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Sample records for components ce5 solutions

  1. Holographic sensors for diagnostics of solution components

    SciTech Connect

    Kraiskii, A V; Suitanov, T T; Postnikov, V A; Khamidulin, A V

    2010-02-28

    The properties of holographic sensors of two types are studied. The sensors are based on a three-dimensional polymer-network matrix of copolymers of acrylamide, acrylic acid (which are sensitive to the medium acidity and bivalent metal ions) and aminophenylboronic acid (sensitive to glucose). It is found that a change in the ionic composition of a solution results in changes in the distance between layers and in the diffraction efficiency of holograms. Variations in the shape of spectral lines, which are attributed to the inhomogeneity of a sensitive layer, and nonmonotonic changes in the emulsion thickness and diffraction efficiency were observed during transient processes. The composition of the components of a hydrogel medium is selected for systems which can be used as a base for glucose sensors with the mean holographic response in the region of physiological glucose concentration in model solutions achieving 40 nm/(mmol L{sup -1}). It is shown that the developed holographic sensors can be used for the visual and instrumental determination of the medium acidity, alcohol content, ionic strength, bivalent metal salts and the quality of water, in particular, for drinking. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  2. Component dynamics in polyvinylpyrrolidone concentrated aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Busselez, Rémi; Arbe, Arantxa; Cerveny, Silvina; Capponi, Sara; Colmenero, Juan; Frick, Bernhard

    2012-08-28

    (2)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and neutron scattering (NS) on isotopically labelled samples have been combined to investigate the structure and dynamics of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) aqueous solutions (4 water molecules/monomeric unit). Neutron diffraction evidences the nanosegregation of polymer main-chains and water molecules leading to the presence of water clusters. NMR reveals the same characteristic times and spectral shape as those of the slower process observed by broadband dielectric spectroscopy in this system [S. Cerveny et al., J. Chem. Phys. 128, 044901 (2008)]. The temperature dependence of such relaxation time crosses over from a cooperative-like behavior at high temperatures to an Arrhenius behavior at lower temperatures. Below the crossover, NMR features the spectral shape as due to a symmetric distribution of relaxation times and the underlying motions as isotropic. NS results on the structural relaxation of both components-isolated via H/D labeling-show (i) anomalously stretched and non-Gaussian functional forms of the intermediate scattering functions and (ii) a strong dynamic asymmetry between the components that increases with decreasing temperature. Strong heterogeneities associated to the nanosegregated structure and the dynamic asymmetry are invoked to explain the observed anomalies. On the other hand, at short times the atomic displacements are strongly coupled for PVP and water, presumably due to H-bond formation and densification of the sample upon hydration.

  3. Partial surface tension of components of a solution.

    PubMed

    Kaptay, George

    2015-06-01

    First, extending the boundaries of the thermodynamic framework of Gibbs, a definition of the partial surface tension of a component of a solution is provided. Second, a formal thermodynamic relationship is established between the partial surface tensions of different components of a solution and the surface tension of the same solution. Third, the partial surface tension of a component is derived as a function of bulk and surface concentrations of the given component, using general equations for the thermodynamics of solutions. The above equations are derived without an initial knowledge of the Gibbs adsorption equation and without imposing any restrictions on the thickness or structure of the surface region of the solution. Only surface tension and the composition of the surface region are used as independent thermodynamic parameters, similar to Gibbs, who used only the surface tension of the solution and the relative surface excesses of the components. The final result formally coincides with the historical Butler equation (1932), but without its theoretical restrictions. (Butler used too many unnecessary model restrictions during his work: he started from the Gibbs adsorption equation, and he assumed the existence of a surface monolayer.) Thus, the renovated Butler equation has gained general validity in this article. It was applied to derive both the Langmuir equation and the Gibbs adsorption equation, but the latter two equations do not follow from each other. Thus, it is shown that logically (not historically) the renovated Butler equation is a root equation for surface tension and the adsorption of solutions. It can be used to perform calculations for specific systems if the corresponding specific experimental data/models are loaded into it. In this case, both surface tension and surface composition can be calculated from the renovated Butler equation, which cannot be done using the Gibbs adsorption equation alone.

  4. A new two-component integrable system with peakon solutions

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Baoqiang; Qiao, Zhijun

    2015-01-01

    A new two-component system with cubic nonlinearity and linear dispersion: mt=bux+12[m(uv−uxvx)]x−12m(uvx−uxv),nt=bvx+12[n(uv−uxvx)]x+12n(uvx−uxv),m=u−uxx,n=v−vxx,where b is an arbitrary real constant, is proposed in this paper. This system is shown integrable with its Lax pair, bi-Hamiltonian structure and infinitely many conservation laws. Geometrically, this system describes a non-trivial one-parameter family of pseudo-spherical surfaces. In the case b=0, the peaked soliton (peakon) and multi-peakon solutions to this two-component system are derived. In particular, the two-peakon dynamical system is explicitly solved and their interactions are investigated in details. Moreover, a new integrable cubic nonlinear equation with linear dispersion mt=bux+12[m(|u|2−|ux|2)]x−12m(uux∗−uxu∗),m=u−uxx,is obtained by imposing the complex conjugate reduction v=u* to the two-component system. The complex-valued N-peakon solution and kink wave solution to this complex equation are also derived. PMID:25792956

  5. Complexation in two-component chlortetracycline-melanin solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapina, V. A.; Pershukevich, P. P.; Dontsov, A. E.; Bel'Kov, M. V.

    2008-01-01

    The spectra and kinetics of fluorescence of two-component solutions of the chlortetracycline (CHTC)-DOPA-melanin (melanin or ME) system in water have been investigated. The data obtained have been compared to similar data for solutions of CHTC-melanosome from bull eye (MB), which contains natural melanin, in K-phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. The overall results indicate the occurrence of complexation between molecules of CHTC and ME as they are being excited. The studies of complexation in the solution of CHTC-MB in the buffer are complicated by the formation of a CHTC-buffer complex. The effect of optical radiation in the range 330-750 nm on the CHTC-ME complex shows selectivity: the greatest change in the spectrum occurs when the wavelength of the exciting radiation coincides with the long-wavelength band maximum of the fluorescence excitation spectrum of the CHTC-ME complex in aqueous solution. In this range, CHTC and especially ME show high photochemical stability. The nature of the radiation effect on the studied compounds in the hard UV range (λ < 330 nm) differs greatly from that in the range 330-750 nm. It is apparently accompanied by significant photochemical transmutations of all system components. By comparing the characteristics of the CHTC-ME systems with those of the related drug doxycycline (DC-ME), the conclusion has been made that the chlorine atom plays a vital role in formation of the short-wavelength band in the fluorescence spectrum of the CHTC-ME complex.

  6. Leak testing of cryogenic components — problems and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, S. P.; Pandarkar, S. P.; Unni, T. G.; Sinha, A. K.; Mahajan, K.; Suthar, R. L.

    2008-05-01

    moderator pot was driving the MSLD out of range. Since it was very difficult to locate the leak by Tracer Probe Method, some other technique was ventured to solve the problem of leak location. Finally, it was possible to locate the leak by observing the change in Helium background reading of MSLD during masking/unmasking of the welded joints. This paper, in general describes the design and leak testing aspects of cryogenic components of Cold Neutron Source and in particular, the problems and solutions for leak testing of transfer lines and moderator pot.

  7. Perturbational Blowup Solutions to the Two-Component Dullin-Gottwald-Holm System

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We construct a family of nonradially symmetric exact solutions for the two-component DGH system by the perturbational method. Depending on the parameters, the class of solutions includes both blowup type and global existence type. PMID:27127801

  8. Apparatus for continuously referenced analysis of reactive components in solution

    DOEpatents

    Bostick, William D.; Denton, Mark S.; Dinsmore, Stanley R.

    1981-01-01

    A continuously referenced apparatus for measuring the concentration of a reactive chemical species in solution comprises in combination conduit means for introducing a sample solution, means for introducing one or more reactants into a sample solution, a reaction zone in fluid communication with said conduit means wherein a first chemical reaction occurs between said species and reactants, and a stream separator disposed within the conduit means for separating the sample solution into a sample stream and a reference stream. An enzymatic reactor is disposed in fluid communication with only the sample stream wherein a second reaction takes place between the said reactants, species, and reactor enzymes causing the consumption or production of an indicator species in just the sample stream. Measurement means such as a photometric system are disposed in communication with the sample and reference streams, and the outputs of the measurement means are compared to provide a blanked measurement of the concentration of indicator species. A peristaltic pump is provided to equalize flow through the apparatus by evacuation. The apparatus is particularly suitable for measurement of isoenzymes in body tissues or fluids.

  9. Travelling wave solutions for some two-component shallow water models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutykh, Denys; Ionescu-Kruse, Delia

    2016-07-01

    In the present study we perform a unified analysis of travelling wave solutions to three different two-component systems which appear in shallow water theory. Namely, we analyze the celebrated Green-Naghdi equations, the integrable two-component Camassa-Holm equations and a new two-component system of Green-Naghdi type. In particular, we are interested in solitary and cnoidal-type solutions, as two most important classes of travelling waves that we encounter in applications. We provide a complete phase-plane analysis of all possible travelling wave solutions which may arise in these models. In particular, we show the existence of new type of solutions.

  10. Recovering four-component solutions by the inverse transformation of the infinite-order two-component wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Barysz, Maria; Mentel, Lukasz; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2009-04-28

    The two-component Hamiltonian of the infinite-order two-component (IOTC) theory is obtained by a unitary block-diagonalizing transformation of the Dirac-Hamiltonian. Once the IOTC spin orbitals are calculated, they can be back transformed into four-component solutions. The transformed four component solutions are then used to evaluate different moments of the electron density distribution. This formally exact method may, however, suffer from certain approximations involved in its numerical implementation. As shown by the present study, with sufficiently large basis set of Gaussian functions, the Dirac values of these moments are fully recovered in spite of using the approximate identity resolution into eigenvectors of the p{sup 2} operator.

  11. Multi-component solid solution alloys having high mixing entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Bei, Hongbin

    2015-10-06

    A multi-component high-entropy alloy includes a composition selected from the following group: VNbTaTiMoWRe, VNbTaTiMoW, VNbTaTiMoRe, VNbTaTiWRe, VNbTaMoWRe, VNbTiMoWRe, VTaTiMoWRe, NbTaTiMoWRe, VNbTaTiMo, VNbTaTiW, VNbTaMoW, VNbTiMoW, VTaTiMoW, NbTaTiMoW, VNbTaTiRe, VNbTaMoRe, VNbTiMoRe, VTaTiMoRe, NbTaTiMoRe, VNbTaWRe, VNbTiWRe, VTaTiWRe, NbTaTiWRe, VNbMoWRe, VTaMoWRe, NbTaMoWRe, VTiMoWRe, NbTiMoWRe, TaTiMoWRe, wherein relative amounts of each element vary by no more than .+-.15 atomic %.

  12. Exact soliton-on-plane-wave solutions for two-component Bose-Einstein condensates.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Malomed, Boris A; Mihalache, Dumitru; Liu, W M

    2006-06-01

    By means of the Darboux transformation, we obtain analytical solutions for a soliton set on top of a plane-wave background in coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations describing a binary Bose-Einstein condensate. We consider basic properties of the solutions with and without the cross interaction [cross phase modulation (XPM)] between the two components of the background. In the absence of the XPM, this solutions maintain properties of one-component condensates, such as the modulation instability (MI); in the presence of the cross interaction, the solutions exhibit different properties, such as restriction of the MI and soliton splitting.

  13. The application of GNSS in the near-Earth navigation of China’s lunar probe CE-5T1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong; Fan, Min; Hu, Xiaogong; Li, Peijia

    2015-08-01

    After CE-1, CE-2 and CE-3, China’s fourth lunar probe CE-5T1 was launched on 23 Oct., 2014, which goal is to test the returning capability of the lunar probe. On 31 Oct., the landing portion of CE-5T1 successfully landed in the North China. CE-5T1 is a high eccentricity orbit with apogee of about 413 thousand km. A GNSS receiver was installed in CE-5T1 to test the ability of GNSS navigation for a High Earth Orbit (HEO) spacecraft. The receiver performed well and GPS side lobe signals have been tracked when the probe was at an altitude from 10000 to 60000 km during about two 3-hours periods, and most of time it is above the altitude of the GPS constellation. In these two periods, the average GPS satellites tracked is about 8-9, and the GDOP is from 1 to 30. We processed these GNSS data after the mission, and the noise level of the differenced pseudo-range is less than 10 m. We used the GNSS data to determine the orbit of CE-5T1, compared with the use of ground based tracking data including range, Doppler and VLBI. The results are encouraging, and the position difference between orbit determination (OD) with GNSS data and ground based data is less than 100 m. In CE-5T1 mission, the separation point is about 5000 km altitude, where the lander will separate from the orbiter then return to the ground. The separation point prediction accuracy directly affects the landing position. As plan there is a maneuver about 5 hours before the separation (canceled in fact), so there is only 3-4 hours tracking data to be used to predict the separation point. Analysis shows that combination of two types of data can improve the orbit accuracy as well as the accuracy of the predicted orbit. CE-5T1 made a successful test of the GNSS using for HEO spacecraft. Obviously, GNSS can be used as a low-cost OD sensor and the use of GNSS technique can reduce the observing pressure of the ground antenna in the lunar and deep space exploration.

  14. Activities of the components in a spinel solid solution of the Fe-Al-O system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lykasov, A. A.; Kimyashev, A. A.

    2011-09-01

    The conditions of the equilibrium between the Fe3O4-FeAl2O4 solution and wustite are determined by measuring the EMF of galvanic cells containing a solid electrolyte, and the activities of the components in the Fe3O4-FeAl2O4 solution are calculated by treating the results of the experiment on the equilibrium between the spinel solution and wustite. Their properties are found to be different from those of ideal solutions at temperatures of 1000-1300 K. A significant positive deviation from the Raoult's law is believed to indicate the tendency of the solution to decompose. The experimental data are treated in terms of the theory of regular solutions, assuming the energy of mixing to be a function of temperature only. The critical temperature of decomposition for the Fe3O4-FeAl2O4 solution is found to be 1084 K.

  15. Near-end solution for lidar signals that includes a multiple-scattering component.

    PubMed

    Kovalev, Vladimir A

    2003-12-20

    A variant of the near-end solution is presented that allows one to consider a multiple-scattering component in lidar measurements of distant clouds or dense smoke. It is assumed that the lidar signal, contaminated by multiple scattering, obeys a single-scattering lidar equation in which an additional term, which is related to the range-dependent ratio of a multiple-to-single-scattering component, is included. For the inversion, a brink solution is proposed that does not require an a priori selection of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio in the optically dense aerosol formation under investigation. The solution requires either knowledge of the multiple-to-single-scattering ratio (e.g., determined experimentally with a multiangle lidar) or the use of the analytical dependence of the multiple-to-single-scattering ratio on the aerosol optical depth. In the latter case, an iterative technique is used.

  16. Calculating excess volumes of binary solutions with allowance for structural differences between mixed components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balankina, E. S.

    2016-06-01

    Analytical dependences of a volume's properties on the differences between the geometric structures of initial monosystems are obtained for binary systems simulated by a grain medium. The effect of microstructural parameter k (the ratio of volumes of molecules of mixed components) on the concentration behavior of the relative excess molar volume of different types of real binary solutions is analyzed. It is established that the contribution due to differences between the volumes of molecules and coefficients of the packing density of mixed components is ~80-100% for mutual solutions of n-alkanes and ~55-80% of the experimental value of the relative excess molar volume for water solutions of n-alcohols.

  17. Component Analysis of Multipurpose Contact Lens Solutions To Enhance Activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Leo; Kim, Janie; Chen, Hope; Kowalski, Regis; Nizet, Victor

    2016-07-01

    More than 125 million people wear contact lenses worldwide, and contact lens use is the single greatest risk factor for developing microbial keratitis. We tested the antibacterial activity of multipurpose contact lens solutions and their individual component preservatives against the two most common pathogens causing bacterial keratitis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus The in vitro antibacterial activity of five multipurpose contact lens solutions (Opti-Free GP, Boston Simplus, Boston Advance, Menicare GP, and Lobob) was assayed by the standard broth dilution method. Synergy between the preservative components found in the top performing solutions was assayed using checkerboard and time-kill assays. The ISO 14729 criteria and the standard broth dilution method were used to define an optimized contact lens solution formulation against a clinical panel of drug-susceptible and drug-resistant P. aeruginosa and S. aureus strains. Preservatives with the biguanide function group, chlorhexidine and polyaminopropylbiguanide (PAPB), had the best antistaphylococcal activity, while EDTA was the best antipseudomonal preservative. The combination of chlorhexidine and EDTA had excellent synergy against P. aeruginosa A solution formulation containing chlorhexidine (30 ppm), PAPB (5 ppm), and EDTA (5,000 ppm) had three to seven times more antipseudomonal activity than anything available to consumers today. A multipurpose contact lens solution containing a combination of chlorhexidine, PAPB, and EDTA could help to reduce the incidence of microbial keratitis for contact lens users worldwide. PMID:27139484

  18. The existence of traveling wave solutions for a bistable three-component lattice dynamical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jong-Shenq; Wu, Chin-Chin

    2016-01-01

    We study the traveling wave solutions for a three-component lattice dynamical system. This problem arises in the modeling of three species competing two food resources in an environment with migration in which the habitat is one-dimensional and is divided into countable niches. We are concerned with the case when two species have different preferences of food and the third species has both preferences of food. To understand which species win the competition under the bistable condition, the existence of a traveling wave solution for this lattice dynamical system is proven.

  19. Quasi-periodic solutions to the hierarchy of four-component Toda lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jiao; Geng, Xianguo; Zeng, Xin

    2016-08-01

    Starting from a discrete 3×3 matrix spectral problem, the hierarchy of four-component Toda lattices is derived by using the stationary discrete zero-curvature equation. Resorting to the characteristic polynomial of the Lax matrix for the hierarchy, we introduce a trigonal curve Km-2 of genus m - 2 and present the related Baker-Akhiezer function and meromorphic function on it. Asymptotic expansions for the Baker-Akhiezer function and meromorphic function are given near three infinite points on the trigonal curve, from which explicit quasi-periodic solutions for the hierarchy of four-component Toda lattices are obtained in terms of the Riemann theta function.

  20. Ferroelectromagnetic solid solutions on the base piezoelectric ceramic materials for components of micromechatronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochenek, Dariusz; Zachariasz, Radosław; Niemiec, Przemysław; Ilczuk, Jan; Bartkowska, Joanna; Brzezińska, Dagmara

    2016-10-01

    In the presented work, a ferroelectromagnetic solid solutions based on PZT and ferrite powders have been obtained. The main aim of combination of ferroelectric and magnetic powders was to obtain material showing both electric and magnetic properties. Ferroelectric ceramic powder (in amount of 90%) was based on the doped PZT type solid solution while magnetic component was nickel-zinc ferrite Ni1-xZnxFe2O4 (in amount of 10%). The synthesis of components of ferroelectromagnetic solid solutions was performed using the solid phase sintering. Final densification of synthesized powder has been done using free sintering. The aim of the work was to obtain and examine in the first multicomponent PZT type ceramics admixed with chromium with the following chemical composition Pb0.94Sr0.06(Zr0.46Ti0.54)O3+0.25 at% Cr2O3 and next ferroelectromagnetic solid solution based on a PZT type ferroelectric powder (Pb0.94Sr0.06(Zr0.46Ti0.54)O3+0.25 at% Cr2O3) and nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni0.64Zn0.36Fe2O4), from the point of view of their mechanical and electric properties, such as: electric permittivity, ε; dielectric loss, tanδ; mechanical losses, Q-1; and Young modulus, E.

  1. A scalable and adaptable solution framework within components of the CCSM

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Katherine J; Rouson, Damian; Salinger, Andy; Taylor, Mark; White III, James B; Weijer, Wilbert

    2009-01-01

    A framework for a fully implicit solution method is implemented into (1) the High Order Methods Modeling Environment (HOMME), which is a spectral element dynamical core option in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), and (2) the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) model of the global ocean. Both of these models are components of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM). HOMME is a development version of CAM and provides a scalable alternative when run with an explicit time integrator. However, it suffers the typical time step size limit to maintain stability. POP uses a time-split semi-implicit time integrator that allows larger time steps but less accuracy when used with scale interacting physics. A fully implicit solution framework allows larger time step sizes and additional climate analysis capability such as model steady state and spin-up efficiency gains without a loss in scalability. This framework is implemented into HOMME and POP using a new Fortran interface to the Trilinos solver library, ForTrilinos, which leverages several new capabilities in the current Fortran standard to maximize robustness and speed. The ForTrilinos solution template was also designed for interchangeability; other solution methods and capability improvements can be more easily implemented into the models as they are developed without severely interacting with the code structure. The utility of this approach is illustrated with a test case for each of the climate component models.

  2. Effects of intravenous solutions on acid-base equilibrium: from crystalloids to colloids and blood components.

    PubMed

    Langer, Thomas; Ferrari, Michele; Zazzeron, Luca; Gattinoni, Luciano; Caironi, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Intravenous fluid administration is a medical intervention performed worldwide on a daily basis. Nevertheless, only a few physicians are aware of the characteristics of intravenous fluids and their possible effects on plasma acid-base equilibrium. According to Stewart's theory, pH is independently regulated by three variables: partial pressure of carbon dioxide, strong ion difference (SID), and total amount of weak acids (ATOT). When fluids are infused, plasma SID and ATOT tend toward the SID and ATOT of the administered fluid. Depending on their composition, fluids can therefore lower, increase, or leave pH unchanged. As a general rule, crystalloids having a SID greater than plasma bicarbonate concentration (HCO₃-) cause an increase in plasma pH (alkalosis), those having a SID lower than HCO₃- cause a decrease in plasma pH (acidosis), while crystalloids with a SID equal to HCO₃- leave pH unchanged, regardless of the extent of the dilution. Colloids and blood components are composed of a crystalloid solution as solvent, and the abovementioned rules partially hold true also for these fluids. The scenario is however complicated by the possible presence of weak anions (albumin, phosphates and gelatins) and their effect on plasma pH. The present manuscript summarises the characteristics of crystalloids, colloids, buffer solutions and blood components and reviews their effect on acid-base equilibrium. Understanding the composition of intravenous fluids, along with the application of simple physicochemical rules best described by Stewart's approach, are pivotal steps to fully elucidate and predict alterations of plasma acid-base equilibrium induced by fluid therapy.

  3. White emission from a single-component single-layer solution processed OLED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coya, Carmen; Ramos, Maria M.; Luna, Xenia; Álvarez, Angel Luis; de Andrés, Alicia; Blanco, Raúl; Juárez, Rafael; Gómez, Rafael; Segura, Jose Luis

    2009-08-01

    We report white electroluminescence from a single component-single layer solution processed organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this work, we have fabricated and characterized OLEDs based on a single polymer synthesized by incorporating a small amount of the orange-light emitting chromophore 1,8-Naphtalimide derivative as side chain to poly(fluorene-alt-phenylene) (PFP). The structure of the devices is ITO/PEDOT:PSS/Active layer/Al. The dopant unit was convalenttly attached to the side chain of polyfluorene by alkyl spacers. We have fabricated devices with different amounts of the orange chromophore (0, 0.0005, 0.005, 0.02 and 0.08 in weight) as well as a device based on a physical blend in the same proportion of 0.08 for comparison purposes. Absorption and Photoluminescence (PL) studies in thin films show no significant interaction can be observed between both moieties in the ground state, but after photoexcitation an efficient energy transfer takes place from PFP to the orange chromophore. We have observed a more efficient energy transfer in these compounds than for physical mixtures of the two chromophores due to a phase separation effect in the blend confirmed by the optical measurements and ESEM analysis, obtaining energy transfer even in diluted solutions from the intramolecular interaction in the copolymers. With this very simple device structure, white light with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordenates (0.34;0.43) is obtained for the electroluminescence (EL) emission and turn on voltage of 6 V for the device based on the copolymer with x = 0.02, together with a good match in the EL and PL spectra indicative that two emissions are produced by the same species, making this material very suitable for large area solution processed devices in solid state illumination.

  4. Analytical solution and meaning of feasible regions in two-component three-way arrays.

    PubMed

    Omidikia, Nematollah; Abdollahi, Hamid; Kompany-Zareh, Mohsen; Rajkó, Róbert

    2016-10-01

    Although many efforts have been directed to the development of approximation methods for determining the extent of feasible regions in two- and three-way data sets; analytical determination (i.e. using only finite-step direct calculation(s) instead of the less exact numerical ones) of feasible regions in three-way arrays has remained unexplored. In this contribution, an analytical solution of trilinear decomposition is introduced which can be considered as a new direct method for the resolution of three-way two-component systems. The proposed analytical calculation method is applied to the full rank three-way data array and arrays with rank overlap (a type of rank deficiency) loadings in a mode. Close inspections of the analytically calculated feasible regions of rank deficient cases help us to make clearer the information gathered from multi-way problems frequently emerged in physics, chemistry, biology, agricultural, environmental and clinical sciences, etc. These examinations can also help to answer, e.g., the following practical question: "Is two-component three-way data with proportional loading in a mode actually a three-way data array?" By the aid of the additional information resulted from the investigated feasible regions of two-component three-way data arrays with proportional profile in a mode, reasons for the inadequacy of the seemingly trilinear data treatment methods published in the literature (e.g., U-PLS/RBL-LD that was used for extraction of quantitative and qualitative information reported by Olivieri et al. (Anal. Chem. 82 (2010) 4510-4519)) could be completely understood. PMID:27639142

  5. Analytical solution and meaning of feasible regions in two-component three-way arrays.

    PubMed

    Omidikia, Nematollah; Abdollahi, Hamid; Kompany-Zareh, Mohsen; Rajkó, Róbert

    2016-10-01

    Although many efforts have been directed to the development of approximation methods for determining the extent of feasible regions in two- and three-way data sets; analytical determination (i.e. using only finite-step direct calculation(s) instead of the less exact numerical ones) of feasible regions in three-way arrays has remained unexplored. In this contribution, an analytical solution of trilinear decomposition is introduced which can be considered as a new direct method for the resolution of three-way two-component systems. The proposed analytical calculation method is applied to the full rank three-way data array and arrays with rank overlap (a type of rank deficiency) loadings in a mode. Close inspections of the analytically calculated feasible regions of rank deficient cases help us to make clearer the information gathered from multi-way problems frequently emerged in physics, chemistry, biology, agricultural, environmental and clinical sciences, etc. These examinations can also help to answer, e.g., the following practical question: "Is two-component three-way data with proportional loading in a mode actually a three-way data array?" By the aid of the additional information resulted from the investigated feasible regions of two-component three-way data arrays with proportional profile in a mode, reasons for the inadequacy of the seemingly trilinear data treatment methods published in the literature (e.g., U-PLS/RBL-LD that was used for extraction of quantitative and qualitative information reported by Olivieri et al. (Anal. Chem. 82 (2010) 4510-4519)) could be completely understood.

  6. A rescaling algorithm for the numerical solution to the porous medium equation in a two-component domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filo, Ján; Hundertmark-Zaušková, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to design a rescaling algorithm for the numerical solution to the system of two porous medium equations defined on two different components of the real line, that are connected by the nonlinear contact condition. The algorithm is based on the self-similarity of solutions on different scales and it presents a space-time adaptable method producing more exact numerical solution in the area of the interface between the components, whereas the number of grid points stays fixed.

  7. Development of A General Principle Solution Forisoagrinet Compliant Networking System Components in Animal Husbandry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlmann, Arne; Herd, Daniel; Röβler, Benjamin; Gallmann, Eva; Jungbluth, Thomas

    In pig production software and electronic systems are widely used for process control and management. Unfortunately most devices on farms are proprietary solutions and autonomically working. To unify data communication of devices in agricultural husbandry, the international standard ISOagriNET (ISO 17532:2007) was developed. It defines data formats and exchange protocols, to link up devices like climate controls, feeding systems and sensors, but also management software. The aim of the research project, "Information and Data Collection in Livestock Systems" is to develop an ISOagriNET compliant IT system, a so called Farming Cell. It integrates all electronic components to acquire the available data and information for pig fattening. That way, an additional benefit to humans, animals and the environment regarding process control and documentation, can be generated. Developing the Farming Cell is very complex; in detail it is very difficult and long-winded to integrate hardware and software by various vendors into an ISOagriNET compliant IT system. This ISOagriNET prototype shows as a test environment the potential of this new standard.

  8. Modeling solute redistribution and microstructural development in fusion welds of multi-component alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Dupont, J.N.; Robino, C.V.; Newbury, B.D.

    1999-12-15

    Solute redistribution and microstructural evolution have been modeled for gas tungsten arc fusion welds in experimental Ni base superalloys. The multi-component alloys were modeled as a pseudo-ternary {gamma}-Nb-C system. The variation in fraction liquid and liquid composition during the primary L {r{underscore}arrow} {gamma} and eutectic type L {r{underscore}arrow} ({gamma} + NbC) stages of solidification were calculated for conditions of negligible Nb diffusion and infinitely rapid C diffusion in the solid phase. Input parameters were estimated by using the Thermo-Calc NiFe Alloy data base and compared to experimentally determined solidification parameters. The solidification model results provide useful information for qualitatively interpreting the influence of alloy composition on weld microstructure. The quantitative comparisons indicate that, for the alloy system evaluated, the thermodynamic database provides sufficiently accurate values for the distribution coefficients of Nb and C. The calculated position of the {gamma}-NbC two-fold saturation line produces inaccurate results when used as inputs for the model, indicating further refinement to the database is needed for quantitative estimates.

  9. Multi-Dark Soliton Solutions of the Two-Dimensional Multi-Component Yajima-Oikawa Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junchao; Chen, Yong; Feng, Bao-Feng; Maruno, Ken-ichi

    2015-03-01

    We present a general form of multi-dark soliton solutions of two-dimensional (2D) multi-component soliton systems. Multi-dark soliton solutions of the 2D and 1D multi-component Yajima-Oikawa (YO) systems, which are often called the 2D and 1D multi-component long wave-short wave resonance interaction systems, are studied in detail. Taking the 2D coupled YO system with two short wave and one long wave components as an example, we derive the general N-dark-dark soliton solution in both the Gram type and Wronski type determinant forms for the 2D coupled YO system via the KP hierarchy reduction method. By imposing certain constraint conditions, the general N-dark-dark soliton solution of the 1D coupled YO system is further obtained. The dynamics of one dark-dark and two dark-dark solitons are analyzed in detail. In contrast with bright-bright soliton collisions, it is shown that dark-dark soliton collisions are elastic and there is no energy exchange among solitons in different components. Moreover, the dark-dark soliton bound states including the stationary and moving ones are discussed. For the stationary case, the bound states exist up to arbitrary order, whereas, for the moving case, only the two-soliton bound state is possible under the condition that the coefficients of nonlinear terms have opposite signs.

  10. Miscibility as a factor for component crystallization in multisolute frozen solutions.

    PubMed

    Izutsu, Ken-Ichi; Shibata, Hiroko; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Goda, Yukihiro

    2014-07-01

    The relationship between the miscibility of formulation ingredients and their crystallization during the freezing segment of the lyophilization process was studied. The thermal properties of frozen solutions containing myo-inositol and cosolutes were obtained by performing heating scans from -70 °C before and after heat treatment at -20 °C to -5 °C. Addition of dextran 40,000 reduced and prevented crystallization of myo-inositol. In the first scan, some frozen solutions containing an inositol-rich mixture with dextran showed single broad transitions (Tg's: transition temperatures of maximally freeze-concentrated solutes) that indicated incomplete mixing of the concentrated amorphous solutes. Heat treatment of these frozen solutions induced separation of the solutes into inositol-dominant and solute mixture phases (Tg' splitting) following crystallization of myo-inositol (Tg' shifting). The crystal growth involved myo-inositol molecules in the solute mixture phase. The amorphous-amorphous phase separation and resulting loss of the heteromolecular interaction in the freeze-concentrated inositol-dominant phase should allow ordered assembly of the solute molecules required for nucleation. Some dextran-rich and intermediate concentration ratio frozen solutions retained single Tg's of the amorphous solute mixture, both before and after heat treatments. The relevance of solute miscibility on the crystallization of myo-inositol was also indicated in the systems containing glucose or recombinant human albumin.

  11. Self-similar nonlinear dynamical solutions for one-component nonneutral plasma in a time-dependent linear focusing field

    SciTech Connect

    Qin Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2011-08-15

    In a linear trap confining a one-component nonneutral plasma, the external focusing force is a linear function of the configuration coordinates and/or the velocity coordinates. Linear traps include the classical Paul trap and the Penning trap, as well as the newly proposed rotating-radio-frequency traps and the Mobius accelerator. This paper describes a class of self-similar nonlinear solutions of nonneutral plasma in general time-dependent linear focusing devices, with self-consistent electrostatic field. This class of nonlinear solutions includes many known solutions as special cases.

  12. Self-similar nonlinear dynamical solutions for one-component nonneutral plasma in a time-dependent linear focusing field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2011-08-01

    In a linear trap confining a one-component nonneutral plasma, the external focusing force is a linear function of the configuration coordinates and/or the velocity coordinates. Linear traps include the classical Paul trap and the Penning trap, as well as the newly proposed rotating-radio-frequency traps and the Mobius accelerator. This paper describes a class of self-similar nonlinear solutions of nonneutral plasma in general time-dependent linear focusing devices, with self-consistent electrostatic field. This class of nonlinear solutions includes many known solutions as special cases.

  13. Self-Similar Nonlinear Dynamical Solutions for One-Component Nonneutral Plasma in a Time-Dependent Linear Focusing Field

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Qin and Ronald C. Davidson

    2011-07-19

    In a linear trap confining a one-component nonneutral plasma, the external focusing force is a linear function of the configuration coordinates and/or the velocity coordinates. Linear traps include the classical Paul trap and the Penning trap, as well as the newly proposed rotating-radio- frequency traps and the Mobius accelerator. This paper describes a class of self-similar nonlinear solutions of nonneutral plasma in general time-dependent linear focusing devices, with self-consistent electrostatic field. This class of nonlinear solutions includes many known solutions as special cases.

  14. REVIEW OF CLEANING SOLUTIONS FOR USE ON COMPONENTS OF THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2013-09-30

    Several candidate cleaning products have been reviewed for use as a disinfectant on 9975 shipping package components which contain or have contacted mold. Following review of the compatibility of these products with each component, ammonia (ammonium hydroxide diluted to 1.5 wt% concentration) appears compatible with all package components that it might contact. Each of the other candidate products is incompatible with one or more package components. Accordingly, ammonia is recommended for this purpose. It is further recommended that all components which are disinfected be subsequently rinsed with di-ionized or distilled water.

  15. The application of the seam beam VLBI technique for the orbit determination of CE-5 in the rendezvous and docking phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong

    2016-07-01

    CE-5 will be launched in 2017-2018, and it is a lunar sample return mission. It is the first time for China to carry out the rendezvous and docking in the Moon. How to achieve rendezvous and docking successfully in the Moon is very important for CE-5 project. When the ascender is about 70 km farer away from the orbiter, the ground based tracking technique including range, Doppler and VLBI will be used to track the orbiter and the ascender. Later the ascender will approach the orbiter automatically. Here the application of the same beam VLBI for the orbit determination of the orbiter and the ascender in the long range of the rendezvous and docking phase is discussed. The same beam VLBI technique can be used to track the orbiter and the ascender simultaneously when they are in the same beam. Delta delay of the two probes can be derived, and the measurement accuracy is much higher than the traditional VLBI data because of the cancelation of common errors. Theoretically it can result in more accurate relative orbit between the two probes. The simulation results show that the relative position accuracy of the orbiter and ascender can reach about 1 m in CE-5 project with delta delay data of 10 ps.

  16. The Anopheles gambiae cE5 salivary protein: a sensitive biomarker to evaluate the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets in malaria vector control.

    PubMed

    Marie, Alexandra; Ronca, Raffaele; Poinsignon, Anne; Lombardo, Fabrizio; Drame, Papa M; Cornelie, Sylvie; Besnard, Patrick; Le Mire, Jacques; Fiorentino, Gabriella; Fortes, Filomeno; Carnevale, Pierre; Remoue, Franck; Arcà, Bruno

    2015-06-01

    Evaluation of vector control is crucial for improving malaria containment and, according to World Health Organization, new complementary indicators would be very valuable. In this study the IgG response to the Anopheles-specific cE5 salivary protein was tested as a tool to evaluate the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets in reducing human exposure to malaria vectors. Sera collected during a longitudinal study carried out in Angola, and including entomological and parasitological data, were used to assess the IgG response to the Anopheles gambiae cE5 in both children and adults, before and after the application of insecticide-treated nets. Seasonal fluctuation of specific IgG antibody levels according to exposure was only found in children (up to ≈ 14 years old) whose anti-cE5 IgG response dropped after bed nets installation. These results were fully consistent with previous findings obtained with the same set of sera and indicating a substantial reduction of human-vector contact shortly after nets implementation. Overall, children IgG response to the cE5 protein appeared a very sensitive biomarker, which allowed for the detection of even weak exposure to Anopheles bites, indicating it may represent a reliable additional tool to evaluate the efficacy of vector control interventions.

  17. Two-Component Self-Diffusion in Solutions: Trehalose and Sucrose in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feick, E. J.; von Meerwall, E. D.; Ekdawi, N.; de Pablo, J.

    2001-03-01

    Trehalose is now recognized as a superior substitute for sucrose in solution as a cryoprotectant, for preserving organs destined for transplantation. To explore some aspects of this superiority, we have used the proton NMR pulsed-gradient spin-echo method at T = 30, 50, and 85 deg. C to study the self-diffusion of solvent and solute in aqueous solutions of these molecules as function of their concentration, c. We find that both solute molecules diffuse substantially more slowly than water at the same c and T; that addition of water accelerates solute diffusion more rapidly than that of water; and that while at a given c and T water diffusion is insensitive to solute identity, trehalose diffusion is somewhat slower than sucrose diffusion, an effect which reaches a factor near two at the highest c. The results of our extensive MC and MD molecular simulations of diffusion in sucrose solutions agree quantitatively with our experimental findings at corresponding c. Free-volume theory is also employed to explore the cooperative interactions between solvent and solutes, and to guide the interpretation of both experiment and simulation.

  18. A Cross-Age Study on the Understanding of Chemical Solutions and Their Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipasa

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this study were considered under three headings. The first was to elicit misconceptions that students had about the terms "solute", "solvent" and "solution." The second was to understand how students' prior learning affected their misconceptions. The third was to determine if students were able to make a connection between their own…

  19. Method and apparatus for continuously referenced analysis of reactive components in solution

    DOEpatents

    Bostick, W.D.; Denton, M.S.; Dinsmore, S.R.

    1979-07-31

    A continuously referenced apparatus for measuring the concentration of a reactive chemical species in solution comprises in combination conduit means for introducing a sample solution, means for introducing one or more reactants into a sample solution, and a stream separator disposed within the conduit means for separating the sample solution into a first sample stream and a second sample stream. A reactor is disposed in fluid communication with the first sample stream. A reaction takes place between the reactants introduced and the reactive chemical species of interest, causing the consumption or production of an indicator species in the first sample stream. Measurement means such as a photometric system are disposed in communication with the first and second sample streams, and the outputs of the measurement means are compared to provide a blanked measurement of the concentration of indicator species. The apparatus is particularly suitable for measurement of isoenzymes in body tissues or fluids.

  20. The effectiveness of components of University of Wisconsin solution in improving human pancreatic islet purification.

    PubMed

    Robertson, G S; Chadwick, D R; Davies, J; Rose, S; Contractor, H; James, R F; Bell, P R; London, N J

    1994-02-01

    The purification of human pancreatic islets before transplantation relies on the density-dependent separation of islets from exocrine fragments after collagenase digestion of the donor pancreas. The results vary among pancreases despite increasing automation of the digestion and purification processes, reflecting variations in the overlapping densities of islets and contaminating exocrine tissue. Hypothermic storage of both the pancreas and the pancreatic digest alters cell volumes and tissue densities, thereby affecting islet purification. By biochemical analysis of the isopycnic distribution of islets and exocrine tissue fragments from 23 human pancreases on linear continuous density gradients, the effect of various solutions for cold storage of pancreatic digest was studied. The use of the University of Wisconsin cold storage solution, which resulted in a significant decrease in digest volume (P = 0.006) and increase in the densities of both exocrine tissue (P = 0.001) and islets (P = 0.005), produced a significant improvement in islet purity compared with tissue culture medium (P = 0.035), predominantly due to the inclusion of a colloid, which increased the difference in density between exocrine tissue and islets. The addition of large molecular weight cellular impermeants without alteration in the concentration of permeable anions produced no effect. The results of this study support the concept that the use of solutions that minimize cell swelling throughout the process of islet purification would result in significant improvements in density-dependent islet separation, and that such solutions should contain a colloid. PMID:8108869

  1. Simultaneous spectrophotometric-multivariate calibration determination of several components of ophthalmic solutions: phenylephrine, chloramphenicol, antipyrine, methylparaben and thimerosal.

    PubMed

    Collado, M S; Mantovani, V E; Goicoechea, H C; Olivieri, A C

    2000-08-16

    The use of multivariate spectrophotometric calibration for the simultaneous determination of several active components and excipients in ophthalmic solutions is presented. The resolution of five-component mixtures of phenylephrine, chloramphenicol, antipyrine, methylparaben and thimerosal has been accomplished by using partial least-squares (PLS-1) and a variant of the so-called hybrid linear analysis (HLA). Notwithstanding the presence of a large number of components and their high degree of spectral overlap, they have been determined simultaneously with high accuracy and precision, with no interference, rapidly and without resorting to extraction procedures using non aqueous solvents. A simple and fast method for wavelength selection in the calibration step is presented, based on the minimisation of the predicted error sum of squares (PRESS) calculated as a function of a moving spectral window.

  2. Steady-state composition of a two-component gas bubble growing in a liquid solution: self-similar approach.

    PubMed

    Gor, G Yu; Kuchma, A E

    2009-12-21

    The paper presents an analytical description of the growth of a two-component bubble in a binary liquid-gas solution. We obtain asymptotic self-similar time dependence of the bubble radius and analytical expressions for the nonsteady profiles of dissolved gases around the bubble. We show that the necessary condition for the self-similar regime of bubble growth is the constant, steady-state composition of the bubble. The equation for the steady-state composition is obtained. We reveal the dependence of the steady-state composition on the solubility laws of the bubble components. Besides, the universal, independent from the solubility laws, expressions for the steady-state composition are obtained for the case of strong supersaturations, which are typical for the homogeneous nucleation of a bubble.

  3. Contribution of various components to the enhanced accuracy of GIPSY/OASIS II PPP solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayal, Adem G.; Ugur Sanli, D.

    2016-04-01

    The accuracy of GIPSY PPP has now been revised following the substantial improvements in JPL analysis strategies and product quality after the year 2007. The accuracy improvement in GIPSY solutions was due mainly to the rigorous analysis procedures adopted in computing the satellite orbits in JPL, incorporating single receiver ambiguity resolution among GIPSY modules, and applying a new 2nd order ionosphere modeling. The 2010 positioning accuracy model, which accounts for the procedures prior to 2007 enhancements, was refined in 2015 using a global set of International GNSS Service (IGS) stations and v. 6.3 of GIPSY/OASIS II software. This was just after the reprocessing of JPL final orbit products with second order ionospheric corrections (Oct/Nov 2014).The improvement in regard to precise satellite orbits was previously shared with research community by the NASA. However, comparative contribution of single receiver ambiguity resolution and 2nd order ionosphere correction into the accuracy model has not been assessed yet. Here we perform the so-called assessment and find that contribution of single receiver ambiguity resolution is comparatively greater than that of the 2nd order ionosphere modeling for our particular global sampling.

  4. Temporal Variability from the Two-Component Advective Flow Solution and Its Observational Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Broja G.; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2016-09-01

    In the propagating oscillatory shock model, the oscillation of the post-shock region, i.e., the Compton cloud, causes the observed low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). The evolution of QPO frequency is explained by the systematic variation of the Compton cloud size, i.e., the steady radial movement of the shock front, which is triggered by the cooling of the post-shock region. Thus, analysis of the energy-dependent temporal properties in different variability timescales can diagnose the dynamics and geometry of accretion flows around black holes. We study these properties for the high-inclination black hole source XTE J1550-564 during its 1998 outburst and the low-inclination black hole source GX 339-4 during its 2006–07 outburst using RXTE/PCA data, and we find that they can satisfactorily explain the time lags associated with the QPOs from these systems. We find a smooth decrease of the time lag as a function of time in the rising phase of both sources. In the declining phase, the time lag increases with time. We find a systematic evolution of QPO frequency and hard lags in these outbursts. In XTE J1550-564, the lag changes from hard to soft (i.e., from a positive to a negative value) at a crossing frequency (ν c) of ∼3.4 Hz. We present possible mechanisms to explain the lag behavior of high and low-inclination sources within the framework of a single two-component advective flow model.

  5. Temporal Variability from the Two-Component Advective Flow Solution and Its Observational Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Broja G.; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2016-09-01

    In the propagating oscillatory shock model, the oscillation of the post-shock region, i.e., the Compton cloud, causes the observed low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). The evolution of QPO frequency is explained by the systematic variation of the Compton cloud size, i.e., the steady radial movement of the shock front, which is triggered by the cooling of the post-shock region. Thus, analysis of the energy-dependent temporal properties in different variability timescales can diagnose the dynamics and geometry of accretion flows around black holes. We study these properties for the high-inclination black hole source XTE J1550-564 during its 1998 outburst and the low-inclination black hole source GX 339-4 during its 2006-07 outburst using RXTE/PCA data, and we find that they can satisfactorily explain the time lags associated with the QPOs from these systems. We find a smooth decrease of the time lag as a function of time in the rising phase of both sources. In the declining phase, the time lag increases with time. We find a systematic evolution of QPO frequency and hard lags in these outbursts. In XTE J1550-564, the lag changes from hard to soft (i.e., from a positive to a negative value) at a crossing frequency (ν c) of ˜3.4 Hz. We present possible mechanisms to explain the lag behavior of high and low-inclination sources within the framework of a single two-component advective flow model.

  6. Mass transfer in fuel cells. [electron microscopy of components, thermal decomposition of Teflon, water transport, and surface tension of KOH solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. D., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Results of experiments on electron microscopy of fuel cell components, thermal decomposition of Teflon by thermogravimetry, surface area and pore size distribution measurements, water transport in fuel cells, and surface tension of KOH solutions are described.

  7. Mono-component versus binary isotherm models for Cu(II) and Pb(II) sorption from binary metal solution by the green alga Pithophora oedogonia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dhananjay; Singh, Alpana; Gaur, J P

    2008-11-01

    The sorption of Cu(II) and Pb(II) by Pithophora markedly decreased as the concentration of the secondary metal ion, Cu(II) or Pb(II), increased in the binary metal solution. However, the test alga showed a greater affinity to sorb Cu(II) than Pb(II) from the binary metal solution. Mono-component Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson and Sips isotherms successfully predicted the sorption of Cu(II) and Pb(II) from both single and binary metal solutions. None of the tested binary sorption isotherms could realistically predict Cu(II) and Pb(II) sorption capacity and affinity of the test alga for the binary metal solutions of varying composition, which mono-component isotherms could very well accomplish. Hence, mono-component isotherm modeling at different concentrations of the secondary metal ion seems to be a better option than binary isotherms for metal sorption from binary metal solution.

  8. An improved independent component analysis model for 3D chromatogram separation and its solution by multi-areas genetic algorithm

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The 3D chromatogram generated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) has been researched widely in the field of herbal medicine, grape wine, agriculture, petroleum and so on. Currently, most of the methods used for separating a 3D chromatogram need to know the compounds' number in advance, which could be impossible especially when the compounds are complex or white noise exist. New method which extracts compounds from 3D chromatogram directly is needed. Methods In this paper, a new separation model named parallel Independent Component Analysis constrained by Reference Curve (pICARC) was proposed to transform the separation problem to a multi-parameter optimization issue. It was not necessary to know the number of compounds in the optimization. In order to find all the solutions, an algorithm named multi-areas Genetic Algorithm (mGA) was proposed, where multiple areas of candidate solutions were constructed according to the fitness and distances among the chromosomes. Results Simulations and experiments on a real life HPLC-DAD data set were used to demonstrate our method and its effectiveness. Through simulations, it can be seen that our method can separate 3D chromatogram to chromatogram peaks and spectra successfully even when they severely overlapped. It is also shown by the experiments that our method is effective to solve real HPLC-DAD data set. Conclusions Our method can separate 3D chromatogram successfully without knowing the compounds' number in advance, which is fast and effective. PMID:25474487

  9. Isoindigo-Based Small Molecules with Varied Donor Components for Solution-Processable Organic Field Effect Transistor Devices.

    PubMed

    Patil, Hemlata; Chang, Jingjing; Gupta, Akhil; Bilic, Ante; Wu, Jishan; Sonar, Prashant; Bhosale, Sheshanath V

    2015-09-18

    Two solution-processable small organic molecules, (E)-6,6'-bis(4-(diphenylamino)phenyl)-1,1'-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-(3,3'-biindolinylidene)-2,2'-dione (coded as S10) and (E)-6,6'-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-1,1'-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-(3,3'-biindolinylidene)-2,2'-dione (coded as S11) were successfully designed, synthesized and fully characterized. S10 and S11 are based on a donor-acceptor-donor structural motif and contain a common electron accepting moiety, isoindigo, along with different electron donating functionalities, triphenylamine and carbazole, respectively. Ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra revealed that the use of triphenylamine donor functionality resulted in an enhanced intramolecular charge transfer transition and reduction of optical band gap, when compared with its carbazole analogue. Both of these materials were designed to be donor semiconducting components, exerted excellent solubility in common organic solvents, showed excellent thermal stability, and their promising optoelectronic properties encouraged us to scrutinize charge-carrier mobilities using solution-processable organic field effect transistors. Hole mobilities of the order of 2.2 × 10(-4) cm²/Vs and 7.8 × 10(-3) cm²/Vs were measured using S10 and S11 as active materials, respectively.

  10. Composite material of DNA and cyclodextrin-immobilized poly(ethyleneimine): Accumulation of harmful compounds from multi-component solution.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masanori; Hori, Minako; Tabuchi, Shinya

    2010-08-01

    Water-soluble beta-cyclodextrin-immobilized poly(ethyleneimine) (PEICD) was synthesized by the grafting of beta-cyclodextrin to the branched poly(ethyleneimine). In an aqueous solution, this PEICD polymer could encapsulate bisphenol A, known to be a harmful compound. Additionally, the stability constant of bisphenol A to the PEICD polymer was 1.1 x 10(4)M(-1). However, the water-solubility of PEICD has been making it difficult to utilize it as an environmental material. Therefore, we prepared the DNA-PEICD composite material by mixing the double-stranded DNA and PEICD. This DNA-PEICD composite material was extremely stable in water and possessed both properties of the intercalation into the double-stranded DNA and the encapsulation into the CD cavity. As a result, this material can accumulate various harmful compounds, such as dioxin- and polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)-derivatives and bisphenol A, from a multi-component solution. Therefore, the DNA-PEICD composite material may have the potential to be used as an environmental material.

  11. A generalized analytic solution to the win ratio to analyze a composite endpoint considering the clinical importance order among components.

    PubMed

    Dong, Gaohong; Li, Di; Ballerstedt, Steffen; Vandemeulebroecke, Marc

    2016-09-01

    A composite endpoint consists of multiple endpoints combined in one outcome. It is frequently used as the primary endpoint in randomized clinical trials. There are two main disadvantages associated with the use of composite endpoints: a) in conventional analyses, all components are treated equally important; and b) in time-to-event analyses, the first event considered may not be the most important component. Recently Pocock et al. (2012) introduced the win ratio method to address these disadvantages. This method has two alternative approaches: the matched pair approach and the unmatched pair approach. In the unmatched pair approach, the confidence interval is constructed based on bootstrap resampling, and the hypothesis testing is based on the non-parametric method by Finkelstein and Schoenfeld (1999). Luo et al. (2015) developed a close-form variance estimator of the win ratio for the unmatched pair approach, based on a composite endpoint with two components and a specific algorithm determining winners, losers and ties. We extend the unmatched pair approach to provide a generalized analytical solution to both hypothesis testing and confidence interval construction for the win ratio, based on its logarithmic asymptotic distribution. This asymptotic distribution is derived via U-statistics following Wei and Johnson (1985). We perform simulations assessing the confidence intervals constructed based on our approach versus those per the bootstrap resampling and per Luo et al. We have also applied our approach to a liver transplant Phase III study. This application and the simulation studies show that the win ratio can be a better statistical measure than the odds ratio when the importance order among components matters; and the method per our approach and that by Luo et al., although derived based on large sample theory, are not limited to a large sample, but are also good for relatively small sample sizes. Different from Pocock et al. and Luo et al., our approach is a

  12. A generalized analytic solution to the win ratio to analyze a composite endpoint considering the clinical importance order among components.

    PubMed

    Dong, Gaohong; Li, Di; Ballerstedt, Steffen; Vandemeulebroecke, Marc

    2016-09-01

    A composite endpoint consists of multiple endpoints combined in one outcome. It is frequently used as the primary endpoint in randomized clinical trials. There are two main disadvantages associated with the use of composite endpoints: a) in conventional analyses, all components are treated equally important; and b) in time-to-event analyses, the first event considered may not be the most important component. Recently Pocock et al. (2012) introduced the win ratio method to address these disadvantages. This method has two alternative approaches: the matched pair approach and the unmatched pair approach. In the unmatched pair approach, the confidence interval is constructed based on bootstrap resampling, and the hypothesis testing is based on the non-parametric method by Finkelstein and Schoenfeld (1999). Luo et al. (2015) developed a close-form variance estimator of the win ratio for the unmatched pair approach, based on a composite endpoint with two components and a specific algorithm determining winners, losers and ties. We extend the unmatched pair approach to provide a generalized analytical solution to both hypothesis testing and confidence interval construction for the win ratio, based on its logarithmic asymptotic distribution. This asymptotic distribution is derived via U-statistics following Wei and Johnson (1985). We perform simulations assessing the confidence intervals constructed based on our approach versus those per the bootstrap resampling and per Luo et al. We have also applied our approach to a liver transplant Phase III study. This application and the simulation studies show that the win ratio can be a better statistical measure than the odds ratio when the importance order among components matters; and the method per our approach and that by Luo et al., although derived based on large sample theory, are not limited to a large sample, but are also good for relatively small sample sizes. Different from Pocock et al. and Luo et al., our approach is a

  13. Rotation of EOFs by the Independent Component Analysis: Towards A Solution of the Mixing Problem in the Decomposition of Geophysical Time Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aires, Filipe; Rossow, William B.; Chedin, Alain; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Independent Component Analysis is a recently developed technique for component extraction. This new method requires the statistical independence of the extracted components, a stronger constraint that uses higher-order statistics, instead of the classical decorrelation, a weaker constraint that uses only second-order statistics. This technique has been used recently for the analysis of geophysical time series with the goal of investigating the causes of variability in observed data (i.e. exploratory approach). We demonstrate with a data simulation experiment that, if initialized with a Principal Component Analysis, the Independent Component Analysis performs a rotation of the classical PCA (or EOF) solution. This rotation uses no localization criterion like other Rotation Techniques (RT), only the global generalization of decorrelation by statistical independence is used. This rotation of the PCA solution seems to be able to solve the tendency of PCA to mix several physical phenomena, even when the signal is just their linear sum.

  14. Studies on the interactions between parabens and lipid membrane components in monolayers at the air/aqueous solution interface.

    PubMed

    Flasiński, Michał; Gawryś, Maciej; Broniatowski, Marcin; Wydro, Paweł

    2016-04-01

    The interactions between parabens (PBs) and lipid components of mammalian and bacterial cell membranes were investigated in model systems of Langmuir monolayers. Me-, Et-, Pr- and Bu-paraben studied in this paper are frequently applied as cosmetics and food preservatives, since they possess broad antimicrobial activity. The mode of PB action is connected with their incorporation into the membrane of bacterial organisms, however; it is not known what is the role of the respective lipid species in this mechanism. This problem is crucial to understand the differences in paraben activity toward individual microorganisms and to shed the light onto the problem of PB cytotoxicity reported in studies on mammalian cells. In this paper, the mentioned aspects were investigated with application of the Langmuir monolayer technique complemented with BAM and GIXD. Our experiments revealed that the influence of PBs depends on their chemical structure, solution concentration and on the class of lipid. The strongest modification of the monolayer characteristics, leading to its collapse at low surface pressure, occurred in the presence of BuPB, having the largest chain. PBs interact preferentially with the monolayers possessing low degree of condensation, whereas for LC state, the effect was weaker and observed only as modification of the 2D unit cells. In the model systems, PBs interact with phospholipids characteristic for mammalian membranes (phosphatidylcholine) stronger than with bacterial (phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin). This strong influence of parabens on the model systems composed of animal lipids may explain cytotoxic activity of these preservatives. PMID:26777770

  15. NMR solution structure study of the representative component hydroxysafflor yellow A and other quinochalcone C-glycosides from Carthamus tinctorius.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zi-Ming; He, Jun; Jiang, Jian-Shuang; Chen, Zhong; Yang, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Pei-Cheng

    2013-02-22

    Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), a representative component of Carthamus tinctorius, has attracted much attention because of its remarkable cardiovascular activities. Its structure was originally reported in 1993 and has been widely cited to date. In our experiments, its solution structure was studied using NMR techniques in different solvents, including DMSO-d(6), pyridine-d(5), and CD(3)OH. The results indicate that the structure of HSYA is different than the previously described 1b, with 3-enol-1,7-diketo form. The structure has two keto-enol tautomers (2a and 2b), and 2a, with the 1-enol-3,7-diketo form, is the preferred tautomer. On the basis of this finding, other published quinochalcone C-glycoside structures were revised. Furthermore, a trend in the (13)C NMR data of the (E)-olefinic carbons of quinochalcone C-glycosides is summarized, and a hypothesis is proposed for the relationship between the features of the molecular structure and the preferred keto-enol tautomer.

  16. Studies on the interactions between parabens and lipid membrane components in monolayers at the air/aqueous solution interface.

    PubMed

    Flasiński, Michał; Gawryś, Maciej; Broniatowski, Marcin; Wydro, Paweł

    2016-04-01

    The interactions between parabens (PBs) and lipid components of mammalian and bacterial cell membranes were investigated in model systems of Langmuir monolayers. Me-, Et-, Pr- and Bu-paraben studied in this paper are frequently applied as cosmetics and food preservatives, since they possess broad antimicrobial activity. The mode of PB action is connected with their incorporation into the membrane of bacterial organisms, however; it is not known what is the role of the respective lipid species in this mechanism. This problem is crucial to understand the differences in paraben activity toward individual microorganisms and to shed the light onto the problem of PB cytotoxicity reported in studies on mammalian cells. In this paper, the mentioned aspects were investigated with application of the Langmuir monolayer technique complemented with BAM and GIXD. Our experiments revealed that the influence of PBs depends on their chemical structure, solution concentration and on the class of lipid. The strongest modification of the monolayer characteristics, leading to its collapse at low surface pressure, occurred in the presence of BuPB, having the largest chain. PBs interact preferentially with the monolayers possessing low degree of condensation, whereas for LC state, the effect was weaker and observed only as modification of the 2D unit cells. In the model systems, PBs interact with phospholipids characteristic for mammalian membranes (phosphatidylcholine) stronger than with bacterial (phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin). This strong influence of parabens on the model systems composed of animal lipids may explain cytotoxic activity of these preservatives.

  17. Determination of calcium, magnesium and zinc in lubricating oils by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using a three-component solution.

    PubMed

    Zmozinski, Ariane V; de Jesus, Alexandre; Vale, Maria G R; Silva, Márcia M

    2010-12-15

    Lubricating oils are used to decrease wear and friction of movable parts of engines and turbines, being in that way essential for the performance and the increase of that equipment lifespan. The presence of some metals shows the addition of specific additives such as detergents, dispersals and antioxidants that improve the performance of these lubricants. In this work, a method for determination of calcium, magnesium and zinc in lubricating oil by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F AAS) was developed. The samples were diluted with a small quantity of aviation kerosene (AVK), n-propanol and water to form a three-component solution before its introduction in the F AAS. Aqueous inorganic standards diluted in the same way have been used for calibration. To assess the accuracy of the new method, it was compared with ABNT NBR 14066 standard method, which consists in diluting the sample with AVK and in quantification by F AAS. Two other validating methods have also been used: the acid digestion and the certified reference material NIST (SRM 1084a). The proposed method provides the following advantages in relation to the standard method: significant reduction of the use of AVK, higher stability of the analytes in the medium and application of aqueous inorganic standards for calibration. The limits of detection for calcium, magnesium and zinc were 1.3 μg g(-1), 0.052 μg g(-1) and 0.41 μg g(-1), respectively. Concentrations of calcium, magnesium and zinc in six different samples obtained by the developed method did not differ significantly from the results obtained by the reference methods at the 95% confidence level (Student's t-test and ANOVA). Therefore, the proposed method becomes an efficient alternative for determination of metals in lubricating oil.

  18. The Component Slope Linear Model for Calculating Intensive Partial Molar Properties: Application to Waste Glasses and Aluminate Solutions - 13099

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Jacob G.

    2013-07-01

    Partial molar properties are the changes occurring when the fraction of one component is varied while the fractions of all other component mole fractions change proportionally. They have many practical and theoretical applications in chemical thermodynamics. Partial molar properties of chemical mixtures are difficult to measure because the component mole fractions must sum to one, so a change in fraction of one component must be offset with a change in one or more other components. Given that more than one component fraction is changing at a time, it is difficult to assign a change in measured response to a change in a single component. In this study, the Component Slope Linear Model (CSLM), a model previously published in the statistics literature, is shown to have coefficients that correspond to the intensive partial molar properties. If a measured property is plotted against the mole fraction of a component while keeping the proportions of all other components constant, the slope at any given point on a graph of this curve is the partial molar property for that constituent. Actually plotting this graph has been used to determine partial molar properties for many years. The CSLM directly includes this slope in a model that predicts properties as a function of the component mole fractions. This model is demonstrated by applying it to the constant pressure heat capacity data from the NaOHNaAl(OH){sub 4}-H{sub 2}O system, a system that simplifies Hanford nuclear waste. The partial molar properties of H{sub 2}O, NaOH, and NaAl(OH){sub 4} are determined. The equivalence of the CSLM and the graphical method is verified by comparing results determined by the two methods. The CSLM model has been previously used to predict the liquidus temperature of spinel crystals precipitated from Hanford waste glass. Those model coefficients are re-interpreted here as the partial molar spinel liquidus temperature of the glass components. (authors)

  19. The component slope linear model for calculating intensive partial molar properties /application to waste glasses and aluminate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Jacob G.

    2013-01-11

    Partial molar properties are the changes occurring when the fraction of one component is varied while the fractions of all other component mole fractions change proportionally. They have many practical and theoretical applications in chemical thermodynamics. Partial molar properties of chemical mixtures are difficult to measure because the component mole fractions must sum to one, so a change in fraction of one component must be offset with a change in one or more other components. Given that more than one component fraction is changing at a time, it is difficult to assign a change in measured response to a change in a single component. In this study, the Component Slope Linear Model (CSLM), a model previously published in the statistics literature, is shown to have coefficients that correspond to the intensive partial molar properties. If a measured property is plotted against the mole fraction of a component while keeping the proportions of all other components constant, the slope at any given point on a graph of this curve is the partial molar property for that constituent. Actually plotting this graph has been used to determine partial molar properties for many years. The CSLM directly includes this slope in a model that predicts properties as a function of the component mole fractions. This model is demonstrated by applying it to the constant pressure heat capacity data from the NaOH-NaAl(OH){sub 4}-H{sub 2}O system, a system that simplifies Hanford nuclear waste. The partial molar properties of H{sub 2}O, NaOH, and NaAl(OH){sub 4} are determined. The equivalence of the CSLM and the graphical method is verified by comparing results determined by the two methods. The CSLM model has been previously used to predict the liquidus temperature of spinel crystals precipitated from Hanford waste glass. Those model coefficients are re-interpreted here as the partial molar spinel liquidus temperature of the glass components.

  20. Calorimetric and Diffractometric Evidence for the Sequential Crystallization of Buffer Components and the Consequential pH Swing in Frozen Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaramurthi, Prakash; Shalaev, Evgenyi; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2010-06-22

    Sequential crystallization of succinate buffer components in the frozen solution has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry (both laboratory and synchrotron sources). The consequential pH shifts were monitored using a low-temperature electrode. When a solution buffered to pH < pK{sub a2} was cooled from room temperature (RT), the freeze-concentrate pH first increased and then decreased. This was attributed to the sequential crystallization of succinic acid, monosodium succinate, and finally disodium succinate. When buffered to pH > pK{sub a2}, the freeze-concentrate pH first decreased and then increased due to the sequential crystallization of the basic (disodium succinate) followed by the acidic (monosodium succinate and succinic acid) buffer components. XRD provided direct evidence of the crystallization events in the frozen buffer solutions, including the formation of disodium succinate hexahydrate [Na{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}COO){sub 2} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O]. When the frozen solution was warmed in a differential scanning calorimeter, multiple endotherms attributable to the melting of buffer components and ice were observed. When the frozen solutions were dried under reduced pressure, ice sublimation was followed by dehydration of the crystalline hexahydrate to a poorly crystalline anhydrate. However, crystalline succinic acid and monosodium succinate were retained in the final lyophiles. The pH and the buffer salt concentration of the prelyo solution influenced the crystalline salt content in the final lyophile. The direction and magnitude of the pH shift in the frozen solution depended on both the initial pH and the buffer concentration. In light of the pH-sensitive nature of a significant fraction of pharmaceuticals (especially proteins), extreme care is needed in both the buffer selection and its concentration.

  1. Solute partitioning in multi-component γ/γ' Co–Ni-base superalloys with near-zero lattice misfit

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Meher, S.; Carroll, L. J.; Pollock, T. M.; Carroll, M. C.

    2015-11-21

    The addition of nickel to cobalt-base alloys enables alloys with a near zero γ – γ' lattice misfit. The solute partitioning between ordered γ' precipitates and the disordered γ matrix have been investigated using atom probe tomography. Lastly, the unique shift in solute partitioning in these alloys, as compared to that in simpler Co-base alloys, derives from changes in site substitution of solutes as the relative amounts of Co and Ni change, highlighting new opportunities for the development of advanced tailored alloys.

  2. Analysis on multiple-component synchronization of ultra-fast time-interleaved analog-to-digital conversion systems and its novel parameterized hardware solution.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wuhuang; Wang, Houjun; Tian, Shulin; Ye, Peng; Zeng, Hao; Qiu, Duyu

    2014-10-01

    Parallelism-based technique of time-interleaved analog-to-digital conversion (TIADC) has become an effective solution for the higher sampling rate acquisition system to acquire non-repetitive waveforms. With the increase of sampling frequency, the indeterminacy of combining sequence of sampled data among multiple components has become a highlighted barrier for the reset operation of high-speed acquisition systems, and this is especially obvious for the ultra-fast TIADC systems. In this paper, we clarify the root of the problem in multiple-component synchronization (MCS) caused by such reset operation. Also we propose a novel and reliable hardware solution to precisely condition each reset signal, including three key circuit design parameters, i.e., the best time interval, required edge uncertainty, and the minimum delay precision. Besides, the designing scheme and debugging procedures are presented in detail in a generalized platform of this system type. Finally, in order to demonstrate the feasibility, parametric materialization and testing verification are gradually accomplished in a 20 Giga Samples Per Second (GSPS) TIADC system composed of four 5 GSPS ADC components. The results show that the proposed method is feasible and effective for ensuring the combined determinacy of multiple groups of sampled data and solving the MCS problem. In comparison with other existing solutions, it adopts some simple logic components more easily and flexibly, and this is significant for the development of congeneric systems or instruments featuring the MCS.

  3. Commentary to the article "Human skin penetration of the major components of Australian tea tree oil applied in its pure form and as a 20% solution in vitro".

    PubMed

    Cal, Krzysztof

    2008-03-01

    This note summarises recent studies on skin penetration of terpinen-4-ol, which is the main component of tea tree oil [S.E. Cross, M. Russell, I. Southwell, M.S. Roberts, Human skin penetration of the major components of Australian tea tree oil applied in its pure form and as a 20% solution in vitro, Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2007.10.002 (in press)]. The influence of different experimental models on obtained skin penetration results is discussed.

  4. Salting effects on protein components in aqueous NaCl and urea solutions: toward understanding of urea-induced protein denaturation.

    PubMed

    Li, Weifeng; Zhou, Ruhong; Mu, Yuguang

    2012-02-01

    The mechanism of urea-induced protein denaturation is explored through studying the salting effect of urea on 14 amino acid side chain analogues, and N-methylacetamide (NMA) which mimics the protein backbone. The solvation free energies of the 15 molecules were calculated in pure water, aqueous urea, and NaCl solutions. Our results show that NaCl displays strong capability to salt out all 15 molecules, while urea facilitates the solvation (salting-in) of all the 15 molecules on the other hand. The salting effect is found to be largely enthalpy-driven for both NaCl and urea. Our observations can explain the higher stability of protein's secondary and tertiary structures in typical salt solutions than that in pure water. Meanwhile, urea's capability to better solvate protein backbone and side-chain components can be extrapolated to explain protein's denaturation in aqueous urea solution. Urea salts in molecules through direct binding to solute surface, and the strength is linearly dependent on the number of heavy atoms of solute molecules. The van der Waals interactions are found to be the dominant force, which challenges a hydrogen-bonding-driven mechanism proposed previously.

  5. [Study on "multi-dimensional structure and process dynamics quality control system" of Danshen infusion solution based on component structure theory].

    PubMed

    Feng, Liang; Zhang, Ming-Hua; Gu, Jun-Fei; Wang, Gui-You; Zhao, Zi-Yu; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-11-01

    As traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation products feature complex compounds and multiple preparation processes, the implementation of quality control in line with the characteristics of TCM preparation products provides a firm guarantee for the clinical efficacy and safety of TCM preparation products. Danshen infusion solution is a preparation commonly used in clinic, but its quality control is restricted to indexes of finished products, which can not guarantee its inherent quality. Our study group has proposed "multi-dimensional structure and process dynamics quality control system" on the basis of "component structure theory", for the purpose of controlling the quality of Danshen infusion solution at multiple levels and in multiple links from the efficacy-related material basis, the safety-related material basis, the characteristics of dosage form to the preparation process. This article, we bring forth new ideas and models to the quality control of TCM preparation products.

  6. Storage of porcine pancreatic digest prior to islet purification. The benefits of UW solution and the roles of its individual components.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, D R; Robertson, G S; Rose, S; Contractor, H; James, R F; Bell, P R; London, N J

    1993-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the beneficial effect of storage of pancreatic digest in University of Wisconsin solution on porcine islet purification, the mechanism of this effect, and the components of UW responsible. Ten porcine pancreata were collagenase-digested, and samples of digest were washed and stored for 1 hr in either UW or minimum essential medium at 4 degrees C, prior to separation on continuous linear density gradients of bovine serum albumin. Samples of digest from a further ten pancreata were similarly treated, comparing storage in MEM, UW, and five solutions varying in lactobionate:chloride ratio and raffinose content. The purity of the islet preparations and the densities of islets and exocrine tissue were determined from insulin and amylase assay of aliquots aspirated from these gradients. Washing and storage of digest in UW markedly improved islet purity, compared with MEM, due to an increase in the density of exocrine tissue. Exocrine tissue density following storage was dependent upon the control of acinar cell volume, rather than exocrine enzyme discharge, and was determined primarily by the chloride:lactobionate ratio of the storage solution. Raffinose was of little additional benefit, while the beneficial effect of UW was greater than that due to its lactobionate and raffinose content alone. In conclusion, inadequate purification of islets results from exocrine tissue swelling. This swelling is reduced by storage of the pancreatic digest in UW solution, due primarily to the replacement of chloride by lactobionate in UW. PMID:8356582

  7. In situ retreival of contaminants or other substances using a barrier system and leaching solutions and components, processes and methods relating thereto

    DOEpatents

    Nickelson, Reva A.; Walsh, Stephanie; Richardson, John G.; Dick, John R.; Sloan, Paul A.

    2005-06-28

    Processes and methods relating to treating contaminants and collecting desired substances from a zone of interest using subterranean collection and containment barriers. Tubular casings having interlock structures are used to create subterranean barriers for containing and treating buried waste and its effluents. The subterranean barrier includes an effluent collection system. Treatment solutions provided to the zone of interest pass therethrough and are collected by the barrier and treated or recovered, allowing on-site remediation. Barrier components may be used to in the treatment by collecting or removing contaminants or other materials from the zone of interest.

  8. Closed-form stochastic solutions for non-equilibrium dynamics and inheritance of cellular components over many cell divisions

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Iain G.; Jones, Nick S.

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic dynamics govern many important processes in cellular biology, and an underlying theoretical approach describing these dynamics is desirable to address a wealth of questions in biology and medicine. Mathematical tools exist for treating several important examples of these stochastic processes, most notably gene expression and random partitioning at single-cell divisions or after a steady state has been reached. Comparatively little work exists exploring different and specific ways that repeated cell divisions can lead to stochastic inheritance of unequilibrated cellular populations. Here we introduce a mathematical formalism to describe cellular agents that are subject to random creation, replication and/or degradation, and are inherited according to a range of random dynamics at cell divisions. We obtain closed-form generating functions describing systems at any time after any number of cell divisions for binomial partitioning and divisions provoking a deterministic or random, subtractive or additive change in copy number, and show that these solutions agree exactly with stochastic simulation. We apply this general formalism to several example problems involving the dynamics of mitochondrial DNA during development and organismal lifetimes. PMID:26339194

  9. Two red blood cell units collected in SAG-M additive solution with the ALYX component collection system.

    PubMed

    Schooneman, F; Huart, J J; Dernis, D; Tunez, V; Aguettaz, D

    2005-06-01

    The first protocol available for the new ALYX component system (Baxter Healthcare Inc.) allows automated collection of two Red Blood Cell (RBC) units from one donor. The primary objective of our evaluation was to assess donor safety, comfort and to check the quality of blood products collected. 30 procedures were performed on eligible donors according to French best donation practices. Eligibility criteria were defined in order to ensure a post donation hemoglobin concentration of 11 g/dL minimum. Pre donation ferritin level was also checked. 360 ml of absolute RBC were collected from each donor. Donors physiological parameters and haematological profile were measured immediately before and after donation. Adverse events and donors were observed during the procedure and followed daily during 5 days after donation. Hemolysis in RBC was followed until of shelf life (<0.8% on 42 days storage). The evaluation of different parameters during storage show no difference if we compare with the manual technique. The concentration of hemoglobin is good and all ou concentrates are conform. No serious adverse effects were reported during and after donation. All donors confirmed they would agree to donate 2 RBC units again with this system. We have seen a good quality of RBC products. This evaluation indicates that 2 RBC donation is feasible on the ALYX system, comfortable and safe for eligible donors.

  10. A peripheral component interconnect express-based scalable and highly integrated pulsed spectrometer for solution state dynamic nuclear polarization

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yugui; Liu, Chaoyang; Feng, Jiwen; Wang, Dong; Chen, Fang; Liu, Maili; Zhang, Zhi; Wang, Chao

    2015-08-15

    High sensitivity, high data rates, fast pulses, and accurate synchronization all represent challenges for modern nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers, which make any expansion or adaptation of these devices to new techniques and experiments difficult. Here, we present a Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe)-based highly integrated distributed digital architecture pulsed spectrometer that is implemented with electron and nucleus double resonances and is scalable specifically for broad dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enhancement applications, including DNP-magnetic resonance spectroscopy/imaging (DNP-MRS/MRI). The distributed modularized architecture can implement more transceiver channels flexibly to meet a variety of MRS/MRI instrumentation needs. The proposed PCIe bus with high data rates can significantly improve data transmission efficiency and communication reliability and allow precise control of pulse sequences. An external high speed double data rate memory chip is used to store acquired data and pulse sequence elements, which greatly accelerates the execution of the pulse sequence, reduces the TR (time of repetition) interval, and improves the accuracy of TR in imaging sequences. Using clock phase-shift technology, we can produce digital pulses accurately with high timing resolution of 1 ns and narrow widths of 4 ns to control the microwave pulses required by pulsed DNP and ensure overall system synchronization. The proposed spectrometer is proved to be both feasible and reliable by observation of a maximum signal enhancement factor of approximately −170 for {sup 1}H, and a high quality water image was successfully obtained by DNP-enhanced spin-echo {sup 1}H MRI at 0.35 T.

  11. A peripheral component interconnect express-based scalable and highly integrated pulsed spectrometer for solution state dynamic nuclear polarization.

    PubMed

    He, Yugui; Feng, Jiwen; Zhang, Zhi; Wang, Chao; Wang, Dong; Chen, Fang; Liu, Maili; Liu, Chaoyang

    2015-08-01

    High sensitivity, high data rates, fast pulses, and accurate synchronization all represent challenges for modern nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers, which make any expansion or adaptation of these devices to new techniques and experiments difficult. Here, we present a Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe)-based highly integrated distributed digital architecture pulsed spectrometer that is implemented with electron and nucleus double resonances and is scalable specifically for broad dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enhancement applications, including DNP-magnetic resonance spectroscopy/imaging (DNP-MRS/MRI). The distributed modularized architecture can implement more transceiver channels flexibly to meet a variety of MRS/MRI instrumentation needs. The proposed PCIe bus with high data rates can significantly improve data transmission efficiency and communication reliability and allow precise control of pulse sequences. An external high speed double data rate memory chip is used to store acquired data and pulse sequence elements, which greatly accelerates the execution of the pulse sequence, reduces the TR (time of repetition) interval, and improves the accuracy of TR in imaging sequences. Using clock phase-shift technology, we can produce digital pulses accurately with high timing resolution of 1 ns and narrow widths of 4 ns to control the microwave pulses required by pulsed DNP and ensure overall system synchronization. The proposed spectrometer is proved to be both feasible and reliable by observation of a maximum signal enhancement factor of approximately -170 for (1)H, and a high quality water image was successfully obtained by DNP-enhanced spin-echo (1)H MRI at 0.35 T. PMID:26329168

  12. A peripheral component interconnect express-based scalable and highly integrated pulsed spectrometer for solution state dynamic nuclear polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yugui; Feng, Jiwen; Zhang, Zhi; Wang, Chao; Wang, Dong; Chen, Fang; Liu, Maili; Liu, Chaoyang

    2015-08-01

    High sensitivity, high data rates, fast pulses, and accurate synchronization all represent challenges for modern nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers, which make any expansion or adaptation of these devices to new techniques and experiments difficult. Here, we present a Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe)-based highly integrated distributed digital architecture pulsed spectrometer that is implemented with electron and nucleus double resonances and is scalable specifically for broad dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enhancement applications, including DNP-magnetic resonance spectroscopy/imaging (DNP-MRS/MRI). The distributed modularized architecture can implement more transceiver channels flexibly to meet a variety of MRS/MRI instrumentation needs. The proposed PCIe bus with high data rates can significantly improve data transmission efficiency and communication reliability and allow precise control of pulse sequences. An external high speed double data rate memory chip is used to store acquired data and pulse sequence elements, which greatly accelerates the execution of the pulse sequence, reduces the TR (time of repetition) interval, and improves the accuracy of TR in imaging sequences. Using clock phase-shift technology, we can produce digital pulses accurately with high timing resolution of 1 ns and narrow widths of 4 ns to control the microwave pulses required by pulsed DNP and ensure overall system synchronization. The proposed spectrometer is proved to be both feasible and reliable by observation of a maximum signal enhancement factor of approximately -170 for 1H, and a high quality water image was successfully obtained by DNP-enhanced spin-echo 1H MRI at 0.35 T.

  13. Solution of the Dirac equation using the Rayleigh-Ritz method: Flexible basis coupling large and small components. Results for one-electron systems.

    PubMed

    Bağcı, A; Hoggan, P E

    2016-07-01

    An algebraic solution of the Dirac equation is reinvestigated. Slater-type spinor orbitals and their corresponding system of differential equations are defined in two- and four-component formalism. They describe the radial function in components of the wave function of the Dirac equation solution to high accuracy. They constitute the matrix elements arising in a generalized eigenvalue equation. These terms are evaluated through prolate spheroidal coordinates. The corresponding integrals are calculated by the numerical global-adaptive method taking into account the Gauss-Kronrod numerical integration extension. Sample calculations are performed using flexible basis sets generated with both signs of the relativistic angular momentum quantum number κ. Applications to one-electron atoms and diatomics are detailed. Variationally optimum values for orbital parameters are obtained at given nuclear separation. Methods discussed in this work are capable of yielding highly accurate relativistic two-center integrals for all ranges of orbital parameters. This work provides an efficient way to overcome the problems that arise in relativistic calculations. PMID:27575231

  14. Solution of the Dirac equation using the Rayleigh-Ritz method: Flexible basis coupling large and small components. Results for one-electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baǧcı, A.; Hoggan, P. E.

    2016-07-01

    An algebraic solution of the Dirac equation is reinvestigated. Slater-type spinor orbitals and their corresponding system of differential equations are defined in two- and four-component formalism. They describe the radial function in components of the wave function of the Dirac equation solution to high accuracy. They constitute the matrix elements arising in a generalized eigenvalue equation. These terms are evaluated through prolate spheroidal coordinates. The corresponding integrals are calculated by the numerical global-adaptive method taking into account the Gauss-Kronrod numerical integration extension. Sample calculations are performed using flexible basis sets generated with both signs of the relativistic angular momentum quantum number κ . Applications to one-electron atoms and diatomics are detailed. Variationally optimum values for orbital parameters are obtained at given nuclear separation. Methods discussed in this work are capable of yielding highly accurate relativistic two-center integrals for all ranges of orbital parameters. This work provides an efficient way to overcome the problems that arise in relativistic calculations.

  15. Design of ultraviolet wavelength and standard solution concentrations in relative response factors for simultaneous determination of multi-components with single reference standard in herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting-Wen; Zhao, Chao; Fan, Yong; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Ping

    2015-10-10

    Single standard to determine multi-components (SSDMC) is a practical pattern for quality evaluation of herbal medicines (HMs). However, it remains challenging because of potential inconsistency of relative response factors (RRF) on different instruments. In this work, the effects of two key roles, i.e., ultraviolet (UV) wavelength and standard solution concentrations, on reproducibility of RRF were investigated. The effect of UV wavelength on reproducibility of RRF was studied by plotting the relationship of the peak area ratios (internal standard vs analyte) to wavelengths. The preferable wavelength should be set at the flat parts of the curve. Optimized 300 nm produced a 0.38% RSD for emodin/emodin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside on five instruments, much lower than 2.80% obtained from the maximum wavelength at 290 nm. Next, the effects of standard solution concentrations of emodin on its response factor (RF) were investigated. For one single point method, low concentration less than 49 b/k resulted in significant variations in RF. For emodin, when the concentration is higher than 7.00 μg mL(-1), a low standard deviation (SD) value at 0.13 was obtained, while lower than 7.00 μg mL(-1), a high SD at 3.71 was obtained. The developed SSDMC method was then applied to determination of target components in 10 Polygonum cuspidatum samples and showed comparable accuracy to conventional calibration methods with deviation less than 1%. PMID:26093242

  16. Stabilization of Tetravalent 4f (Ce), 5d (Hf), or 5f (Th, U) Clusters by the [α-SiW9O34](10-) Polyoxometalate.

    PubMed

    Duval, Sylvain; Béghin, Sébastien; Falaise, Clément; Trivelli, Xavier; Rabu, Pierre; Loiseau, Thierry

    2015-09-01

    The reaction of Na10[α-SiW9O34] with tetravalent metallic cations such as 4f ((NH4)2Ce(NO3)6), 5d (HfCl4), or 5f (UCl4 and Th(NO3)4) in a pH 4.7 sodium acetate buffer solution leads to the formation of four sandwich-type polyoxometalates [Ce4(μ(3)-O)2(SiW9O34)2(CH3COO)2](10-) (1), [U4(μ(3)-O)2(SiW9O34)2(CH3COO)2](10-) (2), [Th3(μ(3)-O)(μ(2)-OH)3(SiW9O34)2](13-) (3), and [Hf3(μ(2)-OH)3(SiW9O34)2](11-) (4). All four compounds consist of a polynuclear cluster fragment stabilized by two [α-SiW9O34](10-) polyanions. Compounds 1 and 2 are isostructural with a tetranuclear core (Ce4, U4), while compound 3 presents a trinuclear Th3 core bearing a μ(3)-O-centered bridge. It is an unprecedented configuration in the case of the thorium(IV) cluster. Compound 4 also possesses a trinuclear Hf3 core but with the absence of the μ(3)-O bridge. The molecules have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, (183)W and (29)Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) analysis.

  17. Three-Way Tucker2 Component Analysis Solutions of Stimuli x Responses x Individuals Data with Simple Structure and the Fewest Core Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adachi, Kohei

    2011-01-01

    Multivariate stimulus-response designs can be described by a three-way array of stimuli by responses by individuals. Its underlying structure can be represented by a network based on the Tucker2 component model in which stimulus components are connected with response components by means of the links that differ between individuals. For each…

  18. Fluorine doping: a feasible solution to enhancing the conductivity of high-resistance wide bandgap Mg0.51Zn0.49O active components

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lishu; Mei, Zengxia; Hou, Yaonan; Liang, Huili; Azarov, Alexander; Venkatachalapathy, Vishnukanthan; Kuznetsov, Andrej; Du, Xiaolong

    2015-01-01

    N-type doping of high-resistance wide bandgap semiconductors, wurtzite high-Mg-content MgxZn1–xO for instance, has always been a fundamental application-motivated research issue. Herein, we report a solution to enhancing the conductivity of high-resistance Mg0.51Zn0.49O active components, which has been reliably achieved by fluorine doping via radio-frequency plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxial growth. Fluorine dopants were demonstrated to be effective donors in Mg0.51Zn0.49O single crystal film having a solar-blind 4.43 eV bandgap, with an average concentration of 1.0 × 1019 F/cm3.The dramatically increased carrier concentration (2.85 × 1017 cm−3 vs ~1014 cm−3) and decreased resistivity (129 Ω · cm vs ~106 Ω cm) indicate that the electrical properties of semi-insulating Mg0.51Zn0.49O film can be delicately regulated by F doping. Interestingly, two donor levels (17 meV and 74 meV) associated with F were revealed by temperature-dependent Hall measurements. A Schottky type metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetector manifests a remarkably enhanced photocurrent, two orders of magnitude higher than that of the undoped counterpart. The responsivity is greatly enhanced from 0.34 mA/W to 52 mA/W under 10 V bias. The detectivity increases from 1.89 × 109 cm Hz1/2/W to 3.58 × 1010 cm Hz1/2/W under 10 V bias at room temperature.These results exhibit F doping serves as a promising pathway for improving the performance of high-Mg-content MgxZn1-xO-based devices. PMID:26489958

  19. Fluorine doping: a feasible solution to enhancing the conductivity of high-resistance wide bandgap Mg0.51Zn0.49O active components.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lishu; Mei, Zengxia; Hou, Yaonan; Liang, Huili; Azarov, Alexander; Venkatachalapathy, Vishnukanthan; Kuznetsov, Andrej; Du, Xiaolong

    2015-01-01

    N-type doping of high-resistance wide bandgap semiconductors, wurtzite high-Mg-content MgxZn1-xO for instance, has always been a fundamental application-motivated research issue. Herein, we report a solution to enhancing the conductivity of high-resistance Mg0.51Zn0.49O active components, which has been reliably achieved by fluorine doping via radio-frequency plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxial growth. Fluorine dopants were demonstrated to be effective donors in Mg0.51Zn0.49O single crystal film having a solar-blind 4.43 eV bandgap, with an average concentration of 1.0 × 10(19) F/cm(3).The dramatically increased carrier concentration (2.85 × 10(17) cm(-3) vs ~10(14) cm(-3)) and decreased resistivity (129 Ω · cm vs ~10(6) Ω cm) indicate that the electrical properties of semi-insulating Mg0.51Zn0.49O film can be delicately regulated by F doping. Interestingly, two donor levels (17 meV and 74 meV) associated with F were revealed by temperature-dependent Hall measurements. A Schottky type metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetector manifests a remarkably enhanced photocurrent, two orders of magnitude higher than that of the undoped counterpart. The responsivity is greatly enhanced from 0.34 mA/W to 52 mA/W under 10 V bias. The detectivity increases from 1.89 × 10(9) cm Hz(1/2)/W to 3.58 × 10(10) cm Hz(1/2)/W under 10 V bias at room temperature.These results exhibit F doping serves as a promising pathway for improving the performance of high-Mg-content MgxZn1-xO-based devices. PMID:26489958

  20. Changes in Lignin and Polysaccharide Components in 13 Cultivars of Rice Straw following Dilute Acid Pretreatment as Studied by Solution-State 2D 1H-13C NMR.

    PubMed

    Teramura, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Kengo; Oshima, Tomoko; Aikawa, Shimpei; Matsuda, Fumio; Okamoto, Mami; Shirai, Tomokazu; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Ogino, Chiaki; Yamasaki, Masanori; Kikuchi, Jun; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    A renewable raw material, rice straw is pretreated for biorefinery usage. Solution-state two-dimensional (2D) 1H-13 C hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was used to analyze 13 cultivars of rice straw before and after dilute acid pretreatment, to characterize general changes in the lignin and polysaccharide components. Intensities of most (15 of 16) peaks related to lignin aromatic regions, such as p-coumarate, guaiacyl, syringyl, p-hydroxyphenyl, and cinnamyl alcohol, and methoxyl, increased or remained unchanged after pretreatment. In contrast, intensities of most (11 of 13) peaks related to lignin aliphatic linkages or ferulate decreased. Decreased heterogeneity in the intensities of three peaks related to cellulose components in acid-insoluble residues resulted in similar glucose yield (0.45-0.59 g/g-dry biomass). Starch-derived components showed positive correlations (r = 0.71 to 0.96) with glucose, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), and formate concentrations in the liquid hydrolysates, and negative correlations (r = -0.95 to -0.97) with xylose concentration and acid-insoluble residue yield. These results showed the fate of lignin and polysaccharide components by pretreatment, suggesting that lignin aromatic regions and cellulose components were retained in the acid insoluble residues and starch-derived components were transformed into glucose, 5-HMF, and formate in the liquid hydrolysate.

  1. Changes in Lignin and Polysaccharide Components in 13 Cultivars of Rice Straw following Dilute Acid Pretreatment as Studied by Solution-State 2D 1H-13C NMR

    PubMed Central

    Teramura, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Kengo; Oshima, Tomoko; Aikawa, Shimpei; Matsuda, Fumio; Okamoto, Mami; Shirai, Tomokazu; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Ogino, Chiaki; Yamasaki, Masanori; Kikuchi, Jun; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    A renewable raw material, rice straw is pretreated for biorefinery usage. Solution-state two-dimensional (2D) 1H-13 C hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was used to analyze 13 cultivars of rice straw before and after dilute acid pretreatment, to characterize general changes in the lignin and polysaccharide components. Intensities of most (15 of 16) peaks related to lignin aromatic regions, such as p-coumarate, guaiacyl, syringyl, p-hydroxyphenyl, and cinnamyl alcohol, and methoxyl, increased or remained unchanged after pretreatment. In contrast, intensities of most (11 of 13) peaks related to lignin aliphatic linkages or ferulate decreased. Decreased heterogeneity in the intensities of three peaks related to cellulose components in acid-insoluble residues resulted in similar glucose yield (0.45–0.59 g/g-dry biomass). Starch-derived components showed positive correlations (r = 0.71 to 0.96) with glucose, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), and formate concentrations in the liquid hydrolysates, and negative correlations (r = –0.95 to –0.97) with xylose concentration and acid-insoluble residue yield. These results showed the fate of lignin and polysaccharide components by pretreatment, suggesting that lignin aromatic regions and cellulose components were retained in the acid insoluble residues and starch-derived components were transformed into glucose, 5-HMF, and formate in the liquid hydrolysate. PMID:26083431

  2. EXTENSION OF SELF-MODELING CURVE RESOLUTION TO MIXTURES OF MORE THAN THREE COMPONENTS: PART 2: FINDING THE COMPLETE SOLUTION. (R826238)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The previous paper [R.C. Henry, B.M. Kim, Extension of self-modeling curve resolution to mixtures of more than three components: Part 1. Finding the basic feasible region, Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems 8 (1990) 205¯216] explained an extension ...

  3. Effect of the Addition of a Labile Gelatin Component on the Degradation and Solute Release Kinetics of a Stable PEG Hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Waldeck, H.; Kao, W. J.

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of the degradation mechanisms and resulting products of biodegradable materials is critical in understanding the behavior of the material including solute transport and biological response. Previous mathematical analyses of a semi-interpenetrating network (sIPN) containing both labile gelatin and a stable cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) network found that diffusion-based models alone were unable to explain the release kinetics of solutes from the system. In this study, degradation of the sIPN and its effect on solute release and swelling kinetics were investigated. The kinetics of the primary mode of degradation, gelatin dissolution, was dependent on temperature, preparation methods, PEGdA and gelatin concentration, and the weight ratio between the gelatin and PEG. The gelatin dissolution rate positively correlated with both matrix swelling and the release kinetics of high-molecular-weight model compound, FITC-dextran. Coupled with previous in vitro studies, the kinetics of sIPN degradation provided insights into the time-dependent changes in cellular response including adhesion and protein expression. These results provide a facile guide in material formulation to control the delivery of high-molecular-weight compounds with concomitant modulation of cellular behavior. PMID:21801489

  4. A three-component reaction for diversity-oriented synthesis of polysubstituted piperidines: solution and solid-phase optimization of the first tandem aza[4+2]/allylboration.

    PubMed

    Touré, Barry B; Hoveyda, Hamid R; Tailor, Jyoti; Ulaczyk-Lesanko, Agnieszka; Hall, Dennis G

    2003-01-20

    This article describes the design and optimization of a simple three-component aza[4+2]/allylboration reaction to access polysubstituted alpha-hydroxyalkyl piperidines in a highly diastereocontrolled fashion from maleimides, 4-boronohydrazonodienes, and aldehydes. The aldehyde component does not interfere with the first aza[4+2] step, and it was found that this tandem reaction provides better yields of piperidine products 5 when carried out in one-pot. The required 4-borono-hydrazonodienes 1 are synthesized efficiently from the condensation of 3-boronoacrolein pinacol ester (4) with hydrazines. Overall, the three-component process using N-substituted maleimides as dienophiles produces four stereogenic centers and is quite general. It tolerates the use of a wide variety of aldehydes and hydrazine precursors with different electronic and steric characteristics. By allowing such a wide substrate scope and up to four elements of diversity, this reaction process is particularly well adapted towards applications in diversity-oriented synthesis of polysubstituted piperidine derivatives. The suitability of the aza[4+2]/allylboration reaction for use in solid-phase chemistry was also demonstrated using a N-arylmaleidobenzoic acid functionalized resin. This novel multicomponent reaction thus offers a high level of stereocontrol and versatility in the preparation of densely functionalized nitrogen heterocycles.

  5. Photochemical effect of humic acid components separated using molecular imprinting method applying porphyrin-like substances as templates in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunyan; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Han, Jianbo; Ou, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Jincai

    2010-08-01

    To elucidate the relationship between photochemical functions with the structure of humic acids (HA), we developed a molecular imprinting method to separate the substances with given structure and investigated their photochemical behavior in aqueous solution. The substances with porphyrin-like core structure, such as chlorophyll or heme, were employed as template substances for preparing molecular imprinting polymers (MIP). The polymers were used to separate the substances with porphyrin-like structure from HA. Photochemical experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of the separated HA fractions on the photodegradation of coexisting organic pollutant. The results showed that all fractions bound by MIP accelerated photochemical degradation of coexisting 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) under simulated sunlight (lambda>290 nm) irradiation, indicating that HA with porphyrin-like structure possesses better photoactivity than ones without the structure. The photochemical degradation of 2,4-D was enhanced when Fe(III), the ubiquitous element in natural aquatic systems, was added owing to the formation of Fe(III) complex with the HA. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra indicated that OH* and 1O2 radicals were generated in the solutions of HA fractions bound by MIP under simulated sunlight irradiation, implying that 2,4-D degradation could be related to oxidation reactions caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  6. The in-situ decontamination of sand and gravel aquifers by chemically enhanced solubilization of multiple-component DNAPLS with surfactant solutions. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    Laboratory, numerical simulation, and field studies have been conducted to assess the potential use of micellar-surfactant solutions to solubilize chlorinated solvents contaminating sand and gravel aquifers. Laboratory studies were conducted at the State University of New York at Buffalo (SUNY) while numerical simulation and field work were undertaken by INTERA Inc. in collaboration with Martin Marietta Energy Systems Inc. at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Kentucky. Ninety-nine surfactants were screened for their ability to solubilize trichloroethene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and carbon tetrachloride (CTET). Ten of these were capable of solubilizing TCE to concentrations greater than 15,000 mg/L, compared to its aqueous solubility of 1,100 mg/L. Four surfactants were identified as good solubilizers of all three chlorinated solvents. Of these, a secondary alcohol ethoxylate was the first choice for in situ testing because of its excellent solubilizing ability and its low propensity to sorb. However, this surfactant did not meet the Commonwealth of Kentucky`s acceptance criteria. Consequently, it was decided to use a surfactant approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration as a food-grade additive. As a 1% micellar-surfactant solution, this sorbitan monooleate has a solubilization capacity of 16,000 mg TCE/L, but has a higher propensity to sorb to clays than has the alcohol ethoxylate.

  7. Fluoroethylene carbonate as an important component in electrolyte solutions for high-voltage lithium batteries: role of surface chemistry on the cathode.

    PubMed

    Markevich, Elena; Salitra, Gregory; Fridman, Katia; Sharabi, Ronit; Gershinsky, Gregory; Garsuch, Arnd; Semrau, Guenter; Schmidt, Michael A; Aurbach, Doron

    2014-07-01

    The effect of fluorinated ethylene carbonate (FEC) as a cosolvent in alkyl carbonates/LiPF6 on the cycling performance of high-voltage (5 V) cathodes for Li-ion batteries was investigated using electrochemical tools, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM). An excellent cycling stability of LiCoPO4/Li, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/Si, and LiCoPO4/Si cells and a reasonable cycling of LiCoPO4/Si cells was achieved by replacing the commonly used cosolvent ethylene carbonate (EC) by FEC in electrolyte solutions for high-voltage Li-ion batteries. The roles of FEC in the improvement of the cycling performance of high-voltage Li-ion cells and of surface chemistry on the cathode are discussed.

  8. Small organic solutes in sticky droplets from orb webs of the spider Zygiella atrica (Araneae; Araneidae): β-alaninamide is a novel and abundant component.

    PubMed

    Townley, Mark A; Pu, Qinglin; Zercher, Charles K; Neefus, Christopher D; Tillinghast, Edward K

    2012-10-01

    In northeastern North America, Zygiella atrica often build their orb webs near the ocean. We analyzed individual field-built Z. atrica webs to determine if organic low-molecular-mass solutes (LMM) in their sticky droplets showed any unusual features not previously seen in orb webs of other species living in less salty environments. While two of the three most abundant organic LMM (putrescine (butane-1,4-diamine) and GABamide (4-aminobutanamide)) are already well-known from webs of inland spiders, the third major LMM, β-alaninamide (3-aminopropanamide), a homolog of GABamide, has not been detected in sticky droplets from any other araneoid spiders (27 species). It remains to be established, however, whether or not use of β-alaninamide is related to proximity to saltwater. We observed variability in organic LMM composition in Z. atrica webs that appeared to be influenced more by an undetermined factor associated with different collecting locations and/or collection dates than by different genders or instars. Shifts in composition when adult females were transferred from the field to the laboratory were also observed. Structural similarities and inverse correlations among β-alaninamide, GABamide, and N-acetylputrescine suggest that they may form a series of LMM fulfilling essentially the same, as yet unknown, role in the webs of those species in which they occur.

  9. Small organic solutes in sticky droplets from orb webs of the spider Zygiella atrica (Araneae; Araneidae): β-alaninamide is a novel and abundant component.

    PubMed

    Townley, Mark A; Pu, Qinglin; Zercher, Charles K; Neefus, Christopher D; Tillinghast, Edward K

    2012-10-01

    In northeastern North America, Zygiella atrica often build their orb webs near the ocean. We analyzed individual field-built Z. atrica webs to determine if organic low-molecular-mass solutes (LMM) in their sticky droplets showed any unusual features not previously seen in orb webs of other species living in less salty environments. While two of the three most abundant organic LMM (putrescine (butane-1,4-diamine) and GABamide (4-aminobutanamide)) are already well-known from webs of inland spiders, the third major LMM, β-alaninamide (3-aminopropanamide), a homolog of GABamide, has not been detected in sticky droplets from any other araneoid spiders (27 species). It remains to be established, however, whether or not use of β-alaninamide is related to proximity to saltwater. We observed variability in organic LMM composition in Z. atrica webs that appeared to be influenced more by an undetermined factor associated with different collecting locations and/or collection dates than by different genders or instars. Shifts in composition when adult females were transferred from the field to the laboratory were also observed. Structural similarities and inverse correlations among β-alaninamide, GABamide, and N-acetylputrescine suggest that they may form a series of LMM fulfilling essentially the same, as yet unknown, role in the webs of those species in which they occur. PMID:23081916

  10. Investigation on the coprecipitation of transuranium elements from alkaline solutions by the method of appearing reagents. Study of the effects of waste components on decontamination from Np(IV) and Pu(IV)

    SciTech Connect

    Bessonov, A.A.; Budantseva, N.A.; Gelis, A.V.; Nikonov, M.V.; Shilov, V.P.

    1997-09-01

    The third stage of the study on the homogeneous coprecipitation of neptunium and plutonium from alkaline high-level radioactive waste solutions by the Method of Appearing Reagents has been completed. Alkaline radioactive wastes exist at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The recent studies investigated the effects of neptunium chemical reductants, plutonium(IV) concentration, and the presence of bulk tank waste solution components on the decontamination from tetravalent neptunium and plutonium achieved by homogeneous coprecipitation. Data on neptunium reduction to its tetravalent state in alkaline solution of different NaOH concentrations are given. Eleven reductants were tested to find those most suited to remove neptunium, through chemical reduction, from alkaline solution by homogeneous coprecipitation. Hydrazine, VOSO{sub 4}, and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 4} were found to be the most effective reductants. The rates of reduction with these reductants were comparable with the kinetics of carrier formation. Solution decontamination factors of about 400 were attained for 10{sup -6}M neptunium. Coprecipitation of plutonium(IV) with carriers obtained as products of thermal hydrolysis, redox transformations, and catalytic decomposition of [Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}]{sup 3+}, [Fe(CN){sub 5}NO]{sup 2-}, Cr(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, KMnO{sub 4}, and Li{sub 4}UO{sub 2}(O{sub 2}){sub 3} was studied and results are described. Under optimum conditions, a 100-fold decrease of plutonium concentration was possible with each of these reagents.

  11. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 2.0: Wind Turbine Reliability and Maintainability Enhancement through System-wide Structure Health Monitoring and Modifications to Rotating Components

    SciTech Connect

    Janet M Twomey, PhD

    2010-04-30

    EXECUTIVE SUMARRY An evaluation of nondestructive structural health monitoring methods was completed with over 132 documents, 37 specifically about wind turbines, summarized into a technology matrix. This matrix lists the technology, what can be monitored with this technology, and gives a short summary of the key aspects of the technology and its application. Passive and active acoustic emission equipment from Physical Acoustics Corp. and Acellent Technologies have been evaluated and selected for use in experimental state loading and fatigue tests of composite wind turbine blade materials. Acoustic Emission (AE) and Active Ultrasonic Testing (AUT), were applied to composite coupons with both simulated and actual damage. The results found that, while composites are more complicated in nature, compared to metallic structures, an artificial neural network analysis could still be used to determine damage. For the AE system, the failure mode could be determined (i.e. fiber breakage, delamination, etc.). The Acellent system has been evaluated to work well with composite materials. A test-rig for reliability testing of the rotating components was constructed. The research on the types of bearings used in the wind turbines indicated that in most of the designs, the main bearings utilized to support the shaft are cylindrical roller bearings. The accelerated degradation testing of a population of bearings was performed. Vibration and acoustic emission data was collected and analyzed in order to identify a representative degradation signal for each bearing to identify the initiation of the degradation process in the bearings. Afterwards, the RMS of the vibration signal from degradation initiation up to the end of the useful life of the bearing was selected to predict the remaining useful life of the bearing. This step included fitting Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) models to the degradation signals and approximating the probability distribution function (PDF) of

  12. Single and multi-component adsorptive removal of bisphenol A and 2,4-dichlorophenol from aqueous solutions with transition metal modified inorganic-organic pillared clay composites: Effect of pH and presence of humic acid.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Martínez, Krisiam; Reddy, Pratap; Cabrera-Lafaurie, Wilman A; Román, Félix R; Hernández-Maldonado, Arturo J

    2016-07-15

    Pillared clay based composites containing transition metals and a surfactant, namely MAlOr-NaBt (Bt=bentonite; Or=surfactant; M=Ni(2+), Cu(2+)or Co(2+)), were prepared to study selectivity and capacity toward single and multiple-component adsorption of bisphenol A (BPA) and 2,4-diclorophenol (DCP) from water. Tests were also performed to account for the presence of natural organic matter in the form of humic acid (HA). Equilibrium adsorption capacities for single components increased as follows: NaBtcomponent fixed-bed tests, however, revealed competition between the adsorbates, with the exception of the CuAlOr-NaBt beds. Inclusion of HA, surprisingly, enhanced the phenols adsorption capacity. Preliminary regeneration tests suggested that the adsorbent capacity can be recovered via thermal treatment or by washing with alkaline solutions. The former strategy, however, requires surfactant replenishment. More complex schemes would be needed to deal with absorbed HA. PMID:27037481

  13. Adsorption of thorium(IV) from simulated radioactive solutions using a novel electrospun PVA/TiO2/ZnO nanofiber adsorbent functionalized with mercapto groups: Study in single and multi-component systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipour, Dariush; Keshtkar, Ali Reza; Moosavian, Mohammad Ali

    2016-03-01

    The novel polyvinyl alcohol/titanium oxide/zinc oxide (PVA/TiO2/ZnO) nanofiber adsorbent functionalized with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (TMPTMS) was prepared by electrospinning method and its potential was investigated for the adsorption of thorium from single and multi-metal aqueous solutions. The prepared adsorbent was characterized by FTIR, SEM and BET analysis. The influences of different operational parameters such as pH, ionic strength, equilibrium time, initial concentration and temperature were studied in batch mode. Investigation of ionic strength effect showed that the addition of NaNO3 to metal solution has a slight effect on the thorium adsorption, whereas pH value has a serious effect on the thorium adsorption at pH values lower than 4. The double-exponential model described the adsorption of Th(IV) ions much better than other kinetic models within both the single and multi-component systems. Among various isotherm models used, the equilibrium data of Th(IV) conformed the Langmuir isotherm in the single system, while those were best fitted by Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm in multi-component system. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔH°, ΔS°, and ΔG° indicated that the nature of adsorption process was spontaneous, endothermic and thermodynamically favored. The inhibitory effect of other metal ions on the adsorption capacity of Th(IV) was in order of Al(III) > Cu(II) > Cd(II) > Ni(II) > U(VI) > Fe(II).

  14. Component-specific modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Accomplishments are described for the second year effort of a 3-year program to develop methodology for component specific modeling of aircraft engine hot section components (turbine blades, turbine vanes, and burner liners). These accomplishments include: (1) engine thermodynamic and mission models; (2) geometry model generators; (3) remeshing; (4) specialty 3-D inelastic stuctural analysis; (5) computationally efficient solvers, (6) adaptive solution strategies; (7) engine performance parameters/component response variables decomposition and synthesis; (8) integrated software architecture and development, and (9) validation cases for software developed.

  15. Brain components

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3 major components of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The cerebrum is divided into left and right hemispheres, each ... gray matter) is the outside portion of the cerebrum and provides us with functions associated with conscious ...

  16. Component-specific modeling. [jet engine hot section components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.; Maffeo, R. J.; Tipton, M. T.; Weber, G.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments are described for a 3 year program to develop methodology for component-specific modeling of aircraft hot section components (turbine blades, turbine vanes, and burner liners). These accomplishments include: (1) engine thermodynamic and mission models, (2) geometry model generators, (3) remeshing, (4) specialty three-dimensional inelastic structural analysis, (5) computationally efficient solvers, (6) adaptive solution strategies, (7) engine performance parameters/component response variables decomposition and synthesis, (8) integrated software architecture and development, and (9) validation cases for software developed.

  17. Hyperfrequency components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-09-01

    The document has a collection of 19 papers (11 on technologies, 8 on applications) by 26 authors and coauthors. Technological topics include: evolution from conventional HEMT's double heterojunction and planar types of pseudomorphic HEMT's; MMIC R&D and production aspects for very-low-noise, low-power, and very-low-noise, high-power applications; hyperfrequency CAD tools; parametric measurements of hyperfrequency components on plug-in cards for design and in-process testing uses; design of Class B power amplifiers and millimetric-wave, bigrid-transistor mixers, exemplifying combined use of three major types of physical simulation in electrical modeling of microwave components; FET's for power amplification at up to 110 GHz; production, characterization, and nonlinear applications of resonant tunnel diodes. Applications topics include: development of active modules for major European programs; tubes versus solid-state components in hyperfrequency applications; status and potentialities of national and international cooperative R&D on MMIC's and CAD of hyperfrequency circuitry; attainable performance levels in multifunction MMIC applications; state of the art relative of MESFET power amplifiers (Bands S, C, X, Ku); creating a hyperfrequency functions library, of parametrizable reference cells or macrocells; and design of a single-stage, low-noise, band-W amplifier toward development of a three-stage amplifier.

  18. Component separations.

    PubMed

    Heller, Lior; McNichols, Colton H; Ramirez, Oscar M

    2012-02-01

    Component separation is a technique used to provide adequate coverage for midline abdominal wall defects such as a large ventral hernia. This surgical technique is based on subcutaneous lateral dissection, fasciotomy lateral to the rectus abdominis muscle, and dissection on the plane between external and internal oblique muscles with medial advancement of the block that includes the rectus muscle and its fascia. This release allows for medial advancement of the fascia and closure of up to 20-cm wide defects in the midline area. Since its original description, components separation technique underwent multiple modifications with the ultimate goal to decrease the morbidity associated with the traditional procedure. The extensive subcutaneous lateral dissection had been associated with ischemia of the midline skin edges, wound dehiscence, infection, and seroma. Although the current trend is to proceed with minimally invasive component separation and to reinforce the fascia with mesh, the basic principles of the techniques as described by Ramirez et al in 1990 have not changed over the years. Surgeons who deal with the management of abdominal wall defects are highly encouraged to include this technique in their collection of treatment options.

  19. Inkjet deposited circuit components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidoki, S. M.; Nouri, J.; Heidari, A. A.

    2010-05-01

    All-printed electronics as a means of achieving ultra-low-cost electronic circuits has attracted great interest in recent years. Inkjet printing is one of the most promising techniques by which the circuit components can be ultimately drawn (i.e. printed) onto the substrate in one step. Here, the inkjet printing technique was used to chemically deposit silver nanoparticles (10-200 nm) simply by ejection of silver nitrate and reducing solutions onto different substrates such as paper, PET plastic film and textile fabrics. The silver patterns were tested for their functionality to work as circuit components like conductor, resistor, capacitor and inductor. Different levels of conductivity were achieved simply by changing the printing sequence, inks ratio and concentration. The highest level of conductivity achieved by an office thermal inkjet printer (300 dpi) was 5.54 × 105 S m-1 on paper. Inkjet deposited capacitors could exhibit a capacitance of more than 1.5 nF (parallel plate 45 × 45 mm2) and induction coils displayed an inductance of around 400 µH (planar coil 10 cm in diameter). Comparison of electronic performance of inkjet deposited components to the performance of conventionally etched items makes the technique highly promising for fabricating different printed electronic devices.

  20. Prognostics for Microgrid Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav

    2012-01-01

    Prognostics is the science of predicting future performance and potential failures based on targeted condition monitoring. Moving away from the traditional reliability centric view, prognostics aims at detecting and quantifying the time to impending failures. This advance warning provides the opportunity to take actions that can preserve uptime, reduce cost of damage, or extend the life of the component. The talk will focus on the concepts and basics of prognostics from the viewpoint of condition-based systems health management. Differences with other techniques used in systems health management and philosophies of prognostics used in other domains will be shown. Examples relevant to micro grid systems and subsystems will be used to illustrate various types of prediction scenarios and the resources it take to set up a desired prognostic system. Specifically, the implementation results for power storage and power semiconductor components will demonstrate specific solution approaches of prognostics. The role of constituent elements of prognostics, such as model, prediction algorithms, failure threshold, run-to-failure data, requirements and specifications, and post-prognostic reasoning will be explained. A discussion on performance evaluation and performance metrics will conclude the technical discussion followed by general comments on open research problems and challenges in prognostics.

  1. Thermodynamics of rock forming crystalline solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, S. K.

    1971-01-01

    Analysis of phase diagrams and cation distributions within crystalline solutions as means of obtaining thermodynamic data on rock forming crystalline solutions is discussed along with some aspects of partitioning of elements in coexisting phases. Crystalline solutions, components in a silicate mineral, and chemical potentials of these components were defined. Examples were given for calculating thermodynamic mixing functions in the CaW04-SrW04, olivine-chloride solution, and orthopyroxene systems.

  2. Electromarking solution

    DOEpatents

    Bullock, Jonathan S.; Harper, William L.; Peck, Charles G.

    1976-06-22

    This invention is directed to an aqueous halogen-free electromarking solution which possesses the capacity for marking a broad spectrum of metals and alloys selected from different classes. The aqueous solution comprises basically the nitrate salt of an amphoteric metal, a chelating agent, and a corrosion-inhibiting agent.

  3. Big Ideas and Small Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    2004-01-01

    Small solutions solve discrete, well-bounded problems and can be pieces of larger solutions. They can move things forward by mixing and matching available components in new and previously unimagined ways. A number of innovations, which at first glance are completely unrelated, can come together and create important synergics. This article…

  4. Decontamination solution development studies

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.P.; Fetrow, L.K.; Kjarmo, H.E.; Pool, K.H.

    1993-09-01

    This study was conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of the Hanford Grout Technology Program (HGTP). The objective of this study was to identify decontamination solutions capable of removing radioactive contaminants and grout from the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) process equipment and to determine the impact of these solutions on equipment components and disposal options. The reference grout used in this study was prepared with simulated double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) and a dry blend consisting of 40 wt % limestone flour, 28 wt % blast furnace slag, 28 wt % fly ash, and 4 wt % type I/II Portland cement.

  5. Cold worked ferritic alloys and components

    DOEpatents

    Korenko, Michael K.

    1984-01-01

    This invention relates to liquid metal fast breeder reactor and steam generator precipitation hardening fully ferritic alloy components which have a microstructure substantially free of the primary precipitation hardening phase while having cells or arrays of dislocations of varying population densities. It also relates to the process by which these components are produced, which entails solution treating the alloy followed by a final cold working step. In this condition, the first significant precipitation hardening of the component occurs during high temperature use.

  6. Fabrication of plastic microfluidic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Peter M.; Matson, Dean W.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Hammerstrom, D. J.

    1998-09-01

    Plastic components have many advantages, including ease of fabrication, low cost, chemical inertness, lightweight, and disposability. We report on the fabrication of three plastics-based microfluidic components: a motherboard, a dialysis unit, and a metal sensor. Microchannels, headers, and interconnects were produced in thin sheets (>=50 microns) of polyimide, PMMA, polyethylene, and polycarbonate using a direct-write excimer laser micromachining system. Machined sheets were laminated by thermal and adhesive bonding to form leak-tight microfluidic components. The microfluidic motherboard borrowed the `functionality on a chip' concept from the electronics industry and was the heart of a complex microfluidic analytical device. The motherboard platform was designed to be tightly integrated and self-contained (i.e., liquid flows are all confined within machined microchannels), reducing the need for tubing with fluid distribution and connectivity. This concept greatly facilitated system integration and miniaturization. As fabricated, the motherboard consisted of three fluid reservoirs connected to micropumps by microchannels. The fluids could either be pumped independently or mixed in microchannels prior to being directed to exterior analytical components via outlet ports. The microdialysis device was intended to separate electrolytic solutes from low volume samples prior to mass spectrometric analysis. The device consisted of a dialysis membrane laminated between opposed serpentine microchannels containing the sample fluid and a buffer solution. The laminated metal sensor consisted of fluid reservoirs, micro-flow channels, micropumps, mixing channels, reaction channels, and detector circuitry.

  7. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  8. The double-dust solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, D.

    2002-04-01

    An exact solution describing the static gravitational field produced by the superposition of two dust beams of equal mass density but opposite propagation direction is given in a closed form. In particular, the cylindrically symmetric situation is considered in which the two dust components move on trajectories screwing around the axis. In this case, the solution can be matched to the Levi-Civita external vacuum solution at any value of the radial coordinate. The axis is regular and the mass density is positive everywhere in the interior region of the global solution. The dominant energy condition is satisfied.

  9. Polyelectrolyte Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colby, Ralph H.

    2008-03-01

    Pierre-Gilles de Gennes once described polyelectrolytes as the ``least understood form of condensed matter''. In this talk, I will describe the state of the polyelectrolyte field before and after de Gennes' seminal contributions published 1976-1980. De Gennes clearly explained why electrostatic interactions only stretch the polyelectrolyte chains on intermediate scales in semidilute solution (between the electrostatic blob size and the correlation length) and why the scattering function has a peak corresponding to the correlation length (the distance to the next chain). Despite many other ideas being suggested since then, the simple de Gennes scaling picture of polyelectrolyte conformation in solution has stood the test of time. How that model is used today, including consequences for dynamics in polyelectrolyte solutions, and what questions remain, will clarify the importance of de Gennes' ideas.

  10. Comparison of non-ideal solution theories for multi-solute solutions in cryobiology and tabulation of required coefficients.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Michal W; McGann, Locksley E; Nychka, John A; Elliott, Janet A W

    2014-10-01

    Thermodynamic solution theories allow the prediction of chemical potentials in solutions of known composition. In cryobiology, such models are a critical component of many mathematical models that are used to simulate the biophysical processes occurring in cells and tissues during cryopreservation. A number of solution theories, both thermodynamically ideal and non-ideal, have been proposed for use with cryobiological solutions. In this work, we have evaluated two non-ideal solution theories for predicting water chemical potential (i.e. osmolality) in multi-solute solutions relevant to cryobiology: the Elliott et al. form of the multi-solute osmotic virial equation, and the Kleinhans and Mazur freezing point summation model. These two solution theories require fitting to only single-solute data, although they can make predictions in multi-solute solutions. The predictions of these non-ideal solution theories were compared to predictions made using ideal dilute assumptions and to available literature multi-solute experimental osmometric data. A single, consistent set of literature single-solute solution data was used to fit for the required solute-specific coefficients for each of the non-ideal models. Our results indicate that the two non-ideal solution theories have similar overall performance, and both give more accurate predictions than ideal models. These results can be used to select between the non-ideal models for a specific multi-solute solution, and the updated coefficients provided in this work can be used to make the desired predictions.

  11. Sound Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkman, Neal

    2007-01-01

    Poor classroom acoustics are impairing students' hearing and their ability to learn. However, technology has come up with a solution: tools that focus voices in a way that minimizes intrusive ambient noise and gets to the intended receiver--not merely amplifying the sound, but also clarifying and directing it. One provider of classroom audio…

  12. Polymer solutions

    DOEpatents

    Krawczyk, Gerhard Erich; Miller, Kevin Michael

    2011-07-26

    There is provided a method of making a polymer solution comprising polymerizing one or more monomer in a solvent, wherein said monomer comprises one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomer that is a multi-functional Michael donor, and wherein said solvent comprises 40% or more by weight, based on the weight of said solvent, one or more multi-functional Michael donor.

  13. Colligative properties of simple solutions.

    PubMed

    Andrews, F C

    1976-11-01

    Vapor pressure lowering, osmotic pressure, boiling point elevation, and freezing point depression are all related quantitatively to the decrease in micro(1)(soln) upon the addition of solute in forming a solution. In any equilibrium system, regardless of whether it is in a gravitational field or whether it contains walls, semipermeable membranes, phase transitions, or solutes, all equilibria are maintained locally, in the small region of the equilibrium, by the equality of micro(1)(soln). If there are several subsystems in a gravitational field, at any fixed height, microi will have the same value in each subsystem into which substance i can get, and microi + M(i)gh is constant throughout the entire system. In a solution, there is no mechanism by which solvent and solute molecules could sustain different pressures. Both the solvent and solute are always under identical pressures in a region of solution, namely, the pressure of the solution in that region. Since nature does not know which component we call the solvent and which the solute, equations should be symmetric in the two (acknowledging that the nonvolatile component, if any, is commonly chosen to be solute). Simple molecular pictures illustrate what is happening to cause pressure (positive or negative) in liquids, vapor pressure of liquids, and the various colligative properties of solutions. The only effect of solute involved in these properties is that it dilutes the solvent, with the resulting increase in S and decrease in micro(1)(soln). Water can be driven passively up a tree to enormous heights by the difference between its chemical potential in the roots and the ambient air. There is nothing mysterious about the molecular bases for any of these phenomena. Biologists can use the well-understood pictures of these phenomena with confidence to study what is happening in the complicated living systems they consider.

  14. Colligative properties of simple solutions.

    PubMed

    Andrews, F C

    1976-11-01

    Vapor pressure lowering, osmotic pressure, boiling point elevation, and freezing point depression are all related quantitatively to the decrease in micro(1)(soln) upon the addition of solute in forming a solution. In any equilibrium system, regardless of whether it is in a gravitational field or whether it contains walls, semipermeable membranes, phase transitions, or solutes, all equilibria are maintained locally, in the small region of the equilibrium, by the equality of micro(1)(soln). If there are several subsystems in a gravitational field, at any fixed height, microi will have the same value in each subsystem into which substance i can get, and microi + M(i)gh is constant throughout the entire system. In a solution, there is no mechanism by which solvent and solute molecules could sustain different pressures. Both the solvent and solute are always under identical pressures in a region of solution, namely, the pressure of the solution in that region. Since nature does not know which component we call the solvent and which the solute, equations should be symmetric in the two (acknowledging that the nonvolatile component, if any, is commonly chosen to be solute). Simple molecular pictures illustrate what is happening to cause pressure (positive or negative) in liquids, vapor pressure of liquids, and the various colligative properties of solutions. The only effect of solute involved in these properties is that it dilutes the solvent, with the resulting increase in S and decrease in micro(1)(soln). Water can be driven passively up a tree to enormous heights by the difference between its chemical potential in the roots and the ambient air. There is nothing mysterious about the molecular bases for any of these phenomena. Biologists can use the well-understood pictures of these phenomena with confidence to study what is happening in the complicated living systems they consider. PMID:17818408

  15. Component Publications and Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Naijun; Kang, Eun Young; Liu, Zhiming

    One of the major issues in component-based design is how to use a component correctly in different applications according to the given interface specification, called the publication, of the component. In this paper we formulate this as the problem of component publication composition and refinement. We define the notion of publications of components that describes how a component can be used by a third party in building their own components or in writing their applications without access to the design or the code of the component. It is desirable that different users of the components can be given different publications according to their need. The first contribution of this paper is to provide a procedure, which calculates a weakest contract of the required interface of a component from the contract of its provided interface and its code. The other contribution, that is more significant from a component-based designer's point of view, is to define composition on publications so that the publication of a composite component can be calculated from those of its subcomponents. For this we define a set of primitive composition operators over components, including renaming, hiding, internalizing, plugging and feedback. This theory is presented based on the sematic model of rCOS, a refinement calculus of component and object systems.

  16. Robotic component preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Dokos, J.R.

    1986-04-01

    This report provides information on the preparation of robotic components. Component preparation includes pretinning or solder dipping, preforming, and pretrimming of component leads. Since about 70% of all components are axial-leaded resistor-type components, it was decided to begin with them and then later develop capabilities to handle other types. The first workcell is the first phase of an overall system to pretin, preform, and pretrim all components and to feed them to an automatic insertion system. Before use of the robot, a Unimation PUMA Modal 260, pretinning and preforming was done by first hand with a shield and vented booth.

  17. Reactor component automatic grapple

    SciTech Connect

    Greenaway, P.R.

    1982-12-07

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  18. Reactor component automatic grapple

    DOEpatents

    Greenaway, Paul R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  19. Solution Leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Tiejun; Zhu, Deqing; Pan, Jian; He, Zhen

    2014-06-01

    Recovery of alumina from magnetic separation tailings of red mud has been investigated by Na2CO3 solution leaching. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that most of the alumina is present as 12CaO·7Al2O3 and CaO·Al2O3 in the magnetic separation tailings. The shrinking core model was employed to describe the leaching kinetics. The results show that the calculated activation energy of 8.31 kJ/mol is characteristic for an internal diffusion-controlled process. The kinetic equation can be used to describe the leaching process. The effects of Na2CO3 concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, and particle size on recovery of Al2O3 were examined.

  20. Inorganic Components of Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wexler, Anthony Stein

    The inorganic components comprise 15% to 50% of the mass of atmospheric aerosols. For about the past 10 years the mass of these components was predicted assuming thermodynamic equilibrium between the volatile aerosol -phase inorganic species NH_4NO _3 and NH_4Cl and their gas-phase counterparts NH_3, HNO_3, and HCl. In this thesis I examine this assumption and prove that (1) the time scales for equilibration between the gas and aerosol phases are often too long for equilibrium to hold, and (2) even when equilibrium holds, transport considerations often govern the size distribution of these aerosol components. Water can comprise a significant portion of atmospheric aerosols under conditions of high relative humidity, whereas under conditions of sufficiently low relative humidity atmospheric aerosols tend to be dry. The deliquescence point is the relative humidity where the aerosol goes from a solid dry phase to an aqueous or mixed solid-aqueous phase. In this thesis I derive the temperature dependence of the deliquescence point and prove that in multicomponent solutions the deliquescence point is lower than for corresponding single component solutions. These theories of the transport, thermodynamic, and deliquescent properties of atmospheric aerosols are integrated into an aerosol inorganics model, AIM. The predictions of AIM compare well to fundamental thermodynamic measurements. Comparison of the prediction of AIM to those of other aerosol equilibrium models shows substantial disagreement in the predicted water content at lower relative humidities. The disagreement is due the improved treatment in AIM of the deliquescence properties of multicomponent solutions. In the summer and fall of 1987 the California Air Resources Board conducted the Southern California Air Quality Study, SCAQS, during which atmospheric aerosols were measured in Los Angeles. The size and composition of the aerosol and the concentrations of their gas phase counterparts were measured. When the

  1. S Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezhi, Zeng; Gang, Tian; Junying, Hu; Zhi, Zhang; Taihe, Shi; Wanying, Liu; Qiang, Lu; Shaobo, Feng

    2014-11-01

    During drilling process, if oil and gas overflow containing H2S enters drilling fluids, the performance of drill pipes will decline significantly within a short time. In this paper, S135 drill pipe specimen was immersed in the saturated solution of H2S at room temperature for 6, 12, 18, and 24 h, respectively. The tensile properties and impact properties of S135 drill pipe were determined before and after immersion for comparison. In addition, the S135 specimens were immersed for 3 days at 80 °C to determine the changes in fatigue performance. The test results indicated that the yield strength of S135 material fluctuated with immersion time increasing and the tensile strength slightly varied with immersion time. But the plasticity index of S135 decreased significantly with the increase in immersion time. The impact energy of S135 steel also fluctuated with the increase in immersion time. After 3-day immersion at 80 °C, the fatigue properties of S135 steel decreased, and fatigue life showed the one order of magnitude difference under the same stress conditions. Moreover, fatigue strength was also decreased by about 10%. The study can guide security management of S135 drill pipe under the working conditions with oil and gas overflow containing H2S, reduce drilling tool failures, and provide technical support for drilling safety.

  2. Life's Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Simon Conway

    2004-11-01

    Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

  3. Life's Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Simon Conway

    2003-09-01

    Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

  4. Alloy solution hardening with solute pairs

    DOEpatents

    Mitchell, John W.

    1976-08-24

    Solution hardened alloys are formed by using at least two solutes which form associated solute pairs in the solvent metal lattice. Copper containing equal atomic percentages of aluminum and palladium is an example.

  5. Adult Distributive Education: A Neglected Component?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Ralph D.

    1976-01-01

    Distributive education personnel must find solutions to some unique problems (lack of leadership, fiscal policies, local motivation, and research) if adult distributive education offerings are to become a more vital and flourishing component of the total distributive education program. (Author/BP)

  6. Components of Sexual Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shively, Michael G.; DeCecco, John P.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines the four components of sexual identity: biological sex, gender identity, social sex-role, and sexual orientation. Theories about the development of each component and how they combine and conflict to form the individual's sexual identity are discussed. (Author)

  7. Electronic Component Obsolescence

    SciTech Connect

    Sohns, Carl William; Ward, Christina D

    2010-01-01

    Electronic component obsolescence occurs when parts are no longer available to support the manufacture and/or repair of equipment still in service. Future instrumentation containing complex components WILL face obsolescence issues as technology advances. This paper describes hardware and software obsolescence as well as factors to consider when designing new instrumentation.

  8. Research Component - Natural Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Donald

    The research component in the natural sciences does not have to be changed. Ninety-three percent of the students surveyed by Ann Heiss for her book "The Challenge to the Graduate Schools" felt that the research component of the natural sciences contributed to their scientific development, and 85 percent felt that it was intellectually stimulating.…

  9. Design of Critical Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2001-01-01

    Critical component design is based on minimizing product failures that results in loss of life. Potential catastrophic failures are reduced to secondary failures where components removed for cause or operating time in the system. Issues of liability and cost of component removal become of paramount importance. Deterministic design with factors of safety and probabilistic design address but lack the essential characteristics for the design of critical components. In deterministic design and fabrication there are heuristic rules and safety factors developed over time for large sets of structural/material components. These factors did not come without cost. Many designs failed and many rules (codes) have standing committees to oversee their proper usage and enforcement. In probabilistic design, not only are failures a given, the failures are calculated; an element of risk is assumed based on empirical failure data for large classes of component operations. Failure of a class of components can be predicted, yet one can not predict when a specific component will fail. The analogy is to the life insurance industry where very careful statistics are book-kept on classes of individuals. For a specific class, life span can be predicted within statistical limits, yet life-span of a specific element of that class can not be predicted.

  10. Bocca: A Development Environment for HPC Components

    SciTech Connect

    Elwasif, Wael R; Norris, Boyana; Benjamin, Allan A.; Armstrong, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    In high-performance scientific software development, the emphasis is often on short time to first solution. Even when the development of new components mostly reuses existing components or libraries and only small amounts of new code must be created, dealing with the component glue code and software build processes to obtain complete applications is still tedious and error-prone. Component-based soft ware meant to reduce complexity at the application level increases complexity with the attendant glue code. To address these needs, we introduce Bocca, the first tool to enable application developers to perform rapid component prototyping while maintaining robust software-engineering practices suitable to HPC environments. Bocca provides project management and a comprehensive build environment for creating and managing applications composed of Common Component Architecture components. Of critical importance for HPC applications, Bocca is designed to operate in a language-agnostic way, simultaneously handling components written in any of the languages commonly used in scientific applications: C, C++, Fortran, Fortran77, Python, and Java. Bocca automates the tasks related to the component glue code, freeing the user to focus on the scientific aspects of the application. Bocca embraces the philosophy pioneered by Ruby Rails for web applications: Start with something that works and evolve it to the user's purpose.

  11. Bocca : A development environment for HPC components.

    SciTech Connect

    Elwasif, W.; Norris, B.; Allan, B.; Armstrong, R.; Mathematics and Computer Science; ORNL; SNL

    2007-01-01

    In high-performance scientific software development, the emphasis is often on short time to first solution. Even when the development of new components mostly reuses existing components or libraries and only small amounts of new code must be created, dealing with component glue code to obtain complete applications is still tedious and error prone. Component-based software meant to reduce complexity at the application level increases complexity with the attendant glue code. To address these needs, we introduce Bocca, the first tool to enable application developers to perform rapid component prototyping while maintaining robust software engineering practices suitable to HPC environments. Bocca provides project management and a comprehensive build environment for creating and managing applications composed of Common Component Architecture components. Of critical importance for HPC applications, Bocca is designed to operate in a language-agnostic way, simultaneously handling components written in any of the common HPC workstation languages: C, C++, Fortran, Fortran77, Python, and Java. Bocca automates the tasks related to the component glue code, freeing the user to focus on the scientific aspects of the application. Bocca embraces the philosophy pioneered by Ruby Rails for web applications: Start with something that works and evolve it to the user's purpose.

  12. EXAFS and principal component analysis : a new shell game.

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserman, S.

    1998-10-28

    The use of principal component (factor) analysis in the analysis EXAFS spectra is described. The components derived from EXAFS spectra share mathematical properties with the original spectra. As a result, the abstract components can be analyzed using standard EXAFS methodology to yield the bond distances and other coordination parameters. The number of components that must be analyzed is usually less than the number of original spectra. The method is demonstrated using a series of spectra from aqueous solutions of uranyl ions.

  13. Discriminant Incoherent Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Georgakis, Christos; Panagakis, Yannis; Pantic, Maja

    2016-05-01

    Face images convey rich information which can be perceived as a superposition of low-complexity components associated with attributes, such as facial identity, expressions, and activation of facial action units (AUs). For instance, low-rank components characterizing neutral facial images are associated with identity, while sparse components capturing non-rigid deformations occurring in certain face regions reveal expressions and AU activations. In this paper, the discriminant incoherent component analysis (DICA) is proposed in order to extract low-complexity components, corresponding to facial attributes, which are mutually incoherent among different classes (e.g., identity, expression, and AU activation) from training data, even in the presence of gross sparse errors. To this end, a suitable optimization problem, involving the minimization of nuclear-and l1 -norm, is solved. Having found an ensemble of class-specific incoherent components by the DICA, an unseen (test) image is expressed as a group-sparse linear combination of these components, where the non-zero coefficients reveal the class(es) of the respective facial attribute(s) that it belongs to. The performance of the DICA is experimentally assessed on both synthetic and real-world data. Emphasis is placed on face analysis tasks, namely, joint face and expression recognition, face recognition under varying percentages of training data corruption, subject-independent expression recognition, and AU detection by conducting experiments on four data sets. The proposed method outperforms all the methods that are compared with all the tasks and experimental settings. PMID:27008268

  14. Discriminant Incoherent Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Georgakis, Christos; Panagakis, Yannis; Pantic, Maja

    2016-05-01

    Face images convey rich information which can be perceived as a superposition of low-complexity components associated with attributes, such as facial identity, expressions, and activation of facial action units (AUs). For instance, low-rank components characterizing neutral facial images are associated with identity, while sparse components capturing non-rigid deformations occurring in certain face regions reveal expressions and AU activations. In this paper, the discriminant incoherent component analysis (DICA) is proposed in order to extract low-complexity components, corresponding to facial attributes, which are mutually incoherent among different classes (e.g., identity, expression, and AU activation) from training data, even in the presence of gross sparse errors. To this end, a suitable optimization problem, involving the minimization of nuclear-and l1 -norm, is solved. Having found an ensemble of class-specific incoherent components by the DICA, an unseen (test) image is expressed as a group-sparse linear combination of these components, where the non-zero coefficients reveal the class(es) of the respective facial attribute(s) that it belongs to. The performance of the DICA is experimentally assessed on both synthetic and real-world data. Emphasis is placed on face analysis tasks, namely, joint face and expression recognition, face recognition under varying percentages of training data corruption, subject-independent expression recognition, and AU detection by conducting experiments on four data sets. The proposed method outperforms all the methods that are compared with all the tasks and experimental settings.

  15. GCS component development cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Jose A.; Macias, Rosa; Molgo, Jordi; Guerra, Dailos; Pi, Marti

    2012-09-01

    The GTC1 is an optical-infrared 10-meter segmented mirror telescope at the ORM observatory in Canary Islands (Spain). First light was at 13/07/2007 and since them it is in the operation phase. The GTC control system (GCS) is a distributed object & component oriented system based on RT-CORBA8 and it is responsible for the management and operation of the telescope, including its instrumentation. GCS has used the Rational Unified process (RUP9) in its development. RUP is an iterative software development process framework. After analysing (use cases) and designing (UML10) any of GCS subsystems, an initial component description of its interface is obtained and from that information a component specification is written. In order to improve the code productivity, GCS has adopted the code generation to transform this component specification into the skeleton of component classes based on a software framework, called Device Component Framework. Using the GCS development tools, based on javadoc and gcc, in only one step, the component is generated, compiled and deployed to be tested for the first time through our GUI inspector. The main advantages of this approach are the following: It reduces the learning curve of new developers and the development error rate, allows a systematic use of design patterns in the development and software reuse, speeds up the deliverables of the software product and massively increase the timescale, design consistency and design quality, and eliminates the future refactoring process required for the code.

  16. Scientific Software Component Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, S.; Dykman, N.; Kumfert, G.; Smolinski, B.

    2000-02-16

    We are developing new software component technology for high-performance parallel scientific computing to address issues of complexity, re-use, and interoperability for laboratory software. Component technology enables cross-project code re-use, reduces software development costs, and provides additional simulation capabilities for massively parallel laboratory application codes. The success of our approach will be measured by its impact on DOE mathematical and scientific software efforts. Thus, we are collaborating closely with library developers and application scientists in the Common Component Architecture forum, the Equation Solver Interface forum, and other DOE mathematical software groups to gather requirements, write and adopt a variety of design specifications, and develop demonstration projects to validate our approach. Numerical simulation is essential to the science mission at the laboratory. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to manage the complexity of modern simulation software. Computational scientists develop complex, three-dimensional, massively parallel, full-physics simulations that require the integration of diverse software packages written by outside development teams. Currently, the integration of a new software package, such as a new linear solver library, can require several months of effort. Current industry component technologies such as CORBA, JavaBeans, and COM have all been used successfully in the business domain to reduce software development costs and increase software quality. However, these existing industry component infrastructures will not scale to support massively parallel applications in science and engineering. In particular, they do not address issues related to high-performance parallel computing on ASCI-class machines, such as fast in-process connections between components, language interoperability for scientific languages such as Fortran, parallel data redistribution between components, and massively

  17. Evaluating Performance of Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Daniel; Tisdale, Edwin; Norton, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Parallel Component Performance Benchmarks is a computer program developed to aid the evaluation of the Common Component Architecture (CCA) - a software architecture, based on a component model, that was conceived to foster high-performance computing, including parallel computing. More specifically, this program compares the performances (principally by measuring computing times) of componentized versus conventional versions of the Parallel Pyramid 2D Adaptive Mesh Refinement library - a software library that is used to generate computational meshes for solving physical problems and that is typical of software libraries in use at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  18. Ceramic component for electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, David D.

    1979-01-01

    A ceramic component suitable for preparing MHD generator electrodes consists of HfO.sub.2 and sufficient Tb.sub.4 O.sub.7 to stabilize at least 60 volume percent of the HfO.sub.2 into the cubic structure. The ceramic component may also contain a small amount of PrO.sub.2, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 or a mixture of both to improve stability and electronic conductivity of the electrode. The component is highly resistant to corrosion by molten potassium seed and molten coal slag in the MHD fluid and exhibits both ionic and electronic conductivity.

  19. Component Fixturing Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kling, Daniel (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An end-configuration of components to be moved or positioned is first obtained. This end-configuration determines the relative positioning and orientation of the components with respect to each other when in a final, desired configuration. A folding pattern is then obtained that is formed by interior vertices defining corresponding tessellation facets. The folding pattern can be induced to transition from a first folded configuration to a second folded configuration. When in the second folded configuration mounting facets, which are a subset of the tessellation facets, are arranged by the geometry of the folding pattern into positions and orientations with respect to each other that correspond to the end-configuration of the components. A foldable structure is then obtained that folds in accordance with the folding pattern, and the components are affixed to their respective mounting facets.

  20. Structural materials and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, John (Inventor); Lee, Raymond (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High density structural (blocking) materials composed of a polyimide filled with glass microballoons and methods for making such materials. Structural components such as panels which have integral edgings and/or other parts made of the high density materials.

  1. Structural materials and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, John (Inventor); Lee, Raymond (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High density structural (blocking) materials composed of a polyimide filled with glass microballoons. Structural components such as panels which have integral edgings and/or other parts made of the high density materials.

  2. Structural materials and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, John (Inventor); Lee, Raymond (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    High density structural (blocking) materials composed of a polyimide filled with glass microballoons. Structural components such as panels which have integral edgings and/or other parts made of the high density materials.

  3. Develop a Model Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ensey, Tyler S.

    2013-01-01

    During my internship at NASA, I was a model developer for Ground Support Equipment (GSE). The purpose of a model developer is to develop and unit test model component libraries (fluid, electrical, gas, etc.). The models are designed to simulate software for GSE (Ground Special Power, Crew Access Arm, Cryo, Fire and Leak Detection System, Environmental Control System (ECS), etc. .) before they are implemented into hardware. These models support verifying local control and remote software for End-Item Software Under Test (SUT). The model simulates the physical behavior (function, state, limits and 110) of each end-item and it's dependencies as defined in the Subsystem Interface Table, Software Requirements & Design Specification (SRDS), Ground Integrated Schematic (GIS), and System Mechanical Schematic.(SMS). The software of each specific model component is simulated through MATLAB's Simulink program. The intensiv model development life cycle is a.s follows: Identify source documents; identify model scope; update schedule; preliminary design review; develop model requirements; update model.. scope; update schedule; detailed design review; create/modify library component; implement library components reference; implement subsystem components; develop a test script; run the test script; develop users guide; send model out for peer review; the model is sent out for verifictionlvalidation; if there is empirical data, a validation data package is generated; if there is not empirical data, a verification package is generated; the test results are then reviewed; and finally, the user. requests accreditation, and a statement of accreditation is prepared. Once each component model is reviewed and approved, they are intertwined together into one integrated model. This integrated model is then tested itself, through a test script and autotest, so that it can be concluded that all models work conjointly, for a single purpose. The component I was assigned, specifically, was a

  4. Component fragility research program

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, N.C.; Mochizuki, G.L.; Holman, G.S.; Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA )

    1989-11-01

    To demonstrate how high-level'' qualification test data can be used to estimate the ultimate seismic capacity of nuclear power plant equipment, we assessed in detail various electrical components tested by the Pacific Gas Electric Company for its Diablo Canyon plant. As part of our Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, we evaluated seismic fragility for five Diablo Canyon components: medium-voltage (4kV) switchgear; safeguard relay board; emergency light battery pack; potential transformer; and station battery and racks. This report discusses our Phase II fragility evaluation of a single Westinghouse Type W motor control center column, a fan cooler motor controller, and three local starters at the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. These components were seismically qualified by means of biaxial random motion tests on a shaker table, and the test response spectra formed the basis for the estimate of the seismic capacity of the components. The seismic capacity of each component is referenced to the zero period acceleration (ZPA) and, in our Phase II study only, to the average spectral acceleration (ASA) of the motion at its base. For the motor control center, the seismic capacity was compared to the capacity of a Westinghouse Five-Star MCC subjected to actual fragility tests by LLNL during the Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, and to generic capacities developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory for motor control center. Except for the medium-voltage switchgear, all of the components considered in both our Phase I and Phase II evaluations were qualified in their standard commercial configurations or with only relatively minor modifications such as top bracing of cabinets. 8 refs., 67 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Inelastic behavior of structural components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussain, N.; Khozeimeh, K.; Toridis, T. G.

    1980-01-01

    A more accurate procedure was developed for the determination of the inelastic behavior of structural components. The actual stress-strain curve for the mathematical of the structure was utilized to generate the force-deformation relationships for the structural elements, rather than using simplified models such as elastic-plastic, bilinear and trilinear approximations. relationships were generated for beam elements with various types of cross sections. In the generational of these curves, stress or load reversals, kinematic hardening and hysteretic behavior were taken into account. Intersections between loading and unloading branches were determined through an iterative process. Using the inelastic properties obtained, the plastic static response of some simple structural systems composed of beam elements was computed. Results were compared with known solutions, indicating a considerable improvement over response predictions obtained by means of simplified approximations used in previous investigations.

  6. IT Infrastructure Components for Biobanking

    PubMed Central

    Prokosch, H.U.; Beck, A.; Ganslandt, T.; Hummel, M.; Kiehntopf, M.; Sax, U.; Ückert, F.; Semler, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Within translational research projects in the recent years large biobanks have been established, mostly supported by homegrown, proprietary software solutions. No general requirements for biobanking IT infrastructures have been published yet. This paper presents an exemplary biobanking IT architecture, a requirements specification for a biorepository management tool and exemplary illustrations of three major types of requirements. Methods We have pursued a comprehensive literature review for biobanking IT solutions and established an interdisciplinary expert panel for creating the requirements specification. The exemplary illustrations were derived from a requirements analysis within two university hospitals. Results The requirements specification comprises a catalog with more than 130 detailed requirements grouped into 3 major categories and 20 subcategories. Special attention is given to multitenancy capabilities in order to support the project-specific definition of varying research and bio-banking contexts, the definition of workflows to track sample processing, sample transportation and sample storage and the automated integration of preanalytic handling and storage robots. Conclusion IT support for biobanking projects can be based on a federated architectural framework comprising primary data sources for clinical annotations, a pseudonymization service, a clinical data warehouse with a flexible and user-friendly query interface and a biorepository management system. Flexibility and scalability of all such components are vital since large medical facilities such as university hospitals will have to support biobanking for varying monocentric and multicentric research scenarios and multiple medical clients. PMID:23616851

  7. View factors between APT target components

    SciTech Connect

    Kidman, R.B.

    1998-07-01

    In a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in the accelerator production of tritium (APT) target/blanket, radiation heat transfer determines the temperature of the target components. Radiation heat-transfer analysis can only proceed if accurate component-to-component view factors are available. The authors describe and demonstrate the numerical method used to compute the view factors (also called angle factors, configuration factors, and shape factors) between complicated objects. The method is verified on simple objects that have analytic solutions, and then it is used to predict the view factors between the target components of the accelerator production of tritium target/blanket. The method is practical, easy to apply, and can accommodate difficult levels of realism.

  8. Scientific Component Technology Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, S; Bosl, B; Dahlgren, T; Kumfert, G; Smith, S

    2003-02-07

    The laboratory has invested a significant amount of resources towards the development of high-performance scientific simulation software, including numerical libraries, visualization, steering, software frameworks, and physics packages. Unfortunately, because this software was not designed for interoperability and re-use, it is often difficult to share these sophisticated software packages among applications due to differences in implementation language, programming style, or calling interfaces. This LDRD Strategic Initiative investigated and developed software component technology for high-performance parallel scientific computing to address problems of complexity, re-use, and interoperability for laboratory software. Component technology is an extension of scripting and object-oriented software development techniques that specifically focuses on the needs of software interoperability. Component approaches based on CORBA, COM, and Java technologies are widely used in industry; however, they do not support massively parallel applications in science and engineering. Our research focused on the unique requirements of scientific computing on ASCI-class machines, such as fast in-process connections among components, language interoperability for scientific languages, and data distribution support for massively parallel SPMD components.

  9. Encyclopedia of software components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanwarren, Lloyd (Inventor); Beckman, Brian C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Intelligent browsing through a collection of reusable software components is facilitated with a computer having a video monitor and a user input interface such as a keyboard or a mouse for transmitting user selections, by presenting a picture of encyclopedia volumes with respective visible labels referring to types of software, in accordance with a metaphor in which each volume includes a page having a list of general topics under the software type of the volume and pages having lists of software components for each one of the generic topics, altering the picture to open one of the volumes in response to an initial user selection specifying the one volume to display on the monitor a picture of the page thereof having the list of general topics and altering the picture to display the page thereof having a list of software components under one of the general topics in response to a next user selection specifying the one general topic, and then presenting a picture of a set of different informative plates depicting different types of information about one of the software components in response to a further user selection specifying the one component.

  10. Encyclopedia of Software Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Lloyd V. (Inventor); Beckman, Brian C. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Intelligent browsing through a collection of reusable software components is facilitated with a computer having a video monitor and a user input interface such as a keyboard or a mouse for transmitting user selections, by presenting a picture of encyclopedia volumes with respective visible labels referring to types of software, in accordance with a metaphor in which each volume includes a page having a list of general topics under the software type of the volume and pages having lists of software components for each one of the generic topics, altering the picture to open one of the volumes in response to an initial user selection specifying the one volume to display on the monitor a picture of the page thereof having the list of general topics and altering the picture to display the page thereof having a list of software components under one of the general topics in response to a next user selection specifying the one general topic, and then presenting a picture of a set of different informative plates depicting different types of information about one of the software components in response to a further user selection specifying the one component.

  11. On the anomalous component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potgieter, M. S.; Fisk, L. A.; Lee, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    The so-called anomalous cosmic ray component, which occurs at energies of about 10 MeV/nucleon and consists only of He, N, O, and Ne, has been a subject of interest for more than a decade. The origin of this component is generally considered to be interstellar neutral gas that is ionized and accelerated in the solar wind. The mechanism and the location for the acceleration, however, remains an unsolved problem. A model is used which includes the effects of gradient and curvature drifts and considers the implications of observed spatial gradients of the anomalous component for the location of the acceleration region. It is concluded that if drifts are important the acceleration region cannot lie at the solar poles. It is also concluded that there is no single region for the acceleration which can account for both the observed intensities and gradients in models which include drift effects.

  12. On Using the Average Intercorrelation Among Predictor Variables and Eigenvector Orientation to Choose a Regression Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mugrage, Beverly; And Others

    Three ridge regression solutions are compared with ordinary least squares regression and with principal components regression using all components. Ridge regression, particularly the Lawless-Wang solution, out-performed ordinary least squares regression and the principal components solution on the criteria of stability of coefficient and closeness…

  13. Blood Component Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kelton, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Human blood has been transfused for about 60-70 years. Over this time, the practice of blood transfusion has changed dramatically. One major change is the separation of blood into its various components. As a result, the patient can receive only the blood component in which he is deficient. In this way, the risk of side effects—particularly hepatitis—is lessened. This article briefly reviews the various blood products, the indications for their use, and some associated risks. These products include oxygen-carrying products, plasma products, blood products used to correct hemostatic defects, and immune globulin. PMID:21279096

  14. Ceramic component for electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, David D.; Bates, J. Lambert

    1980-01-01

    A ceramic component suitable for preparing MHD generator electrodes having the compositional formula: Y.sub.x (Mg.sub.y Cr.sub.z).sub.w Al.sub.(1-w) O.sub.3 where x=0.9 to 1.05, y=0.02 to 0.2, z=0.8 to 1.05 and w=1.0 to 0.5. The component is resistant to the formation of hydration products in an MHD environment, has good electrical conductivity and exhibits a lower electrochemical corrosion rate than do comparable compositions of lanthanum chromite.

  15. A component simulator architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bégin, M.-E.; Walsh, T.

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes the current state of our new component simulator architecture. This design is being developed at VEGA GmbH, by the Technology Group, within the Space Business Unit. This paper describes our overall component architecture and attempts to explain how it can be used by model developers and end-users. At the time of writing, it appears clear that a certain level of automation is required to increase the usability of the system. This automation is only briefly discussed here.

  16. Molecular Models Candy Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, William F.

    2007-01-01

    An explanation of various principles of chemistry in a paper by Fanny Ennever by the use of candy is described. The paper explains components of sucrose and the invert sugar that results from the hydrolysis of sucrose and will help students in determining whether the products are indeed hydrates of carbon.

  17. Revealing Optical Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Optical Vector Analyzer (OVA) 1550 significantly reduces the time and cost of testing sophisticated optical components. The technology grew from the research Luna Technologies' Dr. Mark Froggatt conducted on optical fiber strain measurement while working at Langley Research Center. Dr. Froggatt originally developed the technology for non- destructive evaluation testing at Langley. The new technique can provide 10,000 independent strain measurements while adding less than 10 grams to the weight of the vehicle. The OVA is capable of complete linear characterization of single-mode optical components used in high- bit-rate applications. The device can test most components over their full range in less than 30 seconds, compared to the more than 20 minutes required by other testing methods. The dramatically shortened measurement time results in increased efficiency in final acceptance tests of optical devices, and the comprehensive data produced by the instrument adds considerable value for component consumers. The device eliminates manufacturing bottlenecks, while reducing labor costs and wasted materials during production.

  18. Liquid rocket valve components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A monograph on valves for use with liquid rocket propellant engines is presented. The configurations of the various types of valves are described and illustrated. Design criteria and recommended practices for the various valves are explained. Tables of data are included to show the chief features of valve components in use on operational vehicles.

  19. Informed Test Component Weighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2001-01-01

    Identifies and evaluates alternative methods for weighting tests. Presents formulas for composite reliability and validity as a function of component weights and suggests a rational process that identifies and considers trade-offs in determining weights. Discusses drawbacks to implicit weighting and explicit weighting and the difficulty of…

  20. Demonstration of FRET in solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Sunil; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Chib, Rahul; Fudala, Rafal; Baxi, Aatmun; Borejdo, Julian; Synak, Anna; Gryczynski, Ignacy

    2016-03-01

    We measured the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from Uranin (U) donor to Rhodamine 101 (R101) acceptor in propylene glycol. Steady-state fluorescence measurements show a significant difference between mixed and unmixed fluorophore solutions. In the solution with mixed fluorophores, fluorescence intensity of the U donor decreases and intensity of R101 fluorescence increases. This is visualized as a color change from green to orange. Fluorescence anisotropy of the mixture solution increases in the donor emission wavelength region and decreases in the acceptor emission wavelengths; which is consistent with FRET occurrence. Time-resolved (lifetime) measurements show a decrease of the U lifetime in the presence of R101 acceptor. In the intensity decay of R101 acceptor appears a negative component indicating excited state process. All these measurements prove the presence of FRET in U/R101 mixture fluorescence.

  1. Developing a Model Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is,. responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) is a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The purpose of the UCTS is to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems s:luring their development. As an intern at KSC, my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (drier) to model in Matlab. The drier was a Catch All replaceable core type filter-drier. The filter-drier provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-drier also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink to help aid in my assignment. The filter-drier was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure, velocity and temperature of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my model filter-drier in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements.

  2. Developing a Model Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) was a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The initial purpose of the UCTS was to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The UCTS is designed with the capability of servicing future space vehicles; including all Space Station Requirements necessary for the MPLM Modules. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems during their development. As an intern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (dryer) to model in Simulink. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink. The dryer is a Catch All replaceable core type filter-dryer. The filter-dryer provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-dryer also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. The filter-dryer was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure and velocity of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my filter-dryer model in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements. I participated in Simulation meetings and was involved in the subsystem design process and team collaborations. I gained valuable work experience and insight into a career path as an engineer.

  3. Thermodynamics of Dilute Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancso, Gabor; Fenby, David V.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses principles and definitions related to the thermodynamics of dilute solutions. Topics considered include dilute solution, Gibbs-Duhem equation, reference systems (pure gases and gaseous mixtures, liquid mixtures, dilute solutions), real dilute solutions (focusing on solute and solvent), terminology, standard states, and reference systems.…

  4. Component-specific modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    A series of interdisciplinary modeling and analysis techniques that were specialized to address three specific hot section components are presented. These techniques will incorporate data as well as theoretical methods from many diverse areas including cycle and performance analysis, heat transfer analysis, linear and nonlinear stress analysis, and mission analysis. Building on the proven techniques already available in these fields, the new methods developed will be integrated into computer codes to provide an accurate, efficient and unified approach to analyzing combustor burner liners, hollow air-cooled turbine blades and air-cooled turbine vanes. For these components, the methods developed will predict temperature, deformation, stress and strain histories throughout a complete flight mission.

  5. Bacterial Cell Wall Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsberg, Cynthia; Brown, Stephanie; Walker, Suzanne

    Bacterial cell-surface polysaccharides cells are surrounded by a variety of cell-surface structures that allow them to thrive in extreme environments. Components of the cell envelope and extracellular matrix are responsible for providing the cells with structural support, mediating intercellular communication, allowing the cells to move or to adhere to surfaces, protecting the cells from attack by antibiotics or the immune system, and facilitating the uptake of nutrients. Some of the most important cell wall components are polysaccharide structures. This review discusses the occurrence, structure, function, and biosynthesis of the most prevalent bacterial cell surface polysaccharides: peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide, arabinogalactan, and lipoarabinomannan, and capsular and extracellular polysaccharides. The roles of these polysaccharides in medicine, both as drug targets and as therapeutic agents, are also described.

  6. Diffusion bonding aeroengine components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, G. A.; Broughton, T.

    1988-10-01

    The use of diffusion bonding processes at Rolls-Royce for the manufacture of titanium-alloy aircraft engine components and structures is described. A liquid-phase diffusion bonding process called activated diffusion bonding has been developed for the manufacture of the hollow titanium wide chord fan blade. In addition, solid-state diffusion bonding is being used in the manufacture of hollow vane/blade airfoil constructions mainly in conjunction with superplastic forming and hot forming techniques.

  7. Solid state lighting component

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Thomas; Keller, Bernd; Ibbetson, James; Tarsa, Eric; Negley, Gerald

    2010-10-26

    An LED component comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a planar surface of a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The LED chips comprise respective groups emitting at different colors of light, with each of the groups interconnected in a series circuit. A lens is included over the LED chips. Other embodiments can comprise thermal spreading structures included integral to the submount and arranged to dissipate heat from the LED chips.

  8. Solid state lighting component

    DOEpatents

    Keller, Bernd; Ibbetson, James; Tarsa, Eric; Negley, Gerald; Yuan, Thomas

    2012-07-10

    An LED component comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a planar surface of a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The LED chips comprise respective groups emitting at different colors of light, with each of the groups interconnected in a series circuit. A lens is included over the LED chips. Other embodiments can comprise thermal spreading structures included integral to the submount and arranged to dissipate heat from the LED chips.

  9. Component for thermoelectric generator

    DOEpatents

    Purdy, David L.

    1977-01-01

    In a thermoelectric generator, a component comprises a ceramic insulator, having over limited areas thereof, each area corresponding to a terminal end of thermoelectric wires, a coating of a first metal which adheres to the insulator, and an electrical thermoelectric junction including a second metal which wets said first metal and adheres to said terminal ends but does not wet said insulator, and a cloth composed of electrically insulating threads interlaced with thermoelectric wires.

  10. Injection molded component

    SciTech Connect

    James, Allister W; Arrell, Douglas J

    2014-09-30

    An intermediate component includes a first wall member, a leachable material layer, and a precursor wall member. The first wall member has an outer surface and first connecting structure. The leachable material layer is provided on the first wall member outer surface. The precursor wall member is formed adjacent to the leachable material layer from a metal powder mixed with a binder material, and includes second connecting structure.

  11. The Component-Based Application for GAMESS

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Fang

    2007-01-01

    GAMESS, a quantum chetnistry program for electronic structure calculations, has been freely shared by high-performance application scientists for over twenty years. It provides a rich set of functionalities and can be run on a variety of parallel platforms through a distributed data interface. While a chemistry computation is sophisticated and hard to develop, the resource sharing among different chemistry packages will accelerate the development of new computations and encourage the cooperation of scientists from universities and laboratories. Common Component Architecture (CCA) offers an enviromnent that allows scientific packages to dynamically interact with each other through components, which enable dynamic coupling of GAMESS with other chetnistry packages, such as MPQC and NWChem. Conceptually, a cotnputation can be constructed with "plug-and-play" components from scientific packages and require more than componentizing functions/subroutines of interest, especially for large-scale scientific packages with a long development history. In this research, we present our efforts to construct cotnponents for GAMESS that conform to the CCA specification. The goal is to enable the fine-grained interoperability between three quantum chemistry programs, GAMESS, MPQC and NWChem, via components. We focus on one of the three packages, GAMESS; delineate the structure of GAMESS computations, followed by our approaches to its component development. Then we use GAMESS as the driver to interoperate integral components from the other tw"o packages, arid show the solutions for interoperability problems along with preliminary results. To justify the versatility of the design, the Tuning and Analysis Utility (TAU) components have been coupled with GAMESS and its components, so that the performance of GAMESS and its components may be analyzed for a wide range of systetn parameters.

  12. Chondrites and Their Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Krot, A. N.

    Chondrites are extraordinary mixtures of materials with diverse origins that formed around other stars, in the solar nebula, and in their parent asteroids. Most chondrites were so severely altered by aqueous fluids, thermal metamorphism, and impacts that the original characteristics of their components have been largely erased. But a few pristine chondrites have preserved an exquisite mineralogical, chemical, isotopic, and chronological record of the first few million years of solar system history. The properties of diverse types of carbonaceous, ordinary, and enstatite chondrites focusing on the most pristine samples are reviewed to establish the chemical, isotopic, and mineralogical properties and origins of their components and to elucidate the asteroidal processes that modified them. Refractory inclusions - amoeboid olivine aggregates and Ca-Al-rich inclusions - were the first solids to form in the solar nebula near to the protosun. Chondrules and associated metallic Fe-Ni grains were still forming several million years later when the earliest planetesimals, which melted due to heat from 26Al decay, were colliding. In the least-altered chondrites, matrix material, which coats chondrules and other components, is largely composed of micrometer-sized silicates and amorphous materials, which formed at high temperatures, plus small amounts (up to 200 ppm) of presolar oxides and silicates.

  13. Surface mount component jig

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1990-08-07

    A device for bending and trimming the pins of a dual-inline-package component and the like for surface mounting rather than through mounting to a circuit board comprises, in a first part, in pin cutter astride a holder having a recess for holding the component, a first spring therebetween, and, in a second part, two flat members pivotally interconnected by a hinge and urged to an upward peaked position from a downward peaked position by a second spring. As a downward force is applied to the pin cutter it urges the holder downward, assisted by the first spring and a pair of ridges riding on shoulders of the holder, to carry the component against the upward peaked flat members which guide the pins outwardly. As the holder continues downwardly, the flat members pivot to the downward peaked position bending the pins upwardly against the sides of the holder. When the downward movement is met with sufficient resistance, the ridges of the pin cutter ride over the holder's shoulders to continue downward to cut any excess length of pin.

  14. Energetic component treatability study

    SciTech Connect

    Gildea, P.D.; Brandon, S.L.; Brown, B.G.

    1997-11-01

    The effectiveness of three environmentally sound processes for small energetic component disposal was examined experimentally in this study. The three destruction methods, batch reactor supercritical water oxidation, sodium hydroxide base hydrolysis and calcium carbonate cookoff were selected based on their potential for producing a clean solid residue and minimum release of toxic gases after component detonation. The explosive hazard was destroyed by all three processes. Batch supercritical water oxidation destroyed both the energetics and organics. Further development is desired to optimize process parameters. Sodium hydroxide base hydrolysis and calcium carbonate cookoff results indicated the potential for scrubbing gaseous detonation products. Further study and testing are needed to quantify the effectiveness of these later two processes for full-scale munition destruction. The preliminary experiments completed in this study have demonstrated the promise of these three processes as environmentally sound technologies for energetic component destruction. Continuation of these experimental programs is strongly recommended to optimize batch supercritical water oxidation processing, and to fully develop the sodium hydroxide base hydrolysis and calcium carbonate cookoff technologies.

  15. Artificial polarization components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cescato, L.; Gluch, Ekkehard; Stork, Wilhelm; Streibl, Norbert

    1990-07-01

    High frequency surface relief structures are optically anisotropic and show interesting polarisation properties 1 . These properties can be used to produce polarizations components such as wave plates polarizers. polarizing beamsplitters etc. Our experimental results show that even gratings with relatively low spatial frequency ( periods A ) exhibit a strong phase retardation and can be used as quarter-wave plates. k INTRODUC11ON The artificial birefringence exhibited by ultrahigh frequency gratings of dielectric materials can be used to produce various polarization components2 . Such components have applications in integrated optics as well as in free space optics. In order to produce the high spatial frequencies complex processes such as electron-beam lithography and reactive ion etching are needed. We show in this paper that sinusoidal holographic gratings in photoresist exhibit also a strong phase ret even at relatively long periods. L EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS To obtain the phase retardation of a lower frequency ( period A ) grating a simple setup as used by Enger and 2 can be applied. In our case however there are three measurements necessary to obtain the phase retardation because transmission of the two perpendicularly polarized beams is different from each other. I GRATING PRODUCTION grating 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 period (pmj 0. 74 0. 74 0. 61 0. 54 0. 46 0. 32 0. 54 0. 54 0. 54 ne (sec) 60

  16. Variance Components: Partialled vs. Common.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Ervin W.

    1985-01-01

    A new approach to partialling components is used. Like conventional partialling, this approach orthogonalizes variables by partitioning the scores or observations. Unlike conventional partialling, it yields a common component and two unique components. (Author/GDC)

  17. Advanced Power Electronics Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will give a description and status of the Advanced Power Electronics Materials and Components Technology program being conducted by the NASA Glenn Research Center for future aerospace power applications. The focus of this research program is on the following: 1) New and/or significantly improved dielectric materials for the development of power capacitors with increased volumetric efficiency, energy density, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and composite ceramic dielectrics and diamond-like carbon films; 2) New and/or significantly improved high frequency, high temperature, low loss soft magnetic materials for the development of transformers/inductors with increased power/energy density, electrical efficiency, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and nanocomposite soft magnetic materials; 3) Packaged high temperature, high power density, high voltage, and low loss SiC diodes and switches. Development of high quality 4H- and 6H- SiC atomically smooth substrates to significantly improve device performance is a major emphasis of the SiC materials program; 4) Demonstration of high temperature (> 200 C) circuits using the components developed above.

  18. Lifing of Engine Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The successful development of advanced aerospace engines depends greatly on the capabilities of high performance materials and structures. Advanced materials, such as nickel based single crystal alloys, metal foam, advanced copper alloys, and ceramics matrix composites, have been engineered to provide higher engine temperature and stress capabilities. Thermal barrier coatings have been developed to improve component durability and fuel efficiency, by reducing the substrate hot wall metal temperature and protecting against oxidation and blanching. However, these coatings are prone to oxidation and delamination failures. In order to implement the use of these materials in advanced engines, it is necessary to understand and model the evolution of damage of the metal substrate as well as the coating under actual engine conditions. The models and the understanding of material behavior are utilized in the development of a life prediction methodology for hot section components. The research activities were focused on determining the stress and strain fields in an engine environment under combined thermo-mechanical loads to develop life prediction methodologies consistent with the observed damage formation of the coating and the substrates.

  19. Laser generating metallic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, Marc A.; Shannon, G. J.; Steen, William M.

    1997-04-01

    Recent developments in rapid prototyping have led to the concept of laser generating, the first additive manufacturing technology. This paper presents an innovative process of depositing multi-layer tracks, by fusing successive powder tracks, to generate three dimensional components, thereby offering an alternative to casting for small metal component manufacture. A coaxial nozzle assembly has been designed and manufactured enabling consistent omni-directional multi-layer deposition. In conjunction with this the software route from a CAD drawing to machine code generation has been established. The part is manufactured on a six axes machining center incorporating a 1.8 kW carbon-dioxide laser, providing an integrated opto-mechanical workstation. The part build-up program is controlled by a P150 host computer, linked directly to the DNC machining center. The direct manufacturing route is shown, including initial examples of simple objects (primitives -- cube, cylinder, cone) leading to more complex turbine blade generation, incorporating build-up techniques and the associated mechanical properties.

  20. Interactions between photodegradation components

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The interactions of p-cresol photocatalytic degradation components were studied by response surface methodology. The study was designed by central composite design using the irradiation time, pH, the amount of photocatalyst and the p-cresol concentration as variables. The design was performed to obtain photodegradation % as actual responses. The actual responses were fitted with linear, two factor interactions, cubic and quadratic model to select an appropriate model. The selected model was validated by analysis of variance which provided evidences such as high F-value (845.09), very low P-value (<.0.0001), non-significant lack of fit, the coefficient of R-squared (R2 = 0.999), adjusted R-squared (Radj2 = 0.998), predicted R-squared (Rpred2 = 0.994) and the adequate precision (95.94). Results From the validated model demonstrated that the component had interaction with irradiation time under 180 min of the time while the interaction with pH was above pH 9. Moreover, photocatalyst and p-cresol had interaction at minimal amount of photocatalyst (< 0.8 g/L) and 100 mg/L p-cresol. Conclusion These variables are interdependent and should be simultaneously considered during the photodegradation process, which is one of the advantages of the response surface methodology over the traditional laboratory method. PMID:22967885

  1. One-component nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Su, Hao; Koo, Jin Mo; Cui, Honggang

    2015-12-10

    One-component nanomedicine (OCN) represents an emerging class of therapeutic nanostructures that contain only one type of chemical substance. This one-component feature allows for fine-tuning and optimization of the drug loading and physicochemical properties of nanomedicine in a precise manner through molecular engineering of the underlying building blocks. Using a precipitation procedure or effective molecular assembly strategies, molecularly crafted therapeutic agents (e.g. polymer-drug conjugates, small molecule prodrugs, or drug amphiphiles) could involuntarily aggregate, or self-assemble into nanoscale objects of well-defined sizes and shapes. Unlike traditional carrier-based nanomedicines that are inherently multicomponent systems, an OCN does not require the use of additional carriers and could itself possess desired physicochemical features for preferential accumulation at target sites. We review here recent progress in the molecular design, conjugation methods, and fabrication strategies of OCN, and analyze the opportunities that this emerging platform could open for the new and improved treatment of devastating diseases such as cancer.

  2. Communities of solutions in single solution clusters of a random K -satisfiability formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haijun; Ma, Hui

    2009-12-01

    The solution space of a K -satisfiability (K-SAT) formula is a collection of solution clusters, each of which contains all the solutions that are mutually reachable through a sequence of single-spin flips. Knowledge of the statistical property of solution clusters is valuable for a complete understanding of the solution space structure and the computational complexity of the random K-SAT problem. This paper explores single solution clusters of random 3- and 4-SAT formulas through unbiased and biased random-walk processes and the replica-symmetric cavity method of statistical physics. We find that the giant connected component of the solution space has already formed many different communities when the constraint density of the formula is still lower than the solution space clustering transition point. Solutions of the same community are more similar with each other and more densely connected with each other than with the other solutions. The entropy density of a solution community is calculated using belief propagation and is found to be different for different communities of the same cluster. When the constraint density is beyond the clustering transition point, the same behavior is observed for the solution clusters reached by several stochastic search algorithms. Taking together, the results of this work suggest a refined picture on the evolution of the solution space structure of the random K-SAT problem; they may also be helpful for designing heuristic algorithms.

  3. Communities of solutions in single solution clusters of a random K-satisfiability formula.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haijun; Ma, Hui

    2009-12-01

    The solution space of a K-satisfiability (K-SAT) formula is a collection of solution clusters, each of which contains all the solutions that are mutually reachable through a sequence of single-spin flips. Knowledge of the statistical property of solution clusters is valuable for a complete understanding of the solution space structure and the computational complexity of the random K-SAT problem. This paper explores single solution clusters of random 3- and 4-SAT formulas through unbiased and biased random-walk processes and the replica-symmetric cavity method of statistical physics. We find that the giant connected component of the solution space has already formed many different communities when the constraint density of the formula is still lower than the solution space clustering transition point. Solutions of the same community are more similar with each other and more densely connected with each other than with the other solutions. The entropy density of a solution community is calculated using belief propagation and is found to be different for different communities of the same cluster. When the constraint density is beyond the clustering transition point, the same behavior is observed for the solution clusters reached by several stochastic search algorithms. Taking together, the results of this work suggest a refined picture on the evolution of the solution space structure of the random K-SAT problem; they may also be helpful for designing heuristic algorithms. PMID:20365232

  4. Process management using component thermal-hydraulic function classes

    DOEpatents

    Morman, J.A.; Wei, T.Y.C.; Reifman, J.

    1999-07-27

    A process management expert system where following malfunctioning of a component, such as a pump, for determining system realignment procedures such as for by-passing the malfunctioning component with on-line speeds to maintain operation of the process at full or partial capacity or to provide safe shut down of the system while isolating the malfunctioning component. The expert system uses thermal-hydraulic function classes at the component level for analyzing unanticipated as well as anticipated component malfunctions to provide recommended sequences of operator actions. Each component is classified according to its thermal-hydraulic function, and the generic and component-specific characteristics for that function. Using the diagnosis of the malfunctioning component and its thermal hydraulic class, the expert system analysis is carried out using generic thermal-hydraulic first principles. One aspect of the invention employs a qualitative physics-based forward search directed primarily downstream from the malfunctioning component in combination with a subsequent backward search directed primarily upstream from the serviced component. Generic classes of components are defined in the knowledge base according to the three thermal-hydraulic functions of mass, momentum and energy transfer and are used to determine possible realignment of component configurations in response to thermal-hydraulic function imbalance caused by the malfunctioning component. Each realignment to a new configuration produces the accompanying sequence of recommended operator actions. All possible new configurations are examined and a prioritized list of acceptable solutions is produced. 5 figs.

  5. Process management using component thermal-hydraulic function classes

    DOEpatents

    Morman, James A.; Wei, Thomas Y. C.; Reifman, Jaques

    1999-01-01

    A process management expert system where following malfunctioning of a component, such as a pump, for determining system realignment procedures such as for by-passing the malfunctioning component with on-line speeds to maintain operation of the process at full or partial capacity or to provide safe shut down of the system while isolating the malfunctioning component. The expert system uses thermal-hydraulic function classes at the component level for analyzing unanticipated as well as anticipated component malfunctions to provide recommended sequences of operator actions. Each component is classified according to its thermal-hydraulic function, and the generic and component-specific characteristics for that function. Using the diagnosis of the malfunctioning component and its thermal hydraulic class, the expert system analysis is carried out using generic thermal-hydraulic first principles. One aspect of the invention employs a qualitative physics-based forward search directed primarily downstream from the malfunctioning component in combination with a subsequent backward search directed primarily upstream from the serviced component. Generic classes of components are defined in the knowledge base according to the three thermal-hydraulic functions of mass, momentum and energy transfer and are used to determine possible realignment of component configurations in response to thermal-hydraulic function imbalance caused by the malfunctioning component. Each realignment to a new configuration produces the accompanying sequence of recommended operator actions. All possible new configurations are examined and a prioritized list of acceptable solutions is produced.

  6. The HIPPARCOS Double and Multiple Star Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignard, F.

    The Hipparcos catalogue provides general astrometric and photometric information on double and multiple stars in specific fields of the main catalogue and detailed data on the components in the various sections of a dedicated annex: the Double and Multiple Systems Annex (DMSA). Overall statistics of these solutions are presented for the 13,211 entries of this annex and the different types of solutions are outlined.

  7. Component failure data handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Gentillon, C.D.

    1991-04-01

    This report presents generic component failure rates that are used in reliability and risk studies of commercial nuclear power plants. The rates are computed using plant-specific data from published probabilistic risk assessments supplemented by selected other sources. Each data source is described. For rates with four or more separate estimates among the sources, plots show the data that are combined. The method for combining data from different sources is presented. The resulting aggregated rates are listed with upper bounds that reflect the variability observed in each rate across the nuclear power plant industry. Thus, the rates are generic. Both per hour and per demand rates are included. They may be used for screening in risk assessments or for forming distributions to be updated with plant-specific data.

  8. Sprayed skin turbine component

    DOEpatents

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  9. [Donation of blood components].

    PubMed

    Ladrón Llorente, Yolanda; Rández Alvero, Mónica; Carrascosa Ridruejo, Ana Isabel; Bregua García, Judith; Blanco Sotés, Carmelo; Calavia Lacarra, Jesús

    2004-06-01

    The donation of blood by means of aphaeresis by means of a cellular separator is a procedure through which one obtains blood components in the most efficient manner, yielding the best quality in the final product although this procedure requires special characteristics on behalf of the donor and consequently has a higher cost. The authors have analyzed the characteristics of 81 donors who used this procedure and who voluntarily came to our blood bank over a 17 month period from January 2002 until May 2003; 287 such procedures were carried out. The quality of the product obtained, as a benefit for the possible receptor, compensates the greater dedication by the donor and the high cost of this technique.

  10. Materials Data on NaCe5S8 (SG:82) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  11. Dislocation dynamics in solid solutions of covalent crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petukhov, B. V.

    2016-09-01

    The dislocation mechanism of solid solution strengthening of covalent semiconductor crystals has been studied. The change in the regularities of dislocation dynamics in solid solutions from those in the components of the solution is connected with the manifestation of the nonlinear drift of dislocation kinks. The theory developed suggests an explanation of specificities of the dislocation mobility in a Ge1- c Si c solid solution.

  12. CO component estimation based on the independent component analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Kaji, Ryohei; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.; Fukui, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Fast Independent Component Analysis (FastICA) is a component separation algorithm based on the levels of non-Gaussianity. Here we apply FastICA to the component separation problem of the microwave background, including carbon monoxide (CO) line emissions that are found to contaminate the PLANCK High Frequency Instrument (HFI) data. Specifically, we prepare 100 GHz, 143 GHz, and 217 GHz mock microwave sky maps, which include galactic thermal dust, NANTEN CO line, and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) emissions, and then estimate the independent components based on the kurtosis. We find that FastICA can successfully estimate the CO component as the first independent component in our deflection algorithm because its distribution has the largest degree of non-Gaussianity among the components. Thus, FastICA can be a promising technique to extract CO-like components without prior assumptions about their distributions and frequency dependences.

  13. Filter Component Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Lippert, T.E.; Diaz, E.S.; Smeltzer, E.E.

    1996-12-31

    Advanced particulate filtration systems are currently being developed at Westinghouse for use in both coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems. To date, Westinghouse has demonstrated 5855 hours of successful operation of first generation monolithic filter elements in PFBC applications when ash bridging or process thermal transient excursions are avoided. Alternate advanced monolithic and second generation fiber reinforced, filament wound and vacuum infiltrated filters are also being developed which are considered to have enhanced high temperature creep resistance, improved fracture toughness, or enhanced thermal shock characteristics, respectively. Mechanical and component fabrication improvements, as well as degradation mechanisms for each filter element have been identified by Westinghouse during exposure to simulated PFBC operating conditions and alkali-containing steam/air environments. Additional effort is currently being focused on determining the stability of the advanced monolithic high temperature creep resistant clay bonded silicon carbide (SiC) materials, alumina/mullite, and chemically vapor infiltrated (CVI) SiC materials during operation in the Westinghouse Advanced Particulate Filtration (W-APF) system at Foster Wheeler`s pressurized circulating fluidized-bed combustion (PCFBC) test facility in Karhula, Finland. Select advanced filter materials are being defined for additional long-term exposure in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) gas streams. The results of these efforts are summarized in this paper. 6 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Performance Engineering Technology for Scientific Component Software

    SciTech Connect

    Malony, Allen D.

    2007-05-08

    Large-scale, complex scientific applications are beginning to benefit from the use of component software design methodology and technology for software development. Integral to the success of component-based applications is the ability to achieve high-performing code solutions through the use of performance engineering tools for both intra-component and inter-component analysis and optimization. Our work on this project aimed to develop performance engineering technology for scientific component software in association with the DOE CCTTSS SciDAC project (active during the contract period) and the broader Common Component Architecture (CCA) community. Our specific implementation objectives were to extend the TAU performance system and Program Database Toolkit (PDT) to support performance instrumentation, measurement, and analysis of CCA components and frameworks, and to develop performance measurement and monitoring infrastructure that could be integrated in CCA applications. These objectives have been met in the completion of all project milestones and in the transfer of the technology into the continuing CCA activities as part of the DOE TASCS SciDAC2 effort. In addition to these achievements, over the past three years, we have been an active member of the CCA Forum, attending all meetings and serving in several working groups, such as the CCA Toolkit working group, the CQoS working group, and the Tutorial working group. We have contributed significantly to CCA tutorials since SC'04, hosted two CCA meetings, participated in the annual ACTS workshops, and were co-authors on the recent CCA journal paper [24]. There are four main areas where our project has delivered results: component performance instrumentation and measurement, component performance modeling and optimization, performance database and data mining, and online performance monitoring. This final report outlines the achievements in these areas for the entire project period. The submitted progress

  15. Contact Lens Solution Toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Contact Lens Solution Toxicity Information for adults A A A This image shows a reaction to contact lens solution. The prominent blood vessels and redness ...

  16. The Orthotran Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmann, Richard J.

    1978-01-01

    A computational algorithm, called the orthotran solution, is developed for determining oblique factor analytic solutions utilizing orthogonal transformation matrices. Selected results from illustrative studies are provided. (Author/JKS)

  17. Food components and caries.

    PubMed

    Bowen, W H

    1994-07-01

    For many decades, sugars have been the dietary constituents receiving the most attention in relation to their effects on dental caries. Frequently, however, there is little relationship between the amount of sugar in a food and its ability to induce caries. Therefore, it is clear that constituents in the diet can influence the ability of plaque to lower the pH of sugar solutions. For instance, replacing sugar in foods with xylitol, sorbitol, saccharin, or aspartame may lead to a reduction in the incidence of dental caries. All these sugar substitutes are non-cariogenic, and some may possess cariostatic properties. The presence of arginine-rich proteins in the diet may provide a ready source of this amino acid, which is the substrate for the arginine deiminase pathway which can result in a rapid elevation of plaque pH values. Proline can act as an acceptor for protons from lactate in the Stickland reaction. This is a major but much-neglected metabolic pathway in dental plaque. The presence of fat in experimental diets has been shown to affect their cariogenicity. The effects have been ascribed to enhanced clearance of sugars from the mouth. It is also conceivable that several fatty acids express a potent antibacterial effect. The presence of calcium and phosphorus has been shown to influence the cariogenicity of foods; the effect, however, is restricted to the food containing the minerals. Evidence suggests that pyridoxine (vitamin B6) may exert a cariostatic effect by enhancing decarboxylation activity in dental plaque. It is clear that sugar alone is not the sole determinant of whether food is cariogenic. Furthermore, myriad substances may hinder or enhance the caries-promoting properties of sugars in the diet.

  18. PFP solution stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Aftanas, B.L.

    1996-04-30

    This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) addresses remediation of the plutonium-bearing solutions currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The recommendation from the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is that the solutions be treated thermally and stabilized as a solid for long term storage. For solutions which are not discardable, the baseline plan is to utilize a denitration process to stabilize the solutions prior to packaging for storage.

  19. Notch Signaling Components

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi-Yan; Wu, Tao; Li, Qing; Wang, Min-Cong; Jing, Li; Ruan, Zhi-Ping; Yao, Yu; Nan, Ke-Jun; Guo, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a lethal and aggressive malignancy. Currently, the identities of prognostic and predictive makers of NSCLC have not been fully established. Dysregulated Notch signaling has been implicated in many human malignancies, including NSCLC. However, the prognostic value of measuring Notch signaling and the utility of developing Notch-targeted therapies in NSCLC remain inconclusive. The present study investigated the association of individual Notch receptor and ligand levels with lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) prognosis using the Kaplan-Meier plotte database. This online database encompasses 2437 lung cancer samples. Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The results showed that higher Notch1, Notch2, JAG1, and DLL1 mRNA expression predicted better overall survival (OS) in lung ADC, but showed no significance in SCC patients. Elevated Notch3, JAG2, and DLL3 mRNA expression was associated with poor OS of ADC patients, but not in SCC patients. There was no association between Notch4 and OS in either lung ADC or SCC patients. In conclusion, the set of Notch1, Notch2, JAG1, DLL1 and that of Notch3, JAG2, DLL3 played opposing prognostic roles in lung ADC patients. Neither set of Notch receptors and ligands was indicative of lung SCC prognosis. Notch signaling could serve as promising marker to predict outcomes in lung ADC patients. The distinct features of lung cancer subtypes and Notch components should be considered when developing future Notch-targeted therapies. PMID:27196489

  20. GOATS - Orbitology Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haber, Benjamin M.; Green, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    The GOATS Orbitology Component software was developed to specifically address the concerns presented by orbit analysis tools that are often written as stand-alone applications. These applications do not easily interface with standard JPL first-principles analysis tools, and have a steep learning curve due to their complicated nature. This toolset is written as a series of MATLAB functions, allowing seamless integration into existing JPL optical systems engineering modeling and analysis modules. The functions are completely open, and allow for advanced users to delve into and modify the underlying physics being modeled. Additionally, this software module fills an analysis gap, allowing for quick, high-level mission analysis trades without the need for detailed and complicated orbit analysis using commercial stand-alone tools. This software consists of a series of MATLAB functions to provide for geometric orbit-related analysis. This includes propagation of orbits to varying levels of generalization. In the simplest case, geosynchronous orbits can be modeled by specifying a subset of three orbit elements. The next case is a circular orbit, which can be specified by a subset of four orbit elements. The most general case is an arbitrary elliptical orbit specified by all six orbit elements. These orbits are all solved geometrically, under the basic problem of an object in circular (or elliptical) orbit around a rotating spheroid. The orbit functions output time series ground tracks, which serve as the basis for more detailed orbit analysis. This software module also includes functions to track the positions of the Sun, Moon, and arbitrary celestial bodies specified by right ascension and declination. Also included are functions to calculate line-of-sight geometries to ground-based targets, angular rotations and decompositions, and other line-of-site calculations. The toolset allows for the rapid execution of orbit trade studies at the level of detail required for the

  1. Definition of Contravariant Velocity Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-moa; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we have reviewed the basics of tensor analysis in an attempt to clarify some misconceptions regarding contravariant and covariant vector components as used in fluid dynamics. We have indicated that contravariant components are components of a given vector expressed as a unique combination of the covariant base vector system and, vice versa, that the covariant components are components of a vector expressed with the contravariant base vector system. Mathematically, expressing a vector with a combination of base vector is a decomposition process for a specific base vector system. Hence, the contravariant velocity components are decomposed components of velocity vector along the directions of coordinate lines, with respect to the covariant base vector system. However, the contravariant (and covariant) components are not physical quantities. Their magnitudes and dimensions are controlled by their corresponding covariant (and contravariant) base vectors.

  2. Thermodynamics of feldspathoid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sack, Richard O.; Ghiorso, Mark S.

    We have developed models for the thermody-namic properties of nephelines, kalsilites, and leucites in the simple system NaAlSiO4-KAlSiO4-Ca0.5AlSiO4-SiO2-H2O that are consistent with all known constraints on subsolidus equilibria and thermodynamic properties, and have integrated them into the existing MELTS software package. The model for nepheline is formulated for the simplifying assumptions that (1) a molecular mixing-type approximation describes changes in the configurational entropy associated with the coupled exchange substitutions □Si?NaAl and □Ca? Na2 and that (2) Na+ and K+ display long-range non-convergent ordering between a large cation and the three small cation sites in the Na4Al4Si4O16 formula unit. Notable features of the model include the prediction that the mineral tetrakalsilite (``panunzite'', sensu stricto) results from anti-ordering of Na and K between the large cation and the three small cation sites in the nepheline structure at high temperatures, an average dT/dP slope of about 55°/kbar for the reaction over the temperature and pressure ranges 800-1050 °C and 500-5000 bars, roughly symmetric (i.e. quadratic) solution behavior of the K-Na substitution along joins between fully ordered components in nepheline, and large positive Gibbs energies for the nepheline reciprocal reactions and and for the leucite reciprocal reaction

  3. Cooling system for electronic components

    DOEpatents

    Anderl, William James; Colgan, Evan George; Gerken, James Dorance; Marroquin, Christopher Michael; Tian, Shurong

    2016-05-17

    Embodiments of the present invention provide for non interruptive fluid cooling of an electronic enclosure. One or more electronic component packages may be removable from a circuit card having a fluid flow system. When installed, the electronic component packages are coincident to and in a thermal relationship with the fluid flow system. If a particular electronic component package becomes non-functional, it may be removed from the electronic enclosure without affecting either the fluid flow system or other neighboring electronic component packages.

  4. Cooling system for electronic components

    SciTech Connect

    Anderl, William James; Colgan, Evan George; Gerken, James Dorance; Marroquin, Christopher Michael; Tian, Shurong

    2015-12-15

    Embodiments of the present invention provide for non interruptive fluid cooling of an electronic enclosure. One or more electronic component packages may be removable from a circuit card having a fluid flow system. When installed, the electronic component packages are coincident to and in a thermal relationship with the fluid flow system. If a particular electronic component package becomes non-functional, it may be removed from the electronic enclosure without affecting either the fluid flow system or other neighboring electronic component packages.

  5. Evolving Systems and Adaptive Key Component Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Balas, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new framework called Evolving Systems to describe the self-assembly, or autonomous assembly, of actively controlled dynamical subsystems into an Evolved System with a higher purpose. An introduction to Evolving Systems and exploration of the essential topics of the control and stability properties of Evolving Systems is provided. This chapter defines a framework for Evolving Systems, develops theory and control solutions for fundamental characteristics of Evolving Systems, and provides illustrative examples of Evolving Systems and their control with adaptive key component controllers.

  6. Two-component Bose-Einstein condensates in periodic potential.

    PubMed

    Kostov, N A; Enol'skii, V Z; Gerdjikov, V S; Konotop, V V; Salerno, M

    2004-11-01

    Coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (CNLS) equations with an external elliptic function potential model with high accuracy a quasi-one-dimensional interacting two-component Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) trapped in a standing wave generated by a few laser beams. The construction of stationary solutions of the two-component CNLS equation with a periodic potential is detailed and their stability properties are studied by direct numerical simulations. Some of these solutions allow reduction to the Manakov system. From a physical point of view the trivial phase solutions can be interpreted as exact Bloch states at the edge of the Brillouin zone. Some of them are stable while others are found to be unstable against weak modulations of long wavelength. By numerical simulations it is shown that the modulationally unstable solutions lead to the formation of localized ground states of the coupled BEC system.

  7. Deuterium incorporation in biomass cell wall components by NMR analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Foston, Marcus B; McGaughey, Joseph; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Evans, Barbara R; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2012-01-01

    A commercially available deuterated kale sample was analyzed for deuterium incorporation by ionic liquid solution 2H and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). This protocol was found to effectively measure the percent deuterium incorporation at 33%, comparable to the 31% value determined by combustion. The solution NMR technique also suggested by a qualitative analysis that deuterium is preferentially incorporated into the carbohydrate components of the kale sample.

  8. Multi-component generalization of the Camassa-Holm equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Baoqiang; Qiao, Zhijun

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a multi-component system of the Camassa-Holm equation, denoted by CH(N , H), with 2 N components and an arbitrary smooth function H. This system is shown to admit Lax pair and infinitely many conservation laws. We particularly study the case N = 2 and derive the bi-Hamiltonian structures and peaked soliton (peakon) solutions for some examples.

  9. DIRAC: a community grid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Bargiotti, M.; Brook, N.; Ramo, A. C.; Castellani, G.; Charpentier, P.; Cioffi, C.; Closier, J.; Diaz, R. G.; Kuznetsov, G.; Li, Y. Y.; Nandakumar, R.; Paterson, S.; Santinelli, R.; Smith, A. C.; Miguelez, M. S.; Jimenez, S. G.

    2008-07-01

    The DIRAC system was developed in order to provide a complete solution for using the distributed computing resources of the LHCb experiment at CERN for data production and analysis. It allows a concurrent use of over 10K CPUs and 10M file replicas distributed over many tens of sites. The sites can be part of a Computing Grid such as WLCG or standalone computing clusters all integrated in a single management structure. DIRAC is a generic system with the LHCb specific functionality incorporated through a number of plug-in modules. It can be easily adapted to the needs of other communities. Special attention is paid to the resilience of the DIRAC components to allow an efficient use of non-reliable resources. The DIRAC production management components provide a framework for building highly automated data production systems including data distribution and data driven workload scheduling. In this paper we give an overview of the DIRAC system architecture and design choices. We show how different components are put together to compose an integrated data processing system including all the aspects of the LHCb experiment - from the MC production and raw data reconstruction to the final user analysis.

  10. Solution deposition assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Roussillon, Yann; Scholz, Jeremy H; Shelton, Addison; Green, Geoff T; Utthachoo, Piyaphant

    2014-01-21

    Methods and devices are provided for improved deposition systems. In one embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system is provided for use with a solution and a substrate. The system comprises of a solution deposition apparatus; at least one heating chamber, at least one assembly for holding a solution over the substrate; and a substrate curling apparatus for curling at least one edge of the substrate to define a zone capable of containing a volume of the solution over the substrate. In another embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system for use with a substrate, the system comprising a solution deposition apparatus; at heating chamber; and at least assembly for holding solution over the substrate to allow for a depth of at least about 0.5 microns to 10 mm.

  11. Joint Procrustes Analysis for Simultaneous Nonsingular Transformation of Component Score and Loading Matrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adachi, Kohei

    2009-01-01

    In component analysis solutions, post-multiplying a component score matrix by a nonsingular matrix can be compensated by applying its inverse to the corresponding loading matrix. To eliminate this indeterminacy on nonsingular transformation, we propose Joint Procrustes Analysis (JPA) in which component score and loading matrices are simultaneously…

  12. Topical diclofenac solution.

    PubMed

    Moen, Marit D

    2009-01-01

    Topical diclofenac solution (Pennsaid) is a liquid formulation containing the NSAID diclofenac sodium (1.5% w/w). The solution base contains 45% w/w dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to enhance the absorption of diclofenac through the skin. Topical diclofenac solution is applied directly to the knee for treatment of symptoms associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. In well designed 4- to 12-week trials in patients with primary osteoarthritis of the knee, topical diclofenac solution (40 drops four times daily) was significantly more effective than placebo or vehicle control (carrier solution without diclofenac) for improving Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index pain and physical function, and improving patient global assessment (PGA) and/or patient overall health assessment scores from baseline to the final assessments. Topical diclofenac solution (50 drops three times daily) was as effective as oral diclofenac 150 mg/day for improving WOMAC pain and physical function and PGA scores in a 12-week double-blind study in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Topical diclofenac solution was generally well tolerated. The most common treatment-emergent adverse event experienced by topical diclofenac solution recipients was dry skin at the application site. Gastrointestinal adverse events and abnormal laboratory parameters were less common with topical diclofenac solution than with oral diclofenac. PMID:19943711

  13. Topical diclofenac solution.

    PubMed

    Moen, Marit D

    2009-01-01

    Topical diclofenac solution (Pennsaid) is a liquid formulation containing the NSAID diclofenac sodium (1.5% w/w). The solution base contains 45% w/w dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to enhance the absorption of diclofenac through the skin. Topical diclofenac solution is applied directly to the knee for treatment of symptoms associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. In well designed 4- to 12-week trials in patients with primary osteoarthritis of the knee, topical diclofenac solution (40 drops four times daily) was significantly more effective than placebo or vehicle control (carrier solution without diclofenac) for improving Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index pain and physical function, and improving patient global assessment (PGA) and/or patient overall health assessment scores from baseline to the final assessments. Topical diclofenac solution (50 drops three times daily) was as effective as oral diclofenac 150 mg/day for improving WOMAC pain and physical function and PGA scores in a 12-week double-blind study in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Topical diclofenac solution was generally well tolerated. The most common treatment-emergent adverse event experienced by topical diclofenac solution recipients was dry skin at the application site. Gastrointestinal adverse events and abnormal laboratory parameters were less common with topical diclofenac solution than with oral diclofenac.

  14. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Magno, Scott; Wang, Ruiping; Derouane, Eric

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  15. Multi-component assembly casting

    SciTech Connect

    James, Allister W.

    2015-10-13

    Multi-component vane segment and method for forming the same. Assembly includes: positioning a pre-formed airfoil component (12) and a preformed shroud heat resistant material (18) in a mold, wherein the airfoil component (12) and the shroud heat resistant material (18) each comprises an interlocking feature (24); preheating the mold; introducing molten structural material (46) into the mold; and solidifying the molten structural material such that it interlocks the pre-formed airfoil component (12) with respect to the preformed shroud heat resistant material (18) and is effective to provide structural support for the shroud heat resistant material (18). Surfaces between the airfoil component (12) and the structural material (46), between the airfoil component (12) and the shroud heat resistant material (18), and between the shroud heat resistant material (18) and the structural material (46) are free of metallurgical bonds.

  16. Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho

    2010-06-15

    Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.

  17. Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho

    2010-06-01

    Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.

  18. Transport of Solar Wind Fluctuations: A Two-Component Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oughton, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Smith, C. W.; Breech, B.; Isenberg, P. A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new model for the transport of solar wind fluctuations which treats them as two interacting incompressible components: quasi-two-dimensional turbulence and a wave-like piece. Quantities solved for include the energy, cross helicity, and characteristic transverse length scale of each component, plus the proton temperature. The development of the model is outlined and numerical solutions are compared with spacecraft observations. Compared to previous single-component models, this new model incorporates a more physically realistic treatment of fluctuations induced by pickup ions and yields improved agreement with observed values of the correlation length, while maintaining good observational accord with the energy, cross helicity, and temperature.

  19. APS beamline standard components handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    It is clear that most Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) members would like to concentrate on designing specialized equipment related to their scientific programs rather than on routine or standard beamline components. Thus, an effort is in progress at the APS to identify standard and modular components of APS beamlines. Identifying standard components is a nontrivial task because these components should support diverse beamline objectives. To assist with this effort, the APS has obtained advice and help from a Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee consisting of experts in beamline design, construction, and operation. The staff of the Experimental Facilities Division identified various components thought to be standard items for beamlines, regardless of the specific scientific objective of a particular beamline. A generic beamline layout formed the basis for this identification. This layout is based on a double-crystal monochromator as the first optical element, with the possibility of other elements to follow. Pre-engineering designs were then made of the identified standard components. The Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee has reviewed these designs and provided very useful input regarding the specifications of these components. We realize that there will be other configurations that may require special or modified components. This Handbook in its current version (1.1) contains descriptions, specifications, and pre-engineering design drawings of these standard components. In the future, the APS plans to add engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction.

  20. Mechanical cutting of irradiated reactor internal components

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael G.

    2008-01-15

    Mechanical cutting methods to volume reduce and package reactor internal components are now a viable solution for stakeholders challenged with the retirement of first generation nuclear facilities. The recent completion of the removal of the Reactor Vessel Internals (RVI) from within the Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Plant demonstrates that unlike previous methods, inclusive of plasma arc and abrasive water-jet cutting, mechanical cutting minimizes exposure to workers, costly water cleanup, and excessive secondary waste generation. Reactor internal components were segmented, packaged, and removed from the reactor building for shipment or storage, allowing the reactor cavity to be drained and follow-on reactor segmentation activities to proceed in the dry state. Area exposure rates at the work positions during the segmentation process were generally 1 mR per hr. Radiological exposure documented for the underwater segmentation processes totaled 13 person rem. The reactor internals weighing 343,000 pounds were segmented into over 200 pieces for maximum shipping package efficiency and produced 5,600 lb of stainless steel chips and shavings which were packaged in void spaces of existing disposal containers, therefore creating no additional disposal volume. Because no secondary waste was driven into suspension in the reactor cavity water, the water was free released after one pass through a charcoal bed and ion exchange filter system. Mechanical cutting techniques are capable of underwater segmentation of highly radioactive components on a large scale. This method minimized radiological exposure and costly water cleanup while creating no secondary waste.

  1. Gravitating monopole solutions II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitenlohner, Peter; Forgács, Peter; Maison, Dieter

    1995-02-01

    We present analytical and numerical results for static, spherically symmetric solutions of the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs equations corresponding to magnetic monopoles and non-abelian magnetically charged black holes. In the limit of infinite Higgs mass we give an existence proof for these solutions. The stability of the abelian extremal Reissner-Nordstrøm black holes is reanalyzed.

  2. Solution structure of (+)-discodermolide.

    PubMed

    Smith, A B; LaMarche, M J; Falcone-Hindley, M

    2001-03-01

    [structure: see text]. The solution structure of (+)-discodermolide (1) has been determined via 1- and 2-D NMR techniques in conjunction with Monte Carlo conformational analysis. Taken together, the results demonstrate that in solution (+)-discodermolide occupies a helical conformation remarkably similar to the solid state conformation.

  3. Topological objects in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y. M.; Khim, Hyojoong; Zhang, Pengming

    2005-12-15

    We study the topological objects in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates. We compare two competing theories of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates, the popular Gross-Pitaevskii theory, and the recently proposed gauge theory of two-component Bose-Einstein condensate which has an induced vorticity interaction. We show that two theories produce very similar topological objects, in spite of the obvious differences in dynamics. Furthermore we show that the gauge theory of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates, with the U(1) gauge symmetry, is remarkably similar to the Skyrme theory. Just like the Skyrme theory this theory admits the non-Abelian vortex, the helical vortex, and the vorticity knot. We construct the lightest knot solution in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates numerically, and discuss how the knot can be constructed in the spin-(1/2) condensate of {sup 87}Rb atoms.

  4. A Mixture Rasch Model with Item Response Time Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, J. Patrick

    2010-01-01

    An examinee faced with a test item will engage in solution behavior or rapid-guessing behavior. These qualitatively different test-taking behaviors bias parameter estimates for item response models that do not control for such behavior. A mixture Rasch model with item response time components was proposed and evaluated through application to real…

  5. Solvent wash solution

    DOEpatents

    Neace, James C.

    1986-01-01

    Process for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 volume percent of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.

  6. Solvent wash solution

    DOEpatents

    Neace, J.C.

    1984-03-13

    A process is claimed for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 vol % of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.

  7. Multi-Velocity Component LDV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A laser doppler velocimeter uses frequency shifting of a laser beam to provide signal information for each velocity component. A composite electrical signal generated by a light detector is digitized and a processor produces a discrete Fourier transform based on the digitized electrical signal. The transform includes two peak frequencies corresponding to the two velocity components.

  8. RTI Essential Components Integrity Worksheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Response to Intervention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Response to Intervention (RTI) Essential Components Integrity Rubric and the RTI Essential Components Integrity Worksheet are for use by individuals responsible for monitoring the school-level fidelity of Response to Intervention (RTI) implementation. They may also be used by schools for self-appraisal; however, they were not designed for…

  9. Nonnutrient Components of Fish Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Though the various dietary nutrients are the primary concerns of nutritionists when formulating feeds for intensively cultured tilapia, the inclusion of dietary components that do not have nutritional value can have profound effects on the performance of fish fed these diets. These components may be...

  10. Heat treating of manufactured components

    SciTech Connect

    Ripley, Edward B.

    2012-05-22

    An apparatus for heat treating manufactured components using microwave energy and microwave susceptor material is disclosed. The system typically includes an insulating vessel placed within a microwave applicator chamber. A moderating material is positioned inside the insulating vessel so that a substantial portion of the exterior surface of each component for heat treating is in contact with the moderating material.

  11. Nickel-hydrogen component development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charleston, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Light weight energy storage systems for future space missions are investigated. One of the systems being studied is the nickel hydrogen battery. This battery is designed to achieve longer life, improve performance, and higher energy densities for space applications. The nickel hydrogen component development is discussed. Test data from polarization measurements of the hydrogen electrode component is presented.

  12. Semantic Annotation of Computational Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, Peter; Mehrotra, Piyush

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology to specify machine-processable semantic descriptions of computational components to enable them to be shared and reused. A particular focus of this scheme is to enable automatic compositon of such components into simple work-flows.

  13. Regularized Generalized Structured Component Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun

    2009-01-01

    Generalized structured component analysis (GSCA) has been proposed as a component-based approach to structural equation modeling. In practice, GSCA may suffer from multi-collinearity, i.e., high correlations among exogenous variables. GSCA has yet no remedy for this problem. Thus, a regularized extension of GSCA is proposed that integrates a ridge…

  14. RTI Essential Components Integrity Rubric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Response to Intervention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Response to Intervention (RTI) Essential Components Integrity Rubric is for use by individuals who are responsible for monitoring school-level fidelity of RTI implementation. The rubric is aligned with "Essential Components of RTI: A Closer Look at Response to Intervention" (National Center on Response to Intervention, 2010). Subjects covered…

  15. Process management using component thermal-hydraulic function classes

    SciTech Connect

    Morman, James A.; Wei, Thomas Y.C.; Reifman, Jaques

    1997-12-01

    A process management expert system for a nuclear, chemical or other process is effective following malfunctioning of a component, such as a pump, for determining system realignment procedures such as for by-passing the malfunctioning component with on-line speeds to maintain operation of the process at full or partial capacity or to provide safe shut down of the system while isolating the malfunctioning component. The expert system uses thermal-hydraulic function classes at the component level for analyzing unanticipated as well as anticipated component malfunctions to provide recommended sequences of operator actions. Each component is classified according to its thermal-hydraulic function, and the generic and component-specific characteristics for that function. Using the diagnosis of the malfunctioning component and its thermal hydraulic class, the expert system analysis is carried out using generic thermal-hydraulic first principles. One aspect of the invention employs a qualitative physics-based forward search directed primarily downstream from the malfunctioning component in combination with a subsequent backward search directed primarily upstream from the serviced component. Generic classes of components are defined in the knowledge base according to the three thermal-hydraulic functions of mass, momentum and energy transfer and are used to determine possible realignment of component configurations in response to thermal-hydraulic function imbalance caused by the malfunctioning component. The search process is based upon mass, momentum and energy conservation principles so that qualitative thermal-hydraulic fundamental principles are satisfied for new system configurations. Each realignment to a new configuration produces the accompanying sequence of recommended operator actions. All possible new configurations are examined and a prioritized list of acceptable solutions is produced.

  16. Multi-Component Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2008-11-01

    We explore multi-component dark matter models where the dark sector consists of multiple stable states with different mass scales, and dark forces coupling these states further enrich the dynamics. The multi-component nature of the dark matter naturally arises in supersymmetric models, where both R parity and an additional symmetry, such as a Z{sub 2}, is preserved. We focus on a particular model where the heavier component of dark matter carries lepton number and annihilates mostly to leptons. The heavier component, which is essentially a sterile neutrino, naturally explains the PAMELA, ATIC and synchrotron signals, without an excess in antiprotons which typically mars other models of weak scale dark matter. The lighter component, which may have a mass from a GeV to a TeV, may explain the DAMA signal, and may be visible in low threshold runs of CDMS and XENON, which search for light dark matter.

  17. Cooling solutions for high heat load optics

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, D.; Harding, G.H.; Cox, M.P.; Lunt, D.

    1996-09-01

    Heat loads on optical components at third-generation synchrotron sources, such as the APS, present beamline designers with difficult and complex engineering problems. A number of solutions have been proposed, such as pin-post water cooling, cryogenic cooling, and liquid gallium cooling. This paper describes both a cryogenic cooling system and a liquid gallium pumping system that have been developed specifically for the APS high heat load beamlines. Also presented is a potential solution for the first mirrors on high heat load beamlines, based on liquid gallium internal cooling of a silicon carbide mirror. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Electrostatic twisted modes in multi-component dusty plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayub, M. K.; Ali, S.; Ikram, M.

    2016-01-01

    Various electrostatic twisted modes are re-investigated with finite orbital angular momentum in an unmagnetized collisionless multi-component dusty plasma, consisting of positive/negative charged dust particles, ions, and electrons. For this purpose, hydrodynamical equations are employed to obtain paraxial equations in terms of density perturbations, while assuming the Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam solutions. Specifically, approximated solutions for potential problem are studied by using the paraxial approximation and expressed the electric field components in terms of LG functions. The energy fluxes associated with these modes are computed and corresponding expressions for orbital angular momenta are derived. Numerical analyses reveal that radial/angular mode numbers as well as dust number density and dust charging states strongly modify the LG potential profiles attributed to different electrostatic modes. Our results are important for understanding particle transport and energy transfer due to wave excitations in multi-component dusty plasmas.

  19. Conduction heat transfer solutions

    SciTech Connect

    VanSant, J.H.

    1980-03-01

    This text is a collection of solutions to a variety of heat conduction problems found in numerous publications, such as textbooks, handbooks, journals, reports, etc. Its purpose is to assemble these solutions into one source that can facilitate the search for a particular problem solution. Generally, it is intended to be a handbook on the subject of heat conduction. This material is useful for engineers, scientists, technologists, and designers of all disciplines, particularly those who design thermal systems or estimate temperatures and heat transfer rates in structures. More than 500 problem solutions and relevant data are tabulated for easy retrieval. There are twelve sections of solutions which correspond with the class of problems found in each. Geometry, state, boundary conditions, and other categories are used to classify the problems. A case number is assigned to each problem for cross-referencing, and also for future reference. Each problem is concisely described by geometry and condition statements, and many times a descriptive sketch is also included. At least one source reference is given so that the user can review the methods used to derive the solutions. Problem solutions are given in the form of equations, graphs, and tables of data, all of which are also identified by problem case numbers and source references.

  20. Dynamic leaching test of personal computer components.

    PubMed

    Li, Yadong; Richardson, Jay B; Niu, Xiaojun; Jackson, Ollie J; Laster, Jeremy D; Walker, Aaron K

    2009-11-15

    A dynamic leaching test (DLT) was developed and used to evaluate the leaching of toxic substances for electronic waste in the environment. The major components in personal computers (PCs) including motherboards, hard disc drives, floppy disc drives, and compact disc drives were tested. The tests lasted for 2 years for motherboards and 1.5 year for the disc drives. The extraction fluids for the standard toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) were used as the DLT leaching solutions. A total of 18 elements including Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Ni, Pd, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, and Zn were analyzed in the DLT leachates. Only Al, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn were commonly found in the DLT leachates of the PC components. Their leaching levels were much higher in TCLP extraction fluid than in SPLP extraction fluid. The toxic heavy metal Pb was found to continuously leach out of the components over the entire test periods. The cumulative amounts of Pb leached out of the motherboards in TCLP extraction fluid reached 2.0 g per motherboard over the 2-year test period, and that in SPLP extraction fluid were 75-90% less. The leaching rates or levels of Pb were largely affected by the content of galvanized steel in the PC components. The higher was the steel content, the lower the Pb leaching rate would be. The findings suggest that the obsolete PCs disposed of in landfills or discarded in the environment continuously release Pb for years when subjected to landfill leachate or rains.

  1. Dynamic leaching test of personal computer components.

    PubMed

    Li, Yadong; Richardson, Jay B; Niu, Xiaojun; Jackson, Ollie J; Laster, Jeremy D; Walker, Aaron K

    2009-11-15

    A dynamic leaching test (DLT) was developed and used to evaluate the leaching of toxic substances for electronic waste in the environment. The major components in personal computers (PCs) including motherboards, hard disc drives, floppy disc drives, and compact disc drives were tested. The tests lasted for 2 years for motherboards and 1.5 year for the disc drives. The extraction fluids for the standard toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) were used as the DLT leaching solutions. A total of 18 elements including Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Ni, Pd, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, and Zn were analyzed in the DLT leachates. Only Al, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn were commonly found in the DLT leachates of the PC components. Their leaching levels were much higher in TCLP extraction fluid than in SPLP extraction fluid. The toxic heavy metal Pb was found to continuously leach out of the components over the entire test periods. The cumulative amounts of Pb leached out of the motherboards in TCLP extraction fluid reached 2.0 g per motherboard over the 2-year test period, and that in SPLP extraction fluid were 75-90% less. The leaching rates or levels of Pb were largely affected by the content of galvanized steel in the PC components. The higher was the steel content, the lower the Pb leaching rate would be. The findings suggest that the obsolete PCs disposed of in landfills or discarded in the environment continuously release Pb for years when subjected to landfill leachate or rains. PMID:19616380

  2. Pantaloon Hernia: Obstructed Indirect Component and Direct Component with Cryptorchidism.

    PubMed

    Kariappa, Mohan Kumar; Harihar, Vivek; Kothudum, Ashwini Rajareddy; Hiremath, Vivekanand Kedarlingayya

    2016-01-01

    Cryptorchidism is a condition in which one or both testes have not passed down into the scrotal sac. It is categorized as true undescended testis in which testes are present in the normal path of descent, and as ectopic testis, in which testes are present at abnormal site. Common complications of cryptorchidism are testicular torsion, subfertility, inguinal hernia, and testicular cancer. Here we present a rare case of pantaloon hernia of obstructed indirect component and direct component with cryptorchidism. PMID:27579208

  3. Pantaloon Hernia: Obstructed Indirect Component and Direct Component with Cryptorchidism

    PubMed Central

    Kariappa, Mohan Kumar; Hiremath, Vivekanand Kedarlingayya

    2016-01-01

    Cryptorchidism is a condition in which one or both testes have not passed down into the scrotal sac. It is categorized as true undescended testis in which testes are present in the normal path of descent, and as ectopic testis, in which testes are present at abnormal site. Common complications of cryptorchidism are testicular torsion, subfertility, inguinal hernia, and testicular cancer. Here we present a rare case of pantaloon hernia of obstructed indirect component and direct component with cryptorchidism. PMID:27579208

  4. Apparatus for remotely handling components

    DOEpatents

    Szkrybalo, Gregory A.; Griffin, Donald L.

    1994-01-01

    The inventive apparatus for remotely handling bar-like components which define a longitudinal direction includes a gripper mechanism for gripping the component including first and second gripper members longitudinally fixedly spaced from each other and oriented parallel to each other in planes transverse to the longitudinal direction. Each gripper member includes a jaw having at least one V-groove with opposing surfaces intersecting at a base and extending radially relative to the longitudinal direction for receiving the component in an open end between the opposing surfaces. The V-grooves on the jaw plate of the first and second gripper members are aligned in the longitudinal direction to support the component in the first and second gripper members. A jaw is rotatably mounted on and a part of each of the first and second gripper members for selectively assuming a retracted mode in which the open end of the V-groove is unobstructed and active mode in which the jaw spans the open end of the V-groove in the first and second gripper members. The jaw has a locking surface for contacting the component in the active mode to secure the component between the locking surface of the jaw and the opposing surfaces of the V-groove. The locking surface has a plurality of stepped portions, each defining a progressively decreasing radial distance between the base of the V-groove and the stepped portion opposing the base to accommodate varying sizes of components.

  5. Vacuum Brazing of Accelerator Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajvir; Pant, K. K.; Lal, Shankar; Yadav, D. P.; Garg, S. R.; Raghuvanshi, V. K.; Mundra, G.

    2012-11-01

    Commonly used materials for accelerator components are those which are vacuum compatible and thermally conductive. Stainless steel, aluminum and copper are common among them. Stainless steel is a poor heat conductor and not very common in use where good thermal conductivity is required. Aluminum and copper and their alloys meet the above requirements and are frequently used for the above purpose. The accelerator components made of aluminum and its alloys using welding process have become a common practice now a days. It is mandatory to use copper and its other grades in RF devices required for accelerators. Beam line and Front End components of the accelerators are fabricated from stainless steel and OFHC copper. Fabrication of components made of copper using welding process is very difficult and in most of the cases it is impossible. Fabrication and joining in such cases is possible using brazing process especially under vacuum and inert gas atmosphere. Several accelerator components have been vacuum brazed for Indus projects at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore using vacuum brazing facility available at RRCAT, Indore. This paper presents details regarding development of the above mentioned high value and strategic components/assemblies. It will include basics required for vacuum brazing, details of vacuum brazing facility, joint design, fixturing of the jobs, selection of filler alloys, optimization of brazing parameters so as to obtain high quality brazed joints, brief description of vacuum brazed accelerator components etc.

  6. Asymmetric inflation: Exact solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Buniy, Roman V.; Berera, Arjun; Kephart, Thomas W.

    2006-03-15

    We provide exact solutions to the Einstein equations when the universe contains vacuum energy plus a uniform arrangement of magnetic fields, strings, or domain walls. Such a universe has planar symmetry; i.e., it is homogeneous but not isotropic. Further exact solutions are obtained when dust is included and approximate solutions are found for w{ne}0 matter. These cosmologies also have planar symmetry. These results may eventually be used to explain some features in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data. The magnetic field case is the easiest to motivate and has the highest possibility of yielding reliable constraints on observational cosmology.

  7. Component Fragility Research Program: Phase 1 component prioritization

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, G.S.; Chou, C.K.

    1987-06-01

    Current probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods for nuclear power plants utilize seismic ''fragilities'' - probabilities of failure conditioned on the severity of seismic input motion - that are based largely on limited test data and on engineering judgment. Under the NRC Component Fragility Research Program (CFRP), the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed and demonstrated procedures for using test data to derive probabilistic fragility descriptions for mechanical and electrical components. As part of its CFRP activities, LLNL systematically identified and categorized components influencing plant safety in order to identify ''candidate'' components for future NRC testing. Plant systems relevant to safety were first identified; within each system components were then ranked according to their importance to overall system function and their anticipated seismic capacity. Highest priority for future testing was assigned to those ''very important'' components having ''low'' seismic capacity. This report describes the LLNL prioritization effort, which also included application of ''high-level'' qualification data as an alternate means of developing probabilistic fragility descriptions for PRA applications.

  8. Lattice model for water-solute mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlan, A. P.; Almarza, N. G.; Barbosa, M. C.

    2016-10-01

    A lattice model for the study of mixtures of associating liquids is proposed. Solvent and solute are modeled by adapting the associating lattice gas (ALG) model. The nature of interaction of solute/solvent is controlled by tuning the energy interactions between the patches of ALG model. We have studied three set of parameters, resulting in, hydrophilic, inert, and hydrophobic interactions. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations were carried out, and the behavior of pure components and the excess properties of the mixtures have been studied. The pure components, water (solvent) and solute, have quite similar phase diagrams, presenting gas, low density liquid, and high density liquid phases. In the case of solute, the regions of coexistence are substantially reduced when compared with both the water and the standard ALG models. A numerical procedure has been developed in order to attain series of results at constant pressure from simulations of the lattice gas model in the grand canonical ensemble. The excess properties of the mixtures, volume and enthalpy as the function of the solute fraction, have been studied for different interaction parameters of the model. Our model is able to reproduce qualitatively well the excess volume and enthalpy for different aqueous solutions. For the hydrophilic case, we show that the model is able to reproduce the excess volume and enthalpy of mixtures of small alcohols and amines. The inert case reproduces the behavior of large alcohols such as propanol, butanol, and pentanol. For the last case (hydrophobic), the excess properties reproduce the behavior of ionic liquids in aqueous solution.

  9. Ceramic components for MHD electrode

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, D.D.

    A ceramic component which exhibits electrical conductivity down to near room temperatures has the formula: Hf/sub x/In/sub y/A/sub z/O/sub 2/ where x = 0.1 to 0.4, y = 0.3 to 0.6, z = 0.1 to 0.4 and A is a lanthanide rare earth or yttrium. The component is suitable for use in the fabrication of MHD electrodes or as the current leadout portion of a composite electrode with other ceramic components.

  10. Ceramic component for MHD electrode

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, David D.; Bates, Junior L.

    1981-01-01

    A ceramic component which exhibits electrical conductivity down to near room temperatures has the formula: Hf.sub.x In.sub.y A.sub.z O.sub.2 where x=0.1 to 0.4, y=0.3 to 0.6, z=0.1 to 0.4 and A is a lanthanide rare earth or yttrium. The component is suitable for use in the fabrication of MHD electrodes or as the current leadout portion of a composite electrode with other ceramic components.

  11. Solitary solutions including spatially localized chaos and their interactions in two-dimensional Kolmogorov flow.

    PubMed

    Hiruta, Yoshiki; Toh, Sadayoshi

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional Kolmogorov flow in wide periodic boxes is numerically investigated. It is shown that the total flow rate in the direction perpendicular to the force controls the characteristics of the flow, especially the existence of spatially localized solitary solutions such as traveling waves, periodic solutions, and chaotic solutions, which can behave as elementary components of the flow. We propose a procedure to construct approximate solutions consisting of solitary solutions. It is confirmed by direct numerical simulations that these solutions are stable and represent interactions between elementary components such as collisions, coexistence, and collapse of chaos.

  12. Germanium-silicon solid solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zemskov, V. S.; Kubasov, V. N.; Belokurova, I. N.; Titkov, A. N.; Shulpina, I. L.; Safarov, V. I.; Guseva, N. B.

    1977-01-01

    An experiment on melting and directional crystallization of an antimony (Sb) doped germanium silicon (GeSi) solid solution was designed for the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) to study the possibility of using zero-g conditions for obtaining solid-solution monocrystals with uniformly distributed components. Crystallization in the zero-g environment did not occur under ideal stationary growth and segregation conditions. Crystallization under zero-g conditions revealed the heterogeneous nature of Si and Sb distribution in the cross sections of crystals. The presence of the radial thermal gradient in the multipurpose furnace could be one of the reasons for such Si and Sb distribution. The structure of space-grown crystals correlates with the nature of heterogeneities of Si and Sb distribution in crystals. The type of surface morphology and the contour observed in space-grown crystals were never observed in ground-based crystals and indicate the absence of wetting of the graphitized walls of the ampoule by the melt during melting and crystallization.

  13. Isospinning baby Skyrmion solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battye, Richard A.; Haberichter, Mareike

    2013-12-01

    We perform full two-dimensional (2D) numerical relaxations of isospinning soliton solutions in the baby Skyrme model in which the global O(3) symmetry is broken by the 2D analogue of the pion mass term in the Skyrme model. In our calculations we explicitly allow the isospinning solitons to deform and to break the symmetries of the static configurations. We find that stable isospinning baby Skyrme solutions can be constructed numerically for all angular frequencies ω≤min⁡(μ,1), where μ is the mass parameter of the model. Stable, rotationally symmetric baby Skyrmion solutions for higher angular velocities are simply an artefact of the hedgehog approximation. Isospinning multisoliton solutions of topological charge B turn out to be unstable to break up into their B charge-1 constituents at some critical breakup frequency value. Furthermore, we find that for μ sufficiently large the rotational symmetry of charge-2 baby Skyrmions becomes broken at a critical angular frequency ω.

  14. The Conductivity of Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner-Canham, Geoff

    1993-01-01

    Presents historical background and modern explanations for the popular demonstration of showing conductivity of solutions through the insertion of a light-bulb conductivity tester into deionized water and water with salt in it. (PR)

  15. Persistent currents in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a ring potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyrnakis, J.; Magiropoulos, M.; Efremidis, Nikolaos K.; Kavoulakis, G. M.

    2014-11-01

    We present variational and numerical solutions for the problem of stability of persistent currents in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate of distinguishable atoms which rotate in a ring potential. We consider the general class of solutions of constant density in the two components separately, thus providing an alternative approach to the solution of the same problem given recently by Wu and Zaremba (2013 Phys. Rev. A 88 063640). Our approach provides a physically transparent solution for this delicate problem. Finally, we give a unified and simple picture of the lowest energy state of the system for large values of the coupling.

  16. Electronic Components Subsystems and Equipment: a Compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Developments in electronic components, subsystems, and equipment are summarized. Topics discussed include integrated circuit components and techniques, circuit components and techniques, and cables and connectors.

  17. Reflectance of aqueous solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querry, M. R.

    1972-01-01

    The optical properties and optical constants of water and aqueous solutions were studied to develop an accurate tabulation of graphical representations of the optical constants through a broad spectrum. Manuscripts of articles are presented concerning extinction coefficients, relative specular reflectance, and temperature effect on the water spectrum. Graphs of absolute reflectance, phase shifts, index of refraction, and extinction coefficients for water, heavy water and aqueous solutions are included.

  18. Benchmark problems and solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.

    1995-01-01

    The scientific committee, after careful consideration, adopted six categories of benchmark problems for the workshop. These problems do not cover all the important computational issues relevant to Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA). The deciding factor to limit the number of categories to six was the amount of effort needed to solve these problems. For reference purpose, the benchmark problems are provided here. They are followed by the exact or approximate analytical solutions. At present, an exact solution for the Category 6 problem is not available.

  19. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Caliò, Renato; Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Camboni, Domenico; Milazzo, Mario; Stefanini, Cesare; de Petris, Gianluca; Oddo, Calogero Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions. PMID:24618725

  20. Three-component homeostasis control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jin; Hong, Hyunsuk; Jo, Junghyo

    2014-03-01

    Two reciprocal components seem to be sufficient to maintain a control variable constant. However, pancreatic islets adapt three components to control glucose homeostasis. They are α (secreting glucagon), β (insulin), and δ (somatostatin) cells. Glucagon and insulin are the reciprocal hormones for increasing and decreasing blood glucose levels, while the role of somatostatin is unknown. However, it has been known how each hormone affects other cell types. Based on the pulsatile hormone secretion and the cellular interactions, this system can be described as coupled oscillators. In particular, we used the Landau-Stuart model to consider both amplitudes and phases of hormone oscillations. We found that the presence of the third component, δ cell, was effective to resist under glucose perturbations, and to quickly return to the normal glucose level once perturbed. Our analysis suggested that three components are necessary for advanced homeostasis control.

  1. Conduction heat transfer solutions

    SciTech Connect

    VanSant, J.H.

    1983-08-01

    This text is a collection of solutions to a variety of heat conduction problems found in numerous publications, such as textbooks, handbooks, journals, reports, etc. Its purpose is to assemble these solutions into one source that can facilitate the search for a particular problem solution. Generally, it is intended to be a handbook on the subject of heat conduction. There are twelve sections of solutions which correspond with the class of problems found in each. Geometry, state, boundary conditions, and other categories are used to classify the problems. Each problem is concisely described by geometry and condition statements, and many times a descriptive sketch is also included. The introduction presents a synopsis on the theory, differential equations, and boundary conditions for conduction heat transfer. Some discussion is given on the use and interpretation of solutions. Supplementary data such as mathematical functions, convection correlations, and thermal properties are included for aiding the user in computing numerical values from the solutions. 155 figs., 92 refs., 9 tabs.

  2. Advanced Component Research Facility (ACRES)

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, M.

    1980-07-01

    A detailed description of the SERI Advanced Component Research Facility (ACRES) is given. Background information explicates the facility's history, developed around the two Omnium-G parabolic dish concentrators. The Omnium-G concentrators and electrical power plant are described. The purpose and a detailed descripttion of ACRES is also given. Included is a description of the measurement capabilities, the controls, and each component of the facility.

  3. Definition of Contravariant Velocity Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Mao; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This is an old issue in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). What is the so-called contravariant velocity or contravariant velocity component? In the article, we review the basics of tensor analysis and give the contravariant velocity component a rigorous explanation. For a given coordinate system, there exist two uniquely determined sets of base vector systems - one is the covariant and another is the contravariant base vector system. The two base vector systems are reciprocal. The so-called contravariant velocity component is really the contravariant component of a velocity vector for a time-independent coordinate system, or the contravariant component of a relative velocity between fluid and coordinates, for a time-dependent coordinate system. The contravariant velocity components are not physical quantities of the velocity vector. Their magnitudes, dimensions, and associated directions are controlled by their corresponding covariant base vectors. Several 2-D (two-dimensional) linear examples and 2-D mass-conservation equation are used to illustrate the details of expressing a vector with respect to the covariant and contravariant base vector systems, respectively.

  4. Protein folding, stability, and solvation structure in osmolyte solutions hydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery Pettitt, B.

    2008-03-01

    The hydrophobic effect between solutes in aqueous solutions plays a central role in our understanding of recognition and folding of proteins and self assembly of lipids. Hydrophobicity induces nonideal solution behavior which plays a role in many aspects of biophysics. Work on the use of small biochemical compounds to crowd protein solutions indicates that a quantitative description of their non-ideal behavior is possible and straightforward. Here, we will show what the structural origin of this non-ideal solution behavior is from expression derived from a semi grand ensemble approach. We discuss the consequences of these findings regarding protein folding stability and solvation in crowded solutions through a structural analysis of the m-value or the change in free energy difference of a macromolecule in solution with respect to the concentration of a third component. This effect has recently been restudied and new mechanisms proposed for its origins in terms of transfer free energies and hydrophobicity.

  5. Cold-standby redundancy allocation problem with degrading components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Xiong, Junlin; Xie, Min

    2015-11-01

    Components in cold-standby state are usually assumed to be as good as new when they are activated. However, even in a standby environment, the components will suffer from performance degradation. This article presents a study of a redundancy allocation problem (RAP) for cold-standby systems with degrading components. The objective of the RAP is to determine an optimal design configuration of components to maximize system reliability subject to system resource constraints (e.g. cost, weight). As in most cases, it is not possible to obtain a closed-form expression for this problem, and hence, an approximated objective function is presented. A genetic algorithm with dual mutation is developed to solve such a constrained optimization problem. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the proposed solution methodology.

  6. Study of palladium plating components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Palladium deposits were prepared by electrolysis for evaluation as catalytic materials. Electrolysis was carried out in acidic solutions consisting of either 1.0 M in NaCl and 0.01 M PdCl2 or 1.0 M NaCl and 0.04 M PdCl2. It was during the preparation of the palladium deposits that unexpected observations were made that led to the request for analytical services. The analyses did not, nor were they intended to, answer all of the questions. They did, however, shed light on the nature and magnitude of some of the contaminants in the solutions and in the palladium electrodes, as well as characterize the forms of the palladium deposits. Results of analyses are grouped into solution, deposit, and electrode categories for comparison purposes.

  7. Optical access: networks and components (overview)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mynbaev, Djafar K.

    2004-09-01

    The exponential gtowth of traffic delivered to an individual customer both for business and personal needs puts tremendous pressure on the telecommunications networks. Because the development of the long-haul and metro networks has advanced rapidly and their capacity much eceeds demand, tremendous pressure now falls in the local networks to provide customers with access to the global telecom infrastructure. Building a broadband access network enabling fast delivery of high-volume traffic is the current task of network operators. A brief review of broadband access networks brings us to the conclusion that only wired optical networks can serve as an immediate and future solution to the "last-mile" problem. After discussin goptical access network classification, we focus mainly on passive optical networks (PON) because PON is a major technology today. From the network standpoint, we discuss the principle of PON operation, architectures, topologies, protocols and standards, design issues, and network management and services. We also discuss the main problems with PON and the use of WDM technology. From the hardware standpoint, we consider both active and passive components. We analyze the structure and elements of these components, including their technical characteristics.

  8. Component protection based automatic control

    SciTech Connect

    Otaduy, P J

    1992-03-01

    Control and safety systems as well as operation procedures are designed on the basis of critical process parameters limits. The expectation is that short and long term mechanical damage and process failures will be avoided by operating the plant within the specified constraints envelopes. In this paper, one of the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) design duty cycles events is discussed to corroborate that the time has come to explicitly make component protection part of the control system. Component stress assessment and aging data should be an integral part of the control system. Then transient trajectory planning and operating limits could be aimed at minimizing component specific and overall plant component damage cost functions. The impact of transients on critical components could then be managed according to plant lifetime design goals. The need for developing methodologies for online transient trajectory planning and assessment of operating limits in order to facilitate the explicit incorporation of damage assessment capabilities to the plant control and protection systems is discussed. 12 refs.

  9. Failure Analysis of Ceramic Components

    SciTech Connect

    B.W. Morris

    2000-06-29

    Ceramics are being considered for a wide range of structural applications due to their low density and their ability to retain strength at high temperatures. The inherent brittleness of monolithic ceramics requires a departure from the deterministic design philosophy utilized to analyze metallic structural components. The design program ''Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures Life'' (CARES/LIFE) developed by NASA Lewis Research Center uses a probabilistic approach to predict the reliability of monolithic components under operational loading. The objective of this study was to develop an understanding of the theories used by CARES/LIFE to predict the reliability of ceramic components and to assess the ability of CARES/LIFE to accurately predict the fast fracture behavior of monolithic ceramic components. A finite element analysis was performed to determine the temperature and stress distribution of a silicon carbide O-ring under diametral compression. The results of the finite element analysis were supplied as input into CARES/LIFE to determine the fast fracture reliability of the O-ring. Statistical material strength parameters were calculated from four-point flexure bar test data. The predicted reliability showed excellent correlation with O-ring compression test data indicating that the CARES/LIFE program can be used to predict the reliability of ceramic components subjected to complicated stress states using material properties determined from simple uniaxial tensile tests.

  10. Relational conceptual change in solution chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebenezer, Jazlin V.; Gaskell, P. James

    This study explores changes to students' conceptions about solution chemistry in the context of instruction based on collaboration between a researcher and an experienced teacher attempting to implement strategies from the literature on conceptual change. Conceptual change for students and teachers is viewed not just as a process of replacement of old concepts but also as a process of learning to relate ideas to appropriate contexts. The process of instruction and collaboration was influenced by institutional limits on time, the press to cover the curriculum, and the teacher's prior beliefs and practices. The study uses phenomenography to conceptualize students' understandings of solubility. Six categories of description were constructed: (a) physical transformation from solid to liquid; (b) chemical transformation of solute; (c) density of solute; (d) amount of space available in solution; (e) properties of solute; and (f) size of solute. After instruction students showed evidence of two additional ways of talking about solubility: (a) chemical structure of components; and (b) solution equilibrium. The new language, however, did not necessarily replace initial ideas about what happens in particular instances of solution chemistry. A careful analysis of the students' conceptions of solubility revealed important factors influencing the nature of student learning in this area of chemistry. These factors include: (a) ambiguities of chemical theories about dissolving: (b) explanations of the observable; and (c) students' chemical language. It is argued, in conclusion, that the goals for instruction are to assist students to appreciate contexts where everyday conceptions of chemical phenomenon are appropriate and contexts where particular conceptions from the community of chemists are more appropriate.

  11. The Effectiveness of Hybrid Solutions in Higher Education: A Call for Hybrid-Teaching Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trentin, Guglielmo; Bocconi, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    In order to design learning solutions that effectively embed face-to-face and online dimensions, it is crucial to identify the key components underpinning hybrid solutions. Furthermore, once these components have been identified, there is the need to clarify how to recombine them to meet a specific learning objective. This article aims to…

  12. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.; Meirans, L.; Wapman, W.; Hwang, Y.; Koenig, L.; Petterson, B.

    1994-07-01

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene and chlorofluorocarbon solvents in cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates from electronic components. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations.

  13. Towards Prognostics for Electronics Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Bhaskar; Celaya, Jose R.; Wysocki, Philip F.; Goebel, Kai F.

    2013-01-01

    Electronics components have an increasingly critical role in avionics systems and in the development of future aircraft systems. Prognostics of such components is becoming a very important research field as a result of the need to provide aircraft systems with system level health management information. This paper focuses on a prognostics application for electronics components within avionics systems, and in particular its application to an Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT). This application utilizes the remaining useful life prediction, accomplished by employing the particle filter framework, leveraging data from accelerated aging tests on IGBTs. These tests induced thermal-electrical overstresses by applying thermal cycling to the IGBT devices. In-situ state monitoring, including measurements of steady-state voltages and currents, electrical transients, and thermal transients are recorded and used as potential precursors of failure.

  14. Spacecraft component heater control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachtel, Frederick D. (Inventor); Owen, James W. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A heater control circuit is disclosed as being constructed in a single integrated circuit, with the integrated circuit conveniently mounted proximate to a spacecraft component requiring temperature control. Redundant heater controllers control power applied to strip heaters disposed to provide heat to a component responsive to sensed temperature from temperature sensors. Signals from these sensors are digitized and compared with a dead band temperature and set point temperature stored in memory to generate an error signal if the sensed temperature is outside the parameter stored in the memory. This error signal is utilized by a microprocessor to selectively instruct the heater controllers to apply power to the strip heaters. If necessary, the spacecraft central processor may access or interrogate the microprocessor in order to alter the set point temperature and dead band temperature range to obtain operational data relating to the operation of an integrated circuit for relaying to the ground control, or to switch off faulty components.

  15. Dimensionally continued wormhole solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X. School of Science, East China University of Science Technology, Shanghai 200237 )

    1994-09-15

    In this paper we consider wormhole solutions for the action of special Lovelock gravity'' recently discussed by Banados, Teitelboim, and Zanelli. This action is, in odd dimensions, the Chern-Simons form for the anti--de Sitter group and, in even dimensions, the Euler density constructed with the Lorentz part of the anti--de Sitter curvature tensor. We present a systematic study of classical wormhole solutions in the special Lovelock theory with various matter content, including a perfect fluid energy-momentum tensor, axionic field, and conformal scalar field.

  16. Fissile solution measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Crane, T.W.; Collinsworth, P.R.

    1984-06-11

    An apparatus for determining the content of a fissile material within a solution by detecting delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material after it is temporarily irradiated by a neutron source. The apparatus comprises a container holding the solution and having a portion defining a neutron source cavity centrally disposed within the container. The neutron source cavity temporarily receives the neutron source. The container has portions defining a plurality of neutron detector ports that form an annular pattern and surround the neutron source cavity. A plurality of neutron detectors count delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material. Each neutron detector is located in a separate one of the neutron detector ports.

  17. Deconstructing graphite: graphenide solutions.

    PubMed

    Pénicaud, Alain; Drummond, Carlos

    2013-01-15

    Growing interest in graphene over past few years has prompted researchers to find new routes for producing this material other than mechanical exfoliation or growth from silicon carbide. Chemical vapor deposition on metallic substrates now allows researchers to produce continuous graphene films over large areas. In parallel, researchers will need liquid, large scale, formulations of graphene to produce functional graphene materials that take advantage of graphene's mechanical, electrical, and barrier properties. In this Account, we describe methods for creating graphene solutions from graphite. Graphite provides a cheap source of carbon, but graphite is insoluble. With extensive sonication, it can be dispersed in organic solvents or water with adequate additives. Nevertheless, this process usually creates cracks and defects in the graphite. On the other hand, graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) provide a means to dissolve rather than disperse graphite. GICS can be obtained through the reaction of alkali metals with graphite. These compounds are a source of graphenide salts and also serve as an excellent electronic model of graphene due to the decoupling between graphene layers. The graphenide macroions, negatively charged graphene sheets, form supple two-dimensional polyelectrolytes that spontaneously dissolve in some organic solvents. The entropic gain from the dissolution of counterions and the increased degrees of freedom of graphene in solution drives this process. Notably, we can obtain graphenide solutions in easily processable solvents with low boiling points such as tetrahydrofuran or cyclopentylmethylether. We performed a statistical analysis of high resolution transmission electronic micrographs of graphene sheets deposited on grids from GICs solution to show that the dissolved material has been fully exfoliated. The thickness distribution peaks with single layers and includes a few double- or triple-layer objects. Light scattering analysis of the

  18. Osmosis without solute.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E

    1975-01-01

    Van't Hoff's misconception of the kinetics of solutes in a solution was long ago displaced by the thesis about osmotic water migration caused by the difference in chemical potential on the two sides of the semipermeable membrane. Consequently the osmotic process was now investigated when normal water and heavy water were separated by the "semipermeable" membrane. Due to the difference between the chemical potentials a substantial osomotic pressure was measured on the side of the heavy water simultaneously with a significant migration of water on both sides.

  19. MAMA Dispersion Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennon, Daniel

    2009-07-01

    Wavelength dispersion solutions will be determined on a yearly basis as part of a long-term monitoring program. Deep engineering wavecals for each MAMA grating will be obtained at common cenwaves. Intermediate settings will also be taken to check the reliability of derived dispersion solutions. Final selection was determined on basis of past monitoring and C17 requirements. The internal wavelength calibrations will be taken using the LINE line lamp. Extra-deep wavecals are included for some echelle modes and first order modes to ensure detection of weak lines.

  20. Space storable propulsion components development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagler, R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The current development status of components to control the flow of propellants (liquid fluorine and hydrazine) in a demonstration space storable propulsion system is discussed. The criteria which determined the designs for the pressure regulator, explosive-actuated valves, propellant shutoff valve, latching solenoid-actuated valve and propellant filter are presented. The test philosophy that was followed during component development is outlined. The results from compatibility demonstrations for reusable connectors, flange seals, and CRES/Ti-6Al4V transition tubes and the evaluations of processes for welding (hand-held TIG, automated TIG, and EB), cleaning for fluorine service, and decontamination after fluorine exposure are described.

  1. Transducer for downhole drilling components

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R; Fox, Joe R

    2006-05-30

    A robust transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The transmission element maintains reliable connectivity between transmission elements, thereby providing an uninterrupted flow of information between drill string components. A transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe. The transmission element may include an annular housing forming a trough, an electrical conductor disposed within the trough, and an MCEI material disposed between the annular housing and the electrical conductor.

  2. Modeling the electron strahl component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, Teresa

    The electron velocity distribution functions in the solar wind consist of three different populations: core, halo and strahl. The core and halo are mainly responsible for the temperature and density. However, it has been suggested that the field-aligned strahl component could play an important role in the anisotropy, heat flux and fluctuating fluid velocity. In this work we have the following goals: a) develop a method to distinguish the strahl from the core and halo populations of the electron velocity distribution function; and, b) describe this component by modeling and fitting. To accomplish this, we use the high angular and energy resolution data of the Cluster/PEACE electron spectrometer.

  3. Independent Component Analysis of Textures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manduchi, Roberto; Portilla, Javier

    2000-01-01

    A common method for texture representation is to use the marginal probability densities over the outputs of a set of multi-orientation, multi-scale filters as a description of the texture. We propose a technique, based on Independent Components Analysis, for choosing the set of filters that yield the most informative marginals, meaning that the product over the marginals most closely approximates the joint probability density function of the filter outputs. The algorithm is implemented using a steerable filter space. Experiments involving both texture classification and synthesis show that compared to Principal Components Analysis, ICA provides superior performance for modeling of natural and synthetic textures.

  4. Resolution of Adsorption and Partition Components of Organic Compounds on Black Carbons.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Cary T; Cheng, Jianzhong; Hung, Wei-Nung; Chen, Baoliang; Lin, Tsair-Fuh

    2015-08-01

    Black carbons (BCs) may sequester non-ionic organic compounds by adsorption and/or partition to varying extents. Up to now, no experimental method has been developed to accurately resolve the combined adsorption and partition capacity of a compound on a BC. In this study, a unique "adsorptive displacement method" is introduced to reliably resolve the adsorption and partition components for a solute-BC system. It estimates the solute adsorption on a BC by the use of an adsorptive displacer to displace the adsorbed target solute into the solution phase. The method is validated by tests with uses of activated carbon as the model carbonaceous adsorbent, soil organic matter as the model carbonaceous partition phase, o-xylene and 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene as the reference solutes, and p-nitrophenol as the adsorptive displacer. Thereafter, the adsorption-partition resolution was completed for the two solutes on selected model BCs: four biochars and two National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard soots (SRM-2975 and SRM-1650b). The adsorption and partition components resolved for selected solutes with given BCs and their dependences upon solute properties enable one to cross-check the sorption data of other solutes on the same BCs. The resolved components also provide a theoretical basis for exploring the potential modes and extents of different solute uptakes by given BCs in natural systems. PMID:26114972

  5. General Mixed Multi-Soliton Solutions to One-Dimensional Multicomponent Yajima-Oikawa System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junchao; Chen, Yong; Feng, Bao-Feng; Maruno, Ken-ichi

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we derive a general mixed (bright-dark) multi-soliton solution to a one-dimensional multicomponent Yajima-Oikawa (YO) system, i.e., the (M + 1)-component YO system comprised of M-component short waves (SWs) and one-component long wave (LW) for all possible combinations of nonlinearity coefficients including positive, negative and mixed types. With the help of the KP-hierarchy reduction method, we firstly construct two types of general mixed N-soliton solution (two-bright-one-dark soliton and one-bright-two-dark one for SW components) to the (3+1)-component YO system in detail. Then by extending the corresponding analysis to the (M + 1)-component YO system, a general mixed N-soliton solution in Gram determinant form is obtained. The expression of the mixed soliton solution also contains the general all bright and all dark N-soliton solution as special cases. Besides, the dynamical analysis shows that the inelastic collision can only take place among SW components when at least two SW components have bright solitons in mixed type soliton solution. Whereas, the dark solitons in SW components and the bright soliton in LW component always undergo usual elastic collision.

  6. Designing ceramic components with the CARES computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Manderscheid, Jane M.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1989-01-01

    NASA-Lewis has developed a public-domain computer program, designated 'Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures' (CARES) for calculating the fast-fracture reliability of macroscopically isotropic ceramic components subjected to the complex thermomechanical loadings typical of heat engines. The design methodology employed by CARES encompasses linear elastic fracture mechanics theory, extreme value statistics, and material microstructures; component integrity is conceived as a function of the entire field solution of the stresses, rather than being based solely on the most highly stressed point.

  7. Stability and error estimation for Component Adaptive Grid methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliger, Joseph; Zhu, Xiaolei

    1994-01-01

    Component adaptive grid (CAG) methods for solving hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDE's) are discussed in this paper. Applying recent stability results for a class of numerical methods on uniform grids. The convergence of these methods for linear problems on component adaptive grids is established here. Furthermore, the computational error can be estimated on CAG's using the stability results. Using these estimates, the error can be controlled on CAG's. Thus, the solution can be computed efficiently on CAG's within a given error tolerance. Computational results for time dependent linear problems in one and two space dimensions are presented.

  8. Method for separating disparate components in a fluid stream

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.

    1990-01-01

    The invention provides a method of separating a mixed component waste stream in a centrifugal separator. The mixed component waste stream is introduced into the separator and is centrifugally separated within a spinning rotor. A dual vortex separation occurs due to the phase density differences, with the phases exiting the rotor distinct from one another. In a preferred embodiment, aqueous solutions of organics can be separated with up to 100% efficiency. The relatively more dense water phase is centrifugally separated through a radially outer aperture in the separator, while the relatively less dense organic phase is separated through a radially inner aperture.

  9. Crystallochemiluminescence of solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gus'kov, A. P.; Nekrasova, L. P.; Gornakova, A. S.; Shikunova, I. A.

    2014-09-01

    It is shown that the chemiluminescence intensity from luminol solutions reaches a maximum when the latter are crystallized. This phenomenon is explained by the complex dynamics of the phase transition, chemical reactions, and degradation of electronic excitation energy. Luminescence of new type, called crystallochemiluminescence, is revealed.

  10. Knowledge Retrieval Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Kamran

    1998-01-01

    Excalibur RetrievalWare offers true knowledge retrieval solutions. Its fundamental technologies, Adaptive Pattern Recognition Processing and Semantic Networks, have capabilities for knowledge discovery and knowledge management of full-text, structured and visual information. The software delivers a combination of accuracy, extensibility,…

  11. Cells and Hypotonic Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bery, Julia

    1985-01-01

    Describes a demonstration designed to help students better understand the response of plant and animal cells to hypotonic solutions. The demonstration uses a balloon inside a flexible, thin-walled cardboard box. Air going in corresponds to water entering by osmosis, and, like real cells, if stretched enough, the balloon will burst. (DH)

  12. Service-based Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Lynda; Winston, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Solutions model used at Shelley High School in Idaho which gives students the opportunity to gain practical experience while tackling community problems. This approach is built on the three fundamentals of an integrated curriculum, a problem-solving focus, and service-based learning. Sample problems include increasing certain trout…

  13. Problems and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Examines some of the reasons tropical rain forests are being destroyed and ways people are working to protect these forests. Provides activities on how people can help, reason for saving the forests, individual actions related to forest problems and solutions, and issues and problems. Three copyable pages accompany activities. (Author/RT)

  14. Maintenance Crisis vs Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggard, Susie

    Industrial maintenance in Northeast Georgia is facing an acute crisis. Contributing factors are economic development that is depleting the work force, aging of the population, downsizing of the military, and lack of technical school graduates. Solutions to the crisis fall into three categories: short-term, mid-term, and long-term. For short-term…

  15. An Inexpensive Solution Calorimeter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Emma; Mindel, Sam; Robertson, Giles; Hughes, D. E. Peter

    2008-01-01

    We describe the construction of a simple solution calorimeter, using a miniature bead thermistor as a temperature-sensing element. This has a response time of a few seconds and made it possible to carry out a thermometric reaction in under a minute, which led to minimal heat losses. Small temperature changes of 1 K associated with enthalpies of…

  16. School Solutions for Cyberbullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This article offers solutions and steps to prevent cyberbullying. Schools can improve their ability to handle cyberbullying by educating staff members, students, and parents and by implementing rules and procedures for how to handle possible incidents. Among the steps is to include a section about cyberbullying and expectations in the student…

  17. Large Component Removal/Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, D. M.

    2002-02-27

    This paper describes the removal and disposal of the large components from Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant. The large components discussed include the three steam generators, pressurizer, and reactor pressure vessel. Two separate Exemption Requests, which included radiological characterizations, shielding evaluations, structural evaluations and transportation plans, were prepared and issued to the DOT for approval to ship these components; the first was for the three steam generators and one pressurizer, the second was for the reactor pressure vessel. Both Exemption Requests were submitted to the DOT in November 1999. The DOT approved the Exemption Requests in May and July of 2000, respectively. The steam generators and pressurizer have been removed from Maine Yankee and shipped to the processing facility. They were removed from Maine Yankee's Containment Building, loaded onto specially designed skid assemblies, transported onto two separate barges, tied down to the barges, th en shipped 2750 miles to Memphis, Tennessee for processing. The Reactor Pressure Vessel Removal Project is currently under way and scheduled to be completed by Fall of 2002. The planning, preparation and removal of these large components has required extensive efforts in planning and implementation on the part of all parties involved.

  18. Carcinogenicity of hair dye components.

    PubMed

    Van Duuren, B L

    1980-03-01

    The available animal carcinogenicity data on hair dye components was reviewed. From this review it became clear that certain hair dye components, some of which are still in hair dye formulations now on the market, are animal carcinogens. The compounds of concern that are still in use are: 3-amino-4-methoxyaniline, 2-nitro-4-aminoaniline and 3-nitro-4-hydroxyaniline. Certain azo dyes formerly used, and related compounds still in use, contain the benzidine moiety. Two of these compounds, Direct Blue 6 and Direct Black 38, have been shown to be metabolized in animals to the human carcinogen benzidine. Furthermore, skin absorption studies carried out with radiolabeled hair dye components applied to animal or human skin have conclusively shown that these compounds are systemically absorbed and excreted. Known cocarcinogens such as catechol and pyrogallol, which enhance benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenicity on mouse skin, are used as hair dye components. It is not known whether such compounds will enhance the carcinogenicity of substituted aniline hair dye chemicals. The available epidemiologic data are not sufficient to link hair dye use with an increased incidence in human cancer. PMID:6993608

  19. Sampling Errors of Variance Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Piet F.

    A study on sampling errors of variance components was conducted within the framework of generalizability theory by P. L. Smith (1978). The study used an intuitive approach for solving the problem of how to allocate the number of conditions to different facets in order to produce the most stable estimate of the universe score variance. Optimization…

  20. Factor Analysis via Components Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentler, Peter M.; de Leeuw, Jan

    2011-01-01

    When the factor analysis model holds, component loadings are linear combinations of factor loadings, and vice versa. This interrelation permits us to define new optimization criteria and estimation methods for exploratory factor analysis. Although this article is primarily conceptual in nature, an illustrative example and a small simulation show…

  1. Complement component 3 (C3)

    MedlinePlus

    C3 and C4 are the most commonly measured complement components. A complement test may be used to monitor people with an ... normal levels of the complement proteins C3 and C4 . Complement activity varies throughout the body. For example, ...

  2. Passive component manufacturing in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The serious downturn of optical fiber communication industry in the past three years speeds up the consolidation of passive component manufacturing. Automation activity and investment stopped due to no driving force from the volume demand. A lot of skillful but low cost labors must be needed in the future for manufacturing when the demand comes back. Except MEMS based VOA, most of components based on advanced technology seem to get delayed in most applications. Furthermore, the highly integrated products are also delayed and become uncertain, especially AWG technology. Most of the manufacturing of passive components already moved or are moving to Asia especially China. Browave already built its manufacturing factory and is almost doing all the manufacturing in Zhong Shan. Browave tries to optimize the value of Taiwan plus China, i.e., Tawan provides superior management system, quality systems and manufacturing engineering support where China provides a lot of skillful but low cost labors. Browave is now not only providing the basic elements like Couplers, Isolators, TFF add/drop filter, Thin Film based GFF (Gain Flattened Filters), but also providing "Dedicated Lines" for the components/modules/subsystems for the players who need the value as mentioned above.

  3. Sterility of packaged implant components.

    PubMed

    Worthington, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Several implant components in their original glass vial and peel-back packages were subjected to sterility testing to determine whether the contents remained sterile after the expiration date marked on the package had passed. The results from a university microbiology laboratory showed that the contents remained sterile for 6 to 11 years after the expiration dates. PMID:15973959

  4. Component Processes in Task Switching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiran, Nachshon; Chorev, Ziv; Sapir, Ayelet

    2000-01-01

    Studied task switching in 4 experiments involving 111 Israeli undergraduates. Results show the preparation for a task switch is not a by-product of general preparation by phasic alertness or predicting target onset and establish reconfiguration as a separate preparatory process. Suggests that there are at least three components of task switching…

  5. Carcinogenicity of hair dye components.

    PubMed

    Van Duuren, B L

    1980-03-01

    The available animal carcinogenicity data on hair dye components was reviewed. From this review it became clear that certain hair dye components, some of which are still in hair dye formulations now on the market, are animal carcinogens. The compounds of concern that are still in use are: 3-amino-4-methoxyaniline, 2-nitro-4-aminoaniline and 3-nitro-4-hydroxyaniline. Certain azo dyes formerly used, and related compounds still in use, contain the benzidine moiety. Two of these compounds, Direct Blue 6 and Direct Black 38, have been shown to be metabolized in animals to the human carcinogen benzidine. Furthermore, skin absorption studies carried out with radiolabeled hair dye components applied to animal or human skin have conclusively shown that these compounds are systemically absorbed and excreted. Known cocarcinogens such as catechol and pyrogallol, which enhance benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenicity on mouse skin, are used as hair dye components. It is not known whether such compounds will enhance the carcinogenicity of substituted aniline hair dye chemicals. The available epidemiologic data are not sufficient to link hair dye use with an increased incidence in human cancer.

  6. Solubility of pllutonium in alkaline salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Edwards, T.B.

    1993-02-26

    Plutonium solubility data from several studies have been evaluated. For each data set, a predictive model has been developed where appropriate. In addition, a statistical model and corresponding prediction intervals for plutonium solubility as a quadratic function of the hydroxide concentration have been developed. Because of the wide range of solution compositions, the solubility of plutonium can vary by as much as three orders of magnitude for any given hydroxide concentration and still remain within the prediction interval. Any nuclear safety assessments that depend on the maximum amount of plutonium dissolved in alkaline salt solutions should use concentrations at least as great as the upper prediction limits developed in this study. To increase the confidence in the prediction model, it is recommended that additional solubility tests be conducted at low hydroxide concentrations and with all of the other solution components involved. To validate the model for application to actual waste solutions, it is recommended that the plutonium solubilities in actual waste solutions be determined and compared to the values predicted by the quadratic model.

  7. Modeling fabrication of nuclear components: An integrative approach

    SciTech Connect

    Hench, K.W.

    1996-08-01

    Reduction of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the general downsizing of the nuclear weapons complex has presented challenges for Los Alamos. One is to design an optimized fabrication facility to manufacture nuclear weapon primary components in an environment of intense regulation and shrinking budgets. This dissertation presents an integrative two-stage approach to modeling the casting operation for fabrication of nuclear weapon primary components. The first stage optimizes personnel radiation exposure for the casting operation layout by modeling the operation as a facility layout problem formulated as a quadratic assignment problem. The solution procedure uses an evolutionary heuristic technique. The best solutions to the layout problem are used as input to the second stage - a simulation model that assesses the impact of competing layouts on operational performance. The focus of the simulation model is to determine the layout that minimizes personnel radiation exposures and nuclear material movement, and maximizes the utilization of capacity for finished units.

  8. Analytic solutions of an unclassified artifact /

    SciTech Connect

    Trent, Bruce C.

    2012-03-01

    This report provides the technical detail for analytic solutions for the inner and outer profiles of the unclassified CMM Test Artifact (LANL Part Number 157Y-700373, 5/03/2001) in terms of radius and polar angle. Furthermore, analytic solutions are derived for the legacy Sheffield measurement hardware, also in terms of radius and polar angle, using part coordinates, i.e., relative to the analytic profile solutions obtained. The purpose of this work is to determine the exact solution for the “cosine correction” term inherent to measurement with the Sheffield hardware. The cosine correction is required in order to interpret the actual measurements taken by the hardware in terms of an actual part definition, or “knot-point spline definition,” that typically accompanies a component drawing. Specifically, there are two portions of the problem: first an analytic solution must be obtained for any point on the part, e.g., given the radii and the straight lines that define the part, it is required to find an exact solution for the inner and outer profile for any arbitrary polar angle. Next, the problem of the inspection of this part must be solved, i.e., given an arbitrary sphere (representing the inspection hardware) that comes in contact with the part (inner and outer profiles) at any arbitrary polar angle, it is required to determine the exact location of that intersection. This is trivial for the case of concentric circles. In the present case, however, the spherical portion of the profiles is offset from the defined center of the part, making the analysis nontrivial. Here, a simultaneous solution of the part profiles and the sphere was obtained.

  9. A simple closed-form solution for assessing concentration uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros, F. P. J.; Fiori, Aldo; Bellin, Alberto

    2011-12-01

    We propose closed-form approximate solutions for the moments of a nonreactive tracer that can be used in applications, such as risk analysis. This is in line with the tenet that analytical solutions provide useful information, with minimum cost, during initial site characterization efforts and can serve as a preliminary screening tool when used with prior knowledge. We show that with the help of a few assumptions, the first-order solutions of the concentration moments proposed by Fiori and Dagan (2000) can be further simplified to assume a form similar to well-known deterministic solutions, therefore facilitating their use in applications. A highly anisotropic formation is assumed, and we neglect the transverse components of the two-particle correlation trajectory. The proposed solution compares well with the work of Fiori and Dagan while presenting the same simplicity of use of existing solutions for homogeneous porous media.

  10. The sustainability solutions agenda.

    PubMed

    Sarewitz, Daniel; Clapp, Richard; Crumbley, Cathy; Kriebel, David; Tickner, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Progress toward a more sustainable society is usually described in a "knowledge-first" framework, where science characterizes a problem in terms of its causes and mechanisms as a basis for subsequent action. Here we present a different approach-A Sustainability Solutions Agenda (SSA)-which seeks from the outset to identify the possible pathways to solutions. SSA focuses on uncovering paths to sustainability by improving current technological practice, and applying existing knowledge to identify and evaluate technological alternatives. SSA allows people and organizations to transition toward greater sustainability without sacrificing essential technological functions, and therefore does not threaten the interests that depend on those functions. Whereas knowledge-first approaches view scientific information as sufficient to convince people to take the right actions, even if those actions are perceived as against their immediate interests, SSA allows values to evolve toward greater attention to sustainability as a result of the positive experience of solving a problem. PMID:22776577

  11. Software Solutions for ICME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, G. J.; Engstrom, A.; Bernhardt, R.; Prahl, U.; Adam, L.; Seyfarth, J.; Apel, M.; de Saracibar, C. Agelet; Korzhavyi, P.; Ågren, J.; Patzak, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Computational Materials Engineering expert group (ICMEg), a coordination activity of the European Commission, aims at developing a global and open standard for information exchange between the heterogeneous varieties of numerous simulation tools. The ICMEg consortium coordinates respective developments by a strategy of networking stakeholders in the first International Workshop on Software Solutions for ICME, compiling identified and relevant software tools into the Handbook of Software Solutions for ICME, discussing strategies for interoperability between different software tools during a second (planned) international workshop, and eventually proposing a scheme for standardized information exchange in a future book or document. The present article summarizes these respective actions to provide the ICME community with some additional insights and resources from which to help move this field forward.

  12. The sustainability solutions agenda.

    PubMed

    Sarewitz, Daniel; Clapp, Richard; Crumbley, Cathy; Kriebel, David; Tickner, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Progress toward a more sustainable society is usually described in a "knowledge-first" framework, where science characterizes a problem in terms of its causes and mechanisms as a basis for subsequent action. Here we present a different approach-A Sustainability Solutions Agenda (SSA)-which seeks from the outset to identify the possible pathways to solutions. SSA focuses on uncovering paths to sustainability by improving current technological practice, and applying existing knowledge to identify and evaluate technological alternatives. SSA allows people and organizations to transition toward greater sustainability without sacrificing essential technological functions, and therefore does not threaten the interests that depend on those functions. Whereas knowledge-first approaches view scientific information as sufficient to convince people to take the right actions, even if those actions are perceived as against their immediate interests, SSA allows values to evolve toward greater attention to sustainability as a result of the positive experience of solving a problem.

  13. Solute transport in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, David E.

    Continued research interest in transport in the subsurface was demonstrated at the “Solute Transport in Groundwater” session held at the 1985 AGU Spring Meeting in Baltimore. This session, following on the heels of the very successful special symposium on “Coupling Geochemical and Hydrologic Models for Subsurface Solute Transport,” was organized by Lenny Konikow of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS, Reston, Va.) and copresided by Steve Gorelick (USGS, Menlo Park, Calif.) and David Dougherty (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.). Participation was strong, with 12 contributed papers and about 150 attendees. The papers addressed a wide variety of topics, ranging from the theoretical to the applied, from physics to numerical methods.

  14. Antioxidative components of sweet potatoes.

    PubMed

    Hayase, F; Kato, H

    1984-02-01

    The antioxidative activity of a 70% methanol extract of sweet potatoes was estimated in a linoleic acid-aqueous system. The extract had a markedly strong antioxidative activity. Major phenolic components contained in the 70% methanol extract were identified as chlorogenic acid and isochlorogenic acid-1, -2 and -3 by using high-performance liquid chromatography. The other minor free phenolics were identified, or tentatively identified, as caffeic acid and 4-o-caffeoylquinic acid. Chlorogenic acid and/or isochlorogenic acids, however, had only slight antioxidative activity. From the results of the addition of chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acids and the other coexisting components contained in the sweet potato extract, the effective antioxidant activity of the sweet potato extract was proposed to be mainly based on the synergistic effect of phenolic compounds with amino acids. PMID:6737096

  15. Nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Glenn J.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint. Small gaps limit horizontal displacement of components during a seismic occurrence and therefore reduce dynamic loadings on the free lower end. The reactor vessel and reactor guard vessel use thicker section roll-forged rings welded between the vessel straight shell sections and the bottom hemispherical head sections. The inside of the reactor guard vessel ring forging contains local vertical dovetail slots and upper ledge pockets to mount and retain field fitted and installed blocks. As an option, the horizontal displacement of the reactor vessel core support cone can be limited by including shop fitted/installed local blocks in opposing alignment with the reactor vessel forged ring. Beams embedded in the wall of the reactor building protrude into apertures in the thermal insulation shell adjacent the reactor guard vessel ring and have motion limit blocks attached thereto to provide to a predetermined clearance between the blocks and reactor guard vessel ring.

  16. Component Modeling Approach Software Tool

    2010-08-23

    The Component Modeling Approach Software Tool (CMAST) establishes a set of performance libraries of approved components (frames, glass, and spacer) which can be accessed for configuring fenestration products for a project, and btaining a U-factor, Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC), and Visible Transmittance (VT) rating for those products, which can then be reflected in a CMA Label Certificate for code compliance. CMAST is web-based as well as client-based. The completed CMA program and software toolmore » will be useful in several ways for a vast array of stakeholders in the industry: Generating performance ratings for bidding projects Ascertaining credible and accurate performance data Obtaining third party certification of overall product performance for code compliance« less

  17. Antioxidative components of sweet potatoes.

    PubMed

    Hayase, F; Kato, H

    1984-02-01

    The antioxidative activity of a 70% methanol extract of sweet potatoes was estimated in a linoleic acid-aqueous system. The extract had a markedly strong antioxidative activity. Major phenolic components contained in the 70% methanol extract were identified as chlorogenic acid and isochlorogenic acid-1, -2 and -3 by using high-performance liquid chromatography. The other minor free phenolics were identified, or tentatively identified, as caffeic acid and 4-o-caffeoylquinic acid. Chlorogenic acid and/or isochlorogenic acids, however, had only slight antioxidative activity. From the results of the addition of chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acids and the other coexisting components contained in the sweet potato extract, the effective antioxidant activity of the sweet potato extract was proposed to be mainly based on the synergistic effect of phenolic compounds with amino acids.

  18. Characterization of lunar nitrogen components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, R. H.; Clayton, R. N.; Mayeda, T. K.

    1976-01-01

    Rocks of known and disparate cosmic-ray ages are analyzed to find the spallation production rate of N-15. A soil breccia of known formation age was analyzed for its bearing on the antiquity of the isotopically light component. Further stepwise heating analysis of soils shed further light on occurrences of the components. Lunar soil samples were etched slightly by fluorine, revealing significant differences in isotopic ratios between carbon on grain surfaces and bulk carbon; the surface carbon is not retained during agglutinate formation. Etching revealed that about 25% of the total nitrogen resides on the surface of grains; the nitrogen is isotopically heavy. Etching also revealed about 50% of helium in soils residing below the readily etched outermost 1% of soil grain surfaces.

  19. Stabilization of polyaniline solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Wrobleski, D.A.; Benicewicz, B.C.

    1993-12-01

    Adding hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS) to N-methyl- pyrrolidinone (NMP) solutions of polyaniline delays gelation. It is hypothesized that HALS act in some manner other than as traditional antioxidants in preventing gelation; the secondary amine functional group appears to play a critical role, perhaps by disrupting the physical crystallization network that may contribute to gelation. Pyrrolidine, a secondary amine, or ammonia is an effective cosolvent with NMP in dissolving PAn-EB (emeraldine base). 6 refs, 4 figs.

  20. A fluorimeter for solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Mary H.; Warner, E. Ray

    1953-01-01

    description of and complete drawings for the construction of a fluorimeter for the measurement of fluorescence of solutions are given. The instrument is sturdy and versatile. It may be used with various phototubes and measuring devices. It is constructed so that phototubes and filters may be changed readily. Sensitivity is controlled easily over a wide range by limiting the size of either the ultraviolet or fluorescent light beam with standard apertures.

  1. Kernel Near Principal Component Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MARTIN, SHAWN B.

    2002-07-01

    We propose a novel algorithm based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA). First, we present an interesting approximation of PCA using Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization. Next, we combine our approximation with the kernel functions from Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to provide a nonlinear generalization of PCA. After benchmarking our algorithm in the linear case, we explore its use in both the linear and nonlinear cases. We include applications to face data analysis, handwritten digit recognition, and fluid flow.

  2. Quasar redshifts: the intrinsic component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Peter M.

    2016-09-01

    The large observed redshift of quasars has suggested large cosmological distances and a corresponding enormous energy output to explain the brightness or luminosity as seen at earth. Alternative or complementary sources of redshift have not been identified by the astronomical community. This study examines one possible source of additional redshift: an intrinsic component based on the plasma characteristics of high temperature and high electron density which are believed to be present.

  3. NAT: perspectives for cellular components.

    PubMed

    Barbara, J A

    1999-12-01

    The introduction of routine testing to detect viral genomes in donated blood was originally driven by requirements for plasma fractionation in relation to exclusion of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA. Nevertheless, it was obvious from the outset that a dual standard for fractionated products and individual blood components would be untenable. In many countries therefore, planning for introduction of nucleic acid testing (NAT) of blood incorporated progression to release of HCV RNA tested components. HCV was singled out because of its long seronegative 'window period', relatively high prevalence and incidence in blood donors, rapid burst time and high genome copy number during seroconversion. The latter properties made HCV particularly suitable for detection in pools of samples. If HCV RNA testing is required for release of labile components such as platelets, rapid provision of NAT results is vital because of short shelf life of platelets and the problems of delays when resolving the infectious unit in a reactive pool. For NAT release of labile components smaller sample pool sizes allow faster resolution of RNA positive units. Smaller pools involve high test throughput, the likely need for more testing laboratories and ensuing increased costs. Single sample testing is the ultimate extrapolation of reducing sample pool size. With reduced pool sizes or single sample testing, the option of testing for other viruses (e.g. HIV or HBV) singly or in multiplex also arises. The cost-benefit and incremental yield of such strategies in the light of 'combo' assays for HIV Ag/Ab and the recently described HCV Ag assay will require careful and objective assessment, together with re-appraisal of anti-HBc screening for detection of HBV infected donors at the "tail-end" of carriage. PMID:10686060

  4. Advanced micromoulding of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Hans-Dieter; Ehrfeld, Wolfgang; Paatzsch, Thomas; Smaglinski, Ingo; Weber, Lutz

    1999-09-01

    There is a growing need for micro-optical components in the field of tele- and datacom applications. Such components have to be very precise and should be available in reasonable numbers. Microtechnology provides manufacturing techniques that fulfill both requirements. Using micro electro discharge machining, laser micromachining, ultra precision milling and deep lithography with subsequent electroforming methods, complex tools for the replication of highly precise plastic parts have been manufactured. In many cases a combination of methods enumerated above gives a tool which shows both functionality and cost-efficiency. As examples we present the realization of integrated-optical components with passive fiber-waveguide coupling used as components in optical networks and as velocity sensors for two-phase flows, like liquids containing small gas bubbles or particles. In the first case multimode 4 X 4 star couplers have been manufactured in a pilot series that show excess loss values below 3 dB and a uniformity better than 3 dB at 830 nm. This performance becomes possible by using a compression molding process. By stamping the microstructured mold into a semifinished PMMA plate exact replication of the molds as well as very low surface roughness of the waveguide side walls could be observed. In the second case the waveguide channels of the flow sensors show dimensions of between 20 micrometer and 100 micrometer and an aspect ratio of about 20. These structures have been replicated by injection molding of PMMA using variotherm process treatment with a cycle time of about 2 - 3 min.

  5. Contact solution algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielking, John T.

    1989-01-01

    Two algorithms for obtaining static contact solutions are described in this presentation. Although they were derived for contact problems involving specific structures (a tire and a solid rubber cylinder), they are sufficiently general to be applied to other shell-of-revolution and solid-body contact problems. The shell-of-revolution contact algorithm is a method of obtaining a point load influence coefficient matrix for the portion of shell surface that is expected to carry a contact load. If the shell is sufficiently linear with respect to contact loading, a single influence coefficient matrix can be used to obtain a good approximation of the contact pressure distribution. Otherwise, the matrix will be updated to reflect nonlinear load-deflection behavior. The solid-body contact algorithm utilizes a Lagrange multiplier to include the contact constraint in a potential energy functional. The solution is found by applying the principle of minimum potential energy. The Lagrange multiplier is identified as the contact load resultant for a specific deflection. At present, only frictionless contact solutions have been obtained with these algorithms. A sliding tread element has been developed to calculate friction shear force in the contact region of the rolling shell-of-revolution tire model.

  6. Using a solutions approach.

    PubMed

    Kimberley, Mike

    2004-06-01

    Companies today are placing an even greater emphasis on keeping all recordable employee injuries to a minimum. A reduction in hand and finger injuries, along with their associated medical and indemnity costs, can have a positive impact on the company's bottom line. Safety actually can provide revenue when the safety program extends beyond the confines of specific product applications. Conducting a careful and complete analysis of all of the critical issues in a company's production process and the procedures in its safety program will allow the organization to identify opportunities for cutting costs while enhancing worker comfort and safety. Identifying business solutions--and not just product applications--will provide organizations with additional cost saving opportunities. Tighter controls, standardization, SKU reduction, productivity improvements, and recycling are just a few of the potential solutions that can be applied. Partnering with a reputable glove manufacturer that offers a critical safety program analysis has the potential to provide numerous, long-term advantages. A business solutions approach can provide potential productivity improvements, injury reductions, standardization of best practices, and SKU reductions, all of which result in a safer work environment. PMID:15232914

  7. Design for pressure regulating components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichmann, H.

    1973-01-01

    The design development for Pressure Regulating Components included a regulator component trade-off study with analog computer performance verification to arrive at a final optimized regulator configuration for the Space Storable Propulsion Module, under development for a Jupiter Orbiter mission. This application requires the pressure regulator to be capable of long-term fluorine exposure. In addition, individual but basically identical (for purposes of commonality) units are required for separate oxidizer and fuel pressurization. The need for dual units requires improvement in the regulation accuracy over present designs. An advanced regulator concept was prepared featuring redundant bellows, all metallic/ceramic construction, friction-free guidance of moving parts, gas damping, and the elimination of coil springs normally used for reference forces. The activities included testing of actual size seat/poppet components to determine actual discharge coefficients and flow forces. The resulting data was inserted into the computer model of the regulator. Computer simulation of the propulsion module performance over two mission profiles indicated satisfactory minimization of propellant residual requirements imposed by regulator performance uncertainties.

  8. Component-Based Visualization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    A software system has been developed that gives engineers and operations personnel with no "formal" programming expertise, but who are familiar with the Microsoft Windows operating system, the ability to create visualization displays to monitor the health and performance of aircraft/spacecraft. This software system is currently supporting the X38 V201 spacecraft component/system testing and is intended to give users the ability to create, test, deploy, and certify their subsystem displays in a fraction of the time that it would take to do so using previous software and programming methods. Within the visualization system there are three major components: the developer, the deployer, and the widget set. The developer is a blank canvas with widget menu items that give users the ability to easily create displays. The deployer is an application that allows for the deployment of the displays created using the developer application. The deployer has additional functionality that the developer does not have, such as printing of displays, screen captures to files, windowing of displays, and also serves as the interface into the documentation archive and help system. The third major component is the widget set. The widgets are the visual representation of the items that will make up the display (i.e., meters, dials, buttons, numerical indicators, string indicators, and the like). This software was developed using Visual C++ and uses COTS (commercial off-the-shelf) software where possible.

  9. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.

    1994-03-01

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene (TCE) and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvents in electronic component cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. In addition, the use of robotic and automated systems can reduce the manual handling of parts that necessitates additional cleaning. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations.

  10. Blood components for oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Bowell, G R

    1981-01-01

    World-wide blood demands are increasing at 18% per year. Around 50% of collected blood is used whole -- for surgery, accident victims, anaemias, malignancies, and haemoglobinopathies. Blood component therapy is placing extraordinary demands upon Blood Collection Services. This therapy uses multiple or single cell types, and a variety of plasma-derived components. Malignant over-growth depresses marrow function; and, active treatment, temporarily, similarly depresses cell production. Specific transfusion cells are available for the patient's protective mechanism. Platelets are required, fairly fresh, for depletion and for their primary clotting ability. Similarly, infused platelets are used to counter local or systemic drug sensitive platelet depression. From plasma components, specific coagulation products are available for health and during surgery for haemophilia, Christmas, and Von Willebrand's diseases. Prior to oral surgery, all possible coagulation abnormality problems need investigation and specific factors. Anti-coagulation therapy must be reduced or stopped as indicated by the need for therapy and the availability of the appropriate, previously depressed, Vitamin K dependent-clotting factors (II, VII, IX, X). Local measures, formerly the only treatment, are now of less importance. Some countries do not have these blood factors available.

  11. Using an architectural approach to integrate heterogeneous, distributed software components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Purtilo, James M.

    1995-01-01

    Many computer programs cannot be easily integrated because their components are distributed and heterogeneous, i.e., they are implemented in diverse programming languages, use different data representation formats, or their runtime environments are incompatible. In many cases, programs are integrated by modifying their components or interposing mechanisms that handle communication and conversion tasks. For example, remote procedure call (RPC) helps integrate heterogeneous, distributed programs. When configuring such programs, however, mechanisms like RPC must be used explicitly by software developers in order to integrate collections of diverse components. Each collection may require a unique integration solution. This paper describes improvements to the concepts of software packaging and some of our experiences in constructing complex software systems from a wide variety of components in different execution environments. Software packaging is a process that automatically determines how to integrate a diverse collection of computer programs based on the types of components involved and the capabilities of available translators and adapters in an environment. Software packaging provides a context that relates such mechanisms to software integration processes and reduces the cost of configuring applications whose components are distributed or implemented in different programming languages. Our software packaging tool subsumes traditional integration tools like UNIX make by providing a rule-based approach to software integration that is independent of execution environments.

  12. Amine-phenyl multi-component gradient stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Dewoolkar, Veeren C; Kannan, Balamurali; Ashraf, Kayesh M; Higgins, Daniel A; Collinson, Maryanne M

    2015-09-01

    Continuous multi-component gradients in amine and phenyl groups were fabricated using controlled rate infusion (CRI). Solutions prepared from either 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTEOS) or phenyltrimethoxysilane (PTMOS) were infused, in a sequential fashion, at a controlled rate into an empty graduated cylinder housing a vertically aligned thin layer chromatography (TLC) plate. The hydrolyzed precursors reacted with an abundance of silanol (SiOH) groups on the TLC plates, covalently attaching the functionalized silane to its surface. The extent of modification by phenyl and amine was determined by the kinetics of each reaction and the exposure time at each point along the TLC plate. The local concentrations of phenyl and amine were measured using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The profile of the multi-component gradients strongly depended on the order of infusion, the direction of the gradient and the presence of available surface silanol groups. A slightly higher amount of phenyl can be deposited on the TLC plate by first modifying its surface with amine groups as they serve as a catalyst, enhancing condensation. Separation of water- and fat-soluble vitamins and the control of retention factors were demonstrated on the multi-component gradient TLC plates. Uniformly modified and single-component TLC plates gave different separations compared to the multi-component gradient plates. The retention factors of the individual vitamins depended on the order of surface modification, the spotting end, and whether the multi-component gradients align or oppose each other. PMID:26255112

  13. Computer analysis of vibrational spectra of aqueous ethanol solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burikov, S. A.; Dolenko, T. A.; Kurchatov, I. S.; Patsaeva, S. V.; Starokurov, Yu. V.

    2012-09-01

    Results of decomposition of vibrational spectra for aqueous ethanol solutions into components in the region of hydroxyl group stretching vibrations are presented. The infrared light absorption and Raman scattering spectra are investigated for alcohol concentrations in the solution changing from 0 to 90 mass %. Methods of higher derivatives and genetic algorithms together with the simplex method are used to investigate the OH stretching vibrational band contour. Independent methods of spectral structure resolution demonstrate good agreement in the number of the major spectral components as well as in the dependences of the peak wavenumbers, band widths, and amplitudes of spectral components on the ethanol concentration in water. The observed changes in the shape of the spectral contour for OH stretching vibration and, therefore, its components are explained in terms of the hydrogen bonding in non-electrolyte/water mixtures.

  14. Soliton dynamics to the multi-component complex coupled integrable dispersionless equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zong-Wei; Yu, Guo-Fu; Zhu, Zuo-Nong

    2016-11-01

    The generalized coupled integrable dispersionless (CID) equation describes the current-fed string in a certain external magnetic field. In this paper, we propose a multi-component complex CID equation. The integrability of the multi-component complex equation is confirmed by constructing Lax pairs. One-soliton and two-soliton solutions are investigated to exhibit rich evolution properties. Especially, similar as the multi-component short pulse equation and the first negative AKNS equation, periodic interaction, parallel solitons, elastic and inelastic interaction, energy re-distribution happen between two solitons. Multi-soliton solutions are given in terms of Pfaffian expression by virtue of Hirota's bilinear method.

  15. Non-traditional solution routes to ferroelectric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, T.J.; Buchheit, C.D.; Al-Shareef, H.N.

    1997-04-01

    Non-traditional precursor solutions for production of ferroelectric thin films have been developed for PXZT (X = L, N, S), SBT, and PMN systems. For PXZT and SBT, pyridine is a key solvent, wherein, it both solubilizes and reduces the reactivity of the individual components of the solution. Further control of the final films has been obtained using novel tailor-made precursors to dictate their properties.

  16. Structural analysis methods development for turbine hot section components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. L.

    1989-01-01

    The structural analysis technologies and activities of the NASA Lewis Research Center's gas turbine engine HOT Section Technoloogy (HOST) program are summarized. The technologies synergistically developed and validated include: time-varying thermal/mechanical load models; component-specific automated geometric modeling and solution strategy capabilities; advanced inelastic analysis methods; inelastic constitutive models; high-temperature experimental techniques and experiments; and nonlinear structural analysis codes. Features of the program that incorporate the new technologies and their application to hot section component analysis and design are described. Improved and, in some cases, first-time 3-D nonlinear structural analyses of hot section components of isotropic and anisotropic nickel-base superalloys are presented.

  17. A Goal Seeking Strategy for Constructing Systems from Alternative Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, Mark E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology to efficiently construct feasible systems then modify feasible systems to meet successive goals by selecting from alternative components, a problem recognized to be n-p complete. The methodology provides a means to catalog and model alternative components. A presented system modeling Structure is robust enough to model a wide variety of systems and provides a means to compare and evaluate alternative systems. These models act as input to a methodology for selecting alternative components to construct feasible systems and modify feasible systems to meet design goals and objectives. The presented algorithm's ability to find a restricted solution, as defined by a unique set of requirements, is demonstrated against an exhaustive search of a sample of proposed shuttle modifications. The utility of the algorithm is demonstrated by comparing results from the algorithm with results from three NASA shuttle evolution studies using their value systems and assumptions.

  18. Laser ultrasonic multi-component imaging

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Thomas K.; Telschow, Kenneth

    2011-01-25

    Techniques for ultrasonic determination of the interfacial relationship of multi-component systems are discussed. In implementations, a laser energy source may be used to excite a multi-component system including a first component and a second component at least in partial contact with the first component. Vibrations resulting from the excitation may be detected for correlation with a resonance pattern indicating if discontinuity exists at the interface of the first and second components.

  19. Component Control System for a Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser-Chanpong, Nathan (Inventor); Spain, Ivan (Inventor); Dawson, Andrew D. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Akinyode, Akinjide Akinniyi (Inventor); Reed, Ryan M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A vehicle includes a chassis, a modular component, and a central operating system. The modular component is supported by the chassis. The central operating system includes a component control system, a primary master controller, and a secondary master controller. The component control system is configured for controlling the modular component. The primary and secondary master controllers are in operative communication with the component control system. The primary and secondary master controllers are configured to simultaneously transmit commands to the component control system. The component control system is configured to accept commands from the secondary master controller only when a fault occurs in the primary master controller.

  20. Hydrocarbon components in carbonaceous meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissin, Y. V.

    2003-05-01

    Currently, the presence of free n-alkanes and isoprenoid alkanes in carbonaceous meteorites is usually explained either by microbial contamination during the period between the meteorite fall and collection or by contamination from the environment of analytical laboratories and museums. The goal of this research was to repeat analysis of hydrocarbon components in meteorites and to investigate possible meteorite contamination routes discussed in the literature. Experimental analysis of free organic constituents in five carbonaceous meteorites by infrared spectroscopy (IR) and gas chromatographic (GC) methods confirmed the presence of extractable aliphatic components, n-alkanes in the C 15H 32-C 27H 56 range and isoprenoid alkanes (phytane, pristane, and norpristane), in some of these meteorites. The contents of these compounds vary depending on the source. Insoluble organic components of two meteorites (meteorite kerogens) were isolated, and their composition was analyzed by IR and cracking/GC methods. Comparison with the data on several terrestrial contamination sources proposed in the literature shows that the presence of free saturated hydrocarbons in meteorites and the composition of the meteorite kerogen could not be explained either by microbial contamination or by contamination from the laboratory environment. The types of the hydrocarbons in meteorites resemble those typical of ancient terrestrial deposits of organic-rich sediments, except for the absence of lighter hydrocarbons, which apparently slowly evaporated in space, and multi-ring naphthenic compounds of the biologic origin, steranes, terpanes, etc. The prevailing current explanation for the presence of free linear saturated hydrocarbons in carbonaceous meteorites, apart from contamination, is the abiotic route from hydrogen and carbon monoxide. However, the data on the structure of meteorite kerogens require a search for different routes that initially produce complex polymeric structures containing

  1. Rapid Regional Centroid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, S.; Zhan, Z.; Luo, Y.; Ni, S.; Chen, Y.; Helmberger, D. V.

    2009-12-01

    The 2008 Wells Nevada Earthquake was recorded by 164 broadband USArray stations within a distance of 550km (5 degrees) with all azimuths uniformly sampled. To establish the source parameters, we applied the Cut and Paste (CAP) code to all the stations to obtain a mechanism (strike/dip/rake=35/41/-85) at a depth of 9km and Mw=5.9. Surface wave shifts range from -8s to 8s which are in good agreement with ambient seismic noise (ASN) predictions. Here we use this data set to test the accuracy of the number of stations needed to obtain adequate solutions (position of the compressional and tension axis) for mechanism. The stations were chosen at random where combinations of Pnl and surface waves were used to establish mechanism and depth. If the event is bracketed by two stations, we obtain an accurate magnitude with good solutions about 80% of the trials. Complete solutions from four stations or Pnl from 10 stations prove reliable in nearly all situations. We also explore the use of this dataset in locating the event using a combination of surface wave travel times and/or the full waveform inversion (CAPloc) that uses the CAP shifts to refine locations. If the mechanism is known (fixed) only a few stations is needed to locate an event to within 5km if date is available at less than 150km. In contrast, surface wave travel times (calibrated to within one second) produce amazing accurate locations with only 6 stations reasonably distributed. It appears this approach is easily automated as suggested by Scrivner and Helmberger (1995) who discussed travel times of Pnl and surface waves and the evolving of source accuracy as the various phases arrive.

  2. Parallel Assembly of LIGA Components

    SciTech Connect

    Christenson, T.R.; Feddema, J.T.

    1999-03-04

    In this paper, a prototype robotic workcell for the parallel assembly of LIGA components is described. A Cartesian robot is used to press 386 and 485 micron diameter pins into a LIGA substrate and then place a 3-inch diameter wafer with LIGA gears onto the pins. Upward and downward looking microscopes are used to locate holes in the LIGA substrate, pins to be pressed in the holes, and gears to be placed on the pins. This vision system can locate parts within 3 microns, while the Cartesian manipulator can place the parts within 0.4 microns.

  3. Principal components analysis competitive learning.

    PubMed

    López-Rubio, Ezequiel; Ortiz-de-Lazcano-Lobato, Juan Miguel; Muñoz-Pérez, José; Gómez-Ruiz, José Antonio

    2004-11-01

    We present a new neural model that extends the classical competitive learning by performing a principal components analysis (PCA) at each neuron. This model represents an improvement with respect to known local PCA methods, because it is not needed to present the entire data set to the network on each computing step. This allows a fast execution while retaining the dimensionality-reduction properties of the PCA. Furthermore, every neuron is able to modify its behavior to adapt to the local dimensionality of the input distribution. Hence, our model has a dimensionality estimation capability. The experimental results we present show the dimensionality-reduction capabilities of the model with multisensor images.

  4. Rotor component displacement measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Mercer, Gary D.; Li, Ming C.; Baum, Charles R.

    2003-05-27

    A measuring system for measuring axial displacement of a tube relative to an axially stationary component in a rotating rotor assembly includes at least one displacement sensor adapted to be located normal to a longitudinal axis of the tube; an insulated cable system adapted for passage through the rotor assembly; a rotatable proximitor module located axially beyond the rotor assembly to which the cables are connected; and a telemetry system operatively connected to the proximitor module for sampling signals from the proximitor module and forwarding data to a ground station.

  5. TFTR CAMAC systems and components

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, W.A.; Bergin, W.; Sichta, P.

    1987-08-01

    Princeton's tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR) utilizes Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) to provide instrumentation for real and quasi real time control, monitoring, and data acquisition systems. This paper describes and discusses the complement of CAMAC hardware systems and components that comprise the interface for tokamak control and measurement instrumentation, and communication with the central instrumentation control and data acquisition (CICADA) system. It also discusses CAMAC reliability and calibration, types of modules used, a summary of data acquisition and control points, and various diagnostic maintenance tools used to support and troubleshoot typical CAMAC systems on TFTR.

  6. Radiographic solution contamination.

    PubMed

    Hardman, P K; Tilmon, M F; Taylor, T S

    1987-06-01

    Contamination of processor solutions adversely affects the image quality of radiographic films. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of developer or fixer contaminant that was necessary to produce a significant densitometric change in the base plus fog, speed, or contrast optical density readings for panoramic film. Significant differences in base plus fog (after 16 mL of fixer contaminant was added to developer), speed index (after 4 mL), and contrast index (after 8 mL) were observed in comparison with control values. PMID:3473399

  7. Characterizing solute-lean defects in superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuelsson, E.; Domingue, J. A.; Maurer, G. E.

    1990-08-01

    Solute-lean defects, commonly called white spots, are frequently found in superalloys. These defects limit the service life of components made from superalloys, and alloy producers have devoted intense study to their characterization and elimination. Recent work shows that solute lean defects can be classified as "discrete," "diffuse" and "mini," and can be further classified into "clean" and "dirty" white spots. More than one formation mechanism for white spots is exemplified by the chemical and morphological differences between discrete, diffuse and mini white spots. White spot detection depends on the thermomechanically developed precipitation of hardening phases, coupled with specific etches that preferentially react to microstructure differences. The white spot defect is indigenous to the vacuum arc remelting process, but defect formation can be minimized by careful process control.

  8. Generating Problems from Problems and Solutions from Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcavi, Abraham; Resnick, Zippora

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a geometrical solution to a problem that is usually solved geometrically as an example of how alternative solutions may enrich the teaching and learning of mathematics. (Contains 11 figures.)

  9. Refined solution structure of human profilin I.

    PubMed Central

    Metzler, W. J.; Farmer, B. T.; Constantine, K. L.; Friedrichs, M. S.; Lavoie, T.; Mueller, L.

    1995-01-01

    Profilin is a ubiquitous eukaryotic protein that binds to both cytosolic actin and the phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate. These dual competitive binding capabilities of profilin suggest that profilin serves as a link between the phosphatidyl inositol cycle and actin polymerization, and thus profilin may be an essential component in the signaling pathway leading to cytoskeletal rearrangement. The refined three-dimensional solution structure of human profilin I has been determined using multidimensional heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. Twenty structures were selected to represent the solution conformational ensemble. This ensemble of structures has root-mean-square distance deviations from the mean structure of 0.58 A for the backbone atoms and 0.98 A for all non-hydrogen atoms. Comparison of the solution structure of human profilin to the crystal structure of bovine profilin reveals that, although profilin adopts essentially identical conformations in both states, the solution structure is more compact than the crystal structure. Interestingly, the regions that show the most structural diversity are located at or near the actin-binding site of profilin. We suggest that structural differences are reflective of dynamical properties of profilin that facilitate favorable interactions with actin. The global folding pattern of human profilin also closely resembles that of Acanthamoeba profilin I, reflective of the 22% sequence identity and approximately 45% sequence similarity between these two proteins. PMID:7795529

  10. Turbulent drag reduction in nonionic surfactant solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamano, Shinji; Itoh, Motoyuki; Kato, Katsuo; Yokota, Kazuhiko

    2010-05-01

    There are only a few studies on the drag-reducing effect of nonionic surfactant solutions which are nontoxic and biodegradable, while many investigations of cationic surfactant solutions have been performed so far. First, the drag-reducing effects of a nonionic surfactant (AROMOX), which mainly consisted of oleyldimethylamineoxide, was investigated by measuring the pressure drop in the pipe flow at solvent Reynolds numbers Re between 1000 and 60 000. Second, we investigated the drag-reducing effect of a nonionic surfactant on the turbulent boundary layer at momentum-thickness Reynolds numbers Reθ from 443 to 814 using two-component laser-Doppler velocimetry and particle image velocimetry systems. At the temperature of nonionic surfactant solutions, T =25 °C, the maximum drag reduction ratio for AROMOX 500 ppm was about 50%, in the boundary layer flow, although the drag reduction ratio was larger than 60% in pipe flow. Turbulence statistics and structures for AROMOX 500 ppm showed the behavior of typical drag-reducing flow such as suppression of turbulence and modification of near-wall vortices, but they were different from those of drag-reducing cationic surfactant solutions, in which bilayered structures of the fluctuating velocity vectors were observed in high activity.

  11. Solutions for transients in arbitrarily branching cables

    PubMed Central

    Major, Guy; Evans, Jonathan D.; Jack, J. Julian B.

    1993-01-01

    Analytical solutions are derived for arbitrarily branching passive neurone models with a soma and somatic shunt, for synaptic inputs and somatic voltage commands, for both perfect and imperfect somatic voltage clamp. The solutions are infinite exponential series. Perfect clamp decouples different dendritic trees at the soma: each exponential component exists only in one tree; its time constant is independent of stimulating and recording position within the tree; its amplitude is the product of a factor constant over that entire tree and factors dependent on stimulating and recording positions. Imperfect clamp to zero is mathematically equivalent to voltage recording with a shunt. As the series resistance increases, different dendritic trees become more strongly coupled. A number of interesting response symmetries are evident. The solutions reveal parameter dependencies, including an insensitivity of the early parts of the responses to specific membrane resistivity and somatic shunt, and an approximately linear dependence of the slower time constants on series resistance, for small series resistances. The solutions are illustrated using a “cartoon” representation of a CA1 pyramidal cell and a two-cylinder + soma model. PMID:8369449

  12. Stability of ricobendazole in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zimei; Tucker, Ian G; Razzak, Majid; Medlicott, Natalie J

    2009-07-12

    The chemical stability of ricobendazole (RBZ) was investigated using a stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay with ultraviolet detection. The degradation kinetics of RBZ in aqueous solution was evaluated as a function of pH, buffer strength and temperature. The oxidation reaction in hydrogen peroxide solution was also studied. Degradation products were analyzed by mass spectroscopy and degradation pathways are proposed. Degradation of RBZ followed pseudo first-order kinetics and Arrhenius behavior over the temperature range 24-55 degrees C. A V-shaped pH-rate profile over the pH range 2-12 was observed with maximum stability at pH 4.8. The shape of the pH-rate profile was rationalized by catalytic effects of various components in the solution on each RBZ species. At pH 11 the activation energy for hydrolysis was 79.5 kJ/mol, and phosphate catalysis was not observed. Oxidation occurred in hydrogen peroxide solutions and was catalyzed by the presence of copper (Cu(2+)) ions. Ricobendazole amine and albendazole sulfone were identified by MS assay to be the degradation products of hydrolysis and oxidation respectively. PMID:19342190

  13. Dirac solutions for quaternionic potentials

    SciTech Connect

    De Leo, Stefano Giardino, Sergio

    2014-02-15

    The Dirac equation is solved for quaternionic potentials, i V{sub 0} + j W{sub 0} (V{sub 0}∈R , W{sub 0}∈C). The study shows two different solutions. The first one contains particle and anti-particle solutions and leads to the diffusion, tunneling, and Klein energy zones. The standard solution is recovered taking the complex limit of this solution. The second solution, which does not have a complex counterpart, can be seen as a V{sub 0}-antiparticle or |W{sub 0}|-particle solution.

  14. Mixed waste chemical compatibility with packaging components

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.; Conroy, M.; Blalock, L.B.

    1994-05-01

    In this paper, a chemical compatibility testing program for packaging of mixed wastes at will be described. We will discuss the choice of four y-radiation doses, four time durations, four temperatures and four waste solutions to simulate the hazardous waste components of mixed wastes for testing materials compatibility of polymers. The selected simulant wastes are (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. A selection of 10 polymers with anticipated high resistance to one or more of these types of environments are proposed for testing as potential liner or seal materials. These polymers are butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorhyarin, ethylene-propylene rubber, fluorocarbon, glass-filled tetrafluoroethylene, high-density poly-ethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber. We will describe the elements of the testing plan along with a metric for establishing time resistance of the packaging materials to radiation and chemicals.

  15. Bioactive Components in Fish Venoms

    PubMed Central

    Ziegman, Rebekah; Alewood, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Animal venoms are widely recognized excellent resources for the discovery of novel drug leads and physiological tools. Most are comprised of a large number of components, of which the enzymes, small peptides, and proteins are studied for their important bioactivities. However, in spite of there being over 2000 venomous fish species, piscine venoms have been relatively underrepresented in the literature thus far. Most studies have explored whole or partially fractioned venom, revealing broad pharmacology, which includes cardiovascular, neuromuscular, cytotoxic, inflammatory, and nociceptive activities. Several large proteinaceous toxins, such as stonustoxin, verrucotoxin, and Sp-CTx, have been isolated from scorpaenoid fish. These form pores in cell membranes, resulting in cell death and creating a cascade of reactions that result in many, but not all, of the physiological symptoms observed from envenomation. Additionally, Natterins, a novel family of toxins possessing kininogenase activity have been found in toadfish venom. A variety of smaller protein toxins, as well as a small number of peptides, enzymes, and non-proteinaceous molecules have also been isolated from a range of fish venoms, but most remain poorly characterized. Many other bioactive fish venom components remain to be discovered and investigated. These represent an untapped treasure of potentially useful molecules. PMID:25941767

  16. Structural studies of ciliary components.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Naoko; Taschner, Michael; Engel, Benjamin D; Lorentzen, Esben

    2012-09-14

    Cilia are organelles found on most eukaryotic cells, where they serve important functions in motility, sensory reception, and signaling. Recent advances in electron tomography have facilitated a number of ultrastructural studies of ciliary components that have significantly improved our knowledge of cilium architecture. These studies have produced nanometer-resolution structures of axonemal dynein complexes, microtubule doublets and triplets, basal bodies, radial spokes, and nexin complexes. In addition to these electron tomography studies, several recently published crystal structures provide insights into the architecture and mechanism of dynein as well as the centriolar protein SAS-6, important for establishing the 9-fold symmetry of centrioles. Ciliary assembly requires intraflagellar transport (IFT), a process that moves macromolecules between the tip of the cilium and the cell body. IFT relies on a large 20-subunit protein complex that is thought to mediate the contacts between ciliary motor and cargo proteins. Structural investigations of IFT complexes are starting to emerge, including the first three-dimensional models of IFT material in situ, revealing how IFT particles organize into larger train-like arrays, and the high-resolution structure of the IFT25/27 subcomplex. In this review, we cover recent advances in the structural and mechanistic understanding of ciliary components and IFT complexes. PMID:22683354

  17. Components of Adenovirus Genome Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) are icosahedral viruses with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes. Genome packaging in AdV is thought to be similar to that seen in dsDNA containing icosahedral bacteriophages and herpesviruses. Specific recognition of the AdV genome is mediated by a packaging domain located close to the left end of the viral genome and is mediated by the viral packaging machinery. Our understanding of the role of various components of the viral packaging machinery in AdV genome packaging has greatly advanced in recent years. Characterization of empty capsids assembled in the absence of one or more components involved in packaging, identification of the unique vertex, and demonstration of the role of IVa2, the putative packaging ATPase, in genome packaging have provided compelling evidence that AdVs follow a sequential assembly pathway. This review provides a detailed discussion on the functions of the various viral and cellular factors involved in AdV genome packaging. We conclude by briefly discussing the roles of the empty capsids, assembly intermediates, scaffolding proteins, portal vertex and DNA encapsidating enzymes in AdV assembly and packaging. PMID:27721809

  18. Actively Controlled Components. Chapter 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, W.; Hiller, S.-J.; Pfoertner, H.; Schadow, K.; Rosenfeld, T.; Garg, S.

    2009-01-01

    Active Control can help to meet future engine requirements by an active improvement of the component characteristics. The concept is based on an intelligent control logic, which senses actual operating conditions and reacts with adequate actuator action. This approach can directly improve engine characteristics as performance, operability, durability and emissions on the one hand. On the other hand active control addresses the design constrains imposed by unsteady phenomena like inlet distortion, compressor surge, combustion instability, flow separations, vibration and noise, which only occur during exceptional operating conditions. The feasibility and effectiveness of active control technologies have been demonstrated in lab-scale tests. This chapter describes a broad range of promising applications for each engine component. Significant efforts in research and development remain to implement these technologies in engine rig and finally production engines and to demonstrate today s engine generation airworthiness, safety, reliability, and durability requirements. Active control applications are in particular limited by the gap between available and advanced sensors and actuators, which allow an operation in the harsh environment in an aero engine. The operating and performance requirements for actuators and sensors are outlined for each of the gas turbine sections from inlet to nozzle.

  19. Interpretable functional principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhenhua; Wang, Liangliang; Cao, Jiguo

    2016-09-01

    Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) is a popular approach to explore major sources of variation in a sample of random curves. These major sources of variation are represented by functional principal components (FPCs). The intervals where the values of FPCs are significant are interpreted as where sample curves have major variations. However, these intervals are often hard for naïve users to identify, because of the vague definition of "significant values". In this article, we develop a novel penalty-based method to derive FPCs that are only nonzero precisely in the intervals where the values of FPCs are significant, whence the derived FPCs possess better interpretability than the FPCs derived from existing methods. To compute the proposed FPCs, we devise an efficient algorithm based on projection deflation techniques. We show that the proposed interpretable FPCs are strongly consistent and asymptotically normal under mild conditions. Simulation studies confirm that with a competitive performance in explaining variations of sample curves, the proposed FPCs are more interpretable than the traditional counterparts. This advantage is demonstrated by analyzing two real datasets, namely, electroencephalography data and Canadian weather data.

  20. Structural Studies of Ciliary Components

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Naoko; Taschner, Michael; Engel, Benjamin D.; Lorentzen, Esben

    2012-01-01

    Cilia are organelles found on most eukaryotic cells, where they serve important functions in motility, sensory reception, and signaling. Recent advances in electron tomography have facilitated a number of ultrastructural studies of ciliary components that have significantly improved our knowledge of cilium architecture. These studies have produced nanometer‐resolution structures of axonemal dynein complexes, microtubule doublets and triplets, basal bodies, radial spokes, and nexin complexes. In addition to these electron tomography studies, several recently published crystal structures provide insights into the architecture and mechanism of dynein as well as the centriolar protein SAS-6, important for establishing the 9-fold symmetry of centrioles. Ciliary assembly requires intraflagellar transport (IFT), a process that moves macromolecules between the tip of the cilium and the cell body. IFT relies on a large 20-subunit protein complex that is thought to mediate the contacts between ciliary motor and cargo proteins. Structural investigations of IFT complexes are starting to emerge, including the first three‐dimensional models of IFT material in situ, revealing how IFT particles organize into larger train-like arrays, and the high-resolution structure of the IFT25/27 subcomplex. In this review, we cover recent advances in the structural and mechanistic understanding of ciliary components and IFT complexes. PMID:22683354

  1. Three-component gyrotropic metamaterial

    SciTech Connect

    Tralle, Igor Ziȩba, Paweł; Paśko, Wioletta

    2014-06-21

    All of the proposed ever since designs of metamaterials are characterized by ever-increasing sophistication of fabrication methods. Here, a comparatively simple recipe for the fabrication of a metamaterial, which is both gyrotropic and of the simultaneously negative permittivity and permeability, is proposed. The idea is to make a mixture of three ingredients, where one of them would be responsible for the negativity of μ, while the other two would be responsible for the negativity of ε. The first component of the mixture is the “swarm” of single-domain ferromagnetic nano-particles, immersed in a mixture of other two, silver and mercury cadmium telluride. By carrying out the computer simulations, the domains of gyromagnetic metamaterial exist, relative to all parameters characterizing the model, that is, the temperature, external magnetic field, parameters of nano-particles, and the fraction of cadmium in Hg{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}Te-compound as well as relative concentrations of the mixture components are established.

  2. The components of paraphrase evaluations.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Philip M; Guess, Rebekah H; McNamara, Danielle S

    2009-08-01

    Two sentences are paraphrases if their meanings are equivalent but their words and syntax are different. Paraphrasing can be used to aid comprehension, stimulate prior knowledge, and assist in writing-skills development. As such, paraphrasing is a feature of fields as diverse as discourse psychology, composition, and computer science. Although automated paraphrase assessment is both commonplace and useful, research has centered solely on artificial, edited paraphrases and has used only binary dimensions (i.e., is or is not a paraphrase). In this study, we use an extensive database (N=1,998) of natural paraphrases generated by high school students that have been assessed along 10 dimensions (e.g., semantic completeness, lexical similarity, syntactical similarity). This study investigates the components of paraphrase quality emerging from these dimensions and examines whether computational approaches can simulate those human evaluations. The results suggest that semantic and syntactic evaluations are the primary components of paraphrase quality, and that computationally light systems such as latent semantic analysis (semantics) and minimal edit distances (syntax) present promising approaches to simulating human evaluations of paraphrases.

  3. Determination of total solutes in synfuel wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, J.R.; Bonomo, F.S.

    1984-03-01

    Efforts to investigate both lyophilization and the measurement of colligative properties as an indication of total solute content are described. The objective of the work described is to develop a method for measuring total dissolved material in retort wastewaters which is simple and rugged enough to be performed in a field laboratory in support of pollution control tests. The analysis should also be rapid enough to provide timely and pertinent data to the pollution control plant operator. To be of most value, the technique developed also should be applicable to other synfuel wastewaters, most of which contain similar major components as oil shale retort waters. 4 references, 1 table.

  4. Solutions Remediate Contaminated Groundwater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, NASA workers used chlorinated solvents to clean rocket engine components at launch sites. These solvents, known as dense non-aqueous phase liquids, had contaminated launch facilities to the point of near-irreparability. Dr. Jacqueline Quinn and Dr. Kathleen Brooks Loftin of Kennedy Space Center partnered with researchers from the University of Central Florida's chemistry and engineering programs to develop technology capable of remediating the area without great cost or further environmental damage. They called the new invention Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (EZVI). The groundwater remediation compound is cleaning up polluted areas all around the world and is, to date, NASA's most licensed technology.

  5. GMES Space Component: Programme overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschbacher, J.; Milagro-Perez, M. P.

    2012-04-01

    The European Union (EU) and the European Space Agency (ESA) have developed the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme as Europe's answer to the vital need for joined-up data about our climate, environment and security. Through a unique combination of satellite, atmospheric and Earth-based monitoring systems, the initiative will provide new insight into the state of the land, sea and air, providing policymakers, scientists, businesses and the public with accurate and timely information. GMES capabilities include monitoring and forecasting of climatic change, flood risks, soil and coastal erosion, crop and fish resources, air pollution, greenhouse gases, iceberg distribution and snow cover, among others. To accomplish this, GMES has been divided into three main components: Space, In-situ and Services. The Space Component, led by ESA, comprises five types of new satellites called Sentinels that are being developed by ESA specifically to meet the needs of GMES, the first of which to be launched in 2013. These missions carry a range of technologies, such as radar and multi-spectral imaging instruments for land, ocean and atmospheric monitoring. In addition, access to data from the so-called Contributing Missions guarantees that European space infrastructure is fully used for GMES. An integrated Ground Segment ensures access to Sentinels and Contributing Missions data. The in-situ component, under the coordination of the European Environment Agency (EEA), is composed of atmospheric and Earth based monitoring systems, and based on established networks and programmes at European and international levels. The European Commission is in charge of implementing the services component of GMES and of leading GMES overall. GMES services, fed with data from the Space and In-situ components, will provide essential information in five main domains, atmosphere, ocean and land monitoring as well as emergency response and security. Climate change has been added

  6. Analysis of Periodical Solutions in the Duffing-Holmes Oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Alexey, Dubrovskiy

    2010-09-30

    In recent works there were found some periodical solutions in the Duffing-Holmes's system using a weak dissipative component. In the current work the existence of them in the conservative system will be illustrated. There will be proposed an approach to localize, to stabilize and to track periodic solutions in the domain of system parameters. As well it will be shown that the complexification of the topological structure of the conservative and dissipative systems is based on the same mechanism of bifurcations of periodical solutions. The bifurcation diagram will be presented, where the cascade of bifurcations obeys the universal theory of Fegenbaum-Sharkovskii-Magnitskii.

  7. A new association state of solutes in nanoconfined aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, YuSong; Zhao, Liang; Fang, HaiPing

    2016-11-01

    Recently, we have found a reversible transition between the dispersion and aggregation states of solute molecules in aqueous solutions confined in nanoscale geometry, where solutes exhibit distinct behavior in a new association state from that in the dispersion and aggregation states observed usually in macroscopic systems. However, it remains unknown whether this new association state of solute molecules found in nanoconfined systems would vanish with the system size increasing and approaching the macroscopic scale. Here, we achieve the phase diagram of solute association states by making the analyses of Gibbs free energy of solutes in nanoconfined aqueous solutions in detail. In the phase diagram, we observe a closed regime with a finite system size of nanoconfined aqueous solutions and a solute concentration range, only in which there exists the new association state of solutes with the reversible transition between the aggregation and dispersion states, and there indeed exists an upper limit of the system size for the new association state, around several tens nanometers. These findings regarding the intimate connection between the system size and the solute association behavior provides the comprehensive understanding of the association dynamics of solutes in nanoconfined environment.

  8. Valence Electronic Structure of Aqueous Solutions: Insights from Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Robert; Winter, Bernd; Bradforth, Stephen E.

    2016-05-01

    The valence orbital electron binding energies of water and of embedded solutes are crucial quantities for understanding chemical reactions taking place in aqueous solution, including oxidation/reduction, transition-metal coordination, and radiation chemistry. Their experimental determination based on liquid-photoelectron spectroscopy using soft X-rays is described, and we provide an overview of valence photoelectron spectroscopy studies reported to date. We discuss principal experimental aspects and several theoretical approaches to compute the measured binding energies of the least tightly bound molecular orbitals. Solutes studied are presented chronologically, from simple electrolytes, via transition-metal ion solutions and several organic and inorganic molecules, to biologically relevant molecules, including aqueous nucleotides and their components. In addition to the lowest vertical ionization energies, the measured valence photoelectron spectra also provide information on adiabatic ionization energies and reorganization energies for the oxidation (ionization) half-reaction. For solutes with low solubility, resonantly enhanced ionization provides a promising alternative pathway.

  9. Valence Electronic Structure of Aqueous Solutions: Insights from Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Robert; Winter, Bernd; Bradforth, Stephen E

    2016-05-27

    The valence orbital electron binding energies of water and of embedded solutes are crucial quantities for understanding chemical reactions taking place in aqueous solution, including oxidation/reduction, transition-metal coordination, and radiation chemistry. Their experimental determination based on liquid-photoelectron spectroscopy using soft X-rays is described, and we provide an overview of valence photoelectron spectroscopy studies reported to date. We discuss principal experimental aspects and several theoretical approaches to compute the measured binding energies of the least tightly bound molecular orbitals. Solutes studied are presented chronologically, from simple electrolytes, via transition-metal ion solutions and several organic and inorganic molecules, to biologically relevant molecules, including aqueous nucleotides and their components. In addition to the lowest vertical ionization energies, the measured valence photoelectron spectra also provide information on adiabatic ionization energies and reorganization energies for the oxidation (ionization) half-reaction. For solutes with low solubility, resonantly enhanced ionization provides a promising alternative pathway.

  10. A One Chip Hardened Solution for High Speed SpaceWire System Implementations. Session: Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Joseph R.; Berger, Richard W.; Rakow, Glenn P.

    2007-01-01

    An Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) that implements the SpaceWire protocol has been developed in a radiation hardened 0.25 micron CMOS technology. This effort began in March 2003 as a joint development between the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and BAE Systems. The BAE Systems SpaceWire ASIC is comprised entirely of reusable core elements, many of which are already flight-proven. It incorporates a router with 4 SpaceWire ports and two local ports, dual PC1 bus interfaces, a microcontroller, 32KB of internal memory, and a memory controller for additional external memory use. The SpaceWire cores are also reused in other ASICs under development. The SpaceWire ASIC is planned for use on the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES)-R, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and other missions. Engineering and flight parts have been delivered to programs and users. This paper reviews the SpaceWire protocol and those elements of it that have been built into the current and next SpaceWire reusable cores and features within the core that go beyond the current standard and can be enabled or disabled by the user. The adaptation of SpaceWire to BAE Systems' On Chip Bus (OCB) for compatibility with the other reusable cores will be reviewed and highlighted. Optional configurations within user systems and test boards will be shown. The physical implementation of the design will be described and test results from the hardware will be discussed. Application of this ASIC and other ASICs containing the SpaceWire cores and embedded microcontroller to Plug and Play and reconfigurable implementations will be described. Finally, the BAE Systems roadmap for SpaceWire developments will be updated, including some products already in design as well as longer term plans.

  11. Implementation of the block-Krylov boundary flexibility method of component synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, Kelly S.; Abdallah, Ayman A.; Hucklebridge, Arthur A.

    1993-01-01

    A method of dynamic substructuring is presented which utilizes a set of static Ritz vectors as a replacement for normal eigenvectors in component mode synthesis. This set of Ritz vectors is generated in a recurrence relationship, which has the form of a block-Krylov subspace. The initial seed to the recurrence algorithm is based on the boundary flexibility vectors of the component. This algorithm is not load-dependent, is applicable to both fixed and free-interface boundary components, and results in a general component model appropriate for any type of dynamic analysis. This methodology was implemented in the MSC/NASTRAN normal modes solution sequence using DMAP. The accuracy is found to be comparable to that of component synthesis based upon normal modes. The block-Krylov recurrence algorithm is a series of static solutions and so requires significantly less computation than solving the normal eigenspace problem.

  12. Solubility of solutes in compressed gases: Dilute solution theory

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Tavlarides, L.L. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-03-01

    A dilute solution theory is developed for describing the thermodynamic behavior of a compressed gaseous dilute solution. The considerations follow generally accepted statistical treatments for describing dilute liquid solutions. The theory is self-consistent with the ideal gas law for dilute gases and with Henry's law for dilute liquid (or solid) solutions. Further, it provides a simple linear relationship which represents well the solubility behavior of a heavy solute (solid or liquid) in a gaseous solvent over relatively wide density regions of the solvent (i.e., 0 [le] [rho] [le] 2.0/V[sub c]).

  13. Method for vacuum pressing electrochemical cell components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Craig C. (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Assembling electrochemical cell components using a bonding agent comprising aligning components of the electrochemical cell, applying a bonding agent between the components to bond the components together, placing the components within a container that is essentially a pliable bag, and drawing a vacuum within the bag, wherein the bag conforms to the shape of the components from the pressure outside the bag, thereby holding the components securely in place. The vacuum is passively maintained until the adhesive has cured and the components are securely bonded. The bonding agent used to bond the components of the electrochemical cell may be distributed to the bonding surface from distribution channels in the components. To prevent contamination with bonding agent, some areas may be treated to produce regions of preferred adhesive distribution and protected regions. Treatments may include polishing, etching, coating and providing protective grooves between the bonding surfaces and the protected regions.

  14. Heavy Water Components Test Reactor Decommissioning - Major Component Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, W.; Brinkley, D.

    2010-05-05

    The Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) facility (Figure 1) was built in 1961, operated from 1962 to 1964, and is located in the northwest quadrant of the Savannah River Site (SRS) approximately three miles from the site boundary. The HWCTR facility is on high, well-drained ground, about 30 meters above the water table. The HWCTR was a pressurized heavy water test reactor used to develop candidate fuel designs for heavy water power reactors. It was not a defense-related facility like the materials production reactors at SRS. The reactor was moderated with heavy water and was rated at 50 megawatts thermal power. In December of 1964, operations were terminated and the facility was placed in a standby condition as a result of the decision by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to redirect research and development work on heavy water power reactors to reactors cooled with organic materials. For about one year, site personnel maintained the facility in a standby status, and then retired the reactor in place. In 1965, fuel assemblies were removed, systems that contained heavy water were drained, fluid piping systems were drained, deenergized and disconnected and the spent fuel basin was drained and dried. The doors of the reactor facility were shut and it wasn't until 10 years later that decommissioning plans were considered and ultimately postponed due to budget constraints. In the early 1990s, DOE began planning to decommission HWCTR again. Yet, in the face of new budget constraints, DOE deferred dismantlement and placed HWCTR in an extended surveillance and maintenance mode. The doors of the reactor facility were welded shut to protect workers and discourage intruders. The $1.6 billion allocation from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to SRS for site clean up at SRS has opened the doors to the HWCTR again - this time for final decommissioning. During the lifetime of HWCTR, 36 different fuel assemblies were tested in the facility. Ten of these

  15. Fast Steerable Principal Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhizhen; Shkolnisky, Yoel; Singer, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy nowadays often requires the analysis of hundreds of thousands of 2-D images as large as a few hundred pixels in each direction. Here, we introduce an algorithm that efficiently and accurately performs principal component analysis (PCA) for a large set of 2-D images, and, for each image, the set of its uniform rotations in the plane and their reflections. For a dataset consisting of n images of size L × L pixels, the computational complexity of our algorithm is O(nL3 + L4), while existing algorithms take O(nL4). The new algorithm computes the expansion coefficients of the images in a Fourier–Bessel basis efficiently using the nonuniform fast Fourier transform. We compare the accuracy and efficiency of the new algorithm with traditional PCA and existing algorithms for steerable PCA. PMID:27570801

  16. Fiber optic 3-component seismometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jing; Zhang, Wentao; Jiang, Dongshan; Wang, Zhaogang; Li, Fang

    2014-06-01

    An all-metal 3-component optical fiber seismometer was proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The theoretical analysis was given based on the electro-mechanical theory. Calibration results showed that the axis sensitivity was about 41 dB (re: 0 dB=1 rad/g) with a fluctuation ±2 dB in the frequency bandwidth of 5 Hz-400 Hz. A transverse sensitivity of about -40 dB was achieved. The fluctuation of the acceleration sensitivity for the three accelerometers in the seismometer was within ±2.5 dB. The minimum phase demodulation detection accuracy of the phase-generated carrier (PGC) was 10-5 rad/√Hz, and the minimum detectable acceleration was calculated to be 90 ng/√Hz.

  17. Understanding the Permeation of Solutes in Water Treatment Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillip, William

    2013-03-01

    The responsible management of the world's water resources is essential to supporting human life on earth. The successful development of reverse osmosis seawater desalination makes it a crucial component in the portfolio of water supply options. However, other measures to alleviate the stresses on water supplies are necessary to responsibly and sustainably meet the worldwide demand for fresh water. Osmotically driven membrane processes (ODMP) are an emerging set of technologies that show promise in water conservation and reuse, as well as wastewater reclamation. The majority of research in the field has focused on predicting and enhancing water permeation through membranes, however, the effective operation of ODMP systems requires that the permeation of solutes across water treatment membranes be better understood. For example, the reverse flux of draw solute from the concentrated draw solution into the feed solution should be minimized. Additionally, due to the presence of solute-solute interactions that arise because of the unique geometry of ODMPs, the rejection of dilute solutes in these processes can be dramatically different than those observed in traditional pressure driven operations. In this talk, theoretical and experimental approaches are used to explore the permeation of solutes in osmotically driven membrane processes. Phenomenological models were developed that describe the forward and reverse permeation of the solutes across an asymmetric membrane in forward osmosis operation; and experiments were carried out to validate the model predictions. Using independently determined membrane transport coefficients, strong agreement between the model predictions and experimental results was observed.

  18. Immersion lithography bevel solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedeschi, Len; Tamada, Osamu; Sanada, Masakazu; Yasuda, Shuichi; Asai, Masaya

    2008-03-01

    The introduction of Immersion lithography, combined with the desire to maximize the number of potential yielding devices per wafer, has brought wafer edge engineering to the forefront for advanced semiconductor manufactures. Bevel cleanliness, the position accuracy of the lithography films, and quality of the EBR cut has become more critical. In this paper, the effectiveness of wafer track based solutions to enable state-of-art bevel schemes is explored. This includes an integrated bevel cleaner and new bevel rinse nozzles. The bevel rinse nozzles are used in the coating process to ensure a precise, clean film edge on or near the bevel. The bevel cleaner is used immediately before the wafer is loaded into the scanner after the coating process. The bevel cleaner shows promise in driving down defectivity levels, specifically printing particles, while not damaging films on the bevel.

  19. Naturally selecting solutions

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Timmy; Sleator, Roy D; Walsh, Paul

    2013-01-01

    For decades, computer scientists have looked to nature for biologically inspired solutions to computational problems; ranging from robotic control to scheduling optimization. Paradoxically, as we move deeper into the post-genomics era, the reverse is occurring, as biologists and bioinformaticians look to computational techniques, to solve a variety of biological problems. One of the most common biologically inspired techniques are genetic algorithms (GAs), which take the Darwinian concept of natural selection as the driving force behind systems for solving real world problems, including those in the bioinformatics domain. Herein, we provide an overview of genetic algorithms and survey some of the most recent applications of this approach to bioinformatics based problems. PMID:23222169

  20. Internet Business Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Cogent Software, Inc. was formed in January 1995 by David Atkinson and Irene Woerner, both former employees of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Several other Cogent employees also worked at JPL. Atkinson headed JPL's Information Systems Technology section and Woerner lead the Advanced User Interfaces Group. Cogent's mission is to help companies organize and manage their online content by developing advanced software for the next generation of online directories and information catalogs. The company offers a complete range of Internet solutions, including Internet access, Web site design, local and wide-area networks, and custom software for online commerce applications. Cogent also offers DesignSphere Online, an electronic community for the communications arts industry. Customers range from small offices to manufacturers with thousands of employees, including Chemi-Con, one of the largest manufacturers of capacitors in the world.

  1. 2010 Water & Aqueous Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Dor Ben-Amotz

    2010-08-13

    Water covers more than two thirds of the surface of the Earth and about the same fraction of water forms the total mass of a human body. Since the early days of our civilization water has also been in the focus of technological developments, starting from converting it to wine to more modern achievements. The meeting will focus on recent advances in experimental, theoretical, and computational understanding of the behavior of the most important and fascinating liquid in a variety of situations and applications. The emphasis will be less on water properties per se than on water as a medium in which fundamental dynamic and reactive processes take place. In the following sessions, speakers will discuss the latest breakthroughs in unraveling these processes at the molecular level: Water in Solutions; Water in Motion I and II; Water in Biology I and II; Water in the Environment I and II; Water in Confined Geometries and Water in Discussion (keynote lecture and poster winners presentations).

  2. Modifications in structure and interaction of nanoparticle-protein-surfactant complexes in electrolyte solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehan, Sumit; Kumar, S.; Aswal, V. K.; Schweins, R.

    2016-05-01

    SANS experiments of three-component system of anionic silica nanoparticles, anionic BSA protein and anionic SDS surfactants have been carried out without and with electrolyte in aqueous solution. In both the cases, the interaction of surfactant with protein results in formation of bead-necklace structure of protein-surfactant complexes in solution. These protein-surfactant complexes interact very differently with nanoparticles in absence and presence of electrolyte. In absence of electrolyte, nanoparticles remain in dispersed phase in solution, whereas with the addition of electrolyte the nanoparticles fractal aggregates are formed. SANS describes the phase behavior to be governed by competition of electrostatic and depletion interactions among the components solution.

  3. Increase of both Order and Disorder in the First Hydration Shell with Increasing Solute Polarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godec, Aljaž; Smith, Jeremy C.; Merzel, Franci

    2011-12-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of a small model solute in an aqueous solution are used to examine the effects of solute polarity on hydration structure. A judicious definition of the orientational order parameter leads to reinterpretation of the conventional picture of hydration. As the solute varies from hydrophobic to hydrophilic the ordered first shell water simultaneously fractionates into a more highly ordered and a more disordered component. The hydrogen-bond network rearranges such that the more ordered component relaxes to configurations of optimal intermolecular angles, the other fraction being released from the network.

  4. Knop's Solution Is Not What It Seems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses Knob's solution, which was considered the ideal plant growth solution in 1865, and recommends eliminating Knob's solution from active teaching. Describes solution culture basics including nutrient solutions, containers and aeration, and plants and light. (Contains 12 references.) (YDS)

  5. Mutation Testing for Effective Verification of Digital Components of Physical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushik, N. G.; Evtushenko, N. V.; Torgaev, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    Digital components of modern physical systems are often designed applying circuitry solutions based on the field programmable gate array technology (FPGA). Such (embedded) digital components should be carefully tested. In this paper, an approach for the verification of digital physical system components based on mutation testing is proposed. The reference description of the behavior of a digital component in the hardware description language (HDL) is mutated by introducing into it the most probable errors and, unlike mutants in high-level programming languages, the corresponding test case is effectively derived based on a comparison of special scalable representations of the specification and the constructed mutant using various logic synthesis and verification systems.

  6. Multi-component joint analysis of surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Moro, Giancarlo; Moura, Rui Miguel Marques; Moustafa, Sayed S. R.

    2015-08-01

    Propagation of surface waves can occur with complex energy distribution amongst the various modes. It is shown that even simple VS (shear-wave velocity) profiles can generate velocity spectra that, because of a complex mode excitation, can be quite difficult to interpret in terms of modal dispersion curves. In some cases, Rayleigh waves show relevant differences depending on the considered component (radial or vertical) and the kind of source (vertical impact or explosive). Contrary to several simplistic assumptions often proposed, it is shown, both via synthetic and field datasets, that the fundamental mode of Rayleigh waves can be almost completely absent. This sort of evidence demonstrates the importance of a multi-component analysis capable of providing the necessary elements to properly interpret the data and adequately constrain the subsurface model. It is purposely shown, also through the sole use of horizontal geophones, how it can be possible to efficiently and quickly acquire both Love and Rayleigh (radial-component) waves. The presented field dataset reports a case where Rayleigh waves (both their vertical and radial components) appear largely dominated by higher modes with little or no evidence of the fundamental mode. The joint inversion of the radial and vertical components of Rayleigh waves jointly with Love waves is performed by adopting a multi-objective inversion scheme based on the computation of synthetic seismograms for the three considered components and the minimization of the whole velocity spectra misfits (Full Velocity Spectra - FVS - inversion). Such a FVS multi-component joint inversion can better handle complex velocity spectra thus providing a more robust subsurface model not affected by erroneous velocity spectra interpretations and non-uniqueness of the solution.

  7. Surprising high hydrophobicity of polymer networks from hydrophilic components.

    PubMed

    Attanasio, Agnese; Bayer, Ilker S; Ruffilli, Roberta; Ayadi, Farouk; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2013-06-26

    We report a simple and inexpensive method of fabricating highly hydrophobic novel materials based on interpenetrating networks of polyamide and poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) hydrophilic components. The process is a single-step solution casting from a common solvent, formic acid, of polyamide and ethyl cyanoacrylate monomers. After casting and subsequent solvent evaporation, the in situ polymerization of ethyl cyanoacrylate monomer forms polyamide-poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) interpenetrating network films. The interpenetrating networks demonstrate remarkable waterproof properties allowing wettability control by modulating the concentration of the components. In contrast, pure polyamide and poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) films obtained from formic acid solutions are highly hygroscopic and hydrophilic, respectively. The polymerization of ethyl cyanoacrylate in the presence of polyamide promotes molecular interactions between the components, which reduce the available hydrophilic moieties and render the final material hydrophobic. The wettability, morphology, and thermo-physical properties of the polymeric coatings were characterized. The materials developed in this work take advantage of the properties of both polymers in a single blend and above all, due to their hydrophobic nature and minimal water uptake, can extend the application range of the individual polymers where water repellency is required. PMID:23713478

  8. Multi-source/component spray coating for polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Min; Hong, Ziruo; Kwan, Wei Lek; Lu, Cheng-Hsueh; Lai, Yi-Feng; Lei, Bao; Liu, Chuan-Pu; Yang, Yang

    2010-08-24

    A multi-source/component spray coating process to fabricate the photoactive layers in polymer solar cells is demonstrated. Well-defined domains consisting of polymer:fullerene heterojunctions are constructed in ambient conditions using an alternating spray deposition method. This approach preserves the integrity of the layer morphology while forming an interpenetrating donor (D)/acceptor (A) network to facilitate charge transport. The formation of multi-component films without the prerequisite of a common solvent overcomes the limitations in conventional solution processes for polymer solar cells and enables us to process a wide spectrum of materials. Polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C(61) butyric acid methyl ester spray-coated using this alternating deposition method deliver a power conversion efficiency of 2.8%, which is comparable to their blend solution counterparts. More importantly, this approach offers the versatility to independently select the optimal solvents for the donor and acceptor materials that will deliver well-ordered nanodomains. This method also allows the direct stacking of multiple photoactive polymers with controllable absorption in a tandem structure even without an interconnecting junction layer. The introduction of multiple photoactive materials through multisource/component spray coating offers structural flexibility and tenability of the photoresponse for future polymer solar cell applications. PMID:20690608

  9. Toward a dynamic topographic components model.

    PubMed

    Achim, A; Bouchard, S

    1997-09-01

    Möcks' topographic component model (TCM) (Möcks, J. Topographic components model for event-related potentials and some biophysical considerations. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 1988a, 35: 482-484; Möcks, J. Decomposing event-related potentials: a new topographic components model. Biol. Psychol., 1988b, 26: 199-215) decomposes event-related potentials into components uniquely determined by their respective amplitude profiles across replicates, assuming a constant topography and wave shape for each component. To accommodate possible changes in the component expression across conditions, a dynamic version of TCM is investigated which further admits component modulation in time scale. Twenty test problems were synthesized, incorporating two arbitrary topographies each activated with its own arbitrary wave shape modified, across two conditions, in amplitude, onset and duration. Seventeen problems were perfectly solved, with substantial success on the remaining three, confirming that component jitter or stretching can even help component identification.

  10. Framework for generating multimonopole solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. L. C.

    The 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole solution is discussed and it is shown that in the limit of vanishing Higgs potential the monopole solution corresponds to the self dual Yang-Mills solution depending only on three of the four coordinates. The formulation of self dual Yang-Mills equations is complex 4-Euclidean space, the R-gauge and the BI transformation are presented. In this formulation every BI-transformation increases the monopole charge by one unit, if the resulting solution can be shown to have nonsingular energy density and real potential. The conditions for nonsingularity and reality are explicitly given. The explicit one and two monopole solutions are discussed in this formalism. The multimonopole solutions of Prasad and Rossi are given, with comment on the use of the BI transformation to generate solutions to the Ernst equation, which miraculously is identical to self dual Yang-Mills equation in the R-gauge for geometry with axial symmetry.

  11. Various Boussinesq solitary wave solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, G.T.

    1995-12-31

    The generalized Boussinesq (gB) equations have been used to model nonlinear wave evolution over variable topography and wave interactions with structures. Like the KdV equation, the gB equations support a solitary wave solution which propagates without changing shape, and this solitary wave is often used as a primary test case for numerical studies of nonlinear waves using either the gB or other model equations. Nine different approximate solutions of the generalized Boussinesq equations are presented with simple closed form expressions for the wave elevation and wave speed. Each approximates the free propagation of a single solitary wave, and eight of these solutions are newly obtained. The author compares these solutions with the well known KdV solution, Rayleigh`s solution, Laitone`s higher order solution, and ``exact`` numerical integration of the gB equations. Existing experimental data on solitary wave shape and wave speed are compared with these models.

  12. Bioregenerative system components for microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevill, Gale E., Jr.; Hessel, Michael I., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the class was to design, fabricate, and test prototype designs that were independent, yet applicable to a Closed Loop Life Support System. The three prototypes chosen were in the areas of agar plant growth, regnerative filtration, and microgravity food preparation. The plant growth group designed a prototype agar medium growth system that incorporates nutrient solution replenishment and post-harvest refurbishment. In addition, the unit emphasizes material containment and minimization of open interfaces. The second project was a filter used in microgravity that has the capability to clean itself. The filters are perforated plates which slide through a duct and are cleaned outside of the flow with a vacuum system. The air in the duct is prevented from flowing outside of the duct by a network of sliding seals. The food preparation group developed a device which dispenses and mixes ingredients and then cooks the mixture in microgravity. The dry ingredients are dispensed from a canister by a ratchet-operated piston. The wet ingredients are dispensed from plastic bags through tubing attached to a syringe. Once inside the mixing chamber, the ingredients are mixed using a collapsible whisk and then pushed into the cooking device.

  13. Passive and Active Fiber Optic Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digonnet, Michel Jean-Francois

    This thesis is concerned with the development and characterization of both passive and active fiber-optic components for applications in single-mode fiber systems, in particular in the new technology of fiber sensors and signal processors. These components include single-mode fiber directional couplers, vital to many optical fiber systems, all-fiber wavelength multiplexers, with potential applications in communication systems and active fiber devices, and single-crystal fiber lasers and amplifiers as miniature light sources and signal regenerators. The fiber directional couplers involved in this work, fabricated by a polishing process, are described in detail. Experimental characterization of their coupling, loss and unique tuning properties, and their respective dependence on the coupler geometrical parameters, are reported. A theoretical model of fiber-to-fiber coupling is also developed and shown to be a very useful and accurate tool in the design and study of this type of fiber couplers. The dependence of the coupling properties of fiber couplers on the signal wavelength is studied both theoretically and experimentally for applications in wavelength division multiplexing. All-fiber multiplexers exhibiting a good wavelength selectivity and unique tunability are described and shown to operate according to the coupler model. Work on active fiber devices explores the potential of the new technology of single-crystal fibers grown by the laser-heated floating-zone technique. The status of crystal fiber growth is reported, together with the basic physical and optical characteristics of these fibers. A theoretical model of the effects of fiber model structure on the gain and laser operation of active fibers is also developed to predict the performance of lasers and amplifiers in a fiber form. Several conceptual pumping schemes are described which offer solutions to the difficult problem of optically pumping small diameter fiber amplifiers. The experimental

  14. Precision fiducialization of transport components

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, G.E.; Bressler, V.E.; Cobb, J.K.; Jensen, D.R.; Ruland, R.E.; Walz, H.V.; Williams, S.H.

    1992-03-01

    The Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) is a transport line designed to test both concept and advanced technology for application to future linear colliders. It is currently under construction at SLAC in the central beam line. Most of the quadrupoles of the FFTB have ab initio alignment tolerances of less than 30 microns, if the planned for beam based alignment tuning procedure is to converge. For such placement tolerances to have any meaning requires that the coordinates of the effective centers, seen by the beam particles, be tansferred to tooling (that can be reached by mechanical or optical alignment methods) located on the outside of the components to comparable or better values. We have constructed an apparatus that simultaneously locates to micron tolerances, the effective magnetic center of fussing lenses, as well as the electrical center of beam position monitors (BPM) imbedded therein, and once located, for transferring these coordinates to specially mounted tooling frames that supported the external retroreflectors used in a laser tracker based alignment of the beam line. Details of construction as well as experimental results from the method are presented.

  15. Molecular Components of Catalytic Selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Park, Jeong Y.

    2008-07-02

    Selectivity, that is, to produce one molecule out of many other thermodynamically feasible product molecules, is the key concept to develop 'clean manufacturing' processes that do not produce byproducts (green chemistry). Small differences in potential energy barriers for elementary reaction steps control which reaction channel is more likely to yield the desired product molecule (selectivity), instead of the overall activation energy for the reaction that controls turnover rates (activity). Recent studies have demonstrated the atomic- or molecular-level tailoring of parameters such as the surface structures of active sites that give rise to nanoparticle size and shape dependence of turnover rates and reaction selectivities. Here, we highlight seven molecular components that influence reaction selectivities. These include: surface structure, adsorbate-induced restructuring, adsorbate mobility, reaction intermediates, surface composition, charge transport, and oxidation states for model metal single crystal and colloid nanoparticle catalysts. We show examples of their functioning and describe in-situ instruments that permit us to investigate their roles in surface reactions.

  16. Electric vehicle drive train components

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, F.

    1994-12-31

    Power Control Systems has developed a family of electric vehicle drive systems that range from 65 horsepower through 300 horse power. These propulsion systems support vehicle applications ranging from light cars and pickups to buses and trucks weighing as much as 40,000 lbs (18,400 kg). These robust systems are designed specifically for automotive applications including safety, electromagnetic emissions, and environment ruggedness. Dolphin Drive Systems are very flexible. Their inverter controllers are programmable and can be provided as stand alone components matched to customer specified motors. A selection of pre-calibrated systems including motor and inverter/controller can be provided. Accessory tools are also available for customer self programming. Dolphin Drive Systems provide precision control of AC induction motors providing excellent torque-speed performance usually eliminating the need for multistage transmissions. In addition, they are very efficient over a wide speed/torque range. This provides for excellent power management over a variety of continuous speed and stop and go applications.

  17. High temperature two component explosive

    DOEpatents

    Mars, James E.; Poole, Donald R.; Schmidt, Eckart W.; Wang, Charles

    1981-01-01

    A two component, high temperature, thermally stable explosive composition comprises a liquid or low melting oxidizer and a liquid or low melting organic fuel. The oxidizer and fuel in admixture are incapable of substantial spontaneous exothermic reaction at temperatures on the order of 475.degree. K. At temperatures on the order of 475.degree. K., the oxidizer and fuel in admixture have an activation energy of at least about 40 kcal/mol. As a result of the high activation energy, the preferred explosive compositions are nondetonable as solids at ambient temperature, and become detonable only when heated beyond the melting point. Preferable oxidizers are selected from alkali or alkaline earth metal nitrates, nitrites, perchlorates, and/or mixtures thereof. Preferred fuels are organic compounds having polar hydrophilic groups. The most preferred fuels are guanidinium nitrate, acetamide and mixtures of the two. Most preferred oxidizers are eutectic mixtures of lithium nitrate, potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate, of sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and of potassium nitrate, calcium nitrate and sodium nitrate.

  18. Airframe noise component interaction studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, M. R.; Schlinker, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    Acoustic wind tunnel tests were conducted of a two-dimensional wing section with removable high-lift leading and trailing edge devices and a removeable two-wheel landing gear with open cavity. An array of far field conventional microphones and an acoustic mirror directional microphone were utilized to determine far field spectrum levels and noise source distribution. Data were obtained for the wing with components deployed separately and in various combinations. The basic wing model had 0.305 m (1.00 ft) chord, which is roughly 1/10 scale for a one-hundred passenger transport airplane. Most of the data were obtained at 70.7 and 100 m/sec (232 and 328 ft/sec) airspeeds, which bracket the range of practical approach speeds for such aircraft. Data were obtained at frequence to 40 kHz so that, when scaled to s typical full-airframe, the frequency region which strongly influences preceived noise level would be included.

  19. Bioactive Egg Components and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Catherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a normal acute response of the immune system to pathogens and tissue injury. However, chronic inflammation is known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Thus, the impact of dietary factors on inflammation may provide key insight into mitigating chronic disease risk. Eggs are recognized as a functional food that contain a variety of bioactive compounds that can influence pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, the effects of egg consumption on inflammation varies across different populations, including those that are classified as healthy, overweight, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetic. The following review will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of egg components, with a focus on egg phospholipids, cholesterol, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, and bioactive proteins. The effects of egg consumption of inflammation across human populations will additionally be presented. Together, these findings have implications for population-specific dietary recommendations and chronic disease risk. PMID:26389951

  20. Rebound: A Framework for Automated Component Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penix, John; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The REBOUND adaptation framework organizes a collection of adaptation tactics in a way that they can be selected based on the components available for adaptation. Adaptation tactics are specified formally in terms of the relationship between the component to be adapted and the resulting adapted component. The tactic specifications are used as matching conditions for specification-based component retrieval, creating a 'retrieval for adaptation' scenario. The results of specification matching are used to guide component adaptation. Several examples illustrate how the framework guides component and tactic selection and how basic tactics are composed to form more powerful tactics.

  1. Integrated computational and conceptual solutions for complex environmental information management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rückemann, Claus-Peter

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the recent results of the integration of computational and conceptual solutions for the complex case of environmental information management. The solution for the major goal of creating and developing long-term multi-disciplinary knowledge resources and conceptual and computational support was achieved by implementing and integrating key components. The key components are long-term knowledge resources providing required structures for universal knowledge creation, documentation, and preservation, universal multi-disciplinary and multi-lingual conceptual knowledge and classification, especially, references to Universal Decimal Classification (UDC), sustainable workflows for environmental information management, and computational support for dynamical use, processing, and advanced scientific computing with Integrated Information and Computing System (IICS) components and High End Computing (HEC) resources.

  2. Principal Component Analysis for Enhancement of Infrared Spectra Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haney, Ricky Lance

    contaminants in an aircraft cabin. In addition, experimental data sets are analyzed for a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) aqueous solution mixture to determine H2O2 concentrations at various levels that could be produced during use of a vapor phase hydrogen peroxide (VPHP) decontamination system. After the PCA application to two and three component systems, the analysis technique is further expanded to include the monitoring of potential bleed air contaminants from engine oil combustion. Simulation data sets created from database spectra were utilized to predict gas components and concentrations in unknown engine oil samples at high temperatures as well as time-evolved gases from the heating of engine oils.

  3. Insight solutions are correct more often than analytic solutions

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Carola; Bricolo, Emanuela; Kounios, John; Bowden, Edward; Beeman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    How accurate are insights compared to analytical solutions? In four experiments, we investigated how participants’ solving strategies influenced their solution accuracies across different types of problems, including one that was linguistic, one that was visual and two that were mixed visual-linguistic. In each experiment, participants’ self-judged insight solutions were, on average, more accurate than their analytic ones. We hypothesised that insight solutions have superior accuracy because they emerge into consciousness in an all-or-nothing fashion when the unconscious solving process is complete, whereas analytic solutions can be guesses based on conscious, prematurely terminated, processing. This hypothesis is supported by the finding that participants’ analytic solutions included relatively more incorrect responses (i.e., errors of commission) than timeouts (i.e., errors of omission) compared to their insight responses. PMID:27667960

  4. Solutions for Hot Situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    From the company that brought the world an integral heating and cooling food service system after originally developing it for NASA's Apollo Program, comes yet another orbital offshoot: a product that can be as thin as paper and as strong as steel. Nextel Ceramic Textiles and Composites from 3M Company offer space-age protection and innovative solutions for hot situations, ranging from NASA to NASCAR. With superior thermal protection, Nextel fabrics, tape, and sleevings outperform other high temperature textiles such as aramids, carbon, glass, and quartz, permitting engineers and manufacturers to handle applications up to 2,500 F (1,371 C). The stiffness and strength of Nextel Continuous Ceramic Fibers make them a great match for improving the rigidity of aluminum in metal matrix composites. Moreover, the fibers demonstrate low shrinkage at operating temperatures, which allow for the manufacturing of a dimensionally stable product. These novel fibers also offer excellent chemical resistance, low thermal conductivity, thermal shock resistance, low porosity, and unique electrical properties.

  5. Plutonium solution analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded).

  6. Simple de Sitter Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Silverstein, Eva; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2008-01-07

    We present a framework for de Sitter model building in type IIA string theory, illustrated with specific examples. We find metastable dS minima of the potential for moduli obtained from a compactification on a product of two Nil three-manifolds (which have negative scalar curvature) combined with orientifolds, branes, fractional Chern-Simons forms, and fluxes. As a discrete quantum number is taken large, the curvature, field strengths, inverse volume, and four dimensional string coupling become parametrically small, and the de Sitter Hubble scale can be tuned parametrically smaller than the scales of the moduli, KK, and winding mode masses. A subtle point in the construction is that although the curvature remains consistently weak, the circle fibers of the nilmanifolds become very small in this limit (though this is avoided in illustrative solutions at modest values of the parameters). In the simplest version of the construction, the heaviest moduli masses are parametrically of the same order as the lightest KK and winding masses. However, we provide a method for separating these marginally overlapping scales, and more generally the underlying supersymmetry of the model protects against large corrections to the low-energy moduli potential.

  7. Simple de Sitter solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Silverstein, Eva

    2008-05-15

    We present a framework for de Sitter model building in type IIA string theory, illustrated with specific examples. We find metastable de Sitter (dS) minima of the potential for moduli obtained from a compactification on a product of two nil three-manifolds (which have negative scalar curvature) combined with orientifolds, branes, fractional Chern-Simons forms, and fluxes. As a discrete quantum number is taken large, the curvature, field strengths, inverse volume, and four-dimensional string coupling become parametrically small, and the de Sitter Hubble scale can be tuned parametrically smaller than the scales of the moduli, Kaluza Klein (KK), and winding mode masses. A subtle point in the construction is that although the curvature remains consistently weak, the circle fibers of the nilmanifolds become very small in this limit (though this is avoided in illustrative solutions at modest values of the parameters). In the simplest version of the construction, the heaviest moduli masses are parametrically of the same order as the lightest KK and winding masses. However, we provide a method for separating these marginally overlapping scales, and more generally the underlying supersymmetry of the model protects against large corrections to the low-energy moduli potential.

  8. Spherical integral transforms of second-order gravitational tensor components onto third-order gravitational tensor components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šprlák, Michal; Novák, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    New spherical integral formulas between components of the second- and third-order gravitational tensors are formulated in this article. First, we review the nomenclature and basic properties of the second- and third-order gravitational tensors. Initial points of mathematical derivations, i.e., the second- and third-order differential operators defined in the spherical local North-oriented reference frame and the analytical solutions of the gradiometric boundary-value problem, are also summarized. Secondly, we apply the third-order differential operators to the analytical solutions of the gradiometric boundary-value problem which gives 30 new integral formulas transforming (1) vertical-vertical, (2) vertical-horizontal and (3) horizontal-horizontal second-order gravitational tensor components onto their third-order counterparts. Using spherical polar coordinates related sub-integral kernels can efficiently be decomposed into azimuthal and isotropic parts. Both spectral and closed forms of the isotropic kernels are provided and their limits are investigated. Thirdly, numerical experiments are performed to test the consistency of the new integral transforms and to investigate properties of the sub-integral kernels. The new mathematical apparatus is valid for any harmonic potential field and may be exploited, e.g., when gravitational/magnetic second- and third-order tensor components become available in the future. The new integral formulas also extend the well-known Meissl diagram and enrich the theoretical apparatus of geodesy.

  9. Solution nonideality related to solute molecular characteristics of amino acids.

    PubMed Central

    Keener, C R; Fullerton, G D; Cameron, I L; Xiong, J

    1995-01-01

    By measuring the freezing-point depression for dilute, aqueous solutions of all water-soluble amino acids, we test the hypothesis that nonideality in aqueous solutions is due to solute-induced water structuring near hydrophobic surfaces and solute-induced water destructuring in the dipolar electric fields generated by the solute. Nonideality is expressed with a single solute/solvent interaction parameter I, calculated from experimental measure of delta T. A related parameter, I(n), gives a method of directly relating solute characteristics to solute-induced water structuring or destructuring. I(n)-values correlate directly with hydrophobic surface area and inversely with dipolar strength. By comparing the nonideality of amino acids with progressively larger hydrophobic side chains, structuring is shown to increase with hydrophobic surface area at a rate of one perturbed water molecule per 8.8 square angstroms, implying monolayer coverage. Destructuring is attributed to dielectric realignment as described by the Debye-Hückel theory, but with a constant separation of charges in the amino-carboxyl dipole. By using dimers and trimers of glycine and alanine, this destructuring is shown to increase with increasing dipole strength using increased separation of fixed dipolar charges. The capacity to predict nonideal solution behavior on the basis of amino acid characteristics will permit prediction of free energy of transfer to water, which may help predict the energetics of folding and unfolding of proteins based on the characteristics of constituent amino acids. Images FIGURE 6 PMID:7711253

  10. Cellulose-Based Membranes for Solutes Fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anokhina, T. S.; Yushkin, A. A.; Volkov, V. V.; Antonov, S. V.; Volkov, A. V.

    This work was focused on investigation of industrial cellophane film as a membrane material for solvent nanofiltration. The effect of conditioning of cellophane membranes by stepwise changing of composition of ethanol-water binary mixtures (from ethanol to water and from water to ethanol) was studied. It was shown that such treatment leads to an increase of ethanol permeability more than two orders of magnitude over initial untreated film samples. Treated cellophane membranes possess the ethanol permeability coefficient comparable with the values for highly permeability glassy polymers. Investigation of cellophane swelling in water ethanol solutions allowed to conclude that during the treatment formation of porous in the film takes place due to increase of inter chain distances. Observed high ethanol permeability connected with the fact that formed porous structure remains after the replacement of water with ethanol. Also it was shown that rejection coefficients of a number of dyes (MW 350) were in good agreement with the degree of hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity and ability of the solvent to form hydrogen bonding with the solute molecules. It was demonstrated that cellulose-based membranes can be complimentary for other type of the membranes in fractionation of multi-components solutions.

  11. Process for decomposing nitrates in aqueous solution

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Paul A.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a process for decomposing ammonium nitrate and/or selected metal nitrates in an aqueous solution at an elevated temperature and pressure. Where the compound to be decomposed is a metal nitrate (e.g., a nuclear-fuel metal nitrate), a hydroxylated organic reducing agent therefor is provided in the solution. In accordance with the invention, an effective proportion of both nitromethane and nitric acid is incorporated in the solution to accelerate decomposition of the ammonium nitrate and/or selected metal nitrate. As a result, decomposition can be effected at significantly lower temperatures and pressures, permitting the use of system components composed of off-the-shelf materials, such as stainless steel, rather than more costly materials of construction. Preferably, the process is conducted on a continuous basis. Fluid can be automatically vented from the reaction zone as required to maintain the operating temperature at a moderate value--e.g., at a value in the range of from about 130.degree.-200.degree. C.

  12. On non-singular solutions in multidimensional cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Melnikov, V. N.

    2009-05-18

    Exact solutions with an exponential behaviour of the scale factors are considered in a multidimensional cosmological model describing the dynamics of n+1 Ricci-flat factor spaces M{sub i} in the presence of a one-component perfect fluid. The pressures in all spaces are proportional to the density: p{sub i} = w{sub i}{rho}, i = 0,...,n. Solutions with accelerated expansion of our 3-space M{sub 0} and a small enough variation of the gravitational constant G are found.A family of generalized non-singular S-brane solutions with orthogonal intersection rules and n Ricci-flat factor spaces in the theory with several scalar fields, antisymmetric forms and multiple scalar potential is considered. The solution possess exponential behaviour of scale factors. These solutions contain a sub-family of solutions with accelerated expansion of certain factor spaces. Some examples of solutions with exponential dependence of one scale factor and constant scale factors of ''internal'' spaces (e.g. Freund-Rubin type solutions) are also considered.

  13. Genetic components of vocal learning.

    PubMed

    Scharff, Constance; White, Stephanie A

    2004-06-01

    Vocal learning is a rare trait. Humans depend on vocal learning to acquire spoken language, but most species that communicate acoustically have an innate repertoire of sounds that they use for information exchange. Among the few non-human species that also rely on vocal learning, songbirds have provided by far the most information for understanding this process. This article concentrates on the genetic components of vocal learning in humans and birds. We summarize the existing evidence for a genetic predisposition towards acquiring the species-specific human and avian vocal repertoires. We describe the approaches used for finding genes involved in shaping the neural circuitry required for vocal learning or in mediating the learning process itself. Special attention is given to a particular gene, FOXP2, which has been implicated in a human speech and language disorder. We have studied FoxP2 in avian vocal learners and non-learners and review evidence that links both the molecule and its close homologue FoxP1 to the development of brain regions implicated in vocal learning and to their function. FoxP2 has a characteristic expression pattern in a brain structure uniquely associated with learned vocal communication, Area X in songbirds, or its analogue in parrots and hummingbirds. In both avian song learners and non-learners FoxP2 expression predominates in sensory and sensory-motor circuits. These latter regions also express FoxP2 in mammals and reptiles. We conclude that FoxP2 is important for the building and function of brain pathways including, but not limited to, those essential for learned vocal communication. PMID:15313783

  14. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  15. Nonlinear principal component analysis of climate data

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, J.; Sengupta, S.

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents the details of the nonlinear principal component analysis of climate data. Topic discussed include: connection with principal component analysis; network architecture; analysis of the standard routine (PRINC); and results.

  16. Attitude Control Propulsion Components, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Attitude control propulsion components are described, including hydrazine thrusters, hydrazine thruster and cold gas jet valves, and pressure and temperature transducers. Component-ordered data are presented in tabular form; the manufacturer and specific space program are included.

  17. Liquid-phase and vapor-phase dehydration of organic/water solutions

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Yu; Ly, Jennifer; Aldajani, Tiem; Baker, Richard W.

    2011-08-23

    Processes for dehydrating an organic/water solution by pervaporation or vapor separation using fluorinated membranes. The processes are particularly useful for treating mixtures containing light organic components, such as ethanol, isopropanol or acetic acid.

  18. Development of discrete components. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.J.

    1995-11-01

    Allied-Signal Inc, Kansas City Division, was provided with funding to maintain the capability to procure discrete components for various applications. A development project was undertaken to procure transistor die from one supplier for assembly into finished components by a different supplier. These components would be SA-equivalent with appropriate preconditioning, testing, and certification, The methodologies developed herein go far to ensure the future availability of discrete components.

  19. A Smart pH-Responsive Three Components Luminescent Hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yibao; Liu, Wei; Cheng, Linxiu; Huang, Ping; Peng, Yu; Wu, Yongquan; Li, Xun; Li, Xiaokang; Fan, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report a novel three-component luminescent hydrogel, which is composed of amino acid derivatives (N,N′-di valine-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic acid, NVPD), riboflavin (RF), and melamine (MM). The three-component hydrogel is attributed to multiple hydrogen bonds and the strong π-π stacking interaction between these molecules. Based on the strong hydrogen bonding of the gelator, when the reversible process between the gel and the solution take places it changes the pH of the system from 6.1 to 10.6. In addition, green fluorescence could be the emissive of the hydrogel under 498 nm and the conversion process of the aggregation state repeated reversibly by altering the value of ambient pH. This pH-responsive luminescent gel may display potential for use in nano pH sensors. PMID:27626452

  20. A Smart pH-Responsive Three Components Luminescent Hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Li, Yibao; Liu, Wei; Cheng, Linxiu; Huang, Ping; Peng, Yu; Wu, Yongquan; Li, Xun; Li, Xiaokang; Fan, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report a novel three-component luminescent hydrogel, which is composed of amino acid derivatives (N,N'-di valine-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic acid, NVPD), riboflavin (RF), and melamine (MM). The three-component hydrogel is attributed to multiple hydrogen bonds and the strong π-π stacking interaction between these molecules. Based on the strong hydrogen bonding of the gelator, when the reversible process between the gel and the solution take places it changes the pH of the system from 6.1 to 10.6. In addition, green fluorescence could be the emissive of the hydrogel under 498 nm and the conversion process of the aggregation state repeated reversibly by altering the value of ambient pH. This pH-responsive luminescent gel may display potential for use in nano pH sensors. PMID:27626452

  1. Analysis of the transient behavior of rubbing components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quezdou, M. B.; Mullen, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    Finite element equations are developed for studying deformations and temperatures resulting from frictional heating in sliding system. The formulation is done for linear steady state motion in two dimensions. The equations include the effect of the velocity on the moving components. This gives spurious oscillations in their solutions by Galerkin finite element methods. A method called streamline upwind scheme is used to try to deal with this deficiency. The finite element program is then used to investigate the friction of heating in gas path seal.

  2. Iodine addition using triiodide solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Muckle, Susan V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    The study develops: a triiodide solution for use in preparing ground service equipment (GSE) water for Shuttle support, an iodine dissolution method that is reliable and requires minimal time and effort to prepare, and an iodine dissolution agent with a minimal concentration of sodium salt. Sodium iodide and hydriodic acid were both found to dissolve iodine to attain the desired GSE iodine concentrations of 7.5 +/- 2.5 mg/L and 25 +/- 5 mg/L. The 1.75:1 and 2:1 sodium iodide solutions produced higher iodine recoveries than the 1.2:1 hydriodic acid solution. A two-hour preparation time is required for the three sodium iodide solutions. The 1.2:1 hydriodic acid solution can be prepared in less than 5 min. Two sodium iodide stock solutions (2.5:1 and 2:1) were found to dissolve iodine without undergoing precipitation.

  3. Manufacturing complex silica aerogel target components

    SciTech Connect

    Defriend Obrey, Kimberly Ann; Day, Robert D; Espinoza, Brent F; Hatch, Doug; Patterson, Brian M; Feng, Shihai

    2008-01-01

    Aerogel is a material used in numerous components in High Energy Density Physics targets. In the past these components were molded into the proper shapes. Artifacts left in the parts from the molding process, such as contour irregularities from shrinkage and density gradients caused by the skin, have caused LANL to pursue machining as a way to make the components.

  4. The Coordination of Components for Educational Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education and Science, London (England).

    The coordination of the building components of educational facilities is discussed. The resulting components will be used for a wide range of building types in addition to schools and the recommendation should therefore be seen as part of a widespread move toward establishing a national British 'pool' of dimensionally related components. The two…

  5. 32 CFR 26.632 - DOD Component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false DOD Component. 26.632 Section 26.632 National... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 26.632 DOD Component. DOD Component means the Office of the Secretary of Defense, a Military Department, a Defense...

  6. 32 CFR 26.632 - DOD Component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false DOD Component. 26.632 Section 26.632 National... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 26.632 DOD Component. DOD Component means the Office of the Secretary of Defense, a Military Department, a Defense...

  7. 32 CFR 26.632 - DOD Component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false DOD Component. 26.632 Section 26.632 National... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 26.632 DOD Component. DOD Component means the Office of the Secretary of Defense, a Military Department, a Defense...

  8. 32 CFR 26.632 - DOD Component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false DOD Component. 26.632 Section 26.632 National... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 26.632 DOD Component. DOD Component means the Office of the Secretary of Defense, a Military Department, a Defense...

  9. 32 CFR 26.632 - DOD Component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DOD Component. 26.632 Section 26.632 National... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 26.632 DOD Component. DOD Component means the Office of the Secretary of Defense, a Military Department, a Defense...

  10. 21 CFR 888.5940 - Cast component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cast component. 888.5940 Section 888.5940 Food and... ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5940 Cast component. (a) Identification. A cast component is a device intended for medical purposes to protect or support a cast. This generic type of device...

  11. 21 CFR 888.5940 - Cast component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cast component. 888.5940 Section 888.5940 Food and... ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5940 Cast component. (a) Identification. A cast component is a device intended for medical purposes to protect or support a cast. This generic type of device...

  12. 21 CFR 888.5940 - Cast component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cast component. 888.5940 Section 888.5940 Food and... ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5940 Cast component. (a) Identification. A cast component is a device intended for medical purposes to protect or support a cast. This generic type of device...

  13. 6 CFR 7.11 - Components' responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Components' responsibilities. 7.11 Section 7.11 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Administration § 7.11 Components' responsibilities. Each DHS component shall appoint a...

  14. 6 CFR 7.11 - Components' responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Components' responsibilities. 7.11 Section 7.11 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Administration § 7.11 Components' responsibilities. Each DHS component shall appoint a...

  15. 42 CFR 93.209 - Funding component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Funding component. 93.209 Section 93.209 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.209 Funding component. Funding component means any organizational unit of the...

  16. 42 CFR 93.209 - Funding component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Funding component. 93.209 Section 93.209 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.209 Funding component. Funding component means any organizational unit of the...

  17. 42 CFR 93.209 - Funding component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Funding component. 93.209 Section 93.209 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.209 Funding component. Funding component means any organizational unit of the...

  18. 42 CFR 93.209 - Funding component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Funding component. 93.209 Section 93.209 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.209 Funding component. Funding component means any organizational unit of the...

  19. 42 CFR 93.209 - Funding component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Funding component. 93.209 Section 93.209 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.209 Funding component. Funding component means any organizational unit of the...

  20. 6 CFR 7.11 - Components' responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Components' responsibilities. 7.11 Section 7.11 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Administration § 7.11 Components' responsibilities. Each DHS component shall appoint a...

  1. Bi-Component Droplet Combustion in Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Benjamin D.

    2004-01-01

    This research deals with reduced-gravity combustion of bi-component droplets initially in the mm size range or larger. The primary objectives of the research are to study the effects of droplet internal flows, thermal and solutal Marangoni stresses, and species volatility differences on liquid species transport and overall combustion phenomena (e.g., gas-phase unsteadiness, burning rates, sooting, radiation, and extinction). The research program utilizes a reduced gravity environment so that buoyancy effects are rendered negligible. Use of large droplets also facilitates visualization of droplet internal flows, which is important for this research. In the experiments, droplets composed of low- and high-volatility species are burned. The low-volatility components are initially present in small amounts. As combustion of a droplet proceeds, the liquid surface mass fraction of the low-volatility component will increase with time, resulting in a sudden and temporary decrease in droplet burning rates as the droplet rapidly heats to temperatures close to the boiling point of the low-volatility component. This decrease in burning rates causes a sudden and temporary contraction of the flame. The decrease in burning rates and the flame contraction can be observed experimentally. Measurements of burning rates as well as the onset time for flame contraction allow effective liquid-phase species diffusivities to be calculated, e.g., using asymptotic theory. It is planned that droplet internal flows will be visualized in flight and ground-based experiments. In this way, effective liquid species diffusivities can be related to droplet internal flow characteristics. This program is a continuation of extensive ground-based experimental and theoretical research on bi-component droplet combustion that has been ongoing for several years. The focal point of this program is a flight experiment (Bi-Component Droplet Combustion Experiment, BCDCE). This flight experiment is under

  2. Solute diffusion in liquid metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, B. N.

    1973-01-01

    A gas model of diffusion in liquid metals is presented. In this model, ions of liquid metals are assumed to behave like the molecules in a dense gas. Diffusion coefficient of solute is discussed with reference to its mass, ionic size, and pair potential. The model is applied to the case of solute diffusion in liquid silver. An attempt was made to predict diffusion coefficients of solutes with reasonable accuracy.

  3. HGMF of 10-L solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Larkin, K.A.

    1994-08-14

    This test plan describes the activities associated with the High Gradient Magnetic Filtration (HGMF) of plutonium-bearing solutions (10-L). The 10-L solutions were received from Argonne National Laboratories in 1972, are highly acidic, and are considered unstable. The purpose of the testing is to show that HGMF is an applicable method of removing plutonium precipitates from solution. The plutonium then can be stored safely in a solid form.

  4. Overfitting Bayesian Mixture Models with an Unknown Number of Components

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes solutions to three issues pertaining to the estimation of finite mixture models with an unknown number of components: the non-identifiability induced by overfitting the number of components, the mixing limitations of standard Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling techniques, and the related label switching problem. An overfitting approach is used to estimate the number of components in a finite mixture model via a Zmix algorithm. Zmix provides a bridge between multidimensional samplers and test based estimation methods, whereby priors are chosen to encourage extra groups to have weights approaching zero. MCMC sampling is made possible by the implementation of prior parallel tempering, an extension of parallel tempering. Zmix can accurately estimate the number of components, posterior parameter estimates and allocation probabilities given a sufficiently large sample size. The results will reflect uncertainty in the final model and will report the range of possible candidate models and their respective estimated probabilities from a single run. Label switching is resolved with a computationally light-weight method, Zswitch, developed for overfitted mixtures by exploiting the intuitiveness of allocation-based relabelling algorithms and the precision of label-invariant loss functions. Four simulation studies are included to illustrate Zmix and Zswitch, as well as three case studies from the literature. All methods are available as part of the R package Zmix, which can currently be applied to univariate Gaussian mixture models. PMID:26177375

  5. Clean Diesel Component Improvement Program

    SciTech Connect

    2005-06-30

    The research conducted in this program significantly increased the knowledge and understanding in the fields of plasma physics and chemistry in diesel exhaust, the performance and characteristics of multifunctional catalysts in diesel exhaust, and the complexities of controlling a combination of such systems to remove NOx. Initially this program was designed to use an in-line plasma system (know as a plasma assisted catalyst system or PAC) to convert NO {yields} NO{sub 2}, a more catalytically active form of nitrogen oxides, and to crack hydrocarbons (diesel fuel in particular) into active species. The NO{sub 2} and the cracked hydrocarbons were then flowed over an in-line ceramic NOx catalyst that removed NO{sub 2} from the diesel exhaust. Even though the PAC system performed well technically and was able to remove over 95% of NOx from diesel exhaust the plasma component proved not to be practical or commercially feasible. The lack of practical and commercial viability was due to high unit costs and lack of robustness. The plasma system and its function was replaced in the NOx removal process by a cracking reforming catalyst that converted diesel fuel to a highly active reductant for NOx over a downstream ceramic NOx catalyst. This system was designated the ceramic catalyst system (CCS). It was also determined that NO conversion to NO{sub 2} was not required to achieve high levels of NOx reduction over ceramic NOx catalyst if that catalyst was properly formulated and the cracking reforming produced a reductant optimized for that NOx catalyst formulation. This system has demonstrated 92% NOx reduction in a diesel exhaust slipstream and 65% NOx reduction from the full exhaust of a 165 hp diesel engine using the FTP cycle. Although this system needs additional development to be commercial, it is simple, cost effective (does not use precious metals), sulfur tolerant, operates at high space velocities, does not require a second fluid be supplied as a reductant, has low

  6. Extraordinary vacuum black string solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyeong-Chan; Lee, Jungjai

    2008-01-15

    In addition to the boosted static solution there are two other classes of stationary stringlike solutions of the vacuum Einstein equation in (4+1) dimensions. Each class is characterized by three parameters of mass, tension, and momentum flow along the fifth coordinate. We analyze the metric properties of one of the two classes, which was previously assumed to be naked singular, and show that the solution spectrum contains black string and wormhole in addition to the known naked singularity as the momentum flow to mass ratio increases. Interestingly, there does not exist new zero momentum solution in these cases.

  7. Enhanced safeguards via solution monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, T.; Wangen, L.

    1996-09-01

    Solution monitoring is defined as the essentially continuous monitoring of solution level, density, and temperature in all tanks in the process that contain, or could contain, safeguards-significant quantities of nuclear material. This report describes some of the enhancements that solution monitoring could make to international safeguards. The focus is on the quantifiable benefits of solution monitoring, but qualitatively, solution monitoring can be viewed as a form of surveillance. Quantitatively, solution monitoring can in some cases improve diversion detection probability. For example, the authors show that under certain assumptions, solution monitoring can be used to reduce the standard deviation of the annual material balance, {sigma}{sub MB}, from approximately 17 kg to approximately 4 kg. Such reduction in {sigma}{sub MB} will not always be possible, as they discuss. However, in all cases, solution monitoring would provide assurance that the measurement error models are adequate so that one has confidence in his estimate of {sigma}{sub MB}. Some of the results in this report were generated using data that were simulated with prototype solution monitoring software that they are developing. An accompanying document describes that software.

  8. High conductivity electrolyte solutions and rechargeable cells incorporating such solutions

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles Austen; Zhang, Sheng-Shui; Xu, Kang

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates generally to electrolyte solvents for use in liquid or rubbery polymer electrolyte solutions as are used, for example, in electrochemical devices. More specifically, this invention relates to sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solvents and sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solutions incorporating such solvents.

  9. High conductivity electrolyte solutions and rechargeable cells incorporating such solutions

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Zhang, S.S.; Xu, K.

    1998-10-20

    This invention relates generally to electrolyte solvents for use in liquid or rubbery polymer electrolyte solutions as are used, for example, in electrochemical devices. More specifically, this invention relates to sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solvents and sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solutions incorporating such solvents. 9 figs.

  10. Process for defoaming acid gas scrubbing solutions and defoaming solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, E.R.; Robbins, M.L.

    1980-06-17

    The foam in acid gas scrubbing solutions created during an acid gas scrubbing process is reduced or eliminated by the addition of certain polyoxyethylene polyoxypropylene block copolymers as defoaming agents. The defoaming agents are particularly effective when the acid gas scrubbing solution contains an amine having a large hydrophobic moiety.

  11. Method of using infrared radiation for assembling a first component with a second component

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Whitson, B.G.; Blue, C.A.

    1999-12-14

    A method of assembling a first component for assembly with a second component involves a heating device which includes an enclosure having a cavity for inserting a first component. An array of infrared energy generators is disposed within the enclosure. At least a portion of the first component is inserted into the cavity, exposed to infrared energy and thereby heated to a temperature wherein the portion of the first component is sufficiently softened and/or expanded for assembly with a second component.

  12. Method of using infrared radiation for assembling a first component with a second component

    DOEpatents

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Whitson, Barry G.; Blue, Craig A.

    1999-01-01

    A method of assembling a first component for assembly with a second component involves a heating device which includes an enclosure having a cavity for inserting a first component. An array of infrared energy generators is disposed within the enclosure. At least a portion of the first component is inserted into the cavity, exposed to infrared energy and thereby heated to a temperature wherein the portion of the first component is sufficiently softened and/or expanded for assembly with a second component.

  13. Extending the geometric deformation: New black hole solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovalle, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    By using the extension of the Minimal Geometric Deformation approach, recently developed to investigate the exterior spacetime of a self-gravitating system in the Braneworld, we identified a master solution for the deformation undergone by the radial metric component when time deformations are produced by bulk gravitons. A specific form for the temporal deformation is used to generate a new exterior solution with a tidal charge Q. The main feature of this solution is the presence of higher-order terms in the tidal charge, thus generalizing the well known tidally charged solution. The horizon of the black hole lies inside the Schwarzschild radius, h < rs = 2ℳ, indicating that extra-dimensional effects weaken the gravitational field.

  14. Oscillating Solitons in a Three-Component Bose-Einstein Condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Szankowski, Piotr; Trippenbach, Marek; Infeld, Eryk; Rowlands, George

    2010-09-17

    We investigate the properties of three-component Bose-Einstein condensate systems with spin exchange interactions. We consider different coupling constants from those very special ones leading to exact solutions known in the literature. When two solitons collide, a spin component oscillation of the two emerging entities is observed. This behavior seems to be generic. A mathematical model is derived for the emerging solitons. It describes the new oscillatory phenomenon extremely well. Surprisingly, the model is in fact an exact solution to the initial equations. This comes as a bonus.

  15. Component Technology for Laser Plasma Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Bosl, W J; Smith, S G; Dahlgren, T; Epperley, T; Kohn, S; Kumfert, G

    2002-06-17

    This paper will discuss the application of high performance component software technology developed for a complex physics simulation development effort. The primary tool used to build software components is called Babel and is used to create language-independent libraries for high performance computers. Components were constructed from legacy code and wrapped with a thin Python layer to enable run-time scripting. Low-level components in Fortran, C++, and Python were composed directly as Babel components and invoked interactively from a parallel Python script.

  16. Expandable Metal Liner For Downhole Components

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe R.

    2004-10-05

    A liner for an annular downhole component is comprised of an expandable metal tube having indentations along its surface. The indentations are formed in the wall of the tube either by drawing the tube through a die, by hydroforming, by stamping, or roll forming and may extend axially, radially, or spirally along its wall. The indentations accommodate radial and axial expansion of the tube within the downhole component. The tube is inserted into the annular component and deformed to match an inside surface of the component. The tube may be expanded using a hydroforming process or by drawing a mandrel through the tube. The tube may be expanded in such a manner so as to place it in compression against the inside wall of the component. The tube is useful for improving component hydraulics, shielding components from contamination, inhibiting corrosion, and preventing wear to the downhole component during use. It may also be useful for positioning conduit and insulated conductors within the component. An insulating material may be disposed between the tube and the component in order to prevent galvanic corrosion of the downhole component.

  17. Micromotion of cemented and uncemented femoral components.

    PubMed

    Burke, D W; O'Connor, D O; Zalenski, E B; Jasty, M; Harris, W H

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated the initial stability of cemented and uncemented femoral components within the femoral canals of cadaver femurs during simulated single limb stance and stair climbing. Both types were very stable in simulated single limb stance (maximum micromotion of 42 microns for cemented and 30 microns for uncemented components). However, in simulated stair climbing, the cemented components were much more stable than the uncemented components (76 microns as against 280 microns). There was also greater variation in the stability of uncemented components in simulated stair climbing, with two of the seven components moving 200 microns or more. Future implant designs should aim to improve the initial stability of cementless femoral components under torsional loads; this should improve the chances of bony ingrowth. PMID:1991771

  18. Optical components damage parameters database system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yizheng; Li, Xinglan; Jin, Yuquan; Xie, Dongmei; Tang, Dingyong

    2012-10-01

    Optical component is the key to large-scale laser device developed by one of its load capacity is directly related to the device output capacity indicators, load capacity depends on many factors. Through the optical components will damage parameters database load capacity factors of various digital, information technology, for the load capacity of optical components to provide a scientific basis for data support; use of business processes and model-driven approach, the establishment of component damage parameter information model and database systems, system application results that meet the injury test optical components business processes and data management requirements of damage parameters, component parameters of flexible, configurable system is simple, easy to use, improve the efficiency of the optical component damage test.

  19. Aquifer washing by micellar solutions: 1. Optimization of alcohol-surfactant-solvent solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Richard; Gélinas, Pierre J.; Desnoyers, Jacques E.

    1998-03-01

    pore volume of the washing solution recovered in the sand column effluent, the DNAPL is in a water-in-oil microemulsion lighter than the excess aqueous phase (Winsor Type II system), which indicates that part of the DNAPL was mobilized. In the next pore volumes, DNAPL is dissolved in a oil-in-water microemulsion phase and is mobilized in an excess oil phase lighter than the microemulsion (Winsor Type I system). The main drawback of this oil extraction process is the high concentration of ingredients necessary for DNAPL dissolution, which makes the process expensive. Because mobilization of oil seems to occur at the washing solution front, an injection strategy must be developed if there is no impermeable limit at the aquifer base. DNAPL recovery in the field could be less than observed in sand columns because of a smaller sweep efficiency related to field sand heterogeneities. The role of each component in the extraction processes in sand column as well as the Winsor system type have to be better defined for modeling purposes. Injection strategies must be developed to recover ingredients of the washing solution that can remain in the soil at the end of the washing process.

  20. Formation of hydroxyapatite in various aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturgeon, Jacqueline Lee

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp), Ca10(PO4)6(OH) 2, is important in the field of biomaterials as it is the mineral component of bones and teeth. Biological apatites do not maintain an exact composition and are usually calcium-deficient, represented as Ca(10- x)(HPO 4)x(PO4)(6-x)(OH)(2-x), where x ranges from 0 to 1, with various ion substitutions. Formation of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatites (CDHAp) from solid calcium phosphate precursor materials was performed at physiologic temperature (37°C) in a variety of aqueous solutions. Two cement systems were utilized in these experiments: tetralcium phosphate (TetCP) with dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP). The kinetics, solution chemistry, phase evolution, and microstructure of the developed apatites were analyzed as appropriate. Reaction of beta-TCP in ammonium fluoride solutions formed HAp substituted with fluoride and calculated to be deficient in calcium. A new ratio of TetCP to DCPA was used with solutions of sodium bicarbonate to form a calcium-deficient carbonate hydroxyapatite. The capacity for sodium dihydrogen phosphate to buffer pH increases and enhance reaction kinetics in this system was also explored. Formation of a highly crystalline CDHAp was achieved by hydrolyzing beta-TCP in water for extended time periods. Lattice parameters were among the features characterized for this apatite. The hydrolysis of beta-TCP in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and simulated body fluids (SBF) was also investigated; use of SBF was found to completely inhibit formation of HAp in this system while reaction in PBS was slow in comparison to water. The effects of filler materials on the mechanical properties of a calcium phosphate cement were examined using the TetCP/DCPA system. Dense aggregates were not found to decrease compressive strength in comparison to the cement alone. The use of aggregates was found to improve the compressive strength of cement formed using NaHCO3 solution as a

  1. Cho Decomposition of One-Half Integer Monopoles Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teh, Rosy; Ng, Ban-Loong; Wong, Khai-Ming

    2013-11-01

    We performed the Cho decomposition of the SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs gauge potentials of the finite energy (1) one-half monopole solution and (2) the one and a half monopoles solution into Abelian and non-Abelian components. We found that the semi-infinite string singularity in the gauge potentials is a contribution from the Higgs field of the one-half monopole in both of the solutions. The non-Abelian components of the gauge potentials are able to remove the point singularity of the Abelian components of the 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole but not the string singularity of the one-half monopole which is topological in nature. Hence the total energy of a one monopole is infinite in the Maxwell electromagnetic theory but the total energy of a one-half monopole is finite. By analyzing the magnetic fields and the gauge covariant derivatives of the Higgs field, we are able to conclude that both the one-half integer monopoles solutions are indeed non-BPS even in the limit of vanishing Higgs self-coupling constant.

  2. Effects of inorganic cations on the rheology of aqueous welan, xanthan, gellan solutions and their mixtures.

    PubMed

    Xu, Long; Dong, Mingzhe; Gong, Houjian; Sun, Mengjiao; Li, Yajun

    2015-05-01

    The effects of different inorganic cations (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Al(3+)) on the rheological properties of single and mixture polysaccharide solutions have been systematically investigated. The apparent viscosity and viscoelasticity of welan solutions decrease with the addition of inorganic cations. Meanwhile, the addition of Al(3+) and K(+), respectively, enhances the apparent viscosity and viscoelasticity of xanthan and gellan solutions by promoting the gelation. The viscosity retention rate of welan/xanthan mixtures is higher than that of the single components in Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) solutions, and the viscosity retention rate of welan/gellan mixtures is higher than that of the single components in Ca(2+) solutions. The salt induced gelation expands the application for polysaccharides, and it is also believed that the method of combining welan and xanthan (or gellan) is an effective strategy to control the rheology and morphology of solutions in the presence of inorganic salts.

  3. Shock wave emission from laser-induced cavitation bubbles in polymer solutions.

    PubMed

    Brujan, Emil-Alexandru

    2008-09-01

    The role of extensional viscosity on the acoustic emission from laser-induced cavitation bubbles in polymer solutions and near a rigid boundary is investigated by acoustic measurements. The polymer solutions consist of a 0.5% polyacrylamide (PAM) aqueous solution with a strong elastic component and a 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) aqueous solution with a weak elastic component. A reduction of the maximum amplitude of the shock wave pressure and a prolongation of the oscillation period of the bubble were found in the elastic PAM solution. It might be caused by an increased resistance to extensional flow which is conferred upon the liquid by the polymer additive. In both polymer solutions, however, the shock pressure decays proportionally to r(-1) with increasing distance r from the emission centre.

  4. Interior Design: Challenges and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Planning and Management, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Presents solutions to architectural challenges in school interior design; these solutions made the indoor environments more conducive and attractive for learning. Addresses four challenges: making a long corridor look less like a tunnel; maintaining tradition and minimizing cost in a new athletic facility; designing a kindergarten that is secure…

  5. pyIAST: Ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) Python package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Cory M.; Smit, Berend; Haranczyk, Maciej

    2016-03-01

    Ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) is a widely-used thermodynamic framework to readily predict mixed-gas adsorption isotherms from a set of pure-component adsorption isotherms. We present an open-source, user-friendly Python package, pyIAST, to perform IAST calculations for an arbitrary number of components. pyIAST supports several common analytical models to characterize the pure-component isotherms from experimental or simulated data. Alternatively, pyIAST can use numerical quadrature to compute the spreading pressure for IAST calculations by interpolating the pure-component isotherm data. pyIAST can also perform reverse IAST calculations, where one seeks the required gas phase composition to yield a desired adsorbed phase composition.

  6. Calculating Probabilistic Distance to Solution in a Complex Problem Solving Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudol, Leigh Ann; Rivers, Kelly; Harris, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    In complex problem solving domains, correct solutions are often comprised of a combination of individual components. Students usually go through several attempts, each attempt reflecting an individual solution state that can be observed during practice. Classic metrics to measure student performance over time rely on counting the number of…

  7. Solution-Focused Brief Therapy: Overview and Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasher, Kitty L.

    2009-01-01

    Solution-focused brief therapy is a fairly new approach of counseling that has been found to be useful in various settings. The strategy's usefulness and limitations in a school setting will be examined in this article. Included in the article are the basic components of the solution-focused approach, questions significant to the strategy,…

  8. Distribution coefficients of vitamin B2 in hydrophilic organic solvent-aqueous salt solution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenman, Ya. I.; Mokshina, N. Ya.; Zykov, A. V.

    2010-03-01

    Distribution coefficients of vitamin B2 in hydrophilic solvent ( n-butanol, isopropanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, and their mixtures)-aqueous salt (potassium chloride, sodium fluoride, and ammonium sulfate salting-out agents) solution systems were calculated. The synergic effect and optimum proportions of components in the solvent mixture for efficient extraction of vitamin B2 from aqueous solutions were established.

  9. Scale control in urea solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Dubin, L.; Diep, D.V.

    1997-08-01

    Legislation to control NO{sub x} emissions, one cause of acid rain and ozone induced smog, has created an impetus to control NO{sub x} emissions. Selective Non Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) using urea chemistry is utilized to control NO{sub x} emissions from boilers, municipal waste incinerators, refinery furnaces, recovery boilers, utilities and other stationary combustion sources. Control requires injecting urea-based solutions into the flue gas at specified temperatures. Urea solutions accelerate CaCO{sub 3} precipitation in industrial waters used for dilution, and thereby interfere with proper application of the urea solution. The negative effect of urea solutions on hardness stability is discussed as well as how CaCO{sub 3} precipitation in urea solution can be controlled by suitable scale inhibitors.

  10. TREATMENT OF AMMONIUM NITRATE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Boyer, T.W.; MacHutchin, J.G.; Yaffe, L.

    1958-06-10

    The treatment of waste solutions obtained in the processing of neutron- irradiated uranium containing fission products and ammonium nitrate is described. The object of this process is to provide a method whereby the ammonium nitrate is destroyed and removed from the solution so as to permit subsequent concentration of the solution.. In accordance with the process the residual nitrate solutions are treated with an excess of alkyl acid anhydride, such as acetic anhydride. Preferably, the residual nitrate solution is added to an excess of the acetic anhydride at such a rate that external heat is not required. The result of this operation is that the ammonium nitrate and acetic anhydride react to form N/sub 2/ O and acetic acid.

  11. Bubble formation in water with addition of a hydrophobic solute.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Ryuichi; Onuki, Akira

    2015-07-01

    We show that phase separation can occur in a one-component liquid outside its coexistence curve (CX) with addition of a small amount of a solute. The solute concentration at the transition decreases with increasing the difference of the solvation chemical potential between liquid and gas. As a typical bubble-forming solute, we consider O2 in ambient liquid water, which exhibits mild hydrophobicity and its critical temperature is lower than that of water. Such a solute can be expelled from the liquid to form gaseous domains while the surrounding liquid pressure is higher than the saturated vapor pressure p cx. This solute-induced bubble formation is a first-order transition in bulk and on a partially dried wall, while a gas film grows continuously on a completely dried wall. We set up a bubble free energy ΔG for bulk and surface bubbles with a small volume fraction ϕ. It becomes a function of the bubble radius R under the Laplace pressure balance. Then, for sufficiently large solute densities above a threshold, ΔG exhibits a local maximum at a critical radius and a minimum at an equilibrium radius. We also examine solute-induced nucleation taking place outside CX, where bubbles larger than the critical radius grow until attainment of equilibrium. PMID:26142694

  12. Component Models for Semantic Web Languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksson, Jakob; Aßmann, Uwe

    Intelligent applications and agents on the Semantic Web typically need to be specified with, or interact with specifications written in, many different kinds of formal languages. Such languages include ontology languages, data and metadata query languages, as well as transformation languages. As learnt from years of experience in development of complex software systems, languages need to support some form of component-based development. Components enable higher software quality, better understanding and reusability of already developed artifacts. Any component approach contains an underlying component model, a description detailing what valid components are and how components can interact. With the multitude of languages developed for the Semantic Web, what are their underlying component models? Do we need to develop one for each language, or is a more general and reusable approach achievable? We present a language-driven component model specification approach. This means that a component model can be (automatically) generated from a given base language (actually, its specification, e.g. its grammar). As a consequence, we can provide components for different languages and simplify the development of software artifacts used on the Semantic Web.

  13. Design for robustness of unique, multi-component engineering systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, Kenneth A.

    2007-12-01

    design concept. These allele values are unitless themselves, but map to both configuration descriptions and attribute values. The Value Distance and Component Distance are metrics that measure the relative differences between two design concepts using the allele values, and all differences in a population of design concepts are calculated relative to a reference design, called the "base design". The base design is the top-ranked member of the population in weighted terms of robustness and performance. Robustness is determined based on the change in multi-objective performance as Value Distance and Component Distance (and thus differences in design) increases. It is assessed as acceptable if differences in design configurations up to specified tolerances result in performance changes that remain within a specified performance range. The design configuration difference tolerances and performance range together define the designer's risk management preferences for the final design concepts. Additionally, a complementary visualization capability was developed, called the "Design Solution Topography". This concept allows the visualization of a population of design concepts, and is a 3-axis plot where each point represents an entire design concept. The axes are the Value Distance, Component Distance and Performance Objective. The key benefit of the Design Solution Topography is that it allows the designer to visually identify and interpret the overall robustness of the current population of design concepts for a particular performance objective. In a multi-objective problem, each performance objective has its own Design Solution Topography view. These new concepts are implemented in an evolutionary computation-based conceptual designing method called the "Design for Robustness Method" that produces robust design concepts. The design procedures associated with this method enable designers to evaluate and ensure robustness in selected designs that also perform within a desired

  14. Molecular Basis of the Apparent Near Ideality of Urea Solutions.

    SciTech Connect

    Kokubo, Hironori; Rosgen, Jorg; Bolen, D Wayne; Pettitt, Bernard M.

    2007-11-01

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Activity coefficients of urea solutions are calculated to explore the mechanism of its solution properties, which form the basis for its well-known use as a strong protein denaturant. We perform free energy simulations of urea solutions in different urea concentrations using two urea models (OPLS and KBFF models) to calculate and decompose the activity coefficients. For the case of urea, we clarify the concept of the ideal solution in different concentration scales and standard states and its effect on our subsequent analysis. The analytical form of activity coefficients depends on the concentration units and standard states. For both models studied, urea displays a weak concentration dependence for excess chemical potential. However, for the OPLS force-field model, this results from contributions that are independent of concentration to the van der Waals and electrostatic components whereas for the KBFF model those components are nontrivial but oppose each other. The strong ideality of urea solutions in some concentration scales (incidentally implying a lack of water perturbation) is discussed in terms of recent data and ideas on the mechanism of urea denaturation of proteins.

  15. Blended Solutions of Celluloses from Different Biological Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsumi, Daisuke; Tamai, Nobutake; Yanagisawa, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Takayoshi

    2008-07-01

    Solution properties of celluloses from different biological origins were investigated in terms of rheological properties in 8 wt% LiCl/amide solutions. The solution viscosities were proportional to the α-th power of the polymer concentrations. The exponent, α, was 3, 4, and 7.5 for the solution from bacterial, wood and cotton, and tunicate cellulose in the semi-dilute regions, respectively. These celluloses were blended to get solutions having various molecular weights and molecular distributions of the polymer. The high molecular weight component, tunicate cellulose: Mw = 4.13×106, had remarkable effect on the long-time region of the viscoelastic functions of the blends. The weight fraction dependence of the zero-shear viscosity of the blends can be expressed by a linear mixing relation based on Ninomiya theory. The zero-shear viscosities of the blends are proportional to the 5/2-th power of the weight-average molecular weight calculated from a linear combination of that of each component. This indicates that the zero-shear viscosity of the cellulose blends depends strongly on the molecular weight and scarcely on the molecular distribution.

  16. SIFT - A Component-Based Integration Architecture for Enterprise Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, David A.; Almquist, Justin P.; Gorton, Ian; Wynne, Adam S.; Chatterton, Jack

    2007-02-01

    Architectures and technologies for enterprise application integration are relatively mature, resulting in a range of standards-based and proprietary middleware technologies. In the domain of complex analytical applications, integration architectures are not so well understood. Analytical applications such as those used in scientific discovery, emergency response, financial and intelligence analysis exert unique demands on their underlying architecture. These demands make existing integration middleware inappropriate for use in enterprise analytics environments. In this paper we describe SIFT (Scalable Information Fusion and Triage), a platform designed for integrating the various components that comprise enterprise analytics applications. SIFT exploits a common pattern for composing analytical components, and extends an existing messaging platform with dynamic configuration mechanisms and scaling capabilities. We demonstrate the use of SIFT to create a decision support platform for quality control based on large volumes of incoming delivery data. The strengths of the SIFT solution are discussed, and we conclude by describing where further work is required to create a complete solution applicable to a wide range of analytical application domains.

  17. Deconvolution of complex spectra into components by the bee swarm algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagfarov, R. R.; Sibgatullin, M. E.; Galimullin, D. Z.; Kamalova, D. I.; Salakhov, M. Kh

    2016-05-01

    The bee swarm algorithm is adapted for the solution of the problem of deconvolution of complex spectral contours into components. Comparison of biological concepts relating to the behaviour of bees in a colony and mathematical concepts relating to the quality of the obtained solutions is carried out (mean square error, random solutions in the each iteration). Model experiments, which have been realized on the example of a signal representing a sum of three Lorentz contours of various intensity and half-width, confirm the efficiency of the offered approach.

  18. Component spectra extraction from terahertz measurements of unknown mixtures.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian; Hou, D B; Huang, P J; Cai, J H; Zhang, G X

    2015-10-20

    The aim of this work is to extract component spectra from unknown mixtures in the terahertz region. To that end, a method, hard modeling factor analysis (HMFA), was applied to resolve terahertz spectral matrices collected from the unknown mixtures. This method does not require any expertise of the user and allows the consideration of nonlinear effects such as peak variations or peak shifts. It describes the spectra using a peak-based nonlinear mathematic model and builds the component spectra automatically by recombination of the resolved peaks through correlation analysis. Meanwhile, modifications on the method were made to take the features of terahertz spectra into account and to deal with the artificial baseline problem that troubles the extraction process of some terahertz spectra. In order to validate the proposed method, simulated wideband terahertz spectra of binary and ternary systems and experimental terahertz absorption spectra of amino acids mixtures were tested. In each test, not only the number of pure components could be correctly predicted but also the identified pure spectra had a good similarity with the true spectra. Moreover, the proposed method associated the molecular motions with the component extraction, making the identification process more physically meaningful and interpretable compared to other methods. The results indicate that the HMFA method with the modifications can be a practical tool for identifying component terahertz spectra in completely unknown mixtures. This work reports the solution to this kind of problem in the terahertz region for the first time, to the best of the authors' knowledge, and represents a significant advance toward exploring physical or chemical mechanisms of unknown complex systems by terahertz spectroscopy.

  19. Preparation of thin ceramic films via an aqueous solution route

    DOEpatents

    Pederson, Larry R.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

    1989-01-01

    A new chemical method of forming thin ceramic films has been developed. An aqueous solution of metal nitrates or other soluble metal salts and a low molecular weight amino acid is coated onto a substrate and pyrolyzed. The amino acid serves to prevent precipitation of individual solution components, forming a very viscous, glass-like material as excess water is evaporated. Using metal nitrates and glycine, the method has been demonstrated for zirconia with various levels of yttria stabilization, for lanthanum-strontium chromites, and for yttrium-barium-copper oxide superconductors on various substrates.

  20. Pulsed ESPI for rotating components displacement measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preater, Richard W. T.

    1990-07-01

    ESPI was originally developed(1) for the measurement of in-plane strains in static components. New developments at City University are extending the application to rotating components. A pulsed laser of 20 ns duration freezes the component motion. Two beam oblique illumination of the component surface gives a displacement sensitivity direction in the plane of the illuminating beams. A high resolution speckle tv-camera and digital storage yields clear high-contrast interference fringe patterns on initial state, live-load speckle image subtraction. High precision laser triggering provides the correct register of the speckle images for satisfactory image subtraction. Where component deformation is predominantly speed dependent. allowance must be made for variation in the response time to the component position at different speeds.

  1. Multiple-component covalent organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ning; Zhai, Lipeng; Coupry, Damien E.; Addicoat, Matthew A.; Okushita, Keiko; Nishimura, Katsuyuki; Heine, Thomas; Jiang, Donglin

    2016-07-01

    Covalent organic frameworks are a class of crystalline porous polymers that integrate molecular building blocks into periodic structures and are usually synthesized using two-component [1+1] condensation systems comprised of one knot and one linker. Here we report a general strategy based on multiple-component [1+2] and [1+3] condensation systems that enable the use of one knot and two or three linker units for the synthesis of hexagonal and tetragonal multiple-component covalent organic frameworks. Unlike two-component systems, multiple-component covalent organic frameworks feature asymmetric tiling of organic units into anisotropic skeletons and unusually shaped pores. This strategy not only expands the structural complexity of skeletons and pores but also greatly enhances their structural diversity. This synthetic platform is also widely applicable to multiple-component electron donor-acceptor systems, which lead to electronic properties that are not simply linear summations of those of the conventional [1+1] counterparts.

  2. Interaction-component analysis of the hydration and urea effects on cytochrome c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamori, Yu; Ishizuka, Ryosuke; Karino, Yasuhito; Sakuraba, Shun; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2016-02-01

    Energetics was analyzed for cytochrome c in pure-water solvent and in a urea-water mixed solvent to elucidate the solvation effect in the structural variation of the protein. The solvation free energy was computed through all-atom molecular dynamics simulation combined with the solution theory in the energy representation, and its correlations were examined over sets of protein structures against the electrostatic and van der Waals components in the average interaction energy of the protein with the solvent and the excluded-volume component in the solvation free energy. It was observed in pure-water solvent that the solvation free energy varies in parallel to the electrostatic component with minor roles played by the van der Waals and excluded-volume components. The effect of urea on protein structure was then investigated in terms of the free-energy change upon transfer of the protein solute from pure-water solvent to the urea-water mixed solvent. The decomposition of the transfer free energy into the contributions from urea and water showed that the urea contribution is partially canceled by the water contribution and governs the total free energy of transfer. When correlated against the change in the solute-solvent interaction energy upon transfer and the corresponding changes in the electrostatic, van der Waals, and excluded-volume components, the transfer free energy exhibited strong correlations with the total change in the solute-solvent energy and its van der Waals component. The solute-solvent energy was decomposed into the contributions from the protein backbone and side chain, furthermore, and neither of the contributions was seen to be decisive in the correlation to the transfer free energy.

  3. Do other components of bedding dust affect sensitisation to house dust mites?

    PubMed

    Smith, Claire; Stanley, Thorsten; Crane, Julian; Siebers, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Bedding dust is a mixture of many components, of which the house dust mite (HDM) allergen, Der p 1, is the most allergenic. There has been little work to investigate the effect of other bedding dust components on HDM sensitisation. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of endotoxin in bedding dust on the allergic response in HDM-sensitised individuals. Twenty-nine house dust mite-sensitised adults were skin prick and allergen patch tested against a sterile solution of their own bedding dust and against a solution containing the same concentration of Der p 1 as the bedding solution for comparison. There was no significant difference in wheal size between the diluted house dust mite solution and the bedding dust in spite of their high levels of endotoxin. Symptomatic subjects had larger, but not statistically significant, responses to commercial house dust mite solution than asymptomatic subjects. Allergen patch test responses were negative in 22/29 of subjects using either bedding dust solutions or comparable diluted house dust mite solutions. An individual's own bedding dust does not appear to contain factors that enhance skin prick test or atopy patch test responses to house dust mites.

  4. Effect of chlorides on solution corrosivity of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Rooney, P.C.; Bacon, T.R.; DuPart, M.S.; Willbanks, K.D.

    1997-08-01

    Solution corrosivity of MDEA/water solutions containing added HCl or NaCl have been measured by weight loss coupons at 250 F and by linear polarization resistance (LPR) at 208 F using carbon steel, 304SS, 316SS and 410SS. General corrosion as well as pitting or crevice corrosion tendencies were recorded for each species. Based on these results, recommendations are made for chlorides in MDEA that minimizes corrosion in gas treating operations.

  5. Methods of producing epoxides from alkenes using a two-component catalyst system

    DOEpatents

    Kung, Mayfair C.; Kung, Harold H.; Jiang, Jian

    2013-07-09

    Methods for the epoxidation of alkenes are provided. The methods include the steps of exposing the alkene to a two-component catalyst system in an aqueous solution in the presence of carbon monoxide and molecular oxygen under conditions in which the alkene is epoxidized. The two-component catalyst system comprises a first catalyst that generates peroxides or peroxy intermediates during oxidation of CO with molecular oxygen and a second catalyst that catalyzes the epoxidation of the alkene using the peroxides or peroxy intermediates. A catalyst system composed of particles of suspended gold and titanium silicalite is one example of a suitable two-component catalyst system.

  6. Monitoring Integrity Of Composite Aircraft Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Shu Shing; Chen, Kuan-Luen; Kuo, An-Yu; Riccardella, Peter C.; Mucciardi, Anthony N.; Andrews, Robert J.; Grady, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    System developed that monitors integrity of composite-material structural components of aircraft in service. Includes strain gauges and accelerometers installed permanently in components to monitor vibrations, microprocessor-based data-acquisition system to process outputs of these vibration sensors, and desktop computer to analyze acquired data. By automating significant part of inspection process, system reduces amount of time needed for inspection and cost of inspection equipment. Contributes to safety by giving timely warning of hidden flaws that necessitate early, detailed inspection of critical components to determine whether components should be replaced immediately.

  7. Component architecture of the Tecolote framework

    SciTech Connect

    Zander, M.; Hall, J.; Painter, J.; O`Rourke, S.

    1998-11-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Tecolote Framework is used in conjunction with other libraries by several physical simulations. This paper briefly describes the design and use of Tecolote`s component architecture. A component is a C++ class that meets several requirements imposed by the framework to increase its reusability, configurability, and ease of replacement. The authors discuss both the motives for imposing these requirements upon components and the means by which a generic C++ class may be integrated into Tecolote by satisfying these requirements. They also describe the means by which these components may be combined into a physics application.

  8. OCSEGen: Open Components and Systems Environment Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tkachuk, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    To analyze a large system, one often needs to break it into smaller components.To analyze a component or unit under analysis, one needs to model its context of execution, called environment, which represents the components with which the unit interacts. Environment generation is a challenging problem, because the environment needs to be general enough to uncover unit errors, yet precise enough to make the analysis tractable. In this paper, we present a tool for automated environment generation for open components and systems. The tool, called OCSEGen, is implemented on top of the Soot framework. We present the tool's current support and discuss its possible future extensions.

  9. Light curve solutions of the ultrashort-period Kepler binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, D.; Dimitrov, D.

    2015-02-01

    We carried out light curve solutions of the ultrashort-period binaries with MS components observed by $Kepler$. All six targets turned out almost in thermal contact with contact or slightly overcontact configurations. Two of them, KID 4921906 and KID 6309193, are not eclipsing but reveal ellipsoidal and spot variability. One of the components of KID 8108785 exhibits inherent, quasi-sinusoidal, small-amplitude variability. KID 12055255 turned out a very rare case of ultrashort-period overcontact binary consisting of two M dwarfs. Our modeling indicated that the variability of KID 9532219 is due to eclipses but not to $\\delta$ Sct pulsations as it was previously supposed.

  10. Intelligent security and privacy solutions for enabling personalized telepathology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Starting with the paradigm change of health systems towards personalized health services, the paper introduces the technical paradigms to be met for enabling ubiquitous pHealth including ePathology. The system-theoretical, architecture-centric approach to mobile, pervasive and autonomous solutions has to be based on an open component system framework such as the Generic Component Model. The crucial challenge to be met for comprehensive interoperability is multi-disciplinary knowledge representation, which must be integrated into the aforementioned framework. The approach is demonstrated for security and privacy services fundamental for any eHealth or ePathology environment. PMID:21489199

  11. CESIUM RECOVERY FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, R.A.

    1961-06-20

    Cesium may be precipitated from an aqueous solution whose acidity ranges between a pH of 1.5 and a molarity of 5 on cobaltous, zinc, cadmium, nickel, or ferrous cobalticyanide. This precipitation brings about a separation from most fission products. Ruthenium which coprecipitates to a great degree can be removed by dissolving in sulfuric acid and boiling the solution in the presence of periodic acid for volatilization; other coprecipitated fission products can then be precipitated from the sulfuric acid solution with a ferric hydroxide carrier.

  12. Contamination of dental radiographic solutions.

    PubMed

    Tamburus, J R; Pardini, L C; Watanabe, P C

    1995-01-01

    Thirteen groups of periapical radiographic films were evaluated to determine and compare within and between groups the effects of contamination of the fixer solution with developing solution during radiographic processing. An aluminum penetrometer was used as the radiographic object to produce different optical densities. The images were compared using radiographic density and contrast as parameters. There were significant differences between the control groups and the groups processed with a contaminated fixer solution. No statistically significant differences were observed in the intragroup comparisons. PMID:8688649

  13. Formulation and Stability of Solutions.

    PubMed

    Akers, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Ready-to-use solutions are the most preferable and most common dosage forms for injectable and topical ophthalmic products. Drugs formulated as solution almost always have chemical and physical stability challenges as well as solubility limitations and the need to prevent inadvertent microbial contamination issues. The first in this series of articles took us through a discussion of optimizing the physical stability of solutions. This article concludes this series of articles with a discussion on foreign particles, protein aggregation, and immunogenicity; optimizing microbiological activity; and osmolality (tonicity) agents, and discusses how these challenges and issues are addressed. PMID:27326440

  14. Liver cell reactive components in peritoneal dialysis fluids.

    PubMed

    Riegel, W; Ulrich, C; Friedrichsohn, C; Passlick-Deetjen, J; Köhler, H

    1999-01-01

    Metabolic changes in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are an important aspect concerning long-term outcome. Liver plays the main role in regulating metabolism. The effects of peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDF) on liver cell function are scarcely investigated. Therefore, we investigated the effects of PDF, different in some components, on liver cell metabolism in vitro. Metabolic activity (MTT), cell integrity (LDH release), proliferation (BrdU incorporation) and synthesis of albumin and transferrin are measured by incubating HepG2 cells for 3 h and 24 h with six different PDFs: (a) lactate-buffered, pH5.5: PDF I (1.5% gluc.); PDF II (4.5% gluc. ); (b) bicarbonate-buffered, pH7.4: PDF III (1.5% gluc.), PDF IV (4. 5% gluc.); (c) amino acid-based solutions, pH 7.4: PDF V (low AA level) and PDF VI (high AA level). Metabolic activity of bicarbonate-treated cells is greatly enhanced in comparison to lactate-buffered PDFs. These findings are confirmed by proliferation data. Synthesis of albumin and transferrin is significantly enhanced by amino acid-based solutions. Our data demonstrate, that lactate-buffered PDF impair liver cells much stronger than bicarbonate-buffered PDF. pH is the parameter which contributes to cytotoxicity and impaired metabolism to a major extent. In contrast to glucose-containing solutions, amino acid-based PDF stimulate protein synthesis in liver cells.

  15. Boric-acid corrosion of ferritic reactor components

    SciTech Connect

    Czajkowski, C.

    1982-07-01

    An increasing amount of nuclear industry reports have indicated corrosion of ferritic steel components by reactor primary coolant. A literature survey produced information regarding corrosion of AISI 4135 steel in both H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ and H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ + KOH solutions at 70/sup 0/F and 140/sup 0/F. Additional BNL work on both A193-B7 and AISI 4130 material at higher temperatures in both H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ and H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ + LiOH solutions is also presented. The report concludes that ferritic material is susceptible to corrosion attack by H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ solutions up to 600/sup 0/F, and in H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ + LiOH the corrosion rates range between 112 to 130 mils/year, while at 352/sup 0/F, the corrosion rate drops off to between 46 to 54 mils/year.

  16. Hypersensitivity reaction to components of parenteral nutrition in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Carlos Ruiz; Ponce, Esperanza Castejón; Busquets, Ferran Bossacoma; Hernández, Diana Sánchez; Oliva, Silvia Meavilla; Santacruz, Enrique Llerena; Pérez, Naymar; De Los Santos Pelegrini, Mariela; Flaque, Miquel Villaronga

    2016-01-01

    Very rare cases of hypersensitivity reactions to various constituents of parenteral nutrition (PN) have been reported in children. Adverse effects associated with PN administration have centered on metabolic, infectious, and mechanical complications. Here we describe three cases of hypersensitivity to components of PN. Case 1 is a 1-mo-old breastfed baby with a diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis associated with an infection with cytomegalovirus. On the second day of PN, 60 min after the initiation of the infusion, the patient had an allergic reaction with an overall diffused rash. On day 4 of PN, the multivitamin solution and the trace element mix were excluded, showing a good tolerance. Case 2 is a 4-y-old girl with a background of stage III neuroblastoma. On day 3 of PN, 15 min after the initiation of the infusion, the patient showed sudden facial edema. On day 5, suspecting the amino acid solution to be the etiology of her reaction, PN was infused with another amino acid preparation, and the patient showed good tolerance. Case 3 is a 10-y-old boy with a diagnosis of an acute peritonitis. Two h after the initiation of the infusion, the patient showed a general wheal rash. He referred a background of fish allergy. Considering that the lipid emulsion used had components from fish oil (SMOF Lipid), a new PN was infused on day 2. The new PN contained a lipid emulsion containing vegetable oil (ClinOleic). The patient showed good tolerance. In conclusion, we consider that, although the hypersensitivity to PN components is infrequent, there is an increase in reports of pediatric cases describing this allergic pathology.

  17. Effects of component length and of the transitions among components in multiple schedules1

    PubMed Central

    Hinson, John M.; Malone, John C.; McNally, Kathleen A.; Rowe, David W.

    1978-01-01

    Pigeons received equal variable-interval reinforcement during presentations of two line-orientation stimuli while five other orientations appeared in extinction. Component duration was 30 seconds for all orientations and the sequence was arranged so that each orientation preceded itself and each other orientation equally often. The duration of one component (0°) was shortened to 10 seconds and the other (90°) was lengthened to 50 seconds. All animals showed large increases in response rate in the shortened component and this increase was recoverable after an interpolated condition in which all components were again 30 seconds in duration. This effect was replicated in a second experiment in which component duration was changed from 150 seconds to 50 seconds and 250 seconds. An examination of local contrast effects during the first experiment showed that the shortened component produced local contrast during subsequent presentations of the lengthened component, just as would a component associated with more frequent reinforcement. When the presentation sequence was changed so that the lengthened component was always followed by the shortened component, response rates generally increased during the lengthened component. When the sequence was arranged so that the shortened component always preceded the longer component, response rate decreased in the former. These effects, as well as the increases in response rate following change in component length, seem not to be the product of local contrast effects among components. PMID:16812037

  18. Analytic Solutions and Resonant Solutions of Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenmaker, Timothy Roger

    This dissertation contains two main subject areas. The first deals with solutions to the wave equation Du/Dt + a Du/Dx = 0, where D/Dt and D/Dx represent partial derivatives and a(t,x) is real valued. The question I studied, which arises in control theory, is whether solutions which are real analytic with respect to the time variable are dense in the space of all solutions. If a is real analytic in t and x, the Cauchy-Kovalevsky Theorem implies that the solutions real analytic in t and x are dense, since it suffices to approximate the initial data by polynomials. The same positive result is valid when a is continuously differentiable and independent of t. This is proved by regularization in time. The hypothesis that a is independent of t cannot be replaced by the weaker assumption that a is real analytic in t, even when it is infinitely smooth. I construct a(t,x) for which the solutions which are analytic in time are automatically periodic in time. In particular these solutions are not dense in the space of all solutions. The second area concerns the resonant interaction of oscillatory waves propagating in a compressible inviscid fluid. An asymptotic description given by Andrew Majda, Rodolfo Rosales, and Maria Schonbek (MRS) involves the genuinely nonlinear quasilinear hyperbolic system Du/Dt + D(uu/2)/Dt + v = 0, Dv/Dt - D(vv/2)/Dt - u = 0. They performed many numerical simulations which indicated that small amplitude solutions of this system tend to evade shock formation, and conjectured that "smooth initial data with a sufficiently small amplitude never develop shocks throughout a long time interval of integration.". I proved that for smooth periodic U(x), V(x) and initial data u(0,x) = epsilonU(x), v(0,x) = epsilonV(x), the solution is smooth for time at least constant times | ln epsilon| /epsilon. This is longer than the lifetime order 1/ epsilon of the solution to the decoupled Burgers equations. The decoupled equation describes nonresonant interaction of

  19. Evaluation of aging of cast stainless steel components

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.M.

    1991-02-01

    Cast stainless steel is used extensively in nuclear reactors for primary-pressure-boundary components such as primary coolant pipes, elbows, valves, pumps, and safe ends. These components are, however, susceptible to thermal aging embrittlement in light water reactors because of the segregation of Cr atoms from Fe and Ni by spinodal decomposition in ferrite and the precipitation of Cr-rich carbides on ferrite/austenite boundaries. A recent advance in understanding the aging kinetics is presented. Aging kinetics are strongly influenced by the synergistic effects of other metallurgical reactions that occur in parallel with spinodal decomposition, i.e., clustering of Ni, Mo, and Si solute atoms and the nucleation and growth of G-phase precipitates in the ferrite phase. A number of methods are outlined for estimating aging embrittlement under end-of-life of life-extension conditions, depending on several factors such as degree of permissible conservatism, availability of component archive material, and methods of estimating and verifying the activation energy of aging. 33 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Postmortem changes of ingested thinner components in tissues.

    PubMed

    Kimura, K; Nagata, T; Kato, K; Kudo, K; Imamura, T

    1991-06-01

    Postmortem changes of thinner components in body tissues were examined in rats, orally given 1 ml of standard thinner solution, which was prepared by mixing toluene, ethyl acetate and isobutanol in the proportion of 8:1:1. Analysis was made by gas chromatography combined with the head space method. Three thinner components and ethanol, a metabolite of ethyl acetate, were detected in the gastric contents of all rats up until 48 hours after death. An increase in the concentration of toluene was found in the blood, lung, kidney, liver, brain and abdominal muscle with the lapse of time. On the other hand, no changes were observed in the thigh muscle throughout the 48-hour period. Isobutanol showed a similar increasing pattern to toluene, with little or no changes in the brain or in the thigh muscle. Ethyl acetate was not detected in any tissues throughout the study but it was found in the gastric contents. The results indicate that every thinner component ingested, gradually diffuses into the surrounding tissues through the stomach wall after death, and that only muscle tissue remote from the abdominal cavity, together with the gastric contents, should be analyzed for a correct diagnosis of thinner ingestion. PMID:1920928