Science.gov

Sample records for component assembly operations

  1. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Operational Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Bradish, Martin A.; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Lewis, Michael J.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    This Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Operational Concept document was developed as a first step in developing the Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) System Architecture (NASA/TM-2011-216956). The CLEAR operational concept defines how the system will be used by the Constellation Program and what needs it meets. The document creates scenarios for major elements of the CLEAR architecture. These scenarios are generic enough to apply to near-Earth, Moon, and Mars missions. The CLEAR operational concept involves basic assumptions about the overall program architecture and interactions with the CLEAR system architecture. The assumptions include spacecraft and operational constraints for near-Earth orbit, Moon, and Mars missions. This document addresses an incremental development strategy where capabilities evolve over time, but it is structured to prevent obsolescence. The approach minimizes flight hardware by exploiting Internet-like telecommunications that enables CLEAR capabilities to remain on Earth and to be uplinked as needed. To minimize crew time and operational cost, CLEAR exploits offline development and validation to support online teleoperations. Operational concept scenarios are developed for diagnostics, repair, and functional test operations. Many of the supporting functions defined in these operational scenarios are further defined as technologies in NASA/TM-2011-216956.

  2. An in-cell alpha detection system for radioisotope component assembly operations

    SciTech Connect

    Carteret, B.A. ); Goles, R.W. )

    1991-09-01

    A remotely operated alpha detection system is being developed for use at the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. It will be used in hot cells being constructed to assemble components of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators for space power applications. The in-cell detection equipment will survey radiological swipe samples to determine smearable surface contamination levels on radioisotope fuel, fueled components, and hot-cell work areas. This system is potentially adaptable to other hot cell and glovebox applications where radiation dose rates and contamination levels are expected to be low. 2 figs.

  3. Lageos assembly operation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brueger, J.

    1975-01-01

    Guidelines and constraints procedures for LAGEOS assembly, operation, and design performance are given. Special attention was given to thermal, optical, and dynamic analysis and testing. The operation procedures illustrate the interrelation and sequence of tasks in a flow diagram. The diagram also includes quality assurance functions for verification of operation tasks.

  4. Multi-component assembly casting

    SciTech Connect

    James, Allister W.

    2015-10-13

    Multi-component vane segment and method for forming the same. Assembly includes: positioning a pre-formed airfoil component (12) and a preformed shroud heat resistant material (18) in a mold, wherein the airfoil component (12) and the shroud heat resistant material (18) each comprises an interlocking feature (24); preheating the mold; introducing molten structural material (46) into the mold; and solidifying the molten structural material such that it interlocks the pre-formed airfoil component (12) with respect to the preformed shroud heat resistant material (18) and is effective to provide structural support for the shroud heat resistant material (18). Surfaces between the airfoil component (12) and the structural material (46), between the airfoil component (12) and the shroud heat resistant material (18), and between the shroud heat resistant material (18) and the structural material (46) are free of metallurgical bonds.

  5. Parallel Assembly of LIGA Components

    SciTech Connect

    Christenson, T.R.; Feddema, J.T.

    1999-03-04

    In this paper, a prototype robotic workcell for the parallel assembly of LIGA components is described. A Cartesian robot is used to press 386 and 485 micron diameter pins into a LIGA substrate and then place a 3-inch diameter wafer with LIGA gears onto the pins. Upward and downward looking microscopes are used to locate holes in the LIGA substrate, pins to be pressed in the holes, and gears to be placed on the pins. This vision system can locate parts within 3 microns, while the Cartesian manipulator can place the parts within 0.4 microns.

  6. SSME component assembly and life management expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, M.; Dietz, W. E.; Ferber, H. J.

    1989-01-01

    The space shuttle utilizes several rocket engine systems, all of which must function with a high degree of reliability for successful mission completion. The space shuttle main engine (SSME) is by far the most complex of the rocket engine systems and is designed to be reusable. The reusability of spacecraft systems introduces many problems related to testing, reliability, and logistics. Components must be assembled from parts inventories in a manner which will most effectively utilize the available parts. Assembly must be scheduled to efficiently utilize available assembly benches while still maintaining flight schedules. Assembled components must be assigned to as many contiguous flights as possible, to minimize component changes. Each component must undergo a rigorous testing program prior to flight. In addition, testing and assembly of flight engines and components must be done in conjunction with the assembly and testing of developmental engines and components. The development, testing, manufacture, and flight assignments of the engine fleet involves the satisfaction of many logistical and operational requirements, subject to many constraints. The purpose of the SSME Component Assembly and Life Management Expert System (CALMES) is to assist the engine assembly and scheduling process, and to insure that these activities utilize available resources as efficiently as possible.

  7. Automated assembly of micro-optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhardt, Ramona; Scheller, Torsten; Tittelbach, Guenther; Guyenot, Volker

    1998-01-01

    In the field of microsystem technologies one future trend is recognized. Manufacturing microsystems monolithically is becoming less reasonable and practicable with increasing applications and complexity. Assembly processes will be needed for the majority of microsystems due to difficulties arising in manufacturing complex structure out of one piece, the need for components to be manufactured by different processes, or simply to connect the microsystem with the macroscopic environment. Additionally, high production output at competitive costs is attainable only by replacing manual assembly with new automatic handling, positioning and joining technologies. To assist in development of microassembly processes, techniques from macroassembly technology may be transferred. Especially in microoptics existing know-how from macroscopic lens-assemblies might be transferred. The microsystem presented a microoptical beam forming system consisting of one SELFOC- and two GRIN- microlenses joined by adhesive bonding, fixed in a protection-mount, which serves additionally as a coupling unit of a multimode fiber, and finally adjusted to a laser diode at a defined distance according to an optical design. Besides complications due to the sensitive optical surfaces and the small and varying geometries of the system components, there is the additional requirement of high accuracies, of 0.1 to 2 micrometers and down to 1 arcsec, needed to realize the optical function of the microsystem. The assembly system, based on a six-axis-precision robot accurate to less than 1 micrometers , consists of a modular designed tool changing system, specially-adapted, self- adjusting grippers, several sensors to monitor positioning, dosage devices to dispense measured quantities of adhesive, in the range of nanoliters, and a specially designed assembly platform to clamp microparts of different geometries.

  8. Apparatus for generating a robotic plan for automatically assembling a mechanical component

    SciTech Connect

    Maciejewski, A.A.; Strip, D.R.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an apparatus operable in combination with a robot positioned in a workcell having a preselected specification is operable to generate a program for operating the robot to assemble a mechanical component. The apparatus includes a planner for receiving as inputs a CAD model of the mechanical component to be assembled, a set of robot primitives and a set of mechanical component assembly rules for determining the conditions under which the set of robot primitives apply. The planner generates from these inputs a general, workcell specification-independent plan for assembling the mechanical component. The general plan generated by the planner is provided as an input to a compiler along with details relating to the workcell specification, and the compiler generates from these inputs a workcell specification-dependent program which operates the robot to assemble the mechanical component.

  9. Method of using infrared radiation for assembling a first component with a second component

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Whitson, B.G.; Blue, C.A.

    1999-12-14

    A method of assembling a first component for assembly with a second component involves a heating device which includes an enclosure having a cavity for inserting a first component. An array of infrared energy generators is disposed within the enclosure. At least a portion of the first component is inserted into the cavity, exposed to infrared energy and thereby heated to a temperature wherein the portion of the first component is sufficiently softened and/or expanded for assembly with a second component.

  10. Method of using infrared radiation for assembling a first component with a second component

    DOEpatents

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Whitson, Barry G.; Blue, Craig A.

    1999-01-01

    A method of assembling a first component for assembly with a second component involves a heating device which includes an enclosure having a cavity for inserting a first component. An array of infrared energy generators is disposed within the enclosure. At least a portion of the first component is inserted into the cavity, exposed to infrared energy and thereby heated to a temperature wherein the portion of the first component is sufficiently softened and/or expanded for assembly with a second component.

  11. 3D vision assisted flexible robotic assembly of machine components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogun, Philips S.; Usman, Zahid; Dharmaraj, Karthick; Jackson, Michael R.

    2015-12-01

    Robotic assembly systems either make use of expensive fixtures to hold components in predefined locations, or the poses of the components are determined using various machine vision techniques. Vision-guided assembly robots can handle subtle variations in geometries and poses of parts. Therefore, they provide greater flexibility than the use of fixtures. However, the currently established vision-guided assembly systems use 2D vision, which is limited to three degrees of freedom. The work reported in this paper is focused on flexible automated assembly of clearance fit machine components using 3D vision. The recognition and the estimation of the poses of the components are achieved by matching their CAD models with the acquired point cloud data of the scene. Experimental results obtained from a robot demonstrating the assembly of a set of rings on a shaft show that the developed system is not only reliable and accurate, but also fast enough for industrial deployment.

  12. Wedge assembly for electrical transformer component spacing

    DOEpatents

    Baggett, Franklin E.; Cage, W. Franklin

    1991-01-01

    A wedge assembly that is easily inserted between two surfaces to be supported thereby, and thereafter expanded to produce a selected spacing between those surfaces. This wedge assembly has two outer members that are substantially identical except that they are mirror images of each other. Oppositely directed faces of these of these outer members are substantially parallel for the purpose of contacting the surfaces to be separated. The outer faces of these outer members that are directed toward each other are tapered so as to contact a center member having complementary tapers on both faces. A washer member is provided to contact a common end of the outer members, and a bolt member penetrates this washer and is threadably received in a receptor of the center member. As the bolt member is threaded into the center member, the center member is drawn further into the gap between the outer members and thereby separates these outer members to contact the surfaces to be separated. In the preferred embodiment, the contacting surfaces of the outer member and the center member are provided with guide elements. The wedge assembly is described for use in separating the secondary windings from the laminations of an electrical power transformer.

  13. Extension method of drillstring component assembly

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    2001-01-01

    A method of assembling transducer tools for down-hole applications wherein piezoelectric elements in the tools are pre-stressed by mechanically stretching an elastic mandrel about which the piezoelectric elements are positioned and subsequently releasing the mandrel so that it contracts causing the piezoelectric elements to be captured in an interference fit in a recess in the mandrel. The method can be adapted to embodiments where the recess in the mandrel is bound by two regions of the mandrel, itself, or where the recess is defined on one end by a portion of the mandrel and on the other end by a separate anvil member positioned against the piezoelectric elements and then secured to the mandrel.

  14. Evaluating Manufacturing and Assembly Errors in Rotating Machinery to Enhance Component Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Irem Y.; Huff, Edward M.; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Manufacturing and assembly phases play a crucial role in providing products that meet the strict functional specifications associated with rotating machinery components. The errors resulting during the manufacturing and assembly of such components are correlated with the vibration and noise emanating from the final system during its operational lifetime. Vibration and noise are especially unacceptable elements in high-risk systems such as helicopters, resulting in premature component degradation and an unsafe flying environment. In such applications, individual components often are subject to 100% inspection prior to assembly, as well as during operation through rigorous maintenance, resulting in increased product development cycles and high production and operation costs. In this work, we focus on providing designers and manufacturing engineers with a technique to evaluate vibration modes and levels for each component or subsystem prior to putting them into operation. This paper presents a preliminary investigation of the correlation between vibrations and manufacturing and assembly errors using an experimental test rig, which simulates a simple bearing and shaft arrangement. A factorial design is used to study the effects of: 1) different manufacturing instances; 2) different assembly instances; and, 3) varying shaft speeds. The results indicate a correlation between manufacturing or assembly errors and vibrations measured from accelerometers. Challenges in developing a tool for DFM are identified, followed by a discussion of future work, including a real-world application to helicopter transmission vibrations.

  15. Instantaneous engine frictional torque, its components and piston assembly friction

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, F.A. ); Henein, N.A. . Center for Automotive Research)

    1992-05-01

    The overall goal of this report is to document the work done to determine the instantaneous frictional torque of internal combustion engine by using a new approach known as (P-[omega]) method developed at Wayne State University. The emphasis has been to improve the accuracy of the method, and apply it to both diesel and gasoline engines under different operating conditions. Also work included an investigation to determine the effect of using advanced materials and techniques to coat the piston rings on the instantaneous engine frictional torque and the piston assembly friction. The errors in measuring the angular velocity, [omega], have been determined and found to be caused by variations in the divisions within one encoder, encoder-to-encoder variations, misalignment within the encoder itself and misalignment between the encoder and crankshaft. The errors in measuring the cylinder gas pressure, P, have been determined and found to be caused by transducer-to-transducer variations, zero drift, thermal stresses and lack of linearity. The ability of the (P-[omega]) method in determining the frictional torque of many engine components has been demonstrated. These components include valve train, fuel injection pump with and without fuel injection, and piston with and without different ring combinations. The emphasis in this part of the research program has been on the piston-ring assembly friction. The effects of load and other operating variables on IFT have been determined. The motoring test, which is widely used in industry to measure engine friction has been found to be inaccurate. The errors have been determined at different loads.

  16. Component model reduction via the projection and assembly method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, Douglas E.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of acquiring a simple but sufficiently accurate model of a dynamic system is made more difficult when the dynamic system of interest is a multibody system comprised of several components. A low order system model may be created by reducing the order of the component models and making use of various available multibody dynamics programs to assemble them into a system model. The difficulty is in choosing the reduced order component models to meet system level requirements. The projection and assembly method, proposed originally by Eke, solves this difficulty by forming the full order system model, performing model reduction at the the system level using system level requirements, and then projecting the desired modes onto the components for component level model reduction. The projection and assembly method is analyzed to show the conditions under which the desired modes are captured exactly; to the numerical precision of the algorithm.

  17. [Components and assembly of RNA-induced silencing complex].

    PubMed

    Song, Xue-Mei; Yan, Fei; Du, Li-Xin

    2006-06-01

    Degradation of homologous RNA in RNA interference is carried out by functional RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). RISC contains Dicer, Argonaute proein, siRNA and other components. Researching structures and functions of these components is primary important for understanding assembly and functional mechanism of RISC, as well as the whole RNAi pathway. Recent research works showed that Dicer, containing RNaseIII domain, is responsible for production of siRNA at the beginning of RNAi, and guarantees the stability of RISC intermediate in assembly process. As the core component of RISC, Argonaute protein functions as slicer to cleave target RNA and offers the binding site of siRNA in RISC assembly, which are depended on PIWI domain and PAZ domain separately. Although there is only one strand of siRNA that is the guider of RISC, the double stranded structural character of siRNA is determinant of RNAi. Except those, there are still other components with unknown functions in RISC. The knowledge about RISC components and assembly now, is basis of a presumed RISC assembly model.

  18. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) System Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Bradish, Martin A.; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Lewis, Michael J.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    This document captures the system architecture for a Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) capability needed for electronics maintenance and repair of the Constellation Program (CxP). CLEAR is intended to improve flight system supportability and reduce the mass of spares required to maintain the electronics of human rated spacecraft on long duration missions. By necessity it allows the crew to make repairs that would otherwise be performed by Earth based repair depots. Because of practical knowledge and skill limitations of small spaceflight crews they must be augmented by Earth based support crews and automated repair equipment. This system architecture covers the complete system from ground-user to flight hardware and flight crew and defines an Earth segment and a Space segment. The Earth Segment involves database management, operational planning, and remote equipment programming and validation processes. The Space Segment involves the automated diagnostic, test and repair equipment required for a complete repair process. This document defines three major subsystems including, tele-operations that links the flight hardware to ground support, highly reconfigurable diagnostics and test instruments, and a CLEAR Repair Apparatus that automates the physical repair process.

  19. Cerium migration during PEM fuel cell assembly and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Andrew M.; Torraco, Dennis; Judge, Elizabeth J.; Spernjak, Dusan; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rod L.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    2015-10-02

    Cerium migration between PEM fuel cell components is influenced by potential-driven mobility, ionic diffusion, and gradients in water content. These factors were investigated in ex situ experiments and in operating fuel cells. Potential-induced migration was measured ex situ in hydrated window cells. Cerium-containing MEAs were also fabricated and tested under ASTs. MEA disassembly and subsequent XRF analysis were used to observe rapid cerium migration during cell assembly and operation. During MEA hot pressing, humidification, and low RH operation at OCV, ionic diffusion causes uniform migration from the membrane into the catalyst layers. During high RH operation at OCV, in-plane cerium gradients arise due to variations in water content. These gradients may diminish the scavenging efficacy of cerium by reducing its proximity to generated radicals.

  20. Cerium migration during PEM fuel cell assembly and operation

    DOE PAGES

    Baker, Andrew M.; Torraco, Dennis; Judge, Elizabeth J.; Spernjak, Dusan; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rod L.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    2015-09-14

    Cerium migration between PEM fuel cell components is influenced by potential-driven mobility, ionic diffusion, and gradients in water content. These factors were investigated in ex situ experiments and in operating fuel cells. Potential-induced migration was measured ex situ in hydrated window cells. Cerium-containing MEAs were also fabricated and tested under ASTs. MEA disassembly and subsequent XRF analysis were used to observe rapid cerium migration during cell assembly and operation. During MEA hot pressing, humidification, and low RH operation at OCV, ionic diffusion causes uniform migration from the membrane into the catalyst layers. During high RH operation at OCV, in-plane ceriummore » gradients arise due to variations in water content. These gradients may diminish the scavenging efficacy of cerium by reducing its proximity to generated radicals.« less

  1. Cerium migration during PEM fuel cell assembly and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Andrew M.; Torraco, Dennis; Judge, Elizabeth J.; Spernjak, Dusan; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rod L.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    2015-09-14

    Cerium migration between PEM fuel cell components is influenced by potential-driven mobility, ionic diffusion, and gradients in water content. These factors were investigated in ex situ experiments and in operating fuel cells. Potential-induced migration was measured ex situ in hydrated window cells. Cerium-containing MEAs were also fabricated and tested under ASTs. MEA disassembly and subsequent XRF analysis were used to observe rapid cerium migration during cell assembly and operation. During MEA hot pressing, humidification, and low RH operation at OCV, ionic diffusion causes uniform migration from the membrane into the catalyst layers. During high RH operation at OCV, in-plane cerium gradients arise due to variations in water content. These gradients may diminish the scavenging efficacy of cerium by reducing its proximity to generated radicals.

  2. Directed intermixing in multi-component self-assembling biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Gasiorowski, Joshua Z.; Collier, Joel H.

    2011-01-01

    The non-covalent co-assembly of multiple different peptides can be a useful route for producing multifunctional biomaterials. However, to date such materials have almost exclusively been investigated as homogeneous self-assemblies, having functional components uniformly distributed throughout their supramolecular structures. Here we illustrate control over the intermixing of multiple different self-assembling peptides, in turn providing a simple but powerful means for modulating these materials’ mechanical and biological properties. In beta-sheet fibrillizing hydrogels, significant increases in stiffening could be achieved using heterobifunctional cross-linkers by sequestering peptides bearing different reactive groups into distinct populations of fibrils, thus favoring inter-fibril cross-linking. Further, by specifying the intermixing of RGD-bearing peptides in 2-D and 3-D self-assemblies, the growth of HUVECs and NIH 3T3 cells could be significantly modulated. This approach may be immediately applicable towards a wide variety of self-assembling systems that form stable supramolecular structures. PMID:21863894

  3. Stackable Form-Factor Peripheral Component Interconnect Device and Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somervill, Kevin M. (Inventor); Ng, Tak-kwong (Inventor); Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo (Inventor); Malekpour, Mahyar R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A stackable form-factor Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) device can be configured as a host controller or a master/target for use on a PCI assembly. PCI device may comprise a multiple-input switch coupled to a PCI bus, a multiplexor coupled to the switch, and a reconfigurable device coupled to one of the switch and multiplexor. The PCI device is configured to support functionality from power-up, and either control function or add-in card function.

  4. Directed self-assembly of mesoscopic components for led applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, Anton

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) constitute a rapidly evolving and fast growing technology that promises to replace incandescent bulbs and compact fluorescent lights in many illumination applications. Large-area LED luminaires have a capability to transform lighting by providing a venue for development of smart lighting systems with additional benefits, such as visible light communications, sensing, health and productivity improvement through color temperature control, capability of creating "virtual sky" ceiling, and many others. The objective of this work is to explore directed self-assembly (DSA) approaches suitable for cost-effective assembly of large amount of LEDs and other mesoscopic (i.e. millimeter and sub-millimeter) electronic components and thus to enable manufacturing of smart lighting luminaires. Existing alternative approaches for assembly of semiconductor dies are examined including transfer printing, laser-assisted die transfer, and various directed self-assembly approaches using shape-recognition, magnetic and capillary forces, etc. After comparing their advantages and limitations, we developed two approaches to magnetic force-assisted DSA of LEDs on a large-area substrate in liquid and air medium. The first approach involves pick-up of buoyant and magnetic dies from the liquid surface onto the flexible substrate in a roll-to-roll process. The possibility of high-speed assembly of LED dies is demonstrated, but with a low yield due to the influence of the capillary force of the carrier liquid and the difficulty in ensuring reliable supply of dies to the assembly interface. To overcome the aforementioned challenges this process was modified to assemble the dies by sinking them onto the receiving substrate with a stencil mask on top, demonstrating LED assembly with a very low error rate but at a lower speed. A solder-assisted self-alignment is used to further improve placement precision and to ensure the proper orientation of the dies. The second

  5. Physical characteristics of non-fuel assembly reactor components

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes, E.C.

    1994-09-01

    The primary objective of this report is to enhance the utility of the Characteristics Data Base (CDB). This has been accomplished by providing a pictorial representation of the principal non-fuel assembly (NFA) components along with a tabular summary of key information about each type of component. This report is intended for use as an adjunct to the CDB. Toward this end, the report may be used either as a complement to the detailed descriptions in the CDB, or as a stand-alone document that acts as an illustrated abstract of the CDB. Line drawings of major NFA components are included. Data not provided in the CDB are also included. Summary descriptions of each component are given in tabular format.

  6. Self-assembly kinetics of microscale components: A parametric evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carballo, Jose M.

    The goal of the present work is to develop, and evaluate a parametric model of a basic microscale Self-Assembly (SA) interaction that provides scaling predictions of process rates as a function of key process variables. At the microscale, assembly by "grasp and release" is generally challenging. Recent research efforts have proposed adapting nanoscale self-assembly (SA) processes to the microscale. SA offers the potential for reduced equipment cost and increased throughput by harnessing attractive forces (most commonly, capillary) to spontaneously assemble components. However, there are challenges for implementing microscale SA as a commercial process. The existing lack of design tools prevents simple process optimization. Previous efforts have characterized a specific aspect of the SA process. However, the existing microscale SA models do not characterize the inter-component interactions. All existing models have simplified the outcome of SA interactions as an experimentally-derived value specific to a particular configuration, instead of evaluating it outcome as a function of component level parameters (such as speed, geometry, bonding energy and direction). The present study parameterizes the outcome of interactions, and evaluates the effect of key parameters. The present work closes the gap between existing microscale SA models to add a key piece towards a complete design tool for general microscale SA process modeling. First, this work proposes a simple model for defining the probability of assembly of basic SA interactions. A basic SA interaction is defined as the event where a single part arrives on an assembly site. The model describes the probability of assembly as a function of kinetic energy, binding energy, orientation and incidence angle for the component and the assembly site. Secondly, an experimental SA system was designed, and implemented to create individual SA interactions while controlling process parameters independently. SA experiments

  7. Approaches to determine stoichiometry of viral assembly components.

    PubMed

    Trottier, M; Guo, P

    1997-01-01

    Due to the rapidity of biological reactions, it is difficult to isolate intermediates or to determine the stoichiometry of participants in intermediate reactions. Instead of determining the absolute amount of each component, this study involved the use of relative parameters, such as dilution factors, percentages probabilities, and slopes of titration curves, that can be more accurately quantified to determine the stoichiometry of components involved in bacteriophage phi29 assembly. This work takes advantage of the sensitive in vitro phage phi29 assembly system, in which 10(8) infectious virions per ml without background can be assembled from eight purified components. It provides a convenient assay for quantification of the stoichiometry of packaging components, including the viral procapsid, genomic DNA, DNA-packaging pRNA, and other structural proteins and enzymes. The presence of a procapsid binding domain and another essential functional domain within the pRNA makes it an ideal component for constructing lethal mutants for competitive procapsid binding. Two methods were used for stoichiometry determination. Method 1 was to determine the combination probability of mutant and wild-type pRNAs bound to procapsids. The probability of procapsids that possess a certain amount of mutant and a certain amount of wild-type pRNA, both with an equal binding affinity, was predicted with the binomial equation [EQUATION IN TEXT] where Z is the total number of pRNAs per procapsid, M is the number of mutant pRNAs bound to one procapsid, and (ZM) is equal to [FORMULA IN TEXT]. With various ratios of mutant to wild-type pRNA in in vitro viral assembly, the percent mutant pRNA versus the yield of virions was plotted and compared to a series of predicted curves to find a best fit. It was determined that five or six copies of pRNA were required for one DNA-packaging event, while only one mutant pRNA per procapsid was sufficient to block packaging. Method 2 involved the comparison of

  8. Tools and Equipment Modeling for Automobile Interactive Assembling Operating Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Dianliang; Zhu Hongmin

    2010-05-21

    Tools and equipment play an important role in the simulation of virtual assembly, especially in the assembly process simulation and plan. Because of variety in function and complexity in structure and manipulation, the simulation of tools and equipments remains to be a challenge for interactive assembly operation. Based on analysis of details and characteristics of interactive operations for automobile assembly, the functional requirement for tools and equipments of automobile assembly is given. Then, a unified modeling method for information expression and function realization of general tools and equipments is represented, and the handling methods of manual, semi-automatic, automatic tools and equipments are discussed. Finally, the application in assembly simulation of rear suspension and front suspension of Roewe 750 automobile is given. The result shows that the modeling and handling methods are applicable in the interactive simulation of various tools and equipments, and can also be used for supporting assembly process planning in virtual environment.

  9. Pre-replication assembly of E. coli replisome components.

    PubMed

    den Blaauwen, Tanneke; Aarsman, Mirjam E G; Wheeler, Linda J; Nanninga, Nanne

    2006-11-01

    The localization of SeqA, thymidylate synthase, DnaB (helicase) and the DNA polymerase components alpha and tau, has been studied by immunofluorescence microscopy. The origin has been labelled through GFP-LacI bound near oriC. SeqA was located in the cell centre for one replication factory (RF) and at 1/4 and 3/4 positions in pre-divisional cells harbouring two RFs. The transition of central to 1/4 and 3/4 positions of SeqA appeared abrupt. Labelled thymidylate synthetase was found all over the cell, thus not supporting the notion of a dNTP-synthesizing complex exclusively localized near the RF. More DnaB, alpha and tau foci were found than expected. We have hypothesized that extra foci arise at pre-replication assembly sites, where the number of sites equals the number of origins, i.e. the number of future RFs. A reasonable agreement was found between predicted and found foci. In the case of multifork replication the number of foci appeared consistent with the assumption that three RFs are grouped into a higher-order structure. The RF is probably separate from the foci containing SeqA and the hemi-methylated SeqA binding sites because these foci did not coincide significantly with DnaB as marker of the RF. Co-labelling of DnaB and oriC revealed limited colocalization, indicating that DnaB did not yet become associated with oriC at a pre-replication assembly site. DnaB and tau co-labelled in the cell centre, though not at presumed pre-replication assembly sites. By contrast, alpha and tau co-labelled consistently suggesting that they are already associated before replication starts.

  10. Simulation of Assembly Line Balancing in Automotive Component Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Muthanna; Mohd Razali, Noraini

    2016-02-01

    This study focuses on the simulation of assembly line balancing in an automotive component in a vendor manufacturing company. A mixed-model assembly line of charcoal canister product that is used in an engine system as fuel's vapour filter was observed and found that the current production rate of the line does not achieve customer demand even though the company practices buffer stock for two days in advance. This study was carried out by performing detailed process flow and time studies along the line. To set up a model of the line by simulation, real data was taken from a factory floor and tested for distribution fit. The data gathered was then transformed into a simulation model. After verification of the model by comparing it with the actual system, it was found that the current line efficiency is not at its optimum condition due to blockage and idle time. Various what-if analysis were applied to eliminate the cause. Proposed layout shows that the line is balanced by adding buffer to avoid the blockage. Whereas, manpower is added the stations to reduce process time therefore reducing idling time. The simulation study was carried out using ProModel software.

  11. Method for distributed object communications based on dynamically acquired and assembled software components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundermier, Amy (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A method for acquiring and assembling software components at execution time into a client program, where the components may be acquired from remote networked servers is disclosed. The acquired components are assembled according to knowledge represented within one or more acquired mediating components. A mediating component implements knowledge of an object model. A mediating component uses its implemented object model knowledge, acquired component class information and polymorphism to assemble components into an interacting program at execution time. The interactions or abstract relationships between components in the object model may be implemented by the mediating component as direct invocations or indirect events or software bus exchanges. The acquired components may establish communications with remote servers. The acquired components may also present a user interface representing data to be exchanged with the remote servers. The mediating components may be assembled into layers, allowing arbitrarily complex programs to be constructed at execution time.

  12. Space Station assembly sequence planning - An engineering and operational challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaidy, James T.; Bastedo, William G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the Space Station assembly sequence planning and development process. It presents the planning methodologies from both historial and current perspectives. It is shown that planning the assembly sequence is a new and unique challenge and its solution requires the simultaneous satisfaction of many diverse variables and constants. The considerations which influence the development of the assembly sequence include launch vehicle integration and lift capabilities, on-orbit assembly flight operations, vehicle flight dynamics, spacecraft system capabilities and resource availability. Many of these considerations are described in this paper. In addition, the examples presented demonstrate the current process for assembly sequence planning and show many of the complex trade-offs that must be performed.

  13. Reactor building assembly and method of operation

    SciTech Connect

    Fennern, L.E.; Caraway, H.A.; Hsu, Li C.

    1993-06-01

    A reactor building assembly is described comprising: a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core for generating heat in the form of steam; a containment vessel enclosing said pressure vessel; a first enclosure surrounding said containment vessel and spaced laterally therefrom to define a first chamber there between, and having a top and a bottom; a second enclosure surrounding said first enclosure and spaced laterally therefrom to define a second chamber there between, and having a top and a bottom; a building inlet for receiving into said second chamber fresh air from outside said second enclosure; a building outlet for discharging stale air from said first chamber; a transfer duct disposed through said first enclosure selectively joining in flow communication said first and second chambers; said building inlet being disposed at said second enclosure top, said building outlet being disposed at said first enclosure top, and said transfer duct being disposed adjacent said first enclosure bottom for allowing said fresh air to flow downwardly by gravity through said second chamber and through said transfer duct into said first chamber for cooling said first chamber, said stale air flowing upwardly by natural buoyancy for discharger from said first chamber through said building outlet; an exhaust stack disposed above said building outlet and in flow communication therewith for channeling upwardly said stale air from said first chamber for discharge into the surrounding environs; and a passive first driving means for increasing flow of said stale air from said building outlet comprising: an isolation pool containing isolation water; an isolation condenser disposed in said isolation pool, and joined in flow communication with said reactor pressure vessel for receiving primary steam therefrom, said primary steam being cooled in said isolation condenser for heating said isolation water to generate secondary steam.

  14. Ground controlled robotic assembly operations for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Joseph C.

    1991-01-01

    A number of dextrous robotic systems and associated positioning and transportation devices are available on Space Station Freedom (SSF) to perform assembly tasks that would otherwise need to be performed by extravehicular activity (EVA) crewmembers. The currently planned operating mode for these robotic systems during the assembly phase is teleoperation by intravehicular activity (IVA) crewmembers. While this operating mode is less hazardous and expensive than manned EVA operations, and has insignificant control loop time delays, the amount of IVA time available to support telerobotic operations is much less than the anticipated requirements. Some alternative is needed to allow the robotic systems to perform useful tasks without exhausting the available IVA resources; ground control is one such alternative. The issues associated with ground control of SSF robotic systems to alleviate onboard crew time availability constraints are investigated. Key technical issues include the effect of communication time delays, the need for safe, reliable execution of remote operations, and required modifications to the SSF ground and flight system architecture. Time delay compensation techniques such as predictive displays and world model-based force reflection are addressed and collision detection and avoidance strategies to ensure the safety of the on-orbit crew, Orbiter, and SSF are described. Although more time consuming and difficult than IVA controlled teleoperations or manned EVA, ground controlled telerobotic operations offer significant benefits during the SSF assembly phase, and should be considered in assembly planning activities.

  15. Astromag phase A assembly and servicing operations report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parikh, Link A.

    1989-01-01

    Operations concepts for the assembly and servicing of the Astromag Attached Payload on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) are presented. Scenario scripts and graphical representations of the installation of the core facility (CF) on the SSF, installation of experiment hardware on the CF, and the changeout of experiments on the CF are also presented.

  16. Structure and assembly of the essential RNA ring component of a viral DNA packaging motor

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Fang; Lu, Changrui; Zhao, Wei; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Anderson, Dwight L.; Jardine, Paul J.; Grimes, Shelley; Ke, Ailong

    2011-07-25

    Prohead RNA (pRNA) is an essential component in the assembly and operation of the powerful bacteriophage {psi}29 DNA packaging motor. The pRNA forms a multimeric ring via intermolecular base-pairing interactions between protomers that serves to guide the assembly of the ring ATPase that drives DNA packaging. Here we report the quaternary structure of this rare multimeric RNA at 3.5 {angstrom} resolution, crystallized as tetrameric rings. Strong quaternary interactions and the inherent flexibility helped rationalize how free pRNA is able to adopt multiple oligomerization states in solution. These characteristics also allowed excellent fitting of the crystallographic pRNA protomers into previous prohead/pRNA cryo-EM reconstructions, supporting the presence of a pentameric, but not hexameric, pRNA ring in the context of the DNA packaging motor. The pentameric pRNA ring anchors itself directly to the phage prohead by interacting specifically with the fivefold symmetric capsid structures that surround the head-tail connector portal. From these contacts, five RNA superhelices project from the pRNA ring, where they serve as scaffolds for binding and assembly of the ring ATPase, and possibly mediate communication between motor components. Construction of structure-based designer pRNAs with little sequence similarity to the wild-type pRNA were shown to fully support the packaging of {psi}29 DNA.

  17. VPS Process for Copper Components in Thrust Chamber Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, Sandra; Holmes, Richard; Hickman, Robert; McKechnie, Tim; Thom, George

    2005-01-01

    For several years, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been working with Plasma Processes, Inc., (PPI) to fabricate thrust chamber liners with GRCop-84. Using the vacuum plasma spray (VPS) process, chamber liners of a variety of shapes and sizes have been created. Each has been formed as a functional gradient material (FGM) that creates a unique protective layer of NiCrAlY on the GRCop-84 liner s hot wall surface. Hot-fire testing was successfully conducted on a subscale unit to demonstrate the liner's durability and performance. Similar VPS technology has also been applied to create functional gradient coatings (FGC) on copper injector faceplates. Protective layers of NiCrAlY and zirconia were applied to both coaxial and impinging faceplate designs. Hot-fire testing is planned for these coated injectors in April 2005. The resulting material systems for both copper alloy components allows them to operate at higher temperatures with improved durability and operating margins.

  18. On-line dimensional measurement of small components on the eyeglasses assembly line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, G.; Boschetti, G.; Biondi, A.; Rossi, A.

    2009-03-01

    Dimensional measurement of the subassemblies at the beginning of the assembly line is a very crucial process for the eyeglasses industry, since even small manufacturing errors of the components can lead to very visible defects on the final product. For this reason, all subcomponents of the eyeglass are verified before beginning the assembly process either with a 100% inspection or on a statistical basis. Inspection is usually performed by human operators, with high costs and a degree of repeatability which is not always satisfactory. This paper presents a novel on-line measuring system for dimensional verification of small metallic subassemblies for the eyeglasses industry. The machine vision system proposed, which was designed to be used at the beginning of the assembly line, could also be employed in the Statistical Process Control (SPC) by the manufacturer of the subassemblies. The automated system proposed is based on artificial vision, and exploits two CCD cameras and an anthropomorphic robot to inspect and manipulate the subcomponents of the eyeglass. Each component is recognized by the first camera in a quite large workspace, picked up by the robot and placed in the small vision field of the second camera which performs the measurement process. Finally, the part is palletized by the robot. The system can be easily taught by the operator by simply placing the template object in the vision field of the measurement camera (for dimensional data acquisition) and hence by instructing the robot via the Teaching Control Pendant within the vision field of the first camera (for pick-up transformation acquisition). The major problem we dealt with is that the shape and dimensions of the subassemblies can vary in a quite wide range, but different positioning of the same component can look very similar one to another. For this reason, a specific shape recognition procedure was developed. In the paper, the whole system is presented together with first experimental lab

  19. Vibration detection of component health and operability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    In order to prevent catastrophic failure and eliminate unnecessary periodic maintenance in the shuttle orbiter program environmental control system components, some means of detecting incipient failure in these components is required. The utilization was investigated of vibrational/acoustic phenomena as one of the principal physical parameters on which to base the design of this instrumentation. Baseline vibration/acoustic data was collected from three aircraft type fans and two aircraft type pumps over a frequency range from a few hertz to greater than 3000 kHz. The baseline data included spectrum analysis of the baseband vibration signal, spectrum analysis of the detected high frequency bandpass acoustic signal, and amplitude distribution of the high frequency bandpass acoustic signal. A total of eight bearing defects and two unbalancings was introduced into the five test items. All defects were detected by at least one of a set of vibration/acoustic parameters with a margin of at least 2:1 over the worst case baseline. The design of a portable instrument using this set of vibration/acoustic parameters for detecting incipient failures in environmental control system components is described.

  20. Glove port retrofit assembly and method of replacing components

    DOEpatents

    Giesen, Isaac M; Cournoyer, Michael E; Rael, David G

    2014-11-18

    What is disclosed is a system for retrofitting a sealed enclosure for performing work therein having an outer enclosure assembly configured to be clamped to the outer annular face of a port ring and form a sealed engagement with the outer annular surface of the port ring, a change assembly having an inner ring and an access element wherein the inner ring has a first annular cylinder body that is sized to be slidably received by the port ring and the access element is configured to be sealably and slidably positioned within the first annular cylinder body of the inner ring.

  1. Radio frequency distribution assembly, operations and maintenance manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-09-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Radio Frequency Distribution Assembly (RFDA) is an interface between the Sperry four-channel, fast-switching synthesizer and the EF-111 jamming system antenna ports. The RFDA will distribute the RF energy while providing controlled RF amplitude to simulate the antenna patterns of the EF-111 Electronic Warfare (EW) systems. The RFDA is capable of operating over the frequency range of 0.5 to 18 GHz, and can rapidly switch between varying frequencies and attenuation levels.

  2. Kinetochore components are required for central spindle assembly

    PubMed Central

    Maton, Gilliane; Edwards, Frances; Lacroix, Benjamin; Stefanutti, Marine; Laband, Kimberley; Lieury, Tiffany; Kim, Taekyung; Espeut, Julien; Canman, Julie C.; Dumont, Julien

    2015-01-01

    A critical structure poised to coordinate chromosome segregation with division plane specification is the central spindle that forms between separating chromosomes after anaphase onset1, 2. The central spindle acts as a signaling center that concentrates proteins essential for division plane specification and contractile ring constriction3. However, the molecular mechanisms that control the initial stages of central spindle assembly remain elusive. Using Caenorhabditis elegans zygotes, we found that the microtubule bundling protein SPD-1PRC1 and the motor ZEN-4MKLP-1 are required for proper central spindle structure during its elongation4-9. By contrast, we found that the kinetochore controls the initiation of central spindle assembly. Specifically, central spindle microtubule assembly is dependent upon kinetochore recruitment of the scaffold protein KNL-1, as well as downstream partners BUB-1, HCP-1/2CENP-F, and CLS-2CLASP; and is negatively regulated by kinetochore-associated protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) activity. This in turn promotes central spindle localization of CLS-2CLASP and initial central spindle microtubule assembly through its microtubule polymerase activity. Together, our results reveal an unexpected role for a conserved kinetochore protein network in coupling two critical events of cell division: chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. PMID:25866924

  3. Method of assembling and disassembling a control component structure

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, G.T.; Schluderberg, D.C.

    1982-10-26

    A technique is provided for engaging and disengaging burnable poison rods from the spider in a fuel assembly. The cap on the end of each of the burnable poison rods is provided with a shank that is received in the respective bore formed in the spider. A frangible flange secures the shank and rod to the spider. Pressing the shank in the direction of the bore axis ruptures the frangible flange to release the rod from the spider.

  4. Overview of International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly On-Orbit Operations and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matty, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Controlling Carbon Dioxide (CO2) partial pressure in the habitable vehicle environment is a critical part of operations on the International Space Station (ISS). On the United States segment of ISS, CO2 levels are primarily controlled by the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA). There are two CDRAs on ISS; one in the United States Laboratory module, and one in the Node3 module. CDRA has been through several significant operational issues, performance issues and subsequent re-design of various components, primarily involving the Desiccant Adsorbent Bed (DAB) assembly and Air Selector Valves (ASV). This paper will focus on significant operational and performance issues experienced by the CDRA team from 2008-2012.

  5. Assembly, operation and disassembly manual for the Battelle Large Volume Water Sampler (BLVWS)

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.W.; Campbell, R.M.

    1984-12-01

    Assembly, operation and disassembly of the Battelle Large Volume Water Sampler (BLVWS) are described in detail. Step by step instructions of assembly, general operation and disassembly are provided to allow an operator completely unfamiliar with the sampler to successfully apply the BLVWS to his research sampling needs. The sampler permits concentration of both particulate and dissolved radionuclides from large volumes of ocean and fresh water. The water sample passes through a filtration section for particle removal then through sorption or ion exchange beds where species of interest are removed. The sampler components which contact the water being sampled are constructed of polyvinylchloride (PVC). The sampler has been successfully applied to many sampling needs over the past fifteen years. 9 references, 8 figures.

  6. 30 CFR 18.80 - Approval of machines assembled with certified or explosion-proof components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of machines assembled with certified... MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field Modifications of Approved Machines, and Permits To Use Experimental Equipment § 18.80 Approval of...

  7. 30 CFR 18.80 - Approval of machines assembled with certified or explosion-proof components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of machines assembled with certified... MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field Modifications of Approved Machines, and Permits To Use Experimental Equipment § 18.80 Approval of...

  8. 30 CFR 18.80 - Approval of machines assembled with certified or explosion-proof components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of machines assembled with certified... MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field Modifications of Approved Machines, and Permits To Use Experimental Equipment § 18.80 Approval of...

  9. 30 CFR 18.80 - Approval of machines assembled with certified or explosion-proof components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of machines assembled with certified... MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field Modifications of Approved Machines, and Permits To Use Experimental Equipment § 18.80 Approval of...

  10. 30 CFR 18.80 - Approval of machines assembled with certified or explosion-proof components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of machines assembled with certified... MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field Modifications of Approved Machines, and Permits To Use Experimental Equipment § 18.80 Approval of...

  11. Pre-operational environmental monitoring plan for the Device Assembly Facility at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ferate, F.D.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear explosives operations have been and may continue to be an important component of the DOE mission at the NTS. This mission has been to conduct the nation`s nuclear testing program in a safe, secure, and efficient manner while assuring full compliance with state and federal regulations, and DOE order`s and directives. These operations have generally included assembly, disassembly or modification, staging, transportation, and tesbng of nuclear explosive devices. They may also include maintenance, repair, retrofit, and surveillance. The Device Assembly Facility (DAF) was constructed to provide a dedicated facility in which to prepare nuclear explosives assemblies for their intended disposition. This facility will provide for combined operations (replacing two separate facilities) and incorporates state-of-the-art safety and security features while minimizing the risks of environmental impacts. The facility has been completed but not yet operated, so the impacts to be considered will b e based on normal operations and not on the impacts of construction activities. The impacts will arise from nuclear explosives operations that require the handling of high explosives in combination with special nuclear materials. Wastes from operation of the earlier device assembly facilities have included grams of epoxies, pints of solvents, and small quantities of waste explosives. These are hazardous (includes radioactive) wastes and are disposed of in accordance with state and federal regulations. Assuming similar operations at the DAF, non-hazardous (includes non-radioactive) solid waste would be transported to a permitted landfill. Waste explosives would be sent to the Area 11 Explosive Ordnance Disposal Unit. Other hazardous waste would be sent to the Area 5 Radioactive Waste.Management Site for shipment or burial.

  12. FLOAT OPERATED RADIAL GATE HOIST ASSEMBLY LIST OF PARTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FLOAT OPERATED RADIAL GATE HOIST ASSEMBLY - LIST OF PARTS - BASE-CRANK. WASTEWAY NO. 1. WELLTON-MOHAWK CANAL - STA. 99+23.50. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2511, dated May 3, 1949, Denver Colorado. Sheet 1 of 2 - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Wasteway No. 1, Wellton-Mohawk Canal, North side of Wellton-Mohawk Canal, bounded by Gila River to North & the Union Pacific Railroad & Gila Mountains to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  13. Bio-inspired nanocomposite assemblies as smart skin components.

    SciTech Connect

    Montano, Gabriel A.; Xiao, Xiaoyin; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.; Allen, Amy; Brozik, Susan Marie; Edwards, Thayne L.; Frischknecht, Amalie Lucile; Wheeler, David Roger

    2011-09-01

    There is national interest in the development of sophisticated materials that can automatically detect and respond to chemical and biological threats without the need for human intervention. In living systems, cell membranes perform such functions on a routine basis, detecting threats, communicating with the cell, and triggering automatic responses such as the opening and closing of ion channels. The purpose of this project was to learn how to replicate simple threat detection and response functions within artificial membrane systems. The original goals toward developing 'smart skin' assemblies included: (1) synthesizing functionalized nanoparticles to produce electrochemically responsive systems within a lipid bilayer host matrices, (2) calculating the energetics of nanoparticle-lipid interactions and pore formation, and (3) determining the mechanism of insertion of nanoparticles in lipid bilayers via imaging and electrochemistry. There are a few reports of the use of programmable materials to open and close pores in rigid hosts such as mesoporous materials using either heat or light activation. However, none of these materials can regulate themselves in response to the detection of threats. The strategies we investigated in this project involve learning how to use programmable nanomaterials to automatically eliminate open channels within a lipid bilayer host when 'threats' are detected. We generated and characterized functionalized nanoparticles that can be used to create synthetic pores through the membrane and investigated methods of eliminating the pores either through electrochemistry, change in pH, etc. We also focused on characterizing the behavior of functionalized gold NPs in different lipid membranes and lipid vesicles and coupled these results to modeling efforts designed to gain an understanding of the interaction of nanoparticles within lipid assemblies.

  14. Instantaneous engine frictional torque, its components and piston assembly friction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, F.A.; Henein, N.A.

    1992-05-01

    The overall goal of this report is to document the work done to determine the instantaneous frictional torque of internal combustion engine by using a new approach known as (P-{omega}) method developed at Wayne State University. The emphasis has been to improve the accuracy of the method, and apply it to both diesel and gasoline engines under different operating conditions. Also work included an investigation to determine the effect of using advanced materials and techniques to coat the piston rings on the instantaneous engine frictional torque and the piston assembly friction. The errors in measuring the angular velocity, {omega}, have been determined and found to be caused by variations in the divisions within one encoder, encoder-to-encoder variations, misalignment within the encoder itself and misalignment between the encoder and crankshaft. The errors in measuring the cylinder gas pressure, P, have been determined and found to be caused by transducer-to-transducer variations, zero drift, thermal stresses and lack of linearity. The ability of the (P-{omega}) method in determining the frictional torque of many engine components has been demonstrated. These components include valve train, fuel injection pump with and without fuel injection, and piston with and without different ring combinations. The emphasis in this part of the research program has been on the piston-ring assembly friction. The effects of load and other operating variables on IFT have been determined. The motoring test, which is widely used in industry to measure engine friction has been found to be inaccurate. The errors have been determined at different loads.

  15. Definition of large components assembled on-orbit and robot compatible mechanical joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamsen, J.; Thomas, F.; Finckenor, J.; Spiegel, B.

    1990-01-01

    One of four major areas of project Pathfinder is in-space assembly and construction. The task of in-space assembly and construction is to develop the requirements and the technology needed to build elements in space. A 120-ft diameter tetrahedral aerobrake truss is identified as the focus element. A heavily loaded mechanical joint is designed to robotically assemble the defined aerobrake element. Also, typical large components such as habitation modules, storage tanks, etc., are defined, and attachment concepts of these components to the tetrahedral truss are developed.

  16. Assembly accuracy analysis for small components with a planar surface in large-scale metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Huang, Peng; Li, Jiangxiong; Ke, Yinglin; Yang, Bingru; Maropoulos, Paul G.

    2016-04-01

    Large-scale mechanical products, such as aircraft and rockets, consist of large numbers of small components, which introduce additional difficulty for assembly accuracy and error estimation. Planar surfaces as key product characteristics are usually utilised for positioning small components in the assembly process. This paper focuses on assembly accuracy analysis of small components with planar surfaces in large-scale volume products. To evaluate the accuracy of the assembly system, an error propagation model for measurement error and fixture error is proposed, based on the assumption that all errors are normally distributed. In this model, the general coordinate vector is adopted to represent the position of the components. The error transmission functions are simplified into a linear model, and the coordinates of the reference points are composed by theoretical value and random error. The installation of a Head-Up Display is taken as an example to analyse the assembly error of small components based on the propagation model. The result shows that the final coordination accuracy is mainly determined by measurement error of the planar surface in small components. To reduce the uncertainty of the plane measurement, an evaluation index of measurement strategy is presented. This index reflects the distribution of the sampling point set and can be calculated by an inertia moment matrix. Finally, a practical application is introduced for validating the evaluation index.

  17. Functional assembly of thylakoid deltapH-dependent/Tat protein transport pathway components in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fincher, Vivian; Dabney-Smith, Carole; Cline, Kenneth

    2003-12-01

    Assembly of the components of the thylakoid deltapH-dependent/Tat protein transport machinery was analyzed in vitro. Upon incubation with intact chloroplasts, precursors to all three components, Hcf106, cpTatC and Tha4, were imported into the organelle and assembled into characteristic endogenous complexes. In particular, all of the imported cpTatC and approximately two-thirds of the imported Hcf106 functionally assembled into 700 kDa complexes capable of binding Tat pathway precursor proteins. The amounts assembled into thylakoids by this procedure were moderate. However, physiological quantities of mature forms of Tha4 and Hcf106 were integrated into isolated thylakoids and a significant percentage of the Hcf106 so integrated was assembled into the 700 kDa complex. Interestingly, a mutant form of Hcf106 in which an invariant transmembrane glutamate was changed to glutamine integrated into the membrane but did not assemble into the receptor complex. Analysis of energy and known pathway component requirements indicated that Hcf106 and Tha4 integrate by an unassisted or 'spontaneous' mechanism. The functionality of in vitro integrated Tha4 was verified by its ability to restore transport to thylakoid membranes from the maize tha4 mutant, which lacks the Tha4 protein. Development of this functional in vitro assembly assay will facilitate structure-function studies of the thylakoid Tat pathway translocation machinery.

  18. 19 CFR 10.25 - Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Textile components cut to shape in the United... RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles Assembled Abroad with United States Components § 10.25 Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad. Where a textile component is cut to...

  19. 19 CFR 10.25 - Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Textile components cut to shape in the United... RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles Assembled Abroad with United States Components § 10.25 Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad. Where a textile component is cut to...

  20. 19 CFR 10.25 - Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Textile components cut to shape in the United... RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles Assembled Abroad with United States Components § 10.25 Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad. Where a textile component is cut to...

  1. 19 CFR 10.25 - Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Textile components cut to shape in the United... RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles Assembled Abroad with United States Components § 10.25 Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad. Where a textile component is cut to...

  2. 19 CFR 10.25 - Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Textile components cut to shape in the United... RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles Assembled Abroad with United States Components § 10.25 Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad. Where a textile component is cut to...

  3. Assembly of single wall carbon nanotube-metal nanohybrids using biomolecular components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Nyon; Slocik, Joseph M.; Naik, Rajesh R.

    2010-08-01

    Biomaterials such as nucleic acids and proteins can be exploited to create higher order structures. The biomolecular components such as DNA and peptides have been used to assemble nanoparticles with high fidelity. Here, we use DNA and peptides, and their preferential interaction with inorganic and carbon nanomaterials to form homogeneous hybrids. The enhanced binding of Pt ions to both DNA and peptide functionalized nanoparticles mediates the assembly of carbon nanotubes functionalized with DNA with peptide coated gold nanoparticles.

  4. Independent localization of plasma membrane and chloroplast components during eyespot assembly.

    PubMed

    Mittelmeier, Telsa M; Thompson, Mark D; Öztürk, Esra; Dieckmann, Carol L

    2013-09-01

    Like many algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is phototactic, using two anterior flagella to swim toward light optimal for photosynthesis. The flagella are responsive to signals initiated at the photosensory eyespot, which comprises photoreceptors in the plasma membrane and layers of pigment granules in the chloroplast. Phototaxis depends on placement of the eyespot at a specific asymmetric location relative to the flagella, basal bodies, and bundles of two or four highly acetylated microtubules, termed rootlets, which extend from the basal bodies toward the posterior of the cell. Previous work has shown that the eyespot is disassembled prior to cell division, and new eyespots are assembled in daughter cells adjacent to the nascent four-membered rootlet associated with the daughter basal body (D4), but the chronology of these assembly events has not been determined. Here we use immunofluorescence microscopy to follow assembly and acetylation of the D4 rootlet, localization of individual eyespot components in the plasma membrane or chloroplast envelope, and flagellar emergence during and immediately following cell division. We find that the D4 rootlet is assembled before the initiation of eyespot assembly, which occurs within the same time frame as rootlet acetylation and flagellar outgrowth. Photoreceptors in the plasma membrane are correctly localized in eyespot mutant cells lacking pigment granule layers, and chloroplast components of the eyespot assemble in mutant cells in which photoreceptor localization is retarded. The data suggest that plasma membrane and chloroplast components of the eyespot are independently responsive to a cytoskeletal positioning cue. PMID:23873865

  5. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Synthetic Instrument Capabilities Assessment and Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Bradish, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    The role of synthetic instruments (SIs) for Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) is to provide an external lower-level diagnostic and functional test capability beyond the built-in-test capabilities of spacecraft electronics. Built-in diagnostics can report faults and symptoms, but isolating the root cause and performing corrective action requires specialized instruments. Often a fault can be revealed by emulating the operation of external hardware. This implies complex hardware that is too massive to be accommodated in spacecraft. The SI strategy is aimed at minimizing complexity and mass by employing highly reconfigurable instruments that perform diagnostics and emulate external functions. In effect, SI can synthesize an instrument on demand. The SI architecture section of this document summarizes the result of a recent program diagnostic and test needs assessment based on the International Space Station. The SI architecture addresses operational issues such as minimizing crew time and crew skill level, and the SI data transactions between the crew and supporting ground engineering searching for the root cause and formulating corrective actions. SI technology is described within a teleoperations framework. The remaining sections describe a lab demonstration intended to show that a single SI circuit could synthesize an instrument in hardware and subsequently clear the hardware and synthesize a completely different instrument on demand. An analysis of the capabilities and limitations of commercially available SI hardware and programming tools is included. Future work in SI technology is also described.

  6. Dynamic Multi-Component Covalent Assembly for the Reversible Binding of Secondary Alcohols and Chirality Sensing

    PubMed Central

    You, Lei; Berman, Jeffrey S.; Anslyn, Eric V.

    2011-01-01

    Reversible covalent bonding is often employed for the creation of novel supramolecular structures, multi-component assemblies, and sensing ensembles. In spite of remarkable success of dynamic covalent systems, the reversible binding of a mono-alcohol with high strength is challenging. Here we show that a strategy of carbonyl activation and hemiaminal ether stabilization can be embodied in a four-component reversible assembly that creates a tetradentate ligand and incorporates secondary alcohols with exceptionally high affinity. Evidence is presented that the intermediate leading to binding and exchange of alcohols is an iminium ion. Further, to demonstrate the use of this assembly process we explored chirality sensing and enantiomeric excess determinations. An induced twist in the ligand by a chiral mono-ol results in large Cotton effects in the circular dichroism spectra indicative of the alcohol’s handedness. The strategy revealed in this study should prove broadly applicable for the incorporation of alcohols into supramolecular architecture construction. PMID:22109274

  7. Three component assemblies by orthogonal H-bonding and donor-acceptor charge-transfer interaction.

    PubMed

    Kar, Haridas; Ghosh, Suhrit

    2014-02-01

    Three component supramolecular assemblies from a mixture of an aromatic donor (D), acceptor (A) and external structure directing agent (ESDA) are achieved by orthogonal noncovalent interactions involving two different types of H-bonding and alternate D-A stacking. An ESDA containing amide or urea produces a charge-transfer gel and sol, respectively, owing to their contrasting morphology. PMID:24309620

  8. Micromotors with Step-Motor Characteristics by Controlled Magnetic Interactions among Assembled Components

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the control of the rotation dynamics of an innovative type of rotary micromotors with desired performances by tuning the magnetic interactions among the assembled micro/nanoscale components. The micromotors are made of metallic nanowires as rotors, patterned magnetic nanodisks as bearings and actuated by external electric fields. The magnetic forces for anchoring the rotors on the bearings play an essential role in the rotation dynamics of the micromotors. By varying the moment, orientation, and dimension of the magnetic components, distinct rotation behaviors can be observed, including repeatable wobbling and rolling in addition to rotation. We understood the rotation behaviors by analytical modeling, designed and realized micromotors with step-motor characteristics. The outcome of this research could inspire the development of high-performance nanomachines assembled from synthetic nanoentities, relevant to nanorobotics, microfluidics, and biomedical research. PMID:25536023

  9. Tritium handling safety and operating experience at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.V.

    1989-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory is a facility designed to develop and demonstrate, in full scale, technologies necessary for safe and efficient operation of tokamak fusion reactors. TSTA currently consists of systems for pumping DT gas mixtures; for removing impurities; for separating the isotopes of hydrogen; for storage of hydrogen isotopes; for gas analysis; and for assuring safety by the necessary control, monitoring, and detritiation of effluent gaseous streams. TSTA also has several small scale experiments to develop and test new equipment and processes necessary for fusion reactors. Tritium was introduced into TSTA in June 1984. Current inventory is approximately 100 grams. Approximately 10{sup 9} Curies of tritium have been processed in closed loop operation at TSTA. Total tritium releases from the facility stack have been less than 75 Curies. Total operating personnel exposures are less than 500 person-mrem. Exposures to the general public from TSTA tritium releases are extremely small (less than 10{sup {minus}2} mrem). Total tritium buried as waste is less than 36,000 Curies. In this paper, data on component reliability, failure types and rates, and waste quantities are presented. Operational experience under normal, abnormal, and emergency conditions is presented. The DOE requirements for the operation of a tritium facility like TSTA include personnel training, emergency preparedness, radiation protection, safety analysis, and preoperational appraisals. 4 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. In-space assembly and construction technology project summary: Infrastructure operations area of the operations technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Harold

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs describing the in-space assembly and construction technology project of the infrastructure operations area of the operation technology program are presented. Th objective of the project is to develop and demonstrate an in-space assembly and construction capability for large and/or massive spacecraft. The in-space assembly and construction technology program will support the need to build, in orbit, the full range of spacecraft required for the missions to and from planet Earth, including: earth-orbiting platforms, lunar transfer vehicles, and Mars transfer vehicles.

  11. The AAA-ATPase NVL2 is a telomerase component essential for holoenzyme assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Her, Joonyoung; Chung, In Kwon

    2012-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of the AAA-ATPase NVL2 as a novel hTERT-interacting protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NVL2 associates with catalytically active telomerase via an interaction with hTERT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NVL2 is a telomerase component essential for holoenzyme assembly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATP-binding activity of NVL2 is required for hTERT binding and telomerase assembly. -- Abstract: Continued cell proliferation requires telomerase to maintain functional telomeres that are essential for chromosome integrity. Although the core enzyme includes a telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and a telomerase RNA component (TERC), a number of auxiliary proteins have been identified to regulate telomerase assembly, localization, and enzymatic activity. Here we describe the characterization of the AAA-ATPase NVL2 as a novel hTERT-interacting protein. NVL2 interacts and co-localizes with hTERT in the nucleolus. NLV2 is also found in association with catalytically competent telomerase in cell lysates through an interaction with hTERT. Depletion of endogenous NVL2 by small interfering RNA led to a decrease in hTERT without affecting the steady-state levels of hTERT mRNA, thereby reducing telomerase activity, suggesting that NVL2 is an essential component of the telomerase holoenzyme. We also found that ATP-binding activity of NVL2 is required for hTERT binding as well as telomerase assembly. Our findings suggest that NVL2, in addition to its role in ribosome biosynthesis, is essential for telomerase biogenesis and provides an alternative approach for inhibiting telomerase activity in cancer.

  12. AMTEC recirculating test cell component testing and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, M. L.; Sievers, R. K.; O'Connor, D.; Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Bankston, C. P.

    1989-01-01

    Alkali metal thermoelectric converter operation in a recirculating test cell (RTC), which requires a small electromagnetic pump (EM) and a high-temperature beta-double-prime alumina-solid-electrolyte (BASE)-to-metal seal, is discussed. The design of a pump and an active metal braze seal and the initial operation of a cell using these components are described. The pump delivered 0.25 cu cm/min against a 28-psia head. A braze seal system was selected after shear strength tests of Ta or Nb brazed to BASE by a variety of fillers including TiCuNi, TiNi, and TiNiCr. The TiCuNi filler was chosen for environment cell testing and showed no failure or observable degradation after short-term tests up to 1055 K. The pump and the Nb/TiCuNi/BASE seal were used in a test that demonstrated all the operational functions of the RTC for the first time. An increase in the radiation reduction factor at constant input power was observed, indicating that the condenser was being wet by sodium resulting in an increased reflectivity.

  13. Self-Assembling Multi-Component Nanofibers for Strong Bioinspired Underwater Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Chao; Gurry, Thomas; Cheng, Allen A; Downey, Jordan; Deng, Zhengtao; Stultz, Collin M.; Lu, Timothy K

    2014-01-01

    Many natural underwater adhesives harness hierarchically assembled amyloid nanostructures to achieve strong and robust interfacial adhesion under dynamic and turbulent environments. Despite recent advances, our understanding of the molecular design, self-assembly, and structure-function relationship of those natural amyloid fibers remains limited. Thus, designing biomimetic amyloid-based adhesives remains challenging. Here, we report strong and multi-functional underwater adhesives obtained from fusing mussel foot proteins (Mfps) of Mytilus galloprovincialis with CsgA proteins, the major subunit of Escherichia coli amyloid curli fibers. These hybrid molecular materials hierarchically self-assemble into higher-order structures, in which, according to molecular dynamics simulations, disordered adhesive Mfp domains are exposed on the exterior of amyloid cores formed by CsgA. Our fibers have an underwater adhesion energy approaching 20.9 mJ/m2, which is 1.5 times greater than the maximum of bio-inspired and bio-derived protein-based underwater adhesives reported thus far. Moreover, they outperform Mfps or curli fibers taken on their own at all pHs and exhibit better tolerance to auto-oxidation than Mfps at pH ≥7.0. This work establishes a platform for engineering multi-component self-assembling materials inspired by nature. PMID:25240674

  14. Interface-induced disassembly of a self-assembled two-component nanoparticle system.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Duc, Le T; Ali, Affira; Liang, Beverly; Liang, Jenn-Tai; Dhar, Prajnaparamita

    2013-03-19

    We present a study of static and dynamic interfacial properties of self-assembled polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles (size 110-120 nm) containing entrapped surfactant molecules at a fluid/fluid interface. Surface tension vs time measurements of an aqueous solution of these polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles (PCNs) show a concentration-dependent biphasic adsorption to the air/water interface while interfacial microrheology data show a concentration-dependent initial increase in the surface viscosity (up to 10(-7) N·m/s), followed by a sharp decrease (10(-9) N·m/s). Direct visualization of the air/water interface shows disappearance of particles from the interface over time. On the basis of these observations, we propose that the PCNs at fluid/fluid interfaces exist in two states: initial accumulation of PCNs at the air/water interface as nanoparticles, followed by interface induced disassembly of the accumulated PCNs into their components. The lack of change in particle size, charge, and viscosity of the bulk aqueous solution of PCNs with time indicates that this disintegration of the self-assembled PCNs is an interfacial phenomenon. Changes in energy encountered by the PCNs at the interface lead to instability of the self-assembled system and dissociation into its components. Such systems can be used for applications requiring directed delivery and triggered release of entrapped surfactants or macromolecules at fluid/fluid interfaces.

  15. Assembly and operation of bacterial tripartite multidrug efflux pumps.

    PubMed

    Du, Dijun; van Veen, Hendrik W; Luisi, Ben F

    2015-05-01

    Microorganisms encode several classes of transmembrane pumps that can expel an enormous range of toxic substances, thereby improving their fitness in harsh environments and contributing to resistance against antimicrobial agents. In Gram-negative bacteria these pumps can take the form of tripartite assemblies that actively efflux drugs and other harmful compounds across the cell envelope. We describe recent structural and functional data that have provided insights into the transport mechanisms of these intricate molecular machines.

  16. Systems engineering studies of on-orbit assembly operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenthaler, George W.

    1991-01-01

    While the practice of construction has a long history, the underlying theory of construction is relatively young. Very little has been documented as to techniques of logistic support, construction planning, construction scheduling, construction testing, and inspection. The lack of 'systems approaches' to construction processes is certainly one of the most serious roadblocks to the construction of space structures. System engineering research efforts at CSC are aimed at developing concepts and tools which contribute to a systems theory of space construction. The research is also aimed at providing means for trade-offs of design parameters for other research areas in CSC. Systems engineering activity at CSC has divided space construction into the areas of orbital assembly, lunar base construction, interplanetary transport vehicle construction, and Mars base construction. A brief summary of recent results is given. Several models for 'launch-on-time' were developed. Launch-on-time is a critical concept to the assembly of such Earth-orbiting structures as the Space Station Freedom, and to planetary orbiters such as the Mars transfer vehicle. CSC has developed a launch vehicle selection model which uses linear programming to find optimal combinations of launch vehicles of various sizes (Atlas, Titan, Shuttles, HLLV's) to support SEI missions. Recently, the Center developed a cost trade-off model for studying on orbit assembly logistics. With this model it was determined that the most effective size of the HLLV would be in the range of 120 to 200 metric tons to LEO, which is consistent with the choices of General Stafford's Synthesis Group Report. A second-generation Dynamic Construction Activities Model ('DYCAM') process model has been under development, based on our past results in interruptability and our initial DYCAM model. This second-generation model is built on the paradigm of knowledge-based expert systems. It is aimed at providing answers to two questions: (1

  17. Synthesis of Six-Component Metallodendrimers via [3+3] Coordination-Driven Self-Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hai-Bo; Northrop, Brian H.; Zheng, Yao-Rong; Ghosh, Koushik; Lyndon, Matthew M.; Muddiman, David C.; Stang, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    A new class of 120° dendritic di-Pt(II) acceptor subunits has been designed and synthesized, from which six-component hexagonal metallodendrimers were easily formed with 120° dendritic dipyridine donors via [3+3] coordination-driven self-assembly. The structures of all metallodendrimers are confirmed by multinuclear NMR, ESI-TOF-MS/ESI-FTMS, and elemental analysis. MMFF force-field simulations indicates that all metallodendrimers have a hexagonal ring with an internal radius of approximately 1.4 nm. PMID:19344131

  18. Inferential optimization for simultaneous fitting of multiple components into a cryoEM map of their assembly

    PubMed Central

    Lasker, Keren; Topf, Maya; Sali, Andrej; Wolfson, Haim J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Models of macromolecular assemblies are essential for a mechanistic description of cellular processes. Such models are increasingly obtained by fitting atomic-resolution structures of components into a density map of the whole assembly. Yet, current density-fitting techniques are frequently insufficient for an unambiguous determination of the positions and orientations of all components. Here, we describe MultiFit, a method for simultaneously fitting atomic structures of components into their assembly density map at resolutions as low as 25 Å. The component positions and orientations are optimized with respect to a scoring function that includes the quality-of-fit of components in the map, the protrusion of components from the map envelope, as well as the shape complementarity between pairs of components. The scoring function is optimized by our exact inference optimizer DOMINO that efficiently finds the global minimum in a discrete sampling space. MultiFit was benchmarked on 7 assemblies of known structure, consisting of up to 7 proteins each. The input atomic structures of the components were obtained from the Protein Data Bank as well as by comparative modeling based on 16 – 99% sequence identity to a template structure. A near-native configuration was usually found as the top-scoring model. Therefore, MultiFit can provide initial configurations for further refinement of many multi-component assembly structures described by electron microscopy. PMID:19233204

  19. 21 CFR 111.415 - What requirements apply to filling, assembling, packaging, labeling, and related operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., package, label, and perform other related operations in a way that ensures the quality of the dietary...) Protecting manufactured dietary supplements from contamination, particularly airborne contamination; (c... label operations from operations on other components and dietary supplements to prevent mixups;...

  20. The International Space Station: Operations and Assembly - Learning From Experiences - Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Sean; Dillon, William F.

    2006-01-01

    As the Space Shuttle continues flight, construction and assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) carries on as the United States and our International Partners resume the building, and continue to carry on the daily operations, of this impressive and historical Earth-orbiting research facility. In his January 14, 2004, speech announcing a new vision for America s space program, President Bush ratified the United States commitment to completing construction of the ISS by 2010. Since the launch and joining of the first two elements in 1998, the ISS and the partnership have experienced and overcome many challenges to assembly and operations, along with accomplishing many impressive achievements and historical firsts. These experiences and achievements over time have shaped our strategy, planning, and expectations. The continual operation and assembly of ISS leads to new knowledge about the design, development and operation of systems and hardware that will be utilized in the development of new deep-space vehicles needed to fulfill the Vision for Exploration and to generate the data and information that will enable our programs to return to the Moon and continue on to Mars. This paper will provide an overview of the complexity of the ISS Program, including a historical review of the major assembly events and operational milestones of the program, along with the upcoming assembly plans and scheduled missions of the space shuttle flights and ISS Assembly sequence.

  1. Directed self-assembly of mesoscopic electronic components into sparse arrays with controlled orientation using diamagnetic levitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, Anton; Lu, James J.-Q.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a directed self-assembly (DSA) approach for assembling small electronic components, such as semiconductor dies, into sparse 2D arrays using diamagnetic levitation. The dies attached to a diamagnetic layer can be levitated at a room temperature over a stage made of magnets arranged in a checkerboard pattern. By selecting a proper die design, levitation height, and vibration pattern of the magnetic stage we assemble the dies into a regular 2D array with a specific lateral and vertical orientation of the dies. The assembled dies are transferred to a receiving substrate using capillary force.

  2. The proper connection between shelterin components is required for telomeric heterochromatin assembly

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiyong; Cohen, Allison L.; Letian, Anudari; Tadeo, Xavier; Moresco, James J.; Liu, Jinqiang; Yates, John R.; Qiao, Feng; Jia, Songtao

    2016-01-01

    Telomeric regions contain prominent sites of heterochromatin, which is associated with unique histone modification profiles such as the methylation of histone H3 at Lys9 (H3K9me). In fission yeast, the conserved telomeric shelterin complex recruits the histone H3K9 methyltransferase complex CLRC to establish subtelomeric heterochromatin. Although many shelterin mutations affect subtelomeric heterochromatin assembly, the mechanism remains elusive due to the diverse functions of shelterin. Through affinity purification, we found that shelterin directly associates with CLRC through the Ccq1 subunit. Surprisingly, mutations that disrupt interactions between shelterin subunits compromise subtelomeric heterochromatin without affecting CLRC interaction with shelterin component Pot1, located at chromosome ends. We further discovered that telomeric repeats are refractory to heterochromatin spreading and that artificial restoration of shelterin connections or increased heterochromatin spreading rescued heterochromatin defects in these shelterin mutants. Thus, subtelomeric heterochromatin assembly requires both the recruitment of CLRC by shelterin to chromosome ends and the proper connection of shelterin components, which allows CLRC to skip telomeric repeats to internal regions. PMID:26988418

  3. Conserving Cartilage In Microtia Repair: The Modular Component Assembly Approach To Rebuilding A Human Ear

    PubMed Central

    Gandy, Jessica R.; Lemieux, Bryan; Foulad, Allen; Wong, Brian J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Current methods of microtia repair include carving an auricular framework from the costal synchondrosis. This requires considerable skill and may create a substantial donor site defect. Here, we present a modular component assembly (MCA) approach that minimizes the procedural difficulty and reduces the amount of cartilage to a single rib. Study Design Ex vivo study and survey Methods A single porcine rib was sectioned into multiple slices using a cartilage guillotine, cut into components outlined by 3D-printed templates, and assembled into an auricular scaffold. Electromechanical reshaping (EMR) was used to bend cartilage slices for creation of the helical rim. Chondrocyte viability was confirmed using confocal imaging. Ten surgeons reviewed the scaffold constructed with the MCA approach to evaluate aesthetics, relative stability, and clinical feasibility. Results An auricular framework with projection and curvature was fashioned from one rib. Surgeons found the MCA scaffold to meet minimal aesthetic and anatomic acceptability. When embedded under a covering, the region of the helix and anti-helix of the scaffold scored significantly higher on the assessment survey than that of an embedded alloplast implant (t-value=0.01). Otherwise, no difference was found between the embedded MCA and alloplast implants (t-value >0.05). EMR treated cartilage was found to be viable. Conclusion This study demonstrates that one rib can be used to create an aesthetic and durable framework for microtia repair. Precise assembly and the ability to obtain thin, uniform slices of cartilage were essential. This cartilage-sparing MCA approach may be an alternative to classic techniques. PMID:26720326

  4. Operator vision aids for space teleoperation assembly and servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thurston L.; Ince, Ilhan; Lee, Greg

    1992-01-01

    This paper investigates concepts for visual operator aids required for effective telerobotic control. Operator visual aids, as defined here, mean any operational enhancement that improves man-machine control through the visual system. These concepts were derived as part of a study of vision issues for space teleoperation. Extensive literature on teleoperation, robotics, and human factors was surveyed to definitively specify appropriate requirements. This paper presents these visual aids in three general categories of camera/lighting functions, display enhancements, and operator cues. In the area of camera/lighting functions concepts are discussed for: (1) automatic end effector or task tracking; (2) novel camera designs; (3) computer-generated virtual camera views; (4) computer assisted camera/lighting placement; and (5) voice control. In the technology area of display aids, concepts are presented for: (1) zone displays, such as imminent collision or indexing limits; (2) predictive displays for temporal and spatial location; (3) stimulus-response reconciliation displays; (4) graphical display of depth cues such as 2-D symbolic depth, virtual views, and perspective depth; and (5) view enhancements through image processing and symbolic representations. Finally, operator visual cues (e.g., targets) that help identify size, distance, shape, orientation and location are discussed.

  5. Approach to In Situ Component Level Electronics Assembly Repair (CLEAR) for Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter M.; Oeftering, Richard C.

    2010-01-01

    Maintenance resupply is a significant issue for long duration space missions. Currently, the International Space Station (ISS) approaches maintenance primarily around replaceable modules called Orbital Replacement Units (ORU). While swapping out ORUs has served the ISS well keeping crew time for maintenance to a minimum, this approach assumes a substantial logistics capacity to provide replacement ORUs and return ORUs to Earth for repair. The ORUs used for ISS require relatively large blocks of replacement hardware even though the actual failed component may be several orders of magnitude smaller. The Component Level Electronics Assembly Repair (CLEAR) task was created to explore electronics repair down to the component level for future space missions. From 2006 to 2009, CLEAR was an activity under the Supportability project of the Exploration Technology Development Program. This paper describes the activities of CLEAR including making a case for component-level electronics repair, examination of current terrestrial repair hardware, and potential repair needs. Based on those needs, the CLEAR team proposes an architecture for an in-situ repair capability aboard a spacecraft or habitat. Additionally, this paper discusses recent progress toward developing in-space repair capabilities--including two spaceflight experiments-- and presents technology concepts which could help enable or benefit the same.

  6. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Spacecraft Circuit Diagnostics by Analog and Complex Signature Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Wade, Raymond P.; Izadnegahdar, Alain

    2011-01-01

    The Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) project at the NASA Glenn Research Center is aimed at developing technologies that will enable space-flight crews to perform in situ component-level repair of electronics on Moon and Mars outposts, where there is no existing infrastructure for logistics spares. These technologies must provide effective repair capabilities yet meet the payload and operational constraints of space facilities. Effective repair depends on a diagnostic capability that is versatile but easy to use by crew members that have limited training in electronics. CLEAR studied two techniques that involve extensive precharacterization of "known good" circuits to produce graphical signatures that provide an easy-to-use comparison method to quickly identify faulty components. Analog Signature Analysis (ASA) allows relatively rapid diagnostics of complex electronics by technicians with limited experience. Because of frequency limits and the growing dependence on broadband technologies, ASA must be augmented with other capabilities. To meet this challenge while preserving ease of use, CLEAR proposed an alternative called Complex Signature Analysis (CSA). Tests of ASA and CSA were used to compare capabilities and to determine if the techniques provided an overlapping or complementary capability. The results showed that the methods are complementary.

  7. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Water Separator On-Orbit Operation, Failure, and Redesign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balistreri, Steven F., Jr.; Shaw, Laura A.; Laliberte, Yvon

    2010-01-01

    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The Water Separator (WS) pulls in air and water from the CHX, and centrifugally separates the mixture, sending the water to the condensate bus and the air back into the CHX outlet airstream. Two distinct early failures of the CCAA Water Separator in the Quest Airlock forced operational changes and brought about the re-design of the Water Separator to improve the useful life via modification kits. The on-orbit operational environment of the Airlock presented challenges that were not foreseen with the original design of the Water Separator. Operational changes were instituted to prolong the life of the third installed WS, while waiting for newly designed Water Separators to be delivered on-orbit. The modification kit design involved several different components of the Water Separator, including the innovative use of a fabrication technique to build the impellers used in Water Separators out of titanium instead of aluminum. The technique allowed for the cost effective production of the low quantity build. This paper will describe the failures of the Water Separators in the Quest Airlock, the operational constraints that were implemented to prolong the life of the installed Water Separators throughout the USOS, and the innovative re-design of the CCAA Water Separator.

  8. Analysis of Performance of Jet Engine from Characteristics of Components II : Interaction of Components as Determined from Engine Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Arthur W; Alpert, Sumner; Beede, William; Kovach, Karl

    1949-01-01

    In order to understand the operation and the interaction of jet-engine components during engine operation and to determine how component characteristics may be used to compute engine performance, a method to analyze and to estimate performance of such engines was devised and applied to the study of the characteristics of a research turbojet engine built for this investigation. An attempt was made to correlate turbine performance obtained from engine experiments with that obtained by the simpler procedure of separately calibrating the turbine with cold air as a driving fluid in order to investigate the applicability of component calibration. The system of analysis was also applied to prediction of the engine and component performance with assumed modifications of the burner and bearing characteristics, to prediction of component and engine operation during engine acceleration, and to estimates of the performance of the engine and the components when the exhaust gas was used to drive a power turbine.

  9. The exon-junction-complex-component metastatic lymph node 51 functions in stress-granule assembly.

    PubMed

    Baguet, Aurélie; Degot, Sébastien; Cougot, Nicolas; Bertrand, Edouard; Chenard, Marie-Pierre; Wendling, Corinne; Kessler, Pascal; Le Hir, Hervé; Rio, Marie-Christine; Tomasetto, Catherine

    2007-08-15

    Metastatic lymph node 51 [MLN51 (also known as CASC3)] is a component of the exon junction complex (EJC), which is assembled on spliced mRNAs and plays important roles in post-splicing events. The four proteins of the EJC core, MLN51, MAGOH, Y14 and EIF4AIII shuttle between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. However, unlike the last three, MLN51 is mainly detected in the cytoplasm, suggesting that it plays an additional function in this compartment. In the present study, we show that MLN51 is recruited into cytoplasmic aggregates known as stress granules (SGs) together with the SG-resident proteins, fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), poly(A) binding protein (PABP) and poly(A)(+) RNA. MLN51 specifically associates with SGs via its C-terminal region, which is dispensable for its incorporation in the EJC. MLN51 does not promote SG formation but its silencing, or the overexpression of a mutant lacking its C-terminal region, alters SG assembly. Finally, in human breast carcinomas, MLN51 is sometimes present in cytoplasmic foci also positive for FMRP and PABP, suggesting that SGs formation occurs in malignant tumours.

  10. Joint assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A joint assembly is provided which includes a drive assembly and a swivel mechanism. The drive assembly features a motor operatively associated with a plurality of drive shafts for driving auxiliary elements, and a plurality of swivel shafts for pivoting the drive assembly. The swivel mechanism engages the swivel shafts and has a fixable element that may be attached to a foundation. The swivel mechanism is adapted to cooperate with the swivel shafts to pivot the drive assembly with at least two degrees of freedom relative to the foundation. The joint assembly allows for all components to remain encased in a tight, compact, and sealed package, making it ideal for space, exploratory, and commercial applications.

  11. Structural and Thermodynamic Analysis of a Three-Component Assembly Forming ortho-Iminophenylboronate Esters.

    PubMed

    Chapin, Brette M; Metola, Pedro; Lynch, Vincent M; Stanton, John F; James, Tony D; Anslyn, Eric V

    2016-09-16

    Structural studies of a three-component assembly-a host and two distinct guests-were carried out using a combination of (11)B and (1)H NMR. In aprotic solvent, the imino group that forms ortho to the boronic acid or boronate ester group can form a dative N-B bond. In protic solvent, a molecule of solvent inserts between the nitrogen and boron atoms, partially ionizing the solvent molecule. Additionally, (11)B NMR was used in combination with a seventh-order polynomial to calculate five binding constants for each of the individual steps in protic solvent. Comparison of these binding constants was used to establish positive cooperativity in the binding of the two guests. PMID:27588921

  12. Using Sculptor and Situs for Simultaneous Assembly of Atomic Components into Low-Resolution Shapes

    PubMed Central

    Birmanns, Stefan; Rusu, Mirabela; Wriggers, Willy

    2011-01-01

    We describe an integrated software system called Sculptor that combines visualization capabilities with molecular modeling algorithms for the analysis of multi-scale data sets. Sculptor features extensive special purpose visualization techniques that are based on modern GPU programming and are capable of representing complex molecular assemblies in real-time. The integration of graphics and modeling offers several advantages. The user interface not only eases the usually steep learning curve of pure algorithmic techniques, but it also permits instant analysis and post-processing of results, as well as the integration of results from external software. Here, we implemented an interactive peak-selection strategy that enables the user to explore a preliminary score landscape generated by the colores tool of Situs. The interactive placement of components, one at a time, is advantageous for low-resolution or ambiguously shaped maps, which are sometimes difficult to interpret by the fully automatic peak selection of colores. For the subsequent refinement of the preliminary models resulting from both interactive and automatic peak selection, we have implemented a novel simultaneous multi-body docking in Sculptor and Situs that softly enforces shape complementarities between components using the normalization of the cross-correlation coefficient. The proposed techniques are freely available in Situs version 2.6 and Sculptor version 2.0. PMID:21078392

  13. Interfacial friction of surfaces grafted with one- and two-component self-assembled monolayers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Archer, Lynden A

    2005-06-01

    We present a quantitative study of the nanoscale frictional properties of one-component (pure) and two-component (mixed) alkylsilane self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The load and velocity dependence of the friction force was measured in air and ethanol using lateral force microscopy (LFM). It was observed that for SAMs with well-ordered structure (pure SAMs and mixed SAMs composed of two long chain molecules) friction depends nonlinearly on load, at low loads, both in air and in ethanol. These observations are consistent with the low-load contact area predictions of the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) theory, indicating that for well-ordered SAMs friction force is proportional to contact area and that the true contact area is determined by elastic deformation of the SAM by the LFM probe. In ambient air, the magnitude of the friction force measured using mixed SAMs is found to be similar to that obtained using pure SAMs at the same external load. Changing the medium to ethanol, however, leads to dramatically lower friction in the mixed SAMs. An analysis of the friction data using a thermally activated Eyring model that takes into account the monolayer viscoelasticity suggests that the better friction properties of the mixed SAMs are a consequence of greater disorder and higher molecular mobility in the outer layer/canopy. These findings indicate that multi-tiered SAM coatings comprising a highly ordered underlayer and a disordered, mobile canopy can provide the basis for low-friction coatings for small mechanical systems.

  14. Catalytically active telomerase holoenzyme is assembled in the dense fibrillar component of the nucleolus during S phase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hoon; Lee, Yang Sin; Jeong, Sun Ah; Khadka, Prabhat; Roth, Jürgen; Chung, In Kwon

    2014-02-01

    The maintenance of human telomeres requires the ribonucleoprotein enzyme telomerase, which is composed of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), telomerase RNA component, and several additional proteins for assembly and activity. Telomere elongation by telomerase in human cancer cells involves multiple steps including telomerase RNA biogenesis, holoenzyme assembly, intranuclear trafficking, and telomerase recruitment to telomeres. Although telomerase has been shown to accumulate in Cajal bodies for association with telomeric chromatin, it is unclear where and how the assembly and trafficking of catalytically active telomerase is regulated in the context of nuclear architecture. Here, we show that the catalytically active holoenzyme is initially assembled in the dense fibrillar component of the nucleolus during S phase. The telomerase RNP is retained in nucleoli through the interaction of hTERT with nucleolin, a major nucleolar phosphoprotein. Upon association with TCAB1 in S phase, the telomerase RNP is transported from nucleoli to Cajal bodies, suggesting that TCAB1 acts as an S-phase-specific holoenzyme component. Furthermore, depletion of TCAB1 caused an increase in the amount of telomerase RNP associated with nucleolin. These results suggest that the TCAB1-dependent trafficking of telomerase to Cajal bodies occurs in a step separate from the holoenzyme assembly in nucleoli. Thus, we propose that the dense fibrillar component is the provider of active telomerase RNP for supporting the continued proliferation of cancer and stem cells.

  15. STS-49 - A demonstration of EMU operational capabilities for Space Station Freedom assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleisath, Scott A.; Johnson, Kieth G.

    1992-01-01

    One of the primary objectives for Space Shuttle mission STS-49 is to perform three EVAs on consecutive days in a manner similar to those planned for Space Station Freedom (SSF) assembly missions. The preparation and completion of this mission will serve as a pathfinder for future EVA intensive SSF assembly flights. Several operational issues pertaining to the EMU have been addressed in preparation for this mission. Provisioning and orbiter stowage of the EMU and associated hardware have been optimized for four EVA crewmembers. EMU preparatory and maintenance activities have been streamlined to help minimize crew overhead and have been carefully integrated into a very demanding mission timeline. The constraints and limitations have been assessed in providing a backup EMU capability for each EVA crewmember. Several EMU concerns have also been addressed in supporting new EVA task requirements, such as large mass handling and performing SSF assembly operations over the crew cabin and nose of the Shuttle orbiter.

  16. Neutral Buoyancy Simulator: MSFC-Langley joint test of large space structures component assembly:

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Once the United States' space program had progressed from Earth's orbit into outerspace, the prospect of building and maintaining a permanent presence in space was realized. To accomplish this feat, NASA launched a temporary workstation, Skylab, to discover the effects of low gravity and weightlessness on the human body, and also to develop tools and equipment that would be needed in the future to build and maintain a more permanent space station. The structures, techniques, and work schedules had to be carefully designed to fit this unique construction site. The components had to be lightweight for transport into orbit, yet durable. The station also had to be made with removable parts for easy servicing and repairs by astronauts. All of the tools necessary for service and repairs had to be designed for easy manipulation by a suited astronaut. And construction methods had to be efficient due to limited time the astronauts could remain outside their controlled environment. In lieu of all the specific needs for this project, an environment on Earth had to be developed that could simulate a low gravity atmosphere. A Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) was constructed by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in 1968. Since then, NASA scientists have used this facility to understand how humans work best in low gravity and also provide information about the different kinds of structures that can be built. With the help of the NBS, building a space station became more of a reality. In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, VA and MSFC, the Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (ACCESS) was developed and demonstrated at MSFC's NBS. The primary objective of this experiment was to test the ACCESS structural assembly concept for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction. Pictured is a demonstration of ACCESS.

  17. Automatic Dryers--Components and Operations; Appliance Repair--Intermediate: 9025.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Designed to familiarize the student with the components and operations of automatic gas and electric dryers, this course outlines the principles of drying and how they relate to the automatic dryer. Instruction centers upon the functions and operations of dryer components and the recognition and identification of various component malfunctions,…

  18. Washing Machines--Components & Operations; Appliance Repair 2: #9025.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Designed to familiarize the student with the components and operations of automatic washing machines, this course outline offers instruction on the principles of washing and their relation to the automatic washer, the functions and operations of washer components, identification of various component malfunctions, washer installation, and the…

  19. Force feedback coupling with dynamics for physical simulation of product assembly and operation performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhenyu; Tan, Jianrong; Duan, Guifang; Fu, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Most existing force feedback methods are still difficult to meet the requirements of real-time force calculation in virtual assembly and operation with complex objects. In addition, there is often an assumption that the controlled objects are completely free and the target object is only completely fixed or free, thus, the dynamics of the kinematic chain where the controlled objects are located are neglected during the physical simulation of the product manipulation with force feedback interaction. This paper proposes a physical simulation method of product assembly and operation manipulation based on statistically learned contact force prediction model and the coupling of force feedback and dynamics. In the proposed method, based on hidden Markov model (HMM) and local weighting learning (LWL), contact force prediction model is constructed, which can estimate the contact force in real time during interaction. Based on computational load balance model, the computing resources are dynamically assigned and the dynamics integral step is optimized. In addition, smoothing process is performed to the force feedback on the synchronization points. Consequently, we can solve the coupling and synchronization problems of high-frequency feedback force servo, low-frequency dynamics solver servo and scene rendering servo, and realize highly stable and accurate force feedback in the physical simulation of product assembly and operation manipulation. This research proposes a physical simulation method of product assembly and operation manipulation.

  20. Impact of assembly, testing and launch operations on the airborne bacterial diversity within a spacecraft assembly facility clean-room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newcombe, David A.; La Duc, Myron T.; Vaishampayan, Parag; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2008-10-01

    In an effort to minimize the probability of forward contamination of pristine extraterrestrial environments, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration requires that all US robotic spacecraft undergo assembly, testing and launch operations (ATLO) in controlled clean-room environments. This study examines the impact of ATLO activity on the microbial diversity and overall bioburden contained within the air of the clean-room facility in which the Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs) underwent final preparations for launch. Air samples were collected from several facility locations and traditional culture-based and molecular methodologies were used to measure microbial burden and diversity. Surprisingly, the greatest estimates of airborne bioburden, as derived from ATP content and cultivation assays, were observed prior to the commencement of MER ATLO activities. Furthermore, airborne microbial diversity gradually declined from the initiation of ATLO on through to launch. Proteobacterial sequences were common in 16S rDNA clone libraries. Conspicuously absent were members of the Firmicutes phylum, which includes the genus Bacillus. In previous studies, species of this genus were repeatedly isolated from the surfaces of spacecraft and clean-room assembly facilities. Increased cleaning and maintenance initiated immediately prior to the start of ATLO activity could explain the observed declines in both airborne bioburden and microbial diversity.

  1. Dynamic DNA devices and assemblies formed by shape-complementary, non-base pairing 3D components.

    PubMed

    Gerling, Thomas; Wagenbauer, Klaus F; Neuner, Andrea M; Dietz, Hendrik

    2015-03-27

    We demonstrate that discrete three-dimensional (3D) DNA components can specifically self-assemble in solution on the basis of shape-complementarity and without base pairing. Using this principle, we produced homo- and heteromultimeric objects, including micrometer-scale one- and two-stranded filaments and lattices, as well as reconfigurable devices, including an actuator, a switchable gear, an unfoldable nanobook, and a nanorobot. These multidomain assemblies were stabilized via short-ranged nucleobase stacking bonds that compete against electrostatic repulsion between the components' interfaces. Using imaging by electron microscopy, ensemble and single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer spectroscopy, and electrophoretic mobility analysis, we show that the balance between attractive and repulsive interactions, and thus the conformation of the assemblies, may be finely controlled by global parameters such as cation concentration or temperature and by an allosteric mechanism based on strand-displacement reactions. PMID:25814577

  2. Alignment of optical system components using an ADM beam through a null assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Joseph E. (Inventor); Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system for testing an optical surface includes a rangefinder configured to emit a light beam and a null assembly located between the rangefinder and the optical surface. The null assembly is configured to receive and to reflect the emitted light beam toward the optical surface. The light beam reflected from the null assembly is further reflected back from the optical surface toward the null assembly as a return light beam. The rangefinder is configured to measure a distance to the optical surface using the return light beam.

  3. Re-START: The second operational test of the String Thermionic Assembly Research Testbed

    SciTech Connect

    Wyant, F.J.; Luchau, D.; McCarson, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    The second operational test of the String Thermionic Assembly Research Testbed -- Re-START -- was carried out from June 9 to June 14, 1997. This test series was designed to help qualify and validate the designs and test methods proposed for the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) power converters for use during critical evaluations of the complete ISUS bimodal system during the Engine Ground Demonstration (EGD). The test article consisted of eight ISUS prototype thermionic converter diodes electrically connected in series.

  4. Ultra-Precise Assembly of Micro-Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) Components

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, J.T.; Simon, R.; Polosky, M.; Christenson, T.

    1999-04-01

    This report summarizes a three year effort to develop an automated microassembly workcell for the assembly of LIGA (Lithography Galvonoforming Abforming) parts. Over the last several years, Sandia has developed processes for producing surface machined silicon and LIGA parts for use in weapons surety devices. Some of these parts have outside dimensions as small as 100 micron, and most all have submicron tolerances. Parts this small and precise are extremely difficult to assembly by hand. Therefore, in this project, we investigated the technologies required to develop a robotic workcell to assembly these parts. In particular, we concentrated on micro-grippers, visual servoing, micro-assembly planning, and parallel assembly. Three different micro-grippers were tested: a pneumatic probe, a thermally actuated polysilicon tweezer, and a LIGA fabricated tweezer. Visual servoing was used to accuracy position two parts relative to one another. Fourier optics methods were used to generate synthetic microscope images from CAD drawings. These synthetic images are used off-line to test image processing routines under varying magnifications and depths of field. They also provide reference image features which are used to visually servo the part to the desired position. We also investigated a new aspect of fine motion planning for the micro-domain. As parts approach 1-10 {micro}m or less in outside dimensions, interactive forces such as van der Waals and electrostatic forces become major factors which greatly change the assembly sequence and path plans. We developed the mathematics required to determine the goal regions for pick up, holding, and release of a micro-sphere being handled by a rectangular tool. Finally, we implemented and tested the ability to assemble an array of LIGA parts attached to two 3 inch diameter wafers. In this way, hundreds of parts can be assembled in parallel rather than assembling each part individually.

  5. Sodium chloride-induced self-assembly of microfibers from nanofiber components.

    PubMed

    Iwaura, Rika; Minamikawa, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Toshimi

    2004-09-15

    Self-assembly of a nucleotide bolaamphiphile, terminated with two nucleotide moieties including thymine, deoxyribose, and phosphodiester at both ends of the C20 oligomethylene chain, in sodium chloride aqueous solutions has been studied by SEM, LSM, FE-SEM, micro-FTIR, and zeta-potential measurement. The self-assembly behavior of the nucleotide bolaamphiphile was strongly dependent on the concentration of sodium chloride added. The nucleotide bolaamphiphile was found to hierarchically self-assemble to form micrometer-sized fibers (microfibers) consisting of bundles of entangled nanometer-sized fibers (nanofibers) under certain conditions of sodium chloride concentration (approximately 44 mM). The zeta-potential measurement suggested that the surface-charge tuning of the nanofibers induce the hierarchical self-assembly of the microfibers.

  6. Constraint on the Multi-Component CKP Hierarchy and Recursion Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Tao; Li, Chuanzhong; He, Jingsong

    2016-06-01

    In this article, we give the definition of the multi-component constrained CKP (McCKP) and two-component constrained CKP (cCKP) hierarchies (under the condition N=2). Then we give recursion operators for the two-component cCKP hierarchy. At last, we give the constrained condition from the two-component cCKP hierarchies to cCKP hierarchy.

  7. Process for recycling components of a PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shore, Lawrence

    2012-02-28

    The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of a PEM fuel cell can be recycled by contacting the MEA with a lower alkyl alcohol solvent which separates the membrane from the anode and cathode layers of the assembly. The resulting solution containing both the polymer membrane and supported noble metal catalysts can be heated under mild conditions to disperse the polymer membrane as particles and the supported noble metal catalysts and polymer membrane particles separated by known filtration means.

  8. Targeting and assembly of components of the TOC protein import complex at the chloroplast outer envelope membrane.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Lynn G L; Paila, Yamuna D; Siman, Steven R; Chen, Yi; Smith, Matthew D; Schnell, Danny J

    2014-01-01

    The translocon at the outer envelope membrane of chloroplasts (TOC) initiates the import of thousands of nuclear encoded preproteins required for chloroplast biogenesis and function. The multimeric TOC complex contains two GTP-regulated receptors, Toc34 and Toc159, which recognize the transit peptides of preproteins and initiate protein import through a β-barrel membrane channel, Toc75. Different isoforms of Toc34 and Toc159 assemble with Toc75 to form structurally and functionally diverse translocons, and the composition and levels of TOC translocons is required for the import of specific subsets of coordinately expressed proteins during plant growth and development. Consequently, the proper assembly of the TOC complexes is key to ensuring organelle homeostasis. This review will focus on our current knowledge of the targeting and assembly of TOC components to form functional translocons at the outer membrane. Our analyses reveal that the targeting of TOC components involves elements common to the targeting of other outer membrane proteins, but also include unique features that appear to have evolved to specifically facilitate assembly of the import apparatus.

  9. Operational Status of the International Space Station Plasma Contactor Hollow Cathode Assemblies from July 2011 to May 2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Yim, John T.; Patterson, Michael J.; Dalton, Penni J.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station has onboard two Aerojet Rocketdyne developed plasma contactor units that perform the function of charge control. The plasma contactor units contain NASA Glenn Research Center developed hollow cathode assemblies. NASA Glenn Research Center monitors the onorbit operation of the flight hollow cathode assemblies. As of May 31, 2013, HCA.001-F has been ignited and operated 123 times and has accumulated 8072 hours of operation, whereas, HCA.003-F has been ignited and operated 112 times and has accumulated 9664 hours of operation. Monitored hollow cathode ignition times and anode voltage magnitudes indicate that they continue to operate nominally.

  10. Operational Status of the International Space Station Plasma Contactor Hollow Cathode Assemblies July 2001 to May 2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Yim, John T.; Patterson, Michael J.; Dalton, Penni J.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station has onboard two Aerojet Rocketdyne developed plasma contactor units that perform the function of charge control. The plasma contactor units contain NASA Glenn Research Center developed hollow cathode assemblies. NASA Glenn Research Center monitors the on-orbit operation of the flight hollow cathode assemblies. As of May 31, 2013, HCA.001-F has been ignited and operated 123 times and has accumulated 8072 hours of operation, whereas, HCA.003-F has been ignited and operated 112 times and has accumulated 9664 hours of operation. Monitored hollow cathode ignition times and anode voltage magnitudes indicate that they continue to operate nominally.

  11. Assembly scaffold NifEN: A structural and functional homolog of the nitrogenase catalytic component.

    PubMed

    Fay, Aaron W; Blank, Michael A; Rebelein, Johannes G; Lee, Chi Chung; Ribbe, Markus W; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O; Hu, Yilin

    2016-08-23

    NifEN is a biosynthetic scaffold for the cofactor of Mo-nitrogenase (designated the M-cluster). Previous studies have revealed the sequence and structural homology between NifEN and NifDK, the catalytic component of nitrogenase. However, direct proof for the functional homology between the two proteins has remained elusive. Here we show that, upon maturation of a cofactor precursor (designated the L-cluster) on NifEN, the cluster species extracted from NifEN is spectroscopically equivalent and functionally interchangeable with the native M-cluster extracted from NifDK. Both extracted clusters display nearly indistinguishable EPR features, X-ray absorption spectroscopy/extended X-ray absorption fine structure (XAS/EXAFS) spectra and reconstitution activities, firmly establishing the M-cluster-bound NifEN (designated NifEN(M)) as the only protein other than NifDK to house the unique nitrogenase cofactor. Iron chelation experiments demonstrate a relocation of the cluster from the surface to its binding site within NifEN(M) upon maturation, which parallels the insertion of M-cluster into an analogous binding site in NifDK, whereas metal analyses suggest an asymmetric conformation of NifEN(M) with an M-cluster in one αβ-half and an empty cluster-binding site in the other αβ-half, which led to the proposal of a stepwise assembly mechanism of the M-cluster in the two αβ-dimers of NifEN. Perhaps most importantly, NifEN(M) displays comparable ATP-independent substrate-reducing profiles to those of NifDK, which establishes the M-cluster-bound αβ-dimer of NifEN(M) as a structural and functional mimic of one catalytic αβ-half of NifDK while suggesting the potential of this protein as a useful tool for further investigations of the mechanistic details of nitrogenase. PMID:27506795

  12. Liquid rocket valve assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design and operating characteristics of valve assemblies used in liquid propellant rocket engines are discussed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) valve selection parameters, (2) major design aspects, (3) design integration of valve subassemblies, and (4) assembly of components and functional tests. Information is provided on engine, stage, and spacecraft checkout procedures.

  13. Programmable hierarchical three-component 2D assembly at a liquid-solid interface: recognition, selection, and transformation.

    PubMed

    Lei, Shengbin; Surin, Mathieu; Tahara, Kazukuni; Adisoejoso, Jinne; Lazzaroni, Roberto; Tobe, Yoshito; De Feyter, Steven

    2008-08-01

    Recognition and selection are of fundamental importance for the hierarchical assembly of supramolecular systems. Coronene induces the formation of a hydrogen-bonded isophthalic acid supramolecular macrocycle, and this well-defined heterocluster forces, in its turn, DBA1 to form a van der Waals stabilized honeycomb lattice, leading to a three-component 2D crystal containing nine molecules in the unit cell. The recognition and selection events enable efficient error correction and healing in redundant mixtures.

  14. Copper‐Catalyzed Borylative Cross‐Coupling of Allenes and Imines: Selective Three‐Component Assembly of Branched Homoallyl Amines

    PubMed Central

    Rae, James; Yeung, Kay; McDouall, Joseph J. W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A copper‐catalyzed three‐component coupling of allenes, bis(pinacolato)diboron, and imines allows regio‐, chemo‐, and diastereoselective assembly of branched α,β‐substituted‐γ‐boryl homoallylic amines, that is, products bearing versatile amino, alkenyl, and borane functionality. Alternatively, convenient oxidative workup allows access to α‐substituted‐β‐amino ketones. A computational study has been used to probe the stereochemical course of the cross‐coupling. PMID:26632675

  15. Environmental assessment for device assembly facility operations, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), (DOE/EA-0971), to evaluate the impacts of consolidating all nuclear explosive operations at the newly constructed Device Assembly Facility (DAF) in Area 6 of the Nevada Test Site. These operations generally include assembly, disassembly or modification, staging, transportation, testing, maintenance, repair, retrofit, and surveillance. Such operations have previously been conducted at the Nevada Test Site in older facilities located in Area 27. The DAF will provide enhanced capabilities in a state-of-the-art facility for the safe, secure, and efficient handling of high explosives in combination with special nuclear materials (plutonium and highly enriched uranium). Based on the information and analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.). Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this finding of no significant impact.

  16. γ-TEMPy: Simultaneous Fitting of Components in 3D-EM Maps of Their Assembly Using a Genetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Pandurangan, Arun Prasad; Vasishtan, Daven; Alber, Frank; Topf, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Summary We have developed a genetic algorithm for building macromolecular complexes using only a 3D-electron microscopy density map and the atomic structures of the relevant components. For efficient sampling the method uses map feature points calculated by vector quantization. The fitness function combines a mutual information score that quantifies the goodness of fit with a penalty score that helps to avoid clashes between components. Testing the method on ten assemblies (containing 3–8 protein components) and simulated density maps at 10, 15, and 20 Å resolution resulted in identification of the correct topology in 90%, 70%, and 60% of the cases, respectively. We further tested it on four assemblies with experimental maps at 7.2–23.5 Å resolution, showing the ability of the method to identify the correct topology in all cases. We have also demonstrated the importance of the map feature-point quality on assembly fitting in the lack of additional experimental information. PMID:26655474

  17. BOROX Catalysis: Self-assembled AMINO-BOROX and IMINO-BOROX Chiral Brønsted Acids in a Five Component Catalyst Assembly/Catalytic Asymmetric Aziridination

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anil K.; Mukherjee, Munmun; Hu, Gang

    2013-01-01

    A five-component catalyst assembly/aziridination reaction is described starting from an aldehyde, an amine, ethyl diazoacetate, B(OPh)3 and a molecule of a vaulted biaryl ligand (VAPOL or VANOL). A remarkable level of chemo-selectivity was observed since while 10 different products could have resulted from various reactions between the five components, an aziridine was formed in 85% yield and 98% ee and only two other products could be detected in 3% yield. Studies reveal that the first in a sequence of three reactions is an exceedingly rapid amine induced assembly of an amino-boroxinate (AMINO-BOROX) species from VAPOL and B(OPh)3 which is followed by imine formation from the amine and aldehyde and the concomitant formation of an IMINO-BOROX species, and finally the reaction of the imine with ethyl diazoacetate mediated by the IMINO-BOROX catalyst to give aziridine-2-carboxylic esters with very high diastereo- and enantioselectivity. PMID:22947019

  18. Optical test bench for high precision metrology and alignment of zoom sub-assembly components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leprêtre, F.; Levillain, E.; Wattellier, B.; Delage, P.; Brahmi, D.; Gascon, A.

    2013-09-01

    Thales Angénieux (TAGX) designs and manufactures zoom lens assemblies for cinema applications. These objectives are made of mobile lens assemblies. These need to be precisely characterized to detect alignment, polishing or glass index homogeneity errors, which amplitude may range to a few hundreds of nanometers. However these assemblies are highly aberrated with mainly spherical aberration (>30 μm PV). PHASICS and TAGX developed a solution based on the use of a PHASICS SID4HR wave front sensor. This is based on quadri-wave lateral shearing interferometry, a technology known for its high dynamic range. A 100-mm diameter He:Ne source illuminates the lens assembly entrance pupil. The transmitted wave front is then directly measured by the SID4- HR. The measured wave front (WFmeas) is then compared to a simulation from the lens sub-assembly optical design (WFdesign). We obtain a residual wave front error (WFmanufactured), which reveals lens imperfections due to its manufacturing. WFmeas=WFdesign+(WFEradius+WFEglass+WFEpolish)=WF design + WFmanufactured The optical test bench was designed so that this residual wave front is measured with a precision below 100 nm PV. The measurement of fast F-Number lenses (F/2) with aberrations up to 30 μm, with a precision of 100 nm PV was demonstrated. This bench detects mismatches in sub-assemblies before the final integration step in the zoom. Pre-alignment is also performed in order to overpass the mechanical tolerances. This facilitates the completed zoom alignment. In final, productivity gains are expected due to alignment and mounting time savings.

  19. Molecular interactions of ribosomal components. IV: Cooperative interactions during assembly in vitro.

    PubMed

    Green, M; Kurland, C G

    1973-08-01

    Cooperative interactions between different 30S ribosomal proteins during assembly in vitro are described. The site specific binding of S7 to 16S RNA is enhanced by S20; that of S16 requires S4 and S20; and S7 is required for the maximum binding of S9, S13 and S19. Some of these interactions are reflected in the protein neighborhoods of the functional ribosome, but this may not be a general rule. Finally, we suggest that the assembly cooperativety observed may not be a consequence of direct-protein interactions.

  20. PRICE: Software for the Targeted Assembly of Components of (Meta) Genomic Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Ruby, J. Graham; Bellare, Priya; DeRisi, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    Low-cost DNA sequencing technologies have expanded the role for direct nucleic acid sequencing in the analysis of genomes, transcriptomes, and the metagenomes of whole ecosystems. Human and machine comprehension of such large datasets can be simplified via synthesis of sequence fragments into long, contiguous blocks of sequence (contigs), but most of the progress in the field of assembly has focused on genomes in isolation rather than metagenomes. Here, we present software for paired-read iterative contig extension (PRICE), a strategy for focused assembly of particular nucleic acid species using complex metagenomic data as input. We describe the assembly strategy implemented by PRICE and provide examples of its application to the sequence of particular genes, transcripts, and virus genomes from complex multicomponent datasets, including an assembly of the BCBL-1 strain of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. PRICE is open-source and available for free download (derisilab.ucsf.edu/software/price/ or sourceforge.net/projects/pricedenovo/). PMID:23550143

  1. Model-independent electron spin resonance for measuring order of immobile components in a biological assembly.

    PubMed Central

    Burghardt, T P; Thompson, N L

    1985-01-01

    A model-independent description of the angular orientation distribution of elements in an ordered biological assembly is applied to the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. As in a previous model-independent treatment of fluorescence polarization (Burghardt, T.P., 1984, Biopolymers, 23:2383-2406) the elemental order is described by an angular distribution of molecular frames with one frame fixed in each element of the assembly. The distribution is expanded in a complete orthonormal set of functions. The coefficients of the series expansion (the order parameters) describe the orientation distribution of the elements in the assembly without reference to a model and can be obtained from the observed spectrum. The method establishes the limitations of ESR in detecting order in the assembly by determining which distribution coefficients the technique can detect. A method of determining the order parameters from an ESR spectra, using a set of ESR basis spectra, is developed. We also describe a treatment that incorporates the actual line shape measured from randomly oriented, immobile elements. In this treatment, no model-dependent assumptions about the line shape are required. We have applied the model-independent analysis to ESR spectra from spin-labeled myosin cross-bridges in muscle fibers. The results contain detailed information on the spin-probe angular distribution and differ in interesting ways from previous model-dependent interpretations of the spectra. PMID:2994768

  2. Lessons learned from the microbial analysis of the Herschel spacecraft during assembly, integration, and test operations.

    PubMed

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Pukall, Rüdiger; Probst, Alexander J; Stieglmeier, Michaela; Schwendner, Petra; Mora, Maximilian; Barczyk, Simon; Bohmeier, Maria; Rettberg, Petra

    2013-12-01

    Understanding microbial diversity in spacecraft assembly clean rooms is of major interest with respect to planetary protection considerations. A coordinated screening of different clean rooms in Europe and South America by three German institutes [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Leibniz-Institut DSMZ-Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH (DSMZ), and the Institute of Microbiology and Archaea Center, University of Regensburg] took place during the assembly, test, and launch operations of the Herschel spacecraft in 2006-2009. Through this campaign, we retrieved critical information regarding the microbiome within these clean rooms and on the Herschel spacecraft, which served as a model for upcoming ESA mission preparations. This "lessons learned" document summarizes and discusses the data we obtained during this sampling campaign. Additionally, we have taken the opportunity to create a database that includes all 16S rRNA gene sequences ever retrieved from molecular and cultivable diversity studies of spacecraft assembly clean rooms to compare the microbiomes of US, European, and South American facilities.

  3. Predicting tool operator capacity to react against torque within acceptable handle deflection limits in automotive assembly.

    PubMed

    Radwin, Robert G; Chourasia, Amrish; Fronczak, Frank J; Subedi, Yashpal; Howery, Robert; Yen, Thomas Y; Sesto, Mary E; Irwin, Curtis B

    2016-05-01

    The proportion of tool operators capable of maintaining published psychophysically derived threaded fastener tool handle deflection limits were predicted using a biodynamic tool operator model, interacting with the tool, task and workstation. Tool parameters, including geometry, speed and torque were obtained from the specifications for 35 tools used in an auto assembly plant. Tool mass moments of inertia were measured for these tools using a novel device that engages the tool in a rotating system of known inertia. Task parameters, including fastener target torque and joint properties (soft, medium or hard), were ascertained from the vehicle design specifications. Workstation parameters, including vertical and horizontal distances from the operator were measured using a laser rangefinder for 69 tool installations in the plant. These parameters were entered into the model and tool handle deflection was predicted for each job. While handle deflection for most jobs did not exceed the capacity of 75% females and 99% males, six jobs exceeded the deflection criterion. Those tool installations were examined and modifications in tool speed and operator position improved those jobs within the deflection limits, as predicted by the model. We conclude that biodynamic tool operator models may be useful for identifying stressful tool installations and interventions that bring them within the capacity of most operators.

  4. 14 CFR 60.25 - Operation with missing, malfunctioning, or inoperative components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Operation with missing, malfunctioning, or inoperative components. 60.25 Section 60.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.25 Operation...

  5. 14 CFR 60.25 - Operation with missing, malfunctioning, or inoperative components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.25 Operation with missing, malfunctioning, or inoperative components. (a) No person... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Operation with missing, malfunctioning, or... requirements of this chapter for flight crewmember certification or qualification when there is a...

  6. 14 CFR 60.25 - Operation with missing, malfunctioning, or inoperative components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.25 Operation with missing, malfunctioning, or inoperative components. (a) No person... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Operation with missing, malfunctioning, or... requirements of this chapter for flight crewmember certification or qualification when there is a...

  7. 14 CFR 60.25 - Operation with missing, malfunctioning, or inoperative components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.25 Operation with missing, malfunctioning, or inoperative components. (a) No person... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Operation with missing, malfunctioning, or... requirements of this chapter for flight crewmember certification or qualification when there is a...

  8. DNA self-assembly-driven positioning of molecular components on nanopatterned surfaces.

    PubMed

    Szymonik, M; Davies, A G; Wälti, C

    2016-09-30

    We present a method for the specific, spatially targeted attachment of DNA molecules to lithographically patterned gold surfaces-demonstrated by bridging DNA strands across nanogap electrode structures. An alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer was employed as a molecular resist, which could be selectively removed via electrochemical desorption, allowing the binding of thiolated DNA anchoring oligonucleotides to each electrode. After introducing a bridging DNA molecule with single-stranded ends complementary to the electrode-tethered anchoring oligonucleotides, the positioning of the DNA molecule across the electrode gap, driven by self-assembly, occurred autonomously. This demonstrates control of molecule positioning with resolution limited only by the underlying patterned structure, does not require any alignment, is carried out entirely under biologically compatible conditions, and is scalable.

  9. Pb-free surface-finishing on electronic components' terminals for Pb-free soldering assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Hitoshi; Tanimoto, Morimasa; Matsuda, Akira; Uno, Takeo; Kurihara, Masaaki; Shiga, Shoji

    1999-11-01

    Pb-free solderable surface finishing is essential to implement Pb-free solder assembly in order to meet with the growing demand of environmental consciousness to eliminate Pb from electronic products. Two types of widely applicable Pb-free surface finishing technologies are developed. One is the multilayer-system including Pd with Ni undercoat. Heat-resistance of Pd enables whole-surface-plating on to leadframe before IC-assembling process. The other is the double-layer-system with low-melting-point-materials, for example, thicker Sn underlayer and thinner Sn-Bi alloy overlayer, dilutes Sn-Bi alloy's defects of harmful reactivity along with substrate metal and mechanical brittleness with keeping its advantages of solder-wettability and no whisker.

  10. DNA self-assembly-driven positioning of molecular components on nanopatterned surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymonik, M.; Davies, A. G.; Wälti, C.

    2016-09-01

    We present a method for the specific, spatially targeted attachment of DNA molecules to lithographically patterned gold surfaces—demonstrated by bridging DNA strands across nanogap electrode structures. An alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer was employed as a molecular resist, which could be selectively removed via electrochemical desorption, allowing the binding of thiolated DNA anchoring oligonucleotides to each electrode. After introducing a bridging DNA molecule with single-stranded ends complementary to the electrode-tethered anchoring oligonucleotides, the positioning of the DNA molecule across the electrode gap, driven by self-assembly, occurred autonomously. This demonstrates control of molecule positioning with resolution limited only by the underlying patterned structure, does not require any alignment, is carried out entirely under biologically compatible conditions, and is scalable.

  11. DNA self-assembly-driven positioning of molecular components on nanopatterned surfaces.

    PubMed

    Szymonik, M; Davies, A G; Wälti, C

    2016-09-30

    We present a method for the specific, spatially targeted attachment of DNA molecules to lithographically patterned gold surfaces-demonstrated by bridging DNA strands across nanogap electrode structures. An alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer was employed as a molecular resist, which could be selectively removed via electrochemical desorption, allowing the binding of thiolated DNA anchoring oligonucleotides to each electrode. After introducing a bridging DNA molecule with single-stranded ends complementary to the electrode-tethered anchoring oligonucleotides, the positioning of the DNA molecule across the electrode gap, driven by self-assembly, occurred autonomously. This demonstrates control of molecule positioning with resolution limited only by the underlying patterned structure, does not require any alignment, is carried out entirely under biologically compatible conditions, and is scalable. PMID:27559837

  12. Cigarette Smoke Component Acrolein Modulates Chromatin Assembly by Inhibiting Histone Acetylation*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Danqi; Fang, Lei; Li, Hongjie; Tang, Moon-shong; Jin, Chunyuan

    2013-01-01

    Chromatin structure and gene expression are both regulated by nucleosome assembly. How environmental factors influence histone nuclear import and the nucleosome assembly pathway, leading to changes in chromatin organization and transcription, remains unknown. Acrolein (Acr) is an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, which is abundant in the environment, especially in cigarette smoke. It has recently been implicated as a potential major carcinogen of smoking-related lung cancer. Here we show that Acr forms adducts with histone proteins in vitro and in vivo and preferentially reacts with free histones rather than with nucleosomal histones. Cellular fractionation analyses reveal that Acr exposure specifically inhibits acetylations of N-terminal tails of cytosolic histones H3 and H4, modifications that are important for nuclear import and chromatin assembly. Notably, Acr exposure compromises the delivery of histone H3 into chromatin and increases chromatin accessibility. Moreover, changes in nucleosome occupancy at several genomic loci are correlated with transcriptional responses to Acr exposure. Our data provide new insights into mechanisms whereby environmental factors interact with the genome and influence genome function. PMID:23770671

  13. Thermally Induced Charge Reversal of Layer-by-Layer Assembled Single-Component Polymer Films.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Joseph J; Tardy, Blaise L; Ejima, Hirotaka; Guo, Junling; Cui, Jiwei; Liang, Kang; Choi, Gwan H; Yoo, Pil J; De Geest, Bruno G; Caruso, Frank

    2016-03-23

    Temperature can be harnessed to engineer unique properties for materials useful in various contexts and has been shown to affect the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of polymer thin films and cause physical changes in preassembled polymer thin films. Herein we demonstrate that exposure to relatively low temperatures (≤ 100 °C) can induce physicochemical changes in cationic polymer thin films. The surface charge of polymer films containing primary and secondary amines reverses after heating (from positive to negative), and different characterization techniques are used to show that the change in surface charge is related to oxidation of the polymer that specifically occurs in the thin film state. This charge reversal allows for single-polymer LbL assembly to be performed with poly(allylamine) hydrochloride (PAH) through alternating heat/deposition steps. Furthermore, the negative charge induced by heating reduces the fouling and cell-association of PAH-coated planar and particulate substrates, respectively. This study highlights a unique property of thin films which is relevant to LbL assembly and biofouling and is of interest for the future development of thin polymer films for biomedical systems. PMID:26953514

  14. Cigarette smoke component acrolein modulates chromatin assembly by inhibiting histone acetylation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Danqi; Fang, Lei; Li, Hongjie; Tang, Moon-shong; Jin, Chunyuan

    2013-07-26

    Chromatin structure and gene expression are both regulated by nucleosome assembly. How environmental factors influence histone nuclear import and the nucleosome assembly pathway, leading to changes in chromatin organization and transcription, remains unknown. Acrolein (Acr) is an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, which is abundant in the environment, especially in cigarette smoke. It has recently been implicated as a potential major carcinogen of smoking-related lung cancer. Here we show that Acr forms adducts with histone proteins in vitro and in vivo and preferentially reacts with free histones rather than with nucleosomal histones. Cellular fractionation analyses reveal that Acr exposure specifically inhibits acetylations of N-terminal tails of cytosolic histones H3 and H4, modifications that are important for nuclear import and chromatin assembly. Notably, Acr exposure compromises the delivery of histone H3 into chromatin and increases chromatin accessibility. Moreover, changes in nucleosome occupancy at several genomic loci are correlated with transcriptional responses to Acr exposure. Our data provide new insights into mechanisms whereby environmental factors interact with the genome and influence genome function.

  15. Self-assembly of the oxy-tyrosinase core and the fundamental components of phenolic hydroxylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citek, Cooper; Lyons, Christopher T.; Wasinger, Erik C.; Stack, T. Daniel P.

    2012-04-01

    The enzyme tyrosinase contains two CuI centres, trigonally coordinated by imidazole nitrogens of six conserved histidine residues. The enzyme activates O2 to form a µ-η2:η2-peroxo-dicopper(II) core, which hydroxylates tyrosine to a catechol in the first committed step of melanin biosynthesis. Here, we report a family of synthetic peroxo complexes, with spectroscopic and chemical features consistent with those of oxygenated tyrosinase, formed through the self-assembly of monodentate imidazole ligands, CuI and O2 at -125 °C. An extensively studied complex reproduces the enzymatic electrophilic oxidation of exogenous phenolic substrates to catechols in good stoichiometric yields. The self-assembly and subsequent reactivity support the intrinsic stability of the Cu2O2 core with imidazole ligation, in the absence of a polypeptide framework, and the innate capacity to effect hydroxylation of phenolic substrates. These observations suggest that a foundational role of the protein matrix is to facilitate expression of properties native to the core by bearing the entropic costs of assembly and precluding undesired oxidative degradation pathways.

  16. Hydraulically actuated fuel injector including a pilot operated spool valve assembly and hydraulic system using same

    DOEpatents

    Shafer, Scott F.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to hydraulic systems including hydraulically actuated fuel injectors that have a pilot operated spool valve assembly. One class of hydraulically actuated fuel injectors includes a solenoid driven pilot valve that controls the initiation of the injection event. However, during cold start conditions, hydraulic fluid, typically engine lubricating oil, is particularly viscous and is often difficult to displace through the relatively small drain path that is defined past the pilot valve member. Because the spool valve typically responds slower than expected during cold start due to the difficulty in displacing the relatively viscous oil, accurate start of injection timing can be difficult to achieve. There also exists a greater difficulty in reaching the higher end of the cold operating speed range. Therefore, the present invention utilizes a fluid evacuation valve to aid in displacement of the relatively viscous oil during cold start conditions.

  17. Visualizing the store-operated channel complex assembly in real time: identification of SERCA2 as a new member.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Alicia; Zepeda, Angelica; Asanov, Alexander; Vaca, Luis

    2009-05-01

    Depletion of intracellular calcium stores leads to the activation of calcium influx via the so-called store-operated channels (SOCs). Recent evidence positions Orai proteins as the putative channels responsible for this process. The stromal interacting molecule (STIM1) has been recently identified as the calcium sensor located at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and responsible for communicating the deplete state of calcium stores to Orai at the plasma membrane (PM). However, recent experimental findings suggest that Orai and STIM1 are only part of a larger molecular complex required to modulate store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). In the present study we describe the assembly of the several of the components from the SOC complex in real-time, utilizing a novel imaging method. Using FRET imaging we show that under resting conditions (with calcium stores replenished) STIM1 travels continuously through the ER associated to the microtubule tracking protein, EB1. Upon depletion of the ER STIM1 dissociates from EB1 and aggregates into macromolecular complexes at the ER which includes the microsomal calcium ATPase. This association follows the assembly of Orai into macromolecular aggregates at the PM. We show that STIM1-Orai association follows a similar time course as that of Orai aggregation at the PM. During this last step of the process, calcium-selective, whole-cell inward currents developed, simultaneously. We show that this process is fully reversible. Replenishing intracellular calcium stores induces STIM1-Orai complex dissociation and shuts down inward currents. Under these conditions STIM1 re-associates to EB1, and reinitiates its travel through the ER.

  18. Composite components under impact load and effects of defects on the loading capacity. [Alpha Jet tail assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aoki, R.; Wurzel, D.

    1979-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on a horizontal tail assembly made of carbon fiber reinforced plastic for the Alpha Jet. The possibility of obtaining a leading edge nose design lighter but not more expensive than a metal version was studied. An important consideration was sufficient resistance of the leading edge against impact of stones and hailstones combined with high degree of stiffness. The improvement of energy reception characteristics of the materials through suitable laminate design was considered. Since certain defects occur in structural components, the effects of such defects on the characteristics of the parts were also studied.

  19. Enhanced Component Performance Study: Motor-Operated Valves 1998–2012

    SciTech Connect

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an enhanced performance evaluation of motor-operated valves (MOVs) at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The data used in this study are based on the operating experience failure reports from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for the component reliability as reported in the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The MOV failure modes considered are failure to open/close, failure to operate or control, and spurious operation. The component reliability estimates and the reliability data are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for reliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing trends were identified in the MOV results. Statistically significant decreasing trends were identified for failure to open/close and operation demands.

  20. Enhanced Component Performance Study: Air-Operated Valves 1998–2013

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2014-10-01

    This report presents a performance evaluation of air-operated valves (AOVs) at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The data used in this study are based on the operating experience failure reports from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for the component reliability as reported in the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The AOV failure modes considered are failure-to-open/close, failure to operate or control, and spurious operation. The component reliability estimates and the reliability data are trended for the most recent 10-year period, while yearly estimates for reliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the AOV failure data.

  1. Three-component assembly of structurally diverse 2-aminopyrimidine-5-carbonitriles.

    PubMed

    Val, Cristina; Crespo, Abel; Yaziji, Vicente; Coelho, Alberto; Azuaje, Jhonny; El Maatougui, Abdelaziz; Carbajales, Carlos; Sotelo, Eddy

    2013-07-01

    An expedient route for the synthesis of libraries of diversely decorated 2-aminopyrimidine-5-carbonitriles is reported. This approach is based on a three-component reaction followed by spontaneous aromatization.

  2. Supramolecular assembly/reassembly processes: molecular motors and dynamers operating at surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesielski, Artur; Samorì, Paolo

    2011-04-01

    Among the many significant advances within the field of supramolecular chemistry over the past decades, the development of the so-called ``dynamers'' features a direct relevance to materials science. Defined as ``combinatorial dynamic polymers'', dynamers are constitutional dynamic systems and materials resulting from the application of the principles of supramolecular chemistry to polymer science. Like supramolecular materials in general, dynamers are reversible dynamic multifunctional architectures, capable of modifying their constitution by exchanging, recombining, incorporating components. They may exhibit a variety of novel properties and behave as adaptive materials. In this review we focus on the design of responsive switchable monolayers, i.e. monolayers capable to undergo significant changes in their physical or chemical properties as a result of external stimuli. Scanning tunneling microscopy studies provide direct evidence with a sub-nanometre resolution, on the formation and dynamic response of these self-assembled systems featuring controlled geometries and properties.

  3. 29 CFR 1926.1404 - Assembly/Disassembly-general requirements (applies to all assembly and disassembly operations).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... following: (i) Their tasks. (ii) The hazards associated with their tasks. (iii) The hazardous positions... (d)(1)(i) through (d)(1)(iii) of this section must be met. (e) Protecting assembly/disassembly crew... to: (i) Protect the structural integrity of the equipment, and (ii) Prevent dangerous movement...

  4. Recurrent isolation of extremotolerant bacteria from the clean room where Phoenix spacecraft components were assembled.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sudeshna; Osman, Shariff; Vaishampayan, Parag; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2010-04-01

    The microbial burden of the Phoenix spacecraft assembly environment was assessed in a systematic manner via several cultivation-based techniques and a suite of NASA-certified, cultivation-independent biomolecule-based detection assays. Extremotolerant bacteria that could potentially survive conditions experienced en route to Mars or on the planet's surface were isolated with a series of cultivation-based assays that promoted the growth of a variety of organisms, including spore formers, mesophilic heterotrophs, anaerobes, thermophiles, psychrophiles, alkaliphiles, and bacteria resistant to UVC radiation and hydrogen peroxide exposure. Samples were collected from the clean room where Phoenix was housed at three different time points, before (1P), during (2P), and after (3P) Phoenix's presence at the facility. There was a reduction in microbial burden of most bacterial groups, including spore formers, in samples 2P and 3P. Analysis of 262 isolates from the facility demonstrated that there was also a shift in predominant cultivable bacterial populations accompanied by a reduction in diversity during 2P and 3P. It is suggested that this shift was a result of increased cleaning when Phoenix was present in the assembly facility and that certain species, such as Acinetobacter johnsonii and Brevundimonas diminuta, may be better adapted to environmental conditions found during 2P and 3P. In addition, problematic bacteria resistant to multiple extreme conditions, such as Bacillus pumilus, were able to survive these periods of increased cleaning.

  5. Recurrent Isolation of Extremotolerant Bacteria from the Clean Room Where Phoenix Spacecraft Components Were Assembled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sudeshna; Osman, Shariff; Vaishampayan, Parag; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2010-04-01

    The microbial burden of the Phoenix spacecraft assembly environment was assessed in a systematic manner via several cultivation-based techniques and a suite of NASA-certified, cultivation-independent biomolecule-based detection assays. Extremotolerant bacteria that could potentially survive conditions experienced en route to Mars or on the planet's surface were isolated with a series of cultivation-based assays that promoted the growth of a variety of organisms, including spore formers, mesophilic heterotrophs, anaerobes, thermophiles, psychrophiles, alkaliphiles, and bacteria resistant to UVC radiation and hydrogen peroxide exposure. Samples were collected from the clean room where Phoenix was housed at three different time points, before (1P), during (2P), and after (3P) Phoenix's presence at the facility. There was a reduction in microbial burden of most bacterial groups, including spore formers, in samples 2P and 3P. Analysis of 262 isolatisolattivable bacterial populations accompanied by a reduction in diversity during 2P and 3P. It is suggested that this shift was a result of increased cleaning when Phoenix was present in the assembly facility and that certain species, such as Acinetobacter johnsonii and Brevundimonas diminuta, may be better adapted to environmental conditions found during 2P and 3P. In addition, problematic bacteria resistant to multiple extreme conditions, such as Bacillus pumilus, were able to survive these periods of increased cleaning.

  6. A modular platform for one-step assembly of multi-component membrane systems by fusion of charged proteoliposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishmukhametov, Robert R.; Russell, Aidan N.; Berry, Richard M.

    2016-10-01

    An important goal in synthetic biology is the assembly of biomimetic cell-like structures, which combine multiple biological components in synthetic lipid vesicles. A key limiting assembly step is the incorporation of membrane proteins into the lipid bilayer of the vesicles. Here we present a simple method for delivery of membrane proteins into a lipid bilayer within 5 min. Fusogenic proteoliposomes, containing charged lipids and membrane proteins, fuse with oppositely charged bilayers, with no requirement for detergent or fusion-promoting proteins, and deliver large, fragile membrane protein complexes into the target bilayers. We demonstrate the feasibility of our method by assembling a minimal electron transport chain capable of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, combining Escherichia coli F1Fo ATP-synthase and the primary proton pump bo3-oxidase, into synthetic lipid vesicles with sizes ranging from 100 nm to ~10 μm. This provides a platform for the combination of multiple sets of membrane protein complexes into cell-like artificial structures.

  7. Advances in Understanding Carboxysome Assembly in Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus Implicate CsoS2 as a Critical Component

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Fei; Dou, Zhicheng; Bernstein, Susan L.; Leverenz, Ryan; Williams, Eric B.; Heinhorst, Sabine; Shively, Jessup; Cannon, Gordon C.; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.

    2015-01-01

    The marine Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus are the numerically dominant cyanobacteria in the ocean and important in global carbon fixation. They have evolved a CO2-concentrating-mechanism, of which the central component is the carboxysome, a self-assembling proteinaceous organelle. Two types of carboxysome, α and β, encapsulating form IA and form IB d-ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, respectively, differ in gene organization and associated proteins. In contrast to the β-carboxysome, the assembly process of the α-carboxysome is enigmatic. Moreover, an absolutely conserved α-carboxysome protein, CsoS2, is of unknown function and has proven recalcitrant to crystallization. Here, we present studies on the CsoS2 protein in three model organisms and show that CsoS2 is vital for α-carboxysome biogenesis. The primary structure of CsoS2 appears tripartite, composed of an N-terminal, middle (M)-, and C-terminal region. Repetitive motifs can be identified in the N- and M-regions. Multiple lines of evidence suggest CsoS2 is highly flexible, possibly an intrinsically disordered protein. Based on our results from bioinformatic, biophysical, genetic and biochemical approaches, including peptide array scanning for protein-protein interactions, we propose a model for CsoS2 function and its spatial location in the α-carboxysome. Analogies between the pathway for β-carboxysome biogenesis and our model for α-carboxysome assembly are discussed. PMID:25826651

  8. A modular platform for one-step assembly of multi-component membrane systems by fusion of charged proteoliposomes

    PubMed Central

    Ishmukhametov, Robert R.; Russell, Aidan N.; Berry, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    An important goal in synthetic biology is the assembly of biomimetic cell-like structures, which combine multiple biological components in synthetic lipid vesicles. A key limiting assembly step is the incorporation of membrane proteins into the lipid bilayer of the vesicles. Here we present a simple method for delivery of membrane proteins into a lipid bilayer within 5 min. Fusogenic proteoliposomes, containing charged lipids and membrane proteins, fuse with oppositely charged bilayers, with no requirement for detergent or fusion-promoting proteins, and deliver large, fragile membrane protein complexes into the target bilayers. We demonstrate the feasibility of our method by assembling a minimal electron transport chain capable of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, combining Escherichia coli F1Fo ATP-synthase and the primary proton pump bo3-oxidase, into synthetic lipid vesicles with sizes ranging from 100 nm to ∼10 μm. This provides a platform for the combination of multiple sets of membrane protein complexes into cell-like artificial structures. PMID:27708275

  9. Concept report: Experimental vector magnetograph (EXVM) operational configuration balloon flight assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The observational limitations of earth bound solar studies has prompted a great deal of interest in recent months in being able to gain new scientific perspectives through, what should prove to be, relatively low cost flight of the magnetograph system. The ground work done by TBE for the solar balloon missions (originally planned for SOUP and GRID) as well as the rather advanced state of assembly of the EXVM has allowed the quick formulation of a mission concept for the 30 cm system currently being assembled. The flight system operational configuration will be discussed as it is proposed for short duration flight (on the order of one day) over the continental United States. Balloon hardware design requirements used in formulation of the concept are those set by the National Science Balloon Facility (NSBF), the support agency under NASA contract for flight services. The concept assumes that the flight hardware assembly would come together from three development sources: the scientific investigator package, the integration contractor package, and the NSBF support system. The majority of these three separate packages can be independently developed; however, the computer control interfaces and telemetry links would require extensive preplanning and coordination. A special section of this study deals with definition of a dedicated telemetry link to be provided by the integration contractor for video image data for pointing system performance verification. In this study the approach has been to capitalize to the maximum extent possible on existing hardware and system design. This is the most prudent step that can be taken to reduce eventual program cost for long duration flights. By fielding the existing EXVM as quickly as possible, experience could be gained from several short duration flight tests before it became necessary to commit to major upgrades for long duration flights of this system or of the larger 60 cm version being considered for eventual development.

  10. Generalized recognition of single-ended contact formations for use in automated assembly operations

    SciTech Connect

    Ravuri, R.; Everett, L.J.

    1999-03-01

    Robots are preferred over any other form of automated machines for assembly tasks due to their capability of being programmed to perform a variety of tasks. However, in the present day industries, the turn around time for new designs have dramatically reduced. Therefore, the need for robots which can adapt its teaching and programming to new situations is strongly felt. This is especially true in the tasks such as assembly operations, which involve the robot making frequent contacts with its environment. This research addresses the problems that arise due to small changes in the work settings after the system has been programmed or trained. In an industry setting it is very likely that changes such as orientation and translation of the grasped object with respect to the robot axes can occur due to many unforeseen causes. The research here is focused on generalizing a Hybrid Control System, in which an assembly skill is described as a sequence of qualitative states and the desired transition between the states. In this case, the qualitative state takes the form of a single-ended contact formation, which describes how a grasped object touches its environment. Skill acquisition involves learning the sequence of qualitative states, the transition between those states, and the mapping from the sensor signals to the qualitative states. The authors discuss impact of changes in the orientation and the position of the grasped object with respect to the robot axes on the recognition of these qualitative states. They also propose a method of decreasing the performance degradation caused by this orientation change in recognition of these qualitative states, by adapting to the new situation with as minimum retraining as possible. Experimental results are presented which illustrate and validate the approach.

  11. Selected Lessons Learned over the ISS Design, Development, Assembly, and Operations: Applicability to International Cooperation for Standardization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the lessons learned in the sphere of international cooperation during the development, assembly and operation of the International Space Station. From the begining all Partners shared a common objective to build, operate and utilize a crewed laboratory in low orbit as an international partnership. The importance of standards is emphasized.

  12. Selected Lessons Learned through the ISS Design, Development, Assembly, and Operations: Applicability to International Cooperation for Standardization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews selected lessons that were learned during the design, development, assembly and operation of the International Space Station. The critical importance of standards and common interfaces is emphasized to create a common operation environment that can lead to flexibility and adaptability.

  13. Extended Aging Theories for Predictions of Safe Operational Life of Critical Airborne Structural Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Chen, Tony

    2006-01-01

    The previously developed Ko closed-form aging theory has been reformulated into a more compact mathematical form for easier application. A new equivalent loading theory and empirical loading theories have also been developed and incorporated into the revised Ko aging theory for the prediction of a safe operational life of airborne failure-critical structural components. The new set of aging and loading theories were applied to predict the safe number of flights for the B-52B aircraft to carry a launch vehicle, the structural life of critical components consumed by load excursion to proof load value, and the ground-sitting life of B-52B pylon failure-critical structural components. A special life prediction method was developed for the preflight predictions of operational life of failure-critical structural components of the B-52H pylon system, for which no flight data are available.

  14. Assembling surface mounted components on ink-jet printed double sided paper circuit board.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Henrik A; Manuilskiy, Anatoliy; Haller, Stefan; Hummelgård, Magnus; Sidén, Johan; Hummelgård, Christine; Olin, Håkan; Nilsson, Hans-Erik

    2014-03-01

    Printed electronics is a rapidly developing field where many components can already be manufactured on flexible substrates by printing or by other high speed manufacturing methods. However, the functionality of even the most inexpensive microcontroller or other integrated circuit is, at the present time and for the foreseeable future, out of reach by means of fully printed components. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate hybrid printed electronics, where regular electrical components are mounted on flexible substrates to achieve high functionality at a low cost. Moreover, the use of paper as a substrate for printed electronics is of growing interest because it is an environmentally friendly and renewable material and is, additionally, the main material used for many packages in which electronics functionalities could be integrated. One of the challenges for such hybrid printed electronics is the mounting of the components and the interconnection between layers on flexible substrates with printed conductive tracks that should provide as low a resistance as possible while still being able to be used in a high speed manufacturing process. In this article, several conductive adhesives are evaluated as well as soldering for mounting surface mounted components on a paper circuit board with ink-jet printed tracks and, in addition, a double sided Arduino compatible circuit board is manufactured and programmed.

  15. Assembling surface mounted components on ink-jet printed double sided paper circuit board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Henrik A.; Manuilskiy, Anatoliy; Haller, Stefan; Hummelgård, Magnus; Sidén, Johan; Hummelgård, Christine; Olin, Håkan; Nilsson, Hans-Erik

    2014-03-01

    Printed electronics is a rapidly developing field where many components can already be manufactured on flexible substrates by printing or by other high speed manufacturing methods. However, the functionality of even the most inexpensive microcontroller or other integrated circuit is, at the present time and for the foreseeable future, out of reach by means of fully printed components. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate hybrid printed electronics, where regular electrical components are mounted on flexible substrates to achieve high functionality at a low cost. Moreover, the use of paper as a substrate for printed electronics is of growing interest because it is an environmentally friendly and renewable material and is, additionally, the main material used for many packages in which electronics functionalities could be integrated. One of the challenges for such hybrid printed electronics is the mounting of the components and the interconnection between layers on flexible substrates with printed conductive tracks that should provide as low a resistance as possible while still being able to be used in a high speed manufacturing process. In this article, several conductive adhesives are evaluated as well as soldering for mounting surface mounted components on a paper circuit board with ink-jet printed tracks and, in addition, a double sided Arduino compatible circuit board is manufactured and programmed.

  16. Westinghouse Fuel Assemblies Performance after Operation in South-Ukraine NPP Mixed Core

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullayev, A. M.; Kulish, G. V.; Slyeptsov, O.; Slyeptsov, S.; Aleshin, Y.; Sparrow, S.; Lashevych, P.; Sokolov, D.; Latorre, Richard

    2013-09-14

    The evaluation of WWER-1000 Westinghouse fuel performance was done using the results of post–irradiation examinations of six LTAs and the WFA reload batches that have operated normally in mixed cores at South-Ukraine NPP, Unit-3 and Unit-2. The data on WFA/LTA elongation, FR growth and bow, WFA bow and twist, RCCA drag force and drag work, RCCA drop time, FR cladding integrity as well as the visual observation of fuel assemblies obtained during the 2006-2012 outages was utilized. The analysis of the measured data showed that assembly growth, FR bow, irradiation growth, and Zr-1%Nb grid and ZIRLO cladding corrosion lies within the design limits. The RCCA drop time measured for the LTA/WFA is about 1.9 s at BOC and practically does not change at EOC. The measured WFA bow and twist, and data of drag work on RCCA insertion showed that the WFA deformation in the mixed core is mostly controlled by the distortion of Russian FAs (TVSA) having the higher lateral stiffness. The visual inspection of WFAs carried out during the 2012 outages revealed some damage to the Zr-1%Nb grid outer strap for some WFAs during the loading sequence. The performed fundamental investigations allowed identifying the root cause of grid outer strap deformation and proposing the WFA design modifications for preventing damage to SG at a 225 kg handling trip limit.

  17. Multi-component superstructures self-assembled from nanocrystal building blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Rui; Zhu, Hua; Cao, Can; Chen, Ou

    2016-05-01

    More than three decades of intensive study to make high-quality nanocrystals have created a unique toolbox for building multi-component superstructures, which have been recognized as a new generation of metamaterials important to both fundamental sciences and applied technologies. This minireview summarizes recent advances in this exciting field. We will focus our discussion on the synthetic strategies and superstructures of this multi-component metamaterial, and highlight their novel properties and potential applications. Additionally, some perspectives on possible developments in this field are offered at the end of this review. We hope that this minireview will both inform and stimulate research interests for the design and fabrication of these nanocrystal-based multi-component metamaterials for diverse applications in the future.

  18. Cimlib: A Fully Parallel Application For Numerical Simulations Based On Components Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digonnet, Hugues; Silva, Luisa; Coupez, Thierry

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents CIMLIB with its two main characteristics: an Object Oriented Program and a fully parallel code. CIMLIB aims at providing a set of components that can be organized to build numerical simulation of a certain process. We describe two components: one treats the complex task of parallel remeshing, the other puts the focus on the Finite Element modeling. In a second part, we present some parallel performances and an example of a very large simulation (over a mesh of 25 millions nodes) that begins with the mesh generation and ends up writing results files, all done using 88 processors.

  19. Hazard Analysis for the Mark III Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Used in One-g Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kate; Ross, Amy; Blanco, Raul; Wood, Art

    2012-01-01

    This Hazard Analysis document encompasses the Mark III Space Suit Assembly (SSA) and associated ancillary equipment. It has been prepared using JSC17773, "Preparing Hazard Analyses for JSC Ground Operation", as a guide. The purpose of this document is to present the potential hazards involved in ground (23 % maximum O2, One-g) operations of the Mark III and associated ancillary support equipment system. The hazards listed in this document are specific to suit operations only; each supporting facility (Bldg. 9, etc.) is responsible for test specific Hazard Analyses. A "hazard" is defined as any condition that has the potential for harming personnel or equipment. This analysis was performed to document the safety aspects associated with manned use of the Mark III for pressurized and unpressurized ambient, ground-based, One-g human testing. The hazards identified herein represent generic hazards inherent to all standard JSC test venues for nominal ground test configurations. Non-standard test venues or test specific configurations may warrant consideration of additional hazards analysis prior to test. The cognizant suit engineer is responsible for the safety of the astronaut/test subject, space suit, and suit support personnel. The test requester, for the test supported by the suit test engineer and suited subject, is responsible for overall safety and any necessary Test Readiness Reviews (TRR).

  20. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Analysis of the Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) Database of the International Space Station On-Orbit Electrical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Bradish, Martin A.; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Lewis, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program is investigating and developing technologies to support human exploration of the Moon and Mars. The Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) task is part of the Supportability Project managed by the Exploration Technology Development Program. CLEAR is aimed at enabling a flight crew to diagnose and repair electronic circuits in space yet minimize logistics spares, equipment, and crew time and training. For insight into actual space repair needs, in early 2008 the project examined the operational experience of the International Space Station (ISS) program. CLEAR examined the ISS on-orbit Problem Reporting and Corrective Action database for electrical and electronic system problems. The ISS has higher than predicted reliability yet, as expected, it has persistent problems. A goal was to identify which on-orbit electrical problems could be resolved by a component-level replacement. A further goal was to identify problems that could benefit from the additional diagnostic and test capability that a component-level repair capability could provide. The study indicated that many problems stem from a small set of root causes that also represent distinct component problems. The study also determined that there are certain recurring problems where the current telemetry instrumentation and built-in tests are unable to completely resolve the problem. As a result, the root cause is listed as unknown. Overall, roughly 42 percent of on-orbit electrical problems on ISS could be addressed with a component-level repair. Furthermore, 63 percent of on-orbit electrical problems on ISS could benefit from additional external diagnostic and test capability. These results indicate that in situ component-level repair in combination with diagnostic and test capability can be expected to increase system availability and reduce logistics. The CLEAR approach can increase the flight crew s ability to act decisively to resolve problems while reducing

  1. The versatile molecular complex component LC8 promotes several distinct steps of flagellar assembly

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anjali; Diener, Dennis R.; Sivadas, Priyanka; Rosenbaum, Joel L.

    2012-01-01

    LC8 is present in various molecular complexes. However, its role in these complexes remains unclear. We discovered that although LC8 is a subunit of the radial spoke (RS) complex in Chlamydomonas flagella, it was undetectable in the RS precursor that is converted into the mature RS at the tip of elongating axonemes. Interestingly, LC8 dimers bound in tandem to the N-terminal region of a spoke phosphoprotein, RS protein 3 (RSP3), that docks RSs to axonemes. LC8 enhanced the binding of RSP3 N-terminal fragments to purified axonemes. Likewise, the N-terminal fragments extracted from axonemes contained LC8 and putative spoke-docking proteins. Lastly, perturbations of RSP3’s LC8-binding sites resulted in asynchronous flagella with hypophosphorylated RSP3 and defective associations between LC8, RSs, and axonemes. We propose that at the tip of flagella, an array of LC8 dimers binds to RSP3 in RS precursors, triggering phosphorylation, stalk base formation, and axoneme targeting. These multiple effects shed new light on fundamental questions about LC8-containing complexes and axoneme assembly. PMID:22753897

  2. TPX assembly plan

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, D.

    1993-11-01

    The TPX machine will be assembled in the TFTR Test Cell at the Plasma Physics Laboratory, utilizing the existing TFTR machine foundation. Preparation of the area for assembly will begin after completion of the decontamination and decommissioning phase on TFTR and certification that the radiation levels remaining, if any, are consistent with the types of operations planned. Assembly operations begin with the arrival of the first components, and conclude, approximately 24 months later, with the successful completion of the integrated systems tests and the achievement of a first plasma.

  3. English as a Second Language for Automotive Component Parts Line Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Carol

    This document is one of a series of student workbooks developed for workplace skill development courses or workshops by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey) and its partners. Designed to improve the English speaking and reading skills of non-English-speaking automotive component parts line operators, the course covers oral, written,…

  4. 14 CFR 60.25 - Operation with missing, malfunctioning, or inoperative components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operation with missing, malfunctioning, or inoperative components. 60.25 Section 60.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND...

  5. The Effects of an Abolishing Operation Intervention Component on Play Skills, Challenging Behavior, and Stereotypy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Sigafoos, Jeff; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Aguilar, Jeannie; Fragale, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reduce stereotypy and challenging behavior during play skills instruction by adding an abolishing operation component (AOC) to the intervention strategy. An alternating treatments design compared one condition in which participants were allowed to engage in stereotypy freely before beginning the play skills…

  6. Enabling Propulsion Materials (EPM) Structural Component Successfully Tested Under Pseudo-Operating Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartolotta, Paul A.

    1997-01-01

    A fabrication feasibility demonstration component for the Enabling Propulsion Materials (EPM) program was evaluated under prototypical engine loading conditions at the Structural Benchmark Test Facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The purpose for this test was to verify EPM casting, joining, coating, and life-prediction methods. Electron beam welding techniques developed in the EPM program were used to join two large superalloy cast sections of an exhaust nozzle flap to fabricate the demonstration component. After the joints were inspected, the component was coated with an oxidation-resistant barrier coating and was sent to Lewis for testing. The special test fixture shown in the photo (the Structural Benchmark Test Facility) was designed and built at Lewis to produce a biaxial bending condition similar to the loading condition this part would encounter during engine operation. Several finite element analyses were conducted to validate the mechanical test method. A floating furnace was then designed to provide prototypical thermal profiles in the component. An isothermal low-cycle fatigue test was used to evaluate the component at a cyclic load of 13 kN (maximum) to 1 kN (minimum) at a frequency of 1 Hz. Component failure was defined as a 30-percent increase in the component's compliance. On the basis of this definition, the low-cycle fatigue life of this component would be 35,000 cycles.

  7. An Operational Approach for Selecting Open Source Components in a Software Development Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majchrowski, Annick; Deprez, Jean-Christophe

    Many organizations have started to integrate Free/Open Source Software (FlOSS) components in their applications. It is therefore crucial for these companies to select the most appropriate FlOSS components in terms of functional and non-functional needs. Although FlOSS selection methods have appeared in the last few years, they lack an operational description. In turn, this has slowed their use in software development project. This work presents an operational approach for selecting FlOSS components where the client, the development team and their respective quality assurance teams are involved in the selection process. Although the case study applying the FlOSS selection approach is left to future work, this article already describes an industrial case where the approach presented in this paper has been approved for use by the various partners, i.e., the client, the development firm and their respective quality teams.

  8. National Ignition Facility final optics assembly thermal effects of maintenance operations

    SciTech Connect

    Parietti, L.; Martin, R.A.

    1998-04-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world`s most powerful laser system, is being built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to study inertial fusion and high-energy-density science. This billion-dollar facility consists of 192 beams focusing 1.8 MJ on a fusion target. The Final Optics Assembly (FOA), the last mechanical apparatus before the target chamber, converts the light from an incoming frequency of 1 {omega} to ia target-ready 3 {omega}, and focuses the laser beam. The performance of the frequency conversion crystals is very sensitive to temperature changes; crystal temperature must be maintained within a 0.1 C of a nominal temperature prior to a laser shot. Maximizing system availability requires minimizing thermal recovery times after thermal disturbances occurring in both normal and maintenance operations. To guide the design, it is important to have estimates of those recovery times. This report presents Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) design calculations to evaluate thermal effects of maintenance operations.

  9. A definition study of the on-orbit assembly operations for the outboard photovoltaic power modules for Space Station Freedom. M.S. Thesis - Toledo Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sours, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    A concept is described for the assembly of the outboard PV modules for Space Station Freedom. Analysis of the on-orbit assembly operations was performed using CADAM design graphics software. A scenario for assembly using the various assembly equipment, as currently defined, is described in words, tables and illustrations. This work is part of ongoing studies in the area of space station assembly. The outboard PV module and the assembly equipment programs are all in definition and preliminary design phases. An input is provided to the design process of assembly equipment programs. It is established that the outboard PV module assembly operations can be performed using the assembly equipment currently planned in the Space Station Freedom Program.

  10. Additive manufacture (3d printing) of plasma diagnostic components and assemblies for fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieck, Paul; Woodruff, Simon; Stuber, James; Romero-Talamas, Carlos; Rivera, William; You, Setthivoine; Card, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Additive manufacturing (or 3D printing) is now becoming sufficiently accurate with a large range of materials for use in printing sensors needed universally in fusion energy research. Decreasing production cost and significantly lowering design time of energy subsystems would realize significant cost reduction for standard diagnostics commonly obtained through research grants. There is now a well-established set of plasma diagnostics, but these expensive since they are often highly complex and require customization, sometimes pace the project. Additive manufacturing (3D printing) is developing rapidly, including open source designs. Basic components can be printed for (in some cases) less than 1/100th costs of conventional manufacturing. We have examined the impact that AM can have on plasma diagnostic cost by taking 15 separate diagnostics through an engineering design using Conventional Manufacturing (CM) techniques to determine costs of components and labor costs associated with getting the diagnostic to work as intended. With that information in hand, we set about optimizing the design to exploit the benefits of AM. Work performed under DOE Contract DE-SC0011858.

  11. 19 CFR 10.26 - Articles assembled or processed in a beneficiary country in whole of U.S. components or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... textile components cut to shape in the United States. 10.26 Section 10.26 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... ingredients; articles assembled in a beneficiary country from textile components cut to shape in the United States. (a) No article (except a textile article, apparel article, or petroleum, or any product...

  12. 19 CFR 10.26 - Articles assembled or processed in a beneficiary country in whole of U.S. components or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... textile components cut to shape in the United States. 10.26 Section 10.26 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... ingredients; articles assembled in a beneficiary country from textile components cut to shape in the United States. (a) No article (except a textile article, apparel article, or petroleum, or any product...

  13. 19 CFR 10.26 - Articles assembled or processed in a beneficiary country in whole of U.S. components or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... textile components cut to shape in the United States. 10.26 Section 10.26 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... ingredients; articles assembled in a beneficiary country from textile components cut to shape in the United States. (a) No article (except a textile article, apparel article, or petroleum, or any product...

  14. 19 CFR 10.26 - Articles assembled or processed in a beneficiary country in whole of U.S. components or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... textile components cut to shape in the United States. 10.26 Section 10.26 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... ingredients; articles assembled in a beneficiary country from textile components cut to shape in the United States. (a) No article (except a textile article, apparel article, or petroleum, or any product...

  15. 19 CFR 10.26 - Articles assembled or processed in a beneficiary country in whole of U.S. components or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... textile components cut to shape in the United States. 10.26 Section 10.26 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... ingredients; articles assembled in a beneficiary country from textile components cut to shape in the United States. (a) No article (except a textile article, apparel article, or petroleum, or any product...

  16. The centrosome orientation checkpoint is germline stem cell specific and operates prior to the spindle assembly checkpoint in Drosophila testis.

    PubMed

    Venkei, Zsolt G; Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetric cell division is utilized by a broad range of cell types to generate two daughter cells with distinct cell fates. In stem cell populations asymmetric cell division is believed to be crucial for maintaining tissue homeostasis, failure of which can lead to tissue degeneration or hyperplasia/tumorigenesis. Asymmetric cell divisions also underlie cell fate diversification during development. Accordingly, the mechanisms by which asymmetric cell division is achieved have been extensively studied, although the check points that are in place to protect against potential perturbation of the process are poorly understood. Drosophila melanogaster male germline stem cells (GSCs) possess a checkpoint, termed the centrosome orientation checkpoint (COC), that monitors correct centrosome orientation with respect to the component cells of the niche to ensure asymmetric stem cell division. To our knowledge, the COC is the only checkpoint mechanism identified to date that specializes in monitoring the orientation of cell division in multicellular organisms. Here, by establishing colcemid-induced microtubule depolymerization as a sensitive assay, we examined the characteristics of COC activity and find that it functions uniquely in GSCs but not in their differentiating progeny. We show that the COC operates in the G2 phase of the cell cycle, independently of the spindle assembly checkpoint. This study may provide a framework for identifying and understanding similar mechanisms that might be in place in other asymmetrically dividing cell types.

  17. Intracellular self-assembly based multi-labeling of key viral components: Envelope, capsid and nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Wen, Li; Lin, Yi; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Lu, Wen; Lv, Cheng; Chen, Zhi-Liang; Wang, Han-Zhong; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2016-08-01

    Envelope, capsid and nucleic acids are key viral components that are all involved in crucial events during virus infection. Thus simultaneous labeling of these key components is an indispensable prerequisite for monitoring comprehensive virus infection process and dissecting virus infection mechanism. Baculovirus was genetically tagged with biotin on its envelope protein GP64 and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) on its capsid protein VP39. Spodoptera frugiperda 9 (Sf9) cells were infected by the recombinant baculovirus and subsequently fed with streptavidin-conjugated quantum dots (SA-QDs) and cell-permeable nucleic acids dye SYTO 82. Just by genetic engineering and virus propagation, multi-labeling of envelope, capsid and nucleic acids was spontaneously accomplished during virus inherent self-assembly process, significantly simplifying the labeling process while maintaining virus infectivity. Intracellular dissociation and transportation of all the key viral components, which was barely reported previously, was real-time monitored based on the multi-labeling approach, offering opportunities for deeply understanding virus infection and developing anti-virus treatment.

  18. Multi-component coordination-driven self-assembly: construction of alkyl-based structures and molecular modelling.

    PubMed

    Pollock, J Bryant; Cook, Timothy R; Schneider, Gregory L; Stang, Peter J

    2013-10-01

    The design of supramolecular coordination complexes (SCCs) is typically predicated on the use of rigid molecular building blocks through which the structural outcome is determined based on the number and orientation of labile coordination sites on metal acceptors, and the angularity of the ligand donors that are to bridge these nodes. Three-component systems extend the complexity of self-assembly by utilizing two different Lewis base donors in concert with a metal that favors a heteroligated coordination environment. The thermodynamic preference for heteroligation provides a new design principle to the formation of SCCs, wherein multicomponent architectures need not employ only rigid donors. Herein, we exploit the self-selection processes of bis(phosphine) Pt(II) metal centers which favor mixed Pt(pyridyl)(carboxylate) coordination spheres over their homoligated counterparts, specifically using alkyl-based dicarboxylate ligands instead of traditionally rigid phenyl, alkenyl, or ethynyl variants. Using this mode of assembly, flexible-based 2D and 3D SCCs containing long alkyl chains were synthesized and characterized. Density functional theory (DFT) and natural population analysis (NPA) calculations were performed on model systems to probe the thermodynamic preference for heteroligated coordination spheres in the experimental systems.

  19. Epitaxial self-assembly of binary molecular components into branched nanowire heterostructures for photonic applications.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qinghua; Liao, Qing; Xu, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xuedong; Yao, Jiannian; Fu, Hongbing

    2014-02-12

    We report a sequential epitaxial growth to prepare organic branched nanowire heterostructures (BNwHs) consisting of a microribbon trunk of 1,4-dimethoxy-2,5-di[4'-(cyano)styryl]benzene (COPV) with multiple nanowire branches of 2,4,5-triphenylimidazole (TPI) in a one-pot solution synthesis. The synthesis involves a seeded-growth process, where COPV microribbons are grown first as a trunk followed by a seeded-growth of TPI nanowire branches at the pregrown trunk surfaces. Selected area electron diffraction characterizations reveal that multiple hydrogen-bonding interactions between TPI and COPV components play an essential role in the epitaxial growth as a result of the structural matching between COPV and TPI crystals. A multichannel optical router was successfully realized on the basis of the passive waveguides of COPV green photoluminescence (PL) along TPI nanowire branches in a single organic BNwH. PMID:24446808

  20. 29 CFR 1926.1404 - Assembly/Disassembly-general requirements (applies to all assembly and disassembly operations).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... otherwise stored so that they do not present a falling object hazard. (p) Pile driving. Equipment used for... structural damage and facilitating safe handling of these components. (6) Center of gravity. (i) The center of gravity of the load must be identified if that is necessary for the method used for...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.1404 - Assembly/Disassembly-general requirements (applies to all assembly and disassembly operations).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... otherwise stored so that they do not present a falling object hazard. (p) Pile driving. Equipment used for... structural damage and facilitating safe handling of these components. (6) Center of gravity. (i) The center of gravity of the load must be identified if that is necessary for the method used for...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.1404 - Assembly/Disassembly-general requirements (applies to all assembly and disassembly operations).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... otherwise stored so that they do not present a falling object hazard. (p) Pile driving. Equipment used for... structural damage and facilitating safe handling of these components. (6) Center of gravity. (i) The center of gravity of the load must be identified if that is necessary for the method used for...

  3. Phase equilibriums, self-assembly and interactions in two-, three- and four medium-chain length component systems.

    PubMed

    Rosenholm, Jarl B

    2014-03-01

    The Scandinavian surface (surfactant) and colloid science owes much of its success to Per Ekwall and Björn Lindman. In this review the main topics shared by their research groups at Åbo Akademi University in Finland and at Lund University in Sweden are described. The nature of surface active substances (cosolvents, co-surfactants and surfactants) and microemulsions are evaluated. It is shown that the properties of medium-chain length surfactants differ dramatically from long-chain surfactants. The phase equilibriums of binary systems are related to the phase equilibriums of ternary and quaternary systems referred to as microemulsions or more recently also as nanoemulsions. A distinction is made between hydrotrope liquids, detergentless microemulsions, surfactant mixture systems and microemulsions. Three component systems are assembled to "true" quaternary microemulsions. An exceptionally comprehensive network of thermodynamic parameters describing molecular site exchange and micelle formation are derived and related mutually. Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, entropy, volume, heat capacity, expansivity and compressibility can be used to illustrate the degree of aggregation cooperativity and to evaluate whether micelle formation is of a first-, second- or intermediate order phase transition. Theoretical simulations and experimental results show that the associate structures of medium-chain length surfactants are quite open and may be deformed due to small aggregation numbers. The self-assembly occurs over a number of distinct steps at a series of experimentally detectable critical concentrations. Despite the low aggregation tendency their phase behavior equals those of long-chain homologs in surfactant mixture and microemulsion systems. A number of models describing the self-assembly are reviewed. Nuclear magnetic resonance (shift, relaxation rate and diffusion), Laser Raman and infrared spectroscopies were chosen as key instruments for molecular interaction

  4. Assembling the components of the quorum sensing pathway in African trypanosomes.

    PubMed

    Mony, Binny M; Matthews, Keith R

    2015-04-01

    African trypanosomes, parasites that cause human sleeping sickness, undergo a density-dependent differentiation in the bloodstream of their mammalian hosts. This process is driven by a released parasite-derived factor that causes parasites to accumulate in G1 and become quiescent. This is accompanied by morphological transformation to 'stumpy' forms that are adapted to survival and further development when taken up in the blood meal of tsetse flies, the vector for trypanosomiasis. Although the soluble signal driving differentiation to stumpy forms is unidentified, a recent genome-wide RNAi screen identified many of the intracellular signalling and effector molecules required for the response to this signal. These resemble components of nutritional starvation and quiescence pathways in other eukaryotes, suggesting that parasite development shares similarities with the adaptive quiescence of organisms such as yeasts and Dictyostelium in response to nutritional starvation and stress. Here, the trypanosome signalling pathway is discussed in the context of these conserved pathways and the possible contributions of opposing 'slender retainer' and 'stumpy inducer' arms described. As evolutionarily highly divergent eukaryotes, the organisation and conservation of this developmental pathway can provide insight into the developmental cycle of other protozoan parasites, as well as the adaptive and programmed developmental responses of all eukaryotic cells.

  5. Assembling the components of the quorum sensing pathway in African trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Mony, Binny M; Matthews, Keith R

    2015-01-01

    African trypanosomes, parasites that cause human sleeping sickness, undergo a density-dependent differentiation in the bloodstream of their mammalian hosts. This process is driven by a released parasite-derived factor that causes parasites to accumulate in G1 and become quiescent. This is accompanied by morphological transformation to ‘stumpy’ forms that are adapted to survival and further development when taken up in the blood meal of tsetse flies, the vector for trypanosomiasis. Although the soluble signal driving differentiation to stumpy forms is unidentified, a recent genome-wide RNAi screen identified many of the intracellular signalling and effector molecules required for the response to this signal. These resemble components of nutritional starvation and quiescence pathways in other eukaryotes, suggesting that parasite development shares similarities with the adaptive quiescence of organisms such as yeasts and Dictyostelium in response to nutritional starvation and stress. Here, the trypanosome signalling pathway is discussed in the context of these conserved pathways and the possible contributions of opposing ‘slender retainer’ and ‘stumpy inducer’ arms described. As evolutionarily highly divergent eukaryotes, the organisation and conservation of this developmental pathway can provide insight into the developmental cycle of other protozoan parasites, as well as the adaptive and programmed developmental responses of all eukaryotic cells. PMID:25630552

  6. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Condensing Heat Exchanger Hydrophilic Coating Operation, Recovery, and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balistreri, Steven F.; Steele, John W.; Caron, Mark E.; Laliberte, Yvon J.; Shaw, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The CHX is the primary component responsible for control of temperature and humidity. The CCAA CHX contains a chemical coating that was developed to be hydrophilic and thus attract water from the humid influent air. This attraction forms the basis for water removal and therefore cabin humidity control. However, there have been several instances of CHX coatings becoming hydrophobic and repelling water. When this behavior is observed in an operational CHX in the ISS segments, the unit s ability to remove moisture from the air is compromised and the result is liquid water carryover into downstream ducting and systems. This water carryover can have detrimental effects on the ISS cabin atmosphere quality and on the health of downstream hardware. If the water carryover is severe and widespread, this behavior can result in an inability to maintain humidity levels in the USOS. This paper will describe the operation of the five CCAAs within the USOS, the potential causes of the hydrophobic condition, and the impacts of the resulting water carryover to downstream systems. It will describe the history of this behavior and the actual observed impacts to the ISS USOS. Information on mitigation steps to protect the health of future CHX hydrophilic coatings as well as remediation and recovery of the full heat exchanger will be

  7. A universal molecular translator for non-nucleic acid targets that enables dynamic DNA assemblies and logic operations.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Hu, Shichao; Wang, Huaming; Zhao, Yan; Li, Na; Liu, Feng

    2014-11-28

    A universal molecular translator based on the target-triggered DNA strand displacement was developed, which was able to convert various kinds of non-nucleic acid targets into a unique output DNA. This translation strategy was successfully applied in directing dynamic DNA assemblies and in realizing three-input logic gate operations. PMID:25295484

  8. Neutral Buoyancy Simulator: MSFC-Langley joint test of large space structures component assembly:

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Once the United States' space program had progressed from Earth's orbit into outerspace, the prospect of building and maintaining a permanent presence in space was realized. To accomplish this feat, NASA launched a temporary workstation, Skylab, to discover the effects of low gravity and weightlessness on the human body, and also to develop tools and equipment that would be needed in the future to build and maintain a more permanent space station. The structures, techniques, and work schedules had to be carefully designed to fit this unique construction site. The components had to be lightweight for transport into orbit, yet durable. The station also had to be made with removable parts for easy servicing and repairs by astronauts. All of the tools necessary for service and repairs had to be designed for easy manipulation by a suited astronaut. And construction methods had to be efficient due to limited time the astronauts could remain outside their controlled environment. In lieu of all the specific needs for this project, an environment on Earth had to be developed that could simulate a low gravity atmosphere. A Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) was constructed by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in 1968. Since then, NASA scientists have used this facility to understand how humans work best in low gravity and also provide information about the different kinds of structures that can be built. Another facet of the space station would be electrical cornectors which would be used for powering tools the astronauts would need for construction, maintenance and repairs. Shown is an astronaut training during an underwater electrical connector test in the NBS.

  9. Enhanced Component Performance Study: Air-Operated Valves 1998–2012

    SciTech Connect

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an enhanced performance evaluation of air-operated valves (AOVs) at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The data used in this study are based on the operating experience failure reports from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for the component reliability as reported in the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). Results (beta distributions for failure probabilities upon demand and gamma distributions for rates) are used as inputs to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission standardized plant analysis risk models of U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The AOV failure modes considered are failure-to-open/close, failure to operate or control, and spurious operation. The component reliability estimates and the reliability data are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for reliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing trends were identified in the AOV results. Statistically significant decreasing trends were identified in two areas: AOV operation demands less than or equal to 20 demands per year and greater than 20 demands.

  10. Enhanced Component Performance Study: Air-Operated Valves 1998-2014

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-11-01

    This report presents a performance evaluation of air-operated valves (AOVs) at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The data used in this study are based on the operating experience failure reports from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for the component reliability as reported in the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The AOV failure modes considered are failure-to-open/close, failure to operate or control, and spurious operation. The component reliability estimates and the reliability data are trended for the most recent 10-year period, while yearly estimates for reliability are provided for the entire active period. One statistically significant trend was observed in the AOV data: The frequency of demands per reactor year for valves recording the fail-to-open or fail-to-close failure modes, for high-demand valves (those with greater than twenty demands per year), was found to be decreasing. The decrease was about three percent over the ten year period trended.

  11. Investigation of component failure rates for pulsed versus steady state tokamak operation

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1992-07-01

    This report presents component failure rate data sources applicable to magnetic fusion systems, and defines multiplicative factors to adjust these data for specific use on magnetic fusion experiment designs. The multipliers address both long pulse and steady state tokamak operation. Thermal fatigue and radiation damage are among the leading reasons for large multiplier values in pulsed operation applications. Field failure rate values for graphite protective tiles are presented, and beryllium tile failure rates in laboratory testing are also given. All of these data can be used for reliability studies, safety analyses, design tradeoff studies, and risk assessments.

  12. Study of Lighting Solutions in Machine Vision Applications for Automated Assembly Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorcolo, Alberto; Escobar-Palafox, Gustavo; Gault, Rosemary; Scott, Robin; Ridgway, Keith

    2011-12-01

    The application of machine vision techniques represents an invaluable aid in many fields of manufacturing, from part inspection to metrology, robot guidance and assembly operations in general. An effective illumination of the working area constitutes a crucial aspect for optimising the performance of such techniques but unfortunately ideal light conditions are rarely available, especially if the vision system has to work within small areas, possibly close to metallic surfaces with high reflectivity. This work aims to investigate which factors mostly affect the accuracy in a typical feature recognition and measurement application. A first screening of a set of six factors was carried out by testing three different light sources, according to a two-level fractional factorial design of experiments (DOE), a Pareto analysis was performed in order to establish which parameters were the most significant. Once the key factors were identified, a second series of the experiments were carried out on a single light source, in order to optimise the key parameters and to provide useful guidelines on how to minimise measurement errors in different scenarios.

  13. Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) Technology: Earth Observing-1 PPT Operational and Advanced Components Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pencil, Eric J.; Benson, Scott W.; Arrington, Lynn A.; Frus, John; Hoskins, W. Andrew; Burton, Rodney

    2003-01-01

    In 2002 the pulsed plasma thruster (PPT) mounted on the Earth Observing-1 spacecraft was operated successfully in orbit. The two-axis thruster system is fully incorporated in the attitude determination and control system and is being used to automatically counteract disturbances in the pitch axis of the spacecraft. The first tests conducted in space demonstrated the full range of PPT operation, followed by calibration of control torques from the PPT in the attitude control system. Then the spacecraft was placed in PPT control mode. To date, it has operated for about 30 hr. The PPT successfully controlled pitch momentum during wheel de-spin, solar array acceleration and deceleration during array rewind, and environmental torques in nominal operating conditions. Images collected with the Advanced Landsat Imager during PPT operation have demonstrated that there was no degradation in comparison to full momentum wheel control. In addition, other experiments have been performed to interrogate the effects of PPT operation on communication packages and light reflection from spacecraft surfaces. Future experiments will investigate the possibility of orbit-raising maneuvers, spacecraft roll, and concurrent operation with the Hyperion imager. Future applications envisioned for pulsed plasma thrusters include longer life, higher precision, multiaxis thruster configurations for three-axis attitude control systems or high-precision, formationflying systems. Advanced components, such as a "dry" mica-foil capacitor, a wear-resistant spark plug, and a multichannel power processing unit have been developed under contract with Unison Industries, General Dynamics, and C.U. Aerospace. Over the last year, evaluation tests have been conducted to determine power processing unit efficiency, atmospheric functionality, vacuum functionality, thruster performance evaluation, thermal performance, and component life.

  14. Optimal use of human and machine resources for Space Station assembly operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Joseph C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper investigates the issues involved in determining the best mix of human and machine resources for assembly of the Space Station. It presents the current Station assembly sequence, along with descriptions of the available assembly resources. A number of methodologies for optimizing the human/machine tradeoff problem have been developed, but the Space Station assembly offers some unique issues that have not yet been addressed. These include a strong constraint on available EVA time for early flights and a phased deployment of assembly resources over time. A methodology for incorporating the previously developed decision methods to the special case of the Space Station is presented. This methodology emphasizes an application of multiple qualitative and quantitative techniques, including simulation and decision analysis, for producing an objective, robust solution to the tradeoff problem.

  15. Development and testing of laser Doppler system components for wake vortex monitoring. Volume 2: Scanner operations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, B. B.; Coffey, E. W.

    1974-01-01

    The theory and operation of the scanner portion of the laser Doppler system for detecting and monitoring aircraft trailing vortices in an airport environment are discussed. Schematics, wiring diagrams, component values, and operation and checkout procedures are included.

  16. 14 CFR 105.21 - Parachute operations over or into a congested area or an open-air assembly of persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Parachute operations over or into a... PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 105.21 Parachute operations over or into a congested area or an open-air assembly of persons. (a) No person may conduct a parachute operation, and no pilot in command...

  17. 14 CFR 105.21 - Parachute operations over or into a congested area or an open-air assembly of persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Parachute operations over or into a... PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 105.21 Parachute operations over or into a congested area or an open-air assembly of persons. (a) No person may conduct a parachute operation, and no pilot in command...

  18. 14 CFR 105.21 - Parachute operations over or into a congested area or an open-air assembly of persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Parachute operations over or into a... PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 105.21 Parachute operations over or into a congested area or an open-air assembly of persons. (a) No person may conduct a parachute operation, and no pilot in command...

  19. 14 CFR 105.21 - Parachute operations over or into a congested area or an open-air assembly of persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parachute operations over or into a... PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 105.21 Parachute operations over or into a congested area or an open-air assembly of persons. (a) No person may conduct a parachute operation, and no pilot in command...

  20. 14 CFR 105.21 - Parachute operations over or into a congested area or an open-air assembly of persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Parachute operations over or into a... PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 105.21 Parachute operations over or into a congested area or an open-air assembly of persons. (a) No person may conduct a parachute operation, and no pilot in command...

  1. The LC7 Light Chains of Chlamydomonas Flagellar Dyneins Interact with Components Required for Both Motor Assembly and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    DiBella, Linda M.; Sakato, Miho; Patel-King, Ramila S.; Pazour, Gregory J.; King, Stephen M.

    2004-01-01

    Members of the LC7/Roadblock family of light chains (LCs) have been found in both cytoplasmic and axonemal dyneins. LC7a was originally identified within Chlamydomonas outer arm dynein and associates with this motor's cargo-binding region. We describe here a novel member of this protein family, termed LC7b that is also present in the Chlamydomonas flagellum. Levels of LC7b are reduced ∼20% in axonemes isolated from strains lacking inner arm I1 and are ∼80% lower in the absence of the outer arms. When both dyneins are missing, LC7b levels are diminished to <10%. In oda9 axonemal extracts that completely lack outer arms, LC7b copurifies with inner arm I1, whereas in ida1 extracts that are devoid of I1 inner arms it associates with outer arm dynein. We also have observed that some LC7a is present in both isolated axonemes and purified 18S dynein from oda1, suggesting that it is also a component of both the outer arm and inner arm I1. Intriguingly, in axonemal extracts from the LC7a null mutant, oda15, which assembles ∼30% of its outer arms, LC7b fails to copurify with either dynein, suggesting that it interacts with LC7a. Furthermore, both the outer arm γ heavy chain and DC2 from the outer arm docking complex completely dissociate after salt extraction from oda15 axonemes. EDC cross-linking of purified dynein revealed that LC7b interacts with LC3, an outer dynein arm thioredoxin; DC2, an outer arm docking complex component; and also with the phosphoprotein IC138 from inner arm I1. These data suggest that LC7a stabilizes both the outer arms and inner arm I1 and that both LC7a and LC7b are involved in multiple intradynein interactions within both dyneins. PMID:15304520

  2. Studies of Molecular Orientation and Order in Self-Assembled Semifluorinated n-Alkylthiols: Single and Dual Component Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabolt, John F.; Tsao, Mei-Wei; Hoffmann, Catherine L.; Johnson, Harry E.; Castner, David G.; Ringsdorf, Helmut

    1997-03-01

    The structure, orientation and morphology of self-assembled monolayers of a semifluorinated n-alkythiol, F(CF_2)8 (CH_2)_11 SH (F8H11SH), have been investigated by polarized IR, angular dependent XPS, time-of-flight SIMS, contact angle and ellipsometric measurements. The orientation of the all trans hydrocarbon segment was found to be tilted much less from the surface normal than the 30 degree tilt found for octadecylthiol. This has been attributed to the steric constraints imposed by the larger cross section fluorocarbon helices which subsequently are tilted from the surface normal. In addition, studies of dual component mixtures of F8H11SH/F8SH and F8SH/F8H2SH have revealed that competitive adsorption occurs in the former producing monolayers which are deficient in the shorter F8SH molecules while in the latter equal representation of both F8SH and F8H2SH molecules are found on the surface due to their similar molecular lengths. These well-defined surfaces were investigated as alignment media for liquid crystals and a number of these templates have shown homeotropic and degenerate planar alignment of adjacent liquid crystal layers. The morphology of these surface layer is found to be very important in controlling the liquid crystal alignment.

  3. The iron-sulfur cluster assembly network component NARFL is a key element in the cellular defense against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Corbin, Monique V; Rockx, Davy A P; Oostra, Anneke B; Joenje, Hans; Dorsman, Josephine C

    2015-12-01

    Aim of this study was to explore cellular changes associated with increased resistance to atmospheric oxygen using high-resolution DNA and RNA profiling combined with functional studies. Two independently selected oxygen-resistant substrains of HeLa cells (capable of proliferating at >80% O2, i.e. hyperoxia) were compared with their parental cells (adapted to growth at 20% O2, but unable to grow at >80% O2). A striking consistent alteration found to be associated with the oxygen-resistant state appeared to be an amplified and overexpressed region on chromosome 16p13.3 harboring 21 genes. The driver gene of this amplification was identified by functional studies as NARFL, which encodes a component of the cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster assembly system. In line with this result we found the cytosolic c-aconitase activity as well as the nuclear protein RTEL1, both Fe-S dependent proteins, to be protected by NARFL overexpression under hyperoxia. In addition, we observed a protective effect of NARFL against hyperoxia-induced loss of sister-chromatid cohesion. NARFL thus appeared to be a key factor in the cellular defense against hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress in human cells. Our findings suggest that new insight into age-related degenerative processes may come from studies that specifically address the involvement of iron-sulfur proteins.

  4. CMEMS (Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service) In Situ Thematic Assembly Centre: A service for operational Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzano Muñoz, Fernando; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Petit de la Villeon, Loic; Carval, Thierry; Loubrieu, Thomas; Wedhe, Henning; Sjur Ringheim, Lid; Hammarklint, Thomas; Tamm, Susanne; De Alfonso, Marta; Perivoliotis, Leonidas; Chalkiopoulos, Antonis; Marinova, Veselka; Tintore, Joaquin; Troupin, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Copernicus, previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), is the European Programme for the establishment of a European capacity for Earth Observation and Monitoring. Copernicus aims to provide a sustainable service for Ocean Monitoring and Forecasting validated and commissioned by users. From May 2015, the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) is working on an operational mode through a contract with services engagement (result is regular data provision). Within CMEMS, the In Situ Thematic Assembly Centre (INSTAC) distributed service integrates in situ data from different sources for operational oceanography needs. CMEMS INSTAC is collecting and carrying out quality control in a homogeneous manner on data from providers outside Copernicus (national and international networks), to fit the needs of internal and external users. CMEMS INSTAC has been organized in 7 regional Dissemination Units (DUs) to rely on the EuroGOOS ROOSes. Each DU aggregates data and metadata provided by a series of Production Units (PUs) acting as an interface for providers. Homogeneity and standardization are key features to ensure coherent and efficient service. All DUs provide data in the OceanSITES NetCDF format 1.2 (based on NetCDF 3.6), which is CF compliant, relies on SeaDataNet vocabularies and is able to handle profile and time-series measurements. All the products, both near real-time (NRT) and multi-year (REP), are available online for every CMEMS registered user through an FTP service. On top of the FTP service, INSTAC products are available through Oceanotron, an open-source data server dedicated to marine observations dissemination. It provides services such as aggregation on spatio-temporal coordinates and observed parameters, and subsetting on observed parameters and metadata. The accuracy of the data is checked on various levels. Quality control procedures are applied for the validity of the data and correctness tests for the

  5. Mission Operations Centers (MOCs): Integrating key spacecraft ground data system components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harbaugh, Randy; Szakal, Donna

    1994-01-01

    In an environment characterized by decreasing budgets, limited system development time, and user needs for increased capabilities, the Mission Operations Division (MOD) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center initiated a new, cost-effective concept in developing its spacecraft ground data systems: the Mission Operations Center (MOC). In the MOC approach, key components are integrated into a comprehensive and cohesive spacecraft planning, monitoring, command, and control system with a single, state-of-the-art graphical user interface. The MOD is currently implementing MOC's, which feature a common, reusable, and extendable system architecture, to support the X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), and Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) missions. As a result of the MOC approach, mission operations are integrated, and users can, with a single system, perform real-time health and safety monitoring, real-time command and control, real-time attitude processing, real-time and predictive graphical spacecraft monitoring, trend analysis, mission planning and scheduling, command generation and management, network scheduling, guide star selection, and (using an expert system) spacecraft monitoring and fault isolation. The MOD is also implementing its test and training simulators under the new MOC management structure. This paper describes the MOC concept, the management approaches used in developing MOC systems, the technologies employed and the development process improvement initiatives applied in implementing MOC systems, and the expected benefits to both the user and the mission project in using the MOC approach.

  6. Report of the Assembly Subcommittee on Indian Affairs to the Standing Committee on Governmental Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Assembly, Albany.

    The 1970 legislative session of the New York State Assembly created the Subcommittee on Indian Affairs to review New York's Indian Law and state services provided to Indian reservations. Seven hearings were held on reservations to gather opinions, suggestions, and criticisms of the on-reservation Indian community. In addition, a special hearing…

  7. Assemblies of protective anion exchange membrane on air electrode for its efficient operation in aqueous alkaline electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolotti, Bruno; Chikh, Linda; Vancaeyzeele, Cédric; Alfonsi, Séverine; Fichet, Odile

    2015-01-01

    Aqueous alkaline metal-air batteries represent promising energy storage devices when supplied with atmospheric air. However, under this condition, the air electrode shows a very short life time (i.e. 50 h of operation in 5 M LiOH at -10 mA cm-2), mainly due to the precipitation of carbonates inside the electrode porosity. The air electrode can then be protected by an anion exchange membrane on the electrolyte side. In this paper, we demonstrate that the efficiency of this protective membrane depends on the assembly method on the electrode. When a modified poly(epichlorohydrin) (PECH) network is synthesized directly on the electrode, the polymer seeps inside the electrode porosity, and a suitable interface inducing negligible additional polarization in comparison with classical pressure-assembled membranes is obtained. This protected electrode shows improved stability of up to 160 h of operation in 5 M LiOH. This performance is improved to 350 h by adjusting the conductivity and the ionic exchange capacity. Finally, the interest of interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) architecture compared to a single network is confirmed. Indeed, an electrode protected with a PECH/poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) IPN is stable for 650 h in 5 M LiOH. In addition, degradation process becomes reversible since the assembly can be regenerated, which is not possible for the bare electrode.

  8. Automated processing of whole blood units: operational value and in vitro quality of final blood components

    PubMed Central

    Jurado, Marisa; Algora, Manuel; Garcia-Sanchez, Félix; Vico, Santiago; Rodriguez, Eva; Perez, Sonia; Barbolla, Luz

    2012-01-01

    Background The Community Transfusion Centre in Madrid currently processes whole blood using a conventional procedure (Compomat, Fresenius) followed by automated processing of buffy coats with the OrbiSac system (CaridianBCT). The Atreus 3C system (CaridianBCT) automates the production of red blood cells, plasma and an interim platelet unit from a whole blood unit. Interim platelet unit are pooled to produce a transfusable platelet unit. In this study the Atreus 3C system was evaluated and compared to the routine method with regards to product quality and operational value. Materials and methods Over a 5-week period 810 whole blood units were processed using the Atreus 3C system. The attributes of the automated process were compared to those of the routine method by assessing productivity, space, equipment and staffing requirements. The data obtained were evaluated in order to estimate the impact of implementing the Atreus 3C system in the routine setting of the blood centre. Yield and in vitro quality of the final blood components processed with the two systems were evaluated and compared. Results The Atreus 3C system enabled higher throughput while requiring less space and employee time by decreasing the amount of equipment and processing time per unit of whole blood processed. Whole blood units processed on the Atreus 3C system gave a higher platelet yield, a similar amount of red blood cells and a smaller volume of plasma. Discussion These results support the conclusion that the Atreus 3C system produces blood components meeting quality requirements while providing a high operational efficiency. Implementation of the Atreus 3C system could result in a large organisational improvement. PMID:22044958

  9. Upgraded Fuel Assemblies for BWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, N.L.; Rentmeister, T.; Lippert, H.J.; Mollard, P.

    2007-07-01

    Established with engineering and manufacturing operations in the US and Europe, AREVA NP has been and is supplying nuclear fuel assemblies and associated core components to light water reactors worldwide, representing today more than 170,000 fuel assemblies on the world market and more than 56,000 fuel assemblies for BWR plants. Since first delivered in 1992, ATRIUM{sup TM}(1)10 fuel assemblies have now been supplied to a total of 28 BWR plants in the US, Europe, and Asia resulting in an operating experience over 16 000 fuel assemblies. In the spring of 2001, a BWR record burnup of 71 MWd/kgU was reached by four lead fuel assemblies after eight operating cycles. More recently, ATRIUM 10XP and ATRIUM 10XM fuel assemblies featuring changes in their characteristics and exhibiting upgraded behavior have been delivered to several utilities worldwide. This success story has been made possible thanks to a continuous improvement process with the aim of further upgrading BWR fuel assembly performance and reliability. An overview is given on current AREVA advanced BWR fuel supply regarding: - advanced designs to tailor product selection to specific operating strategies; - performance capabilities of each advanced design option; - testing and operational experience for these advanced designs; - upgraded features available for inclusion with advanced designs. (authors)

  10. Energy operator demodulating of optimal resonance components for the compound faults diagnosis of gearboxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dingcheng; Yu, Dejie; Zhang, Wenyi

    2015-11-01

    Compound faults diagnosis is a challenge for rotating machinery fault diagnosis. The vibration signals measured from gearboxes are usually complex, non-stationary, and nonlinear. When compound faults occur in a gearbox, weak fault characteristic signals are always submerged by the strong ones. Therefore, it is difficult to detect a weak fault by using the demodulating analysis of vibration signals of gearboxes directly. The key to compound faults diagnosis of gearboxes is to separate different fault characteristic signals from the collected vibration signals. Aiming at that problem, a new method for the compound faults diagnosis of gearboxes is proposed based on the energy operator demodulating of optimal resonance components. In this method, the genetic algorithm is first used to obtain the optimal decomposition parameters. Then the compound faults vibration signals of a gearbox are subject to resonance-based signal sparse decomposition (RSSD) to separate the fault characteristic signals of the gear and the bearing by using the optimal decomposition parameters. Finally, the separated fault characteristic signals are analyzed by energy operator demodulating, and each one’s instantaneous amplitude can be calculated. According to the spectra of instantaneous amplitudes of fault characteristic signals, the faults of the gear and the bearing can be diagnosed, respectively. The performance of the proposed method is validated by using the simulation data and the experiment vibration signals from a gearbox with compound faults.

  11. Biogenesis of the protein import channel Tom40 of the mitochondrial outer membrane: intermembrane space components are involved in an early stage of the assembly pathway.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, Nils; Truscott, Kaye N; Pfannschmidt, Sylvia; Guiard, Bernard; Meisinger, Chris; Pfanner, Nikolaus

    2004-04-30

    Tom40 forms the central channel of the preprotein translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane (TOM complex). The precursor of Tom40 is encoded in the nucleus, synthesized in the cytosol, and imported into mitochondria via a multi-step assembly pathway that involves the mature TOM complex and the sorting and assembly machinery of the outer membrane (SAM complex). We report that opening of the mitochondrial intermembrane space by swelling blocks the assembly pathway of the beta-barrel protein Tom40. Mitochondria with defects in small Tim proteins of the intermembrane space are impaired in the Tom40 assembly pathway. Swelling as well as defects in the small Tim proteins inhibit an early stage of the Tom40 import pathway that is needed for formation of a Tom40-SAM intermediate. We propose that the biogenesis pathway of beta-barrel proteins of the outer mitochondrial membrane not only requires TOM and SAM components, but also involves components of the intermembrane space.

  12. Reversible supramolecular assembly at specific DNA sites: nickel-promoted bivalent DNA binding with designed peptide and bipyridyl-bis(benzamidine) components.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Mateo I; Mosquera, Jesús; Vázquez, M Eugenio; Mascareñas, José L

    2014-09-01

    At specific DNA sites, nickel(II) salts promote the assembly of designed components, namely a bis(histidine)-modified peptide that is derived from a bZIP transcription factor and a bis(benzamidine) unit that is equipped with a bipyridine. This programmed supramolecular system with emergent properties reproduces some key characteristics of naturally occurring DNA-binding proteins, such as bivalence, selectivity, responsiveness to external agents, and reversibility.

  13. 21 CFR 111.120 - What quality control operations are required for components, packaging, and labels before use in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... components, packaging, and labels before use in the manufacture of a dietary supplement? 111.120 Section 111..., OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control System: Requirements for... labels before use in the manufacture of a dietary supplement? Quality control operations for...

  14. 21 CFR 111.120 - What quality control operations are required for components, packaging, and labels before use in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... components, packaging, and labels before use in the manufacture of a dietary supplement? 111.120 Section 111..., OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control System: Requirements for... labels before use in the manufacture of a dietary supplement? Quality control operations for...

  15. 21 CFR 111.120 - What quality control operations are required for components, packaging, and labels before use in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... components, packaging, and labels before use in the manufacture of a dietary supplement? 111.120 Section 111..., OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control System: Requirements for... labels before use in the manufacture of a dietary supplement? Quality control operations for...

  16. 21 CFR 111.120 - What quality control operations are required for components, packaging, and labels before use in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... components, packaging, and labels before use in the manufacture of a dietary supplement? 111.120 Section 111..., OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control System: Requirements for... labels before use in the manufacture of a dietary supplement? Quality control operations for...

  17. 21 CFR 111.120 - What quality control operations are required for components, packaging, and labels before use in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... components, packaging, and labels before use in the manufacture of a dietary supplement? 111.120 Section 111..., OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control System: Requirements for... labels before use in the manufacture of a dietary supplement? Quality control operations for...

  18. Post-mitotic assembly of the nucleolus. I. The internal matrix network is a recruitment site for processing nucleolar components in prenucleolar bodies.

    PubMed

    Moreno Díaz de la Espina, S; Minguez, A

    1996-02-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate whether the nuclear matrix could provide the nucleation sites for dispersed parental nucleolar components to form post-mitotic prenucleolar bodies (PNBs). For this purpose, nuclear matrices from asynchronous populations of onion cells were fractionated, and the distribution of the insoluble components of the nucleolar processing complexes in the matrices were analysed by fibrillarin immunolabelling. The ultra-structural organization of the nuclear matrix of cells from late telophase to late G1, corresponding to the period of nucleolar reassembly and activation, was also analysed. Our results demonstrate that PNBs are structural components of the telophasic nuclear matrix and that this structure provides recruitment and assembly sites for the components of the nucleolar processing machinery, and suggests that the telophasic matrix network is involved in the early steps of post-mitotic nucleologenesis. PMID:8785603

  19. Sparse component analysis using time-frequency representations for operational modal analysis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shaoqian; Guo, Jie; Zhu, Changan

    2015-01-01

    Sparse component analysis (SCA) has been widely used for blind source separation(BSS) for many years. Recently, SCA has been applied to operational modal analysis (OMA), which is also known as output-only modal identification. This paper considers the sparsity of sources' time-frequency (TF) representation and proposes a new TF-domain SCA under the OMA framework. First, the measurements from the sensors are transformed to the TF domain to get a sparse representation. Then, single-source-points (SSPs) are detected to better reveal the hyperlines which correspond to the columns of the mixing matrix. The K-hyperline clustering algorithm is used to identify the direction vectors of the hyperlines and then the mixing matrix is calculated. Finally, basis pursuit de-noising technique is used to recover the modal responses, from which the modal parameters are computed. The proposed method is valid even if the number of active modes exceed the number of sensors. Numerical simulation and experimental verification demonstrate the good performance of the proposed method. PMID:25789492

  20. Sparse Component Analysis Using Time-Frequency Representations for Operational Modal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Shaoqian; Guo, Jie; Zhu, Changan

    2015-01-01

    Sparse component analysis (SCA) has been widely used for blind source separation(BSS) for many years. Recently, SCA has been applied to operational modal analysis (OMA), which is also known as output-only modal identification. This paper considers the sparsity of sources' time-frequency (TF) representation and proposes a new TF-domain SCA under the OMA framework. First, the measurements from the sensors are transformed to the TF domain to get a sparse representation. Then, single-source-points (SSPs) are detected to better reveal the hyperlines which correspond to the columns of the mixing matrix. The K-hyperline clustering algorithm is used to identify the direction vectors of the hyperlines and then the mixing matrix is calculated. Finally, basis pursuit de-noising technique is used to recover the modal responses, from which the modal parameters are computed. The proposed method is valid even if the number of active modes exceed the number of sensors. Numerical simulation and experimental verification demonstrate the good performance of the proposed method. PMID:25789492

  1. Bacterial Community Dynamics in Full-Scale Activated Sludge Bioreactors: Operational and Ecological Factors Driving Community Assembly and Performance

    PubMed Central

    Valentín-Vargas, Alexis; Toro-Labrador, Gladys; Massol-Deyá, Arturo A.

    2012-01-01

    The assembling of bacterial communities in conventional activated sludge (CAS) bioreactors was thought, until recently, to be chaotic and mostly unpredictable. Studies done over the last decade have shown that specific, and often, predictable random and non-random factors could be responsible for that process. These studies have also motivated a “structure–function” paradigm that is yet to be resolved. Thus, elucidating the factors that affect community assembly in the bioreactors is necessary for predicting fluctuations in community structure and function. For this study activated sludge samples were collected during a one-year period from two geographically distant CAS bioreactors of different size. Combining community fingerprinting analysis and operational parameters data with a robust statistical analysis, we aimed to identify relevant links between system performance and bacterial community diversity and dynamics. In addition to revealing a significant β-diversity between the bioreactors’ communities, results showed that the largest bioreactor had a less dynamic but more efficient and diverse bacterial community throughout the study. The statistical analysis also suggests that deterministic factors, as opposed to stochastic factors, may have a bigger impact on the community structure in the largest bioreactor. Furthermore, the community seems to rely mainly on mechanisms of resistance and functional redundancy to maintain functional stability. We suggest that the ecological theories behind the Island Biogeography model and the species-area relationship were appropriate to predict the assembly of bacterial communities in these CAS bioreactors. These results are of great importance for engineers and ecologists as they reveal critical aspects of CAS systems that could be applied towards improving bioreactor design and operation. PMID:22880016

  2. Specific features of operation of a membrane-electrode assembly of an air-hydrogen fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechitailov, A. A.; Glebova, N. V.; Koshkina, D. V.; Tomasov, A. A.; Zelenina, N. K.; Terukova, E. E.

    2013-09-01

    Specific features of the operation of the membrane-electrode assembly with high catalytic activity that are a part of the simplified design of a low-temperature air-hydrogen fuel cell under conditions of forced and natural convection of air on the cathode are studied. The governing effect of water balance on the specific power of the fuel cell in the stationary mode (˜1 h) is shown, and the range of the operating conditions of the cell with self-control is determined. The power of the fuel cell at an efficiency of ˜50% and the surface density of platinum on a cathode of ≈0.2 mg/cm2 is 200-250 and 100 mW/cm2 in the forced and natural air-convection modes, respectively, which is comparable with the advanced results.

  3. Stochastic Assembly of Two-Component Staphylococcal γ-Hemolysin into Heteroheptameric Transmembrane Pores with Alternate Subunit Arrangements in Ratios of 3:4 and 4:3

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara-Tomita, Noriko; Tomita, Toshio; Kamio, Yoshiyuki

    2002-01-01

    Self-assembling, pore-forming toxins from Staphylococcus aureus are illustrative molecules for the study of the assembly and membrane insertion of oligomeric transmembrane proteins. On the basis of previous studies, we have shown that the two-component γ-hemolysin assembles from LukF (or Hlg1, 34 kDa) and Hlg2 (32 kDa) to form ring-shaped transmembrane pores of ca. 200 kDa. Here we show that LukF and Hlg2 assemble in a stochastic manner to form alternate complexes with subunit stoichiometries of 3:4 and 4:3. High-resolution electron microscopic images of negatively stained pore complexes clearly revealed a heptameric structure. When adjacent monomers in the pore complexes were randomly cross-linked by using glutaraldehyde, LukF-LukF, LukF-Hlg2, and Hlg2-Hlg2 dimers were detected in an approximate ratio of 1:12:1, suggesting that LukF and Hlg2 were alternately arranged in the pore complex in molar ratios of 3:4 and 4:3. The alternate arrangements of LukF and Hlg2 in molar ratios of 3:4 and 4:3 were also visualized under electron microscope with the pore complexes consisting of glutathione S-transferase fusion protein of LukF or Hlg2 and wild-type protein of Hlg2 or LukF, respectively. PMID:12169599

  4. The modular structure of the inner-membrane ring component PrgK facilitates assembly of the type III secretion system basal body.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Julien R C; Worrall, Liam J; De, Soumya; Sgourakis, Nikolaos G; Cheung, Adrienne H; Lameignere, Emilie; Okon, Mark; Wasney, Gregory A; Baker, David; McIntosh, Lawrence P; Strynadka, Natalie C J

    2015-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a large macromolecular assembly found at the surface of many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. Its role is to inject toxic "effector" proteins into the cells of infected organisms. The molecular details of the assembly of this large, multimembrane-spanning complex remain poorly understood. Here, we report structural, biochemical, and functional analyses of PrgK, an inner-membrane component of the prototypical Salmonella typhimurium T3SS. We have obtained the atomic structures of the two ring building globular domains and show that the C-terminal transmembrane helix is not essential for assembly and secretion. We also demonstrate that structural rearrangement of the two PrgK globular domains, driven by an interconnecting linker region, may promote oligomerization into ring structures. Finally, we used electron microscopy-guided symmetry modeling to propose a structural model for the intimately associated PrgH-PrgK ring interaction within the assembled basal body. PMID:25533490

  5. A novel high-speed production process to create modular components for the bottom-up assembly of large-scale tissue-engineered constructs.

    PubMed

    Khan, Omar F; Voice, Derek N; Leung, Brendan M; Sefton, Michael V

    2015-01-01

    To replace damaged or diseased tissues, large tissue-engineered constructs can be prepared by assembling modular components in a bottom-up approach. However, a high-speed method is needed to produce sufficient numbers of these modules for full-sized tissue substitutes. To this end, a novel production technique is devised, combining air shearing and a plug flow reactor-style design to rapidly produce large quantities of hydrogel-based (here type I collagen) cylindrical modular components with tunable diameters and length. Using this technique, modules containing NIH 3T3 cells show greater than 95% viability while endothelial cell surface attachment and confluent monolayer formation are demonstrated. Additionally, the rapidly produced modules are used to assemble large tissue constructs (>1 cm(3) ) in vitro. Module building blocks containing luciferase-expressing L929 cells are packed in full size adult rat-liver-shaped bioreactors and perfused with cell medium, to demonstrate the capacity to build organ-shaped constructs; bioluminescence demonstrates sustained viability over 3 d. Cardiomyocyte-embedded modules are also used to assemble electrically stimulatable contractile tissue.

  6. Human Assisted Assembly Processes

    SciTech Connect

    CALTON,TERRI L.; PETERS,RALPH R.

    2000-01-01

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative

  7. Thermo-mechanical analysis of a user filter assembly for undulator/wiggler operations at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Nian, H.L.T.; Kuzay, T.M.; Collins, J.; Shu, D.; Benson, C.; Dejus, R.

    1996-12-31

    This paper reports a thermo-mechanical study of a beamline filter (user filter) for undulator/wiggler operations. It is deployed in conjunction with the current commissioning window assembly on the APS insertion device (ID) front ends. The beamline filter at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) will eventually be used in windowless operations also. Hence survival and reasonable life expectancy of the filters under intense insertion device (ID) heat flu are crucial to the beamline operations. To accommodate various user requirements, the filter is configured to be a multi-choice type and smart to allow only those filter combinations that will be safe to operate with a given ring current and beamline insertion device gap. However, this paper addresses only the thermo-mechanical analysis of individual filter integrity and safety in all combinations possible. The current filter design is configured to have four filter frames in a cascade with each frame holding five filters. This allows a potential 625 total filter combinations. Thermal analysis for all of these combinations becomes a mammoth task considering the desired choices for filter materials (pyrolitic graphite and metallic filters), filter thicknesses, undulator gaps, and the beam currents. The paper addresses how this difficult task has been reduced to a reasonable effort and computational level. Results from thermo-mechanical analyses of the filter combinations are presented both in tabular and graphical format.

  8. Recognition and targeting mechanisms by chaperones in flagellum assembly and operation.

    PubMed

    Khanra, Nandish; Rossi, Paolo; Economou, Anastassios; Kalodimos, Charalampos G

    2016-08-30

    The flagellum is a complex bacterial nanomachine that requires the proper assembly of several different proteins for its function. Dedicated chaperones are central in preventing aggregation or undesired interactions of flagellar proteins, including their targeting to the export gate. FliT is a key flagellar chaperone that binds to several flagellar proteins in the cytoplasm, including its cognate filament-capping protein FliD. We have determined the solution structure of the FliT chaperone in the free state and in complex with FliD and the flagellar ATPase FliI. FliT adopts a four-helix bundle and uses a hydrophobic surface formed by the first three helices to recognize its substrate proteins. We show that the fourth helix constitutes the binding site for FlhA, a membrane protein at the export gate. In the absence of a substrate protein FliT adopts an autoinhibited structure wherein both the binding sites for substrates and FlhA are occluded. Substrate binding to FliT activates the complex for FlhA binding and thus targeting of the chaperone-substrate complex to the export gate. The activation and targeting mechanisms reported for FliT appear to be shared among the other flagellar chaperones. PMID:27528687

  9. Differentiation of neuronal operations in latent components of event-related potentials in delayed match-to-sample tasks.

    PubMed

    Kropotov, Juri D; Ponomarev, Valery A

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this study was to decompose ERPs into latent components associated with hypothetical processes of category discrimination, comparison to working memory and action-related operations. In five variants of the delayed match-to-sample s1-s2 task, instructions were varied for manipulation of the processes. The blind source separation was applied to the collection of ERPs. The category discrimination operation is attributed to three latent components with peak latencies of 130 to 170 ms, which are generated in different parts of the prestriate cortex. The comparison to working memory operation is attributed to a latent component that is generated in the temporal cortex and manifested in a positive deflection with a peak latency of 250 ms after s2. The category discrimination and comparison to working memory effects were dissociated spatially and temporally from attention and action selection effects. PMID:25639295

  10. Data Collection for Current U.S. Wind Energy Projects: Component Costs, Financing, Operations, and Maintenance; January 2011 - September 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-Tretton, M.; Reha, M.; Drunsic, M.; Keim, M.

    2012-01-01

    DNV Renewables (USA) Inc. (DNV) used an Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Cost Model to evaluate ten distinct cost scenarios encountered under variations in wind turbine component failure rates. The analysis considers: (1) a Reference Scenario using the default part failure rates within the O&M Cost Model, (2) High Failure Rate Scenarios that increase the failure rates of three major components (blades, gearboxes, and generators) individually, (3) 100% Replacement Scenarios that model full replacement of these components over a 20 year operating life, and (4) Serial Failure Scenarios that model full replacement of blades, gearboxes, and generators in years 4 to 6 of the wind project. DNV selected these scenarios to represent a broad range of possible operational experiences. Also in this report, DNV summarizes the predominant financing arrangements used to develop wind energy projects over the past several years and provides summary data on various financial metrics describing those arrangements.

  11. 21 CFR 111.415 - What requirements apply to filling, assembling, packaging, labeling, and related operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS... supplement and that the dietary supplement is packaged and labeled as specified in the master...

  12. 21 CFR 111.415 - What requirements apply to filling, assembling, packaging, labeling, and related operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS... supplement and that the dietary supplement is packaged and labeled as specified in the master...

  13. A Motor Drive Electronics Assembly for Mars Curiosity Rover: An Example of Assembly Qualification for Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolawa, Elizabeth; Chen, Yuan; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Weber, Carissa Tudryn; Hunter, Don J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the technology development and infusion of a motor drive electronics assembly for Mars Curiosity Rover under space extreme environments. The technology evaluation and qualification as well as space qualification of the assembly are detailed and summarized. Because of the uncertainty of the technologies operating under the extreme space environments and that a high level reliability was required for this assembly application, both component and assembly board level qualifications were performed.

  14. RELIABILITY MODELS OF AGING PASSIVE COMPONENTS INFORMED BY MATERIALS DEGRADATION METRICS TO SUPPORT LONG-TERM REACTOR OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Lowry, Peter P.; Toyooka, Michael Y.

    2012-05-01

    Paper describes a methodology for the synthesis of nuclear power plant service data with expert-elicited materials degradation information to estimate the future failure rates of passive components. This method should be an important resource to long-term plant operations and reactor life extension. Conventional probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) are not well suited to addressing long-term reactor operations. Since passive structures and components are among those for which replacement can be least practical, they might be expected to contribute increasingly to risk in an aging plant; yet, passives receive limited treatment in PRAs. Furthermore, PRAs produce only snapshots of risk based on the assumption of time-independent component failure rates. This assumption is unlikely to be valid in aging systems. The treatment of aging passive components in PRA presents challenges. Service data to quantify component reliability models are sparse, and this is exacerbated by the greater data demands of age-dependent reliability models. Another factor is that there can be numerous potential degradation mechanisms associated with the materials and operating environment of a given component. This deepens the data problem since risk-informed management of component aging will demand an understanding of the long-term risk significance of individual degradation mechanisms. In this paper we describe a Bayesian methodology that integrates metrics of materials degradation susceptibility with available plant service data to estimate age-dependent passive component reliabilities. Integration of these models into conventional PRA will provide a basis for materials degradation management informed by predicted long-term operational risk.

  15. Low operating voltage single ZnO nanowire field-effect transistors enabled by self-assembled organic gate nanodielectrics.

    PubMed

    Ju, Sanghyun; Lee, Kangho; Janes, David B; Yoon, Myung-Han; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J

    2005-11-01

    The development of nanowire transistors enabled by appropriate dielectrics is of great interest for flexible electronic and display applications. In this study, nanowire field-effect transistors (NW-FETs) composed of individual ZnO nanowires are fabricated using a self-assembled superlattice (SAS) as the gate insulator. The 15-nm SAS film used in this study consists of four interlinked layer-by-layer self-assembled organic monolayers and exhibits excellent insulating properties with a large specific capacitance, 180 nF/cm2, and a low leakage current density, 1 x 10(-8) A/cm2. SAS-based ZnO NW-FETs display excellent drain current saturation at Vds = 0.5 V, a threshold voltage (Vth) of -0.4 V, a channel mobility of approximately 196 cm2/V s, an on-off current ratio of approximately 10(4), and a subthreshold slope of 400 mV/dec. For comparison, ZnO NW-FETs are also fabricated using 70-nm SiO2 as the gate insulator. Implementation of the SAS gate dielectric reduces the NW-FET operating voltage dramatically with more than 1 order of magnitude enhancement of the on-current. These results strongly indicate that SAS-based ZnO NW-FETs are promising candidates for future flexible display and logic technologies.

  16. Durability of Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs) in PEM Fuel Cells Operated on Pure Hydrogen and Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanic, Vesna; Braun, James; Hoberecht, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are energy sources that have the potential to replace alkaline fuel cells for space programs. Broad power ranges, high peak-to-nominal power capabilities, low maintenance costs, and the promise of increased life are the major advantages of PEM technology in comparison to alkaline technology. The probability of PEM fuel cells replacing alkaline fuel cells for space applications will increase if the promise of increased life is verified by achieving a minimum of 10,000 hours of operating life. Durability plays an important role in the process of evaluation and selection of MEAs for Teledyne s Phase I contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center entitled Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel cell (PEMFC) Power Plant Technology Development for 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs). For this contract, MEAs that are typically used for H2/air operation were selected as potential candidates for H2/O2 PEM fuel cells because their catalysts have properties suitable for O2 operation. They were purchased from several well-established MEA manufacturers who are world leaders in the manufacturing of diverse products and have committed extensive resources in an attempt to develop and fully commercialize MEA technology. A total of twelve MEAs used in H2/air operation were initially identified from these manufacturers. Based on the manufacturers specifications, nine of these were selected for evaluation. Since 10,000 hours is almost equivalent to 14 months, it was not possible to perform continuous testing with each MEA selected during Phase I of the contract. Because of the lack of time, a screening test on each MEA was performed for 400 hours under accelerated test conditions. The major criterion for an MEA pass or fail of the screening test was the gas crossover rate. If the gas crossover rate was higher than the membrane intrinsic permeability after 400 hours of testing, it was considered that the MEA had failed the test. Three types of

  17. An overview of remaining life assessment methods for high temperature components operating in the power and petrochemical industries

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, C.J.; Townsend, R.D.

    1998-12-31

    The capability to assess the secure remaining life of components operating in the creep range, thereby assuring integrity between inspection intervals, has become a major factor in the economic operation of power and petrochemical plant which has passed the original design life, frequently by a considerable margin. An overview is given of the nature of remaining life assessment and examples given of methods developed for headers, seam-welded pipe and fired heaters. The more common problems associated with weldments are also reviewed.

  18. From Research to Operations: Integrating Components of an Advanced Diagnostic System with an Aspect-Oriented Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, Daryl P.; Alena, Richard L.; Akkawi, Faisal; Duncavage, Daniel P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents some of the challenges associated with bringing software projects from the research world into an operationa1 environment. While the core functional components of research-oriented software applications can have great utility in an operational setting, these applications often lack aspects important in an operational environment such as logging and security. Furthermore, these stand-alone applications, sometimes developed in isolation from one another, can produce data products useful to other applications in a software ecosystem.

  19. RhoB is a component of the human cytomegalovirus assembly complex and is required for efficient viral production

    PubMed Central

    Goulidaki, Nektaria; Alarifi, Saud; Alkahtani, Saad H; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Stournaras, Christos; Sourvinos, George

    2015-01-01

    Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV), an ubiquitous β-herpesvirus, is a significant pathogen that causes medically severe diseases in immunocompromised individuals and in congenitally infected neonates. RhoB belongs to the family of Rho GTPases, which regulates diverse cellular processes. Rho proteins are implicated in the entry and egress from the host cell of mainly α- and γ-herpesviruses, whereas β-herpesviruses are the least studied in this regard. Here, we studied the role of RhoB GTPase during HCMV lytic infection. Microscopy analysis, both in fixed and live infected cells showed that RhoB was translocated to the assembly complex/compartment (AC) of HCMV, a cytoplasmic zone in infected cells where many viral structural proteins are known to accumulate and assembly of new virions takes place. Furthermore, RhoB was localized at the AC even when the expression of the late HCMV AC proteins was inhibited. At the very late stages of infection, cellular projections were formed containing RhoB and HCMV virions, potentially contributing to the successful viral spread. Interestingly, the knockdown of RhoB in HCMV-infected cells resulted in a significant reduction of the virus titer and could also affect the accumulation of AC viral proteins at this subcellular compartment. RhoB knockdown also affected actin fibers' structure. Actin reorganization was observed at late stages of infection originating from the viral AC and surrounding the cellular projections, implying a potential interplay between RhoB and actin during HCMV assembly and egress. In conclusion, our results demonstrate for the first time that RhoB is a constituent of the viral AC and is required for HCMV productive infection. PMID:26114383

  20. Wear of polyethylene acetabular components in total hip arthroplasty. An analysis of one hundred and twenty-eight components retrieved at autopsy or revision operations.

    PubMed

    Jasty, M; Goetz, D D; Bragdon, C R; Lee, K R; Hanson, A E; Elder, J R; Harris, W H

    1997-03-01

    We evaluated the rates of volumetric wear and the patterns of wear of 128 acetabular components retrieved during an autopsy or a revision operation between one and twenty-one years after total hip arthroplasty. Twenty-two all-polyethylene components were retrieved at autopsy from hips that had been functioning well at the time of death (Group A). The remaining 106 components--eighty-four all-polyethylene components (Group B) and twenty-two metal-backed components (Group C)--were retrieved during revision operations. All 128 components had been inserted with cement. The mean rate of volumetric wear, determined directly with a fluid-displacement method, was thirty-five cubic millimeters per year (range, eight to 116 cubic millimeters per year) for Group A, sixty-two cubic millimeters per year (range, eight to 256 cubic millimeters per year) for Group B, and ninety-four cubic millimeters per year (range, twelve to 284 cubic millimeters per year) for Group C. Multivariate regression analysis showed a significant relationship (p < 0.05) between the size of the femoral head and the calculated mean annual rate of volumetric wear. The rate of volumetric wear was highest in association with thirty-two-millimeter femoral heads and lowest in association with twenty-two-millimeter heads; according to linear regression analysis, this represented a 7.5 per cent increase (Group A) or a 10 per cent increase (Group B) in the rate of wear for every one-millimeter increase in the size of the head. Linear regression analysis also showed a significant relationship between the duration that the implant had been in situ and the rate of wear (p < 0.05), with the rate being highest initially after the operation and decreasing with an increasing duration in situ. With the numbers available, the patient's age and gender and the side of the arthroplasty did not have a significant relationship to the annual rate of volumetric wear. Increased thickness of the polyethylene was related to a

  1. 47 CFR 25.252 - Special requirements for ancillary terrestrial components operating in the 2000-2020 MHz/2180...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special requirements for ancillary terrestrial components operating in the 2000-2020 MHz/2180-2200 MHz bands. 25.252 Section 25.252 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS...

  2. 47 CFR 25.252 - Special requirements for ancillary terrestrial components operating in the 2000-2020 MHz/2180...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special requirements for ancillary terrestrial components operating in the 2000-2020 MHz/2180-2200 MHz bands. 25.252 Section 25.252 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS...

  3. 47 CFR 25.252 - Special requirements for ancillary terrestrial components operating in the 2000-2020 MHz/2180...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special requirements for ancillary terrestrial components operating in the 2000-2020 MHz/2180-2200 MHz bands. 25.252 Section 25.252 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS...

  4. COTS-based OO-component approach for software inter-operability and reuse (software systems engineering methodology)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, J.; Oyaki, A.; Hwang, C.; Hung, C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this research and study paper is to provide a summary description and results of rapid development accomplishments at NASA/JPL in the area of advanced distributed computing technology using a Commercial-Off--The-Shelf (COTS)-based object oriented component approach to open inter-operable software development and software reuse.

  5. Operation Storefront. A Computer-Assisted Instruction Component of the Reading Assistance Program (RAP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasco County District School Board, Land O'Lakes, FL.

    This document contains teacher's materials that accompany Operation Storefront, the computer-assisted instruction package used in the Reading Assistance Program (RAP) that serves nonreading adults in Pasco County, Florida, who are 16 years or older and not in school. The target population for Operation Storefront is adults reading at or below the…

  6. A Three‐Component Assembly Promoted by Boronic Acids Delivers a Modular Fluorophore Platform (BASHY Dyes)†

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Fábio M. F.; Rosa, João N.; Candeias, Nuno R.; Carvalho, Cátia Parente; Matos, Ana I.; Ventura, Ana E.; Florindo, Helena F.; Silva, Liana C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The modular assembly of boronic acids with Schiff‐base ligands enabled the construction of innovative fluorescent dyes [boronic acid salicylidenehydrazone (BASHY)] with suitable structural and photophysical properties for live cell bioimaging applications. This reaction enabled the straightforward synthesis (yields up to 99 %) of structurally diverse and photostable dyes that exhibit a polarity‐sensitive green‐to‐yellow emission with high quantum yields of up to 0.6 in nonpolar environments. These dyes displayed a high brightness (up to 54 000 m −1 cm−1). The promising structural and fluorescence properties of BASHY dyes fostered the preparation of non‐cytotoxic, stable, and highly fluorescent poly(lactide‐co‐glycolide) nanoparticles that were effectively internalized by dendritic cells. The dyes were also shown to selectively stain lipid droplets in HeLa cells, without inducing any appreciable cytotoxicity or competing plasma membrane labeling; this confirmed their potential as fluorescent stains. PMID:26691630

  7. Continuous operation of membrane capacitive deionization cells assembled with dissimilar potential of zero charge electrode pairs.

    PubMed

    Omosebi, Ayokunle; Gao, Xin; Rentschler, Jeffery; Landon, James; Liu, Kunlei

    2015-05-15

    The performance of single stack membrane assisted capacitive deionization cells configured with pristine and nitric acid oxidized Zorflex (ZX) electrode pairs was evaluated. The potentials of zero charge for the pristine and oxidized electrodes were respectively -0.2V and 0.2V vs. SCE. Four cell combinations of the electrodes including a pristine anode-pristine cathode, oxidized anode-pristine cathode, pristine anode-oxidized cathode, and oxidized anode-oxidized cathode were investigated. When the PZC was located within the polarization window of the electrode, diminished performance was observed. The cells were operated at 1.2 V and based on potential distribution results, the effective working potentials were ∼0.9, 0.8, 1.2, and 1.1 V for the pristine anode-pristine cathode, oxidized anode-pristine cathode, pristine anode-oxidized cathode, and oxidized anode-oxidized cathode cells, respectively. The highest electrosorption capacity of 17 mg NaCl/g ZX was observed for the pristine anode-oxidized cathode cell, where both PZCs were outside of the polarization window. PMID:25432447

  8. Continuous operation of membrane capacitive deionization cells assembled with dissimilar potential of zero charge electrode pairs.

    PubMed

    Omosebi, Ayokunle; Gao, Xin; Rentschler, Jeffery; Landon, James; Liu, Kunlei

    2015-05-15

    The performance of single stack membrane assisted capacitive deionization cells configured with pristine and nitric acid oxidized Zorflex (ZX) electrode pairs was evaluated. The potentials of zero charge for the pristine and oxidized electrodes were respectively -0.2V and 0.2V vs. SCE. Four cell combinations of the electrodes including a pristine anode-pristine cathode, oxidized anode-pristine cathode, pristine anode-oxidized cathode, and oxidized anode-oxidized cathode were investigated. When the PZC was located within the polarization window of the electrode, diminished performance was observed. The cells were operated at 1.2 V and based on potential distribution results, the effective working potentials were ∼0.9, 0.8, 1.2, and 1.1 V for the pristine anode-pristine cathode, oxidized anode-pristine cathode, pristine anode-oxidized cathode, and oxidized anode-oxidized cathode cells, respectively. The highest electrosorption capacity of 17 mg NaCl/g ZX was observed for the pristine anode-oxidized cathode cell, where both PZCs were outside of the polarization window.

  9. NASA JPL Distributed Systems Technology (DST) Object-Oriented Component Approach for Software Inter-Operability and Reuse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Laverne; Hung, Chaw-Kwei; Lin, Imin

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of NASA JPL Distributed Systems Technology (DST) Section's object-oriented component approach to open inter-operable systems software development and software reuse. It will address what is meant by the terminology object component software, give an overview of the component-based development approach and how it relates to infrastructure support of software architectures and promotes reuse, enumerate on the benefits of this approach, and give examples of application prototypes demonstrating its usage and advantages. Utilization of the object-oriented component technology approach for system development and software reuse will apply to several areas within JPL, and possibly across other NASA Centers.

  10. Core operational Sentinel-3 marine data product services as part of the Copernicus Space Component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonekamp, Hans; Montagner, Francois; Santacesaria, Vincenzo; Nogueira Loddo, Carolina; Wannop, Sally; Tomazic, Igor; O'Carroll, Anne; Kwiatkowska, Ewa; Scharroo, Remko; Wilson, Hilary

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the marine data available from the Marine Centre, part of the Sentinel-3 Payload Data Ground Segment, located at the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT). The Marine Centre together with the existing EUMETSAT facilities provides a centralised operational service for operational oceanography. These descriptions of the marine data are produced with a focus on a user service perspective. They include the scientific and operational feedback mechanisms on the performance of the services as well as practical information and user support mechanisms.

  11. Assembly of Xylanases into Designer Cellulosomes Promotes Efficient Hydrolysis of the Xylan Component of a Natural Recalcitrant Cellulosic Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Moraïs, Sarah; Barak, Yoav; Hadar, Yitzhak; Wilson, David B.; Shoham, Yuval; Lamed, Raphael; Bayer, Edward A.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT In nature, the complex composition and structure of the plant cell wall pose a barrier to enzymatic degradation. Nevertheless, some anaerobic bacteria have evolved for this purpose an intriguing, highly efficient multienzyme complex, the cellulosome, which contains numerous cellulases and hemicellulases. The rod-like cellulose component of the plant cell wall is embedded in a colloidal blend of hemicelluloses, a major component of which is xylan. In order to enhance enzymatic degradation of the xylan component of a natural complex substrate (wheat straw) and to study the synergistic action among different xylanases, we have employed a variation of the designer cellulosome approach by fabricating a tetravalent complex that includes the three endoxylanases of Thermobifida fusca (Xyn10A, Xyn10B, and Xyn11A) and an Xyl43A β-xylosidase from the same bacterium. Here, we describe the conversion of Xyn10A and Xyl43A to the cellulosomal mode. The incorporation of the Xyl43A enzyme together with the three endoxylanases into a common designer cellulosome served to enhance the level of reducing sugars produced during wheat straw degradation. The enhanced synergistic action of the four xylanases reflected their immediate juxtaposition in the complex, and these tetravalent xylanolytic designer cellulosomes succeeded in degrading significant (~25%) levels of the total xylan component of the wheat straw substrate. The results suggest that the incorporation of xylanases into cellulosome complexes is advantageous for efficient decomposition of recalcitrant cellulosic substrates—a distinction previously reserved for cellulose-degrading enzymes. PMID:22086489

  12. 46 CFR 160.077-30 - Spare operating components and temporary marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... components. Each recreational and commercial hybrid PFD must— (1) If it has a manual or automatic inflation mechanism and is packaged and sold with one inflation medium cartridge loaded into the inflation mechanism, have at least two additional spare inflation cartridges packaged with it. If it is sold without...

  13. 46 CFR 160.077-30 - Spare operating components and temporary marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... components. Each recreational and commercial hybrid PFD must— (1) If it has a manual or automatic inflation mechanism and is packaged and sold with one inflation medium cartridge loaded into the inflation mechanism, have at least two additional spare inflation cartridges packaged with it. If it is sold without...

  14. 46 CFR 160.077-30 - Spare operating components and temporary marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... components. Each recreational and commercial hybrid PFD must— (1) If it has a manual or automatic inflation mechanism and is packaged and sold with one inflation medium cartridge loaded into the inflation mechanism, have at least two additional spare inflation cartridges packaged with it. If it is sold without...

  15. 46 CFR 160.077-30 - Spare operating components and temporary marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... components. Each recreational and commercial hybrid PFD must— (1) If it has a manual or automatic inflation mechanism and is packaged and sold with one inflation medium cartridge loaded into the inflation mechanism, have at least two additional spare inflation cartridges packaged with it. If it is sold without...

  16. 46 CFR 160.077-30 - Spare operating components and temporary marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... components. Each recreational and commercial hybrid PFD must— (1) If it has a manual or automatic inflation mechanism and is packaged and sold with one inflation medium cartridge loaded into the inflation mechanism, have at least two additional spare inflation cartridges packaged with it. If it is sold without...

  17. Vibration detection of component operability. [for Space Shuttle Orbiter failure prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, B.

    1976-01-01

    In order to prevent catastrophic failure and eliminate unnecessary periodic maintenance in the Space Shuttle Orbiter dynamic components, instrumentation for detecting incipient failure in these components is required. This study investigated the utilization of vibrational phenomena as one of the principal physical parameters on which to base the design of this instrumentation. Baseline vibration data was collected from three aircraft type fans and two aircraft type pumps over a frequency range from a few Hertz to greater than 300 kHz. The baseline data included spectrum analysis of the vibration and detected carrier signals, as well as several non-spectrum parameters. Several defects were introduced into the five test items, and all defects were detected by at least one of the parameters with a margin of at least 2:1 over the worst case baseline.

  18. Rotor component displacement measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Mercer, Gary D.; Li, Ming C.; Baum, Charles R.

    2003-05-27

    A measuring system for measuring axial displacement of a tube relative to an axially stationary component in a rotating rotor assembly includes at least one displacement sensor adapted to be located normal to a longitudinal axis of the tube; an insulated cable system adapted for passage through the rotor assembly; a rotatable proximitor module located axially beyond the rotor assembly to which the cables are connected; and a telemetry system operatively connected to the proximitor module for sampling signals from the proximitor module and forwarding data to a ground station.

  19. Exploring Mathematical Reasoning of the Order of Operations: Rearranging the Procedural Component PEMDAS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jae Ki; Licwinko, Susan; Taylor-Buckner, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    PEMDAS is a mnemonic device to memorize the order in which to calculate an expression that contains more than one operation. However, students frequently make calculation errors with expressions, which have either multiplication and division or addition and subtraction next to each other. This article explores the mathematical reasoning of the…

  20. A Formula for Operating Grants to Emergent Universities and Emergent Components of Established Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee of Presidents of Universities of Ontario, Toronto.

    Operating grants to provincially assisted universities in Ontario are based on a formula that is derived from a system of weights assigned to various categories of student enrollment. This formula, however, cannot be used both for emergent universities and established institutions. There is probably no substitute for subjective decisionmaking,…

  1. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 5: Transportation and operations analysis. [heavy lift launch and orbit transfer vehicles for orbital assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    The development of transportation systems to support the operations required for the orbital assembly of a 5-gigawatt satellite is discussed as well as the construction of a ground receiving antenna (rectenna). Topics covered include heavy lift launch vehicle configurations for Earth-to LEO transport; the use of chemical, nuclear, and electric orbit transfer vehicles for LEO to GEO operations; personnel transport systems; ground operations; end-to-end analysis of the construction, operation, and maintenance of the satellite and rectenna; propellant production and storage; and payload packaging.

  2. Results of scoping tests for open-cycle OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) components operating with seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangrando, F.; Bharathan, D.; Green, H. J.; Link, H. F.; Parsons, B. K.; Parsons, J. M.; Pesaran, A. A.; Panchal, C. B.

    1990-09-01

    This report presents comprehensive documentation of the experimental research conducted on open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) components operating with seawater as a working fluid. The results of this research are presented in the context of previous analysis and fresh-water testing; they provide a basis for understanding and predicting with confidence the performance of all components of an OC-OTEC system except the turbine. Seawater tests have confirmed the results that were obtained in fresh-water tests and predicted by the analytical models of the components. A sound technical basis has been established for the design of larger systems in which net power will be produced for the first time from OC-OTEC technology. Design and operation of a complete OC-OTEC system that produces power will provide sufficient confidence to warrant complete transfer of OC-OTEC technology to the private sector. Each components performance is described in a separate chapter written by the principal investigator responsible for technical aspects of the specific tests. Chapters have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  3. Results of scoping tests for open-cycle OTEC (ocean thermal energy conversion) components operating with seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Zangrando, F; Bharathan, D; Green, H J; Link, H F; Parsons, B K; Parsons, J M; Pesaran, A A; Panchal, C B

    1990-09-01

    This report presents comprehensive documentation of the experimental research conducted on open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) components operating with seawater as a working fluid. The results of this research are presented in the context of previous analysis and fresh-water testing; they provide a basis for understanding and predicting with confidence the performance of all components of an OC-OTEC system except the turbine. Seawater tests have confirmed the results that were obtained in fresh-water tests and predicted by the analytical models of the components. A sound technical basis has been established for the design of larger systems in which net power will be produced for the first time from OC-OTEC technology. Design and operation of a complete OC-OTEC system that produces power will provide sufficient confidence to warrant complete transfer of OC-OTEC technology to the private sector. Each components performance is described in a separate chapter written by the principal investigator responsible for technical aspects of the specific tests. Chapters have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  4. Bi-directional communication with the cumulus cells is involved in the deficiency of XY oocytes in the components essential for proper second meiotic spindle assembly.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baozeng; Noohi, Saeid; Shin, Jonghyun S; Tan, Seang Lin; Taketo, Teruko

    2014-01-15

    The oocyte becomes competent for embryonic development by involving mutual communication with cumulus cells (CCs) during folliculogenesis. How this communication takes place under physiological conditions is not fully understood. Current study examined oocyte-CCs communication in the XY sex-revered female mouse. We have previously found that the XY oocyte is defective in its cytoplasm, causing abnormal MII-spindle assembly and a failure in embryonic development. Our present study showed that transcript levels of Pfkp, Pkm2 and Ldh1 involved in glycolysis were lower in the CCs surrounding XY oocytes than in those surrounding XX oocytes. ATP contents in XY oocytes were also lower than those in XX oocytes, suggesting that lower glycolytic gene expression in CCs resulted in lower ATP contents in the enclosed oocyte. Co-culture of oocytectomized CC-oocyte complexes (COCs) with denuded oocytes showed that XY oocytes were less efficient than XX oocytes in promoting glycolytic gene expression in CCs. Furthermore, both glycolytic gene expression levels in CCs and ATP contents in oocytes of XY COCs increased to similar levels to those of XX COCs after culture for 20h in the presence of milrinone (=preincubation), which prevented spontaneous oocyte maturation. By increasing ATP levels in XY oocytes by either COC preincubation or ATP microinjection into oocytes prior to in vitro maturation, an improvement in MII-spindle assembly was observed. We conclude that the XY oocyte produces lesser amounts of paracrine factors that affect its companion CCs, which in turn make the ooplasm deficient in its components, including ATP, essential for MII-spindle assembly. PMID:24247007

  5. Public Health Emergency Operations Center - A critical component of mass gatherings management infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Elachola, Habidah; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Turkestani, Abdulhafiz; Memish, Ziad A

    2016-01-01

    Mass gatherings (MG) are characterized by the influx of large numbers of people with the need to have infrastructural changes to support these gatherings. Thus, Public Health Emergency Operations Center (PHEOC) is critical management infrastructure for both the delivery of public health functions and for mounting adequate response during emergencies. The recognition of the importance of PHEOC at the leadership and political level is foundational for the success of any public health intervention during MG. The ability of the PHEOC to effectively function depends on appropriate design and infrastructure, staffing and command structure, and plans and procedures developed prior to the event. Multi-ministerial or jurisdictional coordination will be required and PHEOC should be positioned with such authorities. This paper outlines the essential concepts, elements, design, and operational aspects of PHEOC during MG. PMID:27580322

  6. Public Health Emergency Operations Center - A critical component of mass gatherings management infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Elachola, Habidah; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Turkestani, Abdulhafiz; Memish, Ziad A

    2016-01-01

    Mass gatherings (MG) are characterized by the influx of large numbers of people with the need to have infrastructural changes to support these gatherings. Thus, Public Health Emergency Operations Center (PHEOC) is critical management infrastructure for both the delivery of public health functions and for mounting adequate response during emergencies. The recognition of the importance of PHEOC at the leadership and political level is foundational for the success of any public health intervention during MG. The ability of the PHEOC to effectively function depends on appropriate design and infrastructure, staffing and command structure, and plans and procedures developed prior to the event. Multi-ministerial or jurisdictional coordination will be required and PHEOC should be positioned with such authorities. This paper outlines the essential concepts, elements, design, and operational aspects of PHEOC during MG.

  7. Back-propagation operation for analog neural network hardware with synapse components having hysteresis characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Michihito; Nishitani, Yu; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Omote, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    To realize an analog artificial neural network hardware, the circuit element for synapse function is important because the number of synapse elements is much larger than that of neuron elements. One of the candidates for this synapse element is a ferroelectric memristor. This device functions as a voltage controllable variable resistor, which can be applied to a synapse weight. However, its conductance shows hysteresis characteristics and dispersion to the input voltage. Therefore, the conductance values vary according to the history of the height and the width of the applied pulse voltage. Due to the difficulty of controlling the accurate conductance, it is not easy to apply the back-propagation learning algorithm to the neural network hardware having memristor synapses. To solve this problem, we proposed and simulated a learning operation procedure as follows. Employing a weight perturbation technique, we derived the error change. When the error reduced, the next pulse voltage was updated according to the back-propagation learning algorithm. If the error increased the amplitude of the next voltage pulse was set in such way as to cause similar memristor conductance but in the opposite voltage scanning direction. By this operation, we could eliminate the hysteresis and confirmed that the simulation of the learning operation converged. We also adopted conductance dispersion numerically in the simulation. We examined the probability that the error decreased to a designated value within a predetermined loop number. The ferroelectric has the characteristics that the magnitude of polarization does not become smaller when voltages having the same polarity are applied. These characteristics greatly improved the probability even if the learning rate was small, if the magnitude of the dispersion is adequate. Because the dispersion of analog circuit elements is inevitable, this learning operation procedure is useful for analog neural network hardware. PMID:25393715

  8. A Proposed Atomic Structure of the Self-Assembly of the Non-Amyloid-β Component of Human α-Synuclein As Derived by Computational Tools.

    PubMed

    Atsmon-Raz, Yoav; Miller, Yifat

    2015-08-01

    α-Synuclein (AS) fibrils are the major hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). It is known that the central domain of the 140-residue AS protein, known as the non-amyloid-β component (NAC), plays a crucial role in aggregation. The secondary structure of AS fibrils (including the NAC domain) has been proposed on the basis of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance studies, but the atomic structure of the self-assembly of NAC (or AS itself) is still elusive. This is the first study that presents a detailed three-dimensional structure of NAC at atomic resolution. The proposed self-assembled structure of NAC consists of three β-strands connected by two turn regions. Our study shows that calculated structural parameter values of the simulated fibril-like cross-β structure of NAC are in excellent agreement with the experimental values. Moreover, the diameter dimensions of the proposed fibril-like structure are also in agreement with experimental measurements. The proposed fibril-like structure of NAC may assist in future work aimed at understanding the formation of aggregates in PD and developing compounds to modulate aggregation.

  9. Ultrastrong Freestanding Graphene Oxide Nanomembranes with Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Functionality by Solvent-Assisted Single-Component Layer-by-Layer Assembly.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Rui; Hu, Kesong; Zhang, Shuaidi; Lu, Canhui; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2016-07-26

    We report single-component ultrathin reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanomembranes fabricated via nonconventional layer-by-layer assembly (LbL) of graphene oxide flakes, using organic solvent instead of water to provide strong complementary interactions and to ensure the uniform layered growth. This unique approach does not require regular polymeric from the assembly process or intermediate surface chemical modification. The resulting ultrastrong freestanding graphene oxide (rGO) LbL nanomembranes with a very low thickness of 3 nm (three GO monolayers) can be transferred over a large surface area across tens of square centimeters by using a facile surface-tension-assisted release technique. These uniform and ultrasmooth nanomembranes with high transparency (up to 93% at 550 nm) and high electrical conductivity (up to 3000 S/m) also exhibit outstanding mechanical strength of 0.5 GPa and a Young's modulus of 120 GPa, which are several times higher than that of other reported regular rGO films. Furthermore, up to 94 wt % of silver nanoplates can be sandwiched between 5 nm GO layers to construct a flexible freestanding protected noble metal monolayer with surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties. These flexible rGO/Ag/rGO nanomembranes can be transferred and conformally coat complex surfaces and show a cleaner Raman signature, enhanced wet stability, and lower oxidation compared to bare Ag nanostructures. PMID:27331853

  10. Aging assessment of reactor instrumentation and protection system components. Aging-related operating experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Gehl, A.C.; Hagen, E.W.

    1992-07-01

    A study of the aging-related operating experiences throughout a five-year period (1984--1988) of six generic instrumentation modules (indicators, sensors, controllers, transmitters, annunciators, and recorders) was performed as a part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. The effects of aging from operational and environmental stressors were characterized from results depicted in Licensee Event Reports (LERs). The data are graphically displayed as frequency of events per plant year for operating plant ages from 1 to 28 years to determine aging-related failure trend patterns. Three main conclusions were drawn from this study: (1) Instrumentation and control (I&C) modules make a modest contribution to safety-significant events: 17% of LERs issued during 1984--1988 dealt with malfunctions of the six I&C modules studied, and 28% of the LERs dealing with these I&C module malfunctions were aging related (other studies show a range 25--50%); (2) Of the six modules studied, indicators, sensors, and controllers account for the bulk (83%) of aging-related failures; and (3) Infant mortality appears to be the dominant aging-related failure mode for most I&C module categories (with the exception of annunciators and recorders, which appear to fail randomly).

  11. Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinin is Required for the Assembly of Viral Components Including Bundled vRNPs at the Lipid Raft

    PubMed Central

    Takizawa, Naoki; Momose, Fumitaka; Morikawa, Yuko; Nomoto, Akio

    2016-01-01

    The influenza glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), which are associated with the lipid raft, have the potential to initiate virion budding. However, the role of these viral proteins in infectious virion assembly is still unclear. In addition, it is not known how the viral ribonucleoprotein complex (vRNP) is tethered to the budding site. Here, we show that HA is necessary for the efficient progeny virion production and vRNP packaging in the virion. We also found that the level of HA does not affect the bundling of the eight vRNP segments, despite reduced virion production. Detergent solubilization and a subsequent membrane flotation analysis indicated that the accumulation of nucleoprotein, viral polymerases, NA, and matrix protein 1 (M1) in the lipid raft fraction was delayed without HA. Based on our results, we inferred that HA plays a role in the accumulation of viral components, including bundled vRNPs, at the lipid raft. PMID:27626438

  12. Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinin is Required for the Assembly of Viral Components Including Bundled vRNPs at the Lipid Raft.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Naoki; Momose, Fumitaka; Morikawa, Yuko; Nomoto, Akio

    2016-09-10

    The influenza glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), which are associated with the lipid raft, have the potential to initiate virion budding. However, the role of these viral proteins in infectious virion assembly is still unclear. In addition, it is not known how the viral ribonucleoprotein complex (vRNP) is tethered to the budding site. Here, we show that HA is necessary for the efficient progeny virion production and vRNP packaging in the virion. We also found that the level of HA does not affect the bundling of the eight vRNP segments, despite reduced virion production. Detergent solubilization and a subsequent membrane flotation analysis indicated that the accumulation of nucleoprotein, viral polymerases, NA, and matrix protein 1 (M1) in the lipid raft fraction was delayed without HA. Based on our results, we inferred that HA plays a role in the accumulation of viral components, including bundled vRNPs, at the lipid raft.

  13. Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinin is Required for the Assembly of Viral Components Including Bundled vRNPs at the Lipid Raft.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Naoki; Momose, Fumitaka; Morikawa, Yuko; Nomoto, Akio

    2016-01-01

    The influenza glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), which are associated with the lipid raft, have the potential to initiate virion budding. However, the role of these viral proteins in infectious virion assembly is still unclear. In addition, it is not known how the viral ribonucleoprotein complex (vRNP) is tethered to the budding site. Here, we show that HA is necessary for the efficient progeny virion production and vRNP packaging in the virion. We also found that the level of HA does not affect the bundling of the eight vRNP segments, despite reduced virion production. Detergent solubilization and a subsequent membrane flotation analysis indicated that the accumulation of nucleoprotein, viral polymerases, NA, and matrix protein 1 (M1) in the lipid raft fraction was delayed without HA. Based on our results, we inferred that HA plays a role in the accumulation of viral components, including bundled vRNPs, at the lipid raft. PMID:27626438

  14. Durability testing of medium speed diesel engine components designed for operating on coal/water slurry fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, R. E.; Giammarise, A. W.; Johnson, R. N.

    1994-01-01

    Over 200 operating cylinder hours were run on critical wearing engine parts. The main components tested included cylinder liners, piston rings, and fuel injector nozzles for coal/water slurry fueled operation. The liners had no visible indication of scoring nor major wear steps found on their tungsten carbide coating. While the tungsten carbide coating on the rings showed good wear resistance, some visual evidence suggests adhesive wear mode was present. Tungsten carbide coated rings running against tungsten carbide coated liners in GE 7FDL engines exhibit wear rates which suggest an approximate 500 to 750 hour life. Injector nozzle orifice materials evaluated were diamond compacts, chemical vapor deposited diamond tubes, and thermally stabilized diamond. Based upon a total of 500 cylinder hours of engine operation (including single-cylinder combustion tests), diamond compact was determined to be the preferred orifice material.

  15. Telescope bibliographies: an essential component of archival data management and operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Henneken, Edwin; Erdmann, Christopher; Rots, Arnold

    2012-09-01

    Assessing the impact of astronomical facilities rests upon an evaluation of the scientic discoveries which their data have enabled. Telescope bibliographies, which link data products with the literature, provide a way to use bibliometrics as an impact measure for the underlying observations. In this paper we argue that the creation and maintenance of telescope bibliographies should be considered an integral part of an observatory's operations. We review the existing tools, services, and workflows which support these curation activities, giving an estimate of the effort and expertise required to maintain an archive-based telescope bibliography.

  16. Towards Rocket Engine Components with Increased Strength and Robust Operating Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcu, Bogdan; Hadid, Ali; Lin, Pei; Balcazar, Daniel; Rai, Man Mohan; Dorney, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    High-energy rotating machines, powering liquid propellant rocket engines, are subject to various sources of high and low cycle fatigue generated by unsteady flow phenomena. Given the tremendous need for reliability in a sustainable space exploration program, a fundamental change in the design methodology for engine components is required for both launch and space based systems. A design optimization system based on neural-networks has been applied and demonstrated in the redesign of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Low Pressure Oxidizer Turbo Pump (LPOTP) turbine nozzle. One objective of the redesign effort was to increase airfoil thickness and thus increase its strength while at the same time detuning the vane natural frequency modes from the vortex shedding frequency. The second objective was to reduce the vortex shedding amplitude. The third objective was to maintain this low shedding amplitude even in the presence of large manufacturing tolerances. All of these objectives were achieved without generating any detrimental effects on the downstream flow through the turbine, and without introducing any penalty in performance. The airfoil redesign and preliminary assessment was performed in the Exploration Technology Directorate at NASA ARC. Boeing/Rocketdyne and NASA MSFC independently performed final CFD assessments of the design. Four different CFD codes were used in this process. They include WIL DCA T/CORSAIR (NASA), FLUENT (commercial), TIDAL (Boeing Rocketdyne) and, a new family (AardvarWPhantom) of CFD analysis codes developed at NASA MSFC employing LOX fluid properties and a Generalized Equation Set formulation. Extensive aerodynamic performance analysis and stress analysis carried out at Boeing Rocketdyne and NASA MSFC indicate that the redesign objectives have been fully met. The paper presents the results of the assessment analysis and discusses the future potential of robust optimal design for rocket engine components.

  17. Conserved components, but distinct mechanisms for the placement and assembly of the cell division machinery in unicellular and filamentous ascomycetes.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Stephan; Justa-Schuch, Daniela

    2010-12-01

    Cytokinesis is essential for cell proliferation, yet its molecular description is challenging, because >100 conserved proteins must be spatially and temporally co-ordinated. Despite the high importance of a tight co-ordination of cytokinesis with chromosome and organelle segregation, the mechanism for determining the cell division plane is one of the least conserved aspects of cytokinesis in eukaryotic cells. Budding and fission yeast have developed fundamentally distinct mechanisms to ensure proper nuclear segregation. The extent to which these pathways are conserved in multicellular fungi remains unknown. Recent progress indicates common components, but different mechanisms that are required for proper selection of the septation site in the different groups of Ascomycota. Cortical cues are used in yeast- and filament-forming species of the Saccharomycotina clade that are established at the incipient bud site or the hyphal tip respectively. In contrast, septum formation in the filament-forming Pezizomycotina species Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa seems more closely related to the fission yeast programme in that they may combine mitotic signals with a cell end-based marker system and Rho GTPase signalling. Thus, significant differences in the use and connection of conserved signalling modules become apparent that reflect the phylogenetic relationship of the analysed models. PMID:21091496

  18. Firearm trigger assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.

    2010-02-16

    A firearm trigger assembly for use with a firearm includes a trigger mounted to a forestock of the firearm so that the trigger is movable between a rest position and a triggering position by a forwardly placed support hand of a user. An elongated trigger member operatively associated with the trigger operates a sear assembly of the firearm when the trigger is moved to the triggering position. An action release assembly operatively associated with the firearm trigger assembly and a movable assembly of the firearm prevents the trigger from being moved to the triggering position when the movable assembly is not in the locked position.

  19. Inlet nozzle assembly

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.; Precechtel, Donald R.; Smith, Bob G.; Knight, Ronald C.

    1987-01-01

    An inlet nozzle assembly for directing coolant into the duct tube of a fuel assembly attached thereto. The nozzle assembly includes a shell for housing separable components including an orifice plate assembly, a neutron shield block, a neutron shield plug, and a diffuser block. The orifice plate assembly includes a plurality of stacked plates of differently configurated and sized openings for directing coolant therethrough in a predesigned flow pattern.

  20. Inlet nozzle assembly

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Knight, R.C.; Precechtel, D.R.; Smith, B.G.

    1985-09-09

    An inlet nozzle assembly for directing coolant into the duct tube of a fuel assembly attached thereto. The nozzle assembly includes a shell for housing separable components including an orifice plate assembly, a neutron shield block, a neutron shield plug, and a diffuser block. The orifice plate assembly includes a plurality of stacked plates of differently configurated and sized openings for directing coolant therethrough in a predesigned flow pattern.

  1. Capability 9.3 Assembly and Deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, John

    2005-01-01

    Large space systems are required for a range of operational, commercial and scientific missions objectives however, current launch vehicle capacities substantially limit the size of space systems (on-orbit or planetary). Assembly and Deployment is the process of constructing a spacecraft or system from modules which may in turn have been constructed from sub-modules in a hierarchical fashion. In-situ assembly of space exploration vehicles and systems will require a broad range of operational capabilities, including: Component transfer and storage, fluid handling, construction and assembly, test and verification. Efficient execution of these functions will require supporting infrastructure, that can: Receive, store and protect (materials, components, etc.); hold and secure; position, align and control; deploy; connect/disconnect; construct; join; assemble/disassemble; dock/undock; and mate/demate.

  2. Apparatus, components and operating methods for circulating fluidized bed transport gasifiers and reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang

    2015-02-24

    The improvements proposed in this invention provide a reliable apparatus and method to gasify low rank coals in a class of pressurized circulating fluidized bed reactors termed "transport gasifier." The embodiments overcome a number of operability and reliability problems with existing gasifiers. The systems and methods address issues related to distribution of gasification agent without the use of internals, management of heat release to avoid any agglomeration and clinker formation, specific design of bends to withstand the highly erosive environment due to high solid particles circulation rates, design of a standpipe cyclone to withstand high temperature gasification environment, compact design of seal-leg that can handle high mass solids flux, design of nozzles that eliminate plugging, uniform aeration of large diameter Standpipe, oxidant injection at the cyclone exits to effectively modulate gasifier exit temperature and reduction in overall height of the gasifier with a modified non-mechanical valve.

  3. Plans for Conditioning Plasma-Facing Components at Initiation of NSTX-U Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaita, R.; Blanchard, W.; Cai, D.; Gerhardt, S.; Jaworski, M. A.; Lucia, M.; Rossi, S.; Skinner, C. H.; Allain, J.-P.; Bedoya, F.

    2014-10-01

    The conditioning of plasma-facing components (PFCs) has been critical to the achievement of high performance plasmas in fusion devices. The NSTX-U PFCs will initially consist of graphite. Well-established PFC conditioning will be applied, including high temperature bakeout and glow discharge cleaning (GDC). As in NSTX, the center stack (CS) will be electrically-isolated from the outer vacuum vessel in NSTX-U for coaxial helicity injection (CHI), and this also permits high currents to pass through the CS for baking. Other conditioning techniques are required to further reduce the dominant impurities, which are expected to be carbon and oxygen. Boronization will first be performed, where helium glow discharge cleaning (GDC) is followed by GDC with a mixture of 95% helium and 5% deuterated trimethyl boron (TMB), and another period of helium GDC. This is to be compared with lithiumization, where lithium vapor is evaporated directly on PFC surfaces. The effectiveness of both conditioning techniques has been inferred from plasma measurements subsequent to their application, but the link between them and actual PFC conditions has not been made. The new Materials Analysis and Particle Probe (MAPP) is intended to do this with in situ analysis of PFC samples exposed to NSTX-U plasmas. Work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-SC0010717.

  4. A Framework for Geometric Reasoning About Human Figures and Factors in Assembly Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Calton, Terri L.

    1999-07-20

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be perfectly valid operations, but in reality some operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. For example, the use of a ratchet may be reasoned feasible for an assembly operation; however, when a hand is placed on the tool the operation is no longer feasible, perhaps because of inaccessibility, insufficient strength or human interference with assembly components. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications, however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem, HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning which allows engineers to quickly verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. This paper presents a framework for integrating geometry-based assembly planning algorithms with commercially available human figure modeling software packages. Experimental results to selected applications along with lessons learned are presented.

  5. Evaluation of the operational parameters for NBI-driven fusion in low-gain tokamaks with two-component plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirkov, A. Yu.

    2015-09-01

    Low gain (Q ~ 1) fusion plasma systems are of interest for concepts of fusion-fission hybrid reactors. Operational regimes of large modern tokamaks are close to Q  ≈  1. Therefore, they can be considered as prototypes of neutron sources for fusion-fission hybrids. Powerful neutral beam injection (NBI) can support the essential population of fast particles compared with the Maxwellial population. In such two-component plasma, fusion reaction rate is higher than for Maxwellian plasma. Increased reaction rate allows the development of relatively small-size and relatively inexpensive neutron sources. Possible operating regimes of the NBI-heated tokamak neutron source are discussed. In a relatively compact device, the predictions of physics of two-component fusion plasma have some volatility that causes taking into account variations of the operational parameters. Consequent parameter ranges are studied. The feasibility of regimes with Q  ≈  1 is shown for the relatively small and low-power system. The effect of NBI fraction in total heating power is analyzed.

  6. A novel indirect sequence readout component in the E. coli cyclic AMP receptor protein operator.

    PubMed

    Lindemose, Søren; Nielsen, Peter Eigil; Valentin-Hansen, Poul; Møllegaard, Niels Erik

    2014-03-21

    The cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) from Escherichia coli has been extensively studied for several decades. In particular, a detailed characterization of CRP interaction with DNA has been obtained. The CRP dimer recognizes a consensus sequence AANTGTGANNNNNNTCACANTT through direct amino acid nucleobase interactions in the major groove of the two operator half-sites. Crystal structure analyses have revealed that the interaction results in two strong kinks at the TG/CA steps closest to the 6-base-pair spacer (N6). This spacer exhibits high sequence variability among the more than 100 natural binding sites in the E. coli genome, but the exact role of the N6 region in CRP interaction has not previously been systematic examined. Here we employ an in vitro selection system based on a randomized N6 spacer region to demonstrate that CRP binding to the lacP1 site may be enhanced up to 14-fold or abolished by varying the N6 spacer sequences. Furthermore, on the basis of sequence analysis and uranyl (UO2(2+)) probing data, we propose that the underlying mechanism relies on N6 deformability.

  7. Operator product expansion beyond leading order for two-component fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmons, Samuel B.; Kang, Daekyoung; Platter, Lucas

    2016-10-01

    We consider a homogeneous, balanced gas of strongly interacting fermions in two spin states interacting through a large scattering length. Finite-range corrections are needed for a quantitative description of data which experiments and numerical simulations have provided. We use a perturbative field-theoretical framework and a tool called the operator product expansion (OPE), which together allow for the expression of finite-range corrections to the universal relations and momentum distribution. By using the OPE, we derive the 1 /k6 part of the momentum tail, which is related to the sum of the derivative of the energy with respect to the finite range and the averaged kinetic energy of opposite spin pairs. By comparing the 1 /k4 term and the 1 /k6 correction in the momentum distribution to provided quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) data, we show that including the 1 /k6 part offers marked improvements. Our field-theoretical approach allows for a clear understanding of the role of the scattering length and finite effective range in the universal relations and the momentum distribution.

  8. Azumolene inhibits a component of store-operated calcium entry coupled to the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Weisleder, Noah; Han, Xuehai; Pan, Zui; Parness, Jerome; Brotto, Marco; Ma, Jianjie

    2006-11-01

    Dantrolene reduces the elevated myoplasmic Ca(2+) generated during malignant hyperthermia, a pharmacogenetic crisis triggered by volatile anesthetics. Although specific binding of dantrolene to the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1), the Ca(2+) release channel of skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum, has been demonstrated, there is little evidence for direct dantrolene inhibition of RyR1 channel function. Recent studies suggest store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) contributes to skeletal muscle function, but the effect of dantrolene on this pathway has not been examined. Here we show that azumolene, an equipotent dantrolene analog, inhibits a component of SOCE coupled to activation of RyR1 by caffeine and ryanodine, whereas the SOCE component induced by thapsigargin is not affected. Our data suggest that azumolene distinguishes between two mechanisms of cellular signaling to SOCE in skeletal muscle, one that is coupled to and one independent from RyR1. PMID:16945924

  9. Stereo vision controlled bilateral telerobotic remote assembly station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitt, Robert L.

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a bilateral six degree-of-freedom telerobotic component assembly station utilizing remote stereo vision assisted control. The component assembly station consists of two Unimation Puma 260 robot arms and their associated controls, two Panasonic miniature camera systems, and an air compressor. The operator controls the assembly station remotely via kinematically similar master controllers. A Zenith 386 personal computer acts as an interface and system control between the human operator's controls and the Val II computer controlling the arms. A series of tasks, ranging in complexity and difficulty, was utilized to assess and demonstrate the performance of the complete system.

  10. Predicting hydrogen isotope inventory in plasma-facing components during normal and abnormal operations in fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Alice; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2015-10-01

    Hydrogen isotope behavior and inventory in plasma-facing components (PFCs) of fusion devices are key concerns for safe, reliable, and economical operation. To accurately estimate hydrogen isotope retention and recovery in tungsten (the current leading candidate as a PFC), we have developed a model that was recently benchmarked against isotope depth profile and retention level in a tungsten target under various conditions and compared with both experimental data and simulation results. In this research, we have extended the model to include details of transient events. Therefore, one can use this model to estimate hydrogen isotope retention behavior in tungsten and potential other PFC candidates during normal operational pulse, effects of edge-localized modes (ELMs), and a possible cleaning processes scenario.

  11. Hand Controller Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandera, Pablo (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A user input device for a vehicular electrical system is provided. The user input device includes a handle sized and shaped to be gripped by a human hand and a gimbal assembly within the handle. The gimbal assembly includes a first gimbal component, a second gimbal component coupled to the first gimbal component such that the second gimbal component is rotatable relative to the first gimbal component about a first axis, and a third gimbal component coupled to the second gimbal component such that the third gimbal component is rotatable relative to the second gimbal component about a second axis.

  12. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-05-27

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  13. In situ observations of water production and distribution in an operating H2/O2 PEM fuel cell assembly using 1H NMR microscopy.

    PubMed

    Feindel, Kirk W; LaRocque, Logan P-A; Starke, Dieter; Bergens, Steven H; Wasylishen, Roderick E

    2004-09-22

    Proton NMR imaging was used to investigate in situ the distribution of water in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell operating on H2 and O2. In a single experiment, water was monitored in the gas flow channels, the membrane electrode assembly, and in the membrane surrounding the catalysts. Radial gradient diffusion removes water from the catalysts into the surrounding membrane. This research demonstrates the strength of 1H NMR microscopy as an aid for designing fuel cells to optimize water management.

  14. Room temperature continuous wave operation in a photonic crystal microcavity laser with a single layer of InAs/InP self-assembled quantum wires.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Luis Javier; Alén, Benito; Prieto, Ivan; Fuster, David; González, Luisa; González, Yolanda; Dotor, María Luisa; Postigo, Pablo Aitor

    2009-08-17

    We present continuous wave laser emission in a photonic crystal microcavity operating at 1.5 microm at room temperature. The structures have been fabricated in an InP slab including a single layer of self-assembled InAs/InP quantum wires (QWrs) as active material. Laser emission in air suspended membranes with thresholds of effective optical pump power of 22 microW and quality factors up to 55000 have been measured.

  15. Effects of a potential drop of a shipping cask, a waste container, and a bare fuel assembly during waste-handling operations; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.L.; Lee, J.; Lu, D.L.; Jardine, L.J.

    1991-12-01

    This study investigates the effects of potential drops of a typical shipping cask, waste container, and bare fuel assembly during waste-handling operations at the prospective Yucca Mountain Repository. The waste-handling process (one stage, no consolidation configuration) is examined to estimate the maximum loads imposed on typical casks and containers as they are handled by various pieces of equipment during waste-handling operations. Maximum potential drop heights for casks and containers are also evaluated for different operations. A nonlinear finite-element model is employed to represent a hybrid spent fuel container subject to drop heights of up to 30 ft onto a reinforced concrete floor. The impact stress, strain, and deformation are calculated, and compared to the failure criteria to estimate the limiting (maximum permissible) drop height for the waste container. A typical Westinghouse 17 {times} 17 PWR fuel assembly is analyzed by a simplified model to estimate the energy absorption by various parts of the fuel assembly during a 30 ft drop, and to determine the amount of kinetic energy in a fuel pin at impact. A nonlinear finite-element analysis of an individual fuel pin is also performed to estimate the amount of fuel pellet fracture due to impact. This work was completed on May 1990.

  16. Discovery and investigation of anticancer ruthenium-arene Schiff-base complexes via water-promoted combinatorial three-component assembly.

    PubMed

    Chow, Mun Juinn; Licona, Cynthia; Yuan Qiang Wong, Daniel; Pastorin, Giorgia; Gaiddon, Christian; Ang, Wee Han

    2014-07-24

    The structural diversity of metal scaffolds makes them a viable alternative to traditional organic scaffolds for drug design. Combinatorial chemistry and multicomponent reactions, coupled with high-throughput screening, are useful techniques in drug discovery, but they are rarely used in metal-based drug design. We report the optimization and validation of a new combinatorial, metal-based, three-component assembly reaction for the synthesis of a library of 442 Ru-arene Schiff-base (RAS) complexes. These RAS complexes were synthesized in a one-pot, on-a-plate format using commercially available starting materials under aqueous conditions. The library was screened for their anticancer activity, and several cytotoxic lead compounds were identified. In particular, [(η6-1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene)RuCl(4-methoxy-N-(2-quinolinylmethylene)aniline)]Cl (4) displayed low micromolar IC50 values in ovarian cancers (A2780, A2780cisR), breast cancer (MCF7), and colorectal cancer (HCT116, SW480). The absence of p53 activation or changes in IC50 value between p53+/+ and p53-/- cells suggests that 4 and possibly the other lead compounds may act independently of the p53 tumor suppressor gene frequently mutated in cancer.

  17. The cytosolic Fe-S cluster assembly component MET18 is required for the full enzymatic activity of ROS1 in active DNA demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaokang; Li, Qi; Yuan, Wei; Cao, Zhendong; Qi, Bei; Kumar, Suresh; Li, Yan; Qian, Weiqiang

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation patterns in plants are dynamically regulated by DNA methylation and active DNA demethylation in response to both environmental changes and development of plant. Beginning with the removal of methylated cytosine by ROS1/DME family of 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases, active DNA demethylation in plants occurs through base excision repair. So far, many components involved in active DNA demethylation remain undiscovered. Through a forward genetic screening of Arabidopsis mutants showing DNA hypermethylation at the EPF2 promoter region, we identified the conserved iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein MET18. MET18 dysfunction caused DNA hypermethylation at more than 1000 loci as well as the silencing of reporter genes and some endogenous genes. MET18 can directly interact with ROS1 in vitro and in vivo. ROS1 activity was reduced in the met18 mutant plants and point mutation in the conserved Fe-S cluster binding motif of ROS1 disrupted its biological function. Interestingly, a large number of DNA hypomethylated loci, especially in the CHH context, were identified from the met18 mutants and most of the hypo-DMRs were from TE regions. Our results suggest that MET18 can regulate both active DNA demethylation and DNA methylation pathways in Arabidopsis. PMID:27193999

  18. Effect of relative humidity cycles accompanied by intermittent start/stop switches on performance degradation of membrane electrode assembly components in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yanling; Zhong, Hexiang; Wang, Meiri; Zhang, Huamin

    2015-06-01

    The performance degradation of membrane electrode assembly (MEA) components in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is studied by designing relative humidity (RH) cycles accompanied by intermittent start/stop switches. Cathode catalyst activity, permeability and resistance of proton exchange membrane (PEM) as well as cell performance are monitored during the test procedure. The interfaces of MEA, the catalyst particle distribution near the cathode inlet are characterized by SEM and TEM, respectively. The results demonstrate both the overall H2 permeability and crossover current of PEM are doubled compared with its initial properties. Signs of PEM degradation, including periodical thinning, cracks and pinholes formation, are observed after 300 RH cycles and 40 times of start/stop switches. The average Pt particle size increases by more than 75%, and the cathode electrochemical surface area decreases by 48% after the test procedure. Meanwhile, the cathode catalyst layer becomes looser due to the dissolution of some smaller Pt particles and catalyst agglomeration in the RH cycles and the high potential during the intermittent start/stop switches. The membrane resistance demonstrates downshift variation during the RH cycles. PEMFC performance, however, decays due to the chemical and electrochemical attack as well as the mechanical stresses.

  19. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.7, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence.

  20. ISS-based Development of Elements and Operations for Robotic Assembly of A Space Solar Power Collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valinia, Azita; Moe, Rud; Seery, Bernard D.; Mankins, John C.

    2013-01-01

    We present a concept for an ISS-based optical system assembly demonstration designed to advance technologies related to future large in-space optical facilities deployment, including space solar power collectors and large-aperture astronomy telescopes. The large solar power collector problem is not unlike the large astronomical telescope problem, but at least conceptually it should be easier in principle, given the tolerances involved. We strive in this application to leverage heavily the work done on the NASA Optical Testbed Integration on ISS Experiment (OpTIIX) effort to erect a 1.5 m imaging telescope on the International Space Station (ISS). Specifically, we examine a robotic assembly sequence for constructing a large (meter diameter) slightly aspheric or spherical primary reflector, comprised of hexagonal mirror segments affixed to a lightweight rigidizing backplane structure. This approach, together with a structured robot assembler, will be shown to be scalable to the area and areal densities required for large-scale solar concentrator arrays.

  1. Autonomous electrochromic assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Lanning, Bruce Roy; Stowell, Jr., Michael Wayne

    2015-03-10

    This disclosure describes system and methods for creating an autonomous electrochromic assembly, and systems and methods for use of the autonomous electrochromic assembly in combination with a window. Embodiments described herein include an electrochromic assembly that has an electrochromic device, an energy storage device, an energy collection device, and an electrochromic controller device. These devices may be combined into a unitary electrochromic insert assembly. The electrochromic assembly may have the capability of generating power sufficient to operate and control an electrochromic device. This control may occur through the application of a voltage to an electrochromic device to change its opacity state. The electrochromic assembly may be used in combination with a window.

  2. Mechanical Engineering Safety Note PEPC Spreader Bar Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, D.

    2001-08-26

    The PEPC Spreader Bar Assembly consists of a spreader bar that will be attached to the PEPC Cell Housing or the Midplane Transportation Fixture during operation. While in use in the OAB (Optics Assembly Building), the Spreader Bar Assembly will be manipulated by the NOID (New Optics Insertion Device). The other critical components of the assembly are the three angular contact bearing swivels that attach the spreader bar to the lifting mechanism and the corner clamps which are used to capture the Cell Housing.

  3. Telerobotic truss assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, Philip L.

    1987-01-01

    The ACCESS truss was telerobotically assembled in order to gain experience with robotic assembly of hardware designed for astronaut extravehicular (EVA) assembly. Tight alignment constraints of the ACCESS hardware made telerobotic assembly difficult. A wider alignment envelope and a compliant end effector would have reduced the problem. The manipulator had no linear motion capability, but many of the assembly operations required straight line motion. The manipulator was attached to a motion table in order to provide the X, Y, and Z translations needed. A programmable robot with linear translation capability would have eliminated the need for the motion table and streamlined the assembly. Poor depth perception was a major problem. Shaded paint schemes and alignment lines were helpful in reducing this problem. The four cameras used worked well for only some operations. It was not possible to identify camera locations that worked well for all assembly steps. More cameras or movable cameras would have simplified some operations. The audio feedback system was useful.

  4. Operant conditioning: a minimal components requirement in artificial spiking neurons designed for bio-inspired robot's controller

    PubMed Central

    Cyr, André; Boukadoum, Mounir; Thériault, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the operant conditioning (OC) learning process within a bio-inspired paradigm, using artificial spiking neural networks (ASNN) to act as robot brain controllers. In biological agents, OC results in behavioral changes learned from the consequences of previous actions, based on progressive prediction adjustment from rewarding or punishing signals. In a neurorobotics context, virtual and physical autonomous robots may benefit from a similar learning skill when facing unknown and unsupervised environments. In this work, we demonstrate that a simple invariant micro-circuit can sustain OC in multiple learning scenarios. The motivation for this new OC implementation model stems from the relatively complex alternatives that have been described in the computational literature and recent advances in neurobiology. Our elementary kernel includes only a few crucial neurons, synaptic links and originally from the integration of habituation and spike-timing dependent plasticity as learning rules. Using several tasks of incremental complexity, our results show that a minimal neural component set is sufficient to realize many OC procedures. Hence, with the proposed OC module, designing learning tasks with an ASNN and a bio-inspired robot context leads to simpler neural architectures for achieving complex behaviors. PMID:25120464

  5. Lithium Coatings on NSTX Plasma Facing Components and Its Effects On Boundary Control, Core Plasma Performance, and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    H.W.Kugel, M.G.Bell, H.Schneider, J.P.Allain, R.E.Bell, R Kaita, J.Kallman, S. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, D. Mansfield, R.E. Nygen, R. Maingi, J. Menard, D. Mueller, M. Ono, S. Paul, S.Gerhardt, R.Raman, S.Sabbagh, C.H.Skinner, V.Soukhanovskii, J.Timberlake, L.E.Zakharov, and the NSTX Research Team

    2010-01-25

    NSTX high-power divertor plasma experiments have used in succession lithium pellet injection (LPI), evaporated lithium, and injected lithium powder to apply lithium coatings to graphite plasma facing components. In 2005, following wall conditioning and LPI, discharges exhibited edge density reduction and performance improvements. Since 2006, first one, and now two lithium evaporators have been used routinely to evaporate lithium onto the lower divertor region at total rates of 10-70 mg/min for periods 5-10 min between discharges. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators are withdrawn behind shutters. Significant improvements in the performance of NBI heated divertor discharges resulting from these lithium depositions were observed. These evaporators are now used for more than 80% of NSTX discharges. Initial work with injecting fine lithium powder into the edge of NBI heated deuterium discharges yielded comparable changes in performance. Several operational issues encountered with lithium wall conditions, and the special procedures needed for vessel entry are discussed. The next step in this work is installation of a Liquid Lithium Divertor surface on the outer part of the lower divertor.

  6. Operant conditioning: a minimal components requirement in artificial spiking neurons designed for bio-inspired robot's controller.

    PubMed

    Cyr, André; Boukadoum, Mounir; Thériault, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the operant conditioning (OC) learning process within a bio-inspired paradigm, using artificial spiking neural networks (ASNN) to act as robot brain controllers. In biological agents, OC results in behavioral changes learned from the consequences of previous actions, based on progressive prediction adjustment from rewarding or punishing signals. In a neurorobotics context, virtual and physical autonomous robots may benefit from a similar learning skill when facing unknown and unsupervised environments. In this work, we demonstrate that a simple invariant micro-circuit can sustain OC in multiple learning scenarios. The motivation for this new OC implementation model stems from the relatively complex alternatives that have been described in the computational literature and recent advances in neurobiology. Our elementary kernel includes only a few crucial neurons, synaptic links and originally from the integration of habituation and spike-timing dependent plasticity as learning rules. Using several tasks of incremental complexity, our results show that a minimal neural component set is sufficient to realize many OC procedures. Hence, with the proposed OC module, designing learning tasks with an ASNN and a bio-inspired robot context leads to simpler neural architectures for achieving complex behaviors. PMID:25120464

  7. Lithium coatings on NSTX plasma facing components and its effects on boundary control, core plasma performance, and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Kugel, H. W.; Bell, M. G.; Maingi, R.

    2010-01-01

    NSTX high power divertor plasma experiments have used in succession lithium pellet injection (LPI), evaporated lithium, and injected lithium powder to apply lithium coatings to graphite plasma facing components. In 2005, following the wall conditioning and LPI, discharges exhibited edge density reduction and performance improvements. Since 2006, first one, and now two lithium evaporators have been used routinely to evaporate lithium onto the lower divertor region at total rates of 10-70 mg/min for periods 5-10 min between discharges. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators are withdrawn behind shutters. Significant improvements in the performance of NBI heated divertor discharges resulting from these lithium depositions were observed. These evaporators are now used for more than 80% of NSTX discharges. Initial work with injecting fine lithium powder into the edge of NBI heated deuterium discharges yielded comparable changes in performance. Several operational issues encountered with lithium wall conditions, and the special procedures needed for vessel entry are discussed. The next step in this work is installation of a liquid lithium divertor surface on the outer part of the lower divertor.

  8. Composite turbine bucket assembly

    DOEpatents

    Liotta, Gary Charles; Garcia-Crespo, Andres

    2014-05-20

    A composite turbine blade assembly includes a ceramic blade including an airfoil portion, a shank portion and an attachment portion; and a transition assembly adapted to attach the ceramic blade to a turbine disk or rotor, the transition assembly including first and second transition components clamped together, trapping said ceramic airfoil therebetween. Interior surfaces of the first and second transition portions are formed to mate with the shank portion and the attachment portion of the ceramic blade, and exterior surfaces of said first and second transition components are formed to include an attachment feature enabling the transition assembly to be attached to the turbine rotor or disk.

  9. Operating a triple stack microchannel plate-phosphor assembly for single particle counting in the 12-300 K temperature range.

    PubMed

    Rosén, Stefan; Schmidt, Henning T; Reinhed, Peter; Fischer, Daniel; Thomas, Richard D; Cederquist, Henrik; Liljeby, Leif; Bagge, Lars; Leontein, Sven; Blom, Mikael

    2007-11-01

    An assembly consisting of a stack of three microchannel plates (MCPs) and a phosphor screen anode has been operated over the temperature range from 300 to 12 K. We report on measurements at 6.4 kHz (using an alpha source) and with dark counts only (15 Hz). Without any particle source, the MCP bias current decreased by a factor of 2.1 x 10(3) when the temperature was lowered from 300 to 12 K. Using the alpha source, and a photomultiplier tube (PMT) to monitor the phosphor screen anode, we first observed an increase in the decay time of the phosphor from 12 to 45 mus when the temperature was decreased from 300 to 100 K while the decay time then decreased and reached a value of 5 mus at 12 K. The pulse height distribution from the PMT was measured between 300 and 12 K and shows a spectrum typical for a MCP phosphor setup at 300 K and 12 K but is strongly degraded for intermediate temperatures. We conclude that the present MCP-phosphor detector assembly is well suited for position-sensitive particle counting operation at temperatures down to at least 12 K even for count rates beyond 6 kHz. This result is crucial and an important part of ongoing developments of new instrumentation for investigations of, e.g., interactions involving complex molecular ions with internal quantum state control.

  10. An Overview of the Concept of Operations for Assembly, Integration, Testing and Ground Servicing Develoed for the MPCV-ESM Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielozer, M.; VanLear, Benjamin S.; Kindred, N.; Monien, G.; Schulte, U.

    2014-01-01

    A concept of operations for the Assembly, Integration and Testing (AIT) and the Ground Systems Development Operations (GSDO) of the European Service Module (ESM) propulsion system has been developed. The AIT concept of operations covers all fabrication, integration and testing activities in both Europe and in the United States. The GSDO Program develops the facilities, equipment, and procedures for the loading of hypergolic propellants, the filling of high-pressure gases, and contingency de-servicing operations for the ESM. NASA and ESA along with the Lockheed Martin and Airbus Space and Defense are currently working together for the EM-1 and EM-2 missions in which the ESM will be flown as part of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The NASA/ESA SM propulsion team is collaborating with the AIT personnel from ESA/Airbus and NASA/Lockheed Martin to ensure successful integration of the European designed Service Module propulsion system, the Lockheed Martin designed Crew Module Adapter and the heritage Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System Engines (OMS-E) being provided as Government Furnished Equipment (GFE). This paper will provide an overview of the current AIT and GSDO concept of operations for the ESM propulsion system.

  11. An Overview of the Concept of Operations for Assembly, Integration, Testing and Ground Servicing Developed for the MPCV-ESM Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    A concept of operations for the Assembly, Integration and Testing (AIT) and the Ground Systems Development Operations (GSDO) of the European Service Module (ESM) propulsion system has been developed. The AIT concept of operations covers all fabrication, integration and testing activities in both Europe and in the United States. The GSDO Program develops the facilities, equipment, and procedures for the loading of hypergolic propellants, the filling of high-pressure gases, and contingency de-servicing operations for the ESM. NASA and ESA along with the Lockheed Martin and Airbus Space and Defense are currently working together for the EM-1 and EM-2 missions in which the ESM will be flown as part of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The NASA/ESA SM propulsion team is collaborating with the AIT personnel from ESA/Airbus and NASA/Lockheed Martin to ensure successful integration of the European designed Service Module propulsion system, the Lockheed Martin designed Crew Module Adapter and the heritage Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System Engines (OMS-E) being provided as Government Furnished Equipment (GFE). This paper will provide an overview of the current AIT and GSDO concept of operations for the ESM propulsion system.

  12. SUMC reconfigurable micro-assembler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    The development of a reconfigurable micro-assembler to provide the micro-programmer the capability to specify micro-instructions in concise, meaningful terms is discussed. The implementation plan for the development of the micro-assembler was predicted on the existing capabilities of the SUMC Reconfigurable Assembler. Utilizing the reconfigurable assembler as a base, new directives and existing directive modifications were implemented to provide the micro-assembly as a new capability of the reconfigurable assembler. The micro-assembler language allows the specification of all micro-instruction control field settings in one concise assembler source statement. The language appears very similar to a conventional machine instruction assembler language. The machine instruction assembler language has the characteristic of one operation specification per statement whereas, the micro-instruction assembler language allows multiple operations to be designated per statement.

  13. Some design constraints required for the assembly of software components: The incorporation of atomic abstract types into generically structured abstract types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles S.

    1986-01-01

    It is nearly axiomatic, that to take the greatest advantage of the useful features available in a development system, and to avoid the negative interactions of those features, requires the exercise of a design methodology which constrains their use. A major design support feature of the Ada language is abstraction: for data, functions processes, resources, and system elements in general. Atomic abstract types can be created in packages defining those private types and all of the overloaded operators, functions, and hidden data required for their use in an application. Generically structured abstract types can be created in generic packages defining those structured private types, as buildups from the user-defined data types which are input as parameters. A study is made of the design constraints required for software incorporating either atomic or generically structured abstract types, if the integration of software components based on them is to be subsequently performed. The impact of these techniques on the reusability of software and the creation of project-specific software support environments is also discussed.

  14. SHARC: Space Habitat, Assembly and Repair Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colangelo, Todd; Hoetger, Debora; Kuo, Addison; Lo, Michael; Marcus, Leland; Tran, Philip; Tutt, Chris; Wassmuth, Chad; Wildgrube, Gregory

    1992-01-01

    Integrated Space Systems (ISS) has taken on the task of designing a Space Habitat, Assembly and Repair Center (SHARC) in Low Earth Orbit to meet the future needs of the space program. Our goal is to meet the general requirements given by the 1991/1992 AIAA/LORAL Team Space Design competition with an emphasis on minimizing the costs of such a design. A baseline structural configuration along with preliminary designs of the major subsystems was created. Our initial mission requirements, which were set by AIAA, were that the facility be able to: support simultaneous assembly of three major vehicles; conduct assembly operations and minimal extra vehicular activity (EVA); maintain orbit indefinitely; and assemble components 30 feet long with a 10 foot diameter in a shirtsleeve environment.

  15. Operational aspects of an externally driven neutron multiplier assembly concept using a Z-pinch 14-MeV Neutron Source (ZEDNA).

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, David Lewis; Heames, Terence John; Parma, Edward J., Jr.; Peters, Curtis D.; Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma

    2007-09-01

    This report documents the key safety and operational aspects of a Z-pinch Externally Driven Nuclear Assembly (ZEDNA) reactor concept which is envisioned to be built and operated at the Z-machine facility in Technical Area IV. Operating parameters and reactor neutronic conditions are established that would meet the design requirements of the system. Accident and off-normal conditions are analyzed using a point-kinetics, one-dimensional thermo-mechanical code developed specifically for ZEDNA applications. Downwind dose calculations are presented to determine the potential dose to the collocated worker and public in the event of a hypothetical catastrophic accident. Current and magnetic impulse modeling and the debris shield design are examined for the interface between the Z machine and the ZEDNA. This work was performed as part of the Advanced Fusion Grand Challenge Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program. The conclusion of this work is that the ZEDNA concept is feasible and could be operated at the Z-machine facility without undue risk to collocated workers and the public.

  16. Homogeneous and single-side-operational connector mechanism for self-reconfigurable, self-assembly and self-healing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Wei-Min (Inventor); Kovac, Robert M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Designs of single-end-operative reconfigurable genderless connectors that include a base, a plurality of movable jaws that are formed on the base and can engage to the jaws of another connector, and an actuator that is mounted on the base and can engage and move the jaws of the reconfigurable connector to connect the reconfigurable connector with another connector.

  17. Complete solution of the problem of one-dimensional non-covalent non-cooperative self-assembly in two-component systems.

    PubMed

    Evstigneev, V P; Mosunov, A A; Buchelnikov, A S; Hernandez Santiago, A A; Evstigneev, M P

    2011-05-21

    Equations for the mass conservation law and the molecular parameters observed in spectroscopic experiments have been derived for non-covalent, non-cooperative, one-dimensional self-assembly in systems containing two types of interacting molecules (hetero-association), taking into account "reflected" complexes and "edge effects."

  18. Initiator-catalyzed self-assembly of duplex-looped DNA hairpin motif based on strand displacement reaction for logic operations and amplified biosensing.

    PubMed

    Bi, Sai; Yue, Shuzhen; Wu, Qiang; Ye, Jiayan

    2016-09-15

    Here we program an initiator-catalyzed self-assembly of duplex-looped DNA hairpin motif based on strand displacement reaction. Due to the recycling of initiator and performance in a cascade manner, this system is versatilely extended to logic operations, including the construction of concatenated logic circuits with a feedback function and a biocomputing keypad-lock security system. Compared with previously reported molecular security systems, the prominent feature of our keypad lock is that it can be spontaneously reset and recycled with no need of any external stimulus and human intervention. Moreover, through integrating with an isothermal amplification technique of rolling circle amplification (RCA), this programming catalytic DNA self-assembly strategy readily achieves sensitive and selective biosensing of initiator. Importantly, a magnetic graphene oxide (MGO) is introduced to remarkably reduced background, which plays an important role in enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio and improving the detection sensitivity. Therefore, the proposed sophisticated DNA strand displacement-based methodology with engineering dynamic functions may find broad applications in the construction of programming DNA nanostructures, amplification biosensing platform, and large-scale DNA circuits. PMID:27132002

  19. Initiator-catalyzed self-assembly of duplex-looped DNA hairpin motif based on strand displacement reaction for logic operations and amplified biosensing.

    PubMed

    Bi, Sai; Yue, Shuzhen; Wu, Qiang; Ye, Jiayan

    2016-09-15

    Here we program an initiator-catalyzed self-assembly of duplex-looped DNA hairpin motif based on strand displacement reaction. Due to the recycling of initiator and performance in a cascade manner, this system is versatilely extended to logic operations, including the construction of concatenated logic circuits with a feedback function and a biocomputing keypad-lock security system. Compared with previously reported molecular security systems, the prominent feature of our keypad lock is that it can be spontaneously reset and recycled with no need of any external stimulus and human intervention. Moreover, through integrating with an isothermal amplification technique of rolling circle amplification (RCA), this programming catalytic DNA self-assembly strategy readily achieves sensitive and selective biosensing of initiator. Importantly, a magnetic graphene oxide (MGO) is introduced to remarkably reduced background, which plays an important role in enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio and improving the detection sensitivity. Therefore, the proposed sophisticated DNA strand displacement-based methodology with engineering dynamic functions may find broad applications in the construction of programming DNA nanostructures, amplification biosensing platform, and large-scale DNA circuits.

  20. Coupled energetics of lambda cro repressor self-assembly and site-specific DNA operator binding II: cooperative interactions of cro dimers.

    PubMed

    Darling, P J; Holt, J M; Ackers, G K

    2000-09-22

    The bacteriophage lambda relies on interactions of the cI and cro repressors which self assemble and bind the two operators (O(R) and O(L)) of the phage genome to control the lysogenic to lytic switch. While the self assembly and O(R) binding of cI have been investigated in detail, a more complete understanding of gene regulation by phage lambda also requires detailed knowledge of the role of cro repressor as it dimerizes and binds at O(R) sites. Since dimerization and operator binding are coupled processes, a full elucidation of the regulatory energetics in this system requires that the equilibrium constants for dimerization and cooperative binding be determined. The dimerization constant for cro has been measured as a prelude to these binding studies. Here, the energetics of cro binding to O(R) are evaluated using quantitative DNaseI footprint titration techniques. Binding data for wild-type and modified O(R) site combinations have been simultaneously analyzed in concert with the dimerization energetics to obtain both the intrinsic and cooperative DNA binding energies for cro with the three O(R) sites. Binding of cro dimers is strongest to O(R)3, then O(R)1 and lastly, O(R)2. Adjacently bound repressors exhibit positive cooperativity ranging from -0.6 to -1.0 kcal/mol. Implications of these, newly resolved, energetics are discussed in the framework of a dynamic model for gene regulation. This characterization of the DNA-binding properties of cro repressor establishes the foundation on which the system can be explored for other, more complex, regulatory elements such as cI-cro cooperativity.

  1. Stabilized composite membranes and membrane electrode assemblies for high temperature/low relative humidity polymer electrolyte fuel cell operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramani, Vijay Krishna

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have a variety of applications in the stationary power, mobile power and automotive power sectors. Existing membrane technology presently permits fuel cell operation at temperatures less than 100°C under fully saturated conditions. However, several advantages such as easier heat rejection rates and improved impurities tolerance by the anode electrocatalyst result by operating a PEMFC at elevated temperatures (above 100°C) and lower relative humidities. In an attempt to extend the operating range of the polymer electrolyte membrane, perfluorosulfonic acid (NafionRTM) based organic/inorganic (heteropolyacid) composite membranes were investigated in terms of thermal and electrochemical stability, additive stability and conductivity. Tungsten based heteropolyacids (HPAs) were found to be electrochemically stable as opposed to molybdenum based additives. The stability of the inorganic heteropolyacid additive in aqueous environments was enhanced by ion exchanging the protons of the HPAs with larger counter ions. An additional stabilization technique developed involved improving the interaction of HPA with NafionRTM by linking the particles to the sulfonic acid clusters via a sol-gel induced metal oxide linkage. The proton conductivity of the composite membranes was found to depend on the particle size of the HPA additive. A two order of magnitude change in additive particle size was attained by modification of the membrane preparation technique. This modification resulted in a nearly 50% increase in conductivity. The membranes prepared were characterized by thermal analysis, spectroscopy and microscopy. A technique was developed to incorporate existing MEA preparation and HPA stabilization techniques to the composite membranes with small HPA particles. All MEAs prepared were evaluated at high temperatures (120°C) and low relative humidities (35%) in an operating fuel cell, with membrane resistance and hence conductivity

  2. An assembly to provide a time reference for the JPL Network Operations Control Center, Real-Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, P. A.; Lopez, J. G.; Kelley, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    A device is described which provides the value of date coordinated universal time (date UTC) to the JPL Network Operations Control Center, Real Time (NOCC-RT) facility. The NOCC-RT is the real time portion of the NOCC upgrade task. The time scale is generated in the NOCC-RT clock processor; however, there is a continuous reference to UTC, as realized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology and transmitted by Earth orbiting satellites. An important functional design requirement is the 99.9 pct. availability.

  3. Software design for automated assembly of truss structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herstrom, Catherine L.; Grantham, Carolyn; Allen, Cheryl L.; Doggett, William R.; Will, Ralph W.

    1992-01-01

    Concern over the limited intravehicular activity time has increased the interest in performing in-space assembly and construction operations with automated robotic systems. A technique being considered at LaRC is a supervised-autonomy approach, which can be monitored by an Earth-based supervisor that intervenes only when the automated system encounters a problem. A test-bed to support evaluation of the hardware and software requirements for supervised-autonomy assembly methods was developed. This report describes the design of the software system necessary to support the assembly process. The software is hierarchical and supports both automated assembly operations and supervisor error-recovery procedures, including the capability to pause and reverse any operation. The software design serves as a model for the development of software for more sophisticated automated systems and as a test-bed for evaluation of new concepts and hardware components.

  4. New World and Old World Alphaviruses Have Evolved to Exploit Different Components of Stress Granules, FXR and G3BP Proteins, for Assembly of Viral Replication Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dal Young; Reynaud, Josephine M.; Rasalouskaya, Aliaksandra; Akhrymuk, Ivan; Mobley, James A.; Frolov, Ilya; Frolova, Elena I.

    2016-01-01

    The positive-strand RNA viruses initiate their amplification in the cell from a single genome delivered by virion. This single RNA molecule needs to become involved in replication process before it is recognized and degraded by cellular machinery. In this study, we show that distantly related New World and Old World alphaviruses have independently evolved to utilize different cellular stress granule-related proteins for assembly of complexes, which recruit viral genomic RNA and facilitate formation of viral replication complexes (vRCs). Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) utilizes all members of the Fragile X syndrome (FXR) family, while chikungunya and Sindbis viruses exploit both members of the G3BP family. Despite being in different families, these proteins share common characteristics, which determine their role in alphavirus replication, namely, the abilities for RNA-binding and for self-assembly into large structures. Both FXR and G3BP proteins interact with virus-specific, repeating amino acid sequences located in the C-termini of hypervariable, intrinsically disordered domains (HVDs) of viral nonstructural protein nsP3. We demonstrate that these host factors orchestrate assembly of vRCs and play key roles in RNA and virus replication. Only knockout of all of the homologs results in either pronounced or complete inhibition of replication of different alphaviruses. The use of multiple homologous proteins with redundant functions mediates highly efficient recruitment of viral RNA into the replication process. This independently evolved acquisition of different families of cellular proteins by the disordered protein fragment to support alphavirus replication suggests that other RNA viruses may utilize a similar mechanism of host factor recruitment for vRC assembly. The use of different host factors by alphavirus species may be one of the important determinants of their pathogenesis. PMID:27509095

  5. Functional colloidal trimers by quenched electrostatic assembly.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Joseph J; Chaturvedi, Neetu; Velegol, Darrell

    2010-10-14

    It is shown how to assemble three particles into a single "colloidal trimer". The particles may consist of different materials and be different sizes, and they can be assembled in a particular sequence (i.e. 1-2-3 or 2-1-3 or 2-3-1). Several trimer assemblies are demonstrated, including polystyrene-silica-polystyrene, gold-polystyrene-silver, and gold-silicon-silver. The gold-silicon-silver assembly operates as a catalytic motor, moving rapidly by autoelectrophoresis when placed in a hydrogen peroxide solution. The assemblies are made by allowing oppositely-charged particles to aggregate in a diffusion-limited manner for a time, and then quenching the aggregation by the addition of a nanoparticle coating on one of the particles. We call this method "Quenched Electrostatic Assembly", and it serves as a general, scalable method for synthesizing multi-component colloidal trimers, including those requiring a certain sequential order, but not requiring particular orientations. In addition, when polymer nanoparticles are used to quench the aggregation, they can be fused above their glass transition temperature to produce assemblies that are mechanically stable. PMID:20830380

  6. Involvement of newborn neurons in olfactory associative learning? The operant or non-operant component of the task makes all the difference.

    PubMed

    Mandairon, Nathalie; Sultan, Sébastien; Nouvian, Morgane; Sacquet, Joelle; Didier, Anne

    2011-08-31

    New neurons are continuously generated in the adult mammalian olfactory bulb. The role of these newborn neurons in olfactory learning has been debated. Blocking the addition of neurons has been reported either to result in memory alteration or to have no effect at all (Imayoshi et al., 2008; Breton-Provencher et al., 2009; Lazarini et al., 2009; Sultan et al., 2010). These discrepancies may have arisen from differences in the behavioral paradigms used: operant procedures indicated that neurogenesis blockade had substantial effects on long-term memory (Lazarini et al., 2009; Sultan et al., 2010) whereas other methods had little effect (Imayoshi et al., 2008; Breton-Provencher et al., 2009). Surprisingly, while operant learning is known to modulate the survival of new neurons, the effect of non-operant learning on newborn cells is unknown. Here we use mice to show that compared with operant learning, non-operant learning does not affect cell survival, perhaps explaining the current controversy. In addition, we provide evidence that distinct neural substrates at least partly underlie these two forms of learning. We conclude that the involvement of newborn neurons in learning is subtly dependent on the nature of the behavioral task.

  7. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-06-13

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the CH Packaging Drum payload assembly, Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly, Abnormal Operations and ICV and OCV Preshipment Leakage Rate Tests on the packaging seals, using a nondestructive Helium (He) Leak Test.

  8. Design, assembly, and testing of a high-resolution relay lens used for holography with operation at both doubled and tripled Nd:YAG laser wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Sorenson, Danny S; Pazuchanics, Peter D; Malone, Robert M; Cox, Brian C; Frogget, Brent C; Kaufman, Morris I; Capelle, Gene A

    2009-01-01

    The design and assembly of a nine-element lens that achieves >2000 1p/mm resolution at a 355-nm wavelength (ultraviolet) has been completed. By adding a doublet to this lens system, operation at a 532-nm wavelength (green) with > 1100 1p/mm resolution is achieved. This lens is used with high-power laser light to record holograms of fast-moving ejecta particles from a shocked metal surface located inside a test package. Part of the lens and the entire test package are under vacuum with a 1-cm air gap separation. Holograms have been recorded with both doubled and tripled Nd:YAG laser light. The UV operation is very sensitive to the package window's tilt. If this window is tilted by more than 0.1 degrees, the green operation performs with better resolution than that of the UV operation. The setup and alignment are performed with green light, but the dynamic recording can be done with either UV light or green light. A resolution plate can be temporarily placed inside the test package so that a television microscope located beyond the hologram position can archive images of resolution patterns that prove that the calibration wires., interference filter, holographic plate, and relay lenses are in their correct positions. Part of this lens is under vacuum, at the point where the laser illumination passes through a focus. Alignment and tolerancing of this high-resolution lens are presented. Resolution variation across the 12-mm field of view and throughout the 5-mm depth of field is discussed for both wavelengths.

  9. Activation of the Escherichia coli β-barrel assembly machine (Bam) is required for essential components to interact properly with substrate.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Dante P; Hagan, Christine L; Kahne, Daniel; Silhavy, Thomas J

    2012-02-28

    The outer membrane (OM) of gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli contains lipoproteins and integral β-barrel proteins (outer-membrane proteins, OMPs) assembled into an asymmetrical lipid bilayer. Insertion of β-barrel proteins into the OM is mediated by a protein complex that contains the OMP BamA and four associated lipoproteins (BamBCDE). The mechanism by which the Bam complex catalyzes the assembly of OMPs is not known. We report here the isolation and characterization of a temperature-sensitive lethal mutation, bamAE373K, which alters the fifth polypeptide transport-associated domain and disrupts the interaction between the BamAB and BamCDE subcomplexes. Suppressor mutations that map to codon 197 in bamD restore Bam complex function to wild-type levels. However, these suppressors do not restore the interaction between BamA and BamD; rather, they bypass the requirement for stable holocomplex formation by activating BamD. These results imply that BamA and BamD interact directly with OMP substrates.

  10. Payload operation television system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Payload Operation Television System is a high performance closed-circuit TV system designed to determine the feasibility of using TV to augment purely visual monitoring of operations, and to establish optimum system design of an operating unit which can ultimately be used to assist the operator of a remotely manipulated space-borne cargo loading device. The TV system assembled on this program is intended for laboratory experimentation which would develop operational techniques and lead to the design of space-borne TV equipment whose purpose would be to assist the astronaut-operator aboard a space station to load payload components. The equipment consists principally of a good quality TV camera capable of high resolving power; a TV monitor; a sync generator for driving camera and monitor; and two pan/tilt units which are remotely controlled by the operator.

  11. Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems.

  12. The Bicycle Assembly Line Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klotz, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    "The Bicycle Assembly Line Game" is a team-based, in-class activity that helps students develop a basic understanding of continuously operating processes. Each team of 7-10 students selects one of seven prefigured bicycle assembly lines to operate. The lines are run in real-time, and the team that operates the line that yields the…

  13. Robotic System for Precision Assembly of NIF Ignition Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Montesanti, R C; Seugling, R M; Klingmann, J L; Dzenitis, E G; Alger, E T; Miller, G L; Kent, R A; Castro, C; Reynolds, J L; Carrillo, M A

    2008-08-27

    This paper provides an overview of the design and testing of a robotic system developed for assembling the inertial confinement fusion ignition targets (depicted in Figures 1 and 2) that will be fielded on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser [1]. The system, referred to as the Final Assembly Machine and shown in Figure 3, consists of six groups of stacked axes that allow manipulating millimeter-sized components with submicron precision, integrated with an optical coordinate measuring machine (OCMM) that provides in-situ metrology. Nineteen motorized axes and ten manual axes are used to control the position and orientation of five objects that are predominantly assembled together in a cubic centimeter work zone. An operator-in-the-loop provides top-level control of the system, making it more similar to a surgical robot than to a programmed computer-controlled machine tool. The operator is provided visual feedback by the vision system of the OCMM, and tactile feedback by force and torque sensors embedded in the tooling that holds the major components being assembled. The vision system is augmented with auxiliary mirrors providing multiple viewing directions, and is used to guide the approach and alignment of the components, and to measure the relative position and orientation of the components. The force and torque sensors are used to guide the final approach, alignment, and mating of the components that are designed to slip-fit together, and to monitor that mating while adhesively bonding those components and attaching the target base.

  14. Wind turbine rotor assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, H. W.

    1984-11-20

    A vertical axis wind turbine having a horizontal arm member which supports an upright blade assembly. Bearing structure coupling the blade assembly to the turbine arm permits blade movement about its longitudinal axis as well as flexing motion of the blade assembly about axes perpendicular to the longitudinal axis. A latching mechanism automatically locks the blade assembly to its supporting arm during normal turbine operation and automatically unlocks same when the turbine is at rest. For overspeed prevention, a centrifugally actuated arm functions to unlatch the blade assembly permitting same to slipstream or feather into the wind. Manually actuated means are also provided for unlatching the moving blade assembly. The turbine arm additionally carries a switching mechanism in circuit with a turbine generator with said mechanism functioning to open and hence protect the generator circuit in the event of an overspeed condition of the turbine.

  15. Payload operation television system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The TV system assembled is intended for laboratory experimentation which would develop operational techniques and lead to the design of space-borne TV equipment whose purpose would be to assist the astronaut-operator aboard a space station to load payload components. The TV system assembled for this program is a black and white, monocular, high performance system. The equipment consists principally of a good quality TV camera capable of high resolving power; a TV monitor; a sync generator for driving camera and monitor; and two pan/tilt units which are remotely controlled by the operator. One pan/tilt unit provides control of the pointing of the camera, the other similarly controls the position of a simulated payload.

  16. Growth of the nuclear envelope in the vegetative phase of the green alga Acetabularia. Evidence for assembly from membrane components synthesized in the cytoplasm

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    The primary nucleus of the green alga Acetabularia grows about 25,000- fold in volume while it is separated from the endoplasmic reticulum and the whole cytoplasm by a special paranuclear cisterna of a vacuolar labyrinthum system which shows only very few (two to six per square micrometer) and small (ca. 40-120 nm in diamter) fenestrations. The nuclear envelope does not bear polyribosomes, nor do they occur in the entire zone intermediate between the nuclear envelope and the paranuclear cisterna. It is suggested that this special form of nuclear envelope growth takes place by assembly from cytoplasmically synthesized proteins that are translocated across the paranuclear cisterna in a nonmembrane-structured form. PMID:1158977

  17. Growth of the nuclear envelope in the vegetative phase of the green alga Acetabularia. Evidence for assembly from membrane components synthesized in the cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Franke, W W; Spring, H; Scheer, U; Zerban, H

    1975-09-01

    The primary nucleus of the green alga Acetabularia grows about 25,000-fold in volume while it is separated from the endoplasmic reticulum and the whole cytoplasm by a special paranuclear cisterna of a vacuolar labyrinthum system which shows only very few (two to six per square micrometer) and small (ca. 40-120 nm in diamter) fenestrations. The nuclear envelope does not bear polyribosomes, nor do they occur in the entire zone intermediate between the nuclear envelope and the paranuclear cisterna. It is suggested that this special form of nuclear envelope growth takes place by assembly from cytoplasmically synthesized proteins that are translocated across the paranuclear cisterna in a nonmembrane-structured form.

  18. The association between component malalignment and post-operative pain following navigation-assisted total knee arthroplasty: results of a cohort/nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Czurda, Thomas; Fennema, Peter; Baumgartner, Martin; Ritschl, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies have noted an adverse relationship between implant malalignment during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and post-operative pain. Although some evidence exists indicating that computer-assisted surgical navigation for TKA can improve the accuracy of component alignment, its impact on clinical outcomes is currently unknown. The dual goals of the present cohort/nested case-control study were to (1) compare self-reported responses to the Western Ontario-McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire between computer-assisted TKA (123 patients) using the imageless PiGalileo navigation system and conventional TKA (207 patients) [cohort analysis], and (2) to investigate a potential association between malalignment and post-operative pain in 19 painful knees and 19 asymptomatic knees obtained from the cohort analysis using matched sampling [nested case-control study]. In the cohort analysis, a relevant but non-significant (P = 0.06) difference in the occurrence of chronic pain was observed between the navigated (12%) and conventional arms (20%). Median post-operative WOMAC pain score was 100 (range, 50-100) in the conventional group and 100 (range, 65-100) in the navigated group. However, the Mann-Whitney test revealed a significant difference in favor of the navigated group (P = 0.01). In the nested case-control analysis, radiological outcomes and computer tomography (CT) measurements of femoral rotation were compared between the groups. The CT rotation measurements yielded evidence of a relationship between post-operative pain and incorrect rotational alignment of the femoral component of more than 3 degrees (OR: 7; 95% CI: 1.2-42; P = .033). In conclusion, there was no clinical benefit to computer-assisted navigation; however, a statistically significant relationship was observed between incorrect rotational alignment of the femoral component and symptoms of post-operative pain following TKA.

  19. Aircraft noise reduction technology. [to show impact on individuals and communities, component noise sources, and operational procedures to reduce impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Aircraft and airport noise reduction technology programs conducted by NASA are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) effects of aircraft noise on individuals and communities, (2) status of aircraft source noise technology, (3) operational procedures to reduce the impact of aircraft noise, and (4) NASA relations with military services in aircraft noise problems. References to more detailed technical literature on the subjects discussed are included.

  20. Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4: Automated array assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagerty, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    The cell preparation station was installed in its new enclosure. Operation verification tests were performed. The detailed layout drawings of the automated lamination station were produced and construction began. All major and most minor components were delivered by vendors. The station framework was built and assembly of components begun.

  1. Continuous chemical operations and modifications on magnetic γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles confined in nanoliter droplets for the assembly of fluorescent and magnetic SiO2@γ-Fe2O3.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, D; Lin, Y; Teste, B; Talbot, D; Malaquin, L; Descroix, S; Abou-Hassan, A

    2015-12-11

    We present a microfluidic platform that allows undergoing different chemical operations in a nanoliter droplet starting from the colloidal suspension of magnetic iron oxide (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles "NPs" (ferrofluid). These operations include: mixing, flocculation, magnetic decantation, colloidal redispersion, washing, surface functionalization, heating and colloidal assembly. To prove the platform capabilities, we produced fluorescent and magnetic nanoassemblies composed of fluorescent silica and magnetic NPs. PMID:26435272

  2. Belle II SVD ladder assembly procedure and electrical qualification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, Varghese; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, T.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; Divekar, S. T.; Doležal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C.; Kandra, J.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyš, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kvasnička, P.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Negishi, K.; Nisar, N. K.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rao, K. K.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rizzo, G.; Rozanska, M.; Sandilya, S.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G. N.; Thalmeier, R.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, L.; Volpi, M.; Watanuki, S.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.

    2016-07-01

    The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB asymmetric e+e- collider in Japan will operate at a luminosity approximately 50 times larger than its predecessor (Belle). At its heart lies a six-layer vertex detector comprising two layers of pixelated silicon detectors (PXD) and four layers of double-sided silicon microstrip detectors (SVD). One of the key measurements for Belle II is time-dependent CP violation asymmetry, which hinges on a precise charged-track vertex determination. Towards this goal, a proper assembly of the SVD components with precise alignment ought to be performed and the geometrical tolerances should be checked to fall within the design limits. We present an overview of the assembly procedure that is being followed, which includes the precision gluing of the SVD module components, wire-bonding of the various electrical components, and precision three dimensional coordinate measurements of the jigs used in assembly as well as of the final SVD modules.

  3. Tooling concepts for ITER tokamak assembly and remote disassembly

    SciTech Connect

    Oikawa, A.; Puhn, F.; Helary, J.L.; Shaw, R.; Friend, M.; Piec, Z.; Tachikawa, N.; Acks, M.; Basile, A.

    1995-12-31

    Since ITER has many of the characteristics of a full-scale tokamak reactor, its provisions for assembly and replaceability are relevant to a future fusion power plant. The performance of ITER is dependent on tight tolerances, mainly for the magnets and plasma facing components. The magnetic field must be highly uniform in the toroidal direction to ensure good plasma energy and particle confinement. Alignment of the plasma facing surface of the first wall and divertor target plates is required to avoid large local heat loads on the plasma facing components and, as a consequence, their erosion and contamination of the plasma with impurities. Because of the large and heavy components the major challenge of the ITER tokamak assembly is to hold such tight tolerances using guide tools, adjustable interfaces, accurate measuring tools, and specific procedures to compensate for deformation and fabrication tolerances. The assembly tooling plan also includes verification of the essential remote handling operations.

  4. IOP1 Protein Is an External Component of the Human Cytosolic Iron-Sulfur Cluster Assembly (CIA) Machinery and Functions in the MMS19 Protein-dependent CIA Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Mineaki; Takeda, Yukiko; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2013-01-01

    The emerging link between iron metabolism and genome integrity is increasingly clear. Recent studies have revealed that MMS19 and cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster assembly (CIA) factors form a complex and have central roles in CIA pathway. However, the composition of the CIA complex, particularly the involvement of the Fe-S protein IOP1, is still unclear. The roles of each component are also largely unknown. Here, we show that MMS19, MIP18, and CIAO1 form a tight “core” complex and that IOP1 is an “external” component of this complex. Although IOP1 and the core complex form a complex both in vivo and in vitro, IOP1 behaves differently in vivo. A deficiency in any core component leads to down-regulation of all of the components. In contrast, IOP1 knockdown does not affect the level of any core component. In MMS19-overproducing cells, other core components are also up-regulated, but the protein level of IOP1 remains unchanged. IOP1 behaves like a target protein in the CIA reaction, like other Fe-S helicases, and the core complex may participate in the maturation process of IOP1. Alternatively, the core complex may catch and hold IOP1 when it becomes mature to prevent its degradation. In any case, IOP1 functions in the MMS19-dependent CIA pathway. We also reveal that MMS19 interacts with target proteins. MIP18 has a role to bridge MMS19 and CIAO1. CIAO1 also binds IOP1. Based on our in vivo and in vitro data, new models of the CIA machinery are proposed. PMID:23585563

  5. IOP1 protein is an external component of the human cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster assembly (CIA) machinery and functions in the MMS19 protein-dependent CIA pathway.

    PubMed

    Seki, Mineaki; Takeda, Yukiko; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2013-06-01

    The emerging link between iron metabolism and genome integrity is increasingly clear. Recent studies have revealed that MMS19 and cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster assembly (CIA) factors form a complex and have central roles in CIA pathway. However, the composition of the CIA complex, particularly the involvement of the Fe-S protein IOP1, is still unclear. The roles of each component are also largely unknown. Here, we show that MMS19, MIP18, and CIAO1 form a tight "core" complex and that IOP1 is an "external" component of this complex. Although IOP1 and the core complex form a complex both in vivo and in vitro, IOP1 behaves differently in vivo. A deficiency in any core component leads to down-regulation of all of the components. In contrast, IOP1 knockdown does not affect the level of any core component. In MMS19-overproducing cells, other core components are also up-regulated, but the protein level of IOP1 remains unchanged. IOP1 behaves like a target protein in the CIA reaction, like other Fe-S helicases, and the core complex may participate in the maturation process of IOP1. Alternatively, the core complex may catch and hold IOP1 when it becomes mature to prevent its degradation. In any case, IOP1 functions in the MMS19-dependent CIA pathway. We also reveal that MMS19 interacts with target proteins. MIP18 has a role to bridge MMS19 and CIAO1. CIAO1 also binds IOP1. Based on our in vivo and in vitro data, new models of the CIA machinery are proposed.

  6. Automatic in-orbit assembly of large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacquemin, G. G.

    1979-01-01

    The automated assembly of a large number of components required for the on-orbit erection of large tetrahedral space platforms is described. The assembly machine is a huge jig in which a multitude of mechanisms must operated continuously in the thermo vacuum environment of space and under the control of computers programmed to command every step of each motion. The concepts are presented to determine the most reliable solution. Continuous operation of mechanisms in space presents many unresolved problems, with regard to lubrication of unprotected devices, such as chain drives, which must maintain reasonable positioning tolerances.

  7. Temperature tracking SPICE macro-model for laser and LED driven opto-coupler assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Deveney, M.F.

    1992-09-01

    SPICE 2G.6 compatible models were required for two opto-coupler assemblies in order to perform simulations to assess the design margins of the circuits in which they are used. Both of these assemblies are made up of discrete components, with one employing a laser diode as the light source, while the second uses a LED. Although, in use, these assemblies couple digital-like pulse trains, they are analog devices capable of operating over wider ranges of voltage than digital devices. Robust models which accurately simulate over these voltage ranges were desired. Also for ease of use, models that would track the operation of each of the assemblies over the entire specified temperature range were preferred. In addition to simulating the assembles in their intended mode of operation, it was necessary to reproduce an unwanted noise signal transfer that was observed in an early prototype circuit.

  8. Temperature tracking SPICE macro-model for laser and LED driven opto-coupler assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Deveney, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    SPICE 2G.6 compatible models were required for two opto-coupler assemblies in order to perform simulations to assess the design margins of the circuits in which they are used. Both of these assemblies are made up of discrete components, with one employing a laser diode as the light source, while the second uses a LED. Although, in use, these assemblies couple digital-like pulse trains, they are analog devices capable of operating over wider ranges of voltage than digital devices. Robust models which accurately simulate over these voltage ranges were desired. Also for ease of use, models that would track the operation of each of the assemblies over the entire specified temperature range were preferred. In addition to simulating the assembles in their intended mode of operation, it was necessary to reproduce an unwanted noise signal transfer that was observed in an early prototype circuit.

  9. Triggered and catalyzed self-assembly of hyperbranched DNA structures for logic operations and homogeneous CRET biosensing of microRNA.

    PubMed

    Bi, Sai; Yue, Shuzhen; Wu, Qiang; Ye, Jiayan

    2016-04-01

    Toehold-mediated strand displacement-based nanocircuits are developed by integrating catalytic hairpin assembly (CHA) with hybridization chain reaction (HCR), which achieves self-assembly of hyperbranched DNA structures and is readily utilized as an enzyme-free amplifier for homogeneous CRET detection of microRNA with high sensitivity and selectivity. PMID:27010350

  10. Recuperator assembly and procedures

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Yungmo; McKeirnan, Jr., Robert D.

    2008-08-26

    A construction of recuperator core segments is provided which insures proper assembly of the components of the recuperator core segment, and of a plurality of recuperator core segments. Each recuperator core segment must be constructed so as to prevent nesting of fin folds of the adjacent heat exchanger foils of the recuperator core segment. A plurality of recuperator core segments must be assembled together so as to prevent nesting of adjacent fin folds of adjacent recuperator core segments.

  11. Recuperator assembly and procedures

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Yungmo; McKeirnan, Jr., Robert D.

    2006-06-27

    A construction of recuperator core segments is provided which insures proper assembly of the components of the recuperator core segment, and of a plurality of recuperator core segments. Each recuperator core segment must be constructed so as to prevent nesting of fin folds of the adjacent heat exchanger foils of the recuperator core segment. A plurality of recuperator core segments must be assembled together so as to prevent nesting of adjacent fin folds of adjacent recuperator core segments.

  12. Evolving Systems: Nonlinear Adaptive Key Component Control with Persistent Disturbance Rejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balas, Mark J.; Frost, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to Evolving Systems, which are autonomously controlled subsystems that self-assemble into a new Evolved System with a higher purpose. Evolving Systems of aerospace structures often require additional control when assembling to maintain stability during the entire evolution process. This is the concept of Adaptive Key Component Control which operates through one specific component to maintain stability during the evolution. In addition this control must overcome persistent disturbances that occur while the evolution is in progress. We present theoretical results for the successful operation of Nonlinear Adaptive Key Component control in the presence of such disturbances and an illustrative example.

  13. 19 CFR 10.16 - Assembly abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... assembly. Example. Diodes are assembled abroad from American-made components. The process includes the... form of a pellet, and is of foreign origin. After the prefabricated diode components are assembled, the... for the diode. Upon importation, exemption may be granted for the value of the...

  14. 19 CFR 10.16 - Assembly abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... assembly. Example. Diodes are assembled abroad from American-made components. The process includes the... form of a pellet, and is of foreign origin. After the prefabricated diode components are assembled, the... for the diode. Upon importation, exemption may be granted for the value of the...

  15. 19 CFR 10.16 - Assembly abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... assembly. Example. Diodes are assembled abroad from American-made components. The process includes the... form of a pellet, and is of foreign origin. After the prefabricated diode components are assembled, the... for the diode. Upon importation, exemption may be granted for the value of the...

  16. 19 CFR 10.16 - Assembly abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... assembly. Example. Diodes are assembled abroad from American-made components. The process includes the... form of a pellet, and is of foreign origin. After the prefabricated diode components are assembled, the... for the diode. Upon importation, exemption may be granted for the value of the...

  17. 19 CFR 10.16 - Assembly abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... assembly. Example. Diodes are assembled abroad from American-made components. The process includes the... form of a pellet, and is of foreign origin. After the prefabricated diode components are assembled, the... for the diode. Upon importation, exemption may be granted for the value of the...

  18. Controlling molecular assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dameron, Arrelaine A.

    , a molecular ink is patterned by contact with a patterned stamp directly atop an existing adamantanethiolate self-assembled monolayer, displacing the self-assembled monolayer everywhere the self-assembled monolayer is contacted. In this way, artificial diffusion barriers are created that block lateral mobility of the stamped molecules during patterning, allowing the patterning of molecules that are otherwise not patternable by conventional techniques. We also studied the influence of deposition time and the substrate species presence on molecular transport during dip-pen nanolithography. The transport rate was dependent on the size of the patterned features, and slowed down as a function of total deposition time. Additionally, the transported molecules interacted with preexisiting substrate molecules, and the transport rate was influenced by the functionality of substrate species. These studies demonstrate how complex assembles can be controlled by manipulating the properties of the individual components of the molecular device.

  19. The Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility, located in eastern New Orleans, Louisiana, is an 832 acre site that is a government-owned, contractor-operated component of the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The facility was acquired by NASA in 1961 at the recommendation of Dr. Wernher von Braun and his rocket team in Huntsville Alabama. The cavernous plant served as the assembly facility for the Saturn launch vehicles and most recently the external tank (ET) used for the Space Shuttle Program. The facility features one of the world's biggest manufacturing plants with 43 acres under one roof and a port with deep-water access for the transportation of large space structures. When completed, space hardware is towed on a barge across the Gulf of Mexico, around Florida and up to Kennedy Space Center. The original tract of land was part of a 34,500 acre French Royal land grant to local merchant, Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent in 1763. Later, the land was acquired by French transplant Antoine Michoud, the son of Napoleon's Administrator of Domains, who moved to the city in 1827. Michoud operated a sugar cane plantation and refinery on the site until his death in 1863. His heirs continued operating the refinery and kept the original St. Maxent estate intact into the 20th century. Two brick smokestacks from the original refinery still stand before the Michoud facility today.

  20. The Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility, located in eastern New Orleans, Louisiana, is an 832 acre site that is a government-owned, contractor-operated component of the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The facility was acquired by NASA in 1961 at the recommendation of Dr. Wernher von Braun and his rocket team in Huntsville Alabama. The cavernous plant served as the assembly facility for the Saturn launch vehicles and most recently the external tank (ET) used for the Space Shuttle Program. The facility features one of the world's biggest manufacturing plants with 43 acres under one roof and a port with deep-water access for the transportation of large space structures. When completed, space hardware is towed on a barge across the Gulf of Mexico, around Florida and up to Kennedy Space Center. The original tract of land was part of a 34,500 acre French Royal land grant to local merchant, Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent in 1763. Later, the land was acquired by French transplant Antoine Michoud, the son of Napoleon's Administrator of Domains, who moved to the city in 1827. Michoud operated a sugar cane plantation and refinery on the site until his death in 1863. His heirs continued operating the refinery and kept the original St. Maxent estate intact into the 20th century. Visible on the right, is one of two brick smokestacks from the original refinery that still stand before the Michoud facility today.

  1. The Worker Component At The World Trade Center Cleanup: Addressing Cultural And Language Differences In Emergency Operations

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, B.; Carpenter, C.; Blair. D.

    2003-02-24

    On September 11, 2001, the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) caused astronomical loss of life and property. Systems in place to manage disaster response were strained to the limit because key first responders were among the casualties when the twin towers collapsed. In addition, the evolution of events required immediate response in a rapidly changing and extremely hazardous situation. Rescue, recovery, and clean up became an overpowering and sustained effort that would utilize the resources of federal, state and local governments and agencies. One issue during the response to the WTC disaster site that did not receive much attention was that of the limited and non-English speaking worker. The Operating Engineers National HAZMAT Program (OENHP), with its history of a Hispanic Outreach Program, was acutely aware of this issue with the Hispanic worker. The Hispanic population comprises approximately 27% of the population of New York City (1). The extremely unfortunate and tragic events of that day provided an opportunity to not only provide assistance for the Hispanic workers, but also to apply lessons learned and conduct studies on worker training with language barriers in a real life environment. However, due to the circumstances surrounding this tragedy, the study of these issues was conducted primarily by observation. Through partnerships with other organizations such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the New York Health Department, the New York Department of Design and Construction (DDC), the New York Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (NYCOSH), and private companies such as 3M and MSA, OENHP was able to provide translated information on hazards, protective measures, fit testing of respirators, and site specific safety and health training. The OENHP translated materials on hazards and how to protect workers into Spanish to assist in getting the information to the limited and non- English speaking workers.

  2. Modeling and Simulation of the ARES UPPER STAGE Transportation, Lifting, Stacking and Mating Operations Within the Vehicle Assembly Building at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kromis, Phillip A.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the modeling and simulation of the Ares Upper Stage Transportation, lifting, stacking, and mating operations within the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). An aerial view of KSC Launch Shuttle Complex, two views of the Delmia process control layout, and an upper stage move subroutine and breakdown are shown. An overhead image of the VAB and the turning basin along with the Pegasus barge at the turning basin are also shown. This viewgraph presentation also shows the actual design and the removal of the mid-section spring tensioners, the removal of the AFT rear and forward tensioners tie downs, and removing the AFT hold down post and mount. US leaving the Pegasus Barge, the upper stage arriving at transfer aisle, upper stage receiving/inspection in transfer aisle, and an overhead view of upper stage receiving/inspection in transfer aisle are depicted. Five views of the actual connection of the cabling to the upper stage aft lifting hardware are shown. The upper stage transporter forward connector, two views of the rotation horizontal to vertical, the disconnection of the rear bolt ring cabling, the lowering of the upper stage to the inspection stand, disconnection of the rear bolt ring from the upper stage, the lifting of the upper stage and inspection of AFT fange, and the transfer of upper stage in an integrated stack are shown. Six views of the mating of the upper stage to the first stage are depicted. The preparation, inspection, and removal of the forward dome are shown. The upper stage mated on the integrated stack and crawler is also shown. This presentation concludes with A Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) utilizing male and female models for assessing risk factors to the upper extremities of human beings in an actual physical environment.

  3. Effect of Maximum Cruise-power Operation at Ultra-lean Mixture and Increased Spark Advance on the Mechanical Condition of Cylinder Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Herbert B.; Duffy, Robert T.; Erwin, Robert D., Jr.

    1945-01-01

    A continuous 50-hour test was conducted to determine the effect of maximum cruise-power operation at ultra-lean fuel-air mixture and increased spark advance on the mechanical conditions of cylinder components. The test was conducted on a nine-cylinder air-cooled radial engine at the following conditions:brake horsepower, 750; engine speed, 1900 rpm; brake mean effective pressure, 172 pounds per square inch; fuel-air ratio, 0.052; spark advance, 30 deg B.T.C.; and maximum rear-spark-plug-bushing temperature, 400 F. In addition to the data on corrosion and wear, data are presented and briefly discussed on the effect of engine operation at the conditions of this test on economy, knock, preignition, and mixture distribution. Cylinder, piston, and piston-ring wear was small and all cylinder component were in good condition at the conclusion of the 50-hour test except that all exhaust-valve guides were bellmouthed beyond the Army's specified limit and one exhaust-valve face was lightly burned. It is improbable that the light burning in one spot of the valve face would have progressed further because the burn was filled with a hard deposit so that the valve face formed an unbroken seal and the mating seat showed no evidence of burning. The bellmouthing of the exhaust-valve guides is believed to have been a result of the heavy carbon and lead-oxide deposits, which were present on the head end of the guided length of the exhaust-valve stem. Engine operational the conditions of this test was shown to result In a fuel saving of 16.8 percent on a cooled-power basis as compared with operation at the conditions recommended for this engine by the Army Air Forces for the same power.

  4. Three-component self-assembly of a series of triply interlocked Pd12 coordination prisms and their non-interlocked Pd6 analogues.

    PubMed

    Bar, Arun Kumar; Raghothama, Srinivasarao; Moon, Dohyun; Mukherjee, Partha Sarathi

    2012-03-12

    Template-assisted formation of multicomponent Pd(6) coordination prisms and formation of their self-templated triply interlocked Pd(12) analogues in the absence of an external template have been established in a single step through Pd-N/Pd-O coordination. Treatment of cis-[Pd(en)(NO(3))(2)] with K(3) tma and linear pillar 4,4'-bpy (en=ethylenediamine, H(3) tma=benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid, 4,4'-bpy=4,4'-bipyridine) gave intercalated coordination cage [{Pd(en)}(6)(bpy)(3)(tma)(2)](2)[NO(3)](12) (1) exclusively, whereas the same reaction in the presence of H(3) tma as an aromatic guest gave a H(3) tma-encapsulating non-interlocked discrete Pd(6) molecular prism [{Pd(en)}(6)(bpy)(3)(tma)(2)(H(3)tma)(2)][NO(3)](6) (2). Though the same reaction using cis-[Pd(NO(3))(2)(pn)] (pn=propane-1,2-diamine) instead of cis-[Pd(en)(NO(3))(2)] gave triply interlocked coordination cage [{Pd(pn)}(6)(bpy)(3)(tma)(2)](2)[NO(3)](12) (3) along with non-interlocked Pd(6) analogue [{Pd(pn)}(6)(bpy)(3) (tma)(2)](NO(3))(6) (3'), and the presence of H(3) tma as a guest gave H(3) tma-encapsulating molecular prism [{Pd(pn)}(6)(bpy)(3)(tma)(2)(H(3) tma)(2)][NO(3)](6) (4) exclusively. In solution, the amount of 3' decreases as the temperature is decreased, and in the solid state 3 is the sole product. Notably, an analogous reaction using the relatively short pillar pz (pz=pyrazine) instead of 4,4'-bpy gave triply interlocked coordination cage [{Pd(pn)}(6) (pz)(3)(tma)(2)](2)[NO(3)](12) (5) as the single product. Interestingly, the same reaction using slightly more bulky cis-[Pd(NO(3))(2)(tmen)] (tmen=N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylene diamine) instead of cis-[Pd(NO(3))(2)(pn)] gave non-interlocked [{Pd(tmen)}(6)(pz)(3)(tma)(2)][NO(3)](6) (6) exclusively. Complexes 1, 3, and 5 represent the first examples of template-free triply interlocked molecular prisms obtained through multicomponent self-assembly. Formation of the complexes was supported by IR and multinuclear NMR ((1)H and (13)C) spectroscopy

  5. Analysis of large space structures assembly: Man/machine assembly analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Procedures for analyzing large space structures assembly via three primary modes: manual, remote and automated are outlined. Data bases on each of the assembly modes and a general data base on the shuttle capabilities to support structures assembly are presented. Task element times and structure assembly component costs are given to provide a basis for determining the comparative economics of assembly alternatives. The lessons learned from simulations of space structures assembly are detailed.

  6. Chlamydomonas IFT70/CrDYF-1 is a core component of IFT particle complex B and is required for flagellar assembly.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhen-Chuan; Behal, Robert H; Geimer, Stefan; Wang, Zhaohui; Williamson, Shana M; Zhang, Haili; Cole, Douglas G; Qin, Hongmin

    2010-08-01

    DYF-1 is a highly conserved protein essential for ciliogenesis in several model organisms. In Caenorhabditis elegans, DYF-1 serves as an essential activator for an anterograde motor OSM-3 of intraflagellar transport (IFT), the ciliogenesis-required motility that mediates the transport of flagellar precursors and removal of turnover products. In zebrafish and Tetrahymena DYF-1 influences the cilia tubulin posttranslational modification and may have more ubiquitous function in ciliogenesis than OSM-3. Here we address how DYF-1 biochemically interacts with the IFT machinery by using the model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, in which the anterograde IFT does not depend on OSM-3. Our results show that this protein is a stoichiometric component of the IFT particle complex B and interacts directly with complex B subunit IFT46. In concurrence with the established IFT protein nomenclature, DYF-1 is also named IFT70 after the apparent size of the protein. IFT70/CrDYF-1 is essential for the function of IFT in building the flagellum because the flagella of IFT70/CrDYF-1-depleted cells were greatly shortened. Together, these results demonstrate that IFT70/CrDYF-1 is a canonical subunit of IFT particle complex B and strongly support the hypothesis that the IFT machinery has species- and tissue-specific variations with functional ramifications.

  7. Temperature coefficients of reactivity for the SRS Mark 22 assembly

    SciTech Connect

    George, D.L.; Frost, R.L. )

    1992-01-01

    The nuclear reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are unique in design and operation. In contrast to commercial power reactors, the SRS reactors were designed for isotope production rather than power generation. The SRS reactors are cooled and moderated by heavy water at near-atmospheric pressure, and the fuel assemblies consist of concentric annualar tubes rather than the solid pins typically found in power reactors. These and other factors make the neutronic behavior of SRS reactors unique. Temperature coefficients of reactivity are a measure of the change in core reactivity resulting from a change in the temperature of the reactor components. These coefficients are used in safety analyses and for prediction of reactivity changes with control rod moves during reactor operations. This paper presents the results of an investigation of temperature coefficients for the Mark 22 assembly currently charged to the K Reactor. The Mark 22 assembly is the tritium-producing assembly currently in use at SRS. This assembly contains two concentric fuel tubes of enriched uranium-aluminum alloy located between two concentric target tubes of lithium-aluminum alloy. There are three active coolant channels (cooling both sides of each fuel tube) and two low-flow dead spaces at the center and outside of the assembly. Heavy water flows down the three coolant channels in the Mark 22 assemblies and then jets out into the moderator space (the heavy water region bewteen assemblies). Six regional temperature coefficients are calculated at SRS: fuel, target, coolant, dead space, moderator upflow, and moderator downflow. The first four coefficients correspond to regions of the assembly and are calculated using the GLASS infinite lattice transport code. The two moderator coefficients correspond to reactor core regions and are calculated using the GRIMHX three-dimensional finite lattice diffusion theory code. Assembly coefficients calculated by GLASS have been experimentally verified.

  8. Soft X-ray imaging and spectromicroscopy: new insights in chemical state and morphology of the key components in operating fuel-cells.

    PubMed

    Bozzini, Benedetto; Abyaneh, Majid Kazemian; Amati, Matteo; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Gregoratti, Luca; Kaulich, Burkhard; Kiskinova, Maya

    2012-08-13

    Fuel cells are one of the most appealing environmentally friendly devices for the effective conversion of chemical energy into electricity and heat, but still there are key barriers to their broad commercialization. In addition to efficiency, a major challenge of fuel-cell technology is the durability of the key components (interconnects, electrodes, and electrolytes) that can be subject to corrosion or undesired morphology and chemical changes occurring under operating conditions. The complementary capabilities of synchrotron-based soft X-ray microscopes in terms of imaging, spectroscopy, spatial and time resolution, and variable probing depths are opening unique opportunities to shed light on the multiple processes occurring in these complex systems at microscopic length scales. This type of information is prerequisite for understanding and controlling the performance and durability of such devices. This paper reviews the most recent efforts in the implementation of these methods for exploring the evolving structure and chemical composition of some key fuel cell components. Recent achievements are illustrated by selected results obtained with simplified versions of proton-exchange fuel-cells (PEFC) and solid-oxide fuel-cells (SOFC), which allow in situ monitoring of the redox reactions resulting in: 1) undesired deposits at interconnects and electrodes (PEFC); 2) material interactions at the electrode-electrolyte interface (PEFC); 3) release of corrosion products to the electrolyte phase (PEFC, and 4) mass-transport processes and structural changes occurring at the high operation temperatures of SOFC and promoted by the polarization. PMID:22836392

  9. Prediction of the protein components of a putative Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea, Copepoda) circadian signaling system using a de novo assembled transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Andrew E.; Fontanilla, Tiana M.; Nesbit, Katherine T.; Lenz, Petra H.

    2013-01-01

    Diel vertical migration and seasonal diapause are critical life history events for the copepod Calanus finmarchicus. While much is known about these behaviors phenomenologically, little is known about their molecular underpinnings. Recent studies in insects suggest that some circadian genes/proteins also contribute to the establishment of seasonal diapause. Thus, it is possible that in Calanus these distinct timing regimes share some genetic components. To begin to address this possibility, we used the well-established Drosophila melanogaster circadian system as a reference for mining clock transcripts from a 200,000+ sequence Calanus transcriptome; the proteins encoded by the identified transcripts were also deduced and characterized. Sequences encoding homologs of the Drosophila core clock proteins CLOCK, CYCLE, PERIOD and TIMELESS were identified, as was one encoding CRYPTOCHROME 2, a core clock protein in ancestral insect systems, but absent in Drosophila. Calanus transcripts encoding proteins known to modulate the Drosophila core clock were also identified and characterized, e.g. CLOCKWORK ORANGE, DOUBLETIME, SHAGGY and VRILLE. Alignment and structural analyses of the deduced Calanus proteins with their Drosophila counterparts revealed extensive sequence conservation, particularly in functional domains. Interestingly, reverse BLAST analyses of these sequences against all arthropod proteins typically revealed non-Drosophila isoforms to be most similar to the Calanus queries. This, in combination with the presence of both CRYPTOCHROME 1 (a clock input pathway protein) and CRYPTOCHROME 2 in Calanus, suggests that the organization of the copepod circadian system is an ancestral one, more similar to that of insects like Danaus plexippus than to that of Drosophila. PMID:23727418

  10. Overall Key Performance Indicator to Optimizing Operation of High-Pressure Homogenizers for a Reliable Quantification of Intracellular Components in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Ortega, Xavier; Reyes, Cecilia; Montesinos, José Luis; Valero, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly used cell disruption procedures may present lack of reproducibility, which introduces significant errors in the quantification of intracellular components. In this work, an approach consisting in the definition of an overall key performance indicator (KPI) was implemented for a lab scale high-pressure homogenizer (HPH) in order to determine the disruption settings that allow the reliable quantification of a wide sort of intracellular components. This innovative KPI was based on the combination of three independent reporting indicators: decrease of absorbance, release of total protein, and release of alkaline phosphatase activity. The yeast Pichia pastoris growing on methanol was selected as model microorganism due to it presents an important widening of the cell wall needing more severe methods and operating conditions than Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. From the outcome of the reporting indicators, the cell disruption efficiency achieved using HPH was about fourfold higher than other lab standard cell disruption methodologies, such bead milling cell permeabilization. This approach was also applied to a pilot plant scale HPH validating the methodology in a scale-up of the disruption process. This innovative non-complex approach developed to evaluate the efficacy of a disruption procedure or equipment can be easily applied to optimize the most common disruption processes, in order to reach not only reliable quantification but also recovery of intracellular components from cell factories of interest. PMID:26284241

  11. Application of the Modular Automated Reconfigurable Assembly System (MARAS) concept to adaptable vision gauging and parts feeding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    By, Andre Bernard; Caron, Ken; Rothenberg, Michael; Sales, Vic

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the first phase results of a collaborative effort between university researchers and a flexible assembly systems integrator to implement a comprehensive modular approach to flexible assembly automation. This approach, named MARAS (Modular Automated Reconfigurable Assembly System), has been structured to support multiple levels of modularity in terms of both physical components and system control functions. The initial focus of the MARAS development has been on parts gauging and feeding operations for cylinder lock assembly. This phase is nearing completion and has resulted in the development of a highly configurable system for vision gauging functions on a wide range of small components (2 mm to 100 mm in size). The reconfigurable concepts implemented in this adaptive Vision Gauging Module (VGM) are now being extended to applicable aspects of the singulating, selecting, and orienting functions required for the flexible feeding of similar mechanical components and assemblies.

  12. External Tank Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This photograph shows the liquid hydrogen tank and liquid oxygen tank for the Space Shuttle external tank (ET) being assembled in the weld assembly area of the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF). The ET provides liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen to the Shuttle's three main engines during the first eight 8.5 minutes of flight. At 154-feet long and more than 27-feet in diameter, the ET is the largest component of the Space Shuttle, the structural backbone of the entire Shuttle system, and the only part of the vehicle that is not reusable. The ET is manufactured at the Michoud Assembly Facility near New Orleans, Louisiana, by the Martin Marietta Corporation under management of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  13. Process characterization and control of hand-soldered printed wiring assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Cheray, D.L.; Mandl, R.G.

    1993-09-01

    A designed experiment was conducted to characterize the hand soldering process parameters for manufacturing printed wiring assemblies (PWAs). Component tinning was identified as the most important parameter in hand soldering. After tinning, the soldering iron tip temperature of 700{degrees}F and the choice of operators influence solder joint quality more than any other parameters. Cleaning and flux/flux core have little impact on the quality of the solder joint. The need for component cleaning prior to assembly must be evaluated for each component.

  14. JWST NIRCam flight mirror assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammini, Paul V.; Holmes, Howard C.; Huff, Lynn; Jacoby, Mike S.; Lopez, Frank

    2011-10-01

    The Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) instrument for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) has an optical prescription which includes numerous fold mirror assemblies. The instrument will operate at 35K after experiencing launch loads at ~293K. The optic mounts must accommodate all associated thermal and mechanical stresses, plus maintain exceptional optical quality during operation. Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) conceived, designed, analyzed, assembled, tested, and integrated the mirror assemblies for the NIRCam instrument. This paper covers the design, analysis, assembly, and test of two of the instruments key fold mirrors.

  15. Solar collector assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.A.

    1980-09-09

    A solar collector assembly includes shingles which have integral tubes projecting therefrom, and which are mounted in overlapping parallel array. Mounting brackets for the shingles are engaged on roof rafters or the like, and interlocked light transmissive plates overlie the shingles. The plates are also engaged with shingle components. A special fitting for the tube ends is provided.

  16. Correlation of Hollow Cathode Assembly and Plasma Contactor Data from Ground Testing and In-Space Operation on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovalkeski, Scott D.; Patterson, Michael J.; Soulas, George C.

    2001-01-01

    Charge control on the International Space Station (ISS) is currently being provided by two plasma contactor units (PCUs). The plasma contactor includes a hollow cathode assembly (HCA), power processing unit and Xe gas feed system. The hollow cathode assemblies in use in the ISS plasma contactors were designed and fabricated at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Prequalification testing of development HCAs as well as acceptance testing of the flight HCAs is presented. Integration of the HCAs into the Boeing North America built PCU and acceptance testing of the PCU are summarized in this paper. Finally, data from the two on-orbit PCUs is presented.

  17. Structural analysis of a thermal insulation retainer assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, William H.; Gray, Carl E., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    In January 1989 an accident occurred in the National Transonic Facility wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center that was believed to be caused by the failure of a thermal insulation retainer. A structural analysis of this retainer assembly was performed in order to understand the possible failure mechanisms. Two loading conditions are important and were considered in the analysis. The first is the centrifugal force due to the fact that this retainer is located on the fan drive shaft. The second loading is a differential temperature between the retainer assembly and the underlying shaft. Geometrically nonlinear analysis is required to predict the stiffness of this component and to account for varying contact regions between various components in the assembly. High, local stresses develop in the band part of the assembly near discontinuities under both the centrifugal and thermal loadings. The presence of an aluminum ring during a portion of the part's operating life was found to increase the stresses in other regions of the band. Under the centrifugal load, high bending stresses develop near the intersection of the band with joints in the assembly. These high bending stresses are believed to be the most likely cause for failure of the assembly.

  18. Simulation Of Assembly Processes With Technical Of Virtual Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García García, Manuel; Arenas Reina, José Manuel; Lite, Alberto Sánchez; Sebastián Pérez, Miguel Ángel

    2009-11-01

    Virtual reality techniques use at industrial processes provides a real approach to product life cycle. For components manual assembly, the use of virtual surroundings facilitates a simultaneous engineering in which variables such as human factors and productivity take a real act. On the other hand, in the actual phase of industrial competition it is required a rapid adjustment to client needs and to market situation. In this work it is analyzed the assembly of the front components of a vehicle using virtual reality tools and following up a product-process design methodology which includes every life service stage. This study is based on workstations design, taking into account productive and human factors from the ergonomic point of view implementing a postural study of every assembly operation, leaving the rest of stages for a later study. Design is optimized applying this methodology together with the use of virtual reality tools. It is also achieved a 15% reduction on time assembly and of 90% reduction in muscle—skeletal diseases at every assembly operation.

  19. Airfoil nozzle and shroud assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, James E.; Norton, Paul F.

    1997-01-01

    An airfoil and nozzle assembly including an outer shroud having a plurality of vane members attached to an inner surface and having a cantilevered end. The assembly further includes a inner shroud being formed by a plurality of segments. Each of the segments having a first end and a second end and having a recess positioned in each of the ends. The cantilevered end of the vane member being positioned in the recess. The airfoil and nozzle assembly being made from a material having a lower rate of thermal expansion than that of the components to which the airfoil and nozzle assembly is attached.

  20. Airfoil nozzle and shroud assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, J.E.; Norton, P.F.

    1997-06-03

    An airfoil and nozzle assembly are disclosed including an outer shroud having a plurality of vane members attached to an inner surface and having a cantilevered end. The assembly further includes a inner shroud being formed by a plurality of segments. Each of the segments having a first end and a second end and having a recess positioned in each of the ends. The cantilevered end of the vane member being positioned in the recess. The airfoil and nozzle assembly being made from a material having a lower rate of thermal expansion than that of the components to which the airfoil and nozzle assembly is attached. 5 figs.

  1. Pressure activated interconnection of micro transfer printed components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prevatte, Carl; Guven, Ibrahim; Ghosal, Kanchan; Gomez, David; Moore, Tanya; Bonafede, Salvatore; Raymond, Brook; Trindade, António Jose; Fecioru, Alin; Kneeburg, David; Meitl, Matthew A.; Bower, Christopher A.

    2016-05-01

    Micro transfer printing and other forms of micro assembly deterministically produce heterogeneously integrated systems of miniaturized components on non-native substrates. Most micro assembled systems include electrical interconnections to the miniaturized components, typically accomplished by metal wires formed on the non-native substrate after the assembly operation. An alternative scheme establishing interconnections during the assembly operation is a cost-effective manufacturing method for producing heterogeneous microsystems, and facilitates the repair of integrated microsystems, such as displays, by ex post facto addition of components to correct defects after system-level tests. This letter describes pressure-concentrating conductor structures formed on silicon (1 0 0) wafers to establish connections to preexisting conductive traces on glass and plastic substrates during micro transfer printing with an elastomer stamp. The pressure concentrators penetrate a polymer layer to form the connection, and reflow of the polymer layer bonds the components securely to the target substrate. The experimental yield of series-connected test systems with >1000 electrical connections demonstrates the suitability of the process for manufacturing, and robustness of the test systems against exposure to thermal shock, damp heat, and mechanical flexure shows reliability of the resulting bonds.

  2. On Constraints in Assembly Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Calton, T.L.; Jones, R.E.; Wilson, R.H.

    1998-12-17

    Constraints on assembly plans vary depending on product, assembly facility, assembly volume, and many other factors. Assembly costs and other measures to optimize vary just as widely. To be effective, computer-aided assembly planning systems must allow users to express the plan selection criteria that appIy to their products and production environments. We begin this article by surveying the types of user criteria, both constraints and quality measures, that have been accepted by assembly planning systems to date. The survey is organized along several dimensions, including strategic vs. tactical criteria; manufacturing requirements VS. requirements of the automated planning process itself and the information needed to assess compliance with each criterion. The latter strongly influences the efficiency of planning. We then focus on constraints. We describe a framework to support a wide variety of user constraints for intuitive and efficient assembly planning. Our framework expresses all constraints on a sequencing level, specifying orders and conditions on part mating operations in a number of ways. Constraints are implemented as simple procedures that either accept or reject assembly operations proposed by the planner. For efficiency, some constraints are supplemented with special-purpose modifications to the planner's algorithms. Fast replanning enables an interactive plan-view-constrain-replan cycle that aids in constraint discovery and documentation. We describe an implementation of the framework in a computer-aided assembly planning system and experiments applying the system to a number of complex assemblies, including one with 472 parts.

  3. Thermal and structural stability of medium energy target carrier assembly for NOvA at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, M.W.; Ader, C.; Anderson, K.; Hylen, J.; Martens, M.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    The NOvA project will upgrade the existing Neutrino at Main Injector (NuMI) project beamline at Fermilab to accommodate beam power of 700 kW. The Medium Energy (ME) graphite target assembly is provided through an accord with the State Research Center of Russia Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP) at Protvino, Russia. The effects of proton beam energy deposition within beamline components are considered as thermal stability of the target carrier assembly and alignment budget are critical operational issues. Results of finite element thermal and structural analysis involving the target carrier assembly is provided with detail regarding the target's beryllium windows.

  4. In situ assembly of linked geometrically coupled microdevices

    PubMed Central

    Sawetzki, T.; Rahmouni, S.; Bechinger, C.; Marr, D. W. M.

    2008-01-01

    Complex systems require their distinct components to function in a dynamic, integrated, and cooperative fashion. To accomplish this in current microfluidic networks, individual valves are often switched and pumps separately powered by using macroscopic methods such as applied external pressure. Direct manipulation and control at the single-device level, however, limits scalability, restricts portability, and hinders the development of massively parallel architectures that would take best advantage of microscale systems. In this article, we demonstrate that local geometry combined with a simple global field can not only reversibly drive component assembly but also power distinct devices in a parallel, locally uncoupled, and integrated fashion. By employing this single approach, we assemble and demonstrate the operation of check valves, mixers, and pistons within specially designed microfluidic environments. In addition, we show that by linking these individual components together, more complex devices such as pumps can be both fabricated and powered in situ. PMID:19074262

  5. Mini-Brayton heat source assembly development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wein, D.; Zimmerman, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    The work accomplished on the Mini-Brayton Heat Source Assembly program is summarized. Required technologies to design, fabricate and assemble components for a high temperature Heat Source Assembly (HSA) which would generate and transfer the thermal energy for a spaceborne Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) were developed.

  6. Crew Assembly

    NASA Video Gallery

    Train to improve your dexterity and hand-eye coordination by assembling a puzzle.The Train Like an Astronaut project uses the excitement of exploration to challenge students to set goals, practice ...

  7. Seal assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Roger Neal; Longfritz, William David

    2001-01-01

    A seal assembly that seals a gap formed by a groove comprises a seal body, a biasing element, and a connection that connects the seal body to the biasing element to form the seal assembly. The seal assembly further comprises a concave-shaped center section and convex-shaped contact portions at each end of the seal body. The biasing element is formed from an elastic material and comprises a convex-shaped center section and concave-shaped biasing zones that are opposed to the convex-shaped contact portions. The biasing element is adapted to be compressed to change a width of the seal assembly from a first width to a second width that is smaller than the first width. In the compressed state, the seal assembly can be disposed in the groove. After release of the compressing force, the seal assembly expands. The contact portions will move toward a surface of the groove and the biasing zones will move into contact with another surface of the groove. The biasing zones will bias the contact portions of the seal body against the surface of the groove.

  8. Component Reliability Testing of Long-Life Sorption Cryocoolers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bard, S.; Wu, J.; Karlmann, P.; Mirate, C.; Wade, L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes ongoing experiments characterizing the ability of critical sorption cryocooler components to achieve highly reliable operation for long-life space missions. Test data obtained over the past several years at JPL are entirely consistent with achieving ten year life for sorption compressors, electrical heaters, container materials, valves, and various sorbent materials suitable for driving 8 to 180 K refrigeration stages. Test results for various compressor systems are reported. Planned future tests necessary to gain a detailed understanding of the sensitivity of cooler performance and component life to operating constraints, design configurations, and fabrication, assembly and handling techniques, are also discussed.

  9. Method and system for assembling miniaturized devices

    DOEpatents

    Montesanti, Richard C.; Klingmann, Jeffrey L.; Seugling, Richard M.

    2013-03-12

    An apparatus for assembling a miniaturized device includes a manipulator system including six manipulators operable to position and orient components of the miniaturized device with submicron precision and micron-level accuracy. The manipulator system includes a first plurality of motorized axes, a second plurality of manual axes, and force and torque and sensors. Each of the six manipulators includes at least one translation stage, at least one rotation stage, tooling attached to the at least one translation stage or the at least one rotation stage, and an attachment mechanism disposed at a distal end of the tooling and operable to attach at least a portion of the miniaturized device to the tooling. The apparatus also includes an optical coordinate-measuring machine (OCMM) including a machine-vision system, a laser-based distance-measuring probe, and a touch probe. The apparatus also includes an operator control system coupled to the manipulator system and the OCMM.

  10. Modular anode assemblies and methods of using the same for electrochemical reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Barnes, Laurel A; Williamson, Mark A; Willit, James L

    2015-02-17

    Modular anode assemblies are used in electrolytic oxide reduction systems for scalable reduced metal production via electrolysis. Assemblies include a channel frame connected to several anode rods extending into an electrolyte. An electrical system powers the rods while being insulated from the channel frame. A cooling system removes heat from anode rods and the electrical system. An anode guard attaches to the channel frame to prevent accidental electrocution or damage during handling or repositioning. Each anode rod may be divided into upper and lower sections to permit easy repair and swapping out of lower sections. The modular assemblies may have standardized components to permit placement at multiple points within a reducing system. Example methods may operate an electrolytic oxide reduction system by positioning the modular anode assemblies in the reduction system and applying electrical power to the plurality of anode assemblies.

  11. Cold alignment prediction of the NIRCam instrument components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordt, Alison; Jacoby, Michael

    2009-08-01

    The Near Infrared Camera for the James Webb Space Telescope is designed to operate at a temperature of 37K. The instrument must be assembled and aligned at room temperature. The optical design is refractive and incorporates several different lens materials in addition to several mirrors which make an athermal design very difficult. All of the instrument components are designed so that the instrument can come into alignment at 37K after assembly at room temperature. The methods to predict alignment shifts are presented in this paper.

  12. Analyzing qPlus sensor assemblies for optimized simultaneous scanning tunneling and non-contact atomic force microscopy operation using finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagdeviren, Omur; Schwarz, Udo

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and non-contact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) are powerful methods that can not only visualize a surface's atomic structure, but also probe its electronic and chemical properties with picoampere, piconewton, and picometer resolution. Quartz tuning forks in qPlus configuration that have a metallic probe tip attached to the end of the free prong have gained considerable popularity in recent years for simultaneous high-resolution STM/NC-AFM experiments. Due to the small size of the tuning forks and the complexity of the sensor architecture, it is, however, not intuitive to judge how variations in the execution of the individual assembly steps affect the completed sensor's performance. In this presentation, we analyze the influence of each assembly step on the sensor's final performance using finite element method. The results show that when the tunneling current is collected using a separate wire, the exact realization of this wire connection has major effect on the sensor's performance. In addition, we show how other design choices such as the exact amount of epoxy used at key interfaces affects parameters such as spring constant, Q-factor, and resonance frequency.

  13. Turbine seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Little, David A.

    2013-04-16

    A seal assembly that limits gas leakage from a hot gas path to one or more disc cavities in a turbine engine. The seal assembly includes a seal apparatus that limits gas leakage from the hot gas path to a respective one of the disc cavities. The seal apparatus comprises a plurality of blade members rotatable with a blade structure. The blade members are associated with the blade structure and extend toward adjacent stationary components. Each blade member includes a leading edge and a trailing edge, the leading edge of each blade member being located circumferentially in front of the blade member's corresponding trailing edge in a direction of rotation of the turbine rotor. The blade members are arranged such that a space having a component in a circumferential direction is defined between adjacent circumferentially spaced blade members.

  14. A leading edge heating array and a flat surface heating array - operation, maintenance and repair manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A general description of the leading edge/flat surface heating array is presented along with its components, assembly instructions, installation instructions, operation procedures, maintenance instructions, repair procedures, schematics, spare parts lists, engineering drawings of the array, and functional acceptance test log sheets. The proper replacement of components, correct torque values, step-by-step maintenance instructions, and pretest checkouts are described.

  15. Hinge assembly

    DOEpatents

    Vandergriff, D.H.

    1999-08-31

    A hinge assembly is disclosed having a first leaf, a second leaf and linking member. The first leaf has a contact surface. The second leaf has a first contact surface and a second contact surface. The linking member pivotally connects to the first leaf and to the second leaf. The hinge assembly is capable of moving from a closed position to an open position. In the closed position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the first contact surface of the second leaf. In the open position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the second contact surface of the second leaf. The hinge assembly can include a seal on the contact surface of the first leaf. 8 figs.

  16. Hinge assembly

    DOEpatents

    Vandergriff, David Houston

    1999-01-01

    A hinge assembly having a first leaf, a second leaf and linking member. The first leaf has a contact surface. The second leaf has a first contact surface and a second contact surface. The linking member pivotally connects to the first leaf and to the second leaf. The hinge assembly is capable of moving from a closed position to an open position. In the closed position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the first contact surface of the second leaf. In the open position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the second contact surface of the second leaf. The hinge assembly can include a seal on the contact surface of the first leaf.

  17. Framework for Defining and Assessing Benefits of a Modular Assembly Design Approach for Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, John T.; Collins, Timothy J.; Moe, Rud V.; Doggett,. William R.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive modular assembly system model has been proposed that extends the art from modular hardware, to include in-space assembly, servicing and repair and it s critical components of infrastructure, agents and assembly operations. Benefits of modular assembly have been identified and a set of metrics defined that extends the art beyond the traditional measures of performance, with emphasis on criteria that allow life-cycle mission costs to be used as a figure of merit (and include all substantive terms that have an impact on the evaluation). The modular assembly approach was used as a basis for developing a Solar Electric Transfer Vehicle (SETV) concept and three modular assembly scenarios were developed. The modular assembly approach also allows the SETV to be entered into service much earlier than competing conventional configurations and results in a great deal of versatility in accommodating different launch vehicle payload capabilities, allowing for modules to be pre-assembled before launch or assembled on orbit, without changing the space vehicle design.

  18. Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Environmental Assessment for the Future Location of Heat Source/Radioisotope Power System Assembly and Testing and Operations Currently Located at the Mound Site

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-08-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (the Department) has completed an Environmental Assessment for the Future Location of the Heat Source/Radioisotope Power System Assembly and Test. Operations Currently Located at the Mound Site. Based on the analysis in the environmental assessment, the Department has determined that the proposed action, the relocation of the Department's heat source and radioisotope power system operations, does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the ''National Environmental Policy Act'' of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  19. Latch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Frederickson, James R.; Harper, William H.; Perez, Raymond

    1986-01-01

    A latch assembly for releasably securing an article in the form of a canister within a container housing. The assembly includes a cam pivotally mounted on the housing wall and biased into the housing interior. The cam is urged into a disabled position by the canister as it enters the housing and a latch release plate maintains the cam disabled when the canister is properly seated in the housing. Upon displacement of the release plate, the cam snaps into latching engagement against the canister for securing the same within the housing.

  20. Latch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Frederickson, J.R.; Harper, W.H.; Perez, R.

    1984-08-17

    A latch assembly for releasably securing an article in the form of a canister within a container housing. The assembly includes a cam pivotally mounted on the housing wall and biased into the housing interior. The cam is urged into a disabled position by the canister as it enters the housing and a latch release plate maintains the cam disabled when the canister is properly seated in the housing. Upon displacement of the release plate, the cam snaps into latching engagement against the canister for securing the same within the housing. 2 figs.

  1. Valve assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Marshala, D.L.

    1986-12-16

    This patent describes a subsurface pump actuated by a reciprocatable sucker rod for producing well liquids from a subsurface reservoir involving a piston adapted to reciprocate within a cylinder immersed in the reservoir, the piston being provided with a traveling valve. The improvement described here comprises valve means connected to the sucker tod for lifting a body of fluid during upstrokes of the sucker rod, the valve means comprising: a barrel assembly having an internal bore and comprising: a lower barrel member; and an upper barrel assembly connected to the lower barrel and having a beveled seating surface with at least one fluid port therethrough.

  2. PREPARATIONS FOR ASSEMBLY OF THE INTERNATIONAL ERL CRYOMODULE AT DARESBURY LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, P. A.; Bate, R.; Beard, C. D.; Cordwell, M. A.; Dykes, D. M.; Pattalwar, S. M.; Strachan, J.; Belomestnykh, S.; Liepe, M.; Padamsee, H.; Quigley, P.; Sears, J.; Shemelin, V.; Veshcherevich, V.; Proch, D.; Sekutowicz, J.; Buchner, A.; Gabriel, F.; Michel, P.; Corlett, J. N.; Li, D.; Lidia, S.; Kimura, T.; Smith, T. I.

    2009-04-29

    The collaborative development of an optimised cavity/cryomodule solution for application on ERL facilities has now progressed to final assembly and testing of the cavity string components and their subsequent cryomodule integration. This paper outlines the verification of the various cryomodule sub-components and details the processes utilised forfinal cavity string integration. The paper also describes the modifications needed to facilitate this new cryomodule installation and ultimate operation on the ALICE facility at Daresbury Laboratory.

  3. DWPF GC FILTER ASSEMBLY SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.; Imrich, K.

    2009-11-11

    On March 18, 2009 a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) GC Line Filter Assembly was received at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This filter assembly was removed from operation following the completion of Sludge Batch 4 processing in the DWPF. Work on this sample was requested in a Technical Assistance Request. This document reports the pictures, observations, samples collected, and analytical results for the assembly. The assembly arrived at SRNL separated into its three component filters: high efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-1, HEPA-2, and a high efficiency mist evaporator (HEME). Each stage of the assembly's media was sampled and examined visually and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Solids built up in the filter housing following the first stage HEME, were dissolved in dilute nitric acid and analyzed by ICP-AES and the undissolved white solids were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The vast majority of the material in each of the three stages of the DWPF GC Line Filter Assembly appears to be contaminated with a Hg compound that is {approx}59 wt% Hg on a total solids basis. The Hg species was identified by XRD analysis to contain a mixture of Hg{sub 4}(OH)(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and Hg{sub 10}(OH){sub 4}(NO{sub 3}){sub 6}. Only in the core sample of the second stage HEPA, did this material appear to be completely covering portions of the filter media, possibly explaining the pressure drops observed by DWPF. The fact that the material migrates through the HEME filter and both HEPA filters, and that it was seen collecting on the outlet side of the HEME filter, would seem to indicate that these filters are not efficient at removing this material. Further SRAT off-gas system modeling should help determine the extent of Hg breakthrough past the Mercury Water Wash Tank (MWWT). The SRAT off-gas system has not been modeled since startup of the facility. Improvements to the efficiency of Hg stripping prior to the ammonia scrubber would seem to be

  4. Furnace assembly

    DOEpatents

    Panayotou, N.F.; Green, D.R.; Price, L.S.

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  5. Furnace assembly

    DOEpatents

    Panayotou, Nicholas F.; Green, Donald R.; Price, Larry S.

    1985-01-01

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  6. Neutron activation of NIF Final Optics Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitaraman, S.; Dauffy, L.; Khater, H.; Brereton, S.

    2010-08-01

    Analyses were performed to characterize the radiation field in the vicinity of the Final Optics Assemblies (FOAs) at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) due to neutron activation following Deuterium-Deuterium (DD), Tritium-Hydrogen-Deuterium (THD), and Deuterium-Tritium (DT) shots associated with different phases of the NIF operations. The activation of the structural components of the FOAs produces one of the larger sources of gamma radiation and is a key factor in determining the stay out time between shots to ensure worker protection. This study provides estimates of effective dose rates in the vicinity of a single FOA and concludes that the DD and THD targets produce acceptable dose rates within10 minutes following a shot while about 6-days of stay out time is suggested following DT shots. Studies are ongoing to determine the combined effects of multiple FOAs and other components present in the Target Bay on stay-out time and worker dose.

  7. Simple and economical capacitive displacement system for UHV operation.

    PubMed

    Chow, R; Tiller, W A

    1979-12-01

    A parallel plate capacitor was assembled as a displacement transducer for operation in an UHV environment. The capacitive displacement system was linear over a 2.5 mum range with a resolution of 0.051 mum. Components in the electric circuit were common laboratory instruments.

  8. Zirconium Recycle Test Equipment for Hot Cell Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Emory D.; DelCul, Guillermo Daniel; Spencer, Barry B.; Bradley, Eric Craig; Brunson, Ronald Ray

    2015-01-30

    The equipment components and assembly support work were modified for optimized, remote hot cell operations to complete this milestone. The modifications include installation of a charging door, Swagelok connector for the off-gas line between the reactor and condenser, and slide valve installation to permit attachment/replacement of the product salt collector bottle.

  9. Space station operations management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  10. PEPC LRU: Ball Support Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Alger, T

    1999-05-14

    The PEPC LRU upper ball support assembly consists of a ball and a pneumatic air cylinder/conical seat latching mechanism to be attached to the optics support frame,and a ball attached to the PEPC LRU. Both components are designed to allow manual positioning in three axes. Upon insertion of the PEPC LRU into the structure, the upper pneumatic cylinder is actuated to latch the two assemblies together through the conical seat device to grab the lower ball to support the LRU weight. To be conservative, the design load for the assembly is 1500 pounds (the prototype PEPC LRU weight was measured to be near 1380 pounds).

  11. A Multi-mission Event-Driven Component-Based System for Support of Flight Software Development, ATLO, and Operations first used by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehghani, Navid; Tankenson, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the architectural description of the Mission Data Processing and Control System (MPCS). MPCS is an event-driven, multi-mission ground data processing components providing uplink, downlink, and data management capabilities which will support the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) project as its first target mission. MPCS is designed with these factors (1) Enabling plug and play architecture (2) MPCS has strong inheritance from GDS components that have been developed for other Flight Projects (MER, MRO, DAWN, MSAP), and are currently being used in operations and ATLO, and (3) MPCS components are Java-based, platform independent, and are designed to consume and produce XML-formatted data

  12. Forwardly movable assembly for a firearm

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.

    2007-06-05

    A forwardly movable assembly for a firearm, the forwardly movable assembly adapted to be disposed in operative relationship relative to the other operative parts of a firearm, the firearm having in operative relationship each with one or more of the others: a barrel, a receiver, and at least one firing mechanism; the forwardly movable assembly comprising: the barrel and the receiver operatively connected with each other; a movable hand support structure to which at least one of the barrel and the receiver is connected, the barrel being movable therewith, the movable hand support structure being adapted to be gripped by an operator of the firearm; the forwardly movable assembly being adapted to be moved forward by an operator upon gripping the movable hand support structure and manually maneuvering the hand support structure forwardly; and, as the forwardly movable assembly is moved forwardly, the firing mechanism is completely disengaged therefrom and held substantially stationary relative thereto.

  13. Fireplace stove assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Bortz, P.B.

    1984-08-14

    The assembly is adapted for replaceable and operative installation within the opening of a standard fireplace. It comprises a combustion chamber and conduitry to accomodate ambient air entry into the chamber in a number of patterns and includes an arrangement for air preheating. Air is also heated by contact with the outside of the chamber and is expelled with mechanical assistance. Exhaust smoke is expelled through a baffle system in order to extract therefrom all useful heat.

  14. Orai1-STIM1 formed store-operated Ca{sup 2+} channels (SOCs) as the molecular components needed for Pb{sup 2+} entry in living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.-F.; Teng, H.-C.; Cheng, S.-Y.; Wang, C.-T.; Chiou, S.-H.; Kao, L.-S.; Kao, F.-J.; Chiou, Arthur; Yang, D.-M.

    2008-03-15

    Heavy metal lead (Pb{sup 2+}) is a pollutant and causes severe toxicity when present in human tissues especially the nervous system. Recent reviews have suggested that Pb{sup 2+} can target Ca{sup 2+}-related proteins within neurons and that Ca{sup 2+} channels might be a candidate for Pb{sup 2+} entry. This study's main aim was to identify the functional entry pathway of Pb{sup 2+} into living cells. We firstly characterized the endogenous expression of Orai1 and STIM1 mRNA together with the level of thapsigargin (TG) stimulated capacitative Ca{sup 2+} entry in PC12 and HeLa cells; this was done by RT-PCR and time-lapse Ca{sup 2+} imaging microscopy, respectively. Our data supported Orai1 and STIM1 as contributing to store-operated Ca{sup 2+} channel (SOC) basal activity. Secondly, using the indo-1 quenching method with the SOC blocker 2-APB, we observed that Pb{sup 2+} was able to enter cells directly through unactivated SOCs without TG pretreatment. Thirdly, we further demonstrated that co-expression of Orai1 and STIM1 differentially enhanced SOC functional activity (4-fold with PC12 and 5-fold with HeLa cells) and Pb{sup 2+} entry (5- to 7-fold with PC12 and 2-fold with HeLa cells). Furthermore, after a 1 h of Pb{sup 2+} exposure, the depolarization- and histamine-induced Ca{sup 2+} responses were significantly decreased in both PC12 and HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. This result indicated that the decreased Ca{sup 2+} responses were, in part, due to Pb{sup 2+} entry. In summary, our results suggest that SOCs are responsible for Pb{sup 2+} permeation and that the Orai1-STIM1 protein complex formed by functional SOCs is one of the molecular components involved in Pb{sup 2+} entry.

  15. Optics assembly for high power laser tools

    DOEpatents

    Fraze, Jason D.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-06-07

    There is provided a high power laser rotational optical assembly for use with, or in high power laser tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the optical assembly finds applications in performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations. The optical assembly has rotational seals and bearing configurations to avoid contamination of the laser beam path and optics.

  16. Sensor assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Thomas E.; Nelson, Drew V.

    2004-04-13

    A ribbon-like sensor assembly is described wherein a length of an optical fiber embedded within a similar lengths of a prepreg tow. The fiber is ""sandwiched"" by two layers of the prepreg tow which are merged to form a single consolidated ribbon. The consolidated ribbon achieving a generally uniform distribution of composite filaments near the embedded fiber such that excess resin does not ""pool"" around the periphery of the embedded fiber.

  17. Magnetic self-assembly of small parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetye, Sheetal B.

    Modern society's propensity for miniaturized end-user products is compelling electronic manufacturers to assemble and package different micro-scale, multi-technology components in more efficient and cost-effective manners. As the size of the components gets smaller, issues such as part sticking and alignment precision create challenges that slow the throughput of conventional robotic pick-n-place systems. As an alternative, various self-assembly approaches have been proposed to manipulate micro to millimeter scale components in a parallel fashion without human or robotic intervention. In this dissertation, magnetic self-assembly (MSA) is demonstrated as a highly efficient, completely parallel process for assembly of millimeter scale components. MSA is achieved by integrating permanent micromagnets onto component bonding surfaces using wafer-level microfabrication processes. Embedded bonded powder methods are used for fabrication of the magnets. The magnets are then magnetized using pulse magnetization methods, and the wafers are then singulated to form individual components. When the components are randomly mixed together, self-assembly occurs when the intermagnetic forces overcome the mixing forces. Analytical and finite element methods (FEM) are used to study the force interactions between the micromagnets. The multifunctional aspects of MSA are presented through demonstration of part-to-part and part-to-substrate assembly of 1 mm x 1mm x 0.5 mm silicon components. Part-to-part assembly is demonstrated by batch assembly of free-floating parts in a liquid environment with the assembly yield of different magnetic patterns varying from 88% to 90% in 20 s. Part-to-substrate assembly is demonstrated by assembling an ordered array onto a fixed substrate in a dry environment with the assembly yield varying from 86% to 99%. In both cases, diverse magnetic shapes/patterns are used to control the alignment and angular orientation of the components. A mathematical model is

  18. Mission MOX Fuel Physics Design--Preliminary Equilibrium MOX Assembly Design and Expected Operating Power for Existing Balakovo Fuel Management Scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovichev, A.M.

    2001-09-28

    Among various versions of excess weapons-grade plutonium handling the most preferred in Russia is its burning in power reactors. This is accounted for by the desire to utilize the power value of weapons-grade plutonium and the potentialities of the existing nuclear industry complex. In Russia the versions of burning weapons-grade plutonium in the VVER-, BN-, and HTGR-type power reactors are being developed. However the analysis of the current structure of nuclear power and the energy strategy reveals that in the coming years the VVER-1000-type (designs B-320 and B-392) as well as the VVER-640 reactor (design B-407) now under development appear to be the most promising for this purpose. The experience with the use of mixed uranium/plutonium fuel in the LWR, gained in the West and the preliminary studies carried out in Russia show that weapons-grade plutonium may be actually used as fuel for the Russian VVER reactors. At present Russia has 7 operating VVER-1000 of total installed capacity 7 GWe, 11 reactors of this type are in operation in Ukraine, and 2 in Bulgaria. Before 2003 it is planned to put into operation 2 VVER-1000 units more in Russian and at least 2 units in Ukraine.

  19. Mechanical seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    2002-01-01

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transfering it to the mechanical diode.

  20. Mechanical seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    2001-01-01

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transferring it to the mechanical diode.

  1. Infrared floodlight assembly

    DOEpatents

    Wierzbicki, Julian J.; Chakrabarti, Kirti B.

    1987-09-22

    An infrared floodlight assembly (10) including a cast aluminum outer housing (11) defining a central chamber (15) therein. A floodlight (14), having a tungsten halogen lamp as the light source, is spacedly positioned within a heat conducting member (43) within chamber (15) such that the floodlight is securedly positioned in an aligned manner relative to the assembly's filter (35) and lens (12) components. The invention also includes venting means (51) to allow air passage between the interior of the member (43) and the adjacent chamber (15), as well as engagement means (85) for engaging a rear surface of the floodlight (14) to retain it firmly against an internal flange of the member (43). A reflector (61), capable of being compressed to allow insertion or removal, is located within the heat conducting member's interior between the floodlight (14) and filter (35) to reflect infrared radiation toward the filter (35) and spaced lens (12).

  2. Ingestion resistant seal assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Little, David A.

    2011-12-13

    A seal assembly limits gas leakage from a hot gas path to one or more disc cavities in a gas turbine engine. The seal assembly includes a seal apparatus associated with a blade structure including a row of airfoils. The seal apparatus includes an annular inner shroud associated with adjacent stationary components, a wing member, and a first wing flange. The wing member extends axially from the blade structure toward the annular inner shroud. The first wing flange extends radially outwardly from the wing member toward the annular inner shroud. A plurality of regions including one or more recirculation zones are defined between the blade structure and the annular inner shroud that recirculate working gas therein back toward the hot gas path.

  3. Constraint-based interactive assembly planning

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.E.; Wilson, R.H.; Calton, T.L.

    1997-03-01

    The constraints on assembly plans vary depending on the product, assembly facility, assembly volume, and many other factors. This paper describes the principles and implementation of a framework that supports a wide variety of user-specified constraints for interactive assembly planning. Constraints from many sources can be expressed on a sequencing level, specifying orders and conditions on part mating operations in a number of ways. All constraints are implemented as filters that either accept or reject assembly operations proposed by the planner. For efficiency, some constraints are supplemented with special-purpose modifications to the planner`s algorithms. Replanning is fast enough to enable a natural plan-view-constrain-replan cycle that aids in constraint discovery and documentation. We describe an implementation of the framework in a computer-aided assembly planning system and experiments applying the system to several complex assemblies. 12 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Los Alamos Critical Assemblies Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1981-06-01

    The Critical Assemblies Facility of the Los Alamos National Laboratory has been in existence for thirty-five years. In that period, many thousands of measurements have been made on assemblies of /sup 235/U, /sup 233/U, and /sup 239/Pu in various configurations, including the nitrate, sulfate, fluoride, carbide, and oxide chemical compositions and the solid, liquid, and gaseous states. The present complex of eleven operating machines is described, and typical applications are presented.

  5. A Multi-mission Event-Driven Component-Based System for Support of Flight Software Development, ATLO, and Operations first used by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehghani, Navid; Tankenson, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper details an architectural description of the Mission Data Processing and Control System (MPCS), an event-driven, multi-mission ground data processing components providing uplink, downlink, and data management capabilities which will support the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) project as its first target mission. MPCS is developed based on a set of small reusable components, implemented in Java, each designed with a specific function and well-defined interfaces. An industry standard messaging bus is used to transfer information among system components. Components generate standard messages which are used to capture system information, as well as triggers to support the event-driven architecture of the system. Event-driven systems are highly desirable for processing high-rate telemetry (science and engineering) data, and for supporting automation for many mission operations processes.

  6. Pushrod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Potter, J.D.

    1984-03-30

    A pushrod assembly including a carriage mounted on a shaft for movement therealong and carrying a pushrod engageable with a load to be moved is described. A magnet is mounted on a supporting bracket for movement along such shaft. Means are provided for adjustably spacing magnet away from the carriage to obtain a selected magnetic attractive or coupling force therebetween. Movement of the supporting bracket and the magnet carried thereby pulls the carriage along with it until the selected magnetic force is exceeded by a resistance load acting on the carriage.

  7. Pushrod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Potter, Jerry D.

    1987-01-01

    A pushrod assembly including a carriage mounted on a shaft for movement therealong and carrying a pushrod engageable with a load to be moved. A magnet is mounted on a supporting bracket for movement along such shaft. Means are provided for adjustably spacing said magnet away from said carriage to obtain a selected magnetic attractive or coupling force therebetween. Movement of the supporting bracket and the magnet carried thereby pulls the carriage along with it until the selected magnetic force is exceeded by a resistance load acting on the carriage.

  8. Shingle assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2007-02-20

    A barrier, such as a PV module, is secured to a base by a support to create a shingle assembly with a venting region defined between the barrier and base for temperature regulation. The first edge of one base may be interengageable with the second edge of an adjacent base to be capable of resisting first and second disengaging forces oriented perpendicular to the edges and along planes oriented parallel to and perpendicular to the base. A deflector may be used to help reduce wind uplift forces.

  9. Dump assembly

    DOEpatents

    Goldmann, L.H.

    1984-12-06

    This is a claim for a dump assembly having a fixed conduit and a rotatable conduit provided with overlapping plates, respectively, at their adjacent ends. The plates are formed with openings, respectively, normally offset from each other to block flow. The other end of the rotatable conduit is provided with means for securing the open end of a filled container thereto. Rotation of the rotatable conduit raises and inverts the container to empty the contents while concurrently aligning the conduit openings to permit flow of material therethrough. 4 figs.

  10. The underwater coincidence counter for plutonium measurements in mixed-oxide fuel assemblies manual

    SciTech Connect

    G. W. Eccleston; H. O. Menlove; M. Abhold; M. Baker; J. Pecos

    1999-05-01

    This manual describes the Underwater Coincidence Counter (UWCC) that has been designed for the measurement of plutonium in mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel assemblies prior to irradiation. The UWCC uses high-efficiency {sup 3}He neutron detectors to measure the spontaneous-fission and induced-fission rates in the fuel assembly. Measurements can be made on MOX fuel assemblies in air or underwater. The neutron counting rate is analyzed for singles, doubles, and triples time correlations to determine the {sup 240}Pu effective mass per unit length of the fuel assembly. The system can verify the plutonium loading per unit length to a precision of less than 1% in a measurement time of 2 to 3 minutes. System design, components, performance tests, and operational characteristics are described in this manual.

  11. Movement times of different arm components.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Errol R; Hui, Michael C

    2010-08-01

    Data for ballistic and visually controlled movement times of different arm components are presented. Ballistic movement times gave strong support to the theoretical model that movement time is linearly related to the square-root of movement amplitude, for all arm components. It was found that there was a significant effect on movement time of the arm component being used. A scaling analysis showed that this time was linearly related to the product of the square-root of amplitude and the one-tenth power of limb mass moment of inertia. This relationship was found to be approximately true in the experiment. For visually controlled movements, movement time showed a significant interaction between Fitts' Index of Difficulty and arm component. The effect of arm component on movement time was stronger in visually controlled movements than in ballistic movements and did not allow the simple modelling in terms of limb mass moment of inertia as was possible with ballistic moves. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Different arm components take different times to move the same distance, dependent on their mass moments of inertia and muscle strength. The work investigated times for finger, wrist, forearm, and full-arm movements that are relevant to tasks such as manual assembly where there are alternative movement methods available for an operator. PMID:20658392

  12. NEDDylation promotes stress granule assembly

    PubMed Central

    Jayabalan, Aravinth Kumar; Sanchez, Anthony; Park, Ra Young; Yoon, Sang Pil; Kang, Gum-Yong; Baek, Je-Hyun; Anderson, Paul; Kee, Younghoon; Ohn, Takbum

    2016-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) harbour translationally stalled messenger ribonucleoproteins and play important roles in regulating gene expression and cell fate. Here we show that neddylation promotes SG assembly in response to arsenite-induced oxidative stress. Inhibition or depletion of key components of the neddylation machinery concomitantly inhibits stress-induced polysome disassembly and SG assembly. Affinity purification and subsequent mass-spectrometric analysis of Nedd8-conjugated proteins from translationally stalled ribosomal fractions identified ribosomal proteins, translation factors and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), including SRSF3, a previously known SG regulator. We show that SRSF3 is selectively neddylated at Lys85 in response to arsenite. A non-neddylatable SRSF3 (K85R) mutant do not prevent arsenite-induced polysome disassembly, but fails to support the SG assembly, suggesting that the neddylation pathway plays an important role in SG assembly. PMID:27381497

  13. Improved nuclear fuel assembly grid spacer

    DOEpatents

    Marshall, John; Kaplan, Samuel

    1977-01-01

    An improved fuel assembly grid spacer and method of retaining the basic fuel rod support elements in position within the fuel assembly containment channel. The improvement involves attachment of the grids to the hexagonal channel and of forming the basic fuel rod support element into a grid structure, which provides a design which is insensitive to potential channel distortion (ballooning) at high fluence levels. In addition the improved method eliminates problems associated with component fabrication and assembly.

  14. 47 CFR 25.254 - Special requirements for ancillary terrestrial components operating in the 1610-1626.5 MHz/2483.5...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of this standard can be inspected at the Federal Communications... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical... terrestrial component to be used in conjunction with a mobile-satellite service system using CDMA...

  15. Baseline tests of an autonomous telerobotic system for assembly of space truss structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Marvin D.; Will, Ralph W.; Quach, Coung

    1994-01-01

    Several proposed space missions include precision reflectors that are larger in diameter than any current or proposed launch vehicle. Most of these reflectors will require a truss structure to accurately position the reflector panels and these reflectors will likely require assembly in orbit. A research program has been conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center to develop the technology required for the robotic assembly of truss structures. The focus of this research has been on hardware concepts, computer software control systems, and operator interfaces necessary to perform supervised autonomous assembly. A special facility was developed and four assembly and disassembly tests of a 102-strut tetrahedral truss have been conducted. The test procedures were developed around traditional 'pick-and-place' robotic techniques that rely on positioning repeatability for successful operation. The data from two of the four tests were evaluated and are presented in this report. All operations in the tests were controlled by predefined sequences stored in a command file, and the operator intervened only when the system paused because of the failure of an actuator command. The tests were successful in identifying potential pitfalls in a telerobotic system, many of which would not have been readily anticipated or incurred through simulation studies. Addressing the total integrated task, instead of bench testing the component parts, forced all aspects of the task to be evaluated. Although the test results indicate that additional developments should be pursued, no problems were encountered that would preclude automated assembly in space as a viable construction method.

  16. Fabrication of light weight radioisotope heater unit hardware components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, Dennis C.

    1996-03-01

    The Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) is planned to be used on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Cassini Mission, to provide localized thermal energy as strategic locations on the spacecraft. These one watt heater units will support the operation of many on-board instruments that require a specific temperature range to function properly. The system incorporates a fuel pellet encapsulated in a vented metallic clad fabricated from platinum-30% rhodium (Pt-30%Rh) tubing, sheet and foil materials. To complete the package, the clad assemblies are placed inside a combination of graphite components. This report describes the techniques employed by Mound related to the fabrication and sub assembly processes of the LWRHU clad hardware components. Included are details concerning configuration control systems, material procurement and certification, hardware fabrication specifics, and special processes that are utilized.

  17. Forwardly-placed firearm fire control assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Frickey, Steven J.

    2001-12-22

    A firearm fire control assembly for disposition in a forwardly placed support-hand operative relationship within a firearm having a combination of a firing pin and a firearm hammer adapted to engage and fire a cartridge, a sear assembly to alternately engage and disengage the combination of the firearm hammer and firing pin, and a trigger assembly including a movable trigger mechanism that is operable to engage the sear assembly to cause the firearm hammer firing pin combination to fire the firearm, a fire control assembly including a fire control depression member and a fire control rod operably connected to the depression member, and being positioned in a forward disposition disposed within a forestock of the firearm, and the depression member adapted to be operably engaged and depressed by the user's conventional forwardly placed support hand to maneuver the fire control rod to provide firing control of the firing of the firearm.

  18. Monolithic fiber optic sensor assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Scott

    2015-02-10

    A remote sensor element for spectrographic measurements employs a monolithic assembly of one or two fiber optics to two optical elements separated by a supporting structure to allow the flow of gases or particulates therebetween. In a preferred embodiment, the sensor element components are fused ceramic to resist high temperatures and failure from large temperature changes.

  19. Operations analysis for a large lunar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thyen, Christopher

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to a study of the operations and assembly of a 16-m large lunar telescope (LLT), which deals with the operations and assembly of the telescope from LEO to the lunar surface for assembly. The study of LLT operations and assembly is broken down into three divisions to allow easier operations analysis: earth to orbit operations, LEO operations (transfer to lunar surface operations), and lunar surface operations. The following guidelines were set down to ensure a reasonable starting point for a large, lunar, untended installation: the existence of a lunar base, a space transportation system from LEO to the lunar surface, continuous manning of the lunar base during the assembly period, and availability/capability to perform lunar assembly with the lunar base crew. The launch/vehicle packaging options, lunar site selection and assembly options, and assembly crew assumptions are discussed.

  20. Bearing assemblies, apparatuses, and motor assemblies using the same

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, Timothy N.; Cooley, Craig H.; Knuteson, Cody W.

    2015-12-29

    Various embodiments of the invention relate to bearing assemblies, apparatuses and motor assemblies that include geometric features configured to impart a selected amount of heat transfer and/or hydrodynamic film formation. In an embodiment, a bearing assembly may include a plurality of superhard bearing pads distributed circumferentially about an axis. At least some of the plurality of superhard bearing pads may include a plurality of sub-superhard bearing elements defining a bearing surface. At least some of the plurality of sub-superhard bearing elements may be spaced from one another by one or more voids to impart a selected amount of heat transfer and hydrodynamic film formation thereon during operation. The bearing assembly may also include a support ring that carries the plurality of superhard bearing pads. In addition, at least a portion of the sub-superhard bearing elements may extend beyond the support ring.

  1. Drive piston assembly for a valve actuator assembly

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Zongxuan

    2010-02-23

    A drive piston assembly is provided that is operable to selectively open a poppet valve. The drive piston assembly includes a cartridge defining a generally stepped bore. A drive piston is movable within the generally stepped bore and a boost sleeve is coaxially disposed with respect to the drive piston. A main fluid chamber is at least partially defined by the generally stepped bore, drive piston, and boost sleeve. First and second feedback chambers are at least partially defined by the drive piston and each are disposed at opposite ends of the drive piston. At least one of the drive piston and the boost sleeve is sufficiently configured to move within the generally stepped bore in response to fluid pressure within the main fluid chamber to selectively open the poppet valve. A valve actuator assembly and engine are also provided incorporating the disclosed drive piston assembly.

  2. Assembly jig assures reliable solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ofarrell, H. O.

    1966-01-01

    Assembly jig holds the components for a solar cell module in place as the assembly is soldered and bonded by the even heat of an oven. The jig is designed to the configuration of the planned module. It eliminates uneven thermal conditions caused by hand soldering methods.

  3. Automated solar panel assembly line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somberg, H.

    1981-01-01

    The initial stage of the automated solar panel assembly line program was devoted to concept development and proof of approach through simple experimental verification. In this phase, laboratory bench models were built to demonstrate and verify concepts. Following this phase was machine design and integration of the various machine elements. The third phase was machine assembly and debugging. In this phase, the various elements were operated as a unit and modifications were made as required. The final stage of development was the demonstration of the equipment in a pilot production operation.

  4. Thermocouple assembly

    DOEpatents

    Thermos, Anthony Constantine; Rahal, Fadi Elias

    2002-01-01

    A thermocouple assembly includes a thermocouple; a plurality of lead wires extending from the thermocouple; an insulating jacket extending along and enclosing the plurality of leads; and at least one internally sealed area within the insulating jacket to prevent fluid leakage along and within the insulating jacket. The invention also provides a method of preventing leakage of a fluid along and through an insulating jacket of a thermocouple including the steps of a) attaching a plurality of lead wires to a thermocouple; b) adding a heat sensitive pseudo-wire to extend along the plurality of lead wires; c) enclosing the lead wires and pseudo-wire inside an insulating jacket; d) locally heating axially spaced portions of the insulating jacket to a temperature which melts the pseudo-wire and fuses it with an interior surface of the jacket.

  5. Swivel assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Pixton, David S.; Briscoe, Michael; Bradford, Kline; Rawle, Michael; Bartholomew, David B.; McPherson, James

    2007-03-20

    A swivel assembly for a downhole tool string comprises a first and second coaxial housing cooperatively arranged. The first housing comprises a first transmission element in communication with surface equipment. The second housing comprises a second transmission element in communication with the first transmission element. The second housing further comprises a third transmission element adapted for communication with a network integrated into the downhole tool string. The second housing may be rotational and adapted to transmit a signal between the downhole network and the first housing. Electronic circuitry is in communication with at least one of the transmission elements. The electronic circuitry may be externally mounted to the first or second housing. Further, the electronic circuitry may be internally mounted in the second housing. The electronic circuitry may be disposed in a recess in either first or second housing of the swivel.

  6. An Efficient and Versatile Means for Assembling and Manufacturing Systems in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, John T.; Doggett, William R.; Hafley, Robert A.; Komendera, Erik; Correll, Nikolaus; King, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Within NASA Space Science, Exploration and the Office of Chief Technologist, there are Grand Challenges and advanced future exploration, science and commercial mission applications that could benefit significantly from large-span and large-area structural systems. Of particular and persistent interest to the Space Science community is the desire for large (in the 10- 50 meter range for main aperture diameter) space telescopes that would revolutionize space astronomy. Achieving these systems will likely require on-orbit assembly, but previous approaches for assembling large-scale telescope truss structures and systems in space have been perceived as very costly because they require high precision and custom components. These components rely on a large number of mechanical connections and supporting infrastructure that are unique to each application. In this paper, a new assembly paradigm that mitigates these concerns is proposed and described. A new assembly approach, developed to implement the paradigm, is developed incorporating: Intelligent Precision Jigging Robots, Electron-Beam welding, robotic handling/manipulation, operations assembly sequence and path planning, and low precision weldable structural elements. Key advantages of the new assembly paradigm, as well as concept descriptions and ongoing research and technology development efforts for each of the major elements are summarized.

  7. Description and identification of difficulties arising from the application of a cleaning process in operating conditions for the treatment of components used on liquid metal fast reactors (LMFR). A technical designed approach to avoid these situations.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, G; Karpov, A V; Nalimov, Y P

    2001-01-01

    The cleaning process is one of the major maintenance operation for liquid metal fast reactors (LMFRs), both in operation and in their decommissioning stage. Russian and French cleaning processes are briefly described, including problems which have arisen during the processes. It appears that the cause of these problems is always connected to bad draining of the component, resulting in a vigorous reaction between vapour or liquid water and the bulk of sodium. From this discussion, the paper makes major recommendations for the efficient and safe cleaning of sodium wetted components, and proposes several processes which should be developed in order to deal with difficult situations, for example the removal of large amounts of undrainable sodium.

  8. Nuclear fuel assembly holddown apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony, A.J.; Martin, K.A.

    1982-01-05

    A fuel assembly has a lower end fitting and a spidered actuating rod interacting therewith for holding the assembly down on the core support stand against the upward flow of coolant. Locking means and bracing means for interacting with projections on the support stand are carried by the lower end fitting and are actuated by the movement of the actuating rod operated from above the top of the assembly. The locking means include weak springs mounted near some but not all of the end fitting posts, for engaging the support stand. Stiff springs are mounted internal to the other posts, for holding the posts against adjacent support stand projections to provide a bracing for the locking means as the spider portion of the actuating rod presses against the locking spring. The angle and spring rate per unit length of the bracing spring are preset to assure a fairly constant locking force during the life of the assembly.

  9. Hierarchical Inorganic Assemblies for Artificial Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wooyul; Edri, Eran; Frei, Heinz

    2016-09-20

    Artificial photosynthesis is an attractive approach for renewable fuel generation because it offers the prospect of a technology suitable for deployment on highly abundant, non-arable land. Recent leaps forward in the development of efficient and durable light absorbers and catalysts for oxygen evolution and the growing attention to catalysts for carbon dioxide activation brings into focus the tasks of hierarchically integrating the components into assemblies for closing of the photosynthetic cycle. A particular challenge is the efficient coupling of the multi-electron processes of CO2 reduction and H2O oxidation. Among the most important requirements for a complete integrated system are catalytic rates that match the solar flux, efficient charge transport between the various components, and scalability of the photosynthetic assembly on the unprecedented scale of terawatts in order to have impact on fuel consumption. To address these challenges, we have developed a heterogeneous inorganic materials approach with molecularly precise control of light absorption and charge transport pathways. Oxo-bridged heterobinuclear units with metal-to-metal charge-transfer transitions absorbing deep in the visible act as single photon, single charge transfer pumps for driving multi-electron catalysts. A photodeposition method has been introduced for the spatially directed assembly of nanoparticle catalysts for selective coupling to the donor or acceptor metal of the light absorber. For CO2 reduction, a Cu oxide cluster is coupled to the Zr center of a ZrOCo light absorber, while coupling of an Ir nanoparticle catalyst for water oxidation to the Co donor affords closing of the photosynthetic cycle of CO2 conversion by H2O to CO and O2. Optical, vibrational, and X-ray spectroscopy provide detailed structural knowledge of the polynuclear assemblies. Time resolved visible and rapid-scan FT-IR studies reveal charge transfer mechanisms and transient surface intermediates under

  10. Hierarchical Inorganic Assemblies for Artificial Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wooyul; Edri, Eran; Frei, Heinz

    2016-09-20

    Artificial photosynthesis is an attractive approach for renewable fuel generation because it offers the prospect of a technology suitable for deployment on highly abundant, non-arable land. Recent leaps forward in the development of efficient and durable light absorbers and catalysts for oxygen evolution and the growing attention to catalysts for carbon dioxide activation brings into focus the tasks of hierarchically integrating the components into assemblies for closing of the photosynthetic cycle. A particular challenge is the efficient coupling of the multi-electron processes of CO2 reduction and H2O oxidation. Among the most important requirements for a complete integrated system are catalytic rates that match the solar flux, efficient charge transport between the various components, and scalability of the photosynthetic assembly on the unprecedented scale of terawatts in order to have impact on fuel consumption. To address these challenges, we have developed a heterogeneous inorganic materials approach with molecularly precise control of light absorption and charge transport pathways. Oxo-bridged heterobinuclear units with metal-to-metal charge-transfer transitions absorbing deep in the visible act as single photon, single charge transfer pumps for driving multi-electron catalysts. A photodeposition method has been introduced for the spatially directed assembly of nanoparticle catalysts for selective coupling to the donor or acceptor metal of the light absorber. For CO2 reduction, a Cu oxide cluster is coupled to the Zr center of a ZrOCo light absorber, while coupling of an Ir nanoparticle catalyst for water oxidation to the Co donor affords closing of the photosynthetic cycle of CO2 conversion by H2O to CO and O2. Optical, vibrational, and X-ray spectroscopy provide detailed structural knowledge of the polynuclear assemblies. Time resolved visible and rapid-scan FT-IR studies reveal charge transfer mechanisms and transient surface intermediates under

  11. Component Publications and Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Naijun; Kang, Eun Young; Liu, Zhiming

    One of the major issues in component-based design is how to use a component correctly in different applications according to the given interface specification, called the publication, of the component. In this paper we formulate this as the problem of component publication composition and refinement. We define the notion of publications of components that describes how a component can be used by a third party in building their own components or in writing their applications without access to the design or the code of the component. It is desirable that different users of the components can be given different publications according to their need. The first contribution of this paper is to provide a procedure, which calculates a weakest contract of the required interface of a component from the contract of its provided interface and its code. The other contribution, that is more significant from a component-based designer's point of view, is to define composition on publications so that the publication of a composite component can be calculated from those of its subcomponents. For this we define a set of primitive composition operators over components, including renaming, hiding, internalizing, plugging and feedback. This theory is presented based on the sematic model of rCOS, a refinement calculus of component and object systems.

  12. High-power fused assemblies enabled by advances in fiber-processing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, Robert; Clark, Brett

    2011-02-01

    The power handling capabilities of fiber lasers are limited by the technologies available to fabricate and assemble the key optical system components. Previous tools for the assembly, tapering, and fusion of fiber laser elements have had drawbacks with regard to temperature range, alignment capability, assembly flexibility and surface contamination. To provide expanded capabilities for fiber laser assembly, a wide-area electrical plasma heat source was used in conjunction with an optimized image analysis method and a flexible alignment system, integrated according to mechatronic principles. High-resolution imaging and vision-based measurement provided feedback to adjust assembly, fusion, and tapering process parameters. The system was used to perform assembly steps including dissimilar-fiber splicing, tapering, bundling, capillary bundling, and fusion of fibers to bulk optic devices up to several mm in diameter. A wide range of fiber types and diameters were tested, including extremely large diameters and photonic crystal fibers. The assemblies were evaluated for conformation to optical and mechanical design criteria, such as taper geometry and splice loss. The completed assemblies met the performance targets and exhibited reduced surface contamination compared to assemblies prepared on previously existing equipment. The imaging system and image analysis algorithms provided in situ fiber geometry measurement data that agreed well with external measurement. The ability to adjust operating parameters dynamically based on imaging was shown to provide substantial performance benefits, particularly in the tapering of fibers and bundles. The integrated design approach was shown to provide sufficient flexibility to perform all required operations with a minimum of reconfiguration.

  13. Planning Assembly Of Large Truss Structures In Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Mello, Luiz S. Homem; Desai, Rajiv S.

    1992-01-01

    Report dicusses developmental algorithm used in systematic planning of sequences of operations in which large truss structures assembled in outer space. Assembly sequence represented by directed graph called "assembly graph", in which each arc represents joining of two parts or subassemblies. Algorithm generates assembly graph, working backward from state of complete assembly to initial state, in which all parts disassembled. Working backward more efficient than working forward because it avoids intermediate dead ends.

  14. Ground-Commanded Television Assembly (GCTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of the Ground-Commanded Television Assembly (GCTA) are discussed. The equipment was used to provide television coverage of lunar surface explorations during Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions. The subjects include the following; (1) yoke/faceplate qualification data, (2) elevation drive improvement program, (3) Apollo 17 thermal data, (4) equipment status, and (5) drawing status. Illustrations of the components of the assembly are provided. Tables of data are developed to show the performance of the components.

  15. RH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-09-17

    This procedure provides operating instructions for the RH-TRU 72-B Road Cask, Waste Shipping Package. In this document, ''Packaging'' refers to the assembly of components necessary to ensure compliance with the packaging requirements (not loaded with a payload). ''Package'' refers to a Type B packaging that, with its radioactive contents, is designed to retain the integrity of its containment and shielding when subject to the normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident test conditions set forth in 10 CFR Part 71. Loading of the RH 72-B cask can be done two ways, on the RH cask trailer in the vertical position or by removing the cask from the trailer and loading it in a facility designed for remote-handling (RH). Before loading the 72-B cask, loading procedures and changes to the loading procedures for the 72-B cask must be sent to CBFO at sitedocuments@wipp.ws for approval.

  16. Fast fluorescence switching within hydrophilic supramolecular assemblies.

    PubMed

    Cusido, Janet; Battal, Mutlu; Deniz, Erhan; Yildiz, Ibrahim; Sortino, Salvatore; Raymo, Françisco M

    2012-08-13

    We designed a supramolecular strategy to modulate fluorescence in water under optical control. It is based on the entrapment of fluorophore-photochrome dyads within the hydrophobic interior of an amphiphilic polymer. The polymeric envelope around the dyads protects them from the aqueous environment, while imposing hydrophilic character on the overall supramolecular construct. In the resulting assemblies, the photochromic component can be operated reversibly on a microsecond timescale under the influence of ultraviolet stimulations. In turn, the reversible transformations control the emission intensity of the adjacent fluorophore. As a result, the fluorescence of such nanostructured constructs can be photomodulated for hundreds of cycles in water with microsecond switching speeds. Thus, our protocol for fast fluorescence switching in aqueous solutions can eventually lead to the realization of functional probes for the investigation of biological samples. PMID:22644948

  17. Nanoparticle induced self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Helgesen, G; Svåsand, E; Skjeltorp, A T

    2008-05-21

    Self-assembly has for the large part focused on the assembly of molecules without guidance or management from an outside source. However, self-assembly is in principle by no means limited to molecules or the nanoscale. A particularly interesting method to the self-assembly of micro- to millimetre sized components is the use of the 'magnetic hole' effect. In this method, nonmagnetic particles can be manipulated by external magnetic fields by immersing them in a dispersion of colloidal, magnetic nanoparticles, denoted ferrofluids. Nonmagnetic particles in magnetized ferrofluids are in many ways ideal model systems to test various forms of particle self-assembly and dynamics. When microspheres are confined to a monolayer between two parallel plates and subjected to static or oscillating magnetic fields they show a variety of dynamical behaviours and assemblages, depending on the frequency and direction of the external fields. A single pair of magnetic holes oscillating in a ferrofluid layer may be used to measure the viscosity of tiny volumes of the fluid. We have also observed ordering of dilute dispersions of macromolecules and nanoparticles in magnetized ferrofluids. The self-assembly at this length scale results from structural correlations between these nanostructures and ferrofluid particles rather than from the macroscopic magnetostatic effect for the magnetic holes.

  18. Lightweight Chambers for Thrust Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, Sandra K.; Lee, Jonathan; Holmes, Richard; Zimmerman, Frank; Effinger, Mike; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has successfully applied new materials and fabrication techniques to create actively cooled thrust chambers that operate 200-400 degrees hotter and weigh 50% lighter than conventional designs. In some vehicles, thrust assemblies account for as much as 20% of the engine weight. So, reducing the weight of these components and increasing their operating range will benefit many engines and vehicle designs, including Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) concepts. Obviously, copper and steel alloys have been used successfully for many years in the chamber components of thrust assemblies. Yet, by replacing the steel alloys with Polymer Matrix Composite (PMC) and/or Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) materials, design weights can be drastically reduced. In addition, replacing the traditional copper alloys with a Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) or an advanced copper alloy (Cu-8Cr-4Nb, also known as GRCop-84) significantly increases allowable operating temperatures. Several small MMC and PMC demonstration chambers have recently been fabricated with promising results. Each of these designs included GRCop-84 for the cooled chamber liner. These units successfully verified that designs over 50% lighter are feasible. New fabrication processes, including advanced casting technology and a low cost vacuum plasma spray (VPS) process, were also demonstrated with these units. Hot-fire testing at MSFC is currently being conducted on the chambers to verify increased operating temperatures available with the GRCop-84 liner. Unique CMC chamber liners were also successfully fabricated and prepared for hot-fire testing. Yet, early results indicate these CMC liners need significantly more development in order to use them in required chamber designs. Based on the successful efforts with the MMC and PMC concepts, two full size "lightweight" chambers are currently being designed and fabricated for hot

  19. AutoAssemblyD: a graphical user interface system for several genome assemblers

    PubMed Central

    Veras, Adonney Allan de Oliveira; de Sá, Pablo Henrique Caracciolo Gomes; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur; Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have increased the amount of biological data generated. Thus, bioinformatics has become important because new methods and algorithms are necessary to manipulate and process such data. However, certain challenges have emerged, such as genome assembly using short reads and high-throughput platforms. In this context, several algorithms have been developed, such as Velvet, Abyss, Euler-SR, Mira, Edna, Maq, SHRiMP, Newbler, ALLPATHS, Bowtie and BWA. However, most such assemblers do not have a graphical interface, which makes their use difficult for users without computing experience given the complexity of the assembler syntax. Thus, to make the operation of such assemblers accessible to users without a computing background, we developed AutoAssemblyD, which is a graphical tool for genome assembly submission and remote management by multiple assemblers through XML templates. Availability AssemblyD is freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/autoassemblyd. It requires Sun jdk 6 or higher. PMID:24143057

  20. MALEO: Modular Assembly in Low Earth Orbit. A strategy for an IOC lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thangavelu, M.; Schierle, G. G.

    1990-01-01

    Modular Assembly in Low Earth Orbit (MALEO) is a new strategy for building an initial operational capability lunar habitation base. In this strategy, the modular lunar base components are brought up to Low Earth Orbit by the Space Transportation System/Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle fleet, and assembled there to form a complete lunar base. Modular propulsion systems are then used to transport the MALEO lunar base, complete and intact, all the way to the moon. Upon touchdown on the lunar surface, the MALEO lunar habitation base is operational. An exo-skeletal truss superstructure is employed in order to uniformly absorb and distribute the rocket engine thrusting forces incurred by the MALEO lunar base during translunar injection, lunar orbit insertion, and lunar surface touchdown. The components, configuration, and structural aspects of the MALEO lunar base are discussed. Advantages of the MALEO strategy over conventional strategies are pointed out. It is concluded that MALEO holds promise for lunar base deployment.

  1. Radial blanket assembly orificing arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Patterson, J.F.

    1975-07-01

    A nuclear reactor core for a liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor is described in which means are provided for increasing the coolant flow through the reactor fuel assemblies as the reactor ages by varying the coolant flow rate with the changing coolant requirements during the core operating lifetime. (auth)

  2. Experience with integrally-cast compressor and turbine components for a small, low-cost, expendable-type turbojet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dengler, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    Experiences with integrally-cast compressor and turbine components during fabrication and testing of four engine assemblies of a small (29 cm (11 1/2 in.) maximum diameter) experimental turbojet engine design for an expendable application are discussed. Various operations such as metal removal, welding, and re-shaping of these components were performed in preparation of full-scale engine tests. Engines with these components were operated for a total of 157 hours at engine speeds as high as 38,000 rpm and at turbine inlet temperatures as high as 1256 K (1800 F).

  3. Program Helps To Optimize Assembly Sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, Chester S.; Werntz, David G.; Loyola, Steven J.

    1992-01-01

    FAST project-management software tool designed to optimize sequence of assembly of Space Station Freedom. Assesses effects of detailed changes upon system and produces output metrics identifying preferred assembly sequences. Incorporates Space-Shuttle integration, Space-Station hardware, on-orbit operations, and governing programmatic considerations as either precedence relations or numerical data. Written in C language.

  4. Neutron radiation embrittlement studies in support of continued operation, and validation by sampling of Magnox reactor steel pressure vessels and components

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.B.; Bolton, C.J.

    1997-02-01

    Magnox steel reactor pressure vessels differ significantly from US LWR vessels in terms of the type of steel used, as well as their operating environment (dose level, exposure temperature range, and neutron spectra). The large diameter ferritic steel vessels are constructed from C-Mn steel plates and forgings joined together with manual metal and submerged-arc welds which are stress-relieved. All Magnox vessels are now at least thirty years old and their continued operation is being vigorously pursued. Vessel surveillance and other programmes are summarized which support this objective. The current understanding of the roles of matrix irradiation damage, irradiation-enhanced copper impurity precipitation and intergranular embrittlement effects is described in so far as these influence the form of the embrittlement and hardening trend curves for each material. An update is given on the influence of high temperature exposure, and on the role of differing neutron spectra. Finally, the validation offered by the results of an initial vessel sampling exercise is summarized together with the objectives of a more extensive future sampling programme.

  5. Backward assembly planning with DFA analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An assembly planning system that operates based on a recursive decomposition of assembly into subassemblies is presented. The planning system analyzes assembly cost in terms of stability, directionality, and manipulability to guide the generation of preferred assembly plans. The planning in this system incorporates the special processes, such as cleaning, testing, labeling, etc., that must occur during the assembly. Additionally, the planning handles nonreversible, as well as reversible, assembly tasks through backward assembly planning. In order to decrease the planning efficiency, the system avoids the analysis of decompositions that do not correspond to feasible assembly tasks. This is achieved by grouping and merging those parts that can not be decomposable at the current stage of backward assembly planning due to the requirement of special processes and the constraint of interconnection feasibility. The invention includes methods of evaluating assembly cost in terms of the number of fixtures (or holding devices) and reorientations required for assembly, through the analysis of stability, directionality, and manipulability. All these factors are used in defining cost and heuristic functions for an AO* search for an optimal plan.

  6. Backward assembly planning with DFA analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An assembly planning system that operates based on a recursive decomposition of assembly into subassemblies, and analyzes assembly cost in terms of stability, directionality, and manipulability to guide the generation of preferred assembly plans is presented. The planning in this system incorporates the special processes, such as cleaning, testing, labeling, etc. that must occur during the assembly, and handles nonreversible as well as reversible assembly tasks through backward assembly planning. In order to increase the planning efficiency, the system avoids the analysis of decompositions that do not correspond to feasible assembly tasks. This is achieved by grouping and merging those parts that can not be decomposable at the current stage of backward assembly planning due to the requirement of special processes and the constraint of interconnection feasibility. The invention includes methods of evaluating assembly cost in terms of the number of fixtures (or holding devices) and reorientations required for assembly, through the analysis of stability, directionality, and manipulability. All these factors are used in defining cost and heuristic functions for an AO* search for an optimal plan.

  7. Backward assembly planning with DFA analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sukhan

    1995-08-01

    An assembly planning system that operates based on a recursive decomposition of assembly into subassemblies, and analyzes assembly cost in terms of stability, directionality, and manipulability to guide the generation of preferred assembly plans is presented. The planning in this system incorporates the special processes, such as cleaning, testing, labeling, etc. that must occur during the assembly, and handles nonreversible as well as reversible assembly tasks through backward assembly planning. In order to increase the planning efficiency, the system avoids the analysis of decompositions that do not correspond to feasible assembly tasks. This is achieved by grouping and merging those parts that can not be decomposable at the current stage of backward assembly planning due to the requirement of special processes and the constraint of interconnection feasibility. The invention includes methods of evaluating assembly cost in terms of the number of fixtures (or holding devices) and reorientations required for assembly, through the analysis of stability, directionality, and manipulability. All these factors are used in defining cost and heuristic functions for an AO* search for an optimal plan.

  8. Core/coil assembly for use in superconducting magnets and method for assembling the same

    DOEpatents

    Kassner, David A.

    1979-01-01

    A core/coil assembly for use in a superconducting magnet of the focusing or bending type used in syncronous particle accelerators comprising a coil assembly contained within an axial bore of the stacked, washer type, carbon steel laminations which comprise the magnet core assembly, and forming an interference fit with said laminations at the operating temperature of said magnet. Also a method for making such core/coil assemblies comprising the steps of cooling the coil assembly to cryogenic temperatures and drawing it rapidly upwards into the bore of said stacked laminations.

  9. On-orbit assembly/servicing task definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargo, Rick

    1990-01-01

    The OEXP vehicles being envisioned to carry out the Presidential space goals of a lunar outpost and human exploration of Mars will require on-orbit assembly, refurbishment, checkout, and launch. The On-orbit Assembly/Servicing Task Definition Study applies the space vehicle processing experience and procedures archives resident at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to determine the task flows, and resources/facilities necessary to process the OEXP vehicles at Space Station Freedom (SSF). This data base is examined to find the closest analogies to OEXP vehicle components and assembly/refurbishment tasks. Transition tables are generated to provide traceability from KSC hardware processing experience to analogous on-orbit processing of the OEXP vehicles. Iterations in which the task flows are broken down into realistic extravehicular activity (EVA) primitive subtasks and times, and to apply automation and robotic technology to reduce crew risks and minimize EVA time, will enhance the value and accuracy of the predicted flows. These processing scenarios and the resulting resource/facility requirements are used to determine impacts of SSF, resulting in change requests to SSF requirements for provision of 'hooks and scars' to evolve the assembly complete Space Station into a transportation node. Study results to date include assembly analysis of the Martin Marietta Phobos Gateway Vehicle, refurbishment analysis of the Martin Marietta Lunar Evolution Piloted and Cargo Vehicles, and assembly analysis of the Boeing Mars Evolution Vehicle. The results of this study will be accumulated into the vehicle processing operations data base for subsequent modeling, life cycle cost, vehicle growth, and SSF impact analysis.

  10. LOLA: The lunar operations landing assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Mike; Argeles, Fernando; Stewart, Chris; Turner, Charles; Rivas, Gavino

    1992-05-01

    Because the President of the United States has begun the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), which entails a manned mission to Mars by the year 2016, it is necessary to use the Moon as a stepping stone to this objective. In support of this mission, unmanned scientific exploration of the Moon will help re-establish man's presence there and will serve as a basis for possible lunar colonization, setting the stage for a manned Mars mission. The lunar landing platform must provide support to its payload in the form of power, communications, and thermal control. The design must be such that cost is held to a minimum, and so that a wide variety of payloads may be used with the lander. The objectives of this mission are (1) to further the SEI by returning to the moon with unmanned scientific experiments, (2) to demonstrate to the public that experimental payload missions are feasible, (3) to provide a common lunar lander platform so select scientific packages could be targeted to specific lunar locales, (4) to enable the lander to be built from off-the-shelf hardware, and (5) to provide first mission launch by 1996.

  11. LOLA: The lunar operations landing assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abreu, Mike; Argeles, Fernando; Stewart, Chris; Turner, Charles; Rivas, Gavino

    1992-01-01

    Because the President of the United States has begun the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), which entails a manned mission to Mars by the year 2016, it is necessary to use the Moon as a stepping stone to this objective. In support of this mission, unmanned scientific exploration of the Moon will help re-establish man's presence there and will serve as a basis for possible lunar colonization, setting the stage for a manned Mars mission. The lunar landing platform must provide support to its payload in the form of power, communications, and thermal control. The design must be such that cost is held to a minimum, and so that a wide variety of payloads may be used with the lander. The objectives of this mission are (1) to further the SEI by returning to the moon with unmanned scientific experiments, (2) to demonstrate to the public that experimental payload missions are feasible, (3) to provide a common lunar lander platform so select scientific packages could be targeted to specific lunar locales, (4) to enable the lander to be built from off-the-shelf hardware, and (5) to provide first mission launch by 1996.

  12. Tolerancing of component dimensions in CAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, D. B.

    1984-01-01

    Any particular dimension of a manufactured component varies in its value between individual nominally identical components. When several components are to be assembled together, it can happen that in some cases assembly will prove impossible, or that the assembly may not satisfy design specifications. The problem arises to optimize dimensional tolerances to ensure that, for given manufacturing costs, there is an acceptably low risk of the assembly failing to meet the specification. Approaches for solving this problem are discussed. The ability to associate a chosen set of nominal dimensions and dimensional tolerances with a numerical estimate of the risk of unsatisfactory assembly is found to be of considerable value in computer-aided design procedures, where it is necessary to optimize tolerances for minimum overall cost.

  13. TSTA Piping and Flame Arrestor Operating Experience Data

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee C.; Willms, R. Scott

    2014-10-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) was a facility dedicated to tritium handling technology and experiment research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The facility operated from 1984 to 2001, running a prototype fusion fuel processing loop with ~100 grams of tritium as well as small experiments. There have been several operating experience reports written on this facility’s operation and maintenance experience. This paper describes analysis of two additional components from TSTA, small diameter gas piping that handled small amounts of tritium in a nitrogen carrier gas, and the flame arrestor used in this piping system. The operating experiences and the component failure rates for these components are discussed in this paper. Comparison data from other applications are also presented.

  14. Long term operation of the 100-cm{sup 2} class single cell of MCFC

    SciTech Connect

    Tanimoto, Kazumi; Yanagida, Masahiro; Kojima, Toshikatsu

    1996-12-31

    The R&D on Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) is proceeding as one of the New Sun Shine Project sponsored by Japanese government. In ONRI (Osaka National Research Institute), the tested MCFCs were assembled with the state-of-the-art components and operated under the load condition for 40000 hours and 34000 hours. We analyzed the performance reduction.

  15. Space operations center: Shuttle interaction study extension, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Space Operations Center (SOC) is conceived as a permanent facility in low Earth orbit incorporating capabilities for space systems construction; space vehicle assembly, launching, recovery and servicing; and the servicing of co-orbiting satellites. The Shuttle Transportation System is an integral element of the SOC concept. It will transport the various elements of the SOC into space and support the assembly operation. Subsequently, it will regularly service the SOC with crew rotations, crew supplies, construction materials, construction equipment and components, space vehicle elements, and propellants and spare parts. The implications to the SOC as a consequence of the Shuttle supporting operations are analyzed. Programmatic influences associated with propellant deliveries, spacecraft servicing, and total shuttle flight operations are addressed.

  16. Latching relay switch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Duimstra, Frederick A.

    1991-01-01

    A latching relay switch assembly which includes a coil section and a switch or contact section. The coil section includes at least one permanent magnet and at least one electromagnet. The respective sections are, generally, arranged in separate locations or cavities in the assembly. The switch is latched by a permanent magnet assembly and selectively switched by an overriding electromagnetic assembly.

  17. Neural syntax: cell assemblies, synapsembles and readers

    PubMed Central

    Buzsáki, György

    2010-01-01

    Summary A widely discussed hypothesis in neuroscience is that transiently active ensembles of neurons, known as ‘cell assemblies’, underlie numerous operations of the brain, from encoding memories to reasoning. However, the mechanisms responsible for the formation and disbanding of cell assemblies and temporal evolution of cell assembly sequences are not well understood. I introduce and review three interconnected topics, which could facilitate progress in defining cell assemblies, identifying their neuronal organization and revealing causal relationships between assembly organization and behavior. First, I hypothesize that cell assemblies are best understood in light of their output product, as detected by ‘reader-actuator’ mechanisms. Second, I suggest that the hierarchical organization of cell assemblies may be regarded as a neural syntax. Third, constituents of the neural syntax are linked together by dynamically changing constellations of synaptic weights (‘synapsembles’). Existing support for this tripartite framework is reviewed and strategies for experimental testing of its predictions are discussed. PMID:21040841

  18. Design of an optical system with large depth of field using in the micro-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rong; Chang, Jun; Zhang, Zhi-jing; Ye, Xin; Zheng, Hai-jing

    2013-08-01

    Micro system currently is the mainstream of application and demand of the field of micro fabrication of civilian and national defense. Compared with the macro assembly, the requirements on location accuracy of the micro-assembly system are much higher. Usually the dimensions of the components of the micro-assembly are mostly between a few microns to several hundred microns. The general assembly precision requires for the sub-micron level. Micro system assembly is the bottleneck of micro fabrication currently. The optical stereo microscope used in the field of micro assembly technology can achieve high-resolution imaging, but the depth of field of the optical imaging system is too small. Thus it's not conducive to the three-dimensional observation process of the micro-assembly. This paper summarizes the development of micro system assembly at home and abroad firstly. Based on the study of the core features of the technology, a program is proposed which uses wave front coding technology to increase the depth of field of the optical imaging system. In the wave front coding technology, by combining traditional optical design with digital image processing creatively, the depth of field can be greatly increased, moreover, all defocus-related aberrations, such as spherical aberration, chromatic aberration, astigmatism, Ptzvel(field) curvature, distortion, and other defocus induced by the error of assembling and temperature change, can be corrected or minimized. In this paper, based on the study of theory, a set of optical microscopy imaging system is designed. This system is designed and optimized by optical design software CODE V and ZEMAX. At last, the imaging results of the traditional optical stereo microscope and the optical stereo microscope applied wave front coding technology are compared. The results show that: the method has a practical operability and the phase plate obtained by optimized has a good effect on improving the imaging quality and increasing the

  19. Pairwise selection assembly for sequence-independent construction of long-length DNA.

    PubMed

    Blake, William J; Chapman, Brad A; Zindal, Anuradha; Lee, Michael E; Lippow, Shaun M; Baynes, Brian M

    2010-05-01

    The engineering of biological components has been facilitated by de novo synthesis of gene-length DNA. Biological engineering at the level of pathways and genomes, however, requires a scalable and cost-effective assembly of DNA molecules that are longer than approximately 10 kb, and this remains a challenge. Here we present the development of pairwise selection assembly (PSA), a process that involves hierarchical construction of long-length DNA through the use of a standard set of components and operations. In PSA, activation tags at the termini of assembly sub-fragments are reused throughout the assembly process to activate vector-encoded selectable markers. Marker activation enables stringent selection for a correctly assembled product in vivo, often obviating the need for clonal isolation. Importantly, construction via PSA is sequence-independent, and does not require primary sequence modification (e.g. the addition or removal of restriction sites). The utility of PSA is demonstrated in the construction of a completely synthetic 91-kb chromosome arm from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  20. Structural assembly in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, J. W.; Pruett, E. C.

    1980-01-01

    A cost algorithm for predicting assembly costs for large space structures is given. Assembly scenarios are summarized which describe the erection, deployment, and fabrication tasks for five large space structures. The major activities that impact total costs for structure assembly from launch through deployment and assembly to scientific instrument installation and checkout are described. Individual cost elements such as assembly fixtures, handrails, or remote minipulators are also presented.

  1. Insulation assembly for electric machine

    DOEpatents

    Rhoads, Frederick W.; Titmuss, David F.; Parish, Harold; Campbell, John D.

    2013-10-15

    An insulation assembly is provided that includes a generally annularly-shaped main body and at least two spaced-apart fingers extending radially inwards from the main body. The spaced-apart fingers define a gap between the fingers. A slot liner may be inserted within the gap. The main body may include a plurality of circumferentially distributed segments. Each one of the plurality of segments may be operatively connected to another of the plurality of segments to form the continuous main body. The slot liner may be formed as a single extruded piece defining a plurality of cavities. A plurality of conductors (extendable from the stator assembly) may be axially inserted within a respective one of the plurality of cavities. The insulation assembly electrically isolates the conductors in the electric motor from the stator stack and from other conductors.

  2. Nuclear fuel assembly wear sleeve

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwell, D.J.; Kmonk, S.

    1983-03-08

    An improved control rod guide tube for use in a fuel assembly in a nuclear reactor. The guide tube extends the complete length of the fuel assembly and has its upper end fastened in a cylindrical housing by swaging the guide tube material into grooves formed in the housing walls. To eliminate wear on the guide tube inner walls caused by hydraulic induced vibratory forces on a control rod adapted to move therein, a thin-walled chrome plated sleeve is threaded into the top end of the guide thimble and extends downwardly a distance sufficient to be engaged by the control rod during reactor operation. The sleeve serves as a highly resistant wear surface between the control rod and walls on the guide tube in the fuel assembly.

  3. Tilt assembly for tracking solar collector assembly

    DOEpatents

    Almy, Charles; Peurach, John; Sandler, Reuben

    2012-01-24

    A tilt assembly is used with a solar collector assembly of the type comprising a frame, supporting a solar collector, for movement about a tilt axis by pivoting a drive element between first and second orientations. The tilt assembly comprises a drive element coupler connected to the drive element and a driver, the driver comprising a drive frame, a drive arm and a drive arm driver. The drive arm is mounted to the drive frame for pivotal movement about a drive arm axis. Movement on the drive arm mimics movement of the drive element. Drive element couplers can extend in opposite directions from the outer portion of the drive arm, whereby the assembly can be used between adjacent solar collector assemblies in a row of solar collector assemblies.

  4. Design of Critical Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2001-01-01

    Critical component design is based on minimizing product failures that results in loss of life. Potential catastrophic failures are reduced to secondary failures where components removed for cause or operating time in the system. Issues of liability and cost of component removal become of paramount importance. Deterministic design with factors of safety and probabilistic design address but lack the essential characteristics for the design of critical components. In deterministic design and fabrication there are heuristic rules and safety factors developed over time for large sets of structural/material components. These factors did not come without cost. Many designs failed and many rules (codes) have standing committees to oversee their proper usage and enforcement. In probabilistic design, not only are failures a given, the failures are calculated; an element of risk is assumed based on empirical failure data for large classes of component operations. Failure of a class of components can be predicted, yet one can not predict when a specific component will fail. The analogy is to the life insurance industry where very careful statistics are book-kept on classes of individuals. For a specific class, life span can be predicted within statistical limits, yet life-span of a specific element of that class can not be predicted.

  5. Advanced BWR core component designs and the implications for SFD analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, L.J.

    1997-02-01

    Prior to the DF-4 boiling water reactor (BWR) severe fuel damage (SFD) experiment conducted at the Sandia National Laboratories in 1986, no experimental data base existed for guidance in modeling core component behavior under postulated severe accident conditions in commercial BWRs. This paper will present the lessons learned from the DF-4 experiment (and subsequent German CORA BWR SFD tests) and the impact on core models in the current generation of SFD codes. The DF-4 and CORA BWR test assemblies were modeled on the core component designs circa 1985; that is, the 8 x 8 fuel assembly with two water rods and a cruciform control blade constructed of B{sub 4}C-filled tubelets. Within the past ten years, the state-of-the-art with respect to BWR core component development has out-distanced the current SFD experimental data base and SFD code capabilities. For example, modern BWR control blade design includes hafnium at the tips and top of each control blade wing for longer blade operating lifetimes; also water rods have been replaced by larger water channels for better neutronics economy; and fuel assemblies now contain partial-length fuel rods, again for better neutronics economy. This paper will also discuss the implications of these advanced fuel assembly and core component designs on severe accident progression and on the current SFD code capabilities.

  6. Electrostatic quadrupole focused particle accelerating assembly with laminar flow beam

    DOEpatents

    Maschke, Alfred W.

    1985-01-01

    A charged particle accelerating assembly provided with a predetermined ratio of parametric structural characteristics and with related operating voltages applied to each of its linearly spaced focusing and accelerating quadrupoles, thereby to maintain a particle beam traversing the electrostatic fields of the quadrupoles in the assembly in an essentially laminar flow throughout the assembly.

  7. Electrostatic quadrupole focused particle accelerating assembly with laminar flow beam

    DOEpatents

    Maschke, A.W.

    1984-04-16

    A charged particle accelerating assembly provided with a predetermined ratio of parametric structural characteristics and with related operating voltages applied to each of its linearly spaced focusing and accelerating quadrupoles, thereby to maintain a particle beam traversing the electrostatic fields of the quadrupoles in the assembly in an essentially laminar flow through the assembly.

  8. Heavy Water Components Test Reactor Decommissioning - Major Component Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, W.; Brinkley, D.

    2010-05-05

    The Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) facility (Figure 1) was built in 1961, operated from 1962 to 1964, and is located in the northwest quadrant of the Savannah River Site (SRS) approximately three miles from the site boundary. The HWCTR facility is on high, well-drained ground, about 30 meters above the water table. The HWCTR was a pressurized heavy water test reactor used to develop candidate fuel designs for heavy water power reactors. It was not a defense-related facility like the materials production reactors at SRS. The reactor was moderated with heavy water and was rated at 50 megawatts thermal power. In December of 1964, operations were terminated and the facility was placed in a standby condition as a result of the decision by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to redirect research and development work on heavy water power reactors to reactors cooled with organic materials. For about one year, site personnel maintained the facility in a standby status, and then retired the reactor in place. In 1965, fuel assemblies were removed, systems that contained heavy water were drained, fluid piping systems were drained, deenergized and disconnected and the spent fuel basin was drained and dried. The doors of the reactor facility were shut and it wasn't until 10 years later that decommissioning plans were considered and ultimately postponed due to budget constraints. In the early 1990s, DOE began planning to decommission HWCTR again. Yet, in the face of new budget constraints, DOE deferred dismantlement and placed HWCTR in an extended surveillance and maintenance mode. The doors of the reactor facility were welded shut to protect workers and discourage intruders. The $1.6 billion allocation from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to SRS for site clean up at SRS has opened the doors to the HWCTR again - this time for final decommissioning. During the lifetime of HWCTR, 36 different fuel assemblies were tested in the facility. Ten of these

  9. High power microwave components for space communications satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankowski, H.; Geia, A.

    1972-01-01

    Analyzed, developed, and tested were high power microwave components for communications satellites systems. Included were waveguide and flange configurations with venting, a harmonic filter, forward and reverse power monitors, electrical fault sensors, and a diplexer for two channel simultaneous transmission. The assembly of 8.36 GHz components was bench tested, and then operated for 60 hours at 3.5 kW CW in a high vacuum. The diplexer was omitted from this test pending a modification of its end irises. An RF leakage test showed only that care is required at flange junctions; all other components were RF tight. Designs were extrapolated for 12 GHz and 2.64 GHz high power satellite systems.

  10. Evaluation of systems and components for hybrid optical firing sets

    SciTech Connect

    Landry, M.J.; Rupert, J.W.; Mittas, A.

    1989-06-01

    High-energy density light appears to be a unique energy form that may be used to enhance the nuclear safety of weapon systems. Hybrid optical firing sets (HOFS) utilize the weak-link/strong-link exclusion region concept for nuclear safety; this method is similar to present systems, but uses light to transmit power across the exclusion region barrier. This report describes the assembling, operating, and testing of fourteen HOFS. These firing sets were required to charge a capacitor-discharge unit to 2.0 and 2.5 kV (100 mJ) in less than 1 s. First, we describe the components, the measurement techniques used to evaluate the components, and the different characteristics of the measured components. Second, we describe the HOFS studied, the setups used for evaluating them, and the resulting characteristics. Third, we make recommendations for improving the overall performance and suggest the best HOFS for packaging. 36 refs., 145 figs., 14 tabs.

  11. Saturn V S-IC Stage Fuel Tank Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    The components of the Saturn V booster (S-IC stage) fuel tank are shown in this photograph. The liquid oxygen tank bulkhead on the left and both halves of the fuel tank were in the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory, building 4707. These components were used at MSFC in structural testing to prove that they could withstand the forces to which they were subjected in flight. Each S-IC stage has two tanks, one for kerosene and one for liquid oxygen, made from such components as these. Thirty-three feet in diameter, they hold a total of 4,400,000 pounds of fuel. Although this tankage was assembled at MSFC, the elements were made by the Boeing Company at Wichita and the Michoud Operations at New Orleans.

  12. Assembly modeling for plan generation and DFA analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neelamkavil, Joseph

    2000-10-01

    Assembly in the state when a product really comes to life and is able to function; a product achieves its functionality by the concerted efforts of its components. Assembling consists of the act of putting two or more components together; but behind the scenes work includes many activities necessary to realize a complete product, repair it, disassemble it for recycling or disposal and so on. During the past two decades or so, several methodologies- graph theory, matrix algebra, knowledge-based, object-oriented, etc. - have evolved for the modeling of assemblies. Each method has its own merit; but the suitability and practicality of a method often depends on the computer hardware capability and the state of available software language features (expression capability and libraries). Generally speaking, the modeling of assemblies involves a two step process: component relationship modeling and detailed CAD modeling. Product designers use the components relationship models, often informally, to complete their design. This paper describes the modeling techniques and implementation details pertaining to the component relations. Matrix algebra-based modeling framework that is used in this work is capable of representing product final assemblies, sub-assemblies and individual components. The framework has the required expression capability that may be used to perform bill of materials calculations, material requirements planning, the creation of assembly liaison or mating information, design for assembly (DFA) analysis and the generation of assembly plans/sequences.

  13. Using supramolecular binding motifs to provide precise control over the ratio and distribution of species in multiple component films grafted on surfaces: demonstration using electrochemical assembly from aryl diazonium salts.

    PubMed

    Gui, Alicia L; Yau, Hon Man; Thomas, Donald S; Chockalingam, Muthukumar; Harper, Jason B; Gooding, J Justin

    2013-04-16

    Supramolecular interactions between two surface modification species are explored to control the ratio and distribution of these species on the resultant surface. A binary mixture of aryl diazonium salts bearing oppositely charged para-substituents (either -SO3(-) or -N(+)(Me)3), which also reduce at different potentials, has been examined on glassy carbon surfaces using cyclic voltammetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Striking features were observed: (1) the two aryl diazonium salts in the mixed solution undergo reductive adsorption at the same potential which is distinctively less negative than the potential required for the reduction of either of the two aryl diazonium salts alone; (2) the surface ratio of the two phenyl derivatives is consistently 1:1 regardless of the ratio of the two aryl diazonium salts in the modification solutions. Homogeneous distribution of the two oppositely charged phenyl species on the modified surface has also been suggested by XPS survey spectra. Diffusion coefficient measurements by DOSY NMR and DFT based computation have indicated the association of the two aryl diazonium species in the solution, which has led to changes in the molecular orbital energies of the two species. This study highlights the potential of using intermolecular interactions to control the assembly of multicomponent thin layers.

  14. Modification of hot cells for general purpose heat source assembly at the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carteret, B. A.

    1991-09-01

    Eight existing, unused hot cells currently are being modified for use in the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) to assemble Pu-238 fueled heat sources for radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Four air atmosphere cells will be used for storage, decanning, and decontamination of the iridium-clad radioisotope fuel. The remaining four argon atmosphere cells will be used to assemble fuel and graphite components for production and packaging of general purpose heat source (GPHS) assembly modules, which provide heat to drive the thermoelectric conversion process in the generators. The hot cells will be equipped to perform remote and glovebox-type operations. They will provide shielding and contamination control measures to reduce worker radiation exposure to levels within current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines. Designs emphasize the Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) radiation protection policy.

  15. Modification of hot cells for general purpose heat source assembly at the radioisotope power systems facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carteret, Betty A.

    1992-01-01

    Eight existing, unused hot cells currently are being modified for use in the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) to assemble 238Pu-fueled heat sources for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Four air atmosphere cells will be used for storage, decanning, and decontamination of the iridium-clad radioisotope fuel. The remaining four argon atmosphere cells will be used to assemble fuel and graphite components for production and packaging of general purpose heat source (GPHS) assembly modules, which provide heat to drive the thermoelectric conversion process in the generators. The hot cells will be equipped to perform remote and glovebox-type operations. They will provide shielding and contamination control measures to reduce worker radiation exposure to levels within current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines. Designs emphasize the Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) radiation protection policy.

  16. Piston and connecting rod assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brogdon, James William (Inventor); Gill, David Keith (Inventor); Chatten, John K. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A piston and connecting rod assembly includes a piston crown, a piston skirt, a connecting rod, and a bearing insert. The piston skirt is a component separate from the piston crown and is connected to the piston crown to provide a piston body. The bearing insert is a component separate from the piston crown and the piston skirt and is fixedly disposed within the piston body. A bearing surface of a connecting rod contacts the bearing insert to thereby movably associate the connecting rod and the piston body.

  17. Microchannel heat sink assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bonde, Wayne L.; Contolini, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watetight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures.

  18. Microchannel heat sink assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bonde, W.L.; Contolini, R.J.

    1992-03-24

    The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watertight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures. 13 figs.

  19. Magnetohydrodynamic projects at the CDIF (Component Development and Integration Facility)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This quarterly technical progress report presents the tasks accomplished at the Component Development and Integration Facility during the fourth quarter of FY90. Areas of technical progress this quarter included: coal system development; seed system development; test bay modification; channel power dissipation and distribution system development; oxygen system storage upgrade; iron core magnet thermal protection system oxygen checkout; TRW slag rejector/CDIF slag removal project; stack gas/environmental compliance upgrade; coal-fired combustor support; 1A channels fabrication and assembly; support of Mississippi State University diagnostic testing; test operations and results; data enhancement; data analysis and modeling; technical papers; and projected activities. 2 tabs.

  20. NASA Fastrac Engine Gas Generator Component Test Program and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Henry J., Jr.; Sanders, Tim; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This presentation consists of viewgraph which review the test program and the results of the tests for the Gas Generator (GG) component for the Fastrac Engine. Included are pictures of the Fastrac (MC-1) Engine and the GG, diagrams of the flight configuration, and schematics of the LOX, and the RP-1 systems and the injector assembly. The normal operating parameters are reviewed, as are the test instrumentation. Also shown are graphs of the hot gas temperature, and the test temperature profiles. The results are summarized.