously reported cases) to determine the characteristics of misdiagnosed cases. We found that distinguishing between ITB and CD is difficult because of their varied clinical presentation, nonspecific investigative tools, and profound similarities even in pathological specimens. Although a CT scan to determine the morphology of the bowel wall is a key for correct diagnosis, each case still poses challenges for diagnosis and administrating the appropriate treatment.

  4. Are there characteristic alterations in lung tissue associated with Crohn's disease?

    PubMed

    Kayser, K; Probst, F; Gabius, H J; Müller, K M

    1990-08-01

    Two male patients aged 12 and 31 years suffered from Crohn's disease for more than six years and were treated with Cortison for more than four years. Surgical excision of parts of the terminal ileum was performed in both patients. They suffered from pulmonary symptoms as dyspnoea, shortness of breath and ventilation disturbances two years after operation. Wedge biopsies of the lungs revealed the following histomorphological findings: 1. Granulomatous interstitial lymphocyte infiltrates 2. Acute alveolitis with severe dysplasia of pneumocytes 3. Moderate interstitial fibrosis. Immunohistology performed in one case showed predominantly lambda chains expressed by lymphocytes associated with IgA and IgM. IgG was missing, furthermore kappa chains could not be detected. Macrophages contained endogenous lectins (sugar receptors) for fucose, maltose, and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (glcNAc). No receptors specific for mannose, lactose, and heparin could be found. Pneumocytes did not bind the neoglycoproteins but were found to express HLA-DR receptors detectable by the monoclonal antibody LN 3 in dysplastic pneumocytes only. The histomorphological and immunohistochemical findings suggest that the analyzed alterations of lung tissue are related to the underlying disease of enteritis regionalis.

  5. Trisomy 9 syndrome: Report of a case with Crohn disease and review of the literature

    SciTech Connect

    Wolldridge, J.; Zuncih, J.

    1995-04-10

    We report on a 6-year-old boy with mosaic trisomy 9. The patient was born at 42 weeks of gestation to a 27-year-old G1 white woman. Birth weight was 2,820 g, length 52 cm, and Apgar scores were 4 and 6 at 1 and 5 min, respectively. The infant presented with apparently low-set ears, overfolded helices, epicanthal folds, prominent nasal bridge, high-arched palate, micrognathia, bilateral dislocated hips, left genu recurvatum, and cryptorchidism. Chromosome analysis showed an unusual karyotype: 47,XY,+inv(9qh+)/47,XY,+mar. The marker chromosome was thought to be a remnant of the inv (9qh+), while the father`s was 46,XY. At age 5 months, the patient developed seizures and gastroesophageal reflux. Crohn disease was diagnosed at age 2 years, although symptoms began at age 1 year. Recurrent bouts of pneumonia have occurred since the patient`s birth. Severe psychomotor retardation was also noted. Trisomy 9 syndrome was first reported in 1973. Over 30 cases have been reported since then. Of these case reports, only 5 patients were older than 1 year. Inflammatory bowel disease has been reported in association with other chromosome abnormalities, but to our knowledge, has not been reported in trisomy 9 syndrome. 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Subversion of human intestinal mucosa innate immunity by a Crohn's disease-associated E. coli.

    PubMed

    Jarry, A; Crémet, L; Caroff, N; Bou-Hanna, C; Mussini, J M; Reynaud, A; Servin, A L; Mosnier, J F; Liévin-Le Moal, V; Laboisse, C L

    2015-05-01

    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC), associated with Crohn's disease, are likely candidate contributory factors in the disease. However, signaling pathways involved in human intestinal mucosa innate host response to AIEC remain unknown. Here we use a 3D model of human intestinal mucosa explant culture to explore the effects of the AIEC strain LF82 on two innate immunity platforms, i.e., the inflammasome through evaluation of caspase-1 status, and NFκB signaling. We showed that LF82 bacteria enter and survive within a few intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages, without altering the mucosa overall architecture. Although 4-h infection with a Salmonella strain caused crypt disorganization, caspase-1 activation, and mature IL-18 production, LF82 bacteria were unable to activate caspase-1 and induce IL-18 production. In parallel, LF82 bacteria activated NFκB signaling in epithelial cells through IκBα phosphorylation, NFκBp65 nuclear translocation, and TNFα secretion. In addition, NFκB activation was crucial for the maintenance of epithelial homeostasis upon LF82 infection. In conclusion, here we decipher at the whole-mucosa level the mechanisms of the LF82-induced subversion of innate immunity that, by maintaining host cell integrity, ensure intracellular bacteria survival.

  7. Pediatric Crohn disease patients exhibit specific ileal transcriptome and microbiome signature.

    PubMed

    Haberman, Yael; Tickle, Timothy L; Dexheimer, Phillip J; Kim, Mi-Ok; Tang, Dora; Karns, Rebekah; Baldassano, Robert N; Noe, Joshua D; Rosh, Joel; Markowitz, James; Heyman, Melvin B; Griffiths, Anne M; Crandall, Wallace V; Mack, David R; Baker, Susan S; Huttenhower, Curtis; Keljo, David J; Hyams, Jeffrey S; Kugathasan, Subra; Walters, Thomas D; Aronow, Bruce; Xavier, Ramnik J; Gevers, Dirk; Denson, Lee A

    2014-08-01

    Interactions between the host and gut microbial community likely contribute to Crohn disease (CD) pathogenesis; however, direct evidence for these interactions at the onset of disease is lacking. Here, we characterized the global pattern of ileal gene expression and the ileal microbial community in 359 treatment-naive pediatric patients with CD, patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and control individuals. We identified core gene expression profiles and microbial communities in the affected CD ilea that are preserved in the unaffected ilea of patients with colon-only CD but not present in those with UC or control individuals; therefore, this signature is specific to CD and independent of clinical inflammation. An abnormal increase of antimicrobial dual oxidase (DUOX2) expression was detected in association with an expansion of Proteobacteria in both UC and CD, while expression of lipoprotein APOA1 gene was downregulated and associated with CD-specific alterations in Firmicutes. The increased DUOX2 and decreased APOA1 gene expression signature favored oxidative stress and Th1 polarization and was maximally altered in patients with more severe mucosal injury. A regression model that included APOA1 gene expression and microbial abundance more accurately predicted month 6 steroid-free remission than a model using clinical factors alone. These CD-specific host and microbe profiles identify the ileum as the primary inductive site for all forms of CD and may direct prognostic and therapeutic approaches.

  8. New global map of Crohn's disease: Genetic, environmental, and socioeconomic correlations.

    PubMed

    Economou, Michael; Pappas, Georgios

    2008-05-01

    Seventy-five years after the initial characterization of Crohn's disease (CD), much remains obscure about its etiology. The authors sought to evaluate the incidence trends of the last 25 years worldwide, and the existence of potential correlations with genetic, environmental, and socioeconomic factors that could be etiologically implicated in the pathogenesis of CD. Relevant medical literature for individual countries on the incidence of CD, on the incidence of associated genetic mutations, and on the incidence of suggested etiologic infectious agents such as Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis were retrieved from published medical literature, reports from relevant international congresses, and through official reports from national health authorities. Increasing trends have been observed almost worldwide, with a broad north-south gradient still prevailing in Europe. Distinct regions of New Zealand, Canada, Scotland, France, the Netherlands, and Scandinavia represent the highest incidence areas. Industrialized status and affluence are the common denominators between endemic areas, but are too broad as terms to strongly indicate any particular etiological role. The increasing trends observed in Asia still account for a low prevalence of the disease and may represent increased detection and diagnostic ability of local health systems. Genetic associations are variably reproduced worldwide, in a manner inconsistent with a strong etiologic relationship. Data on paratuberculosis incidence are scarce, and the existing ones are ambivalent regarding an even indirect correlation between CD and an infectious trigger.

  9. Disordered macrophage cytokine secretion underlies impaired acute inflammation and bacterial clearance in Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew M.; Rahman, Farooq Z.; Hayee, Bu'Hussain; Graham, Simon J.; Marks, Daniel J.B.; Sewell, Gavin W.; Palmer, Christine D.; Wilde, Jonathan; Foxwell, Brian M.J.; Gloger, Israel S.; Sweeting, Trevor; Marsh, Mark; Walker, Ann P.; Bloom, Stuart L.

    2009-01-01

    The cause of Crohn's disease (CD) remains poorly understood. Counterintuitively, these patients possess an impaired acute inflammatory response, which could result in delayed clearance of bacteria penetrating the lining of the bowel and predispose to granuloma formation and chronicity. We tested this hypothesis in human subjects by monitoring responses to killed Escherichia coli injected subcutaneously into the forearm. Accumulation of 111In-labeled neutrophils at these sites and clearance of 32P-labeled bacteria from them were markedly impaired in CD. Locally increased blood flow and bacterial clearance were dependent on the numbers of bacteria injected. Secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by CD macrophages was grossly impaired in response to E. coli or specific Toll-like receptor agonists. Despite normal levels and stability of cytokine messenger RNA, intracellular levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were abnormally low in CD macrophages. Coupled with reduced secretion, these findings indicate accelerated intracellular breakdown. Differential transcription profiles identified disease-specific genes, notably including those encoding proteins involved in vesicle trafficking. Intracellular destruction of TNF was decreased by inhibitors of lysosomal function. Together, our findings suggest that in CD macrophages, an abnormal proportion of cytokines are routed to lysosomes and degraded rather than being released through the normal secretory pathway. PMID:19652016

  10. Renal complications of Fabry disease in children.

    PubMed

    Najafian, Behzad; Mauer, Michael; Hopkin, Robert J; Svarstad, Einar

    2013-05-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked α-galactosidase A deficiency, resulting in accumulation of glycosphingolipids, especially globotriaosylceramide, in cells in different organs in the body. Renal failure is a serious complication of this disease. Fabry nephropathy lesions are present and progress in childhood while the disease commonly remains silent by routine clinical measures. Early and timely diagnosis of Fabry nephropathy is crucial since late initiation of enzyme replacement therapy may not halt progressive renal dysfunction. This may be challenging due to difficulties in diagnosis of Fabry disease in children and absence of a sensitive non-invasive biomarker of early Fabry nephropathy. Accurate measurement of glomerular filtration rate and regular assessment for proteinuria and microalbuminuria are useful, though not sensitive enough to detect early lesions in the kidney. Recent studies support the value of renal biopsy in providing histological information relevant to kidney function and prognosis, and renal biopsy could potentially be used to guide treatment decisions in young Fabry patients. This review aims to provide an update of the current understanding, challenges, and needs to better approach renal complications of Fabry disease in children.

  11. Long-Term Outcome of Endoscopic Balloon Dilation in Obstructive Gastrointestinal Crohn's Disease: A Prospective Long-Term Study

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Keisuke; Tsuda, Sumio; Yao, Kenshi; Sou, Suketo; Satoh, Shigeru; Hatakeyama, Sadamune; Matake, Hiroaki; Sakurai, Toshihiro; Yao, Tsuneyoshi

    2000-01-01

    Background The short- and long-term results of balloon dilation therapy in Crohn's patients with non-anastomotic obstructive gastrointestinal lesions are investigated. Materials and methods Fifty-five patients with Crohn's disease who had obstructive gastrointestinal lesions were treated prospectively by endoscopic balloon dilation. Short-term results Eight of the initial dilations were unsuccessful giving no symptomatic relief (14.5%). Long-term results The subjects of the long-term prognosis were 40 cases followed up for more than 6 months (average 37 months) and their strictures were non-anastomotic in more than half (59%). Avoidance of surgery, was possible in 31 of 40 patients (78%). Surgery was avoided in 92%, 81% and 77% of patients after one, two, and three years, respectively (Kaplan–Meier's method). There was no difference in long-term outcome between anastomotic strictures and strictures in the absence of prior surgery. Conclusion Our results suggest that, (1) strictures in the absence of prior surgery might be treated in this way as well as anastomotic strictures; (2) if followed for a prolonged time period, more than 70% of patients, who have undergone balloon dilation for obstructive gastrointestinal Crohn's disease, may be able to avoid surgery. PMID:18493528

  12. Working Group Guidelines on the nursing roles in caring for patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Kurek, Marzena; Poteralska, Aneta; Bieniek, Ewa; Marynka, Anna; Pabich, Grażyna; Liebert, Ariel; Kłopocka, Maria; Rydzewska, Grażyna

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, present a major challenge for present-day gastroenterology due to their increasing incidence, chronic nature, risk of permanent worsening of quality of life of patients, and the costs of conservative and invasive treatment. Basic and advanced nursing care are important parts of the multidisciplinary care for patients. The developed guidelines on the nursing care, which are compliant with the European guidelines published by Nurses-European Crohn's & Colitis Organisation (N-ECCO), were adjusted to the current situation in Poland. Significant issues that are important for nursing teams have been identified, with particular emphasis on the specificity of working in centres specialising in the care of IBD patients. The Working Group paid attention to the conditions that should be satisfied in order to optimise the nursing care for IBD patients, and the necessity to develop professional and scientific cooperation with European centres within European Crohn's & Colitis Organisation (ECCO) and N-ECCO. PMID:25276248

  13. Split ileostomy and ileocolostomy for Crohn's disease of the colon and ulcerative colitis: a 20 year survey.

    PubMed Central

    Harper, P H; Truelove, S C; Lee, E C; Kettlewell, M G; Jewell, D P

    1983-01-01

    The clinical course of 140 patients who have had a split ileostomy for ulcerative colitis or colonic Crohn's disease over a 20 year period is reported. In 37 patients with ulcerative colitis there was no sustained improvement. In the 102 patients with Crohn's disease there was an immediate clinical improvement in 95, which was sustained in 65. Thirty patients have subsequently required a proctocolectomy for persistent inflammation, and 28 are still defunctioned. Bowel continuity was restored after 61 split ileostomies and in 44 patients intestinal continuity remains intact at the present time (mean follow up since closure = 62.5 months, range 0-231 months). It is concluded that a split ileostomy is a safe conservative operation producing at least temporary improvement in severely ill and malnourished patients with Crohn's colitis, and that if a subsequent resection becomes necessary it may be less extensive than was thought applicable at the initial operation. In 27 patients a resection has not been required. PMID:6852621

  14. Dysbiotic gut microbiota causes transmissible Crohn's disease-like ileitis independent of failure in antimicrobial defence

    PubMed Central

    Clavel, Thomas; Calasan, Jelena; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Haange, Sven Bastiaan; Jehmlich, Nico; Basic, Marijana; Dupont, Aline; Hornef, Mathias; von Bergen, Martin; Bleich, André; Haller, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota is associated with Crohn's disease (CD). Functional evidence for a causal role of bacteria in the development of chronic small intestinal inflammation is lacking. Similar to human pathology, TNFdeltaARE mice develop a tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-driven CD-like transmural inflammation with predominant ileal involvement. Design Heterozygous TNFdeltaARE mice and wildtype (WT) littermates were housed under conventional (CONV), specific pathogen-free (SPF) and germ-free (GF) conditions. Microbial communities were analysed by high-throughput 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Metaproteomes were measured using LC-MS. Temporal and spatial resolution of disease development was followed after antibiotic treatment and transfer of microbial communities into GF mice. Granulocyte infiltration and Paneth cell function was assessed by immunofluorescence and gene expression analysis. Results GF-TNFdeltaARE mice were free of inflammation in the gut and antibiotic treatment of CONV-TNFdeltaARE mice attenuated ileitis but not colitis, demonstrating that disease severity and location are microbiota-dependent. SPF-TNFdeltaARE mice developed distinct ileitis-phenotypes associated with gradual loss of antimicrobial defence. 16S analysis and metaproteomics revealed specific compositional and functional alterations of bacterial communities in inflamed mice. Transplantation of disease-associated but not healthy microbiota transmitted CD-like ileitis to GF-TNFdeltaARE recipients and triggered loss of lysozyme and cryptdin-2 expression. Monoassociation of GF-TNFdeltaARE mice with the human CD-related Escherichia coli LF82 did not induce ileitis. Conclusions We provide clear experimental evidence for the causal role of gut bacterial dysbiosis in the development of chronic ileal inflammation with subsequent failure of Paneth cell function. PMID:25887379

  15. Prevalence of CT features of axial spondyloarthritis in patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    De Kock, Isabelle; Hindryckx, Pieter; De Vos, Martine; Delrue, Louke; Verstraete, Koenraad; Jans, Lennart

    2017-05-01

    Background The sacroiliac joint and spine are seen on abdominal computed tomography (CT) and may show structural lesions as part of spondyloarthritis. Purpose To determine the prevalence of CT features of spondyloarthritis in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). Material and Methods A retrospective study of structural lesions of spondyloarthritis on abdominal CT was performed. The sacroiliac joints and spine of 120 patients were studied: study group I consisted of 40 patients with known CD and inflammatory back pain, group II involved 40 patients with CD without inflammatory back pain, and group III consisted of 40 patients without known joint or inflammatory bowel disease. Recorded CT features included sclerosis, erosions or ankylosis of the sacroiliac joint, enthesopathy, spinal syndesmophytes, and costovertebral joint lesions. Results CT showed structural lesions of the sacroiliac joints in 19/40 (48%) patients with CD and inflammatory back pain (sclerosis [n = 14; 35%], erosions [n = 14; 35%], ankylosis [n = 3; 8%]), in 8/40 (8%) patients with CD without inflammatory back pain (sclerosis [n = 3; 8%], erosions [n = 4; 10%], ankylosis [n = 3; 8%]), and in 3/40 (8%) patients without known joint or bowel disease (sclerosis [n = 2; 5%], ankylosis [n = 1; 3%]). Syndesmophytes were exclusively seen in group I (n = 6; 15%). Conclusion CT of the abdomen in patients with CD and inflammatory back pain shows structural lesions of the sacroiliac joint, entheses, or spine in almost half of the patients. Awareness and knowledge of these findings may guide the referring clinician to further clinical evaluation, imaging, and biomarker evaluation of the disease.

  16. Improved integrative framework combining association data with gene expression features to prioritize Crohn's disease genes.

    PubMed

    Ning, Kaida; Gettler, Kyle; Zhang, Wei; Ng, Sok Meng; Bowen, B Monica; Hyams, Jeffrey; Stephens, Michael C; Kugathasan, Subra; Denson, Lee A; Schadt, Eric E; Hoffman, Gabriel E; Cho, Judy H

    2015-07-15

    Genome-wide association studies in Crohn's disease (CD) have identified 140 genome-wide significant loci. However, identification of genes driving association signals remains challenging. Furthermore, genome-wide significant thresholds limit false positives at the expense of decreased sensitivity. In this study, we explored gene features contributing to CD pathogenicity, including gene-based association data from CD and autoimmune (AI) diseases, as well as gene expression features (eQTLs, epigenetic markers of expression and intestinal gene expression data). We developed an integrative model based on a CD reference gene set. This integrative approach outperformed gene-based association signals alone in identifying CD-related genes based on statistical validation, gene ontology enrichment, differential expression between M1 and M2 macrophages and a validation using genes causing monogenic forms of inflammatory bowel disease as a reference. Besides gene-level CD association P-values, association with AI diseases was the strongest predictor, highlighting generalized mechanisms of inflammation, and the interferon-γ pathway particularly. Within the 140 high-confidence CD regions, 598 of 1328 genes had low prioritization scores, highlighting genes unlikely to contribute to CD pathogenesis. For select regions, comparably high integrative model scores were observed for multiple genes. This is particularly evident for regions having extensive linkage disequilibrium such as the IBD5 locus. Our analyses provide a standardized reference for prioritizing potential CD-related genes, in regions with both highly significant and nominally significant gene-level association P-values. Our integrative model may be particularly valuable in prioritizing rare, potentially private, missense variants for which genome-wide evidence for association may be unattainable.

  17. Improved integrative framework combining association data with gene expression features to prioritize Crohn's disease genes

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Kaida; Gettler, Kyle; Zhang, Wei; Ng, Sok Meng; Bowen, B. Monica; Hyams, Jeffrey; Stephens, Michael C.; Kugathasan, Subra; Denson, Lee A.; Schadt, Eric E.; Hoffman, Gabriel E.; Cho, Judy H.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies in Crohn's disease (CD) have identified 140 genome-wide significant loci. However, identification of genes driving association signals remains challenging. Furthermore, genome-wide significant thresholds limit false positives at the expense of decreased sensitivity. In this study, we explored gene features contributing to CD pathogenicity, including gene-based association data from CD and autoimmune (AI) diseases, as well as gene expression features (eQTLs, epigenetic markers of expression and intestinal gene expression data). We developed an integrative model based on a CD reference gene set. This integrative approach outperformed gene-based association signals alone in identifying CD-related genes based on statistical validation, gene ontology enrichment, differential expression between M1 and M2 macrophages and a validation using genes causing monogenic forms of inflammatory bowel disease as a reference. Besides gene-level CD association P-values, association with AI diseases was the strongest predictor, highlighting generalized mechanisms of inflammation, and the interferon-γ pathway particularly. Within the 140 high-confidence CD regions, 598 of 1328 genes had low prioritization scores, highlighting genes unlikely to contribute to CD pathogenesis. For select regions, comparably high integrative model scores were observed for multiple genes. This is particularly evident for regions having extensive linkage disequilibrium such as the IBD5 locus. Our analyses provide a standardized reference for prioritizing potential CD-related genes, in regions with both highly significant and nominally significant gene-level association P-values. Our integrative model may be particularly valuable in prioritizing rare, potentially private, missense variants for which genome-wide evidence for association may be unattainable. PMID:25935003

  18. [Oral cavity microflora in patients with non-specific ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Kondrakova, O A; Muliar, E A; Voropaeva, E A; Babin, V N; Dubinin, A V; Briko, N I

    2009-01-01

    Results of study of microecological disorders in oral cavity of patients with non-specific ulcerative colitis (NSUC) and Crohn's disease (CD) and control subjects (patients with hypertension). Condition of mucosa was assessed on the basis of morphological data and electrophoretic mobility of cell nuclei, whereas structure of microbiocenosis and metabolic activity of microflora--on the basis of saliva bacterial culture and contents and profile of volatile fat acids in it. Detection rate of negative charge of the cell nuclei (decrease of functional activity of epithelium) was significantly higher in patients with NSUC and CD (66.6%) compared with controls (10%). This fact was directly related with hypercolonization of oral cavity by Gram-negative microflora. Lesions of mucosa which are characteristic of NSUC and CD and determined by pathologic immune mechanisms correlated with quantity of pathogenic microflora (Staphylococcus aureus and Candida). Marked differences of chromatograms' patterns were observed in patients with NSUC and CD indicating the suppression of anaerobic microflora in patients with CD and hypercolonization of oral cavity by anaerobic microflora in majority of patients with NSUC.

  19. Use of adaptive hybrid filtering process in Crohn's disease lesion detection from real capsule endoscopy videos.

    PubMed

    Charisis, Vasileios S; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this Letter is to present a new capsule endoscopy (CE) image analysis scheme for the detection of small bowel ulcers that relate to Crohn's disease. More specifically, this scheme is based on: (i) a hybrid adaptive filtering (HAF) process, that utilises genetic algorithms to the curvelet-based representation of images for efficient extraction of the lesion-related morphological characteristics, (ii) differential lacunarity (DL) analysis for texture feature extraction from the HAF-filtered images and (iii) support vector machines for robust classification performance. For the training of the proposed scheme, namely HAF-DL, an 800-image database was used and the evaluation was based on ten 30-second long endoscopic videos. Experimental results, along with comparison with other related efforts, have shown that the HAF-DL approach evidently outperforms the latter in the field of CE image analysis for automated lesion detection, providing higher classification results. The promising performance of HAF-DL paves the way for a complete computer-aided diagnosis system that could support the physicians' clinical practice.

  20. Application of multiple laboratory tests for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis detection in Crohn's disease patient specimens.

    PubMed

    Banche, Giuliana; Allizond, Valeria; Sostegni, Raffaello; Lavagna, Alessandro; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Sidoti, Francesca; Daperno, Marco; Rocca, Rodolfo; Cuffini, Anna Maria

    2015-07-01

    The difficulties involved in detecting and enumerating Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) as a pathogen potentially involved in Crohn's disease (CD) are well known. This study aimed to improve this situation through the application of multiple laboratory diagnostic tests to detect and isolate this bacterium from different specimens collected from CD-patients and non-CD subjects as controls. A total of 120 samples (terminal ileum and colon biopsies, blood and stool) were obtained from 19 CD-patien